WorldWideScience

Sample records for models tested including

  1. Observational constraint on the interacting dark energy models including the Sandage-Loeb test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2014-05-01

    Two types of interacting dark energy models are investigated using the type Ia supernova (SNIa), observational data (OHD), cosmic microwave background shift parameter, and the secular Sandage-Loeb (SL) test. In the investigation, we have used two sets of parameter priors including WMAP-9 and Planck 2013. They have shown some interesting differences. We find that the inclusion of SL test can obviously provide a more stringent constraint on the parameters in both models. For the constant coupling model, the interaction term has been improved to be only a half of the original scale on corresponding errors. Comparing with only SNIa and OHD, we find that the inclusion of the SL test almost reduces the best-fit interaction to zero, which indicates that the higher-redshift observation including the SL test is necessary to track the evolution of the interaction. For the varying coupling model, data with the inclusion of the SL test show that the parameter at C.L. in Planck priors is , where the constant is characteristic for the severity of the coincidence problem. This indicates that the coincidence problem will be less severe. We then reconstruct the interaction , and we find that the best-fit interaction is also negative, similar to the constant coupling model. However, for a high redshift, the interaction generally vanishes at infinity. We also find that the phantom-like dark energy with is favored over the CDM model.

  2. An Asset Pricing Approach to Testing General Term Structure Models including Heath-Jarrow-Morton Specifications and Affine Subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; van der Wel, Michel

    of the risk premium is associated with the slope factor, and individual risk prices depend on own past values, factor realizations, and past values of other risk prices, and are significantly related to the output gap, consumption, and the equity risk price. The absence of arbitrage opportunities is strongly...... is tested, but in addition to the standard bilinear term in factor loadings and market prices of risk, the relevant mean restriction in the term structure case involves an additional nonlinear (quadratic) term in factor loadings. We estimate our general model using likelihood-based dynamic factor model...... techniques for a variety of volatility factors, and implement the relevant likelihood ratio tests. Our factor model estimates are similar across a general state space implementation and an alternative robust two-step principal components approach. The evidence favors time-varying market prices of risk. Most...

  3. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  4. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  5. A general tank test of a model of the hull of the Pem-1 flying boat including a special working chart for the determination of hull performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, John R

    1938-01-01

    The results of a general tank test of a 1/6 full-size model of the hull of the Pem-1 flying boat (N.A.C.A. model 18) are given in non-dimensional form. In addition to the usual curves, the results are presented in a new form that makes it possible to apply them more conveniently than in the forms previously used. The resistance was compared with that of N.A.C.A. models 11-C and 26(Sikorsky S-40) and was found to be generally less than the resistance of either.

  6. Including test errors in evaluating surveillance test intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Martorell, S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Technical Specifications require surveillance testing to assure that the standby systems important to safety will start and perform their intended functions in the event of plant abnormality. However, as evidenced by operating experience, the surveillance tests may be adversely impact safety because of their undesirable side effects, such as initiation of plant transients during testing or wearing-out of safety systems due to testing. This paper first defines the concerns, i.e., the potential adverse effects of surveillance testing, from a risk perspective. Then, we present a methodology to evaluate the risk impact of those adverse effects, focusing on two important kinds of adverse impacts of surveillance testing: (1) risk impact of test-caused trips and (2) risk impact of test-caused equipment wear. The quantitative risk methodology is demonstrated with several surveillance tests conducted at boiling water reactors, such as the tests of the main steam isolation valves, the turbine overspeed protection system, and the emergency diesel generators. We present the results of the risk-effectiveness evaluation of surveillance test intervals, which compares the adverse risk impact with the beneficial risk impact of testing from potential failure detection, along with insights from sensitivity studies

  7. MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits

  8. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository

  9. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Tsang, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  10. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  11. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  12. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  13. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  14. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  15. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises...... ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... uses and of the absence of health problems involved with their use. Thus, the regulatory toxicology is a cocktail of science and pragmatism added a crucial concern for animal welfare. Test methods are most often used in a testing sequence as bricks in a testing strategy. The main key driving forces...

  16. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  17. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2013-11-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  18. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvonen, T. [WaterHope, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  19. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  20. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  1. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  2. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  3. Hydraulic testing of Type Q septifoils including modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.; Fowley, M.D.; Guerrero, H.N.

    1992-09-01

    On May 25, 1992 a leak of moderator was detected as K Reactor was approaching initial criticality. The partial length control rods were being withdrawn when the leak detectors in the Process Room alarmed. The apparent location of the moderator leak was the top of the guide tubes which are positioned over the new Type Q septifoils. The reactor was shut down immediately. In response, a testing program was begun at the Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). The goals of the program were to determine the cause of the septifoil leak and to test methods for preventing future leaks. These tests are described in this report

  4. Measurements for testing of fluoroscopic screens, including the photofluorographic units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, R.

    1986-01-01

    Image quality control measurements for fluoroscopic screens and photofluorographs have shown that both types of equipment have a long operating life, so that constancy and technical performance tests are absolutely necessary. It is recommended to conclude in-service maintenance contracts with the manufacturers. (DG) [de

  5. Loglinear Rasch model tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Hendrikus

    1984-01-01

    Existing statistical tests for the fit of the Rasch model have been criticized, because they are only sensitive to specific violations of its assumptions. Contingency table methods using loglinear models have been used to test various psychometric models. In this paper, the assumptions of the Rasch

  6. Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  7. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  8. Earthquake likelihood model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Wiemer, S.; Jackson, D.D.; Rhoades, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project aims to produce and evaluate alternate models of earthquake potential (probability per unit volume, magnitude, and time) for California. Based on differing assumptions, these models are produced to test the validity of their assumptions and to explore which models should be incorporated in seismic hazard and risk evaluation. Tests based on physical and geological criteria are useful but we focus on statistical methods using future earthquake catalog data only. We envision two evaluations: a test of consistency with observed data and a comparison of all pairs of models for relative consistency. Both tests are based on the likelihood method, and both are fully prospective (i.e., the models are not adjusted to fit the test data). To be tested, each model must assign a probability to any possible event within a specified region of space, time, and magnitude. For our tests the models must use a common format: earthquake rates in specified “bins” with location, magnitude, time, and focal mechanism limits.Seismology cannot yet deterministically predict individual earthquakes; however, it should seek the best possible models for forecasting earthquake occurrence. This paper describes the statistical rules of an experiment to examine and test earthquake forecasts. The primary purposes of the tests described below are to evaluate physical models for earthquakes, assure that source models used in seismic hazard and risk studies are consistent with earthquake data, and provide quantitative measures by which models can be assigned weights in a consensus model or be judged as suitable for particular regions.In this paper we develop a statistical method for testing earthquake likelihood models. A companion paper (Schorlemmer and Gerstenberger 2007, this issue) discusses the actual implementation of these tests in the framework of the RELM initiative.Statistical testing of hypotheses is a common task and a

  9. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available implementations of the DLM are however not very versatile in terms of geometries that can be modeled. The ZONA6 code offers a versatile surface panel body model including a separated wake model, but uses a pressure panel method for lifting surfaces. This paper...

  10. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  11. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...... can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  12. MODEL OF THE TOKAMAK EDGE DENSITY PEDESTAL INCLUDING DIFFUSIVE NEUTRALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BURRELL, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Several previous analytic models of the tokamak edge density pedestal have been based on diffusive transport of plasma plus free-streaming of neutrals. This latter neutral model includes only the effect of ionization and neglects charge exchange. The present work models the edge density pedestal using diffusive transport for both the plasma and the neutrals. In contrast to the free-streaming model, a diffusion model for the neutrals includes the effect of both charge exchange and ionization and is valid when charge exchange is the dominant interaction. Surprisingly, the functional forms for the electron and neutral density profiles from the present calculation are identical to the results of the previous analytic models. There are some differences in the detailed definition of various parameters in the solution. For experimentally relevant cases where ionization and charge exchange rate are comparable, both models predict approximately the same width for the edge density pedestal

  13. Model-Based Security Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Schieferdecker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Security testing aims at validating software system requirements related to security properties like confidentiality, integrity, authentication, authorization, availability, and non-repudiation. Although security testing techniques are available for many years, there has been little approaches that allow for specification of test cases at a higher level of abstraction, for enabling guidance on test identification and specification as well as for automated test generation. Model-based security testing (MBST is a relatively new field and especially dedicated to the systematic and efficient specification and documentation of security test objectives, security test cases and test suites, as well as to their automated or semi-automated generation. In particular, the combination of security modelling and test generation approaches is still a challenge in research and of high interest for industrial applications. MBST includes e.g. security functional testing, model-based fuzzing, risk- and threat-oriented testing, and the usage of security test patterns. This paper provides a survey on MBST techniques and the related models as well as samples of new methods and tools that are under development in the European ITEA2-project DIAMONDS.

  14. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  15. Dynamic model including piping acoustics of a centrifugal compression system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoirt, van J.; Jager, de A.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with low frequency pulsation phenomena in full-scale centrifugal compression systems associated with compressor surge. The Greitzer lumped parameter model is applied to describe the dynamic behavior of an industrial compressor test rig and experimental evidence is provided for the

  16. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  17. Modelling a linear PM motor including magnetic saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Compter, J.C.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of the high force density, robustness and accuracy. The paper describes the modelling of a linear PM motor applied in, for example, wafer steppers, including magnetic saturation. This is important

  18. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  19. Testing the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.; Marciano, W.; Williams, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    We summarize here the results of the standard model group which has studied the ways in which different facilities may be used to test in detail what we now call the standard model, that is SU/sub c/(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The topics considered are: W +- , Z 0 mass, width; sin 2 theta/sub W/ and neutral current couplings; W + W - , Wγ; Higgs; QCD; toponium and naked quarks; glueballs; mixing angles; and heavy ions

  20. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  1. Testing the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Riles, K

    1998-01-01

    The Large Electron Project (LEP) accelerator near Geneva, more than any other instrument, has rigorously tested the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particles. LEP measurements have probed the theory from many different directions and, so far, the Standard Model has prevailed. The rigour of these tests has allowed LEP physicists to determine unequivocally the number of fundamental 'generations' of elementary particles. These tests also allowed physicists to ascertain the mass of the top quark in advance of its discovery. Recent increases in the accelerator's energy allow new measurements to be undertaken, measurements that may uncover directly or indirectly the long-sought Higgs particle, believed to impart mass to all other particles.

  2. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  3. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...... for symmetric and asymmetric multi-species electrolytes and is not limited to a range of surface potentials. Numerical simulations are presented, for the case of a CaCO3 electrolyte solution in contact with a surface with rate-controlled protonation/deprotonation reactions. The surface charge and potential...... are determined by the surface reactions, and therefore they depends on the bulk solution composition and concentration...

  4. Extending PSA models including ageing and asset management - 15291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. This methodology is applied to a motor-operated valve of the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS) of a PWR. This simple example of application focuses on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of several alternatives in maintenance strategy is discussed

  5. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  6. Kinetic models of gene expression including non-coding RNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P., E-mail: zhdanov@catalysis.r

    2011-03-15

    In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed.

  7. Radiation Belt Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.

    2000-10-01

    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  8. Extending Primitive Spatial Data Models to Include Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, F.; Batcheller, J.

    2009-04-01

    Our traditional geospatial data model involves associating some measurable quality, such as temperature, or observable feature, such as a tree, with a point or region in space and time. When capturing data we implicitly subscribe to some kind of conceptualisation. If we can make this explicit in an ontology and associate it with the captured data, we can leverage formal semantics to reason with the concepts represented in our spatial data sets. To do so, we extend our fundamental representation of geospatial data in a data model by including a URI in our basic data model that links it to our ontology defining our conceptualisation, We thus extend Goodchild et al's geo-atom [1] with the addition of a URI: (x, Z, z(x), URI) . This provides us with pixel or feature level knowledge and the ability to create layers of data from a set of pixels or features that might be drawn from a database based on their semantics. Using open source tools, we present a prototype that involves simple reasoning as a proof of concept. References [1] M.F. Goodchild, M. Yuan, and T.J. Cova. Towards a general theory of geographic representation in gis. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21(3):239-260, 2007.

  9. Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA secondary structure modeling, including pseudoknots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdin, Christine E; Bellaousov, Stanislav; Huggins, Wayne; Leonard, Christopher W; Mathews, David H; Weeks, Kevin M

    2013-04-02

    A pseudoknot forms in an RNA when nucleotides in a loop pair with a region outside the helices that close the loop. Pseudoknots occur relatively rarely in RNA but are highly overrepresented in functionally critical motifs in large catalytic RNAs, in riboswitches, and in regulatory elements of viruses. Pseudoknots are usually excluded from RNA structure prediction algorithms. When included, these pairings are difficult to model accurately, especially in large RNAs, because allowing this structure dramatically increases the number of possible incorrect folds and because it is difficult to search the fold space for an optimal structure. We have developed a concise secondary structure modeling approach that combines SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) experimental chemical probing information and a simple, but robust, energy model for the entropic cost of single pseudoknot formation. Structures are predicted with iterative refinement, using a dynamic programming algorithm. This melded experimental and thermodynamic energy function predicted the secondary structures and the pseudoknots for a set of 21 challenging RNAs of known structure ranging in size from 34 to 530 nt. On average, 93% of known base pairs were predicted, and all pseudoknots in well-folded RNAs were identified.

  10. Validation through model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Geoval-94 is the third Geoval symposium arranged jointly by the OECD/NEA and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. Earlier symposia in this series took place in 1987 and 1990. In many countries, the ongoing programmes to site and construct deep geological repositories for high and intermediate level nuclear waste are close to realization. A number of studies demonstrates the potential barrier function of the geosphere, but also that there are many unresolved issues. A key to these problems are the possibilities to gain knowledge by model testing with experiments and to increase confidence in models used for prediction. The sessions cover conclusions from the INTRAVAL-project, experiences from integrated experimental programs and underground research laboratories as well as the integration between performance assessment and site characterisation. Technical issues ranging from waste and buffer interactions with the rock to radionuclide migration in different geological media is addressed. (J.S.)

  11. A speech production model including the nasal Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Morten

    In order to obtain articulatory analysis of speech production the model is improved. the standard model, as used in LPC analysis, to a large extent only models the acoustic properties of speech signal as opposed to articulatory modelling of the speech production. In spite of this the LPC model...... is by far the most widely used model in speech technology....

  12. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  13. Hydromechanical modeling of clay rock including fracture damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, D.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Argillaceous rock typically acts as a flow barrier, but under certain conditions significant and potentially conductive fractures may be present. Fracture formation is well-known to occur in the vicinity of underground excavations in a region known as the excavation disturbed zone. Such problems are of particular importance for low-permeability, mechanically weak rock such as clays and shales because fractures can be relatively transient as a result of fracture self-sealing processes. Perhaps not as well appreciated is the fact that natural fractures can form in argillaceous rock as a result of hydraulic overpressure caused by phenomena such as disequlibrium compaction, changes in tectonic stress, and mineral dehydration. Overpressure conditions can cause hydraulic fracturing if the fluid pressure leads to tensile effective stresses that exceed the tensile strength of the material. Quantitative modeling of this type of process requires coupling between hydrogeologic processes and geomechanical processes including fracture initiation and propagation. Here we present a computational method for three-dimensional, hydromechanical coupled processes including fracture damage. Fractures are represented as discrete features in a fracture network that interact with a porous rock matrix. Fracture configurations are mapped onto an unstructured, three-dimensonal, Voronoi grid, which is based on a random set of spatial points. Discrete fracture networks (DFN) are represented by the connections of the edges of a Voronoi cells. This methodology has the advantage that fractures can be more easily introduced in response to coupled hydro-mechanical processes and generally eliminates several potential issues associated with the geometry of DFN and numerical gridding. A geomechanical and fracture-damage model is developed here using the Rigid-Body-Spring-Network (RBSN) numerical method. The hydrogelogic and geomechanical models share the same geometrical information from a 3D Voronoi

  14. 46 CFR 154.431 - Model test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Model test. 154.431 Section 154.431 Shipping COAST GUARD... Model test. (a) The primary and secondary barrier of a membrane tank, including the corners and joints...(c). (b) Analyzed data of a model test for the primary and secondary barrier of the membrane tank...

  15. Performance Tests of Snow-Related Variables Over the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayas Using a New Version of NASA GEOS-5 Land Surface Model that Includes the Snow Darkening Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Tppei J.; Lau, K.-U.; Koster, Randal D.; Suarez, Max; Mahanama, Sarith; Dasilva, Arlindo M.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    The snow darkening effect, i.e. the reduction of snow albedo, is caused by absorption of solar radiation by absorbing aerosols (dust, black carbon, and organic carbon) deposited on the snow surface. This process is probably important over Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers due to the transport of highly polluted Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). This effect has been incorporated into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric transport model. The Catchment land surface model (LSM) used in GEOS-5 considers 3 snow layers. Code was developed to track the mass concentration of aerosols in the three layers, taking into account such processes as the flushing of the compounds as liquid water percolates through the snowpack. In GEOS-5, aerosol emissions, transports, and depositions are well simulated in the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GO CART) module; we recently made the connection between GOCART and the GEOS-5 system fitted with the revised LSM. Preliminary simulations were performed with this new system in "replay" mode (i.e., with atmospheric dynamics guided by reanalysis) at 2x2.5 degree horizontal resolution, covering the period 1 November 2005 - 31 December 2009; we consider the final three years of simulation here. The three simulations used the following variants of the LSM: (1) the original Catchment LSM with a fixed fresh snowfall density of 150 kg m-3 ; (2) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code, used here without aerosol deposition but with changes in density formulation and melting water effect on snow specific surface area, (3) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code as same as (2) but with fixed aerosol deposition rates (computed from GOCART values averaged over the Tibetan Plateau domain [Ion.: 60-120E; lat.: 20-50N] during March-May 2008) applied to all grid points at every time step. For (2) and (3), the same setting on the fresh snowfall density as in (1

  16. Performance tests of snow-related variables over the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayas using a new version of NASA GEOS-5 land surface model that includes the snow darkening effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, T. J.; Lau, W. K.; Koster, R. D.; Suarez, M.; Mahanama, S. P.; da Silva, A.; Colarco, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The snow darkening effect, i.e. the reduction of snow albedo, is caused by absorption of solar radiation by absorbing aerosols (dust, black carbon, and organic carbon) deposited on the snow surface. This process is probably important over Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers due to the transport of highly polluted Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). This effect has been incorporated into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric transport model. The Catchment land surface model (LSM) used in GEOS-5 considers 3 snow layers. Code was developed to track the mass concentration of aerosols in the three layers, taking into account such processes as the flushing of the compounds as liquid water percolates through the snowpack. In GEOS-5, aerosol emissions, transports, and depositions are well simulated in the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) module; we recently made the connection between GOCART and the GEOS-5 system fitted with the revised LSM. Preliminary simulations were performed with this new system in "replay" mode (i.e., with atmospheric dynamics guided by reanalysis) at 2x2.5 degree horizontal resolution, covering the period 1 November 2005 - 31 December 2009; we consider the final three years of simulation here. The three simulations used the following variants of the LSM: (1) the original Catchment LSM with a fixed fresh snowfall density of 150 kg m-3; (2) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code, used here without aerosol deposition but with changes in density formulation and melting water effect on snow specific surface area, (3) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code as same as (2) but with fixed aerosol deposition rates (computed from GOCART values averaged over the Tibetan Plateau domain [lon.: 60-120E; lat.: 20-50N] during March-May 2008) applied to all grid points at every time step. For (2) and (3), the same setting on the fresh snowfall density as in (1) was

  17. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  18. A unitarized meson model including color Coulomb interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, Kees.

    1990-01-01

    Ch. 1 gives a general introduction into the problem field of the thesis. It discusses in how far the internal structure of mesons is understood theoretically and which models exist. It discusses from a phenomenological point of view the problem of confinement indicates how quark models of mesons may provide insight in this phenomenon. In ch. 2 the formal theory of scattering in a system with confinement is given. It is shown how a coupled channel (CC) description and the work of other authors fit into this general framework. Explicit examples and arguments are given to support the CC treatment of such a system. In ch. 3 the full coupled-channel model as is employed in this thesis is presented. On the basis of arguments from the former chapters and the observed regularities in the experimental data, the choices underlying the model are supported. In this model confinement is described with a mass-dependent harmonic-oscillator potential and the presence of open (meson-meson) channels plays an essential role. In ch. 4 the unitarized model is applied to light scalar meson resonances. In this regime the contribution of the open channels is considerable. It is demonstrated that the model parameters as used for the description of the pseudo-scalar and vector mesons, unchanged can be used for the description of these mesons. Ch. 5 treats the color-Coulomb interaction. There the effect of the Coulomb interaction is studied in simple models without decay. The results of incorporating the color-Coulomb interaction into the full CC model are given in ch.6. Ch. 7 discusses the results of the previous chapters and the present status of the model. (author). 182 refs.; 16 figs.; 33 tabs

  19. Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Holmes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that gas-phase OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg0 to HgII and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg0 oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming gas-phase Br to be the sole Hg0 oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O3 model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of HgII in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of HgII deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux to the Arctic of 60 Mg a−1. Summertime events of depleted Hg0 at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by

  20. The prediction of the cavitation phenomena including population balance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannari, Rachid; Hliwa, Ghizlane Zineb; Bannari, Abdelfettah; Belghiti, Mly Taib

    2017-07-01

    Cavitation is the principal reason behind the behavior's modification of the hydraulic turbines. However, the experimental observations can not be appropriate to all cases due to the limitations in the measurement techniques. The mathematical models which have been implemented, use the mixture multiphase frame. As well as, most of the published work is limited by considering a constant bubble size distribution. However, this assumption is not realist. The aim of this article is the implementation and the use of a non-homogeneous multiphase model which solve two phases transport equation. The evolution of bubble size is considered by the population balance equation. This study is based on the eulerian-eulerian model, associated to the cavitation model. All the inter-phase forces such as drag, lift and virtual mass are used.

  1. Including model uncertainty in risk-informed decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinert, Joshua M.; Apostolakis, George E.

    2006-01-01

    Model uncertainties can have a significant impact on decisions regarding licensing basis changes. We present a methodology to identify basic events in the risk assessment that have the potential to change the decision and are known to have significant model uncertainties. Because we work with basic event probabilities, this methodology is not appropriate for analyzing uncertainties that cause a structural change to the model, such as success criteria. We use the risk achievement worth (RAW) importance measure with respect to both the core damage frequency (CDF) and the change in core damage frequency (ΔCDF) to identify potentially important basic events. We cross-check these with generically important model uncertainties. Then, sensitivity analysis is performed on the basic event probabilities, which are used as a proxy for the model parameters, to determine how much error in these probabilities would need to be present in order to impact the decision. A previously submitted licensing basis change is used as a case study. Analysis using the SAPHIRE program identifies 20 basic events as important, four of which have model uncertainties that have been identified in the literature as generally important. The decision is fairly insensitive to uncertainties in these basic events. In three of these cases, one would need to show that model uncertainties would lead to basic event probabilities that would be between two and four orders of magnitude larger than modeled in the risk assessment before they would become important to the decision. More detailed analysis would be required to determine whether these higher probabilities are reasonable. Methods to perform this analysis from the literature are reviewed and an example is demonstrated using the case study

  2. Transport modelling including radial electric field and plasma rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.; Fuji, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.

    1994-01-01

    Using a simple turbulent transport model with a constant diffusion coefficient and a fixed temperature profile, the density profile in a steady state and the transient behaviour during the co and counter neutral beam injection are studied. More consistent analysis has been initiated with a turbulent transport model based on the current diffusive high-n ballooning mode. The enhancement of the radial electric field due to ion orbit losses and the reduction of the transport due to the poloidal rotation shear are demonstrated. The preliminary calculation indicates a sensitive temperature dependence of the density profile. (author)

  3. Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.

    2018-01-01

    The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).

  4. Constitutive modeling of multiphase materials including phase transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Khan, A.S.; Meredith, C; Farrokh, B

    2011-01-01

    A constitutive model is developed for materials involving two or more different phases in their microstructure such as DP (Dual Phase) or TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steels. Homogenization of the response of the phases is achieved by the Mean-Field method. One of the phases in TRIP

  5. Development of realistic concrete models including scaling effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpinteri, A.

    1989-09-01

    Progressive cracking in structural elements of concrete is considered. Two simple models are applied, which, even though different, lead to similar predictions for the fracture behaviour. Both Virtual Crack Propagation Model and Cohesive Limit Analysis (Section 2), show a trend towards brittle behaviour and catastrophical events for large structural sizes. A numerical Cohesive Crack Model is proposed (Section 3) to describe strain softening and strain localization in concrete. Such a model is able to predict the size effects of fracture mechanics accurately. Whereas for Mode I, only untieing of the finite element nodes is applied to simulate crack growth, for Mixed Mode a topological variation is required at each step (Section 4). In the case of the four point shear specimen, the load vs. deflection diagrams reveal snap-back instability for large sizes. By increasing the specimen sizes, such instability tends to reproduce the classical LEFM instability. Remarkable size effects are theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed also for reinforced concrete (Section 5). The brittleness of the flexural members increases by increasing size and/or decreasing steel content. On the basis of these results, the empirical code rules regarding the minimum amount of reinforcement could be considerably revised

  6. Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina

    2007-01-01

    In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three differ...... different approximations are investigated: site, mean-field, and quasichemical approximations. The obtained results are compared to accurate Monte Carlo numbers. In the end, we apply the approximations to a real catalytic reaction, namely, ammonia synthesis....

  7. Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.; Hwa, R.C.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-05-01

    Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references

  8. Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R. G.; Hwa, R. C.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-05-01

    Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references.

  9. Methods for testing transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents progress to date under a three-year contract for developing ''Methods for Testing Transport Models.'' The work described includes (1) choice of best methods for producing ''code emulators'' for analysis of very large global energy confinement databases, (2) recent applications of stratified regressions for treating individual measurement errors as well as calibration/modeling errors randomly distributed across various tokamaks, (3) Bayesian methods for utilizing prior information due to previous empirical and/or theoretical analyses, (4) extension of code emulator methodology to profile data, (5) application of nonlinear least squares estimators to simulation of profile data, (6) development of more sophisticated statistical methods for handling profile data, (7) acquisition of a much larger experimental database, and (8) extensive exploratory simulation work on a large variety of discharges using recently improved models for transport theories and boundary conditions. From all of this work, it has been possible to define a complete methodology for testing new sets of reference transport models against much larger multi-institutional databases

  10. Model-based security testing

    OpenAIRE

    Schieferdecker, Ina; Großmann, Jürgen; Schneider, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Security testing aims at validating software system requirements related to security properties like confidentiality, integrity, authentication, authorization, availability, and non-repudiation. Although security testing techniques are available for many years, there has been little approaches that allow for specification of test cases at a higher level of abstraction, for enabling guidance on test identification and specification as well as for automated test generation. Model-based security...

  11. Model test of boson mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, P.; Dobes, J.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of boson mapping are tested in calculations for a simple model system of four protons and four neutrons in single-j distinguishable orbits. Two-body terms in the boson images of the fermion operators are considered. Effects of the seniority v=4 states are thus included. The treatment of unphysical states and the influence of boson space truncation are particularly studied. Both the Dyson boson mapping and the seniority boson mapping as dictated by the similarity transformed Dyson mapping do not seem to be simply amenable to truncation. This situation improves when the one-body form of the seniority image of the quadrupole operator is employed. Truncation of the boson space is addressed by using the effective operator theory with a notable improvement of results

  12. Modelling the pile load test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekop Ľubomír

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling of the load test of horizontal resistance of reinforced concrete piles. The pile belongs to group of piles with reinforced concrete heads. The head is pressed with steel arches of a bridge on motorway D1 Jablonov - Studenec. Pile model was created in ANSYS with several models of foundation having properties found out from geotechnical survey. Finally some crucial results obtained from computer models are presented and compared with these obtained from experiment.

  13. Modelling the pile load test

    OpenAIRE

    Prekop Ľubomír

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of the load test of horizontal resistance of reinforced concrete piles. The pile belongs to group of piles with reinforced concrete heads. The head is pressed with steel arches of a bridge on motorway D1 Jablonov - Studenec. Pile model was created in ANSYS with several models of foundation having properties found out from geotechnical survey. Finally some crucial results obtained from computer models are presented and compared with these obtained from exper...

  14. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van

    2007-01-01

    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension

  15. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method

  16. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, Richard F

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method.

  17. Test facility TIMO for testing the ITER model cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.; Day, C.; Mack, A.; Methe, S.; Boissin, J.C.; Schummer, P.; Murdoch, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme, FZK is involved in the research and development process for a vacuum pump system of a future fusion reactor. As a result of these activities, the concept and the necessary requirements for the primary vacuum system of the ITER fusion reactor were defined. Continuing that development process, FZK has been preparing the test facility TIMO (Test facility for ITER Model pump) since 1996. This test facility provides for testing a cryopump all needed infrastructure as for example a process gas supply including a metering system, a test vessel, the cryogenic supply for the different temperature levels and a gas analysing system. For manufacturing the ITER model pump an order was given to the company L' Air Liquide in the form of a NET contract. (author)

  18. Test facility TIMO for testing the ITER model cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.; Day, C.; Mack, A.; Methe, S.; Boissin, J.C.; Schummer, P.; Murdoch, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    Within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme, FZK is involved in the research and development process for a vacuum pump system of a future fusion reactor. As a result of these activities, the concept and the necessary requirements for the primary vacuum system of the ITER fusion reactor were defined. Continuing that development process, FZK has been preparing the test facility TIMO (Test facility for ITER Model pump) since 1996. This test facility provides for testing a cryopump all needed infrastructure as for example a process gas supply including a metering system, a test vessel, the cryogenic supply for the different temperature levels and a gas analysing system. For manufacturing the ITER model pump an order was given to the company L'Air Liquide in the form of a NET contract. (author)

  19. Finite element modeling of contaminant transport in soils including the effect of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, A A; Al-Najjar, M M

    2007-05-17

    The movement of chemicals through soils to the groundwater is a major cause of degradation of water resources. In many cases, serious human and stock health implications are associated with this form of pollution. Recent studies have shown that the current models and methods are not able to adequately describe the leaching of nutrients through soils, often underestimating the risk of groundwater contamination by surface-applied chemicals, and overestimating the concentration of resident solutes. Furthermore, the effect of chemical reactions on the fate and transport of contaminants is not included in many of the existing numerical models for contaminant transport. In this paper a numerical model is presented for simulation of the flow of water and air and contaminant transport through unsaturated soils with the main focus being on the effects of chemical reactions. The governing equations of miscible contaminant transport including advection, dispersion-diffusion and adsorption effects together with the effect of chemical reactions are presented. The mathematical framework and the numerical implementation of the model are described in detail. The model is validated by application to a number of test cases from the literature and is then applied to the simulation of a physical model test involving transport of contaminants in a block of soil with particular reference to the effects of chemical reactions. Comparison of the results of the numerical model with the experimental results shows that the model is capable of predicting the effects of chemical reactions with very high accuracy. The importance of consideration of the effects of chemical reactions is highlighted.

  20. Methods for testing transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1991-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made over the past year on six aspects of the work supported by this grant. As a result, we have in hand for the first time a fairly complete set of transport models and improved statistical methods for testing them against large databases. We also have initial results of such tests. These results indicate that careful application of presently available transport theories can reasonably well produce a remarkably wide variety of tokamak data

  1. Superconducting solenoid model magnet test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcagno, R.; Dimarco, J.; Feher, S.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Hess, C.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Superconducting solenoid magnets suitable for the room temperature front end of the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (formerly known as Proton Driver), an 8 GeV superconducting H- linac, have been designed and fabricated at Fermilab, and tested in the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility. We report here results of studies on the first model magnets in this program, including the mechanical properties during fabrication and testing in liquid helium at 4.2 K, quench performance, and magnetic field measurements. We also describe new test facility systems and instrumentation that have been developed to accomplish these tests.

  2. Superconducting solenoid model magnet test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Dimarco, J.; Feher, S.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Hess, C.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.C.; Wokas, T.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting solenoid magnets suitable for the room temperature front end of the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (formerly known as Proton Driver), an 8 GeV superconducting H- linac, have been designed and fabricated at Fermilab, and tested in the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility. We report here results of studies on the first model magnets in this program, including the mechanical properties during fabrication and testing in liquid helium at 4.2 K, quench performance, and magnetic field measurements. We also describe new test facility systems and instrumentation that have been developed to accomplish these tests

  3. FY 2016 Status Report: Documentation of All CIRFT Data including Hydride Reorientation Tests (Draft M2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Jiang, Hao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Bevard, Bruce B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-09-04

    The first portion of this report provides a detailed description of fiscal year (FY) 2015 test result corrections and analysis updates based on FY 2016 updates to the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) program methodology, which is used to evaluate the vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under normal conditions of transport (NCT). The CIRFT consists of a U-frame test setup and a real-time curvature measurement method. The three-component U-frame setup of the CIRFT has two rigid arms and linkages connecting to a universal testing machine. The curvature SNF rod bending is obtained through a three-point deflection measurement method. Three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) are clamped to the side connecting plates of the U-frame and used to capture deformation of the rod. The second portion of this report provides the latest CIRFT data, including data for the hydride reorientation test. The variations in fatigue life are provided in terms of moment, equivalent stress, curvature, and equivalent strain for the tested SNFs. The equivalent stress plot collapsed the data points from all of the SNF samples into a single zone. A detailed examination revealed that, at the same stress level, fatigue lives display a descending order as follows: H. B. Robinson Nuclear Power Station (HBR), LMK, and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX). Just looking at the strain, LMK fuel has a slightly longer fatigue life than HBR fuel, but the difference is subtle. The third portion of this report provides finite element analysis (FEA) dynamic deformation simulation of SNF assemblies . In a horizontal layout under NCT, the fuel assembly’s skeleton, which is formed by guide tubes and spacer grids, is the primary load bearing apparatus carrying and transferring vibration loads within an SNF assembly. These vibration loads include interaction forces between the SNF assembly and the canister basket walls. Therefore, the integrity of the guide

  4. Modeling of in-vessel fission product release including fuel morphology effects for severe accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.Y.

    1989-10-01

    A new in-vessel fission product release model has been developed and implemented to perform best-estimate calculations of realistic source terms including fuel morphology effects. The proposed bulk mass transfer correlation determines the product of fission product release and equiaxed grain size as a function of the inverse fuel temperature. The model accounts for the fuel-cladding interaction over the temperature range between 770 K and 3000 K in the steam environment. A separate driver has been developed for the in-vessel thermal hydraulic and fission product behavior models that were developed by the Department of Energy for the Modular Accident Analysis Package (MAAP). Calculational results of these models have been compared to the results of the Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests. The code predictions utilizing the mass transfer correlation agreed with the experimentally determined fractional release rates during the course of the heatup, power hold, and cooldown phases of the high temperature transients. Compared to such conventional literature correlations as the steam oxidation model and the NUREG-0956 correlation, the mass transfer correlation resulted in lower and less rapid releases in closer agreement with the on-line and grab sample data from the Severe Fuel Damage tests. The proposed mass transfer correlation can be applied for best-estimate calculations of fission products release from the UO 2 fuel in both nominal and severe accident conditions. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Impact analysis and testing of tritiated heavy water transportation packages including hydrodynamic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Tulk, J.D.; Gavin, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has recently designed a new Type B(M) Tritiated Heavy Water Transportation Package (THWTP) for the road transportation of tritiated heavy water from its operating nuclear stations to the Tritium Removal Facility in Ontario. These packages must demonstrate the ability to withstand severe shock and impact scenarios such as those prescribed by IAEA standards. The package, shown in figure 1, comprises an inner container filled with tritiated heavy water, and a 19 lb/ft 3 polyurethane foam-filled overpack. The overpack is of sandwich construction with 304L stainless steel liners and 10.5 inch thick nominal foam walls. The outer shell is 0.75 inch thick and the inner shell is 0.25 inch thick. The primary containment boundary consists of the overpack inner liner, the containment lid and outer containment seals in the lid region. The total weight of the container including the 12,000 lb. payload is 36,700 lb. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the hydrodynamic effect of the tritiated heavy water payload on the structural integrity of the THWTP during a flat end drop from a height of 9 m. The study consisted of three phases: (i) developing an analytical model to simulate the hydrodynamic effects of the heavy water payload during impact; (ii) performing an impact analysis for a 9 m flat end drop of the THWTP including fluid structure interaction; (iii) verification of the analytical models by experiment

  6. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of chemical testing for decision-support: How to include animal welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbert, S.G.M.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity testing for regulatory purposes raises the question of test selection for a particular endpoint. Given the public's concern for animal welfare, test selection is a multi-objective decision problem that requires balancing information outcome, animal welfare loss, and monetary testing costs.

  8. Considerations When Including Students with Disabilities in Test Security Policies. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Sound test security policies and procedures are needed to ensure test security and confidentiality, and to help prevent cheating. In this era when cheating on tests draws regular media attention, there is a need for thoughtful consideration of the ways in which possible test security measures may affect accessibility for some students with…

  9. Collaborative testing of turbulence models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, P.

    1992-12-01

    This project, funded by AFOSR, ARO, NASA, and ONR, was run by the writer with Profs. Brian E. Launder, University of Manchester, England, and John L. Lumley, Cornell University. Statistical data on turbulent flows, from lab. experiments and simulations, were circulated to modelers throughout the world. This is the first large-scale project of its kind to use simulation data. The modelers returned their predictions to Stanford, for distribution to all modelers and to additional participants ('experimenters')--over 100 in all. The object was to obtain a consensus on the capabilities of present-day turbulence models and identify which types most deserve future support. This was not completely achieved, mainly because not enough modelers could produce results for enough test cases within the duration of the project. However, a clear picture of the capabilities of various modeling groups has appeared, and the interaction has been helpful to the modelers. The results support the view that Reynolds-stress transport models are the most accurate.

  10. A range of complex probabilistic models for RNA secondary structure prediction that includes the nearest-neighbor model and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Elena; Lang, Raymond; Eddy, Sean R

    2012-02-01

    The standard approach for single-sequence RNA secondary structure prediction uses a nearest-neighbor thermodynamic model with several thousand experimentally determined energy parameters. An attractive alternative is to use statistical approaches with parameters estimated from growing databases of structural RNAs. Good results have been reported for discriminative statistical methods using complex nearest-neighbor models, including CONTRAfold, Simfold, and ContextFold. Little work has been reported on generative probabilistic models (stochastic context-free grammars [SCFGs]) of comparable complexity, although probabilistic models are generally easier to train and to use. To explore a range of probabilistic models of increasing complexity, and to directly compare probabilistic, thermodynamic, and discriminative approaches, we created TORNADO, a computational tool that can parse a wide spectrum of RNA grammar architectures (including the standard nearest-neighbor model and more) using a generalized super-grammar that can be parameterized with probabilities, energies, or arbitrary scores. By using TORNADO, we find that probabilistic nearest-neighbor models perform comparably to (but not significantly better than) discriminative methods. We find that complex statistical models are prone to overfitting RNA structure and that evaluations should use structurally nonhomologous training and test data sets. Overfitting has affected at least one published method (ContextFold). The most important barrier to improving statistical approaches for RNA secondary structure prediction is the lack of diversity of well-curated single-sequence RNA secondary structures in current RNA databases.

  11. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage center section including the wheel wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. S.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    A Boeing 707 fuselage section was drop tested to measure structural, seat, and anthropomorphic dummy response to vertical crash loads. The specimen had nominally zero pitch, roll and yaw at impact with a sink speed of 20 ft/sec. Results from this drop test and other drop tests of different transport sections will be used to prepare for a full-scale crash test of a B-720.

  12. Harmonization of malaria rapid diagnostic tests: best practices in labelling including instructions for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jan; Barbé, Barbara; Gillet, Philippe; Aidoo, Michael; Serra-Casas, Elisa; Van Erps, Jan; Daviaud, Joelle; Incardona, Sandra; Cunningham, Jane; Visser, Theodoor

    2014-12-17

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) largely account for the scale-up of malaria diagnosis in endemic settings. However, diversity in labelling including the instructions for use (IFU) limits their interchangeability and user-friendliness. Uniform, easy to follow and consistent labelling, aligned with international standards and appropriate for the level of the end user's education and training, is crucial but a consolidated resource of information regarding best practices for IFU and labelling of RDT devices, packaging and accessories is not available. The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM) commissioned the compilation of international standards and regulatory documents and published literature containing specifications and/or recommendations for RDT design, packaging and labelling of in vitro diagnostics (IVD) (which includes RDTs), complemented with a questionnaire based survey of RDT manufacturers and implementers. A summary of desirable RDT labelling characteristics was compiled, which was reviewed and discussed during a RBM Stakeholder consultation meeting and subsequently amended and refined by a dedicated task force consisting of country programme implementers, experts in RDT implementation, IVD regulatory experts and manufacturers. This process led to the development of consensus documents with a list of suggested terms and abbreviations as well as specifications for labelling of box, device packaging, cassettes, buffer bottle and accessories (lancets, alcohol swabs, transfer devices, desiccants). Emphasis was placed on durability (permanent printing or water-resistant labels), legibility (font size, letter type), comprehension (use of symbols) and ease of reference (e.g. place of labelling on the box or cassette packaging allowing quick oversight). A generic IFU template was developed, comprising background information, a template for procedure and reading/interpretation, a selection of appropriate references and a symbol key of internationally recognized

  13. SPheno 3.1: extensions including flavour, CP-phases and models beyond the MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porod, W.; Staub, F.

    2012-11-01

    We describe recent extensions of the program SPhenoincluding flavour aspects, CP-phases, R-parity violation and low energy observables. In case of flavour mixing all masses of supersymmetric particles are calculated including the complete flavour structure and all possible CP-phases at the 1-loop level. We give details on implemented seesaw models, low energy observables and the corresponding extension of the SUSY Les Houches Accord. Moreover, we comment on the possibilities to include MSSM extensions in SPheno. Catalogue identifier: ADRV_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRV_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 154062 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1336037 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran95. Computer: PC running under Linux, should run in every Unix environment. Operating system: Linux, Unix. Classification: 11.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADRV_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 153(2003)275 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The first issue is the determination of the masses and couplings of supersymmetric particles in various supersymmetric models, the R-parity conserved MSSM with generation mixing and including CP-violating phases, various seesaw extensions of the MSSM and the MSSM with bilinear R-parity breaking. Low energy data on Standard Model fermion masses, gauge couplings and electroweak gauge boson masses serve as constraints. Radiative corrections from supersymmetric particles to these inputs must be calculated. Theoretical constraints on the soft SUSY breaking parameters from a high scale theory are imposed and the parameters at the electroweak scale are obtained from the

  14. Study of a diffusion flamelet model, with preferential diffusion effects included

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhaye, S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Bongers, H.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Dias, V.

    2005-01-01

    The non-premixed flamelet model of Peters [1] (model1), which does not include preferential diffusion effects is investigated. Two similar models are presented, but without the assumption of unity Lewis numbers. One of these models was derived by Peters & Pitsch [2] (model2), while the other one was

  15. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.; NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Batavia, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-de Sitter model of the universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the universe which posses a smooth component of energy density. The kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings is studied in detail. The observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models are also discussed. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations. 58 references

  16. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations

  17. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations.

  18. A temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for hot work tool steel including particle coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilg, Andreas; Seifert, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Hot work tools are subjected to complex thermal and mechanical loads during hot forming processes. Locally, the stresses can exceed the material's yield strength in highly loaded areas as e.g. in small radii in die cavities. To sustain the high loads, the hot forming tools are typically made of martensitic hot work steels. While temperatures for annealing of the tool steels usually lie in the range between 400 and 600 °C, the steels may experience even higher temperatures during hot forming, resulting in softening of the material due to coarsening of strengthening particles. In this paper, a temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for the martensitic hot work tool steel 1.2367 (X38CrMoV5-3) is presented that includes softening due to particle coarsening and that can be applied in finite-element calculations to assess the effect of softening on the thermomechanical fatigue life of hot work tools. To this end, a kinetic model for the evolution of the mean size of secondary carbides based on Ostwald ripening is coupled with a cyclic plasticity model with kinematic hardening. Mechanism-based relations are developed to describe the dependency of the mechanical properties on carbide size and temperature. The material properties of the mechanical and kinetic model are determined on the basis of tempering hardness curves as well as monotonic and cyclic tests.

  19. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan

    2015-11-01

    © EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.

  20. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  1. Lyral has been included in the patch test standard series in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Johannes; Brasch, Jochen; Schnuch, Axel; Lessmann, Holger; Pirker, Claudia; Frosch, Peter J

    2002-05-01

    Lyral 5% pet. was tested in 3245 consecutive patch test patients in 20 departments of dermatology in order (i) to check the diagnostic quality of this patch test preparation, (ii) to examine concomitant reactions to Lyral and fragrance mix (FM), and (iii) to assess the frequency of contact allergy to Lyral in an unselected patch test population of German dermatological clinics. 62 patients reacted to Lyral, i.e. 1.9%. One third of the positive reactions were + + and + + +. The reaction index was 0.27. Thus, the test preparation can be regarded a good diagnostic tool. Lyral and fragrance mix (FM) were tested in parallel in 3185 patients. Of these, 300 (9.4%) reacted to FM, and 59 (1.9%) to Lyral. In 40 patients, positive reactions to both occurred, which is 13.3% of those reacting to FM, and 67.8% of those reacting to Lyral. So the concordance of positive test reactions to Lyral and FM was only slight. Based on these results, the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) decided to add Lyral 5% pet. to the standard series.

  2. Test model of WWER core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, A. V.; Gorokhov, A. K.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is creation of precision test model for WWER RP neutron-physics calculations. The model is considered as a tool for verification of deterministic computer codes that enables to reduce conservatism of design calculations and enhance WWER RP competitiveness. Precision calculations were performed using code MCNP5/1/ (Monte Carlo method). Engineering computer package Sapfir 9 5andRC V VER/2/ is used in comparative analysis of the results, it was certified for design calculations of WWER RU neutron-physics characteristic. The object of simulation is the first fuel loading of Volgodon NPP RP. Peculiarities of transition in calculation using MCNP5 from 2D geometry to 3D geometry are shown on the full-scale model. All core components as well as radial and face reflectors, automatic regulation in control and protection system control rod are represented in detail description according to the design. The first stage of application of the model is assessment of accuracy of calculation of the core power. At the second stage control and protection system control rod worth was assessed. Full scale RP representation in calculation using code MCNP5 is time consuming that calls for parallelization of computational problem on multiprocessing computer (Authors)

  3. Scope and status of the USA Engineering Test Facility including relevant TFTR research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becraft, W.R.; Reardon, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion program would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The progress toward the design and construction of the ETF will reflect the significant achievements of past, present, and future experimental tokamak devices. Some of the features of this foundation of experimental results and relevant engineering designs and operation will derive from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Project, now nearing the completion of its construction phase. The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. In order to initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper describes the design status of the ETF and discusses some highlights of the TFTR R and D work

  4. Scope and status of the USA Engineering Test Facility including relevant TFTR research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becraft, W.R.; Reardon, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion programme would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The progress toward the design and construction of the ETF will reflect the significant achievements of past, present, and future experimental tokamak devices. Some of the features of this foundation of experimental results and relevant engineering designs and operation will derive from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Project, now nearing the completion of its construction phase. The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. To initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper describes the design status of the ETF and discusses some highlights of the TFTR R and D work. (author)

  5. Preliminary hazard analysis for the Brayton Isotope Ground Demonstration System (including vacuum test chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the BIPS-GDS is a tabular summary of hazards and undesired events which may lead to system damage or failure and/or hazard to personnel. The PHA reviews the GDS as it is envisioned to operate in the Vacuum Test Chamber (VTC) of the GDS Test Facility. The VTC and other equipment which will comprise the test facility are presently in an early stage of preliminary design and will undoubtedly undergo numerous changes before the design is frozen. The PHA and the FMECA to follow are intended to aid the design effort by identifying areas of concern which are critical to the safety and reliability of the BIPS-GDS and test facility

  6. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-10-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.

  7. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-01-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release

  8. Models of epidemics: when contact repetition and clustering should be included

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz Roland W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of infectious disease is determined by biological factors, e.g. the duration of the infectious period, and social factors, e.g. the arrangement of potentially contagious contacts. Repetitiveness and clustering of contacts are known to be relevant factors influencing the transmission of droplet or contact transmitted diseases. However, we do not yet completely know under what conditions repetitiveness and clustering should be included for realistically modelling disease spread. Methods We compare two different types of individual-based models: One assumes random mixing without repetition of contacts, whereas the other assumes that the same contacts repeat day-by-day. The latter exists in two variants, with and without clustering. We systematically test and compare how the total size of an outbreak differs between these model types depending on the key parameters transmission probability, number of contacts per day, duration of the infectious period, different levels of clustering and varying proportions of repetitive contacts. Results The simulation runs under different parameter constellations provide the following results: The difference between both model types is highest for low numbers of contacts per day and low transmission probabilities. The number of contacts and the transmission probability have a higher influence on this difference than the duration of the infectious period. Even when only minor parts of the daily contacts are repetitive and clustered can there be relevant differences compared to a purely random mixing model. Conclusion We show that random mixing models provide acceptable estimates of the total outbreak size if the number of contacts per day is high or if the per-contact transmission probability is high, as seen in typical childhood diseases such as measles. In the case of very short infectious periods, for instance, as in Norovirus, models assuming repeating contacts will also behave

  9. Evaluation of field test kits including immunoassays for the detection of contaminants in soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.C.; Smith, R.R.; Counts, R.W.; Stewart, J.H.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Effective field test methods are needed for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation. Useful field methods should be rapid, analyte-specific, cost-effective and accurate in the concentration range at which the analyte is regulated. In this study, field test kits for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury, lead and nitrate were evaluated with reference to these criteria. PCBs and mercury, in soils, were analyzed by immunoassay. Ionic lead and nitrate, in water, were measured chemically using test strips. Except for lead, each analyte was measured in both spiked and actual field samples. Twenty to 40 samples per day can be analyzed with the immunoassays and even more with the strip tests. The sensitivity of the immunoassays is in the 1-3 ppM range. Nitrate was consistently detected at ≥5 ppM; lead ions at ≥20 ppM. Results obtained using these methods compared favorably with those obtained by standard laboratory methods. In addition to being useful field screening methods, these kits can be used in the laboratory to sort out negative samples and/or to define proper dilutions for positive samples requiring further analysis

  10. BioModels: expanding horizons to include more modelling approaches and formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glont, Mihai; Nguyen, Tung V N; Graesslin, Martin; Hälke, Robert; Ali, Raza; Schramm, Jochen; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Kothamachu, Varun B; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Swat, Maciej J; Eils, Jurgen; Eils, Roland; Laibe, Camille; Malik-Sheriff, Rahuman S; Chelliah, Vijayalakshmi; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning

    2018-01-04

    BioModels serves as a central repository of mathematical models representing biological processes. It offers a platform to make mathematical models easily shareable across the systems modelling community, thereby supporting model reuse. To facilitate hosting a broader range of model formats derived from diverse modelling approaches and tools, a new infrastructure for BioModels has been developed that is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels. This new system allows submitting and sharing of a wide range of models with improved support for formats other than SBML. It also offers a version-control backed environment in which authors and curators can work collaboratively to curate models. This article summarises the features available in the current system and discusses the potential benefit they offer to the users over the previous system. In summary, the new portal broadens the scope of models accepted in BioModels and supports collaborative model curation which is crucial for model reproducibility and sharing. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Accuracy tests of the tessellated SLBM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A L; Myers, S C

    2007-01-01

    We have compared the Seismic Location Base Model (SLBM) tessellated model (version 2.0 Beta, posted July 3, 2007) with the GNEMRE Unified Model. The comparison is done on a layer/depth-by-layer/depth and layer/velocity-by-layer/velocity comparison. The SLBM earth model is defined on a tessellation that spans the globe at a constant resolution of about 1 degree (Ballard, 2007). For the tests, we used the earth model in file ''unified( ) iasp.grid''. This model contains the top 8 layers of the Unified Model (UM) embedded in a global IASP91 grid. Our test queried the same set of nodes included in the UM model file. To query the model stored in memory, we used some of the functionality built into the SLBMInterface object. We used the method get InterpolatedPoint() to return desired values for each layer at user-specified points. The values returned include: depth to the top of each layer, layer velocity, layer thickness and (for the upper-mantle layer) velocity gradient. The SLBM earth model has an extra middle crust layer whose values are used when Pg/Lg phases are being calculated. This extra layer was not accessed by our tests. Figures 1 to 8 compare the layer depths, P velocities and P gradients in the UM and SLBM models. The figures show results for the three sediment layers, three crustal layers and the upper mantle layer defined in the UM model. Each layer in the models (sediment1, sediment2, sediment3, upper crust, middle crust, lower crust and upper mantle) is shown on a separate figure. The upper mantle P velocity and gradient distribution are shown on Figures 7 and 8. The left and center images in the top row of each figure is the rendering of depth to the top of the specified layer for the UM and SLBM models. When a layer has zero thickness, its depth is the same as that of the layer above. The right image in the top row is the difference between in layer depth for the UM and SLBM renderings. The left and center images in the bottom row of the figures are

  12. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    An instructional aid is provided for home economics teachers who wish to integrate the subject of solar energy into their classroom activities. This teacher's guide was produced along with the student activities book for home economics by the US Department of Energy Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  13. A surplus production model including environmental effects: Application to the Senegalese white shrimp stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2009-12-01

    In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic

  14. ATEFlap aerodynamic model, a dynamic stall model including the effects of trailing edge flap deflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergami, L.; Gaunaa, M.

    2012-02-15

    The report presents the ATEFlap aerodynamic model, which computes the unsteady lift, drag and moment on a 2D airfoil section equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap. The model captures the unsteady response related to the effects of the vorticity shed into the wake, and the dynamics of flow separation a thin-airfoil potential flow model is merged with a dynamic stall model of the Beddoes-Leishmann type. The inputs required by the model are steady data for lift, drag, and moment coefficients as function of angle of attack and flap deflection. Further steady data used by the Beddoes- Leishmann dynamic stall model are computed in an external preprocessor application, which gives the user the possibility to verify, and eventually correct, the steady data passed to the aerodynamic model. The ATEFlap aerodynamic model is integrated in the aeroelastic simulation tool HAWC2, thus al- lowing to simulate the response of a wind turbine with trailing edge flaps on the rotor. The algorithms used by the preprocessor, and by aerodynamic model are presented, and modifications to previous implementations of the aerodynamic model are briefly discussed. The performance and the validity of the model are verified by comparing the dynamic response computed by the ATEFlap with solutions from CFD simulations. (Author)

  15. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    OpenAIRE

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Kuligowska, Ewa; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  16. In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing: A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    field and microcosms than they do under laboratory test conditions. In the case of tributyltin ( TBT ) exposures in San Diego Bay, he found that...TECHNICAL REPORT 1986 September 2009 In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in...Pacific TECHNICAL REPORT 1986 September 2009 In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in

  17. 40 CFR 1039.505 - How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? 1039.505 Section 1039.505 Protection of Environment... duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. In some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an...

  18. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  19. High performance computation of landscape genomic models including local indicators of spatial association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, S; Orozco-terWengel, P; Forester, B R; Duruz, S; Colli, L; Masembe, C; Negrini, R; Landguth, E; Jones, M R; Bruford, M W; Taberlet, P; Joost, S

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing availability of both molecular and topo-climatic data, the main challenges facing landscape genomics - that is the combination of landscape ecology with population genomics - include processing large numbers of models and distinguishing between selection and demographic processes (e.g. population structure). Several methods address the latter, either by estimating a null model of population history or by simultaneously inferring environmental and demographic effects. Here we present samβada, an approach designed to study signatures of local adaptation, with special emphasis on high performance computing of large-scale genetic and environmental data sets. samβada identifies candidate loci using genotype-environment associations while also incorporating multivariate analyses to assess the effect of many environmental predictor variables. This enables the inclusion of explanatory variables representing population structure into the models to lower the occurrences of spurious genotype-environment associations. In addition, samβada calculates local indicators of spatial association for candidate loci to provide information on whether similar genotypes tend to cluster in space, which constitutes a useful indication of the possible kinship between individuals. To test the usefulness of this approach, we carried out a simulation study and analysed a data set from Ugandan cattle to detect signatures of local adaptation with samβada, bayenv, lfmm and an F ST outlier method (FDIST approach in arlequin) and compare their results. samβada - an open source software for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X available at http://lasig.epfl.ch/sambada - outperforms other approaches and better suits whole-genome sequence data processing. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Overload prevention in model supports for wind tunnel model testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton IVANOVICI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Preventing overloads in wind tunnel model supports is crucial to the integrity of the tested system. Results can only be interpreted as valid if the model support, conventionally called a sting remains sufficiently rigid during testing. Modeling and preliminary calculation can only give an estimate of the sting’s behavior under known forces and moments but sometimes unpredictable, aerodynamically caused model behavior can cause large transient overloads that cannot be taken into account at the sting design phase. To ensure model integrity and data validity an analog fast protection circuit was designed and tested. A post-factum analysis was carried out to optimize the overload detection and a short discussion on aeroelastic phenomena is included to show why such a detector has to be very fast. The last refinement of the concept consists in a fast detector coupled with a slightly slower one to differentiate between transient overloads that decay in time and those that are the result of aeroelastic unwanted phenomena. The decision to stop or continue the test is therefore conservatively taken preserving data and model integrity while allowing normal startup loads and transients to manifest.

  1. Mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Luft, M.; Szychta, E.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with the aid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  2. Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslaw Luft; Elzbieta Szychta

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  3. Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Luft

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  4. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  5. Hardware-in-the-loop vehicle system including dynamic fuel cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Z.; Lenhart, T.; Braun, M.; Maencher, H. [MAGNUM Automatisierungstechnik GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In order to reduce costs and accelerate the development of fuel cells and systems the usage of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing and dynamic modelling opens new possibilities. The dynamic model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) together with a vehicle model is used to carry out a comprehensive system investigation, which allows designing and optimising the behaviour of the components and the entire fuel cell system. The set-up of a HIL system enables real time interaction between the selected hardware and the model. (orig.)

  6. Model-based testing for software safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurbuz, Havva Gulay; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    2017-01-01

    Testing safety-critical systems is crucial since a failure or malfunction may result in death or serious injuries to people, equipment, or environment. An important challenge in testing is the derivation of test cases that can identify the potential faults. Model-based testing adopts models of a

  7. 46 CFR 154.449 - Model test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Model test. 154.449 Section 154.449 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF... § 154.449 Model test. The following analyzed data of a model test of structural elements for independent...

  8. Testing constancy of unconditional variance in volatility models by misspecification and specification tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Terasvirta, Timo

    The topic of this paper is testing the hypothesis of constant unconditional variance in GARCH models against the alternative that the unconditional variance changes deterministically over time. Tests of this hypothesis have previously been performed as misspecification tests after fitting a GARCH...... models. An application to exchange rate returns is included....

  9. Atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO2 exchange processes: SOLVEG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu

    2004-11-01

    A new atmosphere-soil-vegetation model named SOLVEG2 (SOLVEG version 2) was developed to study the heat, water, and CO 2 exchanges between the atmosphere and land-surface. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer sub-models for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. It also includes sophisticated processes for solar and long-wave radiation transmission in vegetation canopy and CO 2 exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. Although the model usually simulates only vertical variation of variables in the surface-layer atmosphere, soil, and vegetation canopy by using meteorological data as top boundary conditions, it can be used by coupling with a three-dimensional atmosphere model. In this paper, details of SOLVEG2, which includes the function of coupling with atmosphere model MM5, are described. (author)

  10. Prospective Tests on Biological Models of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Shang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of acupuncture include the regulation of a variety of neurohumoral factors and growth control factors. In science, models or hypotheses with confirmed predictions are considered more convincing than models solely based on retrospective explanations. Literature review showed that two biological models of acupuncture have been prospectively tested with independently confirmed predictions: The neurophysiology model on the long-term effects of acupuncture emphasizes the trophic and anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture. Its prediction on the peripheral effect of endorphin in acupuncture has been confirmed. The growth control model encompasses the neurophysiology model and suggests that a macroscopic growth control system originates from a network of organizers in embryogenesis. The activity of the growth control system is important in the formation, maintenance and regulation of all the physiological systems. Several phenomena of acupuncture such as the distribution of auricular acupuncture points, the long-term effects of acupuncture and the effect of multimodal non-specific stimulation at acupuncture points are consistent with the growth control model. The following predictions of the growth control model have been independently confirmed by research results in both acupuncture and conventional biomedical sciences: (i Acupuncture has extensive growth control effects. (ii Singular point and separatrix exist in morphogenesis. (iii Organizers have high electric conductance, high current density and high density of gap junctions. (iv A high density of gap junctions is distributed as separatrices or boundaries at body surface after early embryogenesis. (v Many acupuncture points are located at transition points or boundaries between different body domains or muscles, coinciding with the connective tissue planes. (vi Some morphogens and organizers continue to function after embryogenesis. Current acupuncture research suggests a

  11. Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Mercado-Samur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.

  12. Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2005-01-01

    channel model represents an enhancement of the existing IEEE 802.15.3a/4a PAN channel model, where antenna and user-proximity effects are not included. Our investigations showed that significant variations of the received wideband power and time-delay signal clustering are possible due the human body...

  13. 2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    ). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92......The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992...... was on the Dolos breakwater with a high superstructure, where there was almost no overtopping. This case is believed to be the most dangerous one. The test of the Dolos breakwater with a low superstructure was also performed. The objective of the last part of the experiment is to investigate the influence...

  14. Influence of structural parameter included in nonlocal rock mass model on stress concentration around circular tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrikov, SV; Mikenina, OA; Revuzhenko, AF

    2018-03-01

    A model of elastic body, including local curvature of elementary volume, is matched with a nonlocal model with a linear structural parameter in the differential approximation. The problem on deformation of rock mass around a circular cross section tunnel is solved numerically. The contours of the calculated stresses are plotted. It is shown that inclusion of local bends in the model results in expansion of influence zone of the tunnel and reduces stress concentration factor at the tunnel boundary.

  15. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołowrocki Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  16. Including model uncertainty in the model predictive control with output feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of an efficient numerical output feedback robust model predictive controller for open-loop stable systems. Stability of the closed loop is guaranteed by using an infinite horizon predictive controller and a stable state observer. The performance and the computational burden of this approach are compared to a robust predictive controller from the literature. The case used for this study is based on an industrial gasoline debutanizer column.

  17. A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.

  18. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  19. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  20. A thermal conductivity model for nanofluids including effect of the temperature-dependent interfacial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitprasert, Chatcharin; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Juntasaro, Varangrat

    2009-01-01

    The interfacial layer of nanoparticles has been recently shown to have an effect on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. There is, however, still no thermal conductivity model that includes the effects of temperature and nanoparticle size variations on the thickness and consequently on the thermal conductivity of the interfacial layer. In the present work, the stationary model developed by Leong et al. (J Nanopart Res 8:245-254, 2006) is initially modified to include the thermal dispersion effect due to the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. This model is called the 'Leong et al.'s dynamic model'. However, the Leong et al.'s dynamic model over-predicts the thermal conductivity of nanofluids in the case of the flowing fluid. This suggests that the enhancement in the thermal conductivity of the flowing nanofluids due to the increase in temperature does not come from the thermal dispersion effect. It is more likely that the enhancement in heat transfer of the flowing nanofluids comes from the temperature-dependent interfacial layer effect. Therefore, the Leong et al.'s stationary model is again modified to include the effect of temperature variation on the thermal conductivity of the interfacial layer for different sizes of nanoparticles. This present model is then evaluated and compared with the other thermal conductivity models for the turbulent convective heat transfer in nanofluids along a uniformly heated tube. The results show that the present model is more general than the other models in the sense that it can predict both the temperature and the volume fraction dependence of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids for both non-flowing and flowing fluids. Also, it is found to be more accurate than the other models due to the inclusion of the effect of the temperature-dependent interfacial layer. In conclusion, the present model can accurately predict the changes in thermal conductivity of nanofluids due to the changes in volume fraction and temperature for

  1. 40 CFR 1048.505 - How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? 1048.505 Section 1048.505 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1048.505 How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles... some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an engine. In these...

  2. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  3. Engineering model cryocooler test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skimko, M.A.; Stacy, W.D.; McCormick, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent testing of diaphragm-defined, Stirling-cycle machines and components has demonstrated cooling performance potential, validated the design code, and confirmed several critical operating characteristics. A breadboard cryocooler was rebuilt and tested from cryogenic to near-ambient cold end temperatures. There was a significant increase in capacity at cryogenic temperatures and the performance results compared will with code predictions at all temperatures. Further testing on a breadboard diaphragm compressor validated the calculated requirement for a minimum axial clearance between diaphragms and mating heads

  4. Direct-phase-variable model of a synchronous reluctance motor including all slot and winding harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obe, Emeka S.; Binder, A.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed model in direct-phase variables of a synchronous reluctance motor operating at mains voltage and frequency is presented. The model includes the stator and rotor slot openings, the actual winding layout and the reluctance rotor geometry. Hence, all mmf and permeance harmonics are taken into account. It is seen that non-negligible harmonics introduced by slots are present in the inductances computed by the winding function procedure. These harmonics are usually ignored in d-q models. The machine performance is simulated in the stator reference frame to depict the difference between this new direct-phase model including all harmonics and the conventional rotor reference frame d-q model. Saturation is included by using a polynomial fitting the variation of d-axis inductance with stator current obtained by finite-element software FEMAG DC (registered) . The detailed phase-variable model can yield torque pulsations comparable to those obtained from finite elements while the d-q model cannot.

  5. Testing homogeneity in Weibull-regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfarine, Heleno; Valença, Dione M

    2005-10-01

    In survival studies with families or geographical units it may be of interest testing whether such groups are homogeneous for given explanatory variables. In this paper we consider score type tests for group homogeneity based on a mixing model in which the group effect is modelled as a random variable. As opposed to hazard-based frailty models, this model presents survival times that conditioned on the random effect, has an accelerated failure time representation. The test statistics requires only estimation of the conventional regression model without the random effect and does not require specifying the distribution of the random effect. The tests are derived for a Weibull regression model and in the uncensored situation, a closed form is obtained for the test statistic. A simulation study is used for comparing the power of the tests. The proposed tests are applied to real data sets with censored data.

  6. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan; Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel

    2012-01-01

    convergence problems, and therefore a model limited to the TH processes was analysed. The modelling performed by Clay Technology's team using Code B right has been divided into four sub-tasks: i) analysis of the evolution around the lower heater at the height of Ring 3 and 4. Several model versions were solved the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical problems. Due to the high temperatures in the bentonite it was also necessary to solve the mass balance of air; ii) analysis of the evolution around the upper heater at the height of Ring 9 and 10; iii) attempt to reproduce the shearing which appears to have occurred in Cylinder 3 in the beginning of the test. The model was run for 200 days and only solved the hydraulic and mechanical problems (temperature was kept constant at 60 deg C); iv) in the last task, results from a axisymmetric model of the full field experiment were presented. The model solves the Thermal and Hydraulic problem, as well as for the gas pressure. However, due to computational problems with such models, the mechanical problem was not solved. The motivation for this model was to understand how a lower gas pressure may influence the overall hydration in the experiment. The modelling performed by Clay Technology's team using Abaqus has been focused on a largescale axisymmetric geometry which included the deposition hole as well as a substantial portion of the surrounding rock. The model solved the THM problem with a staggered solution technique facilitated by Abaqus. The work has also included different evaluations of experimental results with the aim to validate a number of data sets, and to assess the conditions in the tests prior to the dismantling operation. The evaluation was made in five different tasks with the following goals: i) to demonstrate consistency between the void ratio profiles at compaction and dismantling; the initial block heights; and the results from the leveling at installation and dismantling; ii) to demonstrate consistency between the

  7. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel [UPC, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    convergence problems, and therefore a model limited to the TH processes was analysed. The modelling performed by Clay Technology's team using Code{sub B}right has been divided into four sub-tasks: i) analysis of the evolution around the lower heater at the height of Ring 3 and 4. Several model versions were solved the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical problems. Due to the high temperatures in the bentonite it was also necessary to solve the mass balance of air; ii) analysis of the evolution around the upper heater at the height of Ring 9 and 10; iii) attempt to reproduce the shearing which appears to have occurred in Cylinder 3 in the beginning of the test. The model was run for 200 days and only solved the hydraulic and mechanical problems (temperature was kept constant at 60 deg C); iv) in the last task, results from a axisymmetric model of the full field experiment were presented. The model solves the Thermal and Hydraulic problem, as well as for the gas pressure. However, due to computational problems with such models, the mechanical problem was not solved. The motivation for this model was to understand how a lower gas pressure may influence the overall hydration in the experiment. The modelling performed by Clay Technology's team using Abaqus has been focused on a largescale axisymmetric geometry which included the deposition hole as well as a substantial portion of the surrounding rock. The model solved the THM problem with a staggered solution technique facilitated by Abaqus. The work has also included different evaluations of experimental results with the aim to validate a number of data sets, and to assess the conditions in the tests prior to the dismantling operation. The evaluation was made in five different tasks with the following goals: i) to demonstrate consistency between the void ratio profiles at compaction and dismantling; the initial block heights; and the results from the leveling at installation and dismantling; ii) to demonstrate consistency

  8. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation

  9. Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low Q"2's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszczak, A.; Kowalski, H.

    2016-12-01

    We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low χ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from Q"2 values of 3.5 GeV"2 to the highest values of Q"2=250 GeV"2. To analyze the saturation effects we evaluated the data including also the very low 0.35< Q"2 GeV"2 region. The fits including this region show a preference of the saturation ansatz.

  10. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  11. The Model Identification Test: A Limited Verbal Science Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the production of a test with a low verbal load for use with elementary school science students. Animated films were used to present appropriate and inappropriate models of the behavior of particles of matter. (AL)

  12. Theoretical Models, Assessment Frameworks and Test Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the usefulness of proficiency models influencing second language testing. Findings indicate that several factors contribute to the lack of congruence between models and test construction and make a case for distinguishing between theoretical models. Underscores the significance of an empirical, contextualized and structured approach to the…

  13. Geochemical Testing And Model Development - Residual Tank Waste Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, K.J.; Connelly, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  14. Conceptualizing a Dynamic Fall Risk Model Including Intrinsic Risks and Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Schwickert, Lars; Rapp, Kilan; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Todd, Chris; Lord, Stephen R; Kerse, Ngaire

    2017-11-01

    Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors. First, current models consider risk factors to be stable for each person and not change over time, an assumption that does not reflect real-life experience. Second, current models do not consider the interplay of individual exposure including type of activity (eg, walking, undertaking transfers) and environmental risks (eg, lighting, floor conditions) in which activity is performed. Therefore, we posit a dynamic fall risk model consisting of intrinsic risk factors that vary over time and exposure (activity in context). eHealth sensor technology (eg, smartphones) begins to enable the continuous measurement of both the above factors. We illustrate our model with examples of real-world falls from the FARSEEING database. This dynamic framework for fall risk adds important aspects that may improve understanding of fall mechanisms, fall risk models, and the development of fall prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Watts-Strogatz network model developed by including degree distribution: theory and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y W [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, L F [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, J P [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2007-07-20

    By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property.

  16. The Watts-Strogatz network model developed by including degree distribution: theory and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y W; Zhang, L F; Huang, J P

    2007-01-01

    By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property

  17. Modeling of cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including the fringing field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Baishya, Srimanta

    2013-01-01

    A physically based analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage including the fringing gate capacitances in cylindrical surround gate (CSG) MOSFETs has been developed. Based on this a subthreshold drain current model has also been derived. This model first computes the charge induced in the drain/source region due to the fringing capacitances and considers an effective charge distribution in the cylindrically extended source/drain region for the development of a simple and compact model. The fringing gate capacitances taken into account are outer fringe capacitance, inner fringe capacitance, overlap capacitance, and sidewall capacitance. The model has been verified with the data extracted from 3D TCAD simulations of CSG MOSFETs and was found to be working satisfactorily. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Modeling of the dynamics of wind to power conversion including high wind speed behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Bjerge, Martin Huus; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes and validates an efficient, generic and computationally simple dynamic model for the conversion of the wind speed at hub height into the electrical power by a wind turbine. This proposed wind turbine model was developed as a first step to simulate wind power time series...... for power system studies. This paper focuses on describing and validating the single wind turbine model, and is therefore neither describing wind speed modeling nor aggregation of contributions from a whole wind farm or a power system area. The state-of-the-art is to use static power curves for the purpose...... of power system studies, but the idea of the proposed wind turbine model is to include the main dynamic effects in order to have a better representation of the fluctuations in the output power and of the fast power ramping especially because of high wind speed shutdowns of the wind turbine. The high wind...

  19. Hydraulic Model Tests on Modified Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Lynggaard, Jakob

    A floating model of the Wave Dragon (WD) was built in autumn 1998 by the Danish Maritime Institute in scale 1:50, see Sørensen and Friis-Madsen (1999) for reference. This model was subjected to a series of model tests and subsequent modifications at Aalborg University and in the following...... are found in Hald and Lynggaard (2001). Model tests and reconstruction are carried out during the phase 3 project: ”Wave Dragon. Reconstruction of an existing model in scale 1:50 and sequentiel tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters” sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency...

  20. A model for optimal constrained adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Reese, Lynda M.

    2001-01-01

    A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum

  1. A model for optimal constrained adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Reese, Lynda M.

    1997-01-01

    A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information in the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum

  2. Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)

  3. Traceability in Model-Based Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew George

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing complexities of software and the demand for shorter time to market are two important challenges that face today’s IT industry. These challenges demand the increase of both productivity and quality of software. Model-based testing is a promising technique for meeting these challenges. Traceability modeling is a key issue and challenge in model-based testing. Relationships between the different models will help to navigate from one model to another, and trace back to the respective requirements and the design model when the test fails. In this paper, we present an approach for bridging the gaps between the different models in model-based testing. We propose relation definition markup language (RDML for defining the relationships between models.

  4. A review of a radioactive material shipping container including design, testing, upgrading compliance program and shipping logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celovsky, A.; Lesco, R.; Gale, B.; Sypes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago Atomic Energy of Canada developed a Type B(U)-85 shipping container for the global transport of highly radioactive materials. This paper reviews the development of the container, including a summary of the design requirements, a review of the selected materials and key design elements, and the results of the major qualification tests (drop testing, fire test, leak tightness testing, and shielding integrity tests). As a result of the testing, improvements to the structural, thermal and containment design were made. Such improvements, and reasons thereof, are noted. Also provided is a summary of the additional analysis work required to upgrade the package from a Type B(U) to a Type B(F), i.e. essentially upgrading the container to include fissile radioisotopes to the authorized radioactive contents list. Having a certified shipping container is only one aspect governing the global shipments of radioactive material. By necessity the shipment of radioactive material is a highly regulated environment. This paper also explores the experiences with other key aspects of radioactive shipments, including the service procedures used to maintain the container certification, the associated compliance program for radioactive material shipments, and the shipping logistics involved in the transport. (author)

  5. Including an ocean carbon cycle model into iLOVECLIM (v1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouttes, N.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Mariotti, V.; Bopp, L.

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration plays a crucial role in the radiative balance and as such has a strong influence on the evolution of climate. Because of the numerous interactions between climate and the carbon cycle, it is necessary to include a model of the carbon cycle within a

  6. The Model of the Software Running on a Computer Equipment Hardware Included in the Grid network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Mityushkina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to building a cloud computing environment using Grid networks is proposed in this paper. The authors describe the functional capabilities, algorithm, model of software running on a computer equipment hardware included in the Grid network, that will allow to implement cloud computing environment using Grid technologies.

  7. Large scale injection test (LASGIT) modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnedo, D.; Olivella, S.; Alonso, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. With the objective of understanding the gas flow processes through clay barriers in schemes of radioactive waste disposal, the Lasgit in situ experiment was planned and is currently in progress. The modelling of the experiment will permit to better understand of the responses, to confirm hypothesis of mechanisms and processes and to learn in order to design future experiments. The experiment and modelling activities are included in the project FORGE (FP7). The in situ large scale injection test Lasgit is currently being performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory by SKB and BGS. An schematic layout of the test is shown. The deposition hole follows the KBS3 scheme. A copper canister is installed in the axe of the deposition hole, surrounded by blocks of highly compacted MX-80 bentonite. A concrete plug is placed at the top of the buffer. A metallic lid anchored to the surrounding host rock is included in order to prevent vertical movements of the whole system during gas injection stages (high gas injection pressures are expected to be reached). Hydration of the buffer material is achieved by injecting water through filter mats, two placed at the rock walls and two at the interfaces between bentonite blocks. Water is also injected through the 12 canister filters. Gas injection stages are performed injecting gas to some of the canister injection filters. Since the water pressure and the stresses (swelling pressure development) will be high during gas injection, it is necessary to inject at high gas pressures. This implies mechanical couplings as gas penetrates after the gas entry pressure is achieved and may produce deformations which in turn lead to permeability increments. A 3D hydro-mechanical numerical model of the test using CODE-BRIGHT is presented. The domain considered for the modelling is shown. The materials considered in the simulation are the MX-80 bentonite blocks (cylinders and rings), the concrete plug

  8. An approach for including the stiffness and damping of elastohydrodynamic point contacts in deep groove ball bearing equilibrium models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonato, Fábio; Cavalca, Katia L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a methodology for including the Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film effects to a lateral vibration model of a deep groove ball bearing by using a novel approximation for the EHD contacts by a set of equivalent nonlinear spring and viscous damper. The fitting of the equivalent contact model used the results of a transient multi-level finite difference EHD algorithm to adjust the dynamic parameters. The comparison between the approximated model and the finite difference simulated results showed a suitable representation of the stationary and dynamic contact behaviors. The linear damping hypothesis could be shown as a rough representation of the actual hysteretic behavior of the EHD contact. Nevertheless, the overall accuracy of the model was not impaired by the use of such approximation. Further on, the inclusion of the equivalent EHD contact model is equated for both the restoring and the dissipative components of the bearing's lateral dynamics. The derived model was used to investigate the effects of the rolling element bearing lubrication on the vibration response of a rotor's lumped parameter model. The fluid film stiffening effect, previously only observable by experimentation, could be quantified using the proposed model, as well as the portion of the bearing damping provided by the EHD fluid film. Results from a laboratory rotor-bearing test rig were used to indirectly validate the proposed contact approximation. A finite element model of the rotor accounting for the lubricated bearing formulation adequately portrayed the frequency content of the bearing orbits observed on the test rig.

  9. Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Van Herpen, Alain; Zhang, Weihong

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well.

  10. Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Zhang, Weihong; Van Herpen, Alain

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well. (paper)

  11. Tests on thirteen navy type model propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, W F

    1927-01-01

    The tests on these model propellers were undertaken for the purpose of determining the performance coefficients and characteristics for certain selected series of propellers of form and type as commonly used in recent navy designs. The first series includes seven propellers of pitch ratio varying by 0.10 to 1.10, the area, form of blade, thickness, etc., representing an arbitrary standard propeller which had shown good results. The second series covers changes in thickness of blade section, other things equal, and the third series, changes in blade area, other things equal. These models are all of 36-inch diameter. Propellers A to G form the series on pitch ratio, C, N. I. J the series on thickness of section, and K, M, C, L the series on area. (author)

  12. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  13. MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Proksch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5–100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like- and cross-polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoid fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in Matlab and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.

  14. Safe distance car-following model including backward-looking and its stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; Jin, Peter Jing; Pu, Yun; Ran, Bin

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this paper is the car-following behavior including backward-looking, simply called the bi-directional looking car-following behavior. This study is motivated by the potential changes of the physical properties of traffic flow caused by the fast developing intelligent transportation system (ITS), especially the new connected vehicle technology. Existing studies on this topic focused on general motors (GM) models and optimal velocity (OV) models. The safe distance car-following model, Gipps' model, which is more widely used in practice have not drawn too much attention in the bi-directional looking context. This paper explores the property of the bi-directional looking extension of Gipps' safe distance model. The stability condition of the proposed model is derived using the linear stability theory and is verified using numerical simulations. The impacts of the driver and vehicle characteristics appeared in the proposed model on the traffic flow stability are also investigated. It is found that taking into account the backward-looking effect in car-following has three types of effect on traffic flow: stabilizing, destabilizing and producing non-physical phenomenon. This conclusion is more sophisticated than the study results based on the OV bi-directional looking car-following models. Moreover, the drivers who have the smaller reaction time or the larger additional delay and think the other vehicles have larger maximum decelerations can stabilize traffic flow.

  15. An imprecise Dirichlet model for Bayesian analysis of failure data including right-censored observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is intended to make researchers in reliability theory aware of a recently introduced Bayesian model with imprecise prior distributions for statistical inference on failure data, that can also be considered as a robust Bayesian model. The model consists of a multinomial distribution with Dirichlet priors, making the approach basically nonparametric. New results for the model are presented, related to right-censored observations, where estimation based on this model is closely related to the product-limit estimator, which is an important statistical method to deal with reliability or survival data including right-censored observations. As for the product-limit estimator, the model considered in this paper aims at not using any information other than that provided by observed data, but our model fits into the robust Bayesian context which has the advantage that all inferences can be based on probabilities or expectations, or bounds for probabilities or expectations. The model uses a finite partition of the time-axis, and as such it is also related to life-tables

  16. Statistical Tests for Mixed Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Khuri, André I; Sinha, Bimal K

    2011-01-01

    An advanced discussion of linear models with mixed or random effects. In recent years a breakthrough has occurred in our ability to draw inferences from exact and optimum tests of variance component models, generating much research activity that relies on linear models with mixed and random effects. This volume covers the most important research of the past decade as well as the latest developments in hypothesis testing. It compiles all currently available results in the area of exact and optimum tests for variance component models and offers the only comprehensive treatment for these models a

  17. Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by

  18. Results of steel containment vessel model test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, V.K.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Komine, Kuniaki; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Costello, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two tests are being conducted: (1) a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) and (2) a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper summarizes the conduct of the high pressure pneumatic test of the SCV model and the results of that test. Results of this test are summarized and are compared with pretest predictions performed by the sponsoring organizations and others who participated in a blind pretest prediction effort. Questions raised by this comparison are identified and plans for posttest analysis are discussed

  19. lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2017-01-01

    One of the frequent questions by users of the mixed model function lmer of the lme4 package has been: How can I get p values for the F and t tests for objects returned by lmer? The lmerTest package extends the 'lmerMod' class of the lme4 package, by overloading the anova and summary functions...... by providing p values for tests for fixed effects. We have implemented the Satterthwaite's method for approximating degrees of freedom for the t and F tests. We have also implemented the construction of Type I - III ANOVA tables. Furthermore, one may also obtain the summary as well as the anova table using...

  20. Field testing of bioenergetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Doubly labeled water provides a direct measure of the rate of carbon dioxide production by free-living animals. With appropriate conversion factors, based on chemical composition of the diet and assimilation efficiency, field metabolic rate (FMR), in units of energy expenditure, and field feeding rate can be estimated. Validation studies indicate that doubly labeled water measurements of energy metabolism are accurate to within 7% in reptiles, birds, and mammals. This paper discusses the use of doubly labeled water to generate empirical models for FMR and food requirements for a variety of animals

  1. A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.

  2. A New Circuit Model for Spin-Torque Oscillator Including Perpendicular Torque of Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyein Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.

  3. Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…

  4. Fuzzy Control of Yaw and Roll Angles of a Simulated Helicopter Model Includes Articulated Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic controller (FLC is a heuristic method by If-Then Rules which resembles human intelligence and it is a good method for designing Non-linear control systems. In this paper, an arbitrary helicopter model includes articulated manipulators has been simulated with Matlab SimMechanics toolbox. Due to the difficulties of modeling this complex system, a fuzzy controller with simple fuzzy rules has been designed for its yaw and roll angles in order to stabilize the helicopter while it is in the presence of disturbances or its manipulators are moving for a task. Results reveal that a simple FLC can appropriately control this system.

  5. A roller chain drive model including contact with guide-bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard; Hansen, John Michael; Ambrósio, J. A. C.

    2004-01-01

    A model of a roller chain drive is developed and applied to the simulation and analysis of roller chain drives of large marine diesel engines. The model includes the impact with guide-bars that are the motion delimiter components on the chain strands between the sprockets. The main components...... and the sprocket centre, i.e. a constraint is added when such distance is less than the pitch radius. The unilateral kinematic constraint is removed when its associated constraint reaction force, applied on the roller, is in the direction of the root of the sprocket teeth. In order to improve the numerical...

  6. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising...

  7. TESTING GARCH-X TYPE MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Søndergaard; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We present novel theory for testing for reduction of GARCH-X type models with an exogenous (X) covariate to standard GARCH type models. To deal with the problems of potential nuisance parameters on the boundary of the parameter space as well as lack of identification under the null, we exploit...... a noticeable property of specific zero-entries in the inverse information of the GARCH-X type models. Specifically, we consider sequential testing based on two likelihood ratio tests and as demonstrated the structure of the inverse information implies that the proposed test neither depends on whether...... the nuisance parameters lie on the boundary of the parameter space, nor on lack of identification. Our general results on GARCH-X type models are applied to Gaussian based GARCH-X models, GARCH-X models with Student's t-distributed innovations as well as the integer-valued GARCH-X (PAR-X) models....

  8. Validation of lumbar spine loading from a musculoskeletal model including the lower limbs and lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Jason A; Honegger, Jasmin D; Gates, Deanna H; Petrella, Anthony J; Nolasco, Luis A; Silverman, Anne K

    2018-02-08

    Low back mechanics are important to quantify to study injury, pain and disability. As in vivo forces are difficult to measure directly, modeling approaches are commonly used to estimate these forces. Validation of model estimates is critical to gain confidence in modeling results across populations of interest, such as people with lower-limb amputation. Motion capture, ground reaction force and electromyographic data were collected from ten participants without an amputation (five male/five female) and five participants with a unilateral transtibial amputation (four male/one female) during trunk-pelvis range of motion trials in flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. A musculoskeletal model with a detailed lumbar spine and the legs including 294 muscles was used to predict L4-L5 loading and muscle activations using static optimization. Model estimates of L4-L5 intervertebral joint loading were compared to measured intradiscal pressures from the literature and muscle activations were compared to electromyographic signals. Model loading estimates were only significantly different from experimental measurements during trunk extension for males without an amputation and for people with an amputation, which may suggest a greater portion of L4-L5 axial load transfer through the facet joints, as facet loads are not captured by intradiscal pressure transducers. Pressure estimates between the model and previous work were not significantly different for flexion, lateral bending or axial rotation. Timing of model-estimated muscle activations compared well with electromyographic activity of the lumbar paraspinals and upper erector spinae. Validated estimates of low back loading can increase the applicability of musculoskeletal models to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A biologically inspired neural model for visual and proprioceptive integration including sensory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Maryam; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Lari, Abdolaziz Azizi

    2013-12-01

    Humans perceive the surrounding world by integration of information through different sensory modalities. Earlier models of multisensory integration rely mainly on traditional Bayesian and causal Bayesian inferences for single causal (source) and two causal (for two senses such as visual and auditory systems), respectively. In this paper a new recurrent neural model is presented for integration of visual and proprioceptive information. This model is based on population coding which is able to mimic multisensory integration of neural centers in the human brain. The simulation results agree with those achieved by casual Bayesian inference. The model can also simulate the sensory training process of visual and proprioceptive information in human. Training process in multisensory integration is a point with less attention in the literature before. The effect of proprioceptive training on multisensory perception was investigated through a set of experiments in our previous study. The current study, evaluates the effect of both modalities, i.e., visual and proprioceptive training and compares them with each other through a set of new experiments. In these experiments, the subject was asked to move his/her hand in a circle and estimate its position. The experiments were performed on eight subjects with proprioception training and eight subjects with visual training. Results of the experiments show three important points: (1) visual learning rate is significantly more than that of proprioception; (2) means of visual and proprioceptive errors are decreased by training but statistical analysis shows that this decrement is significant for proprioceptive error and non-significant for visual error, and (3) visual errors in training phase even in the beginning of it, is much less than errors of the main test stage because in the main test, the subject has to focus on two senses. The results of the experiments in this paper is in agreement with the results of the neural model

  10. A reanalysis of a behavioral intervention to prevent incident HIV infections: Including indirect effects in modeling outcomes of Project EXPLORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Kenny, David A.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Background Project EXPLORE -- a large-scale, behavioral intervention tested among men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for HIV infection --was generally deemed as ineffective in reducing HIV incidence. Using novel and more precise data analytic techniques we reanalyzed Project EXPLORE by including both direct and indirect paths of intervention effects. Methods Data from 4,296 HIV negative MSM who participated in Project EXPLORE, which included ten sessions of behavioral risk reduction counseling completed from 1999-2005, were included in the analysis. We reanalyzed the data to include parameters that estimate the overtime effects of the intervention on unprotected anal sex and the over-time effects of the intervention on HIV status mediated by unprotected anal sex simultaneously in a single model. Results We found the indirect effect of intervention on HIV infection through unprotected anal sex to be statistically significant up through 12 months post-intervention, OR=.83, 95% CI=.72-.95. Furthermore, the intervention significantly reduced unprotected anal sex up through 18 months post-intervention, OR=.79, 95% CI=.63-.99. Discussion Our results reveal effects not tested in the original model that offer new insight into the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for reducing HIV incidence. Project EXPLORE demonstrated that when tested against an evidence-based, effective control condition can result in reductions in rates of HIV acquisition at one year follow-up. Findings highlight the critical role of addressing behavioral risk reduction counseling in HIV prevention. PMID:23245226

  11. Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gen, Santiago [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lema, Juan M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodríguez, Jorge, E-mail: jrodriguez@masdar.ac.ae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Institute Centre for Water and Environment (iWater), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box 54224 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Fractionation of solid wastes into readily and slowly biodegradable fractions. • Kinetic coefficients estimation from mono-digestion batch assays. • Validation of kinetic coefficients with a co-digestion continuous experiment. • Simulation of batch and continuous experiments with an ADM1-based model. - Abstract: A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 g VS/L d. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.

  12. Cracked rotors. A survey on static and dynamic behaviour including modelling and diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachschmid, Nicolo; Pennacchi, Paolo; Tanzi, Ezio [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Cracks can develop in rotating shafts and can propagate to relevant depths without affecting consistently the normal operating conditions of the shaft. In order to avoid catastrophic failures, accurate vibration analyses have to be performed for crack detection. The identification of the crack location and depth is possible by means of a model based diagnostic approach, provided that the model of the crack and the model of the cracked shaft dynamical behavior are accurate and reliable. This monograph shows the typical dynamical behavior of cracked shafts and presents tests for detecting cracks. The book describes how to model cracks, how to simulate the dynamical behavior of cracked shaft, and compares the corresponding numerical with experimental results. All effects of cracks on the vibrations of rotating shafts are analyzed, and some results of a numerical sensitivity analysis of the vibrations to the presence and severity of the crack are shown. Finally the book describes some crack identification procedures and shows some results in model based crack identification in position and depth. The book is useful for higher university courses in mechanical and energetic engineering, but also for skilled technical people employed in power generation industries. (orig.)

  13. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anandan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed.

  14. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples; Mall foer saekerhetsrapporter med beskrivande exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.

  15. A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics

    2016-08-09

    An anisotropic, rate-­dependent, single-­crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-­crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-­rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-­rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.

  16. Including ethical considerations in models for first-trimester screening for pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jennifer Maureen; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to develop reliable and efficient early pregnancy screening programmes for pre-eclampsia have focused on com-bining clinical, biochemical and biophysical markers. The same model has been used for first-trimester screening for fetal aneuploidies i.e. prenatal diagnosis (PD), which...... is routinely offered to all pregnant women in many developed countries. Some studies suggest combining PD and pre-eclampsia screening, so women can be offered testing for a number of conditions at the same clinical visit. A combination of these tests may be practical in terms of saving time and resources......; however, the combination raises ethical issues. First-trimester PD and pre-eclampsia screening entail qualitative differences which alter the requirements for disclosure, non-directedness and consent with regard to the informed consent process. This article explores the differences related to the ethical...

  17. Collisional-radiative model including recombination processes for W27+ ion★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Izumi; Sasaki, Akira; Kato, Daiji; Koike, Fumihiro

    2017-10-01

    We have constructed a collisional-radiative (CR) model for W27+ ions including 226 configurations with n ≤ 9 and ł ≤ 5 for spectroscopic diagnostics. We newly include recombination processes in the model and this is the first result of extreme ultraviolet spectrum calculated for recombining plasma component. Calculated spectra in 40-70 Å range in ionizing and recombining plasma components show similar 3 strong lines and 1 line weak in recombining plasma component at 45-50 Å and many weak lines at 50-65 Å for both components. Recombination processes do not contribute much to the spectrum at around 60 Å for W27+ ion. Dielectronic satellite lines are also minor contribution to the spectrum of recombining plasma component. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficient from W28+ to W27+ ions is also calculated with the same atomic data in the CR model. We found that larger set of energy levels including many autoionizing states gave larger DR rate coefficients but our rate agree within factor 6 with other works at electron temperature around 1 keV in which W27+ and W28+ ions are usually observed in plasmas. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.

  18. How to include frequency dependent complex permeability Into SPICE models to improve EMI filters design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixdenier, Fabien; Yade, Ousseynou; Martin, Christian; Bréard, Arnaud; Vollaire, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters design is a rather difficult task where engineers have to choose adequate magnetic materials, design the magnetic circuit and choose the size and number of turns. The final design must achieve the attenuation requirements (constraints) and has to be as compact as possible (goal). Alternating current (AC) analysis is a powerful tool to predict global impedance or attenuation of any filter. However, AC analysis are generally performed without taking into account the frequency-dependent complex permeability behaviour of soft magnetic materials. That's why, we developed two frequency-dependent complex permeability models able to be included into SPICE models. After an identification process, the performances of each model are compared to measurements made on a realistic EMI filter prototype in common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) to see the benefit of the approach. Simulation results are in good agreement with the measured ones especially in the middle frequency range.

  19. RELAP5-3D Code Includes ATHENA Features and Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemke, Richard A.; Davis, Cliff B.; Schultz, Richard R.

    2006-01-01

    Version 2.3 of the RELAP5-3D computer program includes all features and models previously available only in the ATHENA version of the code. These include the addition of new working fluids (i.e., ammonia, blood, carbon dioxide, glycerol, helium, hydrogen, lead-bismuth, lithium, lithium-lead, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and sodium-potassium) and a magnetohydrodynamic model that expands the capability of the code to model many more thermal-hydraulic systems. In addition to the new working fluids along with the standard working fluid water, one or more noncondensable gases (e.g., air, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen, SF 6 , xenon) can be specified as part of the vapor/gas phase of the working fluid. These noncondensable gases were in previous versions of RELAP5-3D. Recently four molten salts have been added as working fluids to RELAP5-3D Version 2.4, which has had limited release. These molten salts will be in RELAP5-3D Version 2.5, which will have a general release like RELAP5-3D Version 2.3. Applications that use these new features and models are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  20. Double-gate junctionless transistor model including short-channel effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, B C; Pavanello, M A; Ávila-Herrera, F; Cerdeira, A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a physically based model for double-gate junctionless transistors (JLTs), continuous in all operation regimes. To describe short-channel transistors, short-channel effects (SCEs), such as increase of the channel potential due to drain bias, carrier velocity saturation and mobility degradation due to vertical and longitudinal electric fields, are included in a previous model developed for long-channel double-gate JLTs. To validate the model, an analysis is made by using three-dimensional numerical simulations performed in a Sentaurus Device Simulator from Synopsys. Different doping concentrations, channel widths and channel lengths are considered in this work. Besides that, the series resistance influence is numerically included and validated for a wide range of source and drain extensions. In order to check if the SCEs are appropriately described, besides drain current, transconductance and output conductance characteristics, the following parameters are analyzed to demonstrate the good agreement between model and simulation and the SCEs occurrence in this technology: threshold voltage (V TH ), subthreshold slope (S) and drain induced barrier lowering. (paper)

  1. Refitting density dependent relativistic model parameters including Center-of-Mass corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, Sidney S.; Marinelli, Jose R.; Carlson, Brett Vern

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Relativistic mean field models have become a standard approach for precise nuclear structure calculations. After the seminal work of Serot and Walecka, which introduced a model Lagrangian density where the nucleons interact through the exchange of scalar and vector mesons, several models were obtained through its generalization, including other meson degrees of freedom, non-linear meson interactions, meson-meson interactions, etc. More recently density dependent coupling constants were incorporated into the Walecka-like models, which are then extensively used. In particular, for these models a connection with the density functional theory can be established. Due to the inherent difficulties presented by field theoretical models, only the mean field approximation is used for the solution of these models. In order to calculate finite nuclei properties in the mean field approximation, a reference set has to be fixed and therefore the translational symmetry is violated. It is well known that in such case spurious effects due to the center-of-mass (COM) motion are present, which are more pronounced for light nuclei. In a previous work we have proposed a technique based on the Pierls-Yoccoz projection operator applied to the mean-field relativistic solution, in order to project out spurious COM contributions. In this work we obtain a new fitting for the density dependent parameters of a density dependent hadronic model, taking into account the COM corrections. Our fitting is obtained taking into account the charge radii and binding energies for He 4 , O 16 , Ca 40 , Ca 48 , Ni 56 , Ni 68 , Sn 100 , Sn 132 and Pb 208 . We show that the nuclear observables calculated using our fit are of a quality comparable to others that can be found in the literature, with the advantage that now a translational invariant many-body wave function is at our disposal. (author)

  2. Evaluation and Comparison of Multiple Test Methods, Including Real-time PCR, for Legionella Detection in Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Legionella is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test methods and to determine if sputum is an acceptable alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from 1st January, 2010 to 30th April, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of urinary antigen test (UAT) compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 63.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7%, and NPV 98.1%. Out of 146 patients who had a Legionella-positive result by PCR, only 66 (45.2%) also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%); sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results regardless testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values = 1.0, for each test). In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; therefore, more than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical from patients being tested for Legionella. PMID:27630979

  3. Including policy and management in socio-hydrology models: initial conceptualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Korbee, Dorien

    2017-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the interactions in coupled human-water systems. So far, the use of dynamic models that capture the direct feedback between societal and hydrological systems has been dominant. What has not yet been included with any particular emphasis, is the policy or management layer, which is a central element in for instance integrated water resources management (IWRM) or adaptive delta management (ADM). Studying the direct interactions between human-water systems generates knowledges that eventually helps influence these interactions in ways that may ensure better outcomes - for society and for the health and sustainability of water systems. This influence sometimes occurs through spontaneous emergence, uncoordinated by societal agents - private sector, citizens, consumers, water users. However, the term 'management' in IWRM and ADM also implies an additional coordinated attempt through various public actors. This contribution is a call to include the policy and management dimension more prominently into the research focus of the socio-hydrology field, and offers first conceptual variables that should be considered in attempts to include this policy or management layer in socio-hydrology models. This is done by drawing on existing frameworks to study policy processes throughout both planning and implementation phases. These include frameworks such as the advocacy coalition framework, collective learning and policy arrangements, which all emphasis longer-term dynamics and feedbacks between actor coalitions in strategic planning and implementation processes. A case about longter-term dynamics in the management of the Haringvliet in the Netherlands is used to illustrate the paper.

  4. The Couplex test cases: models and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeat, A.; Kern, M.; Schumacher, S.; Talandier, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Couplex test cases are a set of numerical test models for nuclear waste deep geological disposal simulation. They are centered around the numerical issues arising in the near and far field transport simulation. They were used in an international contest, and are now becoming a reference in the field. We present the models used in these test cases, and show sample results from the award winning teams. (authors)

  5. Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The demands on nuclear fuel have recently been increasing, and include transient regimes, higher discharge burnup and longer fuel cycles. This has resulted in an increase of loads on fuel and core internals. In order to satisfy these demands while ensuring compliance with safety criteria, new national and international programmes have been launched and advanced modelling codes are being developed. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has particularly demonstrated the need for adequate analysis of all aspects of fuel performance to prevent a failure and also to predict fuel behaviour were an accident to occur.This publication presents the Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents, which was hosted by the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) in Chengdu, China, following the recommendation made in 2013 at the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology. This recommendation was in agreement with IAEA mid-term initiatives, linked to the post-Fukushima IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan, as well as the forthcoming Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Fuel Modelling in Accident Conditions. At the technical meeting in Chengdu, major areas and physical phenomena, as well as types of code and experiment to be studied and used in the CRP, were discussed. The technical meeting provided a forum for international experts to review the state of the art of code development for modelling fuel performance of nuclear fuel for water cooled reactors with regard to steady state and transient conditions, and for design basis and early phases of severe accidents, including experimental support for code validation. A round table discussion focused on the needs and perspectives on fuel modelling in accident conditions. This meeting was the ninth in a series of IAEA meetings, which reflects Member States’ continuing interest in nuclear fuel issues. The previous meetings were held in 1980 (jointly with

  6. Experimental tests of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodulman, L.

    1998-01-01

    The title implies an impossibly broad field, as the Standard Model includes the fermion matter states, as well as the forces and fields of SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). For practical purposes, I will confine myself to electroweak unification, as discussed in the lectures of M. Herrero. Quarks and mixing were discussed in the lectures of R. Aleksan, and leptons and mixing were discussed in the lectures of K. Nakamura. I will essentially assume universality, that is flavor independence, rather than discussing tests of it. I will not pursue tests of QED beyond noting the consistency and precision of measurements of α EM in various processes including the Lamb shift, the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of the electron, and the quantum Hall effect. The fantastic precision and agreement of these predictions and measurements is something that convinces people that there may be something to this science enterprise. Also impressive is the success of the ''Universal Fermi Interaction'' description of beta decay processes, or in more modern parlance, weak charged current interactions. With one coupling constant G F , most precisely determined in muon decay, a huge number of nuclear instabilities are described. The slightly slow rate for neutron beta decay was one of the initial pieces of evidence for Cabbibo mixing, now generalized so that all charged current decays of any flavor are covered

  7. Tree-Based Global Model Tests for Polytomous Rasch Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komboz, Basil; Strobl, Carolin; Zeileis, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Psychometric measurement models are only valid if measurement invariance holds between test takers of different groups. Global model tests, such as the well-established likelihood ratio (LR) test, are sensitive to violations of measurement invariance, such as differential item functioning and differential step functioning. However, these…

  8. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Include dispersion in quantum chemical modeling of enzymatic reactions: the case of isoaspartyl dipeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Mei; Chen, Shi-Lu

    2015-06-09

    The lack of dispersion in the B3LYP functional has been proposed to be the main origin of big errors in quantum chemical modeling of a few enzymes and transition metal complexes. In this work, the essential dispersion effects that affect quantum chemical modeling are investigated. With binuclear zinc isoaspartyl dipeptidase (IAD) as an example, dispersion is included in the modeling of enzymatic reactions by two different procedures, i.e., (i) geometry optimizations followed by single-point calculations of dispersion (approach I) and (ii) the inclusion of dispersion throughout geometry optimization and energy evaluation (approach II). Based on a 169-atom chemical model, the calculations show a qualitative consistency between approaches I and II in energetics and most key geometries, demonstrating that both approaches are available with the latter preferential since both geometry and energy are dispersion-corrected in approach II. When a smaller model without Arg233 (147 atoms) was used, an inconsistency was observed, indicating that the missing dispersion interactions are essentially responsible for determining equilibrium geometries. Other technical issues and mechanistic characteristics of IAD are also discussed, in particular with respect to the effects of Arg233.

  10. S5-4: Formal Modeling of Affordance in Human-Included Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhun Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of it being necessary for humans to consider modeling, analysis, and control of human-included systems, it has been considered a challenging problem because of the critical role of humans in complex systems and of humans' capability of executing unanticipated actions–both beneficial and detrimental ones. Thus, to provide systematic approaches to modeling human actions as a part of system behaviors, a formal modeling framework for human-involved systems in which humans play a controlling role based on their perceptual information is presented. The theory of affordance provides definitions of human actions and their associated properties; Finite State Automata (FSA based modeling is capable of mapping nondeterministic humans into computable components in the system representation. In this talk, we investigate the role of perception in human actions in the system operation and examine the representation of perceptual elements in affordance-based modeling formalism. The proposed framework is expected to capture the natural ways in which humans participate in the system as part of its operation. A human-machine cooperative manufacturing system control example and a human agent simulation example will be introduced for the illustrative purposes at the end of the presentation.

  11. Tracer experiment data sets for the verification of local and meso-scale atmospheric dispersion models including topographic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Schuler, W.

    1992-01-01

    Software and data for nuclear energy applications are acquired, tested and distributed by several information centres; in particular, relevant computer codes are distributed internationally by the OECD/NEA Data Bank (France) and by ESTSC and EPIC/RSIC (United States). This activity is coordinated among the centres and is extended outside the OECD area through an arrangement with the IAEA. This article proposes more specifically a scheme for acquiring, storing and distributing atmospheric tracer experiment data (ATE) required for verification of atmospheric dispersion models especially the most advanced ones including topographic effects and specific to the local and meso-scale. These well documented data sets will form a valuable complement to the set of atmospheric dispersion computer codes distributed internationally. Modellers will be able to gain confidence in the predictive power of their models or to verify their modelling skills. (au)

  12. Evaluation and comparison of multiple test methods, including real-time PCR, for Legionella detection in clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Legionella is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture and PCR test methods and to determine if sputum is an alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at PHOL from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of UAT compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV 63.8% and negative predictive value (NPV 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7% and NPV 98.1%. Of 146 patients who had a Legionella positive result by PCR, only 66(45.2% also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%; sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results despite testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values=1.0, for each test. In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; thereforemore than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection, and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical, from patients being tested for Legionella.

  13. Audit of Trichomonas vaginalis test requesting by community referrers after a change from culture to molecular testing, including a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessor, Liselle; Wilson, Janet; McAuliffe, Gary; Upton, Arlo

    2017-06-16

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) prevalence varies among different communities and peoples. The availability of robust molecular platforms for the detection of TV has advanced diagnosis; however, molecular tests are more costly than phenotypic methodologies, and testing all urogenital samples is costly. We recently replaced culture methods with the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification test on specific request and as reflex testing by the laboratory, and have audited this change. Data were collected from August 2015 (microbroth culture and microscopy) and August 2016 (Aptima TV assay) including referrer, testing volumes, results and test cost estimates. In August 2015, 10,299 vaginal swabs, and in August 2016, 2,189 specimens (urogenital swabs and urines), were tested. The positivity rate went from 0.9% to 5.3%, and overall more TV infections were detected in 2016. The number needed to test and cost for one positive TV result respectively was 111 and $902.55 in 2015, and 19 and $368.92 in 2016. Request volumes and positivity rates differed among referrers. The methodology change was associated with higher overall detection of TV, and reductions in the numbers needed to test/cost for one TV diagnosis. Our audit suggests that there is room for improvement with TV test requesting in our community.

  14. Impact of including surface currents on simulation of Indian Ocean variability with the POAMA coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mei; Wang, Guomin; Hendon, Harry H.; Alves, Oscar [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Impacts on the coupled variability of the Indo-Pacific by including the effects of surface currents on surface stress are explored in four extended integrations of an experimental version of the Bureau of Meteorology's coupled seasonal forecast model POAMA. The first pair of simulations differs only in their treatment of momentum coupling: one version includes the effects of surface currents on the surface stress computation and the other does not. The version that includes the effect of surface currents has less mean-state bias in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue but produces relatively weak coupled variability in the Tropics, especially that related to the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The version without the effects of surface currents has greater bias in the Pacific cold tongue but stronger IOD and ENSO variability. In order to diagnose the role of changes in local coupling from changes in remote forcing by ENSO for causing changes in IOD variability, a second set of simulations is conducted where effects of surface currents are included only in the Indian Ocean and only in the Pacific Ocean. IOD variability is found to be equally reduced by inclusion of the local effects of surface currents in the Indian Ocean and by the reduction of ENSO variability as a result of including effects of surface currents in the Pacific. Some implications of these results for predictability of the IOD and its dependence on ENSO, and for ocean subsurface data assimilation are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Goossens, An

    2008-03-01

    The currently used fragrance mix in the European baseline patch test series (baseline series) fails to detect a substantial number of clinically relevant fragrance allergies. To investigate whether it is justified to include hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) and fragrance mix 2 containing hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, citral, farnesol, coumarin, citronellol, and alpha-hexyl cinnamal in the European baseline patch test series. Survey of the literature on reported frequencies of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis from fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) as well as reported results of experimental provocation test. Fragrance mix 2 has been demonstrated to be a useful additional marker of fragrance allergy with contact allergy rates up to 5% when included in various national baseline patch test series. Of the fragrance substances present in fragrance mix 2, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde is the most common sensitizer. Contact allergy rates between 1.5% and 3% have been reported for hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde in petrolatum (pet.) at 5% from various European centres when tested in consecutive dermatitis patients. From 2008, pet. preparations of fragrance mix 2 at 14% w/w (5.6 mg/cm(2)) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde at 5% w/w (2.0 mg/cm(2)) are recommended for inclusion in the baseline series. With the Finn Chamber technique, a dose of 20 mg pet. preparation is recommended. Whenever there is a positive reaction to fragrance mix 2, additional patch testing with the 6 ingredients, 5 if there are simultaneous positive reactions to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and fragrance mix 2, is recommended.

  16. Model tests for prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, R.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations with models of reactor pressure vessels are used to check results of three dimensional calculation methods and to predict the behaviour of the prototype. Model tests with 1:50 elastic pressure vessel models and with a 1:5 prestressed concrete pressure vessel are described and experimental results are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. A Two-Phase Solid/Fluid Model for Dense Granular Flows Including Dilatancy Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Narbona-Reina, Gladys

    2015-04-01

    We propose a thin layer depth-averaged two-phase model to describe solid-fluid mixtures such as debris flows. It describes the velocity of the two phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure, that itself modifies the friction within the granular phase (Iverson et al., 2010). The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by Jackson (2000) based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work (Bouchut et al., 2014). In particular, Pitman and Le replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's equations. We close the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation involving a critical density, or equivalently a critical pressure. Moreover, we relax one boundary condition, making it possible for the fluid to escape the granular media when compression of the granular mass occurs. Furthermore, we introduce second order terms in the equations making it possible to describe the evolution of the pore fluid pressure in response to the compression/dilatation of the granular mass without prescribing an extra ad-hoc equation for the pore pressure. We prove that the energy balance associated with this Jackson closure is dissipative, as well as its thin layer associated model. We present several numerical tests for the 1D case that are compared to the

  18. A new model for including the effect of fly ash on biochemical methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, Pablo; Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2017-10-01

    The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation. Three models for accumulated methane volume (the modified Gompertz equation, the logistic function, and the transfer function) were evaluated. The results showed that methane production increased in the presence of FA when the sewage sludge was not pre-treated, while with pretreated sludge there is inhibition of methane production at FA concentrations higher than 50mg/L. In the calibration of the proposed function, it fits well with the experimental data under all the conditions, including the inhibition and stimulating zones, with the values of the parameters of the methane production models falling in the range of those reported in the literature. For validation experiments, the model succeeded in representing the behavior of new experiments in both the stimulating and inhibiting zones, with NRMSE and R 2 ranging from 0.3577 to 0.03714 and 0.2209 to 0.9911, respectively. Thus, the proposed model is robust and valid for the studied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.

  20. Particle-based modeling of heterogeneous chemical kinetics including mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengar, A.; Kuipers, J. A. M.; van Santen, Rutger A.; Padding, J. T.

    2017-08-01

    Connecting the macroscopic world of continuous fields to the microscopic world of discrete molecular events is important for understanding several phenomena occurring at physical boundaries of systems. An important example is heterogeneous catalysis, where reactions take place at active surfaces, but the effective reaction rates are determined by transport limitations in the bulk fluid and reaction limitations on the catalyst surface. In this work we study the macro-micro connection in a model heterogeneous catalytic reactor by means of stochastic rotation dynamics. The model is able to resolve the convective and diffusive interplay between participating species, while including adsorption, desorption, and reaction processes on the catalytic surface. Here we apply the simulation methodology to a simple straight microchannel with a catalytic strip. Dimensionless Damkohler numbers are used to comment on the spatial concentration profiles of reactants and products near the catalyst strip and in the bulk. We end the discussion with an outlook on more complicated geometries and increasingly complex reactions.

  1. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret

    2010-07-01

    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  2. Particle-based modeling of heterogeneous chemical kinetics including mass transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengar, A; Kuipers, J A M; van Santen, Rutger A; Padding, J T

    2017-08-01

    Connecting the macroscopic world of continuous fields to the microscopic world of discrete molecular events is important for understanding several phenomena occurring at physical boundaries of systems. An important example is heterogeneous catalysis, where reactions take place at active surfaces, but the effective reaction rates are determined by transport limitations in the bulk fluid and reaction limitations on the catalyst surface. In this work we study the macro-micro connection in a model heterogeneous catalytic reactor by means of stochastic rotation dynamics. The model is able to resolve the convective and diffusive interplay between participating species, while including adsorption, desorption, and reaction processes on the catalytic surface. Here we apply the simulation methodology to a simple straight microchannel with a catalytic strip. Dimensionless Damkohler numbers are used to comment on the spatial concentration profiles of reactants and products near the catalyst strip and in the bulk. We end the discussion with an outlook on more complicated geometries and increasingly complex reactions.

  3. Effect of including decay chains on predictions of equilibrium-type terrestrial food chain models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Equilibrium-type food chain models are commonly used for assessing the radiological impact to man from environmental releases of radionuclides. Usually these do not take into account build-up of radioactive decay products during environmental transport. This may be a potential source of underprediction. For estimating consequences of this simplification, the equations of an internationally recognised terrestrial food chain model have been extended to include decay chains of variable length. Example calculations show that for releases from light water reactors as expected both during routine operation and in the case of severe accidents, the build-up of decay products during environmental transport is generally of minor importance. However, a considerable number of radionuclides of potential radiological significance have been identified which show marked contributions of decay products to calculated contamination of human food and resulting radiation dose rates. (author)

  4. Fluid-structure interaction including volumetric coupling with homogenised subdomains for modeling respiratory mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Lena; Roth, Christian J; Wall, Wolfgang A

    2017-04-01

    In this article, a novel approach is presented for combining standard fluid-structure interaction with additional volumetric constraints to model fluid flow into and from homogenised solid domains. The proposed algorithm is particularly interesting for investigations in the field of respiratory mechanics as it enables the mutual coupling of airflow in the conducting part and local tissue deformation in the respiratory part of the lung by means of a volume constraint. In combination with a classical monolithic fluid-structure interaction approach, a comprehensive model of the human lung can be established that will be useful to gain new insights into respiratory mechanics in health and disease. To illustrate the validity and versatility of the novel approach, three numerical examples including a patient-specific lung model are presented. The proposed algorithm proves its capability of computing clinically relevant airflow distribution and tissue strain data at a level of detail that is not yet achievable, neither with current imaging techniques nor with existing computational models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.

  6. Empirical Validation of a Thermal Model of a Complex Roof Including Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Guichard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the empirical validation of a building thermal model of a complex roof including a phase change material (PCM. A mathematical model dedicated to PCMs based on the heat apparent capacity method was implemented in a multi-zone building simulation code, the aim being to increase the understanding of the thermal behavior of the whole building with PCM technologies. In order to empirically validate the model, the methodology is based both on numerical and experimental studies. A parametric sensitivity analysis was performed and a set of parameters of the thermal model has been identified for optimization. The use of the generic optimization program called GenOpt® coupled to the building simulation code enabled to determine the set of adequate parameters. We first present the empirical validation methodology and main results of previous work. We then give an overview of GenOpt® and its coupling with the building simulation code. Finally, once the optimization results are obtained, comparisons of the thermal predictions with measurements are found to be acceptable and are presented.

  7. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Finsterle

    2004-09-02

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM was developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). This Model Report has been revised in response to a comprehensive, regulatory-focused evaluation performed by the Regulatory Integration Team [''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Evaluation of Analysis and Model Reports Supporting the TSPA-LA'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169653])]. The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross-Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA [''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167652])], which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model [see ''Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170338])]. The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross-Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross

  8. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM was developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). This Model Report has been revised in response to a comprehensive, regulatory-focused evaluation performed by the Regulatory Integration Team [''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Evaluation of Analysis and Model Reports Supporting the TSPA-LA'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169653])]. The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross-Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA [''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167652])], which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model [see ''Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170338])]. The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross-Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross-Drift to obtain the permeability structure for the seepage model

  9. Standardized Competencies for Parenteral Nutrition Order Review and Parenteral Nutrition Preparation, Including Compounding: The ASPEN Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullata, Joseph I; Holcombe, Beverly; Sacks, Gordon; Gervasio, Jane; Adams, Stephen C; Christensen, Michael; Durfee, Sharon; Ayers, Phil; Marshall, Neil; Guenter, Peggi

    2016-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication with a complex drug use process. Key steps in the process include the review of each PN prescription followed by the preparation of the formulation. The preparation step includes compounding the PN or activating a standardized commercially available PN product. The verification and review, as well as preparation of this complex therapy, require competency that may be determined by using a standardized process for pharmacists and for pharmacy technicians involved with PN. An American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) standardized model for PN order review and PN preparation competencies is proposed based on a competency framework, the ASPEN-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines, and is intended for institutions and agencies to use with their staff. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Analytical and numerical modelling of thermoviscous shocks in their interactions in nonlinear fluids including dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2010-01-01

    A wave equation, that governs finite amplitude acoustic disturbances in a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid, and includes nonlinear terms up to second order, is proposed. The equation preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the fundamental fluid dynamical equations in the non dissipative limit. An exact...... thermoviscous shock solution is derived. This solution is, in an overall sense, equivalent to the Taylor shock solution of the Burgers equation. However, in contrast to the Burgers equation, the model equation considered here is capable to describe waves propagating in opposite directions. Studies of head...

  11. A model for Huanglongbing spread between citrus plants including delay times and human intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilamiu, Raphael G. d'A.; Ternes, Sonia; Braga, Guilherme A.; Laranjeira, Francisco F.

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this work was to present a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delay in the disease's incubation phase in the plants, and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the most important HLB insect vector in Brazil. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the possible impacts of human detection efficiency of symptomatic plants, as well as the influence of a long incubation period of HLB in the plant.

  12. Model-based testing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Justyna; Mosterman, Pieter J

    2011-01-01

    What the experts have to say about Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems: "This book is exactly what is needed at the exact right time in this fast-growing area. From its beginnings over 10 years ago of deriving tests from UML statecharts, model-based testing has matured into a topic with both breadth and depth. Testing embedded systems is a natural application of MBT, and this book hits the nail exactly on the head. Numerous topics are presented clearly, thoroughly, and concisely in this cutting-edge book. The authors are world-class leading experts in this area and teach us well-used

  13. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  14. Test-driven modeling of embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To benefit maximally from model-based systems engineering (MBSE) trustworthy high quality models are required. From the software disciplines it is known that test-driven development (TDD) can significantly increase the quality of the products. Using a test-driven approach with MBSE may have...... a similar positive effect on the quality of the system models and the resulting products and may therefore be desirable. To define a test-driven model-based systems engineering (TD-MBSE) approach, we must define this approach for numerous sub disciplines such as modeling of requirements, use cases...... suggest that our method provides a sound foundation for rapid development of high quality system models....

  15. Web-accessible molecular modeling with Rosetta: The Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rocco; Lyskov, Sergey; Das, Rhiju; Meiler, Jens; Gray, Jeffrey J

    2018-01-01

    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides a large number of experimentally validated tools for modeling and designing proteins, nucleic acids, and other biopolymers, with new protocols being added continually. While freely available to academic users, external usage is limited by the need for expertise in the Unix command line environment. To make Rosetta protocols available to a wider audience, we previously created a web server called Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE), which provides a common environment for hosting web-accessible Rosetta protocols. Here we describe a simplification of the ROSIE protocol specification format, one that permits easier implementation of Rosetta protocols. Whereas the previous format required creating multiple separate files in different locations, the new format allows specification of the protocol in a single file. This new, simplified protocol specification has more than doubled the number of Rosetta protocols available under ROSIE. These new applications include pK a determination, lipid accessibility calculation, ribonucleic acid redesign, protein-protein docking, protein-small molecule docking, symmetric docking, antibody docking, cyclic toxin docking, critical binding peptide determination, and mapping small molecule binding sites. ROSIE is freely available to academic users at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  16. 1/3-scale model testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Attaway, S.W.; Bronowski, D.R.; Uncapher, W.L.; Huerta, M.; Abbott, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the drop testing of a one-third scale model transport cask system. Two casks were supplied by Transnuclear, Inc. (TN) to demonstrate dual purpose shipping/storage casks. These casks will be used to ship spent fuel from DOEs West Valley demonstration project in New York to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for long term spent fuel dry storage demonstration. As part of the certification process, one-third scale model tests were performed to obtain experimental data. Two 9-m (30-ft) drop tests were conducted on a mass model of the cask body and scaled balsa and redwood filled impact limiters. In the first test, the cask system was tested in an end-on configuration. In the second test, the system was tested in a slap-down configuration where the axis of the cask was oriented at a 10 degree angle with the horizontal. Slap-down occurs for shallow angle drops where the primary impact at one end of the cask is followed by a secondary impact at the other end. The objectives of the testing program were to (1) obtain deceleration and displacement information for the cask and impact limiter system, (2) obtain dynamic force-displacement data for the impact limiters, (3) verify the integrity of the impact limiter retention system, and (4) examine the crush behavior of the limiters. This paper describes both test results in terms of measured deceleration, post test deformation measurements, and the general structural response of the system

  17. Probabilistic seismic safety assessment of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant including ambient vibration tests: Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nour, Ali [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada); Cherfaoui, Abdelhalim; Gocevski, Vladimir [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); Léger, Pierre [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • In this case study, the seismic PSA methodology adopted for a CANDU 6 is presented. • Ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a 3D FEM and to reduce uncertainties is performed. • Procedure for the development of FRS for the RB considering wave incoherency effect is proposed. • Seismic fragility analysis for the RB is presented. - Abstract: Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan there is a worldwide interest in reducing uncertainties in seismic safety assessment of existing nuclear power plant (NPP). Within the scope of a Canadian refurbishment project of a CANDU 6 (NPP) put in service in 1983, structures and equipment must sustain a new seismic demand characterised by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) obtained from a site specific study defined for a return period of 1/10,000 years. This UHS exhibits larger spectral ordinates in the high-frequency range than those used in design. To reduce modeling uncertainties as part of a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), Hydro-Québec developed a procedure using ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the containment and reactor building (RB). This calibrated FE model is then used for generating floor response spectra (FRS) based on ground motion time histories compatible with the UHS. Seismic fragility analyses of the reactor building (RB) and structural components are also performed in the context of a case study. Because the RB is founded on a large circular raft, it is possible to consider the effect of the seismic wave incoherency to filter out the high-frequency content, mainly above 10 Hz, using the incoherency transfer function (ITF) method. This allows reducing significantly the non-necessary conservatism in resulting FRS, an important issue for an existing NPP. The proposed case study, and related methodology using ambient vibration testing, is particularly useful to engineers involved in seismic re-evaluation of

  18. MHD model including small-scale perturbations in a plasma with temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Mikhailovskii, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility is studied of using a hydrodynamic model to describe a magnetized plasma with density and temperature variations on scales that are arbitrary with respect to the ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the inertial component of the transverse ion thermal flux should be taken into account. This component is found from the collisionless kinetic equation. It can also be obtained from the equations of the Grad type. A set of two-dimensional hydrodynamic equations for ions is obtained with this component taken into account. These equations are used to derive model hydrodynamic expressions for the density and temperature variations. It is shown that, for large-scale perturbations (when the wavelengths are longer than the ion Larmor radius), the expressions derived coincide with the corresponding kinetic expressions and, for perturbations on sub-Larmor scales (when the wavelengths are shorter than the Larmor radius), they agree qualitatively. Hydrodynamic dispersion relations are derived for several types of drift waves with arbitrary wavenumbers. The range of applicability of the MHD model is determined from a comparison of these dispersion relations with the kinetic ones. It is noted that, on the basis of results obtained, drift effects can be included in numerical MHD codes for studying plasma instabilities in high-temperature regimes in tokamaks

  19. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the ΛCDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex s 2 ) and that of δ de /δ m with the variation of c-circumflex s 2 .

  20. A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zanchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.

  1. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Donald; Liever, Peter; Nielsen, Tanner

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test, conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center. The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  2. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Donald K.; Liever, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT), conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  3. Unsteady free surface flow in porous media: One-dimensional model equations including vertical effects and seepage face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nucci, Carmine

    2018-05-01

    This note examines the two-dimensional unsteady isothermal free surface flow of an incompressible fluid in a non-deformable, homogeneous, isotropic, and saturated porous medium (with zero recharge and neglecting capillary effects). Coupling a Boussinesq-type model for nonlinear water waves with Darcy's law, the two-dimensional flow problem is solved using one-dimensional model equations including vertical effects and seepage face. In order to take into account the seepage face development, the system equations (given by the continuity and momentum equations) are completed by an integral relation (deduced from the Cauchy theorem). After testing the model against data sets available in the literature, some numerical simulations, concerning the unsteady flow through a rectangular dam (with an impermeable horizontal bottom), are presented and discussed.

  4. Do Test Design and Uses Influence Test Preparation? Testing a Model of Washback with Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qin; Andrews, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces Expectancy-value motivation theory to explain the paths of influences from perceptions of test design and uses to test preparation as a special case of washback on learning. Based on this theory, two conceptual models were proposed and tested via Structural Equation Modeling. Data collection involved over 870 test takers of…

  5. Modeling radiation dosimetry to predict cognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors including medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Shukla, Hemant; Sengupta, Saikat; Xiong Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression. Results: When the dose distribution was partitioned into 2 levels, both had a significantly negative effect on longitudinal IQ across all 5 brain volumes. When the dose distribution was partitioned into 3 levels (low, medium, and high), exposure to the supratentorial brain appeared to have the most significant impact. For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level. Conclusions: Our results suggest that radiation dosimetry data from 5 brain volumes can be used to predict decline in longitudinal IQ. Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts

  6. Thermohydraulic tests in nuclear fuel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeira, L.C.D.; Navarro, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The main experimental works performed in the Thermohydraulics Laboratory of the NUCLEBRAS Nuclear Technology Development Center, in the field of thermofluodynamics are briefly described. These works include the performing of steady-state flow tests in single tube test sections, and the design and construction of a rod bundle test section, which will be also used for those kind of testes. Mention is made of the works to be performed in the near future, related to steady-state and transient flow tests. (Author) [pt

  7. Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammed Touseef

    Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.

  8. Sample Size Determination for Rasch Model Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxler, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with supplementing statistical tests for the Rasch model so that additionally to the probability of the error of the first kind (Type I probability) the probability of the error of the second kind (Type II probability) can be controlled at a predetermined level by basing the test on the appropriate number of observations.…

  9. Is the standard model really tested?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, E.

    1989-01-01

    It is discussed how the standard model is really tested. Among various tests, I concentrate on the CP violation phenomena in K and B meson system. Especially, the resent hope to overcome the theoretical uncertainty in the evaluation on the CP violation of K meson system is discussed. (author)

  10. DKIST enclosure modeling and verification during factory assembly and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrakoetxea, Ibon; McBride, William; Marshall, Heather K.; Murga, Gaizka

    2014-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) is unique as, apart from protecting the telescope and its instrumentation from the weather, it holds the entrance aperture stop and is required to position it with millimeter-level accuracy. The compliance of the Enclosure design with the requirements, as of Final Design Review in January 2012, was supported by mathematical models and other analyses which included structural and mechanical analyses (FEA), control models, ventilation analysis (CFD), thermal models, reliability analysis, etc. During the Enclosure Factory Assembly and Testing the compliance with the requirements has been verified using the real hardware and the models created during the design phase have been revisited. The tests performed during shutter mechanism subsystem (crawler test stand) functional and endurance testing (completed summer 2013) and two comprehensive system-level factory acceptance testing campaigns (FAT#1 in December 2013 and FAT#2 in March 2014) included functional and performance tests on all mechanisms, off-normal mode tests, mechanism wobble tests, creation of the Enclosure pointing map, control system tests, and vibration tests. The comparison of the assumptions used during the design phase with the properties measured during the test campaign provides an interesting reference for future projects.

  11. Modelling and Testing of Friction in Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about friction is still limited in forging. The theoretical models applied presently for process analysis are not satisfactory compared to the advanced and detailed studies possible to carry out by plastic FEM analyses and more refined models have to be based on experimental testing...

  12. porewater chemistry experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory. Reactive transport modelling including bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Wersin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for

  13. Experimental test of a hot water storage system including a macro-encapsulated phase change material (PCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Atrigna, M.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Risi, N.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems (TESs) are of fundamental importance for many energetic systems, essentially because they permit a certain degree of decoupling between the heat or cold production and the use of the heat or cold produced. In the last years, many works have analysed the addition of a PCM inside a hot water storage tank, as it can allow a reduction of the size of the storage tank due to the possibility of storing thermal energy as latent heat, and as a consequence its cost and encumbrance. The present work focuses on experimental tests realized by means of an indoor facility in order to analyse the dynamic behaviour of a hot water storage tank including PCM modules during a charging phase. A commercial bio-based PCM has been used for the purpose, with a melting temperature of 58°C. The experimental results relative to the hot water tank including the PCM modules are presented in terms of temporal evolution of the axial temperature profile, heat transfer and stored energy, and are compared with the ones obtained by using only water as energy storage material. Interesting insights, relative to the estimation of the percentage of melted PCM at the end of the experimental test, are presented and discussed.

  14. Including osteoprotegerin and collagen IV in a score-based blood test for liver fibrosis increases diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselut, Nelly; Taibi, Ludmia; Guéchot, Jérôme; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Sturm, Nathalie; Gelineau, Marie-Christine; Poggi, Bernard; Thoret, Sophie; Lasnier, Elisabeth; Baudin, Bruno; Housset, Chantal; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2013-01-16

    Noninvasive methods for liver fibrosis evaluation in chronic liver diseases have been recently developed, i.e. transient elastography (Fibroscan™) and blood tests (Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, and Hepascore®). In this study, we aimed to design a new score in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) by selecting blood markers in a large panel and we compared its diagnostic performance with those of other noninvasive methods. Sixteen blood tests were performed in 306 untreated CHC patients included in a multicenter prospective study (ANRS HC EP 23 Fibrostar) using METAVIR histological fibrosis stage as reference. The new score was constructed by non linear regression using the most accurate biomarkers. Five markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein-A1, AST, collagen IV and osteoprotegerin) were included in the new function called Coopscore©. Using the Obuchowski Index, Coopscore© shows higher diagnostic performances than for Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, Hepascore® and Fibroscan™ in CHC. Association between Fibroscan™ and Coopscore© might avoid 68% of liver biopsies for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis. Coopscore© provides higher accuracy than other noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in CHC. The association of Coopscore© with Fibroscan™ increases its predictive value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 3-D FEM Modeling of fiber/matrix interface debonding in UD composites including surface effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupurs, A; Varna, J

    2012-01-01

    Fiber/matrix interface debond growth is one of the main mechanisms of damage evolution in unidirectional (UD) polymer composites. Because for polymer composites the fiber strain to failure is smaller than for the matrix multiple fiber breaks occur at random positions when high mechanical stress is applied to the composite. The energy released due to each fiber break is usually larger than necessary for the creation of a fiber break therefore a partial debonding of fiber/matrix interface is typically observed. Thus the stiffness reduction of UD composite is contributed both from the fiber breaks and from the interface debonds. The aim of this paper is to analyze the debond growth in carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/epoxy UD composites using fracture mechanics principles by calculation of energy release rate G II . A 3-D FEM model is developed for calculation of energy release rate for fiber/matrix interface debonds at different locations in the composite including the composite surface region where the stress state differs from the one in the bulk composite. In the model individual partially debonded fiber is surrounded by matrix region and embedded in a homogenized composite.

  16. Challenges of including nitrogen effects on decomposition in earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the importance of litter decomposition for ecosystem fertility and carbon balance, key uncertainties remain about how this fundamental process is affected by nitrogen (N) availability. Nevertheless, resolving such uncertainties is critical for mechanistic inclusion of such processes in earth system models, towards predicting the ecosystem consequences of increased anthropogenic reactive N. Towards that end, we have conducted a series of experiments examining nitrogen effects on litter decomposition. We found that both substrate N and externally supplied N (regardless of form) accelerated the initial decomposition rate. Faster initial decomposition rates were linked to the higher activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes associated with externally supplied N and the greater relative abundances of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria associated with green leaves and externally supplied organic N (assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA). By contrast, later in decomposition, externally supplied N slowed decomposition, increasing the fraction of slowly decomposing litter and reducing lignin-degrading enzyme activity and relative abundances of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Our results suggest that elevated atmospheric N deposition may have contrasting effects on the dynamics of different soil carbon pools, decreasing mean residence times of active fractions comprising very fresh litter, while increasing those of more slowly decomposing fractions including more processed litter. Incorporating these contrasting effects of N on decomposition processes into models is complicated by lingering uncertainties about how these effects generalize across ecosystems and substrates.

  17. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  18. Comparison and clinical utility evaluation of four multiple allergen simultaneous tests including two newly introduced fully automated analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hoon Rim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared the diagnostic performances of two newly introduced fully automated multiple allergen simultaneous tests (MAST analyzers with two conventional MAST assays. Methods: The serum samples from a total of 53 and 104 patients were tested for food panels and inhalant panels, respectively, in four analyzers including AdvanSure AlloScreen (LG Life Science, Korea, AdvanSure Allostation Smart II (LG Life Science, PROTIA Allergy-Q (ProteomeTech, Korea, and RIDA Allergy Screen (R-Biopharm, Germany. We compared not only the total agreement percentages but also positive propensities among four analyzers. Results: Evaluation of AdvanSure Allostation Smart II as upgraded version of AdvanSure AlloScreen revealed good concordance with total agreement percentages of 93.0% and 92.2% in food and inhalant panel, respectively. Comparisons of AdvanSure Allostation Smart II or PROTIA Allergy-Q with RIDA Allergy Screen also showed good concordance performance with positive propensities of two new analyzers for common allergens (Dermatophagoides farina and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. The changes of cut-off level resulted in various total agreement percentage fluctuations among allergens by different analyzers, although current cut-off level of class 2 appeared to be generally suitable. Conclusions: AdvanSure Allostation Smart II and PROTIA Allergy-Q presented favorable agreement performances with RIDA Allergy Screen, although positive propensities were noticed in common allergens. Keywords: Multiple allergen simultaneous test, Automated analyzer

  19. CFD simulations and reduced order modeling of a refrigerator compartment including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ozgur; Oskay, Ruknettin; Paksoy, Akin; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Free convection in a refrigerator is simulated including radiation effects. ► Heat rates are affected drastically when radiation effects are considered. ► 95% of the flow energy can be represented by using one spatial POD mode. - Abstract: Considering the engineering problem of natural convection in domestic refrigerator applications, this study aims to simulate the fluid flow and temperature distribution in a single commercial refrigerator compartment by using the experimentally determined temperature values as the specified constant wall temperature boundary conditions. The free convection in refrigerator applications is evaluated as a three-dimensional (3D), turbulent, transient and coupled non-linear flow problem. Radiation heat transfer mode is also included in the analysis. According to the results, taking radiation effects into consideration does not change the temperature distribution inside the refrigerator significantly; however the heat rates are affected drastically. The flow inside the compartment is further analyzed with a reduced order modeling method called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the energy contents of several spatial and temporal modes that exist in the flow are examined. The results show that approximately 95% of all the flow energy can be represented by only using one spatial mode

  20. Areal rainfall estimation using moving cars - computer experiments including hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Ehsan; Haberlandt, Uwe; Sester, Monika; Fitzner, Daniel; Wallner, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The need for high temporal and spatial resolution precipitation data for hydrological analyses has been discussed in several studies. Although rain gauges provide valuable information, a very dense rain gauge network is costly. As a result, several new ideas have emerged to help estimating areal rainfall with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Rabiei et al. (2013) observed that moving cars, called RainCars (RCs), can potentially be a new source of data for measuring rain rate. The optical sensors used in that study are designed for operating the windscreen wipers and showed promising results for rainfall measurement purposes. Their measurement accuracy has been quantified in laboratory experiments. Considering explicitly those errors, the main objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of using RCs for estimating areal rainfall. For that, computer experiments are carried out, where radar rainfall is considered as the reference and the other sources of data, i.e., RCs and rain gauges, are extracted from radar data. Comparing the quality of areal rainfall estimation by RCs with rain gauges and reference data helps to investigate the benefit of the RCs. The value of this additional source of data is not only assessed for areal rainfall estimation performance but also for use in hydrological modeling. Considering measurement errors derived from laboratory experiments, the result shows that the RCs provide useful additional information for areal rainfall estimation as well as for hydrological modeling. Moreover, by testing larger uncertainties for RCs, they observed to be useful up to a certain level for areal rainfall estimation and discharge simulation.

  1. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic. To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii express activation properties (critical supersaturation that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter.

    The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  2. Subretinal Pigment Epithelial Deposition of Drusen Components Including Hydroxyapatite in a Primary Cell Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Matthew G; Lengyel, Imre; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Fearn, Sarah; Emri, Eszter; Knowles, Jonathan C; Messinger, Jeffrey D; Read, Russell W; Guidry, Clyde; Curcio, Christine A

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular deposits containing hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace metals that form between the basal lamina of the RPE and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane are hallmarks of early AMD. We examined whether cultured RPE cells could produce extracellular deposits containing all of these molecular components. Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were cultured on Transwell membranes for up to 6 months. Deposit composition and structure were characterized using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy; synchrotron x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence; secondary ion mass spectroscopy; and immunohistochemistry. Apparently functional primary RPE cells, when cultured on 10-μm-thick inserts with 0.4-μm-diameter pores, can produce sub-RPE deposits that contain hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace elements, without outer segment supplementation, by 12 weeks. The data suggest that sub-RPE deposit formation is initiated, and probably regulated, by the RPE, as well as the loss of permeability of the Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris complex associated with age and early AMD. This cell culture model of early AMD lesions provides a novel system for testing new therapeutic interventions against sub-RPE deposit formation, an event occurring well in advance of the onset of vision loss.

  3. Conducting field studies for testing pesticide leaching models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles N.; Parrish, Rudolph S.; Brown, David S.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of predictive models are being applied to evaluate the transport and transformation of pesticides in the environment. These include well known models such as the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), the Risk of Unsaturated-Saturated Transport and Transformation Interactions for Chemical Concentrations Model (RUSTIC) and the Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems Model (GLEAMS). The potentially large impacts of using these models as tools for developing pesticide management strategies and regulatory decisions necessitates development of sound model validation protocols. This paper offers guidance on many of the theoretical and practical problems encountered in the design and implementation of field-scale model validation studies. Recommendations are provided for site selection and characterization, test compound selection, data needs, measurement techniques, statistical design considerations and sampling techniques. A strategy is provided for quantitatively testing models using field measurements.

  4. Observation-Based Modeling for Model-Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanstrén, T.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    One of the single most important reasons that modeling and modelbased testing are not yet common practice in industry is the perceived difficulty of making the models up to the level of detail and quality required for their automated processing. Models unleash their full potential only through

  5. A 'Turing' Test for Landscape Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A. J.; Wise, S. M.; Wainwright, J.; Swift, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Resolving the interactions among tectonics, climate and surface processes at long timescales has benefited from the development of computer models of landscape evolution. However, testing these Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) has been piecemeal and partial. We argue that a more systematic approach is required. What is needed is a test that will establish how 'realistic' an LEM is and thus the extent to which its predictions may be trusted. We propose a test based upon the Turing Test of artificial intelligence as a way forward. In 1950 Alan Turing posed the question of whether a machine could think. Rather than attempt to address the question directly he proposed a test in which an interrogator asked questions of a person and a machine, with no means of telling which was which. If the machine's answer could not be distinguished from those of the human, the machine could be said to demonstrate artificial intelligence. By analogy, if an LEM cannot be distinguished from a real landscape it can be deemed to be realistic. The Turing test of intelligence is a test of the way in which a computer behaves. The analogy in the case of an LEM is that it should show realistic behaviour in terms of form and process, both at a given moment in time (punctual) and in the way both form and process evolve over time (dynamic). For some of these behaviours, tests already exist. For example there are numerous morphometric tests of punctual form and measurements of punctual process. The test discussed in this paper provides new ways of assessing dynamic behaviour of an LEM over realistically long timescales. However challenges remain in developing an appropriate suite of challenging tests, in applying these tests to current LEMs and in developing LEMs that pass them.

  6. A Thermal Evolution Model of the Earth Including the Biosphere, Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2014-12-01

    By harvesting solar energy and converting it to chemical energy, photosynthetic life plays an important role in the energy budget of Earth [2]. This leads to alterations of chemical reservoirs eventually affecting the Earth's interior [4]. It further has been speculated [3] that the formation of continents may be a consequence of the evolution life. A steady state model [1] suggests that the Earth without its biosphere would evolve to a steady state with a smaller continent coverage and a dryer mantle than is observed today. We present a model including (i) parameterized thermal evolution, (ii) continental growth and destruction, and (iii) mantle water regassing and outgassing. The biosphere enhances the production rate of sediments which eventually are subducted. These sediments are assumed to (i) carry water to depth bound in stable mineral phases and (ii) have the potential to suppress shallow dewatering of the underlying sediments and crust due to their low permeability. We run a Monte Carlo simulation for various initial conditions and treat all those parameter combinations as success which result in the fraction of continental crust coverage observed for present day Earth. Finally, we simulate the evolution of an abiotic Earth using the same set of parameters but a reduced rate of continental weathering and erosion. Our results suggest that the origin and evolution of life could have stabilized the large continental surface area of the Earth and its wet mantle, leading to the relatively low mantle viscosity we observe at present. Without photosynthetic life on our planet, the Earth would be geodynamical less active due to a dryer mantle, and would have a smaller fraction of continental coverage than observed today. References[1] Höning, D., Hansen-Goos, H., Airo, A., Spohn, T., 2014. Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage. Planetary and Space Science 98, 5-13. [2] Kleidon, A., 2010. Life, hierarchy, and the

  7. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet...... and testing is still state of the art in falsification. We show how user-defined abstractions can be integrated into a Java PathFinder setting with tools like AspectJ or Javassist and discuss implications of remaining weaknesses of these tools. We believe that a principled engineering approach to designing...... and implementing abstractions will improve the applicability of model checking in practice....

  8. Detailed analysis of the supermarket task included on the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yasushi; Yoshino, Aihide; Muramatsu, Taro; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    The supermarket task, which is included in the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test, requires the quick (1 min) generation of words for things that can be bought in a supermarket. Cluster size and switches are investigated during this task. We investigated how the severity of dementia related to cluster size and switches on the supermarket task in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We administered the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test to 250 patients with very mild to severe Alzheimer's disease and to 49 healthy volunteers. Patients had Mini-Mental State Examination scores from 12 to 26 and Clinical Dementia Rating scale scores from 0.5 to 3. Patients were divided into four groups based on their Clinical Dementia Rating score (0.5, 1, 2, 3). We performed statistical analyses between the four groups and control subjects based on cluster size and switch scores on the supermarket task. The score for cluster size and switches deteriorated according to the severity of dementia. Moreover, for subjects with a Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5, cluster size was impaired, but switches were intact. Our findings indicate that the scores for cluster size and switches on the supermarket task may be useful for detecting the severity of symptoms of dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of Distributed Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin Fogle

    Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch

  10. Pile Model Tests Using Strain Gauge Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Ordinary pile bearing capacity tests are usually carried out to determine the relationship between load and displacement of pile head. The measurement system required in such tests consists of force transducer and three or four displacement gauges. The whole system is installed at the pile head above the ground level. This approach, however, does not give us complete information about the pile-soil interaction. We can only determine the total bearing capacity of the pile, without the knowledge of its distribution into the shaft and base resistances. Much more information can be obtained by carrying out a test of instrumented pile equipped with a system for measuring the distribution of axial force along its core. In the case of pile model tests the use of such measurement is difficult due to small scale of the model. To find a suitable solution for axial force measurement, which could be applied to small scale model piles, we had to take into account the following requirements: - a linear and stable relationship between measured and physical values, - the force measurement accuracy of about 0.1 kN, - the range of measured forces up to 30 kN, - resistance of measuring gauges against aggressive counteraction of concrete mortar and against moisture, - insensitivity to pile bending, - economical factor. These requirements can be fulfilled by strain gauge sensors if an appropriate methodology is used for test preparation (Hoffmann [1]). In this paper, we focus on some aspects of the application of strain gauge sensors for model pile tests. The efficiency of the method is proved on the examples of static load tests carried out on SDP model piles acting as single piles and in a group.

  11. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Gopal P; Jacobs, Travis W; Watts, Mark D; Ghayoomie, S Vahid; Larson, Stephen D; Gerkin, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models.

  12. Variable amplitude fatigue, modelling and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Thomas.

    1993-01-01

    Problems related to metal fatigue modelling and testing are here treated in four different papers. In the first paper different views of the subject are summarised in a literature survey. In the second paper a new model for fatigue life is investigated. Experimental results are established which are promising for further development of the mode. In the third paper a method is presented that generates a stochastic process, suitable to fatigue testing. The process is designed in order to resemble certain fatigue related features in service life processes. In the fourth paper fatigue problems in transport vibrations are treated

  13. Design, modeling and testing of data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kiaei, Sayfe; Xu, Fang

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the a scientific discussion of the state-of-the-art techniques and designs for modeling, testing and for the performance analysis of data converters. The focus is put on sustainable data conversion. Sustainability has become a public issue that industries and users can not ignore. Devising environmentally friendly solutions for data conversion designing, modeling and testing is nowadays a requirement that researchers and practitioners must consider in their activities. This book presents the outcome of the IWADC workshop 2011, held in Orvieto, Italy.

  14. Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.

  15. Noninvasive model including right ventricular speckle tracking for the evaluation of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahran, Yossra; Schueler, Robert; Weber, Marcel; Pizarro, Carmen; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk; Hammerstingl, Christoph

    2016-08-26

    To find parameters from transthorathic echocardiography (TTE) including speckle-tracking (ST) analysis of the right ventricle (RV) to identify precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). Forty-four patients with suspected PH undergoing right heart catheterization (RHC) were consecutively included (mean age 63.1 ± 14 years, 61% male gender). All patients underwent standardized TTE including ST analysis of the RV. Based on the subsequent TTE-derived measurements, the presence of PH was assessed: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated by Simpsons rule from 4Ch. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) was assessed with continuous wave Doppler of systolic tricuspid regurgitant velocity and regarded raised with values ≥ 30 mmHg as a surrogate parameter for RA pressure. A concomitantly elevated PCWP was considered a means to discriminate between the precapillary and postcapillary form of PH. PCWP was considered elevated when the E/e' ratio was > 12 as a surrogate for LV diastolic pressure. E/e' ratio was measured by gauging systolic and diastolic velocities of the lateral and septal mitral valve annulus using TDI mode. The results were then averaged with conventional measurement of mitral valve inflow. Furthermore, functional testing with six minutes walking distance (6MWD), ECG-RV stress signs, NT pro-BNP and other laboratory values were assessed. PH was confirmed in 34 patients (precapillary PH, n = 15, postcapillary PH, n = 19). TTE showed significant differences in E/e' ratio (precapillary PH: 12.3 ± 4.4, postcapillary PH: 17.3 ± 10.3, no PH: 12.1 ± 4.5, P = 0.02), LV volumes (ESV: 25.0 ± 15.0 mL, 49.9 ± 29.5 mL, 32.2 ± 13.6 mL, P = 0.027; EDV: 73.6 ± 24.0 mL, 110.6 ± 31.8 mL, 87.8 ± 33.0 mL, P = 0.021) and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP: 61.2 ± 22.3 mmHg, 53.6 ± 20.1 mmHg, 31.2 ± 24.6 mmHg, P = 0.001). STRV analysis showed significant differences for apical RV longitudinal strain (RVAS: -7.5% ± 5.6%, -13.3% ± 4.3%, -14

  16. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of data sources are available on the Internet, many of which offer semantically overlapping data, but based on different schemas, or models. While it is often of interest to integrate such data sources, the lack of consistency among them makes this integration difficult....... This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  17. Improved animal models for testing gene therapy for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Flynn, Rowan; Dichek, David A

    2014-04-01

    Gene therapy delivered to the blood vessel wall could augment current therapies for atherosclerosis, including systemic drug therapy and stenting. However, identification of clinically useful vectors and effective therapeutic transgenes remains at the preclinical stage. Identification of effective vectors and transgenes would be accelerated by availability of animal models that allow practical and expeditious testing of vessel-wall-directed gene therapy. Such models would include humanlike lesions that develop rapidly in vessels that are amenable to efficient gene delivery. Moreover, because human atherosclerosis develops in normal vessels, gene therapy that prevents atherosclerosis is most logically tested in relatively normal arteries. Similarly, gene therapy that causes atherosclerosis regression requires gene delivery to an existing lesion. Here we report development of three new rabbit models for testing vessel-wall-directed gene therapy that either prevents or reverses atherosclerosis. Carotid artery intimal lesions in these new models develop within 2-7 months after initiation of a high-fat diet and are 20-80 times larger than lesions in a model we described previously. Individual models allow generation of lesions that are relatively rich in either macrophages or smooth muscle cells, permitting testing of gene therapy strategies targeted at either cell type. Two of the models include gene delivery to essentially normal arteries and will be useful for identifying strategies that prevent lesion development. The third model generates lesions rapidly in vector-naïve animals and can be used for testing gene therapy that promotes lesion regression. These models are optimized for testing helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd)-mediated gene therapy; however, they could be easily adapted for testing of other vectors or of different types of molecular therapies, delivered directly to the blood vessel wall. Our data also supports the promise of HDAd to deliver long

  18. A sub-circuit MOSFET model with a wide temperature range including cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Kan; Sun Weifeng; Shi Longxing, E-mail: jiakan.01@gmail.com [National ASIC System Engineering Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2011-06-15

    A sub-circuit SPICE model of a MOSFET for low temperature operation is presented. Two resistors are introduced for the freeze-out effect, and the explicit behavioral models are developed for them. The model can be used in a wide temperature range covering both cryogenic temperature and regular temperatures. (semiconductor devices)

  19. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  20. A methodology for including wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.; Pucciarelli, A.; Borroni, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model for taking into account wall roughness in low-Reynolds k-ε models is presented. • The model is subjected to a first validation to show its potential in general applications. • The application of the model in predicting heat transfer to supercritical fluids is also discussed. - Abstract: A model accounting for wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models is described in the present paper. In particular, the introduction in the transport equations of k and ε of additional source terms related to roughness, based on simple assumptions and dimensional relationships, is proposed. An objective of the present paper, in addition to obtaining more realistic predictions of wall friction, is the application of the proposed model to the study of heat transfer to supercritical fluids. A first validation of the model is reported. The model shows the capability of predicting, at least qualitatively, some of the most important trends observed when dealing with rough pipes in very different flow conditions. Qualitative comparisons with some DNS data available in literature are also performed. Further analyses provided promising results concerning the ability of the model in reproducing the trend of friction factor when varying the flow conditions, though improvements are necessary for achieving better quantitative accuracy. First applications of the model in simulating heat transfer to supercritical fluids are also described, showing the capability of the model to affect the predictions of these heat transfer phenomena, in particular in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical conditions. A more extended application of the model to relevant deteriorated heat transfer conditions will clarify the usefulness of this modelling methodology in improving predictions of these difficult phenomena. Whatever the possible success in this particular application that motivated its development, this approach suggests a general methodology for accounting

  1. Measurement network design including traveltime determinations to minimize model prediction uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.M.C.M.; Valstar, J.R.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Traveltime determinations have found increasing application in the characterization of groundwater systems. No algorithms are available, however, to optimally design sampling strategies including this information type. We propose a first-order methodology to include groundwater age or tracer arrival

  2. Validation on groundwater flow model including sea level change. Modeling on groundwater flow in coastal granite area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuma; Miyakawa, Kimio

    2009-01-01

    It is important to verify the groundwater flow model that reproduces pressure head, water chemistry, and groundwater age. However, water chemistry and groundwater age are considered to be influenced by historical events. In this study, sea level change during glacial-interglacial cycle was taken into account for simulating salinity and groundwater age at coastal granite area. As a result of simulation, salinity movement could not catch up with sea level changes, and mixing zone was formed below the fresh-water zone. This mixing zone was observed in the field measurement, and the observed salinities were agreed with simulated results including sea level change. The simulated residence time including sea level change is one-tenth of steady state. The reason is that the saline water was washed out during regression and modern sea-water was infiltrated during transgression. As mentioned before, considering sea level change are important to reproduce salinity and helium age at coastal area. (author)

  3. Testing of a steel containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Costello, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    A mixed-scale containment vessel model, with 1:10 in containment geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness, was fabricated to represent an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment vessel. A contact structure, installed over the model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. This paper describes the pretest preparations and the conduct of the high pressure test of the model performed on December 11-12, 1996. 4 refs., 2 figs

  4. Precision tests of the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'shevskij, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    The present status of the precision measurements of electroweak observables is discussed with the special emphasis on the results obtained recently. All together these measurements provide the basis for the stringent test of the Standard Model and determination of the SM parameters. 22 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Binomial test models and item difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1979-01-01

    In choosing a binomial test model, it is important to know exactly what conditions are imposed on item difficulty. In this paper these conditions are examined for both a deterministic and a stochastic conception of item responses. It appears that they are more restrictive than is generally

  6. Shallow foundation model tests in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feda, Jaroslav; Simonini, P.; Arslan, U.; Georgiodis, M.; Laue, J.; Pinto, I.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (1999), s. 447-475 ISSN 1436-6517. [Int. Conf. on Soil - Structure Interaction in Urban Civ. Engineering. Darmstadt, 08.10.1999-09.10.1999] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC C7.10 Keywords : shallow foundations * model tests * sandy subsoil * bearing capacity * settlement Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  7. Testing and Modeling of Machine Properties in Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei

    The objective of this work has been to test and model the machine properties including the mechanical properties and the electrical properties in resistance welding. The results are used to simulate the welding process more accurately. The state of the art in testing and modeling machine properties...... as real projection welding tests, is easy to realize in industry, since tests may be performed in situ. In part II, an approach of characterizing the electrical properties of AC resistance welding machines is presented, involving testing and mathematical modelling of the weld current, the firing angle...... in resistance welding has been described based on a comprehensive literature study. The present thesis has been subdivided into two parts: Part I: Mechanical properties of resistance welding machines. Part II: Electrical properties of resistance welding machines. In part I, the electrode force in the squeeze...

  8. Testing mechanistic models of growth in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maino, James L; Kearney, Michael R

    2015-11-22

    Insects are typified by their small size, large numbers, impressive reproductive output and rapid growth. However, insect growth is not simply rapid; rather, insects follow a qualitatively distinct trajectory to many other animals. Here we present a mechanistic growth model for insects and show that increasing specific assimilation during the growth phase can explain the near-exponential growth trajectory of insects. The presented model is tested against growth data on 50 insects, and compared against other mechanistic growth models. Unlike the other mechanistic models, our growth model predicts energy reserves per biomass to increase with age, which implies a higher production efficiency and energy density of biomass in later instars. These predictions are tested against data compiled from the literature whereby it is confirmed that insects increase their production efficiency (by 24 percentage points) and energy density (by 4 J mg(-1)) between hatching and the attainment of full size. The model suggests that insects achieve greater production efficiencies and enhanced growth rates by increasing specific assimilation and increasing energy reserves per biomass, which are less costly to maintain than structural biomass. Our findings illustrate how the explanatory and predictive power of mechanistic growth models comes from their grounding in underlying biological processes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Friction Reduction Tested for a Downsized Diesel Engine with Low-Viscosity Lubricants Including a Novel Polyalkylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Sander

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing pressure to reduce emissions, friction reduction is always an up-to-date topic in the automotive industry. Among the various possibilities to reduce mechanical friction, the usage of a low-viscosity lubricant in the engine is one of the most effective and most economic options. Therefore, lubricants of continuously lower viscosity are being developed and offered on the market that promise to reduce engine friction while avoiding deleterious mixed lubrication and wear. In this work, a 1.6 L downsized Diesel engine is used on a highly accurate engine friction test-rig to determine the potential for friction reduction using low viscosity lubricants under realistic operating conditions including high engine loads. In particular, two hydrocarbon-based lubricants, 0W30 and 0W20, are investigated as well as a novel experimental lubricant, which is based on a polyalkylene glycol base stock. Total engine friction is measured for all three lubricants, which show a general 5% advantage for the 0W20 in comparison to the 0W30 lubricant. The polyalkylene glycol-based lubricant, however, shows strongly reduced friction losses, which are about 25% smaller than for the 0W20 lubricant. As the 0W20 and the polyalkylene glycol-based lubricant have the same HTHS-viscosity , the findings contradict the common understanding that the HTHS-viscosity is the dominant driver related to the friction losses.

  10. Testing proton spin models with polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    We review models for spin-weighted parton distributions in a proton. Sum rules involving the nonsinglet components of the structure function xg 1 p help narrow the range of parameters in these models. The contribution of the γ 5 anomaly term depends on the size of the integrated polarized gluon distribution and experimental predictions depend on its size. We have proposed three models for the polarized gluon distributions, whose range is considerable. These model distributions give an overall range is considerable. These model distributions give an overall range of parameters that can be tested with polarized beam experiments. These are discussed with regard to specific predictions for polarized beam experiments at energies typical of UNK

  11. Testing Parametric versus Semiparametric Modelling in Generalized Linear Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härdle, W.K.; Mammen, E.; Müller, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a generalized partially linear model E(Y|X,T) = G{X'b + m(T)} where G is a known function, b is an unknown parameter vector, and m is an unknown function.The paper introduces a test statistic which allows to decide between a parametric and a semiparametric model: (i) m is linear, i.e.

  12. Transverse Crack Modeling and Validation in Rotor Systems, Including Thermal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bachschmid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a model that allows the simulation of the static behavior of a transverse crack in a horizontal rotor under the action of weight and other possible static loads and the dynamic behavior of cracked rotating shaft. The crack breathes—that is, the mechanism of the crack's opening and closing is ruled by the stress on the cracked section exerted by the external loads. In a rotor, the stresses are time-dependent and have a period equal to the period of rotation; thus, the crack periodically breathes. An original, simplified model allows cracks of various shapes to be modeled and thermal stresses to be taken into account, as they may influence the opening and closing mechanism. The proposed method was validated by using two criteria. First the crack's breathing mechanism, simulated by the model, was compared with the results obtained by a nonlinear, threedimensional finite element model calculation, and a good agreement in the results was observed. Then the proposed model allowed the development of the equivalent cracked beam. The results of this model were compared with those obtained by the three-dimensional finite element model. Also in this case, there was a good agreement in the results.

  13. A model for firm-specific strategic wisdom : including illustrations and 49 guiding questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Roeland Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis provides an answer to the question ‘How may one think strategically’. It does so by presenting a new prescriptive ‘Model for Firm-Specific Strategic Wisdom’. This Model aims to guide any individual strategist in his or her thinking from a state of firm-specific ‘ignorance’ to a state

  14. A two-dimensional simulation model of phosphorus uptake including crop growth and P-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollier, A.; Willigen, de P.; Heinen, M.; Morel, C.; Schneider, A.; Pellerin, S.

    2008-01-01

    Modelling nutrient uptake by crops implies considering and integrating the processes controlling the soil nutrient supply, the uptake by the root system and relationships between the crop growth response and the amount of nutrient absorbed. We developed a model that integrates both dynamics of maize

  15. Deterministic Model for Rubber-Metal Contact Including the Interaction Between Asperities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, E.L.; de Rooij, M.B.; Schipper, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Rubber-metal contact involves relatively large deformations and large real contact areas compared to metal-metal contact. Here, a deterministic model is proposed for the contact between rubber and metal surfaces, which takes into account the interaction between neighboring asperities. In this model,

  16. Development of numerical dispersion model for radioactive nuclei including resuspension processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Masaru; Kurita, Susumu; Sasaki, Hidetaka

    2003-01-01

    Global-scale and local-scale dispersion model are developed combining to global and local scale meteorological forecasting model. By applying this system to another miner constituent such as mineral dust blowing by strong wind in arid region, this system shows very good performance to watch and predict the distribution of it. (author)

  17. OTEC riser cable model and prototype testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, J. P.; Schultz, J. A.; Roblee, L. H. S.

    1981-12-01

    Two different OTEC riser cables have been developed to span the distance between a floating OTEC power plant and the ocean floor. The major design concerns for a riser cable in the dynamic OTEC environment are fatigue, corrosion, and electrical/mechanical aging of the cable components. The basic properties of the cable materials were studied through tests on model cables and on samples of cable materials. Full-scale prototype cables were manufactured and were tested to measure their electrical and mechanical properties and performance. The full-scale testing was culminated by the electrical/mechanical fatigue test, which exposes full-scale cables to simultaneous tension, bending and electrical loads, all in a natural seawater environment.

  18. An investigation of FLUENT's fan model including the effect of swirl velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Saheli, A.; Barron, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate and discuss the reliability of simplified models for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of air flow through automotive engine cooling fans. One of the most widely used simplified fan models in industry is a variant of the actuator disk model which is available in most commercial CFD software, such as FLUENT. In this model, the fan is replaced by an infinitely thin surface on which pressure rise across the fan is specified as a polynomial function of normal velocity or flow rate. The advantages of this model are that it is simple, it accurately predicts the pressure rise through the fan and the axial velocity, and it is robust

  19. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  20. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin

    2007-06-01

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  1. Numerical Modelling and Measurement in a Test Secondary Settling Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, C.; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, O.

    1994-01-01

    sludge. Phenomena as free and hindered settling and the Bingham plastic characteristic of activated sludge suspensions are included in the numerical model. Further characterisation and test tank experiments are described. The characterisation experiments were designed to measure calibration parameters...... for model description of settling and density differences. In the test tank experiments, flow velocities and suspended sludge concentrations were measured with different tank inlet geomotry and hydraulic and sludge loads. The test tank experiments provided results for the calibration of the numerical model......A numerical model and measurements of flow and settling in activated sludge suspension is presented. The numerical model is an attempt to describe the complex and interrelated hydraulic and sedimentation phenomena by describing the turbulent flow field and the transport/dispersion of suspended...

  2. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna Reitzel Jensen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our model by conducting scenario analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, but the model applies to scenarios in general and to worst-case and best-estimate scenarios in particular. In addition to easy computations, our model offers a common framework for the valuation of life insurance payments across product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account the Markov model for the state of the policyholder and, hereby, facilitating event risk.

  3. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y.E.; Karol, I.L. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  4. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y E; Karol, I L [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  5. ETM documentation update – including modelling conventions and manual for software tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    This is the final report for the DTU contribution to Socio Economic Research on Fusion (SERF), EFDA Technology Work programme 2013. The structure and contents of this report was presented at the EFDA-TIMES workshop in Garching 12-13 December 2013. This report gives further background and references......, it summarises the work done during 2013, and it also contains presentations for promotion of fusion as a future element in the electricity generation mix and presentations for the modelling community concerning model development and model documentation – in particular for TIAM collaboration workshops....

  6. Physical modelling and testing in environmental geotechnics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.; Thorel, L.; Haza, E.

    2000-01-01

    The preservation of natural environment has become a major concern, which affects nowadays a wide range of professionals from local communities administrators to natural resources managers (water, wildlife, flora, etc) and, in the end, to the consumers that we all are. Although totally ignored some fifty years ago, environmental geotechnics has become an emergent area of study and research which borders on the traditional domains, with which the geo-technicians are confronted (soil and rock mechanics, engineering geology, natural and anthropogenic risk management). Dedicated to experimental approaches (in-situ investigations and tests, laboratory tests, small-scale model testing), the Symposium fits in with the geotechnical domains of environment and transport of soil pollutants. These proceedings report some progress of developments in measurement techniques and studies of transport of pollutants in saturated and unsaturated soils in order to improve our understanding of such phenomena within multiphase environments. Experimental investigations on decontamination and isolation methods for polluted soils are discussed. The intention is to assess the impact of in-situ and laboratory tests, as well as small-scale model testing, on engineering practice. One paper is analysed in INIS data base for its specific interest in nuclear industry. The other ones, concerning the energy, are analyzed in ETDE data base

  7. Hypervapotron flow testing with rapid prototype models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driemeyer, D.; Hellwig, T.; Kubik, D.; Langenderfer, E.; Mantz, H.; McSmith, M.; Jones, B.; Butler, J.

    1995-01-01

    A flow test model of the inlet section of a three channel hypervapotron plate that has been proposed as a heat sink in the ITER divertor was prepared using a rapid prototyping stereolithography process that is widely used for component development in US industry. An existing water flow loop at the University of Illinois is being used for isothermal flow tests to collect pressure drop data for comparison with proposed vapotron friction factor correlations. Differential pressure measurements are taken, across the test section inlet manifold, the vapotron channel (about a seven inch length), the outlet manifold and the inlet-to-outlet. The differential pressures are currently measured with manometers. Tests were conducted at flow velocities from 1--10 m/s to cover the full range of ITER interest. A tap was also added for a small hypodermic needle to inject dye into the flow channel at several positions to examine the nature of the developing flow field at the entrance to the vapotron section. Follow-on flow tests are planned using a model with adjustable flow channel dimensions to permit more extensive pressure drop data to be collected. This information will be used to update vapotron design correlations for ITER

  8. Physical modelling and testing in environmental geotechnics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, J.; Thorel, L.; Haza, E. [Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees a Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The preservation of natural environment has become a major concern, which affects nowadays a wide range of professionals from local communities administrators to natural resources managers (water, wildlife, flora, etc) and, in the end, to the consumers that we all are. Although totally ignored some fifty years ago, environmental geotechnics has become an emergent area of study and research which borders on the traditional domains, with which the geo-technicians are confronted (soil and rock mechanics, engineering geology, natural and anthropogenic risk management). Dedicated to experimental approaches (in-situ investigations and tests, laboratory tests, small-scale model testing), the Symposium fits in with the geotechnical domains of environment and transport of soil pollutants. These proceedings report some progress of developments in measurement techniques and studies of transport of pollutants in saturated and unsaturated soils in order to improve our understanding of such phenomena within multiphase environments. Experimental investigations on decontamination and isolation methods for polluted soils are discussed. The intention is to assess the impact of in-situ and laboratory tests, as well as small-scale model testing, on engineering practice. One paper has been analyzed in INIS data base for its specific interest in nuclear industry.

  9. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan; Rumpf, Martin; Schö nlieb, Carola; Simon, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals

  10. Advanced Modeling of Ramp Operations including Departure Status at Secondary Airports, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses three modeling elements relevant to NASA's IADS research and ATD-2 project, two related to ramp operations at primary airports and one related...

  11. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...

  12. Extending the formal model of a spatial data infrastructure to include volunteered geographical information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available , Information and Computational Viewpoints of the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP). We identified six stakeholders: Policy Maker, Producer, Provider, Broker, Value-added Reseller and End User. The Internet has spawned the development...

  13. Optimization models for flight test scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Derreck

    with restriction removal is based on heuristic approaches to support the reality of flight test in both solution space and computational time. Exact methods for yielding an optimized solution will be discussed however they are not directly applicable to the flight test problem and therefore have not been included in the system.

  14. Transverse Crack Modeling and Validation in Rotor Systems Including Thermal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bachschmid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model is described that allows one to simulate the static behavior of a transversal crack in a horizontal rotor, under the action of the weight and other possible static loads and the dynamical behavior of the rotating cracked shaft. The crack “breaths,” i.e., the mechanism of opening and closing of the crack, is ruled by the stress acting on the cracked section due to the external loads; in a rotor the stress is time-depending with a period equal to the period of rotation, thus the crack “periodically breaths.” An original simplified model is described that allows cracks of different shape to be modeled and thermal stresses to be taken into account, since they may influence the opening and closing mechanism. The proposed method has been validated using two criteria. Firstly, the crack “breathing” mechanism, simulated with the model, has been compared with the results obtained by a nonlinear 3-D FEM calculation and a good agreement in the results has been observed. Secondly, the proposed model allows the development of the equivalent cracked beam. The results of this model are compared with those obtained by the above-mentioned 3-D FEM. There is a good agreement in the results, of this case as well.

  15. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  16. Simplification and Validation of a Spectral-Tensor Model for Turbulence Including Atmospheric Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark; Larsen, Gunner C.

    2018-02-01

    A spectral-tensor model of non-neutral, atmospheric-boundary-layer turbulence is evaluated using Eulerian statistics from single-point measurements of the wind speed and temperature at heights up to 100 m, assuming constant vertical gradients of mean wind speed and temperature. The model has been previously described in terms of the dissipation rate ɛ , the length scale of energy-containing eddies L , a turbulence anisotropy parameter Γ, the Richardson number Ri, and the normalized rate of destruction of temperature variance η _θ ≡ ɛ _θ /ɛ . Here, the latter two parameters are collapsed into a single atmospheric stability parameter z / L using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, where z is the height above the Earth's surface, and L is the Obukhov length corresponding to Ri,η _θ. Model outputs of the one-dimensional velocity spectra, as well as cospectra of the streamwise and/or vertical velocity components, and/or temperature, and cross-spectra for the spatial separation of all three velocity components and temperature, are compared with measurements. As a function of the four model parameters, spectra and cospectra are reproduced quite well, but horizontal temperature fluxes are slightly underestimated in stable conditions. In moderately unstable stratification, our model reproduces spectra only up to a scale ˜ 1 km. The model also overestimates coherences for vertical separations, but is less severe in unstable than in stable cases.

  17. A Novel Mean-Value Model of the Cardiovascular System Including a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Time-varying elastance models (TVEMs) are often used for simulation studies of the cardiovascular system with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Because these models are computationally expensive, they cannot be used for long-term simulation studies. In addition, their equilibria are periodic solutions, which prevent the extraction of a linear time-invariant model that could be used e.g. for the design of a physiological controller. In the current paper, we present a new type of model to overcome these problems: the mean-value model (MVM). The MVM captures the behavior of the cardiovascular system by representative mean values that do not change within the cardiac cycle. For this purpose, each time-varying element is manually converted to its mean-value counterpart. We compare the derived MVM to a similar TVEM in two simulation experiments. In both cases, the MVM is able to fully capture the inter-cycle dynamics of the TVEM. We hope that the new MVM will become a useful tool for researchers working on physiological control algorithms. This paper provides a plant model that enables for the first time the use of tools from classical control theory in the field of physiological LVAD control.

  18. Horns Rev II, 2-D Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...... diameter to water depth ratio and the wave hight to water depth ratio on wave run-up of piles. The measurements should be used to design access platforms on piles....

  19. Large Eddy simulation of turbulence: A subgrid scale model including shear, vorticity, rotation, and buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Reynolds numbers that characterize geophysical and astrophysical turbulence (Re approximately equals 10(exp 8) for the planetary boundary layer and Re approximately equals 10(exp 14) for the Sun's interior) are too large to allow a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fundamental Navier-Stokes and temperature equations. In fact, the spatial number of grid points N approximately Re(exp 9/4) exceeds the computational capability of today's supercomputers. Alternative treatments are the ensemble-time average approach, and/or the volume average approach. Since the first method (Reynolds stress approach) is largely analytical, the resulting turbulence equations entail manageable computational requirements and can thus be linked to a stellar evolutionary code or, in the geophysical case, to general circulation models. In the volume average approach, one carries out a large eddy simulation (LES) which resolves numerically the largest scales, while the unresolved scales must be treated theoretically with a subgrid scale model (SGS). Contrary to the ensemble average approach, the LES+SGS approach has considerable computational requirements. Even if this prevents (for the time being) a LES+SGS model to be linked to stellar or geophysical codes, it is still of the greatest relevance as an 'experimental tool' to be used, inter alia, to improve the parameterizations needed in the ensemble average approach. Such a methodology has been successfully adopted in studies of the convective planetary boundary layer. Experienc e with the LES+SGS approach from different fields has shown that its reliability depends on the healthiness of the SGS model for numerical stability as well as for physical completeness. At present, the most widely used SGS model, the Smagorinsky model, accounts for the effect of the shear induced by the large resolved scales on the unresolved scales but does not account for the effects of buoyancy, anisotropy, rotation, and stable stratification. The

  20. Observational tests of FRW world models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, Ofer

    2002-01-01

    Observational tests for the cosmological principle are reviewed. Assuming the FRW metric we then summarize estimates of cosmological parameters from various datasets, in particular the cosmic microwave background and the 2dF galaxy redshift survey. These and other analyses suggest a best-fit Λ-cold dark matter model with Ω m = 1 - Ω l ∼ 0.3 and H 0 ∼ 70 km s -1 Mpc -1 . It is remarkable that different measurements converge to this 'concordance model', although it remains to be seen if the two main components of this model, the dark matter and the dark energy, are real entities or just 'epicycles'. We point out some open questions related to this fashionable model

  1. Including crystal structure attributes in machine learning models of formation energies via Voronoi tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Logan; Liu, Ruoqian; Krishna, Amar; Hegde, Vinay I.; Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok; Wolverton, Chris

    2017-07-01

    While high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) has become a prevalent tool for materials discovery, it is limited by the relatively large computational cost. In this paper, we explore using DFT data from high-throughput calculations to create faster, surrogate models with machine learning (ML) that can be used to guide new searches. Our method works by using decision tree models to map DFT-calculated formation enthalpies to a set of attributes consisting of two distinct types: (i) composition-dependent attributes of elemental properties (as have been used in previous ML models of DFT formation energies), combined with (ii) attributes derived from the Voronoi tessellation of the compound's crystal structure. The ML models created using this method have half the cross-validation error and similar training and evaluation speeds to models created with the Coulomb matrix and partial radial distribution function methods. For a dataset of 435 000 formation energies taken from the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), our model achieves a mean absolute error of 80 meV/atom in cross validation, which is lower than the approximate error between DFT-computed and experimentally measured formation enthalpies and below 15% of the mean absolute deviation of the training set. We also demonstrate that our method can accurately estimate the formation energy of materials outside of the training set and be used to identify materials with especially large formation enthalpies. We propose that our models can be used to accelerate the discovery of new materials by identifying the most promising materials to study with DFT at little additional computational cost.

  2. A Proposal for a Methodology to Develop a Cyber-Attack Penetration Test Scenario Including NPPs Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Hyo [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu Univ., Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Penetration test is a method to evaluate the cyber security of NPPs; so, this approach was performed in some studies. Because they focused on vulnerability finding or test bed construction, scenario based approach was not performed. However, to test the cyber security of NPPs, a proper test scenario should be needed. Ahn et al. developed cyber-attack scenarios but those scenarios couldn't be applied in penetration test because they developed the scenarios based on past incidents of NPPs induced by cyber-attack. That is, those scenarios only covered scenarios which were happened before; so, they couldn't cover other various scenarios and couldn't reflect them into a penetration test. In this study, a method to develop a cyber-attack penetration test scenario of NPPs especially focused on safety point of view is suggested. To evaluate the cyber security of NPPs, penetration test can be a possible way. In this study, a method to develop a penetration test scenario was explained. Especially, the goal of hacker was focused on nuclear fuel integrity deterioration. So, in the methodology, Level 1 PSA results were utilized to reflect plant safety into the security. From the PSA results, basic event was post processed and possible cyber-attacks were reviewed with vulnerabilities of digital control system.

  3. A Proposal for a Methodology to Develop a Cyber-Attack Penetration Test Scenario Including NPPs Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Hyo; Son, Han Seong; Kim, Si Won; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    Penetration test is a method to evaluate the cyber security of NPPs; so, this approach was performed in some studies. Because they focused on vulnerability finding or test bed construction, scenario based approach was not performed. However, to test the cyber security of NPPs, a proper test scenario should be needed. Ahn et al. developed cyber-attack scenarios but those scenarios couldn't be applied in penetration test because they developed the scenarios based on past incidents of NPPs induced by cyber-attack. That is, those scenarios only covered scenarios which were happened before; so, they couldn't cover other various scenarios and couldn't reflect them into a penetration test. In this study, a method to develop a cyber-attack penetration test scenario of NPPs especially focused on safety point of view is suggested. To evaluate the cyber security of NPPs, penetration test can be a possible way. In this study, a method to develop a penetration test scenario was explained. Especially, the goal of hacker was focused on nuclear fuel integrity deterioration. So, in the methodology, Level 1 PSA results were utilized to reflect plant safety into the security. From the PSA results, basic event was post processed and possible cyber-attacks were reviewed with vulnerabilities of digital control system

  4. Results of including geometric nonlinearities in an aeroelastic model of an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrill, Carey S.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated, nonlinear simulation model suitable for aeroelastic modeling of fixed-wing aircraft has been developed. While the author realizes that the subject of modeling rotating, elastic structures is not closed, it is believed that the equations of motion developed and applied herein are correct to second order and are suitable for use with typical aircraft structures. The equations are not suitable for large elastic deformation. In addition, the modeling framework generalizes both the methods and terminology of non-linear rigid-body airplane simulation and traditional linear aeroelastic modeling. Concerning the importance of angular/elastic inertial coupling in the dynamic analysis of fixed-wing aircraft, the following may be said. The rigorous inclusion of said coupling is not without peril and must be approached with care. In keeping with the same engineering judgment that guided the development of the traditional aeroelastic equations, the effect of non-linear inertial effects for most airplane applications is expected to be small. A parameter does not tell the whole story, however, and modes flagged by the parameter as significant also need to be checked to see if the coupling is not a one-way path, i.e., the inertially affected modes can influence other modes.

  5. HIV Model Parameter Estimates from Interruption Trial Data including Drug Efficacy and Reservoir Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3–5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients. PMID:22815727

  6. A void ratio dependent water retention curve model including hydraulic hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasha Amin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Past experimental evidence has shown that Water Retention Curve (WRC evolves with mechanical stress and structural changes in soil matrix. Models currently available in the literature for capturing the volume change dependency of WRC are mainly empirical in nature requiring an extensive experimental programme for parameter identification which renders them unsuitable for practical applications. In this paper, an analytical model for the evaluation of the void ratio dependency of WRC in deformable porous media is presented. The approach proposed enables quantification of the dependency of WRC on void ratio solely based on the form of WRC at the reference void ratio and requires no additional parameters. The effect of hydraulic hysteresis on the evolution process is also incorporated in the model, an aspect rarely addressed in the literature. Expressions are presented for the evolution of main and scanning curves due to loading and change in the hydraulic path from scanning to main wetting/drying and vice versa as well as the WRC parameters such as air entry value, air expulsion value, pore size distribution index and slope of the scanning curve. The model is validated using experimental data on compacted and reconstituted soils subjected to various hydro-mechanical paths. Good agreement is obtained between model predictions and experimental data in all the cases considered.

  7. Including fluid shear viscosity in a structural acoustic finite element model using a scalar fluid representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl

    2013-08-15

    An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem.

  8. Business model stress testing : A practical approach to test the robustness of a business model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaker, T.I.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.; Janssen, W; de Reuver, G.A.

    Business models and business model innovation are increasingly gaining attention in practice as well as in academic literature. However, the robustness of business models (BM) is seldom tested vis-à-vis the fast and unpredictable changes in digital technologies, regulation and markets. The

  9. Divergence-based tests for model diagnostic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Tomáš; Esteban, M. D.; Morales, D.; Marhuenda, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 13 (2008), s. 1702-1710 ISSN 0167-7152 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (ES) MTM2006-05693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : goodness of fit * devergence statistics * GLM * model checking * bootstrap Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/SI/hobza-divergence-based%20tests%20for%20model%20diagnostic.pdf

  10. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account...

  11. A new mammalian circadian oscillator model including the cAMP module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Wei, Wang; Tian-Shou, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new mathematical model for the mammalian circadian clock, which incorporates both transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFLs) and a cAMP-mediated feedback loop. The model shows that TTFLs and cAMP signalling cooperatively drive the circadian rhythms. It reproduces typical experimental observations with qualitative similarities, e.g. circadian oscillations in constant darkness and entrainment to light–dark cycles. In addition, it can explain the phenotypes of cAMP-mutant and Rev-erbα −/− -mutant mice, and help us make an experimentally-testable prediction: oscillations may be rescued when arrhythmic mice with constitutively low concentrations of cAMP are crossed with Rev-erbα −/− mutant mice. The model enhances our understanding of the mammalian circadian clockwork from the viewpoint of the entire cell. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. A Simple Model of Fields Including the Strong or Nuclear Force and a Cosmological Speculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Spencer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reexamining the assumptions underlying the General Theory of Relativity and calling an object's gravitational field its inertia, and acceleration simply resistance to that inertia, yields a simple field model where the potential (kinetic energy of a particle at rest is its capacity to move itself when its inertial field becomes imbalanced. The model then attributes electromagnetic and strong forces to the effects of changes in basic particle shape. Following up on the model's assumption that the relative intensity of a particle's gravitational field is always inversely related to its perceived volume and assuming that all black holes spin, may create the possibility of a cosmic rebound where a final spinning black hole ends with a new Big Bang.

  13. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  14. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  15. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those

  16. Molecular Modeling of Aerospace Polymer Matrices Including Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radue, Matthew S.

    Carbon fiber (CF) composites are increasingly replacing metals used in major structural parts of aircraft, spacecraft, and automobiles. The current limitations of carbon fiber composites are addressed through computational material design by modeling the salient aerospace matrix materials. Molecular Dynamics (MD) models of epoxies with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement and models of pure bismaleimides (BMIs) were developed to elucidate structure-property relationships for improved selection and tailoring of matrices. The influence of monomer functionality on the mechanical properties of epoxies is studied using the Reax Force Field (ReaxFF). From deformation simulations, the Young's modulus, yield point, and Poisson's ratio are calculated and analyzed. The results demonstrate an increase in stiffness and yield strength with increasing resin functionality. Comparison between the network structures of distinct epoxies is further advanced by the Monomeric Degree Index (MDI). Experimental validation demonstrates the MD results correctly predict the relationship in Young's moduli for all epoxies modeled. Therefore, the ReaxFF is confirmed to be a useful tool for studying the mechanical behavior of epoxies. While epoxies have been well-studied using MD, there has been no concerted effort to model cured BMI polymers due to the complexity of the network-forming reactions. A novel, adaptable crosslinking framework is developed for implementing 5 distinct cure reactions of Matrimid-5292 (a BMI resin) and investigating the network structure using MD simulations. The influence of different cure reactions and extent of curing are analyzed on the several thermo-mechanical properties such as mass density, glass transition temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic moduli, and thermal conductivity. The developed crosslinked models correctly predict experimentally observed trends for various properties. Finally, the epoxies modeled (di-, tri-, and tetra

  17. DART model for irradiation-induced swelling of dispersion fuel elements including aluminum-fuel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.; Hofman, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART) contains models for fission-gas-induced fuel swelling, interaction of fuel with the matrix aluminum, for the resultant reaction-product swelling, and for the calculation of the stress gradient within the fuel particle. The effects of an aluminide shell on fuel particle swelling are evaluated. Validation of the model is demonstrated by a comparison of DART calculations of fuel swelling of U 3 SiAl-Al and U 3 Si 2 -Al for various dispersion fuel element designs with the data

  18. Designing healthy communities: Testing the walkability model

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga-Teran, Adriana; Orr, Barron; Gimblett, Randy; Chalfoun, Nader; Marsh, Stuart; Guertin, David; Going, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Research from multiple domains has provided insights into how neighborhood design can be improved to have a more favorable effect on physical activity, a concept known as walkability. The relevant research findings/hypotheses have been integrated into a Walkability Framework, which organizes the design elements into nine walkability categories. The purpose of this study was to test whether this conceptual framework can be used as a model to measure the interactions between the built environme...

  19. Testing and Modeling of Mechanical Characteristics of Resistance Welding Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    for both upper and lower electrode systems. This has laid a foundation for modeling the welding process and selecting the welding parameters considering the machine factors. The method is straightforward and easy to be applied in industry since the whole procedure is based on tests with no requirements......The dynamic mechanical response of resistance welding machine is very important to the weld quality in resistance welding especially in projection welding when collapse or deformation of work piece occurs. It is mainly governed by the mechanical parameters of machine. In this paper, a mathematical...... model for characterizing the dynamic mechanical responses of machine and a special test set-up called breaking test set-up are developed. Based on the model and the test results, the mechanical parameters of machine are determined, including the equivalent mass, damping coefficient, and stiffness...

  20. Horns Rev II, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU). The objective of the tests was: To investigate the combined influence of the pile diameter to water depth ratio and the wave height to water...... depth ratio on wave run-up of piles. The measurements should be used to design access platforms on piles. The Model tests include: Calibration of regular and irregular sea states at the location of the pile (without structure in place). Measurement of wave run-up for the calibrated sea states...... on the front side of the pile (0 to 90 degrees). These tests have been conducted at Aalborg University from 9. October, 2006 to 8. November, 2006. Unless otherwise mentioned, all values given in this report are in model scale....

  1. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  2. Analysis of shallow water experimental acoustic data including normal mode model comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHugh, R.; Simons, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Ss part of a propagation model validation exercise experimental acoustic and oceanographic data was collected from a shallow-water, long-range channel, off the west coast of Scotland. Temporal variability effects in this channel were assessed through visual inspection of stacked plots, each of which

  3. Description of the new version 4.0 of the tritium model UFOTRI including user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    1993-08-01

    In view of the future operation of fusion reactors the release of tritium may play a dominant role during normal operation as well as after accidents. Because of its physical and chemical properties which differ significantly from those of other radionuclides, the model UFOTRI for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental tritium releases has been developed. It describes the behaviour of tritium in the biosphere and calculates the radiological impact on individuals and the population due to the direct exposure and by the ingestion pathways. Processes such as the conversion of tritium gas into tritiated water (HTO) in the soil, re-emission after deposition and the conversion of HTO into organically bound tritium, are considered. The use of UFOTRI in its probabilistic mode shows the spectrum of the radiological impact together with the associated probability of occurrence. A first model version was established in 1991. As the ongoing work on investigating the main processes of the tritium behaviour in the environment shows up new results, the model has been improved in several points. The report describes the changes incorporated into the model since 1991. Additionally provides the up-dated user guide for handling the revised UFOTRI version which will be distributed to interested organizations. (orig.) [de

  4. 3D numerical surface charge model including relative permeability : the general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteren, van D.T.E.H.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the still "open" issues within low-frequency magnetics is the inclusion of µr in the calculations using the magnetic charge method. In this paper a new iterative method to take the relative permeability into account is investigated. Results show that the model accurately accounts for the

  5. Modeling the elastic behavior of ductile cast iron including anisotropy in the graphite nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    by means of a 3D periodic unit cell model. In this respect, an explicit procedure to enforce both periodic displacement and periodic traction boundary conditions in ABAQUS is presented, and the importance of fulfilling the traction continuity conditions at the unit cell boundaries is discussed. It is shown...

  6. Loss and thermal model for power semiconductors including device rating information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    The electrical loading and device rating are both important factors that determine the loss and thermal behaviors of power semiconductor devices. In the existing loss and thermal models, only the electrical loadings are focused and treated as design variables, while the device rating is normally...

  7. Multiscale modelling of solidification microstructures, including microsegregation and microporosity, in an Al-Si-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.D.; Chirazi, A.; Atwood, R.C.; Wang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Phase transition phenomena in metallic alloys involve complex physical processes occurring over a wide range of temporal, spatial and energy scales. Multiscale modelling is a powerful methodology for understanding these complex systems. In this paper, a multiscale model of grain and pore formation is presented during solidification. At the microscale, a combined stochastic-deterministic approach based on the cellular automata method is used to solve multicomponent diffusion in a three-phase system (liquid, solid and gas), simulating the nucleation and growth of both grains and pores. The impingement of the growing pores upon the developing solid is also solved to predict the tortuous shape of the porosity, a critical factor for fatigue properties. The micromodel is coupled with a finite element method (FEM) solution of the macroscale heat transfer and fluid flow in industrial castings through the temperature and pressure fields. The result model was used to investigate the influence of local solidification time, hydrogen content, local metallostatic pressure and alloy composition upon the predicted grain structure and pore morphology. Comparison of the model predictions to both laboratory and industrial scale castings are presented

  8. Non-local modelling of cyclic thermal shock damage including parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhof, F.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, rate dependent evolution laws are identified and characterized to model the mechanical (elasticity-based) and thermal damage occurring in coarse grain refractory material subject to cyclic thermal shock. The interacting mechanisms for elastic deformation driven damage induced by

  9. Logical diagnosis model turbojet engine including double-circuit intermittent flow of his injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.П. Стьопушкіна

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  In this article is considered question of the change quantitative and qualitative factors of the technical condition constructive element running part of jet engine. As a result called on experimental studies diagnostic sign were definite sign with provision for intermittent damages and on base this is built expert model of the turbojet double-circuit engine.

  10. Static aeroelastic analysis including geometric nonlinearities based on reduced order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchuan Xie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method proposed for modeling large deflection of aircraft in nonlinear aeroelastic analysis by developing reduced order model (ROM. The method is applied for solving the static aeroelastic and static aeroelastic trim problems of flexible aircraft containing geometric nonlinearities; meanwhile, the non-planar effects of aerodynamics and follower force effect have been considered. ROMs are computational inexpensive mathematical representations compared to traditional nonlinear finite element method (FEM especially in aeroelastic solutions. The approach for structure modeling presented here is on the basis of combined modal/finite element (MFE method that characterizes the stiffness nonlinearities and we apply that structure modeling method as ROM to aeroelastic analysis. Moreover, the non-planar aerodynamic force is computed by the non-planar vortex lattice method (VLM. Structure and aerodynamics can be coupled with the surface spline method. The results show that both of the static aeroelastic analysis and trim analysis of aircraft based on structure ROM can achieve a good agreement compared to analysis based on the FEM and experimental result.

  11. The numeracy test workbook everything you need for a successful programme of self study including quick tests and full-length realistic mock-ups

    CERN Document Server

    Bryon, Mike

    2011-01-01

    One of the most common types of psychometric test used in assessment and selection procedures, The Numeracy Test Workbook provides practice questions and mock tests designed to build confidence and improve performance.

  12. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  13. Old star clusters: Bench tests of low mass stellar models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaris M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Old star clusters in the Milky Way and external galaxies have been (and still are traditionally used to constrain the age of the universe and the timescales of galaxy formation. A parallel avenue of old star cluster research considers these objects as bench tests of low-mass stellar models. This short review will highlight some recent tests of stellar evolution models that make use of photometric and spectroscopic observations of resolved old star clusters. In some cases these tests have pointed to additional physical processes efficient in low-mass stars, that are not routinely included in model computations. Moreover, recent results from the Kepler mission about the old open cluster NGC6791 are adding new tight constraints to the models.

  14. Movable scour protection. Model test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, R.

    2002-07-01

    This report presents the results of a series of model tests with scour protection of marine structures. The objective of the model tests is to investigate the integrity of the scour protection during a general lowering of the surrounding seabed, for instance in connection with movement of a sand bank or with general subsidence. The scour protection in the tests is made out of stone material. Two different fractions have been used: 4 mm and 40 mm. Tests with current, with waves and with combined current and waves were carried out. The scour protection material was placed after an initial scour hole has evolved in the seabed around the structure. This design philosophy has been selected because the situation often is that the scour hole starts to generate immediately after the structure has been placed. It is therefore difficult to establish a scour protection at the undisturbed seabed if the scour material is placed after the main structure. Further, placing the scour material in the scour hole increases the stability of the material. Two types of structure have been used for the test, a Monopile and a Tripod foundation. Test with protection mats around the Monopile model was also carried out. The following main conclusions have emerged form the model tests with flat bed (i.e. no general seabed lowering): 1. The maximum scour depth found in steady current on sand bed was 1.6 times the cylinder diameter, 2. The minimum horizontal extension of the scour hole (upstream direction) was 2.8 times the cylinder diameter, corresponding to a slope of 30 degrees, 3. Concrete protection mats do not meet the criteria for a strongly erodible seabed. In the present test virtually no reduction in the scour depth was obtained. The main problem is the interface to the cylinder. If there is a void between the mats and the cylinder, scour will develop. Even with the protection mats that are tightly connected to the cylinder, scour is expected to develop as long as the mats allow for

  15. Comparison of some biased estimation methods (including ordinary subset regression) in the linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    Ridge, Marquardt's generalized inverse, shrunken, and principal components estimators are discussed in terms of the objectives of point estimation of parameters, estimation of the predictive regression function, and hypothesis testing. It is found that as the normal equations approach singularity, more consideration must be given to estimable functions of the parameters as opposed to estimation of the full parameter vector; that biased estimators all introduce constraints on the parameter space; that adoption of mean squared error as a criterion of goodness should be independent of the degree of singularity; and that ordinary least-squares subset regression is the best overall method.

  16. European column buckling curves and finite element modelling including high strength steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Stan, Tudor-Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Eurocode allows for finite element modelling of plated steel structures, however the information in the code on how to perform the analysis or what assumptions to make is quite sparse. The present paper investigates the deterministic modelling of flexural column buckling using plane shell elements...... imperfections may be very conservative if considered by finite element analysis as described in the current Eurocode code. A suggestion is given for a slightly modified imperfection formula within the Ayrton-Perry formulation leading to adequate inclusion of modern high grade steels within the original four...... bucking curves. It is also suggested that finite element or frame analysis may be performed with equivalent column bow imperfections extracted directly from the Ayrton-Perry formulation....

  17. Classical model for nuclear collisions including the meson degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, R.; Kunz, J.; Mosel, U.; Wilets, L.

    1980-01-01

    Many different approaches have been taken to describe high energy heavy ion collisions. L. Wilets et al proposed a classical treatment of the problem. In his model non-relativistic nucleons move on classical trajectories. However, the Pauli-principle is simulated by a momentum dependent potential acting between the nucleons. This model is extended in two ways. The nucleons are coupled to a pionfield, which enables us to describe inelastic processes. Nucleons and pionfiled are treated completely relativistically, this also assures Lorentz invariance. We aim at a set of classical equations of motion describing the interacting system of nucleons and pionfield. These classical equations should have a quantum mechanical basis. Further, they should contain such fundamental properties of the pion-nucleon system as the Δ(3,3)-resonance, at least in a qualitative manner. (orig./FKS)

  18. Testing and reference model analysis of FTTH system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiancheng; Cui, Wanlong; Chen, Ying

    2009-08-01

    With rapid development of Internet and broadband access network, the technologies of xDSL, FTTx+LAN , WLAN have more applications, new network service emerges in endless stream, especially the increase of network game, meeting TV, video on demand, etc. FTTH supports all present and future service with enormous bandwidth, including traditional telecommunication service, traditional data service and traditional TV service, and the future digital TV and VOD. With huge bandwidth of FTTH, it wins the final solution of broadband network, becomes the final goal of development of optical access network.. Fiber to the Home (FTTH) will be the goal of telecommunications cable broadband access. In accordance with the development trend of telecommunication services, to enhance the capacity of integrated access network, to achieve triple-play (voice, data, image), based on the existing optical Fiber to the curb (FTTC), Fiber To The Zone (FTTZ), Fiber to the Building (FTTB) user optical cable network, the optical fiber can extend to the FTTH system of end-user by using EPON technology. The article first introduced the basic components of FTTH system; and then explain the reference model and reference point for testing of the FTTH system; Finally, by testing connection diagram, the testing process, expected results, primarily analyze SNI Interface Testing, PON interface testing, Ethernet performance testing, UNI interface testing, Ethernet functional testing, PON functional testing, equipment functional testing, telephone functional testing, operational support capability testing and so on testing of FTTH system. ...

  19. Model Test Bed for Evaluating Wave Models and Best Practices for Resource Assessment and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies; Yang, Zhaoqing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Coastal Sciences Division; Wang, Taiping [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Coastal Sciences Division; Gunawan, Budi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies; Dallman, Ann Renee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies

    2016-03-01

    A wave model test bed is established to benchmark, test and evaluate spectral wave models and modeling methodologies (i.e., best practices) for predicting the wave energy resource parameters recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC TS 62600-101Ed. 1.0 ©2015. Among other benefits, the model test bed can be used to investigate the suitability of different models, specifically what source terms should be included in spectral wave models under different wave climate conditions and for different classes of resource assessment. The overarching goal is to use these investigations to provide industry guidance for model selection and modeling best practices depending on the wave site conditions and desired class of resource assessment. Modeling best practices are reviewed, and limitations and knowledge gaps in predicting wave energy resource parameters are identified.

  20. Molten pool-lower head integrity. Heat transfer models including advanced numerical simulations (DNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L.

    2001-01-01

    Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)

  1. Framework of cloud parameterization including ice for 3-D mesoscale models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L; Jacob, D; Eppel, D; Grassl, H

    1989-01-01

    A parameterization scheme for the simulation of ice in clouds incorporated into the hydrostatic version of the GKSS three-dimensional mesoscale model. Numerical simulations of precipitation are performed: over the Northe Sea, the Hawaiian trade wind area and in the region of the intertropical convergence zone. Not only some major features of convective structures in all three areas but also cloud-aerosol interactions have successfully been simulated. (orig.) With 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The baryonic spectrum in a constituent quark model including a three-body force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.; Gignoux, C.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Gonzalez, P.; Navarro, J.; Noguera, S.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze, within a non-relativistic quark model, the low energy part of the baryonic spectrum in the octet and decuplet flavour representations. The relevance of a strong Coulomb potential is emphasized in order to explain its general features. The addition of a three-body force allows to solve the 'Roper puzzle', giving a consistent explanation to its relative position in the spectrum. (orig.)

  3. Molten pool-lower head integrity. Heat transfer models including advanced numerical simulations (DNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L. [CEA Grenoble (France)

    2001-07-01

    Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)

  4. Thurstonian models for sensory discrimination tests as generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2010-01-01

    as a so-called generalized linear model. The underlying sensory difference 6 becomes directly a parameter of the statistical model and the estimate d' and it's standard error becomes the "usual" output of the statistical analysis. The d' for the monadic A-NOT A method is shown to appear as a standard......Sensory discrimination tests such as the triangle, duo-trio, 2-AFC and 3-AFC tests produce binary data and the Thurstonian decision rule links the underlying sensory difference 6 to the observed number of correct responses. In this paper it is shown how each of these four situations can be viewed...

  5. An Evacuation Model for Passenger Ships That Includes the Influence of Obstacles in Cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger behavior and ship environment are the key factors affecting evacuation efficiency. However, current studies ignore the interior layout of passenger ship cabins and treat the cabins as empty rooms. To investigate the influence of obstacles (e.g., tables and stools on cabin evacuation, we propose an agent-based social force model for advanced evacuation analysis of passenger ships; this model uses a goal-driven submodel to determine a plan and an extended social force submodel to govern the movement of passengers. The extended social force submodel considers the interaction forces between the passengers, crew, and obstacles and minimises the range of these forces to improve computational efficiency. We drew the following conclusions based on a series of evacuation simulations conducted in this study: (1 the proposed model endows the passenger with the behaviors of bypassing and crossing obstacles, (2 funnel-shaped exits from cabins can improve evacuation efficiency, and (3 as the exit angle increases, the evacuation time also increases. These findings offer ship designers some insight towards increasing the safety of large passenger ships.

  6. Kinetic model of water disinfection using peracetic acid including synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Marina J; Brandi, Rodolfo J; Cassano, Alberto E; Labas, Marisol D

    2016-01-01

    The disinfection efficiencies of a commercial mixture of peracetic acid against Escherichia coli were studied in laboratory scale experiments. The joint and separate action of two disinfectant agents, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, were evaluated in order to observe synergistic effects. A kinetic model for each component of the mixture and for the commercial mixture was proposed. Through simple mathematical equations, the model describes different stages of attack by disinfectants during the inactivation process. Based on the experiments and the kinetic parameters obtained, it could be established that the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide was much lower than that of peracetic acid alone. However, the contribution of hydrogen peroxide was very important in the commercial mixture. It should be noted that this improvement occurred only after peracetic acid had initiated the attack on the cell. This synergistic effect was successfully explained by the proposed scheme and was verified by experimental results. Besides providing a clearer mechanistic understanding of water disinfection, such models may improve our ability to design reactors.

  7. A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Li, Qingmin, E-mail: lqmeee@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Lab of HV and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Lab of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-09-14

    The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.

  8. A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Qingmin

    2014-01-01

    The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.

  9. Blast Testing and Modelling of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giversen, Søren

    The motivation for this work is based on a desire for finding light weight alternatives to high strength steel as the material to use for armouring in military vehicles. With the use of high strength steel, an increase in the level of armouring has a significant impact on the vehicle weight......, affecting for example the manoeuvrability and top speed negatively, which ultimately affects the safety of the personal in the vehicle. Strong and light materials, such as fibre reinforced composites, could therefore act as substitutes for the high strength steel, and minimize the impact on the vehicle...... work this set-up should be improved such that the modelled pressure can be validated. For tests performed with a 250g charge load comparisons with model data showed poor agreement. This was found to be due to improper design of the modelled laminate panels, where the layer interface delamination...

  10. BIOMOVS test scenario model comparison using BIOPATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, H.A.; Van Dorp, F.

    1986-07-01

    This report presents the results of the irrigation test scenario, presented in the BIOMOVS intercomparison study, calculated by the computer code BIOPATH. This scenario defines a constant release of Tc-99 and Np-237 into groundwater that is used for irrigation. The system of compartments used to model the biosphere is based upon an area in northern Switzerland and is essentially the same as that used in Projekt Gewaehr to assess the radiological impact of a high level waste repository. Two separate irrigation methods are considered, namely ditch and overhead irrigation. Their influence on the resultant activities calculated in the groundwater, soil and different foodproducts, as a function of time, is evaluated. The sensitivity of the model to parameter variations is analysed which allows a deeper understanding of the model chain. These results are assessed subjectively in a first effort to realistically quantify the uncertainty associated with each calculated activity. (author)

  11. Thermal modelling of Advanced LIGO test masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H; Dovale Álvarez, M; Mow-Lowry, C M; Freise, A; Blair, C; Brooks, A; Kasprzack, M F; Ramette, J; Meyers, P M; Kaufer, S; O’Reilly, B

    2017-01-01

    High-reflectivity fused silica mirrors are at the epicentre of today’s advanced gravitational wave detectors. In these detectors, the mirrors interact with high power laser beams. As a result of finite absorption in the high reflectivity coatings the mirrors suffer from a variety of thermal effects that impact on the detectors’ performance. We propose a model of the Advanced LIGO mirrors that introduces an empirical term to account for the radiative heat transfer between the mirror and its surroundings. The mechanical mode frequency is used as a probe for the overall temperature of the mirror. The thermal transient after power build-up in the optical cavities is used to refine and test the model. The model provides a coating absorption estimate of 1.5–2.0 ppm and estimates that 0.3 to 1.3 ppm of the circulating light is scattered onto the ring heater. (paper)

  12. Including Bioconcentration Kinetics for the Prioritization and Interpretation of Regulatory Aquatic Toxicity Tests of Highly Hydrophobic Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, So-Young; Kang, Hyun-Joong

    2016-01-01

    experiments. In this work, internal concentrations of highly hydrophobic chemicals were predicted for standard acute ecotoxicity tests at three trophic levels, algae, invertebrate, and fish. As demonstrated by comparison with maximum aqueous concentrations at water solubility, chemicals with an octanol...

  13. Testing substellar models with dynamical mass measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu M.C.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have been using Keck laser guide star adaptive optics to monitor the orbits of ultracool binaries, providing dynamical masses at lower luminosities and temperatures than previously available and enabling strong tests of theoretical models. We have identified three specific problems with theory: (1 We find that model color–magnitude diagrams cannot be reliably used to infer masses as they do not accurately reproduce the colors of ultracool dwarfs of known mass. (2 Effective temperatures inferred from evolutionary model radii are typically inconsistent with temperatures derived from fitting atmospheric models to observed spectra by 100–300 K. (3 For the only known pair of field brown dwarfs with a precise mass (3% and age determination (≈25%, the measured luminosities are ~2–3× higher than predicted by model cooling rates (i.e., masses inferred from Lbol and age are 20–30% larger than measured. To make progress in understanding the observed discrepancies, more mass measurements spanning a wide range of luminosity, temperature, and age are needed, along with more accurate age determinations (e.g., via asteroseismology for primary stars with brown dwarf binary companions. Also, resolved optical and infrared spectroscopy are needed to measure lithium depletion and to characterize the atmospheres of binary components in order to better assess model deficiencies.

  14. Modeling and Control of Risley Prism Beam Steering Including BLDC Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Saab AB Training & Simulation is specialized on military training, including laserbased training. To continue being the world leader in this area, a new generationof laser simulators needs to be developed. To simplify the development of thishighly complex system, this master thesis have resulted in a MATLAB/Simulinkmodel which simulates the electro-opto/mechanical system representing theirlaser based simulation platform. The focus of this master thesis has been to simulateand control the ...

  15. A test of the hierarchical model of litter decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradford, Mark A.; Veen, G. F.; Bonis, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls...... regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of decomposition at regional to global scales is climate (temperature...

  16. Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modeling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ian S; Gowanlock, Michael G

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies of the galactic habitable zone have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favor the emergence of complex life. A planet is deemed habitable if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. In this work, we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve to the point of intelligence--termed the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life, φI. We assume φI is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the sterilizing effects of nearby supernovae. The times between supernova events provide windows of opportunity for the evolution of intelligence. We developed a model that allows us to analyze these window times to generate a metric for φI, and we examine here the spatial and temporal variation of this metric. Even under the assumption that long time durations are required between sterilizations to allow for the emergence of intelligence, our model suggests that the inner Galaxy provides the greatest number of opportunities for intelligence to arise. This is due to the substantially higher number density of habitable planets in this region, which outweighs the effects of a higher supernova rate in the region. Our model also shows that φI is increasing with time. Intelligent life emerged at approximately the present time at Earth's galactocentric radius, but a similar level of evolutionary opportunity was available in the inner Galaxy more than 2 Gyr ago. Our findings suggest that the inner Galaxy should logically be a prime target region for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence and that any civilizations that may have emerged there are potentially much older than our own.

  17. Double pendulum model for a tennis stroke including a collision process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Sun-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    By means of adding a collision process between the ball and racket in the double pendulum model, we analyzed the tennis stroke. The ball and the racket system may be accelerated during the collision time; thus, the speed of the rebound ball does not simply depend on the angular velocity of the racket. A higher angular velocity sometimes gives a lower rebound ball speed. We numerically showed that the proper time-lagged racket rotation increased the speed of the rebound ball by 20%. We also showed that the elbow should move in the proper direction in order to add the angular velocity of the racket.

  18. Model - including thermal creep effects - for the analysis of three-dimensional concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.; Rebora, B.; Favrod, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    This article presents the most recent developments and results of research carried out by IPEN to establish a mathematical model for the non-linear rheological three-dimensional analysis of massive prestressed concrete structures. The main point of these latest developments is the simulation of the creep of concrete submitted to high temperatures over a long period of time. This research, financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation, has taken an increased importance with the advent of nuclear reactor vessels of the HHT type and new conceptions concerning the cooling of their concrete (replacement of the thermal insulation by a zone of hot concrete). (orig.)

  19. An Infusion Model for Including Content on Elders with Chronic Illness in the Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry M. Cummings

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Older people with chronic mental illness (CMI are experiencing longer life expectancies that parallel those of the general population. Due to their experience of having CMI, these older adults present unique issues that affect service delivery and care provision. Content on this population is often omitted in the curriculum, which leaves students unprepared to practice with these clients. This article proposes an infusion model that can be used in baccalaureate or graduate foundation courses to increase exposure to elders with CMI.

  20. Able but unintelligent: including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.

  1. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O.

    2009-11-01

    Investigations led for several years at Laxemar and Forsmark reveal the large heterogeneity of geological formations and associated fracturing. This project aims at reinforcing the statistical DFN modeling framework adapted to a site scale. This leads therefore to develop quantitative methods of characterization adapted to the nature of fracturing and data availability. We start with the hypothesis that the maximum likelihood DFN model is a power-law model with a density term depending on orientations. This is supported both by literature and specifically here by former analyses of the SKB data. This assumption is nevertheless thoroughly tested by analyzing the fracture trace and lineament maps. Fracture traces range roughly between 0.5 m and 10 m - i e the usual extension of the sample outcrops. Between the raw data and final data used to compute the fracture size distribution from which the size distribution model will arise, several steps are necessary, in order to correct data from finite-size, topographical and sampling effects. More precisely, a particular attention is paid to fracture segmentation status and fracture linkage consistent with the DFN model expected. The fracture scaling trend observed over both sites displays finally a shape parameter k t close to 1.2 with a density term (α 2d ) between 1.4 and 1.8. Only two outcrops clearly display a different trend with k t close to 3 and a density term (α 2d ) between 2 and 3.5. The fracture lineaments spread over the range between 100 meters and a few kilometers. When compared with fracture trace maps, these datasets are already interpreted and the linkage process developed previously has not to be done. Except for the subregional lineament map from Forsmark, lineaments display a clear power-law trend with a shape parameter k t equal to 3 and a density term between 2 and 4.5. The apparent variation in scaling exponent, from the outcrop scale (k t = 1.2) on one side, to the lineament scale (k t = 2) on

  2. Evaluation of three rapid oral fluid test devices on the screening of multiple drugs of abuse including ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Poon, Simon; Chan, Suzanne S S; Ng, W Y; Lam, M; Wong, C K; Pao, Ronnie; Lau, Angus; Mak, Tony W L

    2018-05-01

    Rapid oral fluid testing (ROFT) devices have been extensively evaluated for their ability to detect common drugs of abuse; however, the performance of such devices on simultaneous screening for ketamine has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated three ROFT devices (DrugWipe ® 6S, Ora-Check ® and SalivaScreen ® ) on the detection of ketamine, opiates, methamphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay was firstly established and validated for confirmation analysis of the six types of drugs and/or their metabolites. In the field test, the three ROFT devices were tested on subjects recruited from substance abuse clinics/rehabilitation centre. Oral fluid was also collected using Quantisal ® for confirmation analysis. A total of 549 samples were collected in the study. LCMS analysis on 491 samples revealed the following drugs: codeine (55%), morphine (49%), heroin (40%), methamphetamine (35%), THC (8%), ketamine (4%) and cocaine (2%). No MDMA-positive cases were observed. Results showed that the overall specificity and accuracy were satisfactory and met the DRUID standard of >80% for all 3 devices. Ora-Check ® had poor sensitivities (ketamine 36%, methamphetamine 63%, opiates 53%, cocaine 60%, THC 0%). DrugWipe ® 6S showed good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (93%) tests but performed relatively poorly for ketamine (41%), cocaine (43%) and THC (22%). SalivaScreen ® also demonstrated good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (100%) tests, and had the highest sensitivity for ketamine (76%) and cocaine (71%); however, it failed to detect any of the 28 THC-positive cases. The test completion rate (proportion of tests completed with quality control passed) were: 52% (Ora-Check ® ), 78% (SalivaScreen ® ) and 99% (DrugWipe ® 6S). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A model for optimal offspring size in fish, including live-bearing and parental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Auer, Sonya K; Reznick, David N

    2011-05-01

    Since Smith and Fretwell's seminal article in 1974 on the optimal offspring size, most theory has assumed a trade-off between offspring number and offspring fitness, where larger offspring have better survival or fitness, but with diminishing returns. In this article, we use two ubiquitous biological mechanisms to derive the shape of this trade-off: the offspring's growth rate combined with its size-dependent mortality (predation). For a large parameter region, we obtain the same sigmoid relationship between offspring size and offspring survival as Smith and Fretwell, but we also identify parameter regions where the optimal offspring size is as small or as large as possible. With increasing growth rate, the optimal offspring size is smaller. We then integrate our model with strategies of parental care. Egg guarding that reduces egg mortality favors smaller or larger offspring, depending on how mortality scales with size. For live-bearers, the survival of offspring to birth is a function of maternal survival; if the mother's survival increases with her size, then the model predicts that larger mothers should produce larger offspring. When using parameters for Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata, differences in both growth and size-dependent predation are required to predict observed differences in offspring size between wild populations from high- and low-predation environments.

  4. Modeling a space-based quantum link that includes an adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, Alexander W.; Hodson, Douglas D.; Mailloux, Logan O.

    2017-10-01

    Quantum Key Distribution uses optical pulses to generate shared random bit strings between two locations. If a high percentage of the optical pulses are comprised of single photons, then the statistical nature of light and information theory can be used to generate secure shared random bit strings which can then be converted to keys for encryption systems. When these keys are incorporated along with symmetric encryption techniques such as a one-time pad, then this method of key generation and encryption is resistant to future advances in quantum computing which will significantly degrade the effectiveness of current asymmetric key sharing techniques. This research first reviews the transition of Quantum Key Distribution free-space experiments from the laboratory environment to field experiments, and finally, ongoing space experiments. Next, a propagation model for an optical pulse from low-earth orbit to ground and the effects of turbulence on the transmitted optical pulse is described. An Adaptive Optics system is modeled to correct for the aberrations caused by the atmosphere. The long-term point spread function of the completed low-earth orbit to ground optical system is explored in the results section. Finally, the impact of this optical system and its point spread function on an overall quantum key distribution system as well as the future work necessary to show this impact is described.

  5. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  6. Model for CO2 leakage including multiple geological layers and multiple leaky wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Jan M; Kavetski, Dmitri; Celia, Michael A; Bachu, Stefan

    2009-02-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is likely to be an integral component of any realistic plan to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In conjunction with large-scale deployment of carbon storage as a technology, there is an urgent need for tools which provide reliable and quick assessments of aquifer storage performance. Previously, abandoned wells from over a century of oil and gas exploration and production have been identified as critical potential leakage paths. The practical importance of abandoned wells is emphasized by the correlation of heavy CO2 emitters (typically associated with industrialized areas) to oil and gas producing regions in North America. Herein, we describe a novel framework for predicting the leakage from large numbers of abandoned wells, forming leakage paths connecting multiple subsurface permeable formations. The framework is designed to exploit analytical solutions to various components of the problem and, ultimately, leads to a grid-free approximation to CO2 and brine leakage rates, as well as fluid distributions. We apply our model in a comparison to an established numerical solverforthe underlying governing equations. Thereafter, we demonstrate the capabilities of the model on typical field data taken from the vicinity of Edmonton, Alberta. This data set consists of over 500 wells and 7 permeable formations. Results show the flexibility and utility of the solution methods, and highlight the role that analytical and semianalytical solutions can play in this important problem.

  7. The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) including a critical cavity size ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquier, Gerard

    2017-06-01

    The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) has been developed to predict the packing density of mixtures constituted by bidisperse spherical particles. The four parameters are: the wall effect and the loosening effect coefficients, the compaction index and a critical cavity size ratio. The two geometrical interactions have been studied theoretically on the basis of a spherical cell centered on a secondary class bead. For the loosening effect, a critical cavity size ratio, below which a fine particle can be inserted into a small cavity created by touching coarser particles, is introduced. This is the only parameter which requires adaptation to extend the model to other types of particles. The 4-parameter CPM demonstrates its efficiency on frictionless glass beads (300 values), spherical particles numerically simulated (20 values), round natural particles (125 values) and crushed particles (335 values) with correlation coefficients equal to respectively 99.0%, 98.7%, 97.8%, 96.4% and mean deviations equal to respectively 0.007, 0.006, 0.007, 0.010.

  8. A coupling method for a cardiovascular simulation model which includes the Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuki; Shimayoshi, Takao; Amano, Akira; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Multi-scale models of the cardiovascular system provide new insight that was unavailable with in vivo and in vitro experiments. For the cardiovascular system, multi-scale simulations provide a valuable perspective in analyzing the interaction of three phenomenons occurring at different spatial scales: circulatory hemodynamics, ventricular structural dynamics, and myocardial excitation-contraction. In order to simulate these interactions, multiscale cardiovascular simulation systems couple models that simulate different phenomena. However, coupling methods require a significant amount of calculation, since a system of non-linear equations must be solved for each timestep. Therefore, we proposed a coupling method which decreases the amount of calculation by using the Kalman filter. In our method, the Kalman filter calculates approximations for the solution to the system of non-linear equations at each timestep. The approximations are then used as initial values for solving the system of non-linear equations. The proposed method decreases the number of iterations required by 94.0% compared to the conventional strong coupling method. When compared with a smoothing spline predictor, the proposed method required 49.4% fewer iterations.

  9. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM is developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA (see upcoming REV 02 of CRWMS M and O 2000 [153314]), which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model (see BSC 2003 [161530]). The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross Drift to obtain the permeability structure for the seepage model; (3) to use inverse modeling to calibrate the SCM and to estimate seepage-relevant, model-related parameters on the drift scale; (4) to estimate the epistemic uncertainty of the derived parameters, based on the goodness-of-fit to the observed data and the sensitivity of calculated seepage with respect to the parameters of interest; (5) to characterize the aleatory uncertainty

  10. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Thick Plates Including Deep Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Modified Vlasov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic analysis of foundation plate-beam systems with transverse shear deformation is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of the problem is derived by using an 8-node (PBQ8 finite element based on Mindlin plate theory for the plate and a 2-node Hughes element based on Timoshenko beam theory for the beam. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices for both the elements. The effect of beam thickness, the aspect ratio of the plate and subsoil depth on the response of plate-beam-soil system is analyzed. Numerical examples show that the displacement, bending moments and shear forces are changed significantly by adding the beams.

  12. Adversarial life testing: A Bayesian negotiation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufo, M.J.; Martín, J.; Pérez, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Life testing is a procedure intended for facilitating the process of making decisions in the context of industrial reliability. On the other hand, negotiation is a process of making joint decisions that has one of its main foundations in decision theory. A Bayesian sequential model of negotiation in the context of adversarial life testing is proposed. This model considers a general setting for which a manufacturer offers a product batch to a consumer. It is assumed that the reliability of the product is measured in terms of its lifetime. Furthermore, both the manufacturer and the consumer have to use their own information with respect to the quality of the product. Under these assumptions, two situations can be analyzed. For both of them, the main aim is to accept or reject the product batch based on the product reliability. This topic is related to a reliability demonstration problem. The procedure is applied to a class of distributions that belong to the exponential family. Thus, a unified framework addressing the main topics in the considered Bayesian model is presented. An illustrative example shows that the proposed technique can be easily applied in practice

  13. Horns Rev II, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Brorsen, Michael

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. The starting point for the present report is the previously carried out run-up tests described in Lykke Andersen & Frigaard, 2006. The......-shaped access platforms on piles. The Model tests include mainly regular waves and a few irregular wave tests. These tests have been conducted at Aalborg University from 9. November, 2006 to 17. November, 2006.......This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. The starting point for the present report is the previously carried out run-up tests described in Lykke Andersen & Frigaard, 2006....... The objective of the tests was to investigate the impact pressures generated on a horizontal platform and a cone platform for selected sea states calibrated by Lykke Andersen & Frigaard, 2006. The measurements should be used for assessment of slamming coefficients for the design of horizontal and cone...

  14. Consistency test of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, M.; Raczka, R.

    1997-01-01

    If the 'Higgs mass' is not the physical mass of a real particle but rather an effective ultraviolet cutoff then a process energy dependence of this cutoff must be admitted. Precision data from at least two energy scale experimental points are necessary to test this hypothesis. The first set of precision data is provided by the Z-boson peak experiments. We argue that the second set can be given by 10-20 GeV e + e - colliders. We pay attention to the special role of tau polarization experiments that can be sensitive to the 'Higgs mass' for a sample of ∼ 10 8 produced tau pairs. We argue that such a study may be regarded as a negative selfconsistency test of the Standard Model and of most of its extensions

  15. Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Goossens, An

    2008-01-01

    various European centres when tested in consecutive dermatitis patients. CONCLUSIONS: From 2008, pet. preparations of fragrance mix 2 at 14% w/w (5.6 mg/cm(2)) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde at 5% w/w (2.0 mg/cm(2)) are recommended for inclusion in the baseline series. With the Finn...

  16. Stochastic models for strength of wind turbine blades using tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, H.S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    The structural cost of wind turbine blades is dependent on the values of the partial safety factors which reflect the uncertainties in the design values, including statistical uncertainty from a limited number of tests. This paper presents a probabilistic model for ultimate and fatigue strength...... of wind turbine blades especially considering the influence of prior knowledge and test results and how partial safety factors can be updated when additional full-scale tests are performed. This updating is performed by adopting a probabilistic design basis based on Bayesian statistical methods....

  17. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horing, Norman J. M.

    2017-06-01

    This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green's function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green's function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green's function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function). The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ (x ) -potential profile. This retarded Green's function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green's function for the system without the δ (x ) -potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green's function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  18. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. M. Horing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green’s function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green’s function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green’s function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function. The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ(x-potential profile. This retarded Green’s function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green’s function for the system without the δ(x-potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green’s function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  19. Nuclear Reactor/Hydrogen Process Interface Including the HyPEP Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor/Hydrogen Plant interface is the intermediate heat transport loop that will connect a very high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (VHTR) to a thermochemical, high-temperature electrolysis, or hybrid hydrogen production plant. A prototype plant called the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is planned for construction and operation at the Idaho National Laboratory in the 2018-2021 timeframe, and will involve a VHTR, a high-temperature interface, and a hydrogen production plant. The interface is responsible for transporting high-temperature thermal energy from the nuclear reactor to the hydrogen production plant while protecting the nuclear plant from operational disturbances at the hydrogen plant. Development of the interface is occurring under the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) and involves the study, design, and development of high-temperature heat exchangers, heat transport systems, materials, safety, and integrated system models. Research and development work on the system interface began in 2004 and is expected to continue at least until the start of construction of an engineering-scale demonstration plant

  20. Geostatistical simulations for radon indoor with a nested model including the housing factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafaro, C.; Giovani, C.; Garavaglia, M.

    2016-01-01

    The radon prone areas definition is matter of many researches in radioecology, since radon is considered a leading cause of lung tumours, therefore the authorities ask for support to develop an appropriate sanitary prevention strategy. In this paper, we use geostatistical tools to elaborate a definition accounting for some of the available information about the dwellings. Co-kriging is the proper interpolator used in geostatistics to refine the predictions by using external covariates. In advance, co-kriging is not guaranteed to improve significantly the results obtained by applying the common lognormal kriging. Here, instead, such multivariate approach leads to reduce the cross-validation residual variance to an extent which is deemed as satisfying. Furthermore, with the application of Monte Carlo simulations, the paradigm provides a more conservative radon prone areas definition than the one previously made by lognormal kriging. - Highlights: • The housing class is inserted into co-kriging via an indicator function. • Inserting the housing classes in a co-kriging improves predictions. • The housing class has a structured component in space. • A nested model is implemented into the multigaussian algorithm. • A collection of risk maps is merged into one to create RPA.

  1. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    Investigations led for several years at Laxemar and Forsmark reveal the large heterogeneity of geological formations and associated fracturing. This project aims at reinforcing the statistical DFN modeling framework adapted to a site scale. This leads therefore to develop quantitative methods of characterization adapted to the nature of fracturing and data availability. We start with the hypothesis that the maximum likelihood DFN model is a power-law model with a density term depending on orientations. This is supported both by literature and specifically here by former analyses of the SKB data. This assumption is nevertheless thoroughly tested by analyzing the fracture trace and lineament maps. Fracture traces range roughly between 0.5 m and 10 m - i e the usual extension of the sample outcrops. Between the raw data and final data used to compute the fracture size distribution from which the size distribution model will arise, several steps are necessary, in order to correct data from finite-size, topographical and sampling effects. More precisely, a particular attention is paid to fracture segmentation status and fracture linkage consistent with the DFN model expected. The fracture scaling trend observed over both sites displays finally a shape parameter k{sub t} close to 1.2 with a density term (alpha{sub 2d}) between 1.4 and 1.8. Only two outcrops clearly display a different trend with k{sub t} close to 3 and a density term (alpha{sub 2d}) between 2 and 3.5. The fracture lineaments spread over the range between 100 meters and a few kilometers. When compared with fracture trace maps, these datasets are already interpreted and the linkage process developed previously has not to be done. Except for the subregional lineament map from Forsmark, lineaments display a clear power-law trend with a shape parameter k{sub t} equal to 3 and a density term between 2 and 4.5. The apparent variation in scaling exponent, from the outcrop scale (k{sub t} = 1.2) on one side, to

  2. Including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge during the simulation of wastewater treatment plants using a risk assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodriquez-Roda, I.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how including the occurrence of filamentous bulking sludge in a secondary clarifier model will affect the predicted process performance during the simulation of WWTPs. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) is hereby used as a simulation...... are automatically changed during the simulation by modifying the settling model parameters to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria. The simulation results demonstrate that including effects of filamentous bulking in the secondary clarifier model results in a more realistic plant performance...

  3. Survey of experimental tests of the IBA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of experimental tests of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) Model is presented covering even and odd mass nuclei in the region from A approx. 80 to A approx. 230. Both positive and negative parity states with both high and low spin are discussed. Topics included concern energy levels, electromagnetic transition rates, two nucleon transfer and inelastic scattering. Special attention is given to nuclear symmetries and transitional regions. Comparison with other models is made where appropriate. The distinction between IBA-1 and IBA-2 is discussed including their respective areas of applicability

  4. SPSS and SAS programming for the testing of mediation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, William N; Benuzillo, Jose G; Carrico, Mineh S

    2004-01-01

    Mediation modeling can explain the nature of the relation among three or more variables. In addition, it can be used to show how a variable mediates the relation between levels of intervention and outcome. The Sobel test, developed in 1990, provides a statistical method for determining the influence of a mediator on an intervention or outcome. Although interactive Web-based and stand-alone methods exist for computing the Sobel test, SPSS and SAS programs that automatically run the required regression analyses and computations increase the accessibility of mediation modeling to nursing researchers. To illustrate the utility of the Sobel test and to make this programming available to the Nursing Research audience in both SAS and SPSS. The history, logic, and technical aspects of mediation testing are introduced. The syntax files sobel.sps and sobel.sas, created to automate the computation of the regression analysis and test statistic, are available from the corresponding author. The reported programming allows the user to complete mediation testing with the user's own data in a single-step fashion. A technical manual included with the programming provides instruction on program use and interpretation of the output. Mediation modeling is a useful tool for describing the relation between three or more variables. Programming and manuals for using this model are made available.

  5. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  6. Development of Test-Analysis Models (TAM) for correlation of dynamic test and analysis results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Filippo; Javeed, Mehzad; Mcgowan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of structural analysis of aerospace applications is to obtain a verified finite element model (FEM). The verified FEM can be used for loads analysis, evaluate structural modifications, or design control systems. Verification of the FEM is generally obtained as the result of correlating test and FEM models. A test analysis model (TAM) is very useful in the correlation process. A TAM is essentially a FEM reduced to the size of the test model, which attempts to preserve the dynamic characteristics of the original FEM in the analysis range of interest. Numerous methods for generating TAMs have been developed in the literature. The major emphasis of this paper is a description of the procedures necessary for creation of the TAM and the correlation of the reduced models with the FEM or the test results. Herein, three methods are discussed, namely Guyan, Improved Reduced System (IRS), and Hybrid. Also included are the procedures for performing these analyses using MSC/NASTRAN. Finally, application of the TAM process is demonstrated with an experimental test configuration of a ten bay cantilevered truss structure.

  7. Leggett-Garg tests of macrorealism for bosonic systems including double-well Bose-Einstein condensates and atom interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Zárate, L.; Opanchuk, B.; He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.

    2018-04-01

    We construct quantifiable generalizations of Leggett-Garg tests for macro- and mesoscopic realism and noninvasive measurability that apply when not all outcomes of measurement can be identified as arising from one of two macroscopically distinguishable states. We show how quantum mechanics predicts a negation of the Leggett-Garg premises for strategies involving ideal negative-result, weak, and minimally invasive ("nonclumsy") projective measurements on dynamical entangled systems, as might be realized with Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential, path-entangled NOON states, and atom interferometers. Potential loopholes associated with each strategy are discussed.

  8. Model-Based Software Testing for Object-Oriented Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Model-based testing is one of the best solutions for testing object-oriented software. It has a better test coverage than other testing styles. Model-based testing takes into consideration behavioural aspects of a class, which are usually unchecked in other testing methods. An increase in the complexity of software has forced the software industry…

  9. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  10. Summary of Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium held in Durango, Colorado on March 23-25, 1993. The symposium was sponsored by the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation of the United States Department of Energy and hosted by the Source Region Program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss state-of-the-art advances in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology for the purpose of test ban monitoring. Another goal of the symposium was to promote discussion between seismologists and explosion source-code calculators. Presentation topics include the following: numerical model fits to data, measurement and characterization of material response models, applications of modeling to monitoring problems, explosion source phenomenology, numerical simulations and seismic sources

  11. Target Soil Impact Verification: Experimental Testing and Kayenta Constitutive Modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, Gregory Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newell, Pania [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report details experimental testing and constitutive modeling of sandy soil deformation under quasi - static conditions. This is driven by the need to understand constitutive response of soil to target/component behavior upon impact . An experimental and constitutive modeling program was followed to determine elastic - plastic properties and a compressional failure envelope of dry soil . One hydrostatic, one unconfined compressive stress (UCS), nine axisymmetric compression (ACS) , and one uniaxial strain (US) test were conducted at room temperature . Elastic moduli, assuming isotropy, are determined from unload/reload loops and final unloading for all tests pre - failure and increase monotonically with mean stress. Very little modulus degradation was discernable from elastic results even when exposed to mean stresses above 200 MPa . The failure envelope and initial yield surface were determined from peak stresses and observed onset of plastic yielding from all test results. Soil elasto - plastic behavior is described using the Brannon et al. (2009) Kayenta constitutive model. As a validation exercise, the ACS - parameterized Kayenta model is used to predict response of the soil material under uniaxial strain loading. The resulting parameterized and validated Kayenta model is of high quality and suitable for modeling sandy soil deformation under a range of conditions, including that for impact prediction.

  12. Experimentally testing the standard cosmological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The standard model of cosmology, the big bang, is now being tested and confirmed to remarkable accuracy. Recent high precision measurements relate to the microwave background; and big bang nucleosynthesis. This paper focuses on the latter since that relates more directly to high energy experiments. In particular, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard cosmology scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved light element observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. alternate nucleosynthesis scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, {Omega}{sub b}, remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the standard model conclusion that {Omega}{sub b} {approximately} 0.06. This latter point is the deriving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming {Omega}{sub total} = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since {Omega}{sub visible} < {Omega}{sub b}. Recent accelerator constraints on non-baryonic matter are discussed, showing that any massive cold dark matter candidate must now have a mass M{sub x} {approx gt} 20 GeV and an interaction weaker than the Z{sup 0} coupling to a neutrino. It is also noted that recent hints regarding the solar neutrino experiments coupled with the see-saw model for {nu}-masses may imply that the {nu}{sub {tau}} is a good hot dark matter candidate. 73 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Experimentally testing the standard cosmological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1990-11-01

    The standard model of cosmology, the big bang, is now being tested and confirmed to remarkable accuracy. Recent high precision measurements relate to the microwave background; and big bang nucleosynthesis. This paper focuses on the latter since that relates more directly to high energy experiments. In particular, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard cosmology scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved light element observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. alternate nucleosynthesis scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, Ω b , remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the standard model conclusion that Ω b ∼ 0.06. This latter point is the deriving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming Ω total = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since Ω visible b . Recent accelerator constraints on non-baryonic matter are discussed, showing that any massive cold dark matter candidate must now have a mass M x approx-gt 20 GeV and an interaction weaker than the Z 0 coupling to a neutrino. It is also noted that recent hints regarding the solar neutrino experiments coupled with the see-saw model for ν-masses may imply that the ν τ is a good hot dark matter candidate. 73 refs., 5 figs

  14. INTRAVAL test case 1b - modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, A.; Hadermann, J.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents results obtained within Phase I of the INTRAVAL study. Six different models are fitted to the results of four infiltration experiments with 233 U tracer on small samples of crystalline bore cores originating from deep drillings in Northern Switzerland. Four of these are dual porosity media models taking into account advection and dispersion in water conducting zones (either tubelike veins or planar fractures), matrix diffusion out of these into pores of the solid phase, and either non-linear or linear sorption of the tracer onto inner surfaces. The remaining two are equivalent porous media models (excluding matrix diffusion) including either non-linear sorption onto surfaces of a single fissure family or linear sorption onto surfaces of several different fissure families. The fits to the experimental data have been carried out by Marquardt-Levenberg procedure yielding error estimates of the parameters, correlation coefficients and also, as a measure for the goodness of the fits, the minimum values of the χ 2 merit function. The effects of different upstream boundary conditions are demonstrated and the penetration depth for matrix diffusion is discussed briefly for both alternative flow path scenarios. The calculations show that the dual porosity media models are significantly more appropriate to the experimental data than the single porosity media concepts. Moreover, it is matrix diffusion rather than the non-linearity of the sorption isotherm which is responsible for the tailing part of the break-through curves. The extracted parameter values for some models for both the linear and non-linear (Freundlich) sorption isotherms are consistent with the results of independent static batch sorption experiments. From the fits, it is generally not possible to discriminate between the two alternative flow path geometries. On the basis of the modelling results, some proposals for further experiments are presented. (author) 15 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Model tests in RAMONA and NEPTUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, H.; Ehrhard, P.; Weinberg, D.; Carteciano, L.; Dres, K.; Frey, H.H.; Hayafune, H.; Hoelle, C.; Marten, K.; Rust, K.; Thomauske, K.

    1995-01-01

    In order to demonstrate passive decay heat removal (DHR) in an LMR such as the European Fast Reactor, the RAMONA and NEPTUN facilities, with water as a coolant medium, were used to measure transient flow data corresponding to a transition from forced convection (under normal operation) to natural convection under DHR conditions. The facilities were 1:20 and 1:5 models, respectively, of a pool-type reactor including the IHXs, pumps, and immersed coolers. Important results: The decay heat can be removed from all parts of the primary system by natural convection, even if the primary fluid circulation through the IHX is interrupted. This result could be transferred to liquid metal cooling by experiments in models with thermohydraulic similarity. (orig.)

  16. Mean field diffusion models for precipitation in crystalline GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2009-07-01

    Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first class of models treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second class is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. We consider homogenised models, where different length scales of the experimental situation have been exploited in order to simplify the equations. These homogenised models generalise the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model for Ostwald ripening. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation. (orig.)

  17. Experimental validation of control strategies for a microgrid test facility including a storage system and renewable generation sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The paper is aimed at describing and validating some control strategies in the SYSLAB experimental test facility characterized by the presence of a low voltage network with a 15 kW-190 kWh Vanadium Redox Flow battery system and a 11 kW wind turbine. The generation set is connected to the local...... network and is fully controllable by the SCADA system. The control strategies, implemented on a local pc interfaced to the SCADA, are realized in Matlab-Simulink. The main purpose is to control the charge/discharge action of the storage system in order to present at the point of common coupling...... the desired power or energy profiles....

  18. Modelling of LOCA Tests with the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory; Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting [Idaho National Laboratory; Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-05-01

    BISON is a modern finite-element based, multidimensional nuclear fuel performance code that is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (USA). Recent advances of BISON include the extension of the code to the analysis of LWR fuel rod behaviour during loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). In this work, BISON models for the phenomena relevant to LWR cladding behaviour during LOCAs are described, followed by presentation of code results for the simulation of LOCA tests. Analysed experiments include separate effects tests of cladding ballooning and burst, as well as the Halden IFA-650.2 fuel rod test. Two-dimensional modelling of the experiments is performed, and calculations are compared to available experimental data. Comparisons include cladding burst pressure and temperature in separate effects tests, as well as the evolution of fuel rod inner pressure during ballooning and time to cladding burst. Furthermore, BISON three-dimensional simulations of separate effects tests are performed, which demonstrate the capability to reproduce the effect of azimuthal temperature variations in the cladding. The work has been carried out in the frame of the collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and Halden Reactor Project, and the IAEA Coordinated Research Project FUMAC.

  19. Model for prognostication of population irradiation dose at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Vinogradskaya, V.D.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of modern pictures of cesium and strontium ion absorption mechanisms a soil taking complex was build the kinetic model of radionuclide migration from soil to plants. Model parameter association with the agricultural chemistry properties of soil, represented by complex estimation of soil properties S e f. The example of model application for prognostication of population internal irradiation dose due to consumption of milk at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains

  20. Group-Level EEG-Processing Pipeline for Flexible Single Trial-Based Analyses Including Linear Mixed Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömer, Romy; Maier, Martin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2018-01-01

    Here we present an application of an EEG processing pipeline customizing EEGLAB and FieldTrip functions, specifically optimized to flexibly analyze EEG data based on single trial information. The key component of our approach is to create a comprehensive 3-D EEG data structure including all trials and all participants maintaining the original order of recording. This allows straightforward access to subsets of the data based on any information available in a behavioral data structure matched with the EEG data (experimental conditions, but also performance indicators, such accuracy or RTs of single trials). In the present study we exploit this structure to compute linear mixed models (LMMs, using lmer in R) including random intercepts and slopes for items. This information can easily be read out from the matched behavioral data, whereas it might not be accessible in traditional ERP approaches without substantial effort. We further provide easily adaptable scripts for performing cluster-based permutation tests (as implemented in FieldTrip), as a more robust alternative to traditional omnibus ANOVAs. Our approach is particularly advantageous for data with parametric within-subject covariates (e.g., performance) and/or multiple complex stimuli (such as words, faces or objects) that vary in features affecting cognitive processes and ERPs (such as word frequency, salience or familiarity), which are sometimes hard to control experimentally or might themselves constitute variables of interest. The present dataset was recorded from 40 participants who performed a visual search task on previously unfamiliar objects, presented either visually intact or blurred. MATLAB as well as R scripts are provided that can be adapted to different datasets.

  1. Testing an integral conceptual model of frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbens, Robbert J; van Assen, Marcel A; Luijkx, Katrien G; Schols, Jos M

    2012-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to test three hypotheses derived from an integral conceptual model of frailty.   The integral model of frailty describes the pathway from life-course determinants to frailty to adverse outcomes. The model assumes that life-course determinants and the three domains of frailty (physical, psychological, social) affect adverse outcomes, the effect of disease(s) on adverse outcomes is mediated by frailty, and the effect of frailty on adverse outcomes depends on the life-course determinants. In June 2008 a questionnaire was sent to a sample of community-dwelling people, aged 75 years and older (n = 213). Life-course determinants and frailty were assessed using the Tilburg frailty indicator. Adverse outcomes were measured using the Groningen activity restriction scale, the WHOQOL-BREF and questions regarding healthcare utilization. The effect of seven self-reported chronic diseases was examined. Life-course determinants, chronic disease(s), and frailty together explain a moderate to large part of the variance of the seven continuous adverse outcomes (26-57%). All these predictors together explained a significant part of each of the five dichotomous adverse outcomes. The effect of chronic disease(s) on all 12 adverse outcomes was mediated at least partly by frailty. The effect of frailty domains on adverse outcomes did not depend on life-course determinants. Our finding that the adverse outcomes are differently and uniquely affected by the three domains of frailty (physical, psychological, social), and life-course determinants and disease(s), emphasizes the importance of an integral conceptual model of frailty. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  3. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Atlanta, Georgia, Black Hills, and Manitou, Colorado test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Some current beetle-killed ponderosa pine can be detected on S190-B photography imaged over the Bear Lodge mountains in the Black Hills National Forest. Detections were made on SL-3 imagery (September 13, 1973) using a zoom lens microscope to view the photography. At this time correlations have not been made to all of the known infestation spots in the Bear Lodge mountains; rather, known infestations have been located on the SL-3 imagery. It was determined that the beetle-killed trees were current kills by stereo viewing of SL-3 imagery on one side and SL-2 on the other. A successful technique was developed for mapping current beetle-killed pine using MSS imagery from mission 247 flown by the C-130 over the Black Hills test site in September 1973. Color enhancement processing on the NASA/JSC, DAS system using three MSS channels produced an excellent quality detection map for current kill pine. More importantly it provides a way to inventory the dead trees by relating PCM counts to actual numbers of dead trees.

  4. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pincreased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  5. Pion interferometric tests of transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, S.S.; Gyulassy, M.; Gavin, S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Nuclear Science Div.)

    1990-01-08

    In hadronic reactions, the usual space-time interpretation of pion interferometry often breaks down due to strong correlations between spatial and momentum coordinates. We derive a general interferometry formula based on the Wigner density formalism that allows for arbitrary phase space and multiparticle correlations. Correction terms due to intermediate state pion cascading are derived using semiclassical hadronic transport theory. Finite wave packets are used to reveal the sensitivity of pion interference effects on the details of the production dynamics. The covariant generalization of the formula is shown to be equivalent to the formula derived via an alternate current ensemble formalism for minimal wave packets and reduces in the nonrelativistic limit to a formula derived by Pratt. The final expression is ideally suited for pion interferometric tests of Monte Carlo transport models. Examples involving gaussian and inside-outside phase space distributions are considered. (orig.).

  6. Pion interferometric tests of transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.; Gyulassy, M.; Gavin, S.

    1990-01-01

    In hadronic reactions, the usual space-time interpretation of pion interferometry often breaks down due to strong correlations between spatial and momentum coordinates. We derive a general interferometry formula based on the Wigner density formalism that allows for arbitrary phase space and multiparticle correlations. Correction terms due to intermediate state pion cascading are derived using semiclassical hadronic transport theory. Finite wave packets are used to reveal the sensitivity of pion interference effects on the details of the production dynamics. The covariant generalization of the formula is shown to be equivalent to the formula derived via an alternate current ensemble formalism for minimal wave packets and reduces in the nonrelativistic limit to a formula derived by Pratt. The final expression is ideally suited for pion interferometric tests of Monte Carlo transport models. Examples involving gaussian and inside-outside phase space distributions are considered. (orig.)

  7. Experimental Tests of the Algebraic Cluster Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Moshe

    2018-02-01

    The Algebraic Cluster Model (ACM) of Bijker and Iachello that was proposed already in 2000 has been recently applied to 12C and 16O with much success. We review the current status in 12C with the outstanding observation of the ground state rotational band composed of the spin-parity states of: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4± and 5-. The observation of the 4± parity doublet is a characteristic of (tri-atomic) molecular configuration where the three alpha- particles are arranged in an equilateral triangular configuration of a symmetric spinning top. We discuss future measurement with electron scattering, 12C(e,e’) to test the predicted B(Eλ) of the ACM.

  8. Two Bayesian tests of the GLOMOsys Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Sarahanne M; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Newell, Ben R; Zeelenberg, René; van Ravenzwaaij, Don

    2016-12-01

    Priming is arguably one of the key phenomena in contemporary social psychology. Recent retractions and failed replication attempts have led to a division in the field between proponents and skeptics and have reinforced the importance of confirming certain priming effects through replication. In this study, we describe the results of 2 preregistered replication attempts of 1 experiment by Förster and Denzler (2012). In both experiments, participants first processed letters either globally or locally, then were tested using a typicality rating task. Bayes factor hypothesis tests were conducted for both experiments: Experiment 1 (N = 100) yielded an indecisive Bayes factor of 1.38, indicating that the in-lab data are 1.38 times more likely to have occurred under the null hypothesis than under the alternative. Experiment 2 (N = 908) yielded a Bayes factor of 10.84, indicating strong support for the null hypothesis that global priming does not affect participants' mean typicality ratings. The failure to replicate this priming effect challenges existing support for the GLOMO sys model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  10. Estimating Implementation and Operational Costs of an Integrated Tiered CD4 Service including Laboratory and Point of Care Testing in a Remote Health District in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Schnippel, Kathryn; Glencross, Deborah K.

    2014-01-01

    Background An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM) has been proposed to provide ‘full-coverage’ of CD4 services throughout South Africa. Five tiers are described, defined by testing volumes and number of referring health-facilities. These include: (1) Tier-1/decentralized point-of-care service (POC) in a single site; Tier-2/POC-hub servicing processing 600 samples/day and serving >100 or >200 health-clinics, respectively. The objective of this study was to establish costs of existing and ITSDM-tiers 1, 2 and 3 in a remote, under-serviced district in South Africa. Methods Historical health-facility workload volumes from the Pixley-ka-Seme district, and the total volumes of CD4 tests performed by the adjacent district referral CD4 laboratories, linked to locations of all referring clinics and related laboratory-to-result turn-around time (LTR-TAT) data, were extracted from the NHLS Corporate-Data-Warehouse for the period April-2012 to March-2013. Tiers were costed separately (as a cost-per-result) including equipment, staffing, reagents and test consumable costs. A one-way sensitivity analyses provided for changes in reagent price, test volumes and personnel time. Results The lowest cost-per-result was noted for the existing laboratory-based Tiers- 4 and 5 ($6.24 and $5.37 respectively), but with related increased LTR-TAT of >24–48 hours. Full service coverage with TAT cost-per-result of $32.32 and $15.88 respectively. A single district Tier-3 laboratory also ensured ‘full service coverage’ and Implementing a single Tier-3/community laboratory to extend and improve delivery of services in Pixley-ka-Seme, with an estimated local ∼12–24-hour LTR-TAT, is ∼$2 more than existing referred services per-test, but 2–4 fold cheaper than implementing eight Tier-2/POC-hubs or providing twenty-seven Tier-1/POCT CD4 services. PMID:25517412

  11. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011–0.013) clinical factor was “previous abdominal surgery.” As second significant (p = 0.012–0.016) factor, “cardiac history” was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including “diabetes” was significant (p = 0.039–0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003–0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D 50 . Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions

  12. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  13. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Standard-Model Extension and Gravitational Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay D. Tasson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Standard-Model Extension (SME provides a comprehensive effective field-theory framework for the study of CPT and Lorentz symmetry. This work reviews the structure and philosophy of the SME and provides some intuitive examples of symmetry violation. The results of recent gravitational tests performed within the SME are summarized including analysis of results from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO, sensitivities achieved in short-range gravity experiments, constraints from cosmic-ray data, and results achieved by studying planetary ephemerids. Some proposals and ongoing efforts will also be considered including gravimeter tests, tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle, and antimatter experiments. Our review of the above topics is augmented by several original extensions of the relevant work. We present new examples of symmetry violation in the SME and use the cosmic-ray analysis to place first-ever constraints on 81 additional operators.

  15. Can a one-layer optical skin model including melanin and inhomogeneously distributed blood explain spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer skin model or a more advanced model for the scattering phase function.

  16. Models on reliability of non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1998-01-01

    The reliability of ultrasonic inspections has been studied in e.g. international PISC (Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components) exercises. These exercises have produced a large amount of information on the effect of various factors on the reliability of inspections. The information obtained from reliability experiments are used to model the dependency of flaw detection probability on various factors and to evaluate the performance of inspection equipment, including the sizing accuracy. The information from experiments is utilised in a most effective way when mathematical models are applied. Here, some statistical models for reliability of non-destructive tests are introduced. In order to demonstrate the use of inspection reliability models, they have been applied to the inspection results of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) type flaws in PISC III exercise (PISC 1995). The models are applied to both flaw detection frequency data of all inspection teams and to flaw sizing data of one participating team. (author)

  17. Test-Driven, Model-Based Systems Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan

    Hearing systems have evolved over many years from simple mechanical devices (horns) to electronic units consisting of microphones, amplifiers, analog filters, loudspeakers, batteries, etc. Digital signal processors replaced analog filters to provide better performance end new features. Central....... This thesis concerns methods for identifying, selecting and implementing tools for various aspects of model-based systems engineering. A comprehensive method was proposed that include several novel steps such as techniques for analyzing the gap between requirements and tool capabilities. The method...... was verified with good results in two case studies for selection of a traceability tool (single-tool scenario) and a set of modeling tools (multi-tool scenarios). Models must be subjected to testing to allow engineers to predict functionality and performance of systems. Test-first strategies are known...

  18. Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2008-06-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence.

  19. Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence

  20. Modelling of real area of contact between tool and workpiece in metal forming processes including the influence of subsurface deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2016-01-01

    New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel ...... for estimating friction in the numerical modelling of metal forming processes.......New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel...... to the surface. Finite element modelling supports the presentation and contributes by extrapolation of results to complete the mapping of contact area as function of normal pressure and one-directional subsurface strain parallel to the surface. Improved modelling of the real contact area is the basis...

  1. The use of scale models in impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donelan, P.J.; Dowling, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical analysis, component testing and model flask testing are employed to investigate the validity of scale models for demonstrating the behaviour of Magnox flasks under impact conditions. Model testing is shown to be a powerful and convenient tool provided adequate care is taken with detail design and manufacture of models and with experimental control. (author)

  2. A person fit test for IRT models for polytomous items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Dagohoy, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A person fit test based on the Lagrange multiplier test is presented for three item response theory models for polytomous items: the generalized partial credit model, the sequential model, and the graded response model. The test can also be used in the framework of multidimensional ability

  3. Improvement in genetic evaluation of female fertility in dairy cattle using multiple-trait models including milk production traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the improvement in genetic evaluation of fertility traits by using production traits as secondary traits (MILK = 305-d milk yield, FAT = 305-d fat yield, and PROT = 305-d protein yield). Data including 471,742 records from first lactations of Denmark Holstein cows, covering...... the years of inseminations during first lactations from 1995 to 2004, were analyzed. Six fertility traits (i.e., interval in days from calving to first insemination, calving interval, days open, interval in days from first to last insemination, numbers of inseminations per conception, and nonreturn rate...... stability and predictive ability than single-trait models for all the fertility traits, except for nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The stability and predictive ability for the model including MILK or PROT were similar to the model including all 3 milk production traits and better than...

  4. Global stability for infectious disease models that include immigration of infected individuals and delay in the incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Uggenti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We begin with a detailed study of a delayed SI model of disease transmission with immigration into both classes. The incidence function allows for a nonlinear dependence on the infected population, including mass action and saturating incidence as special cases. Due to the immigration of infectives, there is no disease-free equilibrium and hence no basic reproduction number. We show there is a unique endemic equilibrium and that this equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable for all parameter values. The results include vector-style delay and latency-style delay. Next, we show that previous global stability results for an SEI model and an SVI model that include immigration of infectives and non-linear incidence but not delay can be extended to systems with vector-style delay and latency-style delay.

  5. Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.

  6. Use of coal fly ash and other waste products in soil stabilization and road construction-including non-destructive testing of roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    An extensive laboratory testing program was performed on subgrade soils stabilized using fly ash and lime kiln dust. The laboratory : program included measurements of: compaction curves, small strain elastic moduli, resilient modulus (Mr), Briaud Com...

  7. Use of coal fly ash and other waste products in soil stabilization and road construction including non-destructive testing of roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    An extensive laboratory testing program was performed on subgrade soils stabilized using fly ash and : lime kiln dust. The laboratory program included measurements of: compaction curves, small strain elastic moduli, : resilient modulus (Mr), Briaud C...

  8. Test models for improving filtering with model errors through stochastic parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershgorin, B.; Harlim, J.; Majda, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The filtering skill for turbulent signals from nature is often limited by model errors created by utilizing an imperfect model for filtering. Updating the parameters in the imperfect model through stochastic parameter estimation is one way to increase filtering skill and model performance. Here a suite of stringent test models for filtering with stochastic parameter estimation is developed based on the Stochastic Parameterization Extended Kalman Filter (SPEKF). These new SPEKF-algorithms systematically correct both multiplicative and additive biases and involve exact formulas for propagating the mean and covariance including the parameters in the test model. A comprehensive study is presented of robust parameter regimes for increasing filtering skill through stochastic parameter estimation for turbulent signals as the observation time and observation noise are varied and even when the forcing is incorrectly specified. The results here provide useful guidelines for filtering turbulent signals in more complex systems with significant model errors.

  9. Dynamic model of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack including an integrated cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    A novel dynamic micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (MT-SOFC) and stack model including an integrated cooling system is developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. The modeling approach includes a simplified tubular geometry and stack design including an integrated cooling structure, detailed pressure drop and gas property calculations, the electrical and physical constraints of the stack design that determine the current, as well as control strategies for the temperature. Moreover, an advanced heat transfer balance with detailed radiative heat transfer between the cells and the integrated cooling-tubes, convective heat transfer between the gas flows and the surrounding structures and conductive heat transfer between the solid structures inside of the stack, is included. The detailed model can be used as a design basis for the novel MT-SOFC stack assembly including an integrated cooling system, as well as for the development of a dynamic system control strategy. The evaluated best-case design achieves very high electrical efficiency between around 75 and 55% in the entire power density range between 50 and 550 mW /cm2 due to the novel stack design comprising an integrated cooling structure.

  10. Accelerated testing statistical models, test plans, and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Wayne B

    2009-01-01

    The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. "". . . a goldmine of knowledge on accelerated life testing principles and practices . . . one of the very few capable of advancing the science of reliability. It definitely belongs in every bookshelf on engineering.""-Dev G.

  11. Testing a theoretical model of clinical nurses' intent to stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Tracy L; Cummings, Greta G

    2015-01-01

    Published theoretical models of nurses' intent to stay (ITS) report inconsistent outcomes, and not all hypothesized models have been adequately tested. Research has focused on cognitive rather than emotional determinants of nurses' ITS. The aim of this study was to empirically verify a complex theoretical model of nurses' ITS that includes both affective and cognitive determinants and to explore the influence of relational leadership on staff nurses' ITS. The study was a correlational, mixed-method, nonexperimental design. A subsample of the Quality Work Environment Study survey data 2009 (n = 415 nurses) was used to test our theoretical model of clinical nurses' ITS as a structural equation model. The model explained 63% of variance in ITS. Organizational commitment, empowerment, and desire to stay were the model concepts with the strongest effects on nurses' ITS. Leadership practices indirectly influenced ITS. How nurses evaluate and respond to their work environment is both an emotional and rational process. Health care organizations need to be cognizant of the influence that nurses' feelings and views of their work setting have on their intention decisions and integrate that knowledge into the development of retention strategies. Leadership practices play an important role in staff nurses' perceptions of the workplace. Identifying the mechanisms by which leadership influences staff nurses' intentions to stay presents additional focus areas for developing retention strategies.

  12. Standard Model theory calculations and experimental tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, M.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.

    2015-01-01

    To present knowledge, all the physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be described in the framework of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed the newly discovered Higgs boson with a mass close to 125 GeV seems to confirm the predictions of the SM. Thus, besides looking for direct manifestations of the physics beyond the SM, one of the primary missions of the LHC is to perform ever more stringent tests of the SM. This requires not only improved theoretical developments to produce testable predictions and provide experiments with reliable event generators, but also sophisticated analyses techniques to overcome the formidable experimental environment of the LHC and perform precision measurements. In the first section, we describe the state of the art of the theoretical tools and event generators that are used to provide predictions for the production cross sections of the processes of interest. In section 2, inclusive cross section measurements with jets, leptons and vector bosons are presented. Examples of differential cross sections, charge asymmetries and the study of lepton pairs are proposed in section 3. Finally, in section 4, we report studies on the multiple production of gauge bosons and constraints on anomalous gauge couplings

  13. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Batandjieva, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes...... the second of two modelling exercises. This exercise was based on a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area from a radiological dispersal device, with reference surface contamination at selected sites used as the primary input information. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included...... radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a "no action" situation (with no remedial measures...

  14. Methods and models for the construction of weakly parallel tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, J.J.; Adema, Jos J.

    1990-01-01

    Methods are proposed for the construction of weakly parallel tests, that is, tests with the same test information function. A mathematical programing model for constructing tests with a prespecified test information function and a heuristic for assigning items to tests such that their information

  15. Model Selection and Evaluation Based on Emerging Infectious Disease Data Sets including A/H1N1 and Ebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to apply simple ODE models in the area of modeling the spread of emerging infectious diseases and show the importance of model selection in estimating parameters, the basic reproduction number, turning point, and final size. To quantify the plausibility of each model, given the data and the set of four models including Logistic, Gompertz, Rosenzweg, and Richards models, the Bayes factors are calculated and the precise estimates of the best fitted model parameters and key epidemic characteristics have been obtained. In particular, for Ebola the basic reproduction numbers are 1.3522 (95% CI (1.3506, 1.3537, 1.2101 (95% CI (1.2084, 1.2119, 3.0234 (95% CI (2.6063, 3.4881, and 1.9018 (95% CI (1.8565, 1.9478, the turning points are November 7,November 17, October 2, and November 3, 2014, and the final sizes until December 2015 are 25794 (95% CI (25630, 25958, 3916 (95% CI (3865, 3967, 9886 (95% CI (9740, 10031, and 12633 (95% CI (12515, 12750 for West Africa, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, respectively. The main results confirm that model selection is crucial in evaluating and predicting the important quantities describing the emerging infectious diseases, and arbitrarily picking a model without any consideration of alternatives is problematic.

  16. OBLIMAP 2.0: a fast climate model-ice sheet model coupler including online embeddable mapping routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reerink, Thomas J.; van de Berg, Willem Jan; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2016-11-01

    This paper accompanies the second OBLIMAP open-source release. The package is developed to map climate fields between a general circulation model (GCM) and an ice sheet model (ISM) in both directions by using optimal aligned oblique projections, which minimize distortions. The curvature of the surfaces of the GCM and ISM grid differ, both grids may be irregularly spaced and the ratio of the grids is allowed to differ largely. OBLIMAP's stand-alone version is able to map data sets that differ in various aspects on the same ISM grid. Each grid may either coincide with the surface of a sphere, an ellipsoid or a flat plane, while the grid types might differ. Re-projection of, for example, ISM data sets is also facilitated. This is demonstrated by relevant applications concerning the major ice caps. As the stand-alone version also applies to the reverse mapping direction, it can be used as an offline coupler. Furthermore, OBLIMAP 2.0 is an embeddable GCM-ISM coupler, suited for high-frequency online coupled experiments. A new fast scan method is presented for structured grids as an alternative for the former time-consuming grid search strategy, realising a performance gain of several orders of magnitude and enabling the mapping of high-resolution data sets with a much larger number of grid nodes. Further, a highly flexible masked mapping option is added. The limitation of the fast scan method with respect to unstructured and adaptive grids is discussed together with a possible future parallel Message Passing Interface (MPI) implementation.

  17. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen Marie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.

  18. Blockage and flow studies of a generalized test apparatus including various wing configurations in the Langley 7-inch Mach 7 Pilot Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, C. W.

    1982-03-01

    A 1/12th scale model of the Curved Surface Test Apparatus (CSTA), which will be used to study aerothermal loads and evaluate Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) on a fuselage-type configuration in the Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Structures Tunnel (8 ft HTST), was tested in the Langley 7-Inch Mach 7 Pilot Tunnel. The purpose of the tests was to study the overall flow characteristics and define an envelope for testing the CSTA in the 8 ft HTST. Wings were tested on the scaled CSTA model to select a wing configuration with the most favorable characteristics for conducting TPS evaluations for curved and intersecting surfaces. The results indicate that the CSTA and selected wing configuration can be tested at angles of attack up to 15.5 and 10.5 degrees, respectively. The base pressure for both models was at the expected low level for most test conditions. Results generally indicate that the CSTA and wing configuration will provide a useful test bed for aerothermal pads and thermal structural concept evaluation over a broad range of flow conditions in the 8 ft HTST.

  19. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 1. [thermal analyzer manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.

  20. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 2. [sample problem library guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.

  1. Testing of a one dimensional model for Field II calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Field II is a program for simulating ultrasound transducer fields. It is capable of calculating the emitted and pulse-echoed fields for both pulsed and continuous wave transducers. To make it fully calibrated a model of the transducer’s electro-mechanical impulse response must be included. We...... examine an adapted one dimensional transducer model originally proposed by Willatzen [9] to calibrate Field II. This model is modified to calculate the required impulse responses needed by Field II for a calibrated field pressure and external circuit current calculation. The testing has been performed...... to the calibrated Field II program for 1, 4, and 10 cycle excitations. Two parameter sets were applied for modeling, one real valued Pz27 parameter set, manufacturer supplied, and one complex valued parameter set found in literature, Alguer´o et al. [11]. The latter implicitly accounts for attenuation. Results show...

  2. Response of shallow geothermal energy pile from laboratory model tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, A.; Amaludin, A.

    2015-09-01

    In shallow geothermal energy pile systems, the thermal loads from the pile, transferred and stored in the soil will cause thermally induced settlement. This factor must be considered in the geotechnical design process to avoid unexpected hazards. Series of laboratory model tests were carried out to study the behaviour of energy piles installed in kaolin soil, subjected to thermal loads and a combination of axial and thermal loads (henceforth known as thermo-axial loads). Six tests which included two thermal load tests (35°C and 40°C) and four thermo-axial load tests (100 N and 200 N, combined with 35°C and 40°C thermal loads) were conducted. To simulate the behaviour of geothermal energy piles during its operation, the thermo-axial tests were carried out by applying an axial load to the model pile head, and a subsequent application of thermal load. The model soil was compacted at 90% maximum dry density and had an undrained shear strength of 37 kPa, thus classified as having a firm soil consistency. The behaviour of model pile, having the ultimate load capacity of 460 N, was monitored using a linear variable displacement transducer, load cell and wire thermocouple, to measure the pile head settlement, applied axial load and model pile temperature. The acquired data from this study was used to define the thermo-axial response characteristics of the energy pile model. In this study, the limiting settlement was defined as 10% of the model pile diameter. For thermal load tests, higher thermal loads induced higher values of thermal settlement. At 40°C thermal load an irreversible settlement was observed after the heating and cooling cycle was applied to the model pile. Meanwhile, the pile response to thermo-axial loads were attributed to soil consistency and the magnitude of both the axial and thermal loads applied to the pile. The higher the thermoaxial loads, the higher the settlements occurred. A slight hazard on the model pile was detected, since the settlement

  3. Putting hydrological modelling practice to the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, Lieke Anna

    2017-01-01

    Six steps can be distinguished in the process of hydrological modelling: the perceptual model (deciding on the processes), the conceptual model (deciding on the equations), the procedural model (get the code to run on a computer), calibration (identify the parameters), evaluation (confronting

  4. Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation (MAPPS) model: description of model content, structure, and sensitivity testing. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Knee, H.E.

    1984-12-01

    This volume of NUREG/CR-3626 presents details of the content, structure, and sensitivity testing of the Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation (MAPPS) model that was described in summary in volume one of this report. The MAPPS model is a generalized stochastic computer simulation model developed to simulate the performance of maintenance personnel in nuclear power plants. The MAPPS model considers workplace, maintenance technician, motivation, human factors, and task oriented variables to yield predictive information about the effects of these variables on successful maintenance task performance. All major model variables are discussed in detail and their implementation and interactive effects are outlined. The model was examined for disqualifying defects from a number of viewpoints, including sensitivity testing. This examination led to the identification of some minor recalibration efforts which were carried out. These positive results indicate that MAPPS is ready for initial and controlled applications which are in conformity with its purposes

  5. A test for the parameters of multiple linear regression models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A test for the parameters of multiple linear regression models is developed for conducting tests simultaneously on all the parameters of multiple linear regression models. The test is robust relative to the assumptions of homogeneity of variances and absence of serial correlation of the classical F-test. Under certain null and ...

  6. Rate-control algorithms testing by using video source model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Turlikov, Andrey; Ukhanova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the method of rate control algorithms testing by the use of video source model is suggested. The proposed method allows to significantly improve algorithms testing over the big test set.......In this paper the method of rate control algorithms testing by the use of video source model is suggested. The proposed method allows to significantly improve algorithms testing over the big test set....

  7. Collider tests of the Renormalizable Coloron Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.

    2018-04-01

    The coloron, a massive version of the gluon present in gauge extensions of QCD, has been searched for at the LHC as a dijet or top quark pair resonance. We point out that in the Renormalizable Coloron Model (ReCoM) with a minimal field content to break the gauge symmetry, a color-octet scalar and a singlet scalar are naturally lighter than the coloron because they are pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons. Consequently, the coloron may predominantly decay into scalar pairs, leading to novel signatures at the LHC. When the color-octet scalar is lighter than the singlet, or when the singlet mass is above roughly 1 TeV, the signatures consist of multi-jet resonances of multiplicity up to 12, including topologies with multi-prong jet substructure, slightly displaced vertices, and sometimes a top quark pair. When the singlet is the lightest ReCoM boson and lighter than about 1 TeV, its main decays ($W^+W^-$, $\\gamma Z$, $ZZ$) arise at three loops. The LHC signatures then involve two or four boosted electroweak bosons, often originating from highly displaced vertices, plus one or two pairs of prompt jets or top quarks.

  8. Briefing package for the Yucca Flat pre-emptive review, including overview, UZ model, SZ volcanics model and summary and conclusions sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keating, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-02

    Much progress has been made in the last several years in modeling radionuclide transport from tests conducted both in the unsaturated zone and saturated volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat, Nevada. The presentations to the DOE NNSA pre-emptive review panel contained herein document the progress to date, and discuss preliminary conclusions regarding the present and future extents of contamination resulting from past nuclear tests. The presentations also discuss possible strategies for addressing uncertainty in the model results.

  9. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Mazal, A; Pouzoulet, F

    2016-01-01

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec , for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec . The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm −1 . These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. (paper)

  10. Force Limited Random Vibration Test of TESS Camera Mass Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlicek, Alexandra; Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Rey, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a spaceborne instrument consisting of four wide field-of-view-CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars. As part of the environmental testing campaign, force limiting was used to simulate a realistic random vibration launch environment. While the force limit vibration test method is a standard approach used at multiple institutions including Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), it is still difficult to find an actual implementation process in the literature. This paper describes the step-by-step process on how the force limit method was developed and applied on the TESS camera mass model. The process description includes the design of special fixtures to mount the test article for properly installing force transducers, development of the force spectral density using the semi-empirical method, estimation of the fuzzy factor (C2) based on the mass ratio between the supporting structure and the test article, subsequent validating of the C2 factor during the vibration test, and calculation of the C.G. accelerations using the Root Mean Square (RMS) reaction force in the spectral domain and the peak reaction force in the time domain.

  11. Finite Element Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Impact and Frictional Motion Responses Including Fluid—Structure Coupling Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear three dimensional (3D single rack model and a nonlinear 3D whole pool multi-rack model are developed for the spent fuel storage racks of a nuclear power plant (NPP to determine impacts and frictional motion responses when subjected to 3D excitations from the supporting building floor. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to hydrodynamic fluid-structure interaction (FSI using potential theory. The models developed have features that allow consideration of geometric and material nonlinearities including (1 the impacts of fuel assemblies to rack cells, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to the pool floor; (2 the hydrodynamic coupling of fuel assemblies with their storing racks, and of a rack with adjacent racks, pool walls, and the pool floor; and (3 the dynamic motion behavior of rocking, twisting, and frictional sliding of rack modules. Using these models 3D nonlinear time history dynamic analyses are performed per the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC criteria. Since few such modeling, analyses, and results using both the 3D single and whole pool multiple rack models are available in the literature, this paper emphasizes description of modeling and analysis techniques using the SOLVIA general purpose nonlinear finite element code. Typical response results with different Coulomb friction coefficients are presented and discussed.

  12. Time domain contact model for tyre/road interaction including nonlinear contact stiffness due to small-scale roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, P. B. U.; Kropp, W.

    2008-11-01

    Rolling resistance, traction, wear, excitation of vibrations, and noise generation are all attributes to consider in optimisation of the interaction between automotive tyres and wearing courses of roads. The key to understand and describe the interaction is to include a wide range of length scales in the description of the contact geometry. This means including scales on the order of micrometres that have been neglected in previous tyre/road interaction models. A time domain contact model for the tyre/road interaction that includes interfacial details is presented. The contact geometry is discretised into multiple elements forming pairs of matching points. The dynamic response of the tyre is calculated by convolving the contact forces with pre-calculated Green's functions. The smaller-length scales are included by using constitutive interfacial relations, i.e. by using nonlinear contact springs, for each pair of contact elements. The method is presented for normal (out-of-plane) contact and a method for assessing the stiffness of the nonlinear springs based on detailed geometry and elastic data of the tread is suggested. The governing equations of the nonlinear contact problem are solved with the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Relations between force, indentation, and contact stiffness are calculated for a single tread block in contact with a road surface. The calculated results have the same character as results from measurements found in literature. Comparison to traditional contact formulations shows that the effect of the small-scale roughness is large; the contact stiffness is only up to half of the stiffness that would result if contact is made over the whole element directly to the bulk of the tread. It is concluded that the suggested contact formulation is a suitable model to include more details of the contact interface. Further, the presented result for the tread block in contact with the road is a suitable input for a global tyre/road interaction model

  13. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.; Lev, T.; Talerko, N.; Galeriu, D.; Garland, J.; Hoffman, O.; Nair, S.; Thiessen, K.; Miller, C.; Mueller, H.; Kryshev, A.

    1996-10-01

    Resuspension can be an important secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The inhalation of resuspended radionuclides contributes to the overall dose received by exposed individuals. Based on measurements collected after the Chernobyl accident, Scenario R was developed to provide an opportunity to test existing mathematical models of contamination resuspension. In particular, this scenario provided the opportunity to examine data and test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides at several different locations from the release, to investigate resuspension processes on both local and regional scales, and to investigate the importance of seasonal variations of these processes. Participants in the test exercise were provided with information for three different types of locations: (1) within the 30-km zone, where local resuspension processes are expected to dominate; (2) a large urban location (Kiev) 120 km from the release site, where vehicular traffic is expected to be the dominant mechanism for resuspension; and (3) an agricultural area 40-60 km from the release site, where highly contaminated upwind 'hot spots' are expected to be important. Input information included characteristics of the ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Participants were requested to predict the average (quarterly and yearly) concentrations of 137 Cs in air at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout; predictions for 90 Sr and 239 + 240 Pu were also requested for one location and time point. Predictions for specified resuspension factors and rates were also requested. Most participants used empirical models for the resuspension factor as a function of time K(t), as opposed to process-based models. While many of these

  14. Data and information needs for WPP testing and component modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    The modeling task of the Waste Package Program (WPP) is to develop conceptual models that describe the interactions of waste package components with their environment and the interactions among waste package components. The task includes development and maintenance of a database of experimental data, and statistical analyses to fit model coefficients, test the significance of the fits, and propose experimental designs. The modeling task collaborates with experimentalists to apply physicochemical principles to develop the conceptual models, with emphasis on the subsequent mathematical development. The reason for including the modeling task in the predominantly experimental WPP is to keep the modeling of component behavior closely associated with the experimentation. Whenever possible, waste package degradation processes are described in terms of chemical reactions or transport processes. The integration of equations for assumed or calculated repository conditions predicts variations with time in the repository. Within the context of the waste package program, the composition and rate of arrival of brine to the waste package are environmental variables. These define the environment to be simulated or explored during waste package component and interactions testing. The containment period is characterized by rapid changes in temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and salt porosity. Brine migration is expected to be most rapid during this period. The release period is characterized by modest and slowly changing temperatures, high pressure, low oxygen fugacity, and low porosity. The need is to define the scenario within which waste package degradation calculations are to be made and to quantify the rate of arrival and composition of the brine. Appendix contains 4 vugraphs

  15. GIS Modelling of Radionuclide Transport from the Semipalatinsk Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakay, L.; Zakarin, E.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the software complex GIS-project MigRad (Migration of Radionuclide) was developed, tested and applied for the territory of the Semipalatinsk test site/ polygon (Republic of Kazakhstan), where since 1961, in total 348 underground nuclear explosions were conducted. The MigRad is oriented on integration of large volumes of different information (mapping, ground-based, and satellite-based survey): and also includes modeling on its base local redistribution of radionuclides by precipitation and surface waters and by long-range transport of radioactive aerosols. The existing thermal anomaly on territory of the polygon was investigated in details, and the object-oriented analysis was applied for the studied area. Employing the RUNOFF model, the simulation of radionuclides migration with surface waters was performed. Employing the DERMA model, the simulation of long-term atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition patterns for cesium was conducted from 3 selected locations (Balapan, Delegen, and Experimental Field). Employing geoinformation technology, the mapping of the of the high temperature zones and epicenters of radioactive aerosols transport for the territory of the test site was carried out with post-processing and integration of modelling results into GIS environment. Contamination levels of pollution due to former nuclear explosions for population and environment of the surrounding polygon territories of Kazakhstan as well as adjacent countries were analyzed and evaluated. The MigRad was designed as instrument for comprehensive analysis of complex territorial processes influenced by former nuclear explosions on the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. It provides possibilities in detailed analyses for (i) extensive cartographic material, remote sensing, and field measurements data collected in different level databases; (ii) radionuclide migration with flows using accumulation and redistribution of soil particles; (iii) thermal anomalies

  16. A test-bed modeling study for wave resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Neary, V. S.; Wang, T.; Gunawan, B.; Dallman, A.

    2016-02-01

    Hindcasts from phase-averaged wave models are commonly used to estimate standard statistics used in wave energy resource assessments. However, the research community and wave energy converter industry is lacking a well-documented and consistent modeling approach for conducting these resource assessments at different phases of WEC project development, and at different spatial scales, e.g., from small-scale pilot study to large-scale commercial deployment. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate current wave model codes, as well as limitations and knowledge gaps for predicting sea states, in order to establish best wave modeling practices, and to identify future research needs to improve wave prediction for resource assessment. This paper presents the first phase of an on-going modeling study to address these concerns. The modeling study is being conducted at a test-bed site off the Central Oregon Coast using two of the most widely-used third-generation wave models - WaveWatchIII and SWAN. A nested-grid modeling approach, with domain dimension ranging from global to regional scales, was used to provide wave spectral boundary condition to a local scale model domain, which has a spatial dimension around 60km by 60km and a grid resolution of 250m - 300m. Model results simulated by WaveWatchIII and SWAN in a structured-grid framework are compared to NOAA wave buoy data for the six wave parameters, including omnidirectional wave power, significant wave height, energy period, spectral width, direction of maximum directionally resolved wave power, and directionality coefficient. Model performance and computational efficiency are evaluated, and the best practices for wave resource assessments are discussed, based on a set of standard error statistics and model run times.

  17. Methods and models for the construction of weakly parallel tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, J.J.; Adema, Jos J.

    1992-01-01

    Several methods are proposed for the construction of weakly parallel tests [i.e., tests with the same test information function (TIF)]. A mathematical programming model that constructs tests containing a prespecified TIF and a heuristic that assigns items to tests with information functions that are

  18. Extensions of the Rosner-Colditz breast cancer prediction model to include older women and type-specific predicted risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Robert J; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chen, Wendy Y; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter W; Rosner, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    A breast cancer risk prediction rule previously developed by Rosner and Colditz has reasonable predictive ability. We developed a re-fitted version of this model, based on more than twice as many cases now including women up to age 85, and further extended it to a model that distinguished risk factor prediction of tumors with different estrogen/progesterone receptor status. We compared the calibration and discriminatory ability of the original, the re-fitted, and the type-specific models. Evaluation used data from the Nurses' Health Study during the period 1980-2008, when 4384 incident invasive breast cancers occurred over 1.5 million person-years. Model development used two-thirds of study subjects and validation used one-third. Predicted risks in the validation sample from the original and re-fitted models were highly correlated (ρ = 0.93), but several parameters, notably those related to use of menopausal hormone therapy and age, had different estimates. The re-fitted model was well-calibrated and had an overall C-statistic of 0.65. The extended, type-specific model identified several risk factors with varying associations with occurrence of tumors of different receptor status. However, this extended model relative to the prediction of any breast cancer did not meaningfully reclassify women who developed breast cancer to higher risk categories, nor women remaining cancer free to lower risk categories. The re-fitted Rosner-Colditz model has applicability to risk prediction in women up to age 85, and its discrimination is not improved by consideration of varying associations across tumor subtypes.

  19. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD), a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and software reliability, has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices.After a brief overview of the TDD process and my experience in applying the methodology for development activities at Goddard, I will delve more deeply into some of the challenges that are posed by numerical and scientific software as well as tools and implementation approaches that should address those challenges.

  20. LIDT-DD: A New Self-Consistent Debris Disc Model Including Radiation Pressure and Coupling Dynamical and Collisional Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Q.; Thebault, P.; Charnoz, S.

    2014-01-01

    The first attempt at developing a fully self-consistent code coupling dynamics and collisions to study debris discs (Kral et al. 2013) is presented. So far, these two crucial mechanisms were studied separately, with N-body and statistical collisional codes respectively, because of stringent computational constraints. We present a new model named LIDT-DD which is able to follow over long timescales the coupled evolution of dynamics (including radiation forces) and collisions in a self-consistent way.

  1. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, K.G.; Batandjieva, B.; Cheng, J.-J.; Hwang, W.T.; Kaiser, J.C.; Kamboj, S.; Steiner, M.; Tomas, J.; Trifunovic, D.; Yu, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes the second of two modelling exercises. This exercise was based on a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area from a radiological dispersal device, with reference surface contamination at selected sites used as the primary input information. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a 'no action' situation (with no remedial measures) and for selected countermeasures. The exercise provided an opportunity for comparison of three modelling approaches, as well as a comparison of the predicted effectiveness of various countermeasures in terms of their short-term and long-term effects on predicted doses to humans.

  2. A nonlinear model for fluid flow in a multiple-zone composite reservoir including the quadratic gradient term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao-Lu; Fan, Xiang-Yu; Nie, Ren-Shi; Huang, Quan-Hua; He, Yong-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Based on material balance and Darcy's law, the governing equation with the quadratic pressure gradient term was deduced. Then the nonlinear model for fluid flow in a multiple-zone composite reservoir including the quadratic gradient term was established and solved using a Laplace transform. A series of standard log–log type curves of 1-zone (homogeneous), 2-zone and 3-zone reservoirs were plotted and nonlinear flow characteristics were analysed. The type curves governed by the coefficient of the quadratic gradient term (β) gradually deviate from those of a linear model with time elapsing. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were implemented to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The results showed that differences of pressure transients between the linear and nonlinear models increase with elapsed time and β. At the end, a successful application of the theoretical model data against the field data shows that the nonlinear model will be a good tool to evaluate formation parameters more accurately. (paper)

  3. Time-domain simulation of constitutive relations for nonlinear acoustics including relaxation for frequency power law attenuation media modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-10-01

    We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.

  4. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices. Of course, scientific/technical software differs from other software categories in a number of important respects, but I nonetheless believe that TDD is quite applicable to the development of such software and has the potential to significantly improve programmer productivity and code quality within the scientific community. After a detailed introduction to TDD, I will present the experience within the Software Systems Support Office (SSSO) in applying the technique to various scientific applications. This discussion will emphasize the various direct and indirect benefits as well as some of the difficulties and limitations of the methodology. I will conclude with a brief description of pFUnit, a unit testing framework I co-developed to support test-driven development of parallel Fortran applications.

  5. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin-Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  6. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  7. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal, E-mail: ghavanloo@shirazu.ac.ir [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafii-Tabar, Hashem [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  8. A comparison of different ways of including baseline counts in negative binomial models for data from falls prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han; Kimber, Alan; Goodwin, Victoria A; Pickering, Ruth M

    2018-01-01

    A common design for a falls prevention trial is to assess falling at baseline, randomize participants into an intervention or control group, and ask them to record the number of falls they experience during a follow-up period of time. This paper addresses how best to include the baseline count in the analysis of the follow-up count of falls in negative binomial (NB) regression. We examine the performance of various approaches in simulated datasets where both counts are generated from a mixed Poisson distribution with shared random subject effect. Including the baseline count after log-transformation as a regressor in NB regression (NB-logged) or as an offset (NB-offset) resulted in greater power than including the untransformed baseline count (NB-unlogged). Cook and Wei's conditional negative binomial (CNB) model replicates the underlying process generating the data. In our motivating dataset, a statistically significant intervention effect resulted from the NB-logged, NB-offset, and CNB models, but not from NB-unlogged, and large, outlying baseline counts were overly influential in NB-unlogged but not in NB-logged. We conclude that there is little to lose by including the log-transformed baseline count in standard NB regression compared to CNB for moderate to larger sized datasets. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Testing the generalized partial credit model

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1996-01-01

    The partial credit model (PCM) (G.N. Masters, 1982) can be viewed as a generalization of the Rasch model for dichotomous items to the case of polytomous items. In many cases, the PCM is too restrictive to fit the data. Several generalizations of the PCM have been proposed. In this paper, a generalization of the PCM (GPCM), a further generalization of the one-parameter logistic model, is discussed. The model is defined and the conditional maximum likelihood procedure for the method is describe...

  10. A two-dimensional model of the pressing section of a paper machine including dynamic capillary effects

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, Oleg P.

    2013-05-15

    Paper production is a problem with significant importance for society; it is also a challenging topic for scientific investigation. This study is concerned with the simulation of the pressing section of a paper machine. A two-dimensional model is developed to account for the water flow within the pressing zone. A Richards-type equation is used to describe the flow in the unsaturated zone. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation is adopted for the paper production process. The mathematical model accounts for the coexistence of saturated and unsaturated zones in a multilayer computational domain. The discretization is performed by the MPFA-O method. Numerical experiments are carried out for parameters that are typical of the production process. The static and dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relations are tested to evaluate the influence of the dynamic capillary effect. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  11. Testing the compounding structure of the CP-INARCH model

    OpenAIRE

    Weiß, Christian H.; Gonçalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazaré Mendes

    2017-01-01

    A statistical test to distinguish between a Poisson INARCH model and a Compound Poisson INARCH model is proposed, based on the form of the probability generating function of the compounding distribution of the conditional law of the model. For first-order autoregression, the normality of the test statistics’ asymptotic distribution is established, either in the case where the model parameters are specified, or when such parameters are consistently estimated. As the test statistics’ law involv...

  12. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  13. Method to Determine Appropriate Source Models of Large Earthquakes Including Tsunami Earthquakes for Tsunami Early Warning in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro; Miranda, Greyving Jose Arguello; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Fujii, Yushiro

    2017-08-01

    Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive tsunamis along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault models before large tsunamis hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault model was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a depth dependent rigidity. The method was tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America. The tsunami numerical simulations were carried out from the determined fault models. We found that the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas were reasonably well explained by the computed ones. Therefore, our method for tsunami early warning purpose should work to estimate a fault model which reproduces tsunami heights near the coast of El Salvador and Nicaragua due to large earthquakes in the subduction zone.

  14. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  15. Testing the generalized partial credit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1996-01-01

    The partial credit model (PCM) (G.N. Masters, 1982) can be viewed as a generalization of the Rasch model for dichotomous items to the case of polytomous items. In many cases, the PCM is too restrictive to fit the data. Several generalizations of the PCM have been proposed. In this paper, a

  16. Thermal and Fluid Modeling of the CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed (CRYOTE) Ground Test Article (GTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryk, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Walls, Laurie; Stopnitzky, Benny; Rhys, Noah; Wollen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to anchor thermal and fluid system models to data acquired from a ground test article (GTA) for the CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed - CRYOTE. To accomplish this analysis, it was broken into four primary tasks. These included model development, pre-test predictions, testing support at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC} and post-test correlations. Information from MSFC facilitated the task of refining and correlating the initial models. The primary goal of the modeling/testing/correlating efforts was to characterize heat loads throughout the ground test article. Significant factors impacting the heat loads included radiative environments, multi-layer insulation (MLI) performance, tank fill levels, tank pressures, and even contact conductance coefficients. This paper demonstrates how analytical thermal/fluid networks were established, and it includes supporting rationale for specific thermal responses seen during testing.

  17. Iwamoto-Harada coalescence/pickup model for cluster emission: state density approach including angular momentum variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Běták Emil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For low-energy nuclear reactions well above the resonance region, but still below the pion threshold, statistical pre-equilibrium models (e.g., the exciton and the hybrid ones are a frequent tool for analysis of energy spectra and the cross sections of cluster emission. For α’s, two essentially distinct approaches are popular, namely the preformed one and the different versions of coalescence approaches, whereas only the latter group of models can be used for other types of cluster ejectiles. The original Iwamoto-Harada model of pre-equilibrium cluster emission was formulated using the overlap of the cluster and its constituent nucleons in momentum space. Transforming it into level or state densities is not a straigthforward task; however, physically the same model was presented at a conference on reaction models five years earlier. At that time, only the densities without spin were used. The introduction of spin variables into the exciton model enabled detailed calculation of the γ emission and its competition with nucleon channels, and – at the same time – it stimulated further developments of the model. However – to the best of our knowledge – no spin formulation has been presented for cluster emission till recently, when the first attempts have been reported, but restricted to the first emission only. We have updated this effort now and we are able to handle (using the same simplifications as in our previous work pre-equilibrium cluster emission with spin including all nuclei in the reaction chain.

  18. A test of inflated zeros for Poisson regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Ye, Peng; Tang, Wan

    2017-01-01

    Excessive zeros are common in practice and may cause overdispersion and invalidate inference when fitting Poisson regression models. There is a large body of literature on zero-inflated Poisson models. However, methods for testing whether there are excessive zeros are less well developed. The Vuong test comparing a Poisson and a zero-inflated Poisson model is commonly applied in practice. However, the type I error of the test often deviates seriously from the nominal level, rendering serious doubts on the validity of the test in such applications. In this paper, we develop a new approach for testing inflated zeros under the Poisson model. Unlike the Vuong test for inflated zeros, our method does not require a zero-inflated Poisson model to perform the test. Simulation studies show that when compared with the Vuong test our approach not only better at controlling type I error rate, but also yield more power.

  19. 2-D Model Test Study of the Suape Breakwater, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.; Sopavicius, A.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the extension of the breakwater in Suape, Brazil. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:35. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  20. Testing flow diversion in animal models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahed, Robert; Raymond, Jean; Ducroux, Célina; Gentric, Jean-Christophe; Salazkin, Igor; Ziegler, Daniela; Gevry, Guylaine; Darsaut, Tim E

    2016-04-01

    Flow diversion (FD) is increasingly used to treat intracranial aneurysms. We sought to systematically review published studies to assess the quality of reporting and summarize the results of FD in various animal models. Databases were searched to retrieve all animal studies on FD from 2000 to 2015. Extracted data included species and aneurysm models, aneurysm and neck dimensions, type of flow diverter, occlusion rates, and complications. Articles were evaluated using a checklist derived from the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Forty-two articles reporting the results of FD in nine different aneurysm models were included. The rabbit elastase-induced aneurysm model was the most commonly used, with 3-month occlusion rates of 73.5%, (95%CI [61.9-82.6%]). FD of surgical sidewall aneurysms, constructed in rabbits or canines, resulted in high occlusion rates (100% [65.5-100%]). FD resulted in modest occlusion rates (15.4% [8.9-25.1%]) when tested in six complex canine aneurysm models designed to reproduce more difficult clinical contexts (large necks, bifurcation, or fusiform aneurysms). Adverse events, including branch occlusion, were rarely reported. There were no hemorrhagic complications. Articles complied with 20.8 ± 3.9 of 41 ARRIVE items; only a small number used randomization (3/42 articles [7.1%]) or a control group (13/42 articles [30.9%]). Preclinical studies on FD have shown various results. Occlusion of elastase-induced aneurysms was common after FD. The model is not challenging but standardized in many laboratories. Failures of FD can be reproduced in less standardized but more challenging surgical canine constructions. The quality of reporting could be improved.