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Sample records for models pm10 remained

  1. PM10 modeling of Beijing in the winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Zhang, Minsi; Cai, Xuhui

    The megacity of Beijing, China, has had an air pollution problem since the 1990s. The concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) in Beijing in the winter of 2000 were high; the average value of 188 μg m -3 was nearly four times the first grade national standard of 50 μg m -3. The CALPUFF modeling system was used to simulate PM10 dispersion from 1 January 2000 to 29 February 2000. We used near real-time landcover data from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS). Statistical evaluation indicated that the model agreed well with the observations. The fluctuations of 24-h PM10 concentrations followed the winter synoptic winds. Cold air from the northwest or north intruded over Beijing for average periods of 4 days in winter, accompanied by high wind speeds. PM10 was swept out of Beijing after the cold fronts and accumulated again once the winds stopped, until the next cold air intrusion. Capital Steel Corporation Limited contributed 46% of the PM10 mass concentrations observed in the Shijingshan industrial area, and had little effect on the eastern part or the center of Beijing. The other industrial regions distributed in southeastern Beijing accounted for an average of 18% of the PM10 in Beijing. Boilers associated with coal consumption mostly for winter heating contributed 31%. Motor vehicles and road dust contributed 5% and 13%, respectively. The total of residential heating in old houses and restaurants contributed approximately 7%. The primary PM10 emissions from electrical generating units were relatively low. Some suggestions are proposed for reducing PM10 pollution in Beijing.

  2. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Fagerli, H.; Nyiri, A.; Amann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM) has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter EU air quality limit values in 2009. As a validation, we compare modelled trends in the period 2000-2008 to observations, which are well reproduced. The modelling scheme is applied here to quantify explicitly source contributions to ambient concentrations at several critical monitoring stations, displaying the differences in spatial origin and chemical composition of urban roadside PM10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are largely eliminated in a scenario applying the best available emission control technologies to the maximal technically feasible extent.

  3. Improvement of PM10 prediction in East Asia using inverse modeling

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    Koo, Youn-Seo; Choi, Dae-Ryun; Kwon, Hi-Yong; Jang, Young-Kee; Han, Jin-Seok

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols from anthropogenic emissions in industrialized region in China as well as dust emissions from southern Mongolia and northern China that transport along prevailing northwestern wind have a large influence on the air quality in Korea. The emission inventory in the East Asia region is an important factor in chemical transport modeling (CTM) for PM10 (particulate matters less than 10 ㎛ in aerodynamic diameter) forecasts and air quality management in Korea. Most previous studies showed that predictions of PM10 mass concentration by the CTM were underestimated when comparing with observational data. In order to fill the gap in discrepancies between observations and CTM predictions, the inverse Bayesian approach with Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension (CAMx) forward model was applied to obtain optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions in East Asia. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were first compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea for January and August 2008. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori PM10 emissions for anthropogenic and dust sources were generally under-predicted. The result from the inverse modeling indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were underestimated while dust emissions from desert and barren soil in southern Mongolia and northern China were overestimated. A priori PM10 emissions from northeastern China regions including Shenyang, Changchun, and Harbin were underestimated by about 300% (i.e., the ratio of a posteriori to a priori PM10 emission was a factor of about 3). The predictions of PM10 concentrations with a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modeling minimized the discrepancies in the model predictions by improving PM10 emissions in East Asia.

  4. Regression trees modeling and forecasting of PM10 air pollution in urban areas

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    Stoimenova, M.; Voynikova, D.; Ivanov, A.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Iliev, I.

    2017-10-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM10) air pollution is a serious problem affecting the health of the population in many Bulgarian cities. As an example, the object of this study is the pollution with PM10 of the town of Pleven, Northern Bulgaria. The measured concentrations of this air pollutant for this city consistently exceeded the permissible limits set by European and national legislation. Based on data for the last 6 years (2011-2016), the analysis shows that this applies both to the daily limit of 50 micrograms per cubic meter and the allowable number of daily concentration exceedances to 35 per year. Also, the average annual concentration of PM10 exceeded the prescribed norm of no more than 40 micrograms per cubic meter. The aim of this work is to build high performance mathematical models for effective prediction and forecasting the level of PM10 pollution. The study was conducted with the powerful flexible data mining technique Classification and Regression Trees (CART). The values of PM10 were fitted with respect to meteorological data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction and others, as well as with time and autoregressive variables. As a result the obtained CART models demonstrate high predictive ability and fit the actual data with up to 80%. The best models were applied for forecasting the level pollution for 3 to 7 days ahead. An interpretation of the modeling results is presented.

  5. Multiple linear regression and regression with time series error models in forecasting PM10 concentrations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kar Yong; Awang, Norhashidah

    2018-01-06

    Frequent haze occurrences in Malaysia have made the management of PM 10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic less than 10 μm) pollution a critical task. This requires knowledge on factors associating with PM 10 variation and good forecast of PM 10 concentrations. Hence, this paper demonstrates the prediction of 1-day-ahead daily average PM 10 concentrations based on predictor variables including meteorological parameters and gaseous pollutants. Three different models were built. They were multiple linear regression (MLR) model with lagged predictor variables (MLR1), MLR model with lagged predictor variables and PM 10 concentrations (MLR2) and regression with time series error (RTSE) model. The findings revealed that humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction, carbon monoxide and ozone were the main factors explaining the PM 10 variation in Peninsular Malaysia. Comparison among the three models showed that MLR2 model was on a same level with RTSE model in terms of forecasting accuracy, while MLR1 model was the worst.

  6. Multivariate methods for indoor PM10 and PM2.5 modelling in naturally ventilated schools buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbayoumi, Maher; Ramli, Nor Azam; Md Yusof, Noor Faizah Fitri; Yahaya, Ahmad Shukri Bin; Al Madhoun, Wesam; Ul-Saufie, Ahmed Zia

    2014-09-01

    In this study the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, CO and CO2 concentrations and meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, and relative humidity) were employed to predict the annual and seasonal indoor concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 using multivariate statistical methods. The data have been collected in twelve naturally ventilated schools in Gaza Strip (Palestine) from October 2011 to May 2012 (academic year). The bivariate correlation analysis showed that the indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were highly positive correlated with outdoor concentration of PM10 and PM2.5. Further, Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used for modelling and R2 values for indoor PM10 were determined as 0.62 and 0.84 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. The Performance indicators of MLR models indicated that the prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 annual models were better than seasonal models. In order to reduce the number of input variables, principal component analysis (PCA) and principal component regression (PCR) were applied by using annual data. The predicted R2 were 0.40 and 0.73 for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. PM10 models (MLR and PCR) show the tendency to underestimate indoor PM10 concentrations as it does not take into account the occupant's activities which highly affect the indoor concentrations during the class hours.

  7. A model inter-comparison study focussing on episodes with elevated PM10 concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, R.; Builtjes, P.; Kerschbaumer, A. [Free Univ Berlin, Inst Meteorol, D-12165 Berlin (Germany); Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Timmermans, R. [Air Qual and Climate Team, TNO Built Environm and Geosci, Utrecht, (Netherlands); Vautard, R. [CEA Saclay, LSCE, IPSL Lab, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Hodzic, A. [Ecole Polytech, LMD/IPSL, F-91198 Palaiseau (France); Memmesheimer, M. [Univ Cologne, Rhein Inst Umweltforsch, D-50931 Cologne (Germany); Feldmann, H. [Univ Karlsruhe, IMK-TRO, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Renner, E.; Wolke, R. [Leibniz Inst Tropospharenforsch, Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Five three-dimensional chemical transport models of different complexity were applied to Central Europe to assess the ability of models to reproduce PM10 concentrations under highly polluted conditions. The participating models were the French CHIMERE model, the Dutch LOTOS-EUROS model, as well as the REM-CALGRID, the EURAD and the LM-MUSCAT models from Germany. In the selected 80-day period, observed PM10 daily mean concentrations reached values well above 50 {mu}gm{sup -3} on many days in large parts of Northern Germany. This model evaluation shows that there is an increasing underestimation of primary and secondary species with increasing observed PM10. The high PM levels were observed under stagnant weather conditions, which are difficult to simulate with either prognostic or diagnostic, interpolation-based meteorological models. Thus, it is quite likely that uncertainties in PM emissions and incomplete process sub-modules each separately account for only a portion of the underestimation of high PM. Uncertainties in key boundary layer parameters, which can differ by a factor of two or more between the models, represent an additional source of error-both as direct sources of error through the transporting meteorological fields and indirect sources of error through the physico-chemical modules which rely on key boundary layer parameters. (authors)

  8. Developing a methodology to predict PM10 concentrations in urban areas using generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J M; Teodoro, F; Cerdeira, R; Coelho, L M R; Kumar, Prashant; Carvalho, M G

    2016-09-01

    A methodology to predict PM10 concentrations in urban outdoor environments is developed based on the generalized linear models (GLMs). The methodology is based on the relationship developed between atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants (i.e. CO, NO2, NOx, VOCs, SO2) and meteorological variables (i.e. ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speed) for a city (Barreiro) of Portugal. The model uses air pollution and meteorological data from the Portuguese monitoring air quality station networks. The developed GLM considers PM10 concentrations as a dependent variable, and both the gaseous pollutants and meteorological variables as explanatory independent variables. A logarithmic link function was considered with a Poisson probability distribution. Particular attention was given to cases with air temperatures both below and above 25°C. The best performance for modelled results against the measured data was achieved for the model with values of air temperature above 25°C compared with the model considering all ranges of air temperatures and with the model considering only temperature below 25°C. The model was also tested with similar data from another Portuguese city, Oporto, and results found to behave similarly. It is concluded that this model and the methodology could be adopted for other cities to predict PM10 concentrations when these data are not available by measurements from air quality monitoring stations or other acquisition means.

  9. Receptor modeling studies for the characterization of PM10 pollution sources in Belgrade

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    Mijić Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the major sources and potential source regions of PM10 over Belgrade, Serbia. The PM10 samples were collected from July 2003 to December 2006 in very urban area of Belgrade and concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The analysis of seasonal variations of PM10 mass and some element concentrations reported relatively higher concentrations in winter, what underlined the importance of local emission sources. The Unmix model was used for source apportionment purpose and the four main source profiles (fossil fuel combustion; traffic exhaust/regional transport from industrial centers; traffic related particles/site specific sources and mineral/crustal matter were identified. Among the resolved factors the fossil fuel combustion was the highest contributor (34% followed by traffic/regional industry (26%. Conditional probability function (CPF results identified possible directions of local sources. The potential source contribution function (PSCF and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT receptor models were used to identify spatial source distribution and contribution of regional-scale transported aerosols. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007 i br. III41011

  10. Modeling the spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the PM10-PM2.5 relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hone-Jay; Huang, Bo; Lin, Chuan-Yao

    2015-02-01

    This paper explores the spatio-temporal patterns of particulate matter (PM) in Taiwan based on a series of methods. Using fuzzy c-means clustering first, the spatial heterogeneity (six clusters) in the PM data collected between 2005 and 2009 in Taiwan are identified and the industrial and urban areas of Taiwan (southwestern, west central, northwestern, and northern Taiwan) are found to have high PM concentrations. The PM10-PM2.5 relationship is then modeled with global ordinary least squares regression, geographically weighted regression (GWR), and geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR). The GTWR and GWR produce consistent results; however, GTWR provides more detailed information of spatio-temporal variations of the PM10-PM2.5 relationship. The results also show that GTWR provides a relatively high goodness of fit and sufficient space-time explanatory power. In particular, the PM2.5 or PM10 varies with time and space, depending on weather conditions and the spatial distribution of land use and emission patterns in local areas. Such information can be used to determine patterns of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in PM that will allow the control of pollutants and the reduction of public exposure.

  11. Developing a Hierarchical Model for the Spatial Analysis of PM10 Pollution Extremes in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

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    Alejandro Ivan Aguirre-Salado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We implemented a spatial model for analysing PM 10 maxima across the Mexico City metropolitan area during the period 1995–2016. We assumed that these maxima follow a non-identical generalized extreme value (GEV distribution and modeled the trend by introducing multivariate smoothing spline functions into the probability GEV distribution. A flexible, three-stage hierarchical Bayesian approach was developed to analyse the distribution of the PM 10 maxima in space and time. We evaluated the statistical model’s performance by using a simulation study. The results showed strong evidence of a positive correlation between the PM 10 maxima and the longitude and latitude. The relationship between time and the PM 10 maxima was negative, indicating a decreasing trend over time. Finally, a high risk of PM 10 maxima presenting levels above 1000 μ g/m 3 (return period: 25 yr was observed in the northwestern region of the study area.

  12. Modelling PM 10 concentrations and carrying capacity associated with woodheater emissions in Launceston, Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Galbally, Ian E.; Keywood, Melita

    Launceston is one of the Australian cities most affected by particle pollution due to the use of woodheaters in the winter months, with frequent exceedences of the national standard, the National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality (or Air NEPM in short), of 50 micrograms per cubic metre for daily PM 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less). The main objective of the present study was to determine the woodheater carrying capacity for Launceston—the number of woodheaters that can operate in the city without exceeding the Air NEPM. For this purpose, a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model called TAPM is used, coupled to a gridded woodheater PM 10 emissions inventory. The latter was derived using information on dwelling density, the percentage of dwellings with woodheaters, woodheater emission rates and their diurnal and seasonal variations, and the proportions of compliant/non-compliant woodheaters and open fireplaces. The model simulations are performed for the year 1998, and the concentrations are scaled for previous and subsequent years using trends in woodheater numbers and types. The modelled number of exceedences of the Air NEPM for the period 1997-2004 is in good agreement with the observations. The modelling indicates that the PM 10 Air NEPM would be met in Launceston when the total number of woodheaters is 20% of the total number of dwellings, of which 76%, 18%, 6% would be compliant woodheaters, non-compliant woodheaters and open fireplaces, respectively. With the present trends in the regional woodheater profile, this should occur in the year 2007.

  13. PM10 modeling in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) by using multivariate adaptive regression splines

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    Nieto, Paulino José García; Antón, Juan Carlos Álvarez; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to build a regression model of the particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in size (PM10) by using the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) at local scale. This research work explores the use of a nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) which has the ability to approximate the relationship between the inputs and outputs, and express the relationship mathematically. In this sense, hazardous air pollutants or toxic air contaminants refer to any substance that may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or serious illness, or that may pose a present or potential hazard to human health. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and dust (PM10) were collected over 3 years (2006-2008) and they are used to create a highly nonlinear model of the PM10 in the Oviedo urban nucleus (Northern Spain) based on the MARS technique. One main objective of this model is to obtain a preliminary estimate of the dependence between PM10 pollutant in the Oviedo urban area at local scale. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on air quality with a view to proposing health and lifestyle improvements. The United States National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) establishes the limit values of the main pollutants in the atmosphere in order to ensure the health of healthy people. Firstly, this MARS regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the main pollutants in the Oviedo urban area. Secondly, the main advantages of MARS are its capacity to produce simple, easy-to-interpret models, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, on the basis of

  14. PM10 Concentration Estimates over Costa Rica using Chemical Transport Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno-Castillo, J. S.; Vidaurre, G.; Herrera, J.; Mora, R.; Rivera-fernandez, E. R.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol pollution has become a major issue in Costa Rica because of the urban development that induces an increase in vehicle and industrial emissions. The Metropolitan area in Costa Rica is a valley ( 1,967 km2 area) with a population of 2.6 million. This area concentrates 60% of the country's total industry and 57% of its vehicle emissions. In addition, this area is impacted by biogenic emissions coming from national forests surround it and windblown dust from the Sahara Desert transported by the Trade winds. PM10 and other criteria pollutants have been measured in the past 12 years. However, those monitor stations are single points of observation and do not represent the spatial and temporal resolution that the Costa Rican national government requires for long term policy decisions and health effects assessments. This investigation uses the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry version 3.7 (WRF-Chem) to forecast PM10 concentration over Costa Rica in 2013. The temporal scales take into consideration the dry, rainy, and transition seasons of the country. The spatial domain was constructed with a master domain (27 km resolution) and multiple nested-domains (9, 3, and 1 km respectively) that include the total area of Costa Rica. The meteorology data bases for this model are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Reanalysis (Era-Interim; Dee et al. 2011). In addition, the chemical transport model uses emissions inventories from the PREP-CHEM-SRC tool, because of the lack of an appropriate national emission inventory for this investigation. The total average of PM10 observed at the metropolitan area of Costa Rica was 26±9 μgm-3 in 2013. According to the World Health Organization, this result exceeds the PM10 standard established in the air quality guidelines (WHO 2005). The final goal of this investigation is to evaluate the chemical transport simulations with ground-level measurements from more than 10

  15. PM10 monitoring and receptor modeling in some urban areas of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V.S.; Engelbrecht, J.P.; Swanepoel, L.; Mostert, J.; Chow, J.

    1997-01-01

    Several source apportionment studies have been conducted in some of the urban areas of South Africa following US EPA guidelines. These studies involved the measuring of close to 40 new source profiles, ambient air sampling, chemical analyses and the CMB7 source apportionment modeling of PM10 size fractions. Source and ambient data were collected by Mintek over a five year period at sites in Vereeniging, Vanderbijlpark and Sasolburg (all in the Vaal Triangle), Olifantsfontein, Nelspruit and Randburg. Comparison of the gravimetric data show definite seasonal trends, with the highest levels being recorded during the winter months at sampling sites close to townships which use domestic coal as their prime source of energy. In the industrial areas of the Vaal Triangle and Olifantsfontein the pollution levels are at their highest, with the US EPA 24-hour national ambient air quality standard of 150g per cubic meter being exceeded on several occasions. The US EPA annual mean standard of 50g per cubic meter was also exceeded at these sites. The lowest PM10 levels were recorded in the residential areas Randburg and Nelspruit (Valencia Park). The source apportionment results show domestic coal combustion, fugitive soil dust, secondary salts of ammonium sulfate and nitrate, and power plant fly-ash to be major contributors to airborne particulate pollution. For the Nelspruit sites biomass burning is a major contributor. Minor sources include iron arc furnace, sinter plant and coking furnace dusts. Petrol vehicle emissions are also a minor source of PM10 pollution. Results from these studies emphasize the need for a continuous national air monitoring network for South Africa, from which the authorities, industry, the public and the environment can benefit

  16. Modeling PM10 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and evaluation of its impact on human health

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    Bang Quoc Ho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organization (WHO and Global Burden of Disease, ambient air pollution is estimated to be responsible for 3.7 million premature deaths in 2012 [1]. Therefore, it is urgent to estimate the impact of air pollution on public health and economic damage. The objectives of this research are: study the distribution of PM10 concentration over Ho Chi Minh city (HCMC and relationship to public health and for proposing solutions of diseases prevention in HCM, Vietnam. EMIssion SENSitivity model was applied to conduct air emission inventory for transportation sector. Then, Finite Volume Model and Transport and Photochemistry Mesoscale Model were used to simulate the meteorology and the spatial distribution of PM10 in HCMC. Together with disease data obtained, the US Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Model was applied for calculating the number of deaths and estimating economic losses due to PM10 pollution. Finally, solutions to reduce PM10 pollution and protect public health are proposed. The results showed that the highest 1-h average concentration of PM10 is 240 μg m−3 in North Eastern of HCMC. The concentration of PM10 for annual average in District 5 ranged from 17 to 49 μg m−3. There are 12 wards of District 5 with PM10 concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines (20 μg m−3 for annual average of PM10 and 50 μg m−3 for 24-h average. The high concentration of PM10 causes 5 deaths yr−1 in District 5 and 204 deaths yr−1 in HCMC, and it causes economic losses of 1.84 billion of USD.

  17. Prediction of PM10 grades in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on synoptic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, S. K.; Oh, H. R.; Ho, C. H.; Kim, J.; Song, C. K.; Chang, L. S.; Lee, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    As of November 2014, the Korean Ministry of Environment (KME) started forecasting the level of ambient particulate matter with diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) as four grades: low (PM10 ≤ 30 μg m-3), moderate (30 150 μg m-3). Due to short history of forecast, overall performance of the operational forecasting system and its hit rate for the four PM10 grades are difficult to evaluate. In attempt to provide a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system, we hindcasted the four PM10 grades for the cold seasons (October-March) of 2001-2014 in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on the synoptic patterns of meteorological fields such as geopotential height, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind. In the form of cosine similarity, the distinctive synoptic patterns for each PM10 grades are well quantified as predictors to train the neural network model. Using these fields as predictors and considering the PM10 concentration in Seoul from the day before prediction as an additional predictor, an overall hit rate of 69% was achieved; the hit rates for the low, moderate, high, and very high PM10 grades were 33%, 83%, 45%, and 33%, respectively. This study reveals that the synoptic patterns of meteorological fields are useful predictors for the identification of favorable conditions for each PM10 grade, and the associated transboundary transport and local accumulation of PM10 from the industrialized regions of China. Consequently, the assessments of predictability obtained from the neural network model in this study are reliable to use as a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system.

  18. Non-chemistry coupled PM10 modeling in Chiang Mai City, Northern Thailand: A fast operational approach for aerosol forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ronald; Bagtasa, Gerry; Sonkaew, Thiranan

    2017-09-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF v. 3.7) model was applied to model PM10 data in Chiang Mai city for 10-days during a high haze event utilizing updated land use categories from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A higher resolution meteorological lateral boundary condition (from 1 degree to 0.25 degree) was also used from the NCEP GDAS/FNL Global Tropospheric Analyses and Forecast Grid system. A 3-category urban canopy model was also added and the Thompson aerosol-aware microphysics parameterization scheme was used to model the aerosol number concentrations that were later converted to PM10 concentrations. Aerosol number concentration monthly climatology was firstly used as initial and lateral boundary conditions to model PM10 concentrations. These were compared to surface data obtained from two stations of the Pollution Control Department (PCD) of Thailand. The results from the modeled PM10 concentrations could not capture the variability (r = 0.29; 0.27 for each site) and underestimated a high PM10 spike during the period studied. The authors then added satellite data to the aerosol climatology that improved the comparison with observations (r = 0.45; 43). However, both model runs still were not able to capture the high PM10 concentration event. This requires further investigation.

  19. Evaluation for Long Term PM10 Concentration Forecasting using Multi Linear Regression (MLR and Principal Component Regression (PCR Models

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    Samsuri Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in Peninsular Malaysia is dominated by particulate matter which is demonstrated by having the highest Air Pollution Index (API value compared to the other pollutants at most part of the country. Particulate Matter (PM10 forecasting models development is crucial because it allows the authority and citizens of a community to take necessary actions to limit their exposure to harmful levels of particulates pollution and implement protection measures to significantly improve air quality on designated locations. This study aims in improving the ability of MLR using PCs inputs for PM10 concentrations forecasting. Daily observations for PM10 in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia from January 2003 till December 2011 were utilized to forecast PM10 concentration levels. MLR and PCR (using PCs input models were developed and the performance was evaluated using RMSE, NAE and IA. Results revealed that PCR performed better than MLR due to the implementation of PCA which reduce intricacy and eliminate data multi-collinearity.

  20. MLP based models to predict PM10, O3 concentrations, in Sines industrial area

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    Durao, R.; Pereira, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Sines is an important Portuguese industrial area located southwest cost of Portugal with important nearby protected natural areas. The main economical activities are related with this industrial area, the deep-water port, petrochemical and thermo-electric industry. Nevertheless, tourism is also an important economic activity especially in summer time with potential to grow. The aim of this study is to develop prediction models of pollutant concentration categories (e.g. low concentration and high concentration) in order to provide early warnings to the competent authorities who are responsible for the air quality management. The knowledge in advanced of pollutant high concentrations occurrence will allow the implementation of mitigation actions and the release of precautionary alerts to population. The regional air quality monitoring network consists in three monitoring stations where a set of pollutants' concentrations are registered on a continuous basis. From this set stands out the tropospheric ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) due to the high concentrations occurring in the region and their adverse effects on human health. Moreover, the major industrial plants of the region monitor SO2, NO2 and particles emitted flows at the principal chimneys (point sources), also on a continuous basis,. Therefore Artificial neuronal networks (ANN) were the applied methodology to predict next day pollutant concentrations; due to the ANNs structure they have the ability to capture the non-linear relationships between predictor variables. Hence the first step of this study was to apply multivariate exploratory techniques to select the best predictor variables. The classification trees methodology (CART) was revealed to be the most appropriate in this case.. Results shown that pollutants atmospheric concentrations are mainly dependent on industrial emissions and a complex combination of meteorological factors and the time of the year. In the second step, the Multi

  1. Modelling of particulate matter pollution (PM10) over the Etang de Berre area Determination of areas of homogeneous pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Mesbah, B.; Hourdin, G.

    2010-01-01

    AIRFOBEP is the association in charge of the air quality monitoring in the Etang de Berre area. AIRFOBEP is managing a network of ten sensors to monitor the PMI (particulate matter index) particulate pollution. This network is updated once a year according to the Air Quality Monitoring Plan (PSQA). Optimizing this network needs to know how the particulate pollution is distributed in the area. In other words, to determine the limits of homogeneous zones of PM 10 pollution. The aim of the project presented in this article is to produce a map of homogeneous zones of PM 10 pollution in the Etang de Berre area. The project was carried out in two steps: - PM 10 atmospheric dispersion modeling, using a ADMS-URBAN software, - Statistic classification, based on the well known Hierarchical Ascending Classification (HAC) technique. Results of the atmospheric dispersion modeling was namely adjusted using an original technique for the 'background PM 10 pollution' computation. Good performances have been obtained when comparing modeling and measurements data. Finally, a set of five homogeneous zones was found to well describe the PM 10 pollution level distribution in the Etang de Berre area. (author)

  2. Mapping the annual exceedance frequencies of the PM10 air quality standard - Comparing kriging to a generalized linear spatial model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available compare ordinary and regression kriging models to the Poisson log-linear spatial model (Diggle et al. 1998, Diggle et al. 2007) with and without covariate information in mapping annual average exceedance frequencies of the South African PM10 air quality...

  3. A spatially varying coefficient model for mapping PM10 air quality at the European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamm, N.A.S.; Finley, A.O.; Schaap, M.; Stein, A.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air quality in Europe has improved substantially over the past decades, but it still poses a significant threat to human health. Accurate regional scale maps of PM10 concentrations are needed for monitoring progress in mitigation strategies and monitoring compliance with

  4. A Comparison on Function of Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighting Models in PM10 Zoning in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: According to higher concentration of PM10 compared to WHO standard values particularly in spring, necessary actions and solutions should be taken for the pollution reduction. This study indicated that Kriging model has a better efficiency for spatial analysis of suspended particles, compared to IDW method.

  5. Metallurgical source-contribution analysis of PM10 annual average concentration: A dispersion modeling approach in moravian-silesian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jančík

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to present analysis of metallurgical industry contribution to annual average PM10 concentrations in Moravian-Silesian based on means of the air pollution modelling in accord with the Czech reference methodology SYMOS´97.

  6. Evaluation of a road dust suspension model for predicting the concentrations of PM 10 in a street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhaniemi, M.; Kukkonen, J.; Härkönen, J.; Nikmo, J.; Kangas, L.; Omstedt, G.; Ketzel, M.; Kousa, A.; Haakana, M.; Karppinen, A.

    2011-07-01

    We have slightly refined, evaluated and tested a mathematical model for predicting the vehicular suspension emissions of PM 10. The model describes particulate matter generated by the wear of road pavement, traction sand, and the processes that control the suspension of road dust particles into the air. However, the model does not address the emissions from the wear of vehicle components. The performance of this suspension emission model has been evaluated in combination with the street canyon dispersion model OSPM. We used data from a measurement campaign that was conducted in the street canyon Runeberg Street in Helsinki from 8 January to 2 May, 2004. The model reproduced fairly well the seasonal variation of the PM 10 concentrations, also during the time periods, when studded tyres and anti-skid treatments were commonly in use. For instance, the index of agreement (IA) was 0.83 for the time series of the hourly predicted and observed concentrations of PM 10. The predictions of the model were found to be sensitive to precipitation and street traction sanding. The main uncertainties in the predictions are probably caused by (i) the cleaning processes of the streets, which are currently not included in the model, (ii) the uncertainties in the estimation of the sanding days, and (iii) the uncertainties in the evaluation of precipitation. This study provides more confidence that this model could potentially be a valuable tool of assessment to evaluate and forecast the suspension PM 10 emissions worldwide. However, a further evaluation of the model is needed against other datasets in various vehicle fleet, speed and climatic conditions.

  7. Maternal exposure to ambient PM10during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital heart defects: Evidence from machine learning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhoupeng; Zhu, Jun; Gao, Yanfang; Yin, Qian; Hu, Maogui; Dai, Li; Deng, Changfei; Yi, Lin; Deng, Kui; Wang, Yanping; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Jinfeng

    2018-02-19

    Previous research suggested an association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollutants and risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs), though the effects of particulate matter ≤10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ) on CHDs are inconsistent. We used two machine learning models (i.e., random forest (RF) and gradient boosting (GB)) to investigate the non-linear effects of PM 10 exposure during the critical time window, weeks 3-8 in pregnancy, on risk of CHDs. From 2009 through 2012, we carried out a population-based birth cohort study on 39,053 live-born infants in Beijing. RF and GB models were used to calculate odds ratios for CHDs associated with increase in PM 10 exposure, adjusting for maternal and perinatal characteristics. Maternal exposure to PM 10 was identified as the primary risk factor for CHDs in all machine learning models. We observed a clear non-linear effect of maternal exposure to PM 10 on CHDs risk. Compared to 40μgm -3 , the following odds ratios resulted: 1) 92μgm -3 [RF: 1.16 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.28); GB: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.35)]; 2) 111μgm -3 [RF: 1.04 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.14); GB: 1.04 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.08)]; 3) 124μgm -3 [RF: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.10); GB: 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.02)]; 4) 190μgm -3 [RF: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.44); GB: 1.71 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.17)]. Overall, both machine models showed an association between maternal exposure to ambient PM 10 and CHDs in Beijing, highlighting the need for non-linear methods to investigate dose-response relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  9. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulation of PM10 Dispersion Caused by Rail Transit Construction Activity: A Real Urban Street Canyon Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Ying; Zuo, Jian; Rameezdeen, Raufdeen

    2018-03-09

    Particle emissions derived from construction activities have a significant impact on the local air quality, while the canyon effect with reduced natural ventilation contributes to the highest particulate pollution in urban environments. This study attempted to examine the effect of PM 10 emissions derived from the construction of a rail transit system in an urban street canyon. Using a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on a real street canyon with different height ratios, this study formulates the impact of height ratio and wind directions on the dispersion and concentration of PM 10 . The results indicate that parallel flow would cause the concentration of PM 10 at the end of the street canyons in all height ratios, and the trends in horizontal, vertical and lateral planes in all street canyons are similar. While in the condition of perpendicular flow, double-eddy circulations occur and lead to the concentration of PM 10 in the middle part of the street canyon and leeward of backwind buildings in all height ratios. Furthermore, perpendicular flow will cause the concentration of PM 10 to increase if the upwind buildings are higher than the backwind ones. This study also shows that the dispersion of PM 10 is strongly associated with wind direction in and the height ratios of the street canyons. Certain measures could, therefore, be taken to prevent the impact on people in terms of the PM 10 concentration and the heights of street canyons identified in this research. Potential mitigation strategies are suggested, include measurements below 4 m according to governmental regulations, dust shields, and atomized water.

  10. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD Simulation of PM10 Dispersion Caused by Rail Transit Construction Activity: A Real Urban Street Canyon Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle emissions derived from construction activities have a significant impact on the local air quality, while the canyon effect with reduced natural ventilation contributes to the highest particulate pollution in urban environments. This study attempted to examine the effect of PM10 emissions derived from the construction of a rail transit system in an urban street canyon. Using a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD model based on a real street canyon with different height ratios, this study formulates the impact of height ratio and wind directions on the dispersion and concentration of PM10. The results indicate that parallel flow would cause the concentration of PM10 at the end of the street canyons in all height ratios, and the trends in horizontal, vertical and lateral planes in all street canyons are similar. While in the condition of perpendicular flow, double-eddy circulations occur and lead to the concentration of PM10 in the middle part of the street canyon and leeward of backwind buildings in all height ratios. Furthermore, perpendicular flow will cause the concentration of PM10 to increase if the upwind buildings are higher than the backwind ones. This study also shows that the dispersion of PM10 is strongly associated with wind direction in and the height ratios of the street canyons. Certain measures could, therefore, be taken to prevent the impact on people in terms of the PM10 concentration and the heights of street canyons identified in this research. Potential mitigation strategies are suggested, include measurements below 4 m according to governmental regulations, dust shields, and atomized water.

  11. Simulating the meteorology and PM10concentrations in Arizona dust storms with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (Wrf-Chem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Peter; Mahalov, Alex; Li, Jialun

    2017-07-24

    Nine dust storms in south-central Arizona, USA were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem) at 2-km resolution. The windblown dust emission algorithm was the Air Force Weather Agency model. In comparison with ground-based PM 10 observations, the model unevenly reproduces the dust storm events. The model adequately estimates the location and timing of the events, but it is unable to precisely replicate the magnitude and timing of the elevated hourly concentrations of particles 10 microns and smaller ([PM 10 ]).Furthermore, the model under-estimated [PM 10 ] in highly agricultural Pinal County because it under-estimated surface wind speeds and because the model's erodible fractions of the land surface data were too coarse to effectively resolve the active and abandoned agricultural lands. In contrast, the model over-estimated [PM 10 ] in western Arizona along the Colorado River because it generated daytime sea breezes (from the nearby Gulf of California) whose surface-layer speeds were too strong. In Phoenix the model's performance depended on the event, with both under- and over-estimations partly due to incorrect representation of urban features. Sensitivity tests indicate that [PM 10 ] highly rely on meteorological forcing. Increasing the fraction of erodible surfaces in the Pinal County agricultural areas improved the simulation of [PM 10 ] in that region. Both 24-hr and 1-hr measured [PM 10 ] were, for the most part, and especially in Pinal County, extremely elevated, with the former exceeding the health standard by as much as tenfold and the latter exceeding health-based guidelines by as much as seventy-fold. Monsoonal thunderstorms not only produce elevated [PM 10 ], but also cause flash floods and disrupt water resource deliveries. Given the severity and frequency of these dust storms, and conceding that the modeling system applied in this work did not produce the desired agreement between simulations and

  12. Estimation of PM10 concentrations over Seoul using multiple empirical models with AERONET and MODIS data collected during the DRAGON-Asia campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B. N.; Kim, S.-W.; Song, C. H.; Lim, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of various empirical linear models to estimate the concentrations of surface-level particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) was evaluated using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data collected in Seoul during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON)-Asia campaign from March to May 2012. An observed relationship between the PM10 concentration and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) was accounted for by several parameters in the empirical models, including boundary layer height (BLH), relative humidity (RH), and effective radius of the aerosol size distribution (Reff), which was used here for the first time in empirical modeling. Among various empirical models, the model which incorporates both BLH and Reff showed the highest correlation, which indicates the strong influence of BLH and Reff on the PM10 estimations. Meanwhile, the effect of RH on the relationship between AOD and PM10 appeared to be negligible during the campaign period (spring), when RH is generally low in northeast Asia. A large spatial dependency of the empirical model performance was found by categorizing the locations of the collected data into three different site types, which varied in terms of the distances between instruments and source locations. When both AERONET and MODIS data sets were used in the PM10 estimation, the highest correlations between measured and estimated values (R = 0.76 and 0.76 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the residential area (RA) site type, while the poorest correlations (R = 0.61 and 0.68 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the near-source (NS) site type. Significant seasonal variations of empirical model performances for PM10 estimation were found using the data collected at Yonsei University (one of the DRAGON campaign sites) over a period of 17 months including the DRAGON campaign

  13. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-08-21

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

  14. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the “Polluters Pay Principle”, polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC approach and the Cost of Illness (COI method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

  15. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-01-01

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the “Polluters Pay Principle”, polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss. PMID:26308020

  16. To what extent can aerosol water explain the discrepancy between model calculated and gravimetric PM10 and PM2.5?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tsyro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-comparisons of European air quality models show that regional transport models, including the EMEP (Co-operative Programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe aerosol model, tend to underestimate the observed concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. Obviously, an accurate representation of the individual aerosol constituents is a prerequisite for adequate calculation of PM concentrations. On the other hand, available measurements on the chemical characterization of ambient particles reveal that full chemical PM mass closure is rarely achieved. The fraction unaccounted for by chemical analysis can comprise as much as 30-40% of gravimetric PM10 or PM2.5 mass. The unaccounted PM mass can partly be due to non-C atoms in organic aerosols and/or due to sampling and measurement artefacts. Moreover, a part of the unaccounted PM mass is likely to consist of water associated with particles. Thus, the gravimetrically measured particle mass does not necessarily represent dry PM10 and PM2.5 mass. This is thought to be one of the reasons for models under-prediction of observed PM, if calculated dry PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are compared with measurements. The EMEP aerosol model has been used to study to what extent particle-bound water can explain the chemically unidentified PM mass in filter-based particle samples. Water content of PM2.5 and PM10 has been estimated with the model for temperature 20°C and relative humidity 50%, which are conditions required for equilibration of dust-loaded filters according to the Reference method recommended by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN. Model calculations for Europe show that, depending on particle composition, particle-bound water constitutes 20-35% of the annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, which is consistent with existing experimental estimates. At two Austrian sites, in Vienna and Streithofen, where daily measurements of PM2.5 mass

  17. Spatio-temporal variations in PM10 concentrations over Seoul estimated using multiple empirical models together with AERONET and MODIS data collected during the DRAGON-Asia campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B. N.; Kim, S.; Song, C. H.; Lim, J.

    2014-08-01

    The performance of various empirical linear models to estimate the concentrations of surface-level particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) was evaluated using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data collected in Seoul during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON)-Asia campaign from March to May 2012. An observed relationship between the PM10 concentration and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) was accounted for by several parameters in the empirical models, including boundary layer height (BLH), relative humidity (RH), and effective radius of the aerosol size distribution (Reff), which was used here for the first time in empirical modeling. Results show the strong influence of BLH and (Reff on the PM10 estimates, while the role of RH was negligible during the campaign period when, in general, RH was lower than in other seasons. A large spatial dependency of the empirical model performance was found by categorizing the locations of the collected data into three different site types, which varied in terms of the distances between instruments and source locations. When both AERONET and MODIS datasets were used in the PM10 estimation, the highest correlations between measured and estimated values ((R = 0.76 and 0.76 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the residential area (RA) site type, while the poorest correlations ((R = 0.61 and 0.68 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the near source (NS) site type. Significant seasonal variations of empirical model performances for PM10 estimation were found using the data collected at Yonsei University (one of the DRAGON campaign sites) over a period of 17 months including the DRAGON campaign period. The best correlation between measured and estimated PM10 concentrations ((R = 0.81) was found in winter, due to the presence of a stagnant air mass and low {BLH

  18. Complex time series analysis of PM10 and PM2.5 for a coastal site using artificial neural network modelling and k-means clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangasinghe, M. A.; Singhal, N.; Dirks, K. N.; Salmond, J. A.; Samarasinghe, S.

    2014-09-01

    This paper uses artificial neural networks (ANN), combined with k-means clustering, to understand the complex time series of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at a coastal location of New Zealand based on data from a single site. Out of available meteorological parameters from the network (wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity), key factors governing the pattern of the time series concentrations were identified through input sensitivity analysis performed on the trained neural network model. The transport pathways of particulate matter under these key meteorological parameters were further analysed through bivariate concentration polar plots and k-means clustering techniques. The analysis shows that the external sources such as marine aerosols and local sources such as traffic and biomass burning contribute equally to the particulate matter concentrations at the study site. These results are in agreement with the results of receptor modelling by the Auckland Council based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Our findings also show that contrasting concentration-wind speed relationships exist between marine aerosols and local traffic sources resulting in very noisy and seemingly large random PM10 concentrations. The inclusion of cluster rankings as an input parameter to the ANN model showed a statistically significant (p < 0.005) improvement in the performance of the ANN time series model and also showed better performance in picking up high concentrations. For the presented case study, the correlation coefficient between observed and predicted concentrations improved from 0.77 to 0.79 for PM2.5 and from 0.63 to 0.69 for PM10 and reduced the root mean squared error (RMSE) from 5.00 to 4.74 for PM2.5 and from 6.77 to 6.34 for PM10. The techniques presented here enable the user to obtain an understanding of potential sources and their transport characteristics prior to the implementation of costly chemical analysis techniques or

  19. Comparison of lidar-derived PM10 with regional modeling and ground-based observations in the frame of MEGAPOLI experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Raut

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An innovative approach using mobile lidar measurements was implemented to test the performances of chemistry-transport models in simulating mass concentrations (PM10 predicted by chemistry-transport models. A ground-based mobile lidar (GBML was deployed around Paris onboard a van during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation summer experiment in July 2009. The measurements performed with this Rayleigh-Mie lidar are converted into PM10 profiles using optical-to-mass relationships previously established from in situ measurements performed around Paris for urban and peri-urban aerosols. The method is described here and applied to the 10 measurements days (MD. MD of 1, 15, 16 and 26 July 2009, corresponding to different levels of pollution and atmospheric conditions, are analyzed here in more details. Lidar-derived PM10 are compared with results of simulations from POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models (CTM and with ground-based observations from the AIRPARIF network. GBML-derived and AIRPARIF in situ measurements have been found to be in good agreement with a mean Root Mean Square Error RMSE (and a Mean Absolute Percentage Error MAPE of 7.2 μg m−3 (26.0% and 8.8 μg m−3 (25.2% with relationships assuming peri-urban and urban-type particles, respectively. The comparisons between CTMs and lidar at ~200 m height have shown that CTMs tend to underestimate wet PM10 concentrations as revealed by the mean wet PM10 observed during the 10 MD of 22.4, 20.0 and 17.5 μg m−3 for lidar with peri-urban relationship, and POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE models, respectively. This leads to a RMSE (and a MAPE of 6.4 μg m−3 (29.6% and 6.4 μg m−3 (27.6% when considering POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE CTMs, respectively. Wet integrated PM10 computed (between the ground and 1 km above the ground level from lidar, POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE results

  20. Exploring the modeling of spatiotemporal variations in ambient air pollution within the land use regression framework: Estimation of PM10 concentrations on a daily basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Saniul; McNabola, Aonghus

    2015-05-01

    Estimation of daily average exposure to PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameterland use regression (LUR) approach to deal with temporal changes in air pollution and the influence of transboundary air pollution on short-term variations in PM10. Using the concept of multiple linear regression (MLR) modeling, the average daily concentrations of PM10 in two European cities, Vienna and Dublin, were modeled. Models were initially developed using the standard MLR approach in Vienna using the most recently available data. Efforts were subsequently made to (i) assess the stability of model predictions over time; (ii) explores the applicability of nonparametric regression (NPR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) to deal with the nonlinearity of input variables. The predictive performance of the MLR models of the both cities was demonstrated to be stable over time and to produce similar results. However, NPR and ANN were found to have more improvement in the predictive performance in both cities. Using ANN produced the highest result, with daily PM10 exposure predicted at R2=66% for Vienna and 51% for Dublin. In addition, two new predictor variables were also assessed for the Dublin model. The variables representing transboundary air pollution and peak traffic count were found to account for 6.5% and 12.7% of the variation in average daily PM10 concentration. The variable representing transboundary air pollution that was derived from air mass history (from back-trajectory analysis) and population density has demonstrated a positive impact on model performance. The implications of this research would suggest that it is possible to produce a model of ambient air quality on a citywide scale using the readily available data. Most European cities typically have a limited FSM network with average daily concentrations of air pollutants as well as available meteorological, traffic, and land-use data. This research highlights that using these data in combination with

  1. Studying the effect of meteorological factors on the SO2 and PM10 pollution levels with refined versions of the SARIMA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voynikova, D. S., E-mail: desi-sl2000@yahoo.com; Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G., E-mail: snegocheva@yahoo.com; Ivanov, A. V., E-mail: aivanov-99@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Mathematics and Modeling, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Paisii Hilendarski University of Plovdiv, 24 Tzar Assen str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Iliev, I. P., E-mail: iliev55@abv.bg [Department of Physics, Technical University – Plovdiv, 25 Tzanko Djusstabanov str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-28

    Numerous time series methods are used in environmental sciences allowing the detailed investigation of air pollution processes. The goal of this study is to present the empirical analysis of various aspects of stochastic modeling and in particular the ARIMA/SARIMA methods. The subject of investigation is air pollution in the town of Kardzhali, Bulgaria with 2 problematic pollutants – sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10). Various SARIMA Transfer Function models are built taking into account meteorological factors, data transformations and the use of different horizons selected to predict future levels of concentrations of the pollutants.

  2. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, M.S.; Lopez, J.M.; Mastral, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R 2 = 0.817, PRESS/SSY = 0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (Q CV 2 =0.813, PRESS/SSY = 0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Q ext 2 =0.679 and PRESS/SSY = 0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Q ext 2 =0.551, PRESS/SSY = 0.449).

  3. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2010-08-15

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R(2)=0.817, PRESS/SSY=0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (Q(CV)(2)=0.813, PRESS/SSY=0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.679 and PRESS/SSY=0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.551, PRESS/SSY=0.449). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of perceived air pollution and health risk perception in health symptoms and disease: a population-based study combined with modelled levels of PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Kati; Nordin, Steven; Harzia, Hedi; Orru, Hans

    2018-03-31

    Adverse health impact of air pollution on health may not only be associated with the level of exposure, but rather mediated by perception of the pollution and by top-down processing (e.g. beliefs of the exposure being hazardous), especially in areas with relatively low levels of pollutants. The aim of this study was to test a model that describes interrelations between air pollution (particles pollution, health risk perception, health symptoms and diseases. A population-based questionnaire study was conducted among 1000 Estonian residents (sample was stratified by age, sex, and geographical location) about health risk perception and coping. The PM 10 levels were modelled in 1 × 1 km grids using a Eulerian air quality dispersion model. Respondents were ascribed their annual mean PM 10 exposure according to their home address. Path analysis was performed to test the validity of the model. The data refute the model proposing that exposure level significantly influences symptoms and disease. Instead, the perceived exposure influences symptoms and the effect of perceived exposure on disease is mediated by health risk perception. This relationship is more pronounced in large cities compared to smaller towns or rural areas. Perceived pollution and health risk perception, in particular in large cities, play important roles in understanding and predicting environmentally induced symptoms and diseases at relatively low levels of air pollution.

  5. Preliminary comparative assessment of PM10 hourly measurement results from new monitoring stations type using stochastic and exploratory methodology and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Piotr Oskar; Owczarek, Tomasz; Badyda, Artur; Majewski, Grzegorz; Rogulski, Mariusz; Ogrodnik, Paweł

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents selected preliminary stage key issues proposed extended equivalence measurement results assessment for new portable devices - the comparability PM10 concentration results hourly series with reference station measurement results with statistical methods. In article presented new portable meters technical aspects. The emphasis was placed on the comparability the results using the stochastic and exploratory methods methodology concept. The concept is based on notice that results series simple comparability in the time domain is insufficient. The comparison of regularity should be done in three complementary fields of statistical modeling: time, frequency and space. The proposal is based on model's results of five annual series measurement results new mobile devices and WIOS (Provincial Environmental Protection Inspectorate) reference station located in Nowy Sacz city. The obtained results indicate both the comparison methodology completeness and the high correspondence obtained new measurements results devices with reference.

  6. Development of a source oriented version of the WRF/Chem model and its application to the California regional PM10 / PM2.5 air quality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; DeNero, S. P.; Joe, D. K.; Lee, H.-H.; Chen, S.-H.; Michalakes, J.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    A source-oriented version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (SOWC, hereinafter) was developed. SOWC separately tracks primary particles with different hygroscopic properties rather than instantaneously combining them into an internal mixture. This approach avoids artificially mixing light absorbing black + brown carbon particles with materials such as sulfate that would encourage the formation of additional coatings. Source-oriented particles undergo coagulation and gas-particle conversion, but these processes are considered in a dynamic framework that realistically "ages" primary particles over hours and days in the atmosphere. SOWC more realistically predicts radiative feedbacks from anthropogenic aerosols compared to models that make internal mixing or other artificial mixing assumptions. A three-week stagnation episode (15 December 2000 to 6 January 2001) in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during the California Regional PM10 / PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) was chosen for the initial application of the new modeling system. Primary particles emitted from diesel engines, wood smoke, high-sulfur fuel combustion, food cooking, and other anthropogenic sources were tracked separately throughout the simulation as they aged in the atmosphere. Differences were identified between predictions from the source oriented vs. the internally mixed representation of particles with meteorological feedbacks in WRF/Chem for a number of meteorological parameters: aerosol extinction coefficients, downward shortwave flux, planetary boundary layer depth, and primary and secondary particulate matter concentrations. Comparisons with observations show that SOWC predicts particle scattering coefficients more accurately than the internally mixed model. Downward shortwave radiation predicted by SOWC is enhanced by ~1% at ground level chiefly because diesel engine particles in the source-oriented mixture are not artificially coated with material that increases their

  7. Development of a source oriented version of the WRF/Chem model and its application to the California regional PM10 / PM2.5 air quality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A source-oriented version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (SOWC, hereinafter was developed. SOWC separately tracks primary particles with different hygroscopic properties rather than instantaneously combining them into an internal mixture. This approach avoids artificially mixing light absorbing black + brown carbon particles with materials such as sulfate that would encourage the formation of additional coatings. Source-oriented particles undergo coagulation and gas-particle conversion, but these processes are considered in a dynamic framework that realistically "ages" primary particles over hours and days in the atmosphere. SOWC more realistically predicts radiative feedbacks from anthropogenic aerosols compared to models that make internal mixing or other artificial mixing assumptions. A three-week stagnation episode (15 December 2000 to 6 January 2001 in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV during the California Regional PM10 / PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS was chosen for the initial application of the new modeling system. Primary particles emitted from diesel engines, wood smoke, high-sulfur fuel combustion, food cooking, and other anthropogenic sources were tracked separately throughout the simulation as they aged in the atmosphere. Differences were identified between predictions from the source oriented vs. the internally mixed representation of particles with meteorological feedbacks in WRF/Chem for a number of meteorological parameters: aerosol extinction coefficients, downward shortwave flux, planetary boundary layer depth, and primary and secondary particulate matter concentrations. Comparisons with observations show that SOWC predicts particle scattering coefficients more accurately than the internally mixed model. Downward shortwave radiation predicted by SOWC is enhanced by ~1% at ground level chiefly because diesel engine particles in the source-oriented mixture are not artificially coated with material that

  8. Impact of Highly Reflective Materials on Meteorology, PM10 and Ozone in Urban Areas: A Modeling Study with WRF-CHIMERE at High Resolution over Milan (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Falasca

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Heat Island (UHI is a well-known phenomenon concerning an increasing percentage of the world’s population due to the growth rates of metropolitan areas. Given the health and economic implications of UHIs, several mitigation techniques are being evaluated and tested. In this study, we consider the use of highly reflective materials for urban surfaces, and we carried out numerical experiments using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the CHIMERE model in order to investigate the effects of these materials on the meteorology and air quality in the urban area of Milan (Italy. Results show that an increase in albedo from 0.2 to 0.7 for urban roofs, walls and streets leads to a decrease in UHI intensity by up to 2–3 °C and of the planetary boundary layer (PBL height of about 500 m. However, the difference of PM10 and ozone between urban and surrounding areas increases by a factor of about 2, attributable to the reduction of PBL height and wind speed and to the increased reflected solar radiation that may enhance photochemical production during the daytime. Therefore, if anthropogenic emissions are held at the same levels, the potential benefit to the UHI in terms of thermal discomfort may have negative repercussions on air quality.

  9. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in major urban Greek agglomerations using a hybrid source-receptor modeling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, G; Samara, C; Diapouli, E; Eleftheriadis, K; Papaoikonomou, K; Kungolos, A

    2017-12-01

    A hybrid source-receptor modeling process was assembled, to apportion and infer source locations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in three heavily-impacted urban areas of Greece, during the warm period of 2011, and the cold period of 2012. The assembled process involved application of an advanced computational procedure, the so-called Robotic Chemical Mass Balance (RCMB) model. Source locations were inferred using two well-established probability functions: (a) the Conditional Probability Function (CPF), to correlate the output of RCMB with local wind directional data, and (b) the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF), to correlate the output of RCMB with 72h air-mass back-trajectories, arriving at the receptor sites, during sampling. Regarding CPF, a higher-level conditional probability function was defined as well, from the common locus of CPF sectors derived for neighboring receptor sites. With respect to PSCF, a non-parametric bootstrapping method was applied to discriminate the statistically significant values. RCMB modeling showed that resuspended dust is actually one of the main barriers for attaining the European Union (EU) limit values in Mediterranean urban agglomerations, where the drier climate favors build-up. The shift in the energy mix of Greece (caused by the economic recession) was also evidenced, since biomass burning was found to contribute more significantly to the sampling sites belonging to the coldest climatic zone, particularly during the cold period. The CPF analysis showed that short-range transport of anthropogenic emissions from urban traffic to urban background sites was very likely to have occurred, within all the examined urban agglomerations. The PSCF analysis confirmed that long-range transport of primary and/or secondary aerosols may indeed be possible, even from distances over 1000km away from study areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Local- and regional-scale air pollution modelling (PM10) and exposure assessment for pregnancy trimesters, infancy, and childhood to age 15 years: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, John; Elliott, Paul; Henderson, John; Hansell, Anna L; Vienneau, Danielle; Cai, Yutong; McCrea, Adrienne; Garwood, Kevin; Boyd, Andy; Neal, Lucy; Agnew, Paul; Fecht, Daniela; Briggs, David; de Hoogh, Kees

    2018-04-01

    We established air pollution modelling to study particle (PM 10 ) exposures during pregnancy and infancy (1990-1993) through childhood and adolescence up to age ~15 years (1991-2008) for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. For pregnancy trimesters and infancy (birth to 6 months; 7 to 12 months) we used local (ADMS-Urban) and regional/long-range (NAME-III) air pollution models, with a model constant for local, non-anthropogenic sources. For longer exposure periods (annually and the average of birth to age ~8 and to age ~15 years to coincide with relevant follow-up clinics) we assessed spatial contrasts in local sources of PM 10 with a yearly-varying concentration for all background sources. We modelled PM 10 (μg/m 3 ) for 36,986 address locations over 19 years and then accounted for changes in address in calculating exposures for different periods: trimesters/infancy (n = 11,929); each year of life to age ~15 (n = 10,383). Intra-subject exposure contrasts were largest between pregnancy trimesters (5 th to 95 th centile: 24.4-37.3 μg/m 3 ) and mostly related to temporal variability in regional/long-range PM 10 . PM 10 exposures fell on average by 11.6 μg/m 3 from first year of life (mean concentration = 31.2 μg/m 3 ) to age ~15 (mean = 19.6 μg/m 3 ), and 5.4 μg/m 3 between follow-up clinics (age ~8 to age ~15). Spatial contrasts in 8-year average PM 10 exposures (5 th to 95 th centile) were relatively low: 25.4-30.0 μg/m 3 to age ~8 years and 20.7-23.9 μg/m 3 from age ~8 to age ~15 years. The contribution of local sources to total PM 10 was 18.5%-19.5% during pregnancy and infancy, and 14.4%-17.0% for periods leading up to follow-up clinics. Main roads within the study area contributed on average ~3.0% to total PM 10 exposures in all periods; 9.5% of address locations were within 50 m of a main road. Exposure estimates will be used in a number of planned epidemiological

  11. Estimation of health effects (morbidity and mortality attributed to PM10 and PM2.5 exposure using an Air Quality model in Bukan city, from 2015-2016 exposure using air quality model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kamarehie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air Quality software is a useful tool for assessing the health risks associated with air pollutants. Quantifying the effects of exposure to air pollutants in terms of public health has become a critical component of policy discussion. The present study purposed to quantify the health effects of particulate matters on mortality and morbidity in a Bukan city hospital from 2015-2016. Methods: Information regarding coordinates, exposed population, number of stations used in profiling, mean and maximum concentrations (annual, winter, and summer, annual 98th percentile, baseline incidence (BI per 100 000 per year, and relative risk was needed for use with the software. Results: The average particulate matter concentration was higher in summer than in winter. The concentrations of PM10 in summer and winter were 84.37 and 74.86 μg m-3, respectively. The Air Quality model predicted that total mortality rates related to PM10 and PM2.5 were 33.3 and 49.8 deaths, respectively. As a result, 3.79% of the total mortality was due to PM10. In Bukan city, 2.004% of total deaths were due to cardiovascular mortality. The Air Quality model predicted that the deaths of 92.2 people were related to hospital admissions for respiratory disease. Conclusion: The continual evaluation of air quality data is necessary for investigating the effect of pollutants on human health.

  12. Modelación de episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado (PM10 en Santiago de Chile: Comparación de la eficiencia predictiva de los modelos paramétricos y no paramétricos Modeling critical episodes of air pollution by PM10 in Santiago, Chile: Comparison of the predictive efficiency of parametric and non-parametric statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Alvarado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficiencia predictiva de modelos estadísticos paramétricos y no paramétricos para predecir episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado PM10 del día siguiente, que superen en Santiago de Chile la norma de calidad diaria. Una predicción adecuada de tales episodios permite a la autoridad decretar medidas restrictivas que aminoren la gravedad del episodio, y consecuentemente proteger la salud de la comunidad. Método: Se trabajó con las concentraciones de material particulado PM10 registradas en una estación asociada a la red de monitorización de la calidad del aire MACAM-2, considerando 152 observaciones diarias de 14 variables, y con información meteorológica registrada durante los años 2001 a 2004. Se ajustaron modelos estadísticos paramétricos Gamma usando el paquete estadístico STATA v11, y no paramétricos usando una demo del software estadístico MARS v 2.0 distribuida por Salford-Systems. Resultados: Ambos métodos de modelación presentan una alta correlación entre los valores observados y los predichos. Los modelos Gamma presentan mejores aciertos que MARS para las concentraciones de PM10 con valores Objective: To evaluate the predictive efficiency of two statistical models (one parametric and the other non-parametric to predict critical episodes of air pollution exceeding daily air quality standards in Santiago, Chile by using the next day PM10 maximum 24h value. Accurate prediction of such episodes would allow restrictive measures to be applied by health authorities to reduce their seriousness and protect the community´s health. Methods: We used the PM10 concentrations registered by a station of the Air Quality Monitoring Network (152 daily observations of 14 variables and meteorological information gathered from 2001 to 2004. To construct predictive models, we fitted a parametric Gamma model using STATA v11 software and a non-parametric MARS model by using a demo version of Salford

  13. Assessment of health risk due to PM 10 using fuzzy linear membership kriging with particle swarm optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jeetendra B.; Reddy, Vijay S.; Jana, Soumya [Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; De, Swades [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Air quality is an important determinant of individual as well as broader well-being. Major pollutants include gasses as well as assorted suspended particulate matter (PM). In this paper, we focus on PM10, which are a collection of particles with median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m that remains suspended in the air for long periods. PM10, usually consist of smoke, dirt and dust particles, as well as spores and pollen, could easily be inhaled deep into lung. As a result, high outdoor PM10 concentration poses significant health hazard, and accurate modeling and prediction of health risk due to PM10 assume importance in pollution and public health management. In this backdrop, we propose an improved health risk assessment technique, and demonstrate its efficacy using widely used California PM10 database. At the heart of the proposed method lies indicator kriging, a well-known risk estimation technique. However, improved assessment of subjective health risk is achieved by posing the problem in a fuzzy setting, and optimizing the associated membership functions. In particular, we employ particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which has been motivated by natural behavior of organisms such as fish-schooling and bird flocking, and proven effective in various optimization contexts. We apply the fuzzy PSO membership grade kriging technique to predict the PM10 spatial distribution over the entire California state. (orig.)

  14. PM10 Air Pollution and Acute Hospital Admissions for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Causes in Ostrava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášková, Hana; Tomášek, Ivan; Šlachtová, Hana; Polaufová, Pavla; Šplíchalová, Anna; Michalík, Jiří; Feltl, David; Lux, Jaroslav; Marsová, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The city of Ostrava and its surroundings belong to the most long-therm polluted areas in the Czech Republic and Europe. For identification of health risk, the World Health Organization recommends a theoretical estimation of increased short-term PM 10 concentrations effect on hospital admissions for cardiac complaints based on a 0.6% increase per 10 µg.m -3 PM 10 and 1.14% increase for respiratory causes. The goal of the present study is to verify the percentage increase of morbidity due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes, as per WHO recommendations for health risk assessment, in the population of Ostrava. The input data include data on PM 10 air pollution, meteorological data, the absolute number of hospital admissions for acute cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in the period 2010-2012. To examine the association between air pollution and health outcomes the time series Poisson regression adjusted for covariates was used. A significant relationship was found between the cardiovascular hospital admissions (percentage increase of 1.24% per 10 µg.m -3 ) and values of PM 10 less than 150 µg.m -3 in the basic model, although after adjustment for other factors, this relationship was no longer significant. A significant relationship was also observed for respiratory causes of hospital admissions in the basic model. Contrary to cardiovascular hospitalization, the relationship between respiratory hospital admissions and PM 10 values below 150 µg.m -3 (percentage increase of 1.52%) remained statistically significant after adjustment for other factors. The observed significant relationship between hospital admissions for respiratory causes was consistent with the results of large European and American studies. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2016

  15. Lung deposition pattern of PM10 particulate matter for manual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained suggest total deposition efficiency ranging from 0.44 to 0.76 for elements Al, K, Ca, Ti, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb. These values are high and hazardous and thus control measures are recommended. Key words: PM10 particulate matter; Stacked filter unit; Total reflection X-ray fluorescence; Deposition Model; ...

  16. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    models, iii) fitting of a times series model (Autoregressive moving average, ARMA) to the transformed historical values in order to eliminate the temporal autocorrelation structure of each stochastic process, obtaining a white noise for each variable, and finally, iv) the calculation of cross correlations between white noises at different time lags. These cross correlations allow characterization of the true correlation between signals, avoiding the problems induced by data scaling or autocorrelations inherent to each signal. Results provide the relationship and possible contribution to PM10 concentration levels associated with each meteorological variable. This information can be used to improve PM10 concentration levels forecasting using existing meteorological forecasts.

  17. Studies on particulate matter (PM10) and its precursors over urban environment of Reading, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavi Latha, K.; Highwood, E. J.

    2006-09-01

    The extent to which airborne particles penetrate into the human respiratory system is determined mainly by their size, with possible health effects. The research over the scientific evidence of the role of airborne particles in adverse health effects has been intensified in recent years. In the present study, seasonal variations of PM10 and its relation with anthropogenic activities have been studied by using the data from UK National Air Quality Archive over Reading, UK. The diurnal variation of PM10 shows a morning peak during 7:00 10:00 LT and an evening peak during 19:00 22:00 LT. The variation between 12:00 and 17:00 LT remains more or less steady for PM10 with the minimum value of ˜16 μg m-3. PM10 and black smoke (BS) concentrations during weekdays were found to be high compared to weekends. A reduction in the concentration of PM10 has been found during the Christmas holidays compared to normal days during December. Seasonal variations of PM10 showed high values during spring compared to other seasons. A linear relationship has been found between PM10 and NOx during March, July, November and December suggesting that most of the PM10 is due to local traffic exhaust emissions. PM10 and SO2 concentrations showed positive correlation with the correlation coefficient of R=0.65 over the study area. Seasonal variations of SO2 and NOx showed high concentrations during winter and low concentrations during spring. Fraction of BS in PM10 has been found to be 50% during 2004 over the study area.

  18. 75 FR 26898 - Determination of Attainment for PM-10; Fort Hall PM-10 Nonattainment Area, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ...\\. EPA also promulgated secondary PM-10 standards that were identical to the primary standards. Effective... establishment of the Ballard site to determine the correlation of monitoring data between the primary site and... good correlation of data between the primary site and several of the potential alternate site locations...

  19. Performance characteristics of PM10 samplers under calm air conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C Y; Chen, C C

    2000-04-01

    The size range of airborne particles that is closely related to specific deposition regions in the human respiratory tract and excess lung burden of these deposited particles is associated with disease. Size-selective sampling, therefore, needs to be performed to assess the related health risks. Performance criteria applied to these samplers must be well characterized in order to provide accurate and reliable results. The PM10 samplers that have been used in place of the total suspended particulate samplers for the collection of ambient air particles are more relevant to potential inhalation hazards. In order to be certified, a PM10 sampler must meet reliable performance specifications, primarily the aerosol penetration test with liquid and solid particles in a wind tunnel (wind speeds of 2, 8, and 24 km/hr). This testing is intended to assure reasonable accuracy in aerosol measurements. However, the sampler performance under calm air conditions has not been well studied. In the present study, the sampling heads of three devices--the Harvard impactor, the Personal Environmental Monitor (PEM), and the Sierra Andersen model 241 dichotomous sampler PM10 inlet head--were tested for aerosol separation efficiency. With the consideration of bias and imprecision of the measurements, five specimens of each type of sampler were chosen for performance testing, repeating the tests 5 times for each specimen. An ultrasonic atomizing nozzle was used to nebulize potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate and dioctyl phthalate particles as the solid and liquid challenge aerosols, respectively. The aerosol number concentrations and size distributions upstream and downstream of the samplers were measured by using an aerosizer calibrated against a settling velocity chamber. The results showed that among the samplers tested, the dichotomous sampler PM10 inlet head had the best fit to the PM10 convention, while the other two samplers not only appeared to have a steeper separation

  20. Temporal Variation of Ambient PM10 Concentration within an Urban-Industrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yoon-Keaw; Noor, Norazian Mohamed; Izzah Mohamad Hashim, Nur

    2018-03-01

    PM10 concentration in the ambient air has been reported to be the main pollutant affecting human health, particularly in the urban areas. This research is conducted to study the variation of PM10 concentration at the three urban-industrial areas in Malaysia, namely Shah Alam, Kuala Terengganu and Melaka. In addition, the association and correlation between PM10 concentration and other air pollutants will be distinguished. Five years interval dataset (2008-2012) consisting of PM10, SOX, NOX and O3 concentrations and other weather parameters such as wind speed, humidity and temperature were obtained from Department of Environment, Malaysia. Shah Alam shows the highest average of PM10 concentration with the value of 62.76 μg/m3 in June, whereas for Kuala Terengganu was 59.29 μg/m3 in February and 46.61 μg/m3 in August for Melaka. Two peaks were observed from the time series plot using the averaged monthly PM10 concentration. First peak occurs when PM10 concentration rises from January to February and the second peak is reached in June and remain high for the next two consecutive months for Shah Alam and Kuala Terengganu. Meanwhile the second peak for Melaka is only achieved in August as a result of the transboundary of smoke from forest fires in the Sumatra region during dry season from May to September. Both of the pollutants can be sourced from rapid industrial activities at Shah Alam. PM10 concentration is strongly correlated with carbon monoxide concentration in Kuala Terengganu and Melaka with value of r2 = 0.1725 and 0.2744 respectively. High carbon monoxide and PM10 concentration are associated with burning of fossil fuel from increased number of vehicles at these areas.

  1. Characterization of PM10 sources in the central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Marconi, M.; Frosini, D.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.; di Sarra, A.; Pace, G.; Meloni, D.; Bommarito, C.; Monteleone, F.; Anello, F.; Sferlazzo, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mediterranean Basin atmosphere is influenced by both strong natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions and is also subject to important climatic forcings. Several programs have addressed the study of the Mediterranean basin; nevertheless important pieces of information are still missing. In this framework, PM10 samples were collected on a daily basis on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E; 45 m a.s.l.), which is far from continental pollution sources (the nearest coast, in Tunisia, is more than 100 km away). After mass gravimetric measurements, different portions of the samples were analyzed to determine the ionic content by ion chromatography (IC), the soluble metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and the total (soluble + insoluble) elemental composition by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). Data from 2007 and 2008 are used in this study. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was applied to the 2-year long data set of PM10 mass concentration and chemical composition to assess the aerosol sources affecting the central Mediterranean basin. Seven sources were resolved: sea salt, mineral dust, biogenic emissions, primary particulate ship emissions, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and combustion emissions. Source contributions to the total PM10 mass were estimated to be about 40 % for sea salt, around 25 % for mineral dust, 10 % each for secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, and 5 % each for primary particulate ship emissions, biogenic emissions, and combustion emissions. Large variations in absolute and relative contributions are found and appear to depend on the season and on transport episodes. In addition, the secondary sulfate due to ship emissions was estimated and found to contribute by about one-third to the total sulfate mass. Results for the sea-salt and mineral dust sources were compared with estimates of the same contributions obtained from independent approaches, leading to an

  2. Bivariate extreme value with application to PM10 concentration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-05-01

    This study is focus on a bivariate extreme of renormalized componentwise maxima with generalized extreme value distribution as a marginal function. The limiting joint distribution of several parametric models are presented. Maximum likelihood estimation is employed for parameter estimations and the best model is selected based on the Akaike Information Criterion. The weekly and monthly componentwise maxima series are extracted from the original observations of daily maxima PM10 data for two air quality monitoring stations located in Pasir Gudang and Johor Bahru. The 10 years data are considered for both stations from year 2001 to 2010. The asymmetric negative logistic model is found as the best fit bivariate extreme model for both weekly and monthly maxima componentwise series. However the dependence parameters show that the variables for weekly maxima series is more dependence to each other compared to the monthly maxima.

  3. 75 FR 80117 - Methods for Measurement of Filterable PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Association CAA Clean Air Act CBI confidential business information CCM Controlled Condensation Method CPM... emissions from stacks that have entrained moisture droplets (e.g., from a wet scrubber stack) since these... of moisture would prevent an accurate measurement of total PM 10 since any PM 10 dissolved in larger...

  4. Performance characteristics of a low-volume PM10 sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four identical PM10 pre-separators, along with four identical low-volume (1m3 hr-1) total suspended particulate (TSP) samplers were tested side-by-side in a controlled laboratory particulate matter (PM) chamber. The four PM10 and four TSP samplers were also tested in an oil pipe-cleaning field to ev...

  5. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10 (a) Approval...

  6. Increase in dust storm related PM10 concentrations: A time series analysis of 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Helena; Katra, Itzhak; Friger, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Over the last decades, changes in dust storms characteristics have been observed in different parts of the world. The changing frequency of dust storms in the southeastern Mediterranean has led to growing concern regarding atmospheric PM10 levels. A classic time series additive model was used in order to describe and evaluate the changes in PM10 concentrations during dust storm days in different cities in Israel, which is located at the margins of the global dust belt. The analysis revealed variations in the number of dust events and PM10 concentrations during 2001-2015. A significant increase in PM10 concentrations was identified since 2009 in the arid city of Beer Sheva, southern Israel. Average PM10 concentrations during dust days before 2009 were 406, 312, and 364 μg m(-3) (median 337, 269,302) for Beer Sheva, Rehovot (central Israel) and Modi'in (eastern Israel), respectively. After 2009 the average concentrations in these cities during dust storms were 536, 466, and 428 μg m(-3) (median 382, 335, 338), respectively. Regression analysis revealed associations between PM10 variations and seasonality, wind speed, as well as relative humidity. The trends and periodicity are stronger in the southern part of Israel, where higher PM10 concentrations are found. Since 2009 dust events became more extreme with much higher daily and hourly levels. The findings demonstrate that in the arid area variations of dust storms can be quantified easier through PM10 levels over a relatively short time scale of several years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of Air Quality Index and PM10 and PM2.5 in Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fazelinia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In this study, the air quality index and concentration of particles such as PM10 and PM2.5 were investigated in Arak. Materials and Methods: To determine the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5, 60 samples were collected by laser TSI model 8520 in summer and winter 2012. The collection site was around Arak city center. Results: during the sampling period, as a matter of PM10, the cleanest and the most polluted month were December and June with the average of 34.33 µg m-3 and 100.1 µg m-3, respectively. The concentration of PM2.5 was 12.93 and 53.17 µg m-3 for December and June, respectively. Meanwhile, in terms of air quality index (AQI, in 98.3% and 70% of cases, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively were less than normal (AQI100. Conclusion: The concentration of PM10 in the study period was less than Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2006 guideline. Meanwhile, the concentrations of PM2.5 in 30% of air samples were greater than EPA guideline. The average PM2.5/PM10 ratio during the sampling period was 0.41 compared to range 0.15 to 0.25 reported by EPA.

  8. Characterisation and quantification of the sources of PM10 during air pollution episodes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, David; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Tubb, A.

    2006-01-01

    Data for concentrations of PM 10 and gaseous pollutants from sites in the UK Automatic Urban and Rural Network have been examined during periods of elevated concentrations of PM 10 . The ratios of concentrations of PM 10 to those of the other pollutants were used to determine the most probable source of the additional particles. The hypothesis is that because the concentrations of PM 10 were divided by those of the other pollutants, the ratio should decrease when PM 10 and the other pollutants have a common source. Conversely, the ratio should increase when the sources are different. During episodes where road traffic was the most probable source of the additional particles, the ratios of concentrations of PM 10 to carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen did decrease, but the comparable ratios for sulphur dioxide and ozone increased. In contrast, during episodes known to have been caused by construction activity, all these ratios increased. This is taken to show that the basic hypothesis is valid. For prolonged episodes, it was possible to use data averaged over the total duration of the episode for the purposes of source identification. For sporadic construction, or other short-duration episodes, it was necessary to use time series data. The data have also been used to calculate the differences between hourly average concentrations of pollutants measured during episodes and long-term hourly average concentrations. These have been used to model the additional PM 10 during air pollution episodes associated with construction activities and road traffic emissions. This confirms the lack of relationship between PM 10 and other pollutants during construction works. During episodes arising from road traffic emissions, there was good agreement between measured and modelled additional concentrations of PM 10 when an appropriate factor, F, related to the contribution of road traffic emissions to PM 10 at different site types was applied. The values used were 0.2 (Suburban

  9. Non-Exhaust PM10 and Road Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Joacim

    2018-01-01

    Non-exhaust PM10 is an issue in the urban environment linked to health issues. Emissions of non-exhaust PM10 is relatable to pavement properties. Also of importance is resuspension of road dust stored from surfaces. This depends on the traffic and metrological conditions. Given this, the purpose of the thesis was to give an overview limited to Sweden and the Nordic countries regarding non-exhaust PM10 emissions and road dust. The overview includes how particles are related to human health. Al...

  10. Modelling of particulate matter pollution (PM10) over the Etang de Berre area Determination of areas of homogeneous pollution; Modelisation de la pollution particulaire (PM10) dans la region de l'etang de Berre. Determination des zones homogenes de pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D. [NUMTECH, 63 - Aubiere (France); Mesbah, B.; Hourdin, G. [AIRFOBEP, 13 - Martigues (France)

    2010-04-15

    AIRFOBEP is the association in charge of the air quality monitoring in the Etang de Berre area. AIRFOBEP is managing a network of ten sensors to monitor the PMI (particulate matter index) particulate pollution. This network is updated once a year according to the Air Quality Monitoring Plan (PSQA). Optimizing this network needs to know how the particulate pollution is distributed in the area. In other words, to determine the limits of homogeneous zones of PM{sub 10} pollution. The aim of the project presented in this article is to produce a map of homogeneous zones of PM{sub 10} pollution in the Etang de Berre area. The project was carried out in two steps: - PM{sub 10} atmospheric dispersion modeling, using a ADMS-URBAN software, - Statistic classification, based on the well known Hierarchical Ascending Classification (HAC) technique. Results of the atmospheric dispersion modeling was namely adjusted using an original technique for the 'background PM{sub 10} pollution' computation. Good performances have been obtained when comparing modeling and measurements data. Finally, a set of five homogeneous zones was found to well describe the PM{sub 10} pollution level distribution in the Etang de Berre area. (author)

  11. Chemical profiling of PM10 from urban road dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, C A; Evtyugina, M; Vicente, A M P; Vicente, E D; Nunes, T V; Silva, P M A; Duarte, M A C; Pio, C A; Amato, F; Querol, X

    2018-04-04

    Road dust resuspension is one of the main sources of particulate matter with impacts on air quality, health and climate. With the aim of characterising the thoracic fraction, a portable resuspension chamber was used to collect road dust from five main roads in Oporto and an urban tunnel in Braga, north of Portugal. The PM 10 samples were analysed for: i) carbonates by acidification and quantification of the evolved CO 2 , ii) carbonaceous content (OC and EC) by a thermo-optical technique, iii) elemental composition by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion, and iv) organic speciation by GC-MS. Dust loadings of 0.48±0.39mgPM 10 m -2 were obtained for asphalt paved roads. A much higher mean value was achieved in a cobbled pavement (50mgPM 10 m -2 ). In general, carbonates were not detected in PM 10 . OC and EC accounted for PM 10 mass fractions up to 11% and 5%, respectively. Metal oxides accounted for 29±7.5% of the PM 10 mass from the asphalt paved roads and 73% in samples from the cobbled street. Crustal and anthropogenic elements, associated with tyre and brake wear, dominated the inorganic fraction. PM 10 comprised hundreds of organic constituents, including hopanoids, n-alkanes and other aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), alcohols, sterols, various types of acids, glycerol derivatives, lactones, sugars and derivatives, phenolic compounds and plasticizers. In samples from the cobbled street, these organic classes represented only 439μgg -1 PM 10 , while for other pavements mass fractions up to 65mgg -1 PM 10 were obtained. Except for the cobbled street, on average, about 40% of the analysed organic fraction was composed of plasticizers. Although the risk via inhalation of PAH was found to be insignificant, the PM 10 from some roads can contribute to an estimated excess of 332 to 2183 per million new cancer cases in adults exposed via ingestion and dermal contact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Composition and origin of PM10 in Cape Verde: Characterization of long-range transport episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, P.; Almeida, S. M.; Cardoso, J.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Alves, C.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Artíñano, B.; Pio, C.

    2016-02-01

    A receptor modelling study was performed to identify source categories and their contributions to the PM10 total mass at the Cape Verde archipelago. Trajectory statistical methods were also used to characterize the main atmospheric circulation patterns causing the transport of air masses and to geographically identify the main potential source areas of each PM10 source category. Our findings point out that the variability of the PM10 levels at Cape Verde was prompted by the advections of African mineral dust. The mineral dust load was mainly composed by clay-silicates mineral derived elements (22% of the PM10 total mass on average) with lower amounts of carbonates (9%). A clear northward gradient was observed in carbonates concentration that illustrates the differences in the composition according to the source regions of mineral dust. Mineral dust was frequently linked to industrial emissions from crude oil refineries, fertilizer industries as well as oil and coal power plants, located in the northern and north-western coast of the African continent (29%). Sea salt was also registered in the PM10 mass during most part of the sampling period, with a lower impact in the PM10 levels than the mineral dust one (26%). Combustion aerosols (6%) reached the highest mean values in summer as a consequence of the emissions from local-regional sources. Biomass burning aerosols produced from October to November in sub-sahelian latitudes, had a clear influence in the content of elemental carbon (EC) recorded at Cape Verde but a small impact in the PM10 total mass levels. A minor contribution to the PM10 mass has been associated to secondary inorganic compounds-SIC. Namely, ammonium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 1-5%) and calcium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 2-3%). The main origin of SIC 1 was attributed to emissions of SO2 and NOx from industrial sources located in the northern and north-western African coast and from wildfires produced in the continent. SIC 2 had a clear regional origin

  13. Forecasting PM10 in Algiers: efficacy of multilayer perceptron networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Hamza; Chellali, Mohammed Reda; Hamou, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Air quality forecasting system has acquired high importance in atmospheric pollution due to its negative impacts on the environment and human health. The artificial neural network is one of the most common soft computing methods that can be pragmatic for carving such complex problem. In this paper, we used a multilayer perceptron neural network to forecast the daily averaged concentration of the respirable suspended particulates with aerodynamic diameter of not more than 10 μm (PM10) in Algiers, Algeria. The data for training and testing the network are based on the data sampled from 2002 to 2006 collected by SAMASAFIA network center at El Hamma station. The meteorological data, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, are used as inputs network parameters in the formation of model. The training patterns used correspond to 41 days data. The performance of the developed models was evaluated on the basis index of agreement and other statistical parameters. It was seen that the overall performance of model with 15 neurons is better than the ones with 5 and 10 neurons. The results of multilayer network with as few as one hidden layer and 15 neurons were quite reasonable than the ones with 5 and 10 neurons. Finally, an error around 9% has been reached.

  14. Identification of PM10 air pollution origins at a rural background site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reizer, Magdalena; Orza, José A. G.

    2018-01-01

    Trajectory cluster analysis and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) approach have been applied to investigate the origins of PM10 air pollution recorded at a rural background site in North-eastern Poland (Diabla Góra). Air mass back-trajectories used in this study have been computed with the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model for a 10-year period of 2006-2015. A cluster analysis grouped back-trajectories into 7 clusters. Most of the trajectories correspond to fast and moderately moving westerly and northerly flows (45% and 25% of the cases, respectively). However, significantly higher PM10 concentrations were observed for slow moving easterly (11%) and southerly (20%) air masses. The CWT analysis shows that high PM10 levels are observed at Diabla Góra site when air masses are originated and passed over the heavily industrialized areas in Central-Eastern Europe located to the south and south-east of the site.

  15. Research and application of a novel hybrid decomposition-ensemble learning paradigm with error correction for daily PM10 forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongyuan; Wang, Deyun; Yue, Chenqiang; Liu, Yanling; Guo, Haixiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a hybrid decomposition-ensemble learning paradigm combining error correction is proposed for improving the forecast accuracy of daily PM10 concentration. The proposed learning paradigm is consisted of the following two sub-models: (1) PM10 concentration forecasting model; (2) error correction model. In the proposed model, fast ensemble empirical mode decomposition (FEEMD) and variational mode decomposition (VMD) are applied to disassemble original PM10 concentration series and error sequence, respectively. The extreme learning machine (ELM) model optimized by cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is utilized to forecast the components generated by FEEMD and VMD. In order to prove the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model, two real-world PM10 concentration series respectively collected from Beijing and Harbin located in China are adopted to conduct the empirical study. The results show that the proposed model performs remarkably better than all other considered models without error correction, which indicates the superior performance of the proposed model.

  16. Determination of benzo(apyrene content in PM10 using regression methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Gębicki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an attempt of application of multidimensional linear regression to estimation of an empirical model describing the factors influencing on B(aP content in suspended dust PM10 in Olsztyn and Elbląg city regions between 2010 and 2013. During this period annual average concentration of B(aP in PM10 exceeded the admissible level 1.5-3 times. Conducted investigations confirm that the reasons of B(aP concentration increase are low-efficiency individual home heat stations or low-temperature heat sources, which are responsible for so-called low emission during heating period. Dependences between the following quantities were analysed: concentration of PM10 dust in air, air temperature, wind velocity, air humidity. A measure of model fitting to actual B(aP concentration in PM10 was the coefficient of determination of the model. Application of multidimensional linear regression yielded the equations characterized by high values of the coefficient of determination of the model, especially during heating season. This parameter ranged from 0.54 to 0.80 during the analyzed period.

  17. Comparison of two data assimilation methods for assessing PM10 exceedances on the European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denby, B.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Builtjes, P.; Horálek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Two different data assimilation techniques have been applied to assess exceedances of the daily and annual mean limit values for PM10 on the regional scale in Europe. The two methods include a statistical interpolation method (SI), based on residual kriging after linear regression of the model, and

  18. Comparison of two data assimilation methods for assessing PM 10 exceedances on the European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denby, B.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.J.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Horalek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Two different data assimilation techniques have been applied to assess exceedances of the daily and annual mean limit values for PM10 on the regional scale in Europe. The two methods include a statistical interpolation method (SI), based on residual kriging after linear regression of the model, and

  19. PM10 source apportionment study in Pleasant Valley, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egami, R.T.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.; DeLong, T.

    1990-01-01

    A source apportionment study was conducted between March 18 and April 4, 1988, at Pleasant Valley, Nevada, to evaluate air pollutant concentrations to which community residents were exposed and the source contributions to those pollutants. Daily PM 10 samples were taken for chemical speciation of 40 trace elements, ions, and organic and elemental carbon. This paper reports that the objectives of this case study are: to determine the emissions source composition of the potential upwind source, a geothermal plant; to measure the ambient particulate concentration and its chemical characteristics in Pleasant Valley; and to estimate the contributions of different emissions sources to PM 10 . The study found that: particulate emissions from the geothermal cooling-tower plume consisted primarily of sulfate, ammonia, chloride, and trace elements; no significant quantities of toxic inorganic species were found in the ambient air; ambient PM 10 concentrations in Pleasant Valley were within Federal standards; and source contribution to PM 10 were approximately 60% geological material; 20% motor vehicle exhaust; and 10% cooling-tower plume

  20. (dust, PM10 , and BC) using CHIMERE chemistry tra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, they can affect visibility and cause respiratory illness (WHO 1987 .... Thus the objective of sensitivity analysis is to review the impact of ... aerosol (dust, PM10, BC) concentration distribu- tion change by changing soil parameters and mete- orological input grid resolution under sensitivity analysis. As mentioned earlier, a ...

  1. Health benefits of PM10 reduction in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Moradi, Mahsa; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Akbaripoor, Shayan; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Neisi, Abdolkazem; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Sheikhi, Reza; Kermani, Majid; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Gholami, Moeen; Mozhdehi, Saeed Pourkarim; Esmaeili, Mehdi; Barari, Kian

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution contains a complex mixture of poisonous compounds including particulate matter (PM) which has wide spectrum of adverse health effects. The main purpose of this study was to estimate the potential health impacts or benefits due to any changes in annual PM10 level in four major megacities of Iran. The required data of PM10 for AirQ software was collected from air quality monitoring stations in four megacities of Iran. The preprocessing was carried out using macro coding in excel environment. The relationship between different presumptive scenarios and health impacts was determined. We also assessed the health benefits of reducing PM10 to WHO Air Quality Guidelines (WHO-AQGs) and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) levels with regard to the rate of mortality and morbidity in studied cities. We found that the 10 μg/m3 increase in annual PM10 concentration is responsible for seven (95% CI 6-8) cases increase in total number of deaths per 2 × 105 person. We also found that 10.7, 7.2, 5.7, and 5.3% of total death is attributable to short-term exposure to air pollution for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. We found that by attaining the WHO's proposed value for PM10, the potential health benefits of 89, 84, 79, and 78% were obtained in Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. The results also indicated that 27, 10, 3, and 1% of health impacts were attributed to dust storm days for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively.

  2. The Effects of Bus Ridership on Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Her

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by rapid urbanization and the increased use of private vehicles seriously affects citizens’ health. In order to alleviate air pollution, many cities have replaced diesel buses with compressed natural gas (CNG buses that emit less exhaust gas. Urban planning strategies such as transit-oriented development (TOD posit that reducing private vehicle use and increasing public transportation use would reduce air pollution levels. The present study examined the effects of bus ridership on airborne particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in the capital region of Korea. We interpolated the levels of PM10 from 128 air pollution monitoring stations, utilizing the Kriging method. Spatial regression models were used to estimate the impact of bus ridership on PM10 levels, controlling for physical environment attributes and socio-economic factors. The analysis identified that PM10 concentration levels tend to be lower in areas with greater bus ridership. This result implies that urban and transportation policies designed to promote public transportation may be effective strategies for reducing air pollution.

  3. Effect of the Apulia air quality plan on PM10 and benzo(apyrene exceedances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Trizio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, several exceedances of PM10 and benzo(apyrene limit values exceedances were recorded in Taranto, a city in southern Italy included in so-called areas at high risk of environmental crisis because of the presence of a heavy industrial district including the largest steel factory in Europe. A study of these critical pollution events showed a close correlation with the wind coming from the industrial site to the adjacent urban area. During 2011, at monitoring sites closes to the industrial area, at least the 65% of PM10 exceedances were related to wind day conditions (characterized by at least 3 consecutive hours of wind coming from 270-360±2deg with an associated speed higher than 7 m/s. For this reason, in 2012 an integrated environmental permit and a regional air quality plan were enacted to reduce pollutant emissions from industrial plants. A study of PM10 levels registered during windy days was performed during critical episodes of pollution highlighting that the difference between windy days and no windy days’ concentrations reduces from 2012 to 2014 in industrial site. False negative events (verified ex-post by observed meteorological data not identified by the forecast model - did not show a significant influence on PM concentration: PM10 values were comparable and sometimes lower than windy days levels. It is reasonable that the new scenario with a relevant reduction emissions form Ilva plant reduced the pollutants contribution from industrial area, contributing to PM10 levels decrease, also in false negative events.

  4. Characterization of the GENT PM10 sampler. Appendix 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, Philip K.; Xie Ying; Raunemaa, Taisto; Biegalski, Steven; Landsberger, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    An integral part of the Co-ordinated Research Programme: Applied Research on Air Pollution using Nuclear-Related Analytical Techniques is the PM 10 sampler that was designed by Dr. W. Maenhaut of the University of Gent. Each participant was provided with such a sampler so that comparable samples will be obtained by each of the participating groups. Thus, in order to understand the characteristics of this sampler, we have undertaken several characterization studies in which we have examine the aerodynamic collection characteristics of the impactor inlet and the reproducibility of the sample mass collection. The sampler does provide a collection efficiency that follows the guidelines for a PM 10 sampler. Comparing one of the original samplers built at the University of Gent with a unit built from the same plans at Clarkson University showed good reproducibility in mass collection. (author)

  5. Climatology of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro, Bigi; Ghermandi, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a dataset of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and backgr...

  6. KANDUNGAN TSP DAN PM-10 DI UDARA JAKARTA DAN SEKITARNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Martono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A survey was performed to assess the quality of ambient air in Jakarta, Bogor,Depok,  Tangerang  and Bekasi.  Ambient air samples were collected from 33 sampling points at a distance of 0meter and 120 meters from each main roads respectively. The highest average content of TSP in ambientair at 0 meter was found in West Jakarta (652.02 p.g/cu.m and that of 120 meters from the main road was in Bekasi (445.46µg/cu.m . The highest difference of the TSP content between the two sampling pointswas in Kebon  Jeruk, West Jakarta (96.62 %,  and the lowest one was inCikarang, Bekasi (1.63 %.  Furthermore, the highest difference of the PM-10 content between the two sampling points was inJalan  Raya Bogor, Depok  (96.86 %,  and the lowest one was in Cikarang,  Bekasi (17.26%. In the whole areasof study, the average content of TSP  was 522.44.tg/cu.m  (0 meter, and178.09µg/cu.m (120 meters,  so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 65.91%. Meanwhile, theaverage content of PM-10 was 326.25µg/cu.m  (0 meter, and97.09µg/cu.m (120 meters, so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 70.24 %. The difference of the means ofboth TSP  and PM-10 content levels between the two sampling sites were significant. The percentages ofsampling points complying withTSP level standard were 9.52 %  (0 meter and 75.76% (120 meters from the road sides. While that of PM-10 were 18.18%  (road side sampling and 78.79% (120 meters from theroad sides.Crusial  measure for controlling theTSP  and PM-10 pollution should also be addressed tomobile sources, such as reducing diesel motorized-vehicles and providing proper mass transportation.

  7. Burden of mortality and years of life lost due to ambient PM10 pollution in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunquan; Peng, Minjin; Yu, Chuanhua; Zhang, Lan

    2017-11-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) has been mainly linked with mortality and morbidity when assessing PM-associated health effects. Up-to-date epidemiologic evidence is very sparse regarding the relation between PM and years of life lost (YLL). The present study aimed to estimate the burden of YLL and mortality due to ambient PM pollution. Individual records of all registered deaths and daily data on PM 10 and meteorology during 2009-2012 were obtained in Wuhan, central China. Using a time-series study design, we applied generalized additive model to assess the short-term association of 10-μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 with daily YLL and mortality, adjusting for long-term trend and seasonality, mean temperature, relative humidity, public holiday, and day of the week. A linear-no-threshold dose-response association was observed between daily ambient PM 10 and mortality outcomes. PM 10 pollution along lag 0-1 days was found to be mostly strongly associated with mortality and YLL. The effects of PM 10 on cause-specific mortality and YLL showed generally similar seasonal patterns, with stronger associations consistently occurring in winter and/or autumn. Compared with males and younger persons, females and the elderly suffered more significantly from both increased YLL and mortality due to ambient PM 10 pollution. Stratified analyses by education level (0-6 and 7 + years) demonstrated great mortality impact on both subgroups, whereas only low-educated persons were strongly affected by PM 10 -associated burden of YLL. Our study confirmed that short-term PM 10 exposure was linearly associated with significant increases in both mortality incidence and years of life lost. Given the non-threshold adverse effects on mortality burden, the on-going efforts to reduce particulate air pollution would substantially benefit public health in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Exposure to PM10 on Cardiovascular Diseases Hospitalizations in Ahvaz, Khorramabad and Ilam, Iran During 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Daryanoosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10μm (PM10 has the great adverse endpoints on human health. The aim of this study was to assess the hospital admissions (HA due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD attributed to PM10 among people living in the cities of Ahvaz, Khorramabad and Ilam, during 2014. In this study, Air Quality Health Impact Assessment (AirQ2.2.3 software proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO to assess of health impacts of atmospheric pollutants was used. To evaluate human exposure and health outcome of PM10, 24-hour data was taken from the Departments of Environment of Ahvaz, Khorramabad and Ilam. We acquired an input file for the software from raw data and quantified PM10 by the AirQ2.2.3 model. The annual averages in three study areas illustrated that PM10 concentration in Ahvaz and Ilam with values of 534.77 and 60.45μg/m3, were the highest and lowest in 2014, respectively. The number of excess cases for HA due to CVD in Ahvaz, Khorramabad, and Ilam was estimated 508, 144 and 66 persons, respectively. The most percentage of person-days was attributable to the concentration interval of 130-139µg/m3 of PM10, whereas this was for Khorramabad and Ilam 60-69 and 40-49µg/m3, respectively. The comparison of PM10 concentrations with NAAQS standard was revealed the annual average of particulate matter concentrations in Ahvaz was higher than standard. Therefore, the efforts should be conducted in the governmental scale to prevent pollution and reduce PM10 emission from various sources, such as transport and industries and also control dust entering the country by spreading mulch and development of green space.

  9. Re-entrained road dust PM10 emission from selected streets of Krakow and its impact on air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogacki Marek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research studies conducted in various parts of the world confirm that PM10 concentrations in urban air depend to a great extent on the resuspension processes of the dust deposited on the road surface. The paper presents the results of the study related to the determination of the re-entrained PM10 emissions from four selected streets of Krakow (Southern Poland together with the assessment of its impact on air quality. Examined streets are characterised by different traffic intensity (from 500 to over 20 000 vehicles per day and individual vehicle structure. Dust material sampling and estimation of the PM10 emission were conducted according to the U.S. EPA methodology (AP 42 Fifth Edition. Two variants of sample collection were applied: from the road surface including the area at the curb (4 streets and from the road surface alone (1 street. The estimates of resuspended road dust emission as well as the reference values derived from the U.S. EPA guidelines were used to assess the impact of this emission on the PM10 levels in the air at the location of one of the analysed streets. This assessment was conducted using the CALINE4 mathematical model. The study showed that the PM10 emissions from the re-entrained road dust can be responsible for up to 25 % in the winter and 50 % in the summer of the total PM10 concentrations in the air near the roads.

  10. Re-entrained road dust PM10 emission from selected streets of Krakow and its impact on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacki, Marek; Mazur, Marian; Oleniacz, Robert; Rzeszutek, Mateusz; Szulecka, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    Scientific research studies conducted in various parts of the world confirm that PM10 concentrations in urban air depend to a great extent on the resuspension processes of the dust deposited on the road surface. The paper presents the results of the study related to the determination of the re-entrained PM10 emissions from four selected streets of Krakow (Southern Poland) together with the assessment of its impact on air quality. Examined streets are characterised by different traffic intensity (from 500 to over 20 000 vehicles per day) and individual vehicle structure. Dust material sampling and estimation of the PM10 emission were conducted according to the U.S. EPA methodology (AP 42 Fifth Edition). Two variants of sample collection were applied: from the road surface including the area at the curb (4 streets) and from the road surface alone (1 street). The estimates of resuspended road dust emission as well as the reference values derived from the U.S. EPA guidelines were used to assess the impact of this emission on the PM10 levels in the air at the location of one of the analysed streets. This assessment was conducted using the CALINE4 mathematical model. The study showed that the PM10 emissions from the re-entrained road dust can be responsible for up to 25 % in the winter and 50 % in the summer of the total PM10 concentrations in the air near the roads.

  11. PM(10) emission forecasting using artificial neural networks and genetic algorithm input variable optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanasijević, Davor Z; Pocajt, Viktor V; Povrenović, Dragan S; Ristić, Mirjana Đ; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A

    2013-01-15

    This paper describes the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) model for the forecasting of annual PM(10) emissions at the national level, using widely available sustainability and economical/industrial parameters as inputs. The inputs for the model were selected and optimized using a genetic algorithm and the ANN was trained using the following variables: gross domestic product, gross inland energy consumption, incineration of wood, motorization rate, production of paper and paperboard, sawn wood production, production of refined copper, production of aluminum, production of pig iron and production of crude steel. The wide availability of the input parameters used in this model can overcome a lack of data and basic environmental indicators in many countries, which can prevent or seriously impede PM emission forecasting. The model was trained and validated with the data for 26 EU countries for the period from 1999 to 2006. PM(10) emission data, collected through the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution - CLRTAP and the EMEP Programme or as emission estimations by the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation (RAINS) model, were obtained from Eurostat. The ANN model has shown very good performance and demonstrated that the forecast of PM(10) emission up to two years can be made successfully and accurately. The mean absolute error for two-year PM(10) emission prediction was only 10%, which is more than three times better than the predictions obtained from the conventional multi-linear regression and principal component regression models that were trained and tested using the same datasets and input variables. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using support vector regression to predict PM10 and PM2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizhen, Hou; Zhengqiang, Li; Yuhuan, Zhang; Hua, Xu; Ying, Zhang; Kaitao, Li; Donghui, Li; Peng, Wei; Yan, Ma

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM), as a novel and powerful machine learning tool, can be used for the prediction of PM 10 and PM 2.5 (particulate matter less or equal than 10 and 2.5 micrometer) in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development of a successive over relaxation support vector regress (SOR-SVR) model for the PM 10 and PM 2.5 prediction, based on the daily average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological parameters (atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, air temperature, wind speed), which were all measured in Beijing during the year of 2010–2012. The Gaussian kernel function, as well as the k-fold crosses validation and grid search method, are used in SVR model to obtain the optimal parameters to get a better generalization capability. The result shows that predicted values by the SOR-SVR model agree well with the actual data and have a good generalization ability to predict PM 10 and PM 2.5 . In addition, AOD plays an important role in predicting particulate matter with SVR model, which should be included in the prediction model. If only considering the meteorological parameters and eliminating AOD from the SVR model, the prediction results of predict particulate matter will be not satisfying

  13. Objective Circulation type classifications for the estimation of local PM10 concentrations in Bavarian cities (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitnauer, Claudia; Beck, Christoph; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter with a particle distribution of a median aerodynamic diameter health, notably concerning cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. High pollution events of PM10 are defined by a threshold of a daily mean concentration of 50μg/m³ by directive 1999/30/EC and following directive 2008/50/EC of the European Union, which are relevant for regional air-quality mitigation strategies. Local concentrations of these fine particles are influenced by meteorological parameters on different scales, e.g. local meteorological conditions and large scale circulation dynamics. In order to detect critical periods of high PM10 concentrations, one focus in recent studies is the improvement of accurate short-term deterministic and statistical prediction models as well as reliable approaches for long-term air-quality prediction. The general relationship between local PM10 and large-scale circulation dynamics - as for example reflected by weather- or circulation types - has been proven in several studies, but so far only a few systematic attempts have been made to optimize weather- and circulation type classifications concerning their relationship to local PM10 concentrations. Against this background the aim of this study is to evaluate various approaches for the optimization of circulation type classifications with respect to their relevance for local PM10 concentrations in Bavarian cities (Germany) in order to detect those approaches that are best suited for the use in planned subsequent studies (e.g. estimation of potential PM10 variations due to future climate change). The used data set of daily mean PM10 has been provided by the Bavarian Environment Agency. For the analysed period 1980-2011 measurements of 16 urban traffic related stations, spread over the whole of Bavaria, are available. We provide initial characteristics of this data set concerning data availability, basic quality aspects, long-term trends and correspondance between locations. In

  14. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  15. PM10 Analysis for Three Industrialized Areas using Extreme Value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasfazilah Ahmat; Ahmad Shukri Yahaya; Nor Azam Ramli; Hasfazilah Ahmat

    2015-01-01

    One of the concerns of the air pollution studies is to compute the concentrations of one or more pollutants' species in space and time in relation to the independent variables, for instance emissions into the atmosphere, meteorological factors and parameters. One of the most significant statistical disciplines developed for the applied sciences and many other disciplines for the last few decades is the extreme value theory (EVT). This study assesses the use of extreme value distributions of the two-parameter Gumbel, two and three-parameter Weibull, Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) and two and three-parameter Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) on the maximum concentration of daily PM10 data recorded in the year 2010 - 2012 in Pasir Gudang, Johor; Bukit Rambai, Melaka; and Nilai, Negeri Sembilan. Parameters for all distributions are estimated using the Method of Moments (MOM) and Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE). Six performance indicators namely; the accuracy measures which include predictive accuracy (PA), Coefficient of Determination (R2), Index of Agreement (IA) and error measures that consist of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Normalized Absolute Error (NAE) are used to find the goodness-of-fit of the distribution. The best distribution is selected based on the highest accuracy measures and the smallest error measures. The results showed that the GEV is the best fit for daily maximum concentration for PM10 for all monitoring stations. The analysis also demonstrates that the estimated numbers of days in which the concentration of PM10 exceeded the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (MAAQG) of 150 mg/ m 3 are between 1/2 and 11/2 days. (author)

  16. Spatiotemporal analysis of the PM10 concentration over the Taranto area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollice, Alessio; Jona Lasinio, Giovanna

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, an analysis of air quality data is provided for the municipal area of Taranto (southern Italy) characterized by high environmental risks as formally decreed by the Italian government in the 1990s with two administrative measures. This is due to the massive presence of industrial sites with elevated environmental impact activities along the NW boundary of the city conurbation. The aforementioned activities have effects on the environment and on public health, as a number of epidemiological researches concerning this area reconfirm. The present study is focused on particulate matter as measured by PM10 concentrations at 13 monitoring stations, equipped with analogous instruments based on the Beta absorption technology, either reporting hourly, two-hourly, or daily measurements. Daily estimates of the PM10 concentration surfaces are obtained in order to identify areas of higher concentration (hot spots), possibly related to specific anthropic activities. Preliminary analysis involved addressing several data problems: (1) due to the use of two different validation techniques, a calibration procedure was devised to allow for data comparability; (2) imputation techniques were considered to cope with the large number of missing data, due to both different working periods and occasional malfunctions of PM10 sensors; and (3) reliable weather covariates (wind speed and direction, pressure, temperature, etc.) were obtained and considered within the analysis. Spatiotemporal modelling was addressed by a Bayesian kriging-based model proposed by Le and Zidek (2006) characterized by the use of time varying covariates and a semiparametric covariance structure. Advantages and disadvantages of the model are highlighted and assessed in terms of fit and performance. Estimated daily PM10 concentration surfaces are suitable for the interpretation of time trends and for identifying concentration peaks within the urban area.

  17. Estimating the impact of Saharan dust on the year 2001 PM 10 record of Rome, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Barnaba, F.; Ammannato, L.

    This paper evaluates the role of Saharan dust advection in the exceeding of the PM 10 thresholds in the city of Rome, Italy. To this purpose, a series of observations and model forecasts recorded in the year 2001 are analysed and discussed. Lidar profiles collected over 168 days of the year are employed to both assess the presence and magnitude of Saharan dust layers over the city and to evaluate the depth of the planetary boundary layer. Backtrajectories are used to verify the Saharan origin of the lidar-sounded air masses. Model predictions of the presence of Saharan dust over the area are employed to fill the time gaps between lidar observations. PM 10 and carbon monoxide records of both a city background (Villa Ada) and a heavy traffic station (Magna Grecia) are cross-analysed with the dust events record and meteorological data. The analysis shows that: (1) Saharan dust was advected over Rome on about 30% of the days of 2001; (2) mean contribution of Saharan dust transport events to daily PM 10 levels was of the order of 20 μg m -3; (3) at the urban background station of Villa Ada, the Saharan contribution caused the surpassing of the maximum number of days in excess of 50 μg m -3 fixed by the current legislation (35 per year). Conversely, at the heavy traffic station of Magna Grecia the Saharan contribution was not determinant at causing the observed large exceeding of that limit, as well as of the maximum yearly average of 40 μg m -3; (4) 25% of the Saharan advection days (of the order of 100/year at Rome) led to a PM 10 increase >30 μg m -3, 4% caused an increase >50 μg m -3, thus leading on their own to surpassing the 50 μg m -3 daily limit.

  18. Glyphosate and AMPA content in the PM10 emitted by a soil of the central semiarid region of Argentine (CSRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mariano; Aimar, Silvia; Aparicio, Virginia; Buschiazzo, Daniel; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    Particle matter with aerodynamic diameter lesser than 10 um (PM10) has shown adverse effects on health even at low concentrations. Entic Haplustoll dominates central semiarid region of Argentine (CSRA) and PM10 are emitted from the soil by tillage and wind erosion. The aim of study was measure glyphosate concentration in the PM10 emitted by a soil fine-sandy loam Entic Haplustoll. The study was carried in Santa Rosa La Pampa (S36° 46´; W64° 16´; 210 m a.s.l.) in a plot where 3.7 kg ha-1 active ingredient of glyphosate was used in the last two year and glyphosate was not used in the last 12 months. Soil samples were air dried and sieved with a rotary sieve to separate the following aggregate fractions: 19.2 mm. The Easy Dust Generator (EDG) was used to generate dust from the soil and its aggregate fractions. The PM10 emitted by EDG was collected using an electrostatic precipitator (C&L model number GH-939). The following determinations were carried out in the soil, aggregates and PM10 emitted by them: organic matter contents (OM) (Walkley & Black, 1934), particle size composition (Malvern martersizer2000) and the Glyphosate and AMPA content. Results showed that mean geometric diameter (MGD) of the material collected in the electrostatic precipitator and emitted by the aggregate fraction and the soil was between 4.6 and 5.3 µm. OM content in the aggregates fraction and soil ranged between 1.4% and 2.9% while than in the PM10 emitted by them ranged between 3.5% and 3.7 %. Clay content in aggregates and soil ranged between 6.5% and 8.5% while than in PM10 emitted by them ranged between 17.5% and 19.0%. Glyphosate content in aggregates fraction and soil ranged between 1 and 3 ppb. Glyphosate in PM10 emitted by aggregates and soil did not show differences in despite of it ranged between 11.0 ppb and 19.5 ppb. OM and clay in aggregate fractions and PM10 do not explained glyphosate content in PM10. AMPA concentration in aggregates and soil ranged between 80 ppb and

  19. Association between PM10 concentrations and school absences in proximity of a cement plant in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Pesce, Giancarlo; Girardi, Paolo; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Blengio, Gianstefano; de Zolt Sappadina, Simona; Falcone, Salvatore; Frapporti, Guglielmo; Predicatori, Francesca; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Dusts are one of the main air pollutants emitted during cement manufacturing. A substantial part of these are breathable particles that are less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), which represent a potential threat for the health of the exposed population. This study aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of PM10 concentrations on the health of children, aged 6-14 years, who attended the schools in Fumane (Italy), in proximity (1.2 km) to a large cement plant. School absenteeism was used as a proxy indicator of child morbidity. Time series of daily school absences and PM10 concentrations were collected for 3 school-years from 2007 to 2010 (541 school-days, 462 children on average). The associations between PM10 concentrations and school absence rates in the same day (lag0) and in the following 4 days (lag1 to lag4) were evaluated using generalised additive models, smoothed for medium/long term trends and adjusted for day of the week, influenza outbreaks, daily temperature and rain precipitations. The average concentration of PM10 in the period was 34 (range: 4-183) μg/m(3). An average 10 μg/m(3) increase of PM10 concentration in the previous days (lag0-4) was associated with a statistically significant 2.5% (95%CI: 1.1-4.0%) increase in the rate of school absences. The highest increase in the absence rates (2.4%; 95%CI: 1.2-3.5%) was found 2 days after exposure (lag2). These findings provide epidemiological evidence of the acute health effects of PM10 in areas with annual concentrations that are lower than the legal European Union limit of 40 μg/m(3), and support the need to establish more restrictive legislative standards. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and...

  1. Risk estimation by exposure to PM10 particles in the Toluca Valley; Estimacion de riesgo por exposicion a particulas PM10 en el Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores R, J.H.; Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez M, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morelos M, J. [UAEM, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jhfr@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Risk estimation to PM10 in the Toluca valley and surrounding areas was estimated, for several return periods, evaluating the occurrence probability to several interval times (1, 5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 years) using the extreme values of the Gumbel-1 distribution; those intervals were employed to predict and analyze the behaviour of maximum contaminant concentrations in the study region. A high degree of risk to health due to the mean concentration of these particles is obtained from statistical considerations. The evaluation took into consideration the eight monitoring years from the Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network (RAMAT) and its output predicts, if present conditions maintain, this statistical relation remain invariant between the next 20 years. Such particles affect the human respiratory system, besides, present a carcinogenic potential due to the volume of hydrocarbons combustion to the atmosphere. (Author)

  2. Vertical PM10 Characteristics and their Relation with Tropospheric Meteorology over Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei Tong, Cheuk

    2016-04-01

    Small particulates or PM10, those with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mm, can cause long term impairment to human health as they can penetrate deep and deposit on the wall of the respiratory system. Hong Kong receives significant concentration of cross-boundary particulates but at the same time produce domestic pollutants which altogether contribute to the total pollution problem. Recent research interest is paying more attention on the vertical characteristic of PM in the lower atmosphere as possible correlations exist along different altitude. Besides, there exists potential relationship between PM concentration aloft and the high-level weather condition. Yet, most studies focus only up to around 200 meters above sea level due to the proposed significance and the lack of technology. Undoubtedly, this is not enough in investigating the relation between vertical atmospheric profile and PM vertical characteristics. New technology development has allowed measuring PM concentration along the vertical atmospheric profile up to tropopause. This measurement relies on the Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) which operates using the radar principle to detect Rayleigh and Mie scattering from atmospheric gas and aerosols. The research involves (1) study of the seasonal vertical PM10 characteristics in five studying site of Hong Kong covering urban, suburban and rural area; (2) the relationship of the PM10 characteristics with meteorological parameters; (3) the vertical PM10 characteristics under the approach of tropical cyclones. A portable Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) is adopted to collect PM data aloft while surface PM data is collected from ground stations. High-level meteorology data is received from Hong Kong Observatory. Statistical analyses are operated to investigate the correlation between weather conditions and PM concentration along the vertical profile. The research study is divided in phrases. The ultimate goal of the study is to develop models

  3. Repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10 induces lipid reshaping in lung parenchyma and in extra-pulmonary tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Rizzo

    Full Text Available Adverse health effects of air pollution attributed mainly to airborne particulate matter have been well documented in the last couple of decades. Short term exposure, referring to a few hours exposure, to high ambient PM10 concentration is linked to increased hospitalization rates for cardiovascular events, typically 24 h after air pollution peaks. Particulate matter exposure is related to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory status. Previously, we have demonstrated that repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10sum in BALB/c mice leads to respiratory tract inflammation, creating in lung a condition which could potentially evolve in a systemic toxic reaction. Additionally, plasma membrane and tissue lipids are easily affected by oxidative stress and directly correlated with inflammatory products. With this aim, in the present investigation using the same model, we analyzed the toxic potential of PM10sum exposure on lipid plasma membrane composition, lipid peroxidation and the mechanisms of cells protection in multiple organs such as lung, heart, liver and brain. Obtained results indicated that PM10 exposure led to lung lipid reshaping, in particular phospholipid and cholesterol content increases; concomitantly, the generation of oxidative stress caused lipid peroxidation. In liver we found significant changes in lipid content, mainly due to an increase of phosphatidylcholine, and in total fatty acid composition with a more pronounced level of docosahexaenoic acid; these changes were statistically correlated to lung molecular markers. Heart and brain were similarly affected; heart was significantly enriched in triglycerides in half of the PM10sum treated mice. These results demonstrated a direct involvement of PM10sum in affecting lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in peripheral tissues that might be related to the serious systemic air-pollution effects on human health.

  4. Temporal variation of PM10 concentration and properties in Istanbul 2007-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Kaya, Nefel; Eşer, Övgü; Saltan, Şehnaz

    2017-04-01

    The study of temporal variation of atmospheric aerosols is essential for a better understanding of sources, transport, and accumulation in the atmosphere. In addition, the study of aerosol properties is important for the understanding of their formation and potential impacts on ecosystems and climate change. Istanbul is a Megacity that often shows exceedance in particulate matter (PM) standard values, especially during the winter season. In this work, temporal variations of hourly ground-level PM10 concentrations, aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol index (AI), vertical distribution, and mineral dust loadings were investigated according to air mass trajectory clusters in Istanbul during 2007-2015. Aerosol properties (i.e., AOD, AI, and vertical distribution) and mineral dust loadings were retrieved from satellite observations and the BSC-DREAM8b model, respectively. Air mass backward trajectories and clustering were supplied by NOAA-HYSPLIT model. Mineral dust transport events were characterized according to the exceedance of a dust loading threshold value. The total number of mineral dust transport events ranged from 115 to 183 during the study period. The largest number of mineral dust transport events were observed in 2008 and 2014. However, the highest ground-level PM10 measurements were observed in 2012-2013 with approximately 70% of the daily average concentrations exceeding the air quality standard of 50 µg m-3. Overall, 5-6 air mass trajectory clusters were able to resolve over 85% of the total spatial variance. These trajectories vary in frequency and direction throughout the years, however, the main trajectories favor aerosol transport from N, NE, NNE, and S, and SE. Evaluation of mineral dust loading and PM10 concentrations is helpful for successful development and implementation of air quality management strategies on local levels.

  5. The effect of mineral dust transport on PM10 concentrations and physical properties in Istanbul during 2007-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Kaya, Nefel; Eşer, Övgü; Saltan, Şehnaz

    2017-11-01

    Mineral dust is the most significant source of natural particulate matter. In urban regions, where > 50% of the world population is currently living, local emissions of particulate matter are further aggravated by mineral dust loadings from deserts. The megacity of Istanbul is located in an area sensitive to local pollution due to transportation (i.e., private cars, public transportation, aircrafts, ships, heavy diesel trucks, etc.), industrial emissions, residential heating, and long-range transport from Europe, Asia, and deserts. In this work, the effect of desert dust transport on PM10 concentrations and physical properties was investigated for the period of 2007-2014 in the touristic area of Aksaray, Istanbul. The Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM8b) was used to predict dust loading in Istanbul during dust transport events. Variations on surface PM10 concentrations were investigated according to seasons and during dust transport events. Cluster analysis of air mass backward trajectories was useful to understand frequency analysis and air mass trajectory dependence of PM10 concentrations on dust loadings. The effect of desert dust transport on aerosol optical depths was also investigated. It was observed that PM10 concentrations exceeded the air quality standard of 50 μg m- 3 50% of the time during the study period. The largest number of exceedances in air quality standard occurred during the spring and winter seasons. Approximately 40-60% of the dust loading occurs during the spring. Desert dust and non-desert dust sources contribute to 22-72% and 48-81% of the ground-level PM10 concentrations in Aksaray, Istanbul during the study period. Averaged AOD observed during dust transport events in spring and summer ranged 0.35-0.55. Cluster analysis resolved over 82% the variability of individual air mass backward trajectories into 5 clusters. Overall, air masses arriving to Istanbul at 500 m are equally distributed into northern (52%) and southern (48

  6. Application of CALPUFF to PM10 emissions from beehive burners in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciccone, A.D. [Jacques Whitford and Associates Limited, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Waddell, G. [Canadian Forest Products Ltd., Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The complex local topography of the Bulkley Valley in the British Columbia interior greatly influences the local meteorology and climatology. The communities of Smithers and Houston which are located in the valley are hosts to three mills which operate conical burners for waste disposal and which define the extent of airshed. The CALMET/CALPUFF modelling system was chosen as a means to evaluate the contribution of the burners to the local airshed. CALPUFF was chosen because of the combined conditions of complex terrain and low wind speed in the region. Since MM5 gridded meteorological data was available from the BC Ministry of Environment to initialize the wind fields for CALMET in 1995, modelling was conducted in that year. CALPUFF provided 24-hour PM10 ground level concentrations over a 54 km by 72 km range. This included monitoring stations in the airshed. The impact from the conical burners was found to be low compared to the monitoring data which was collected. However, it was determined that the model was able to describe hourly changes in ambient PM10 levels, which reflected the hourly monitoring station data. The region is now equipped with a modelling platform that can be used to help in air pollution source appointment as well as for the management general air quality.

  7. Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM10at an urban background site in a high-altitude Latin American megacity (Bogota, Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Omar; Sánchez de la Campa, A M; Amato, Fulvio; Catacolí, Ruth A; Rojas, Néstor Y; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-02-01

    Bogota registers frequent episodes of poor air quality from high PM 10 concentrations. It is one of the main Latin American megacities, located at 2600 m in the tropical Andes, but there is insufficient data on PM 10 source contribution. A characterization of the chemical composition and the source apportionment of PM 10 at an urban background site in Bogota was carried out in this study. Daily samples were collected from June 2015 to May 2016 (a total of 311 samples). Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble compounds (SO 4 2- , Cl - , NO 3 - , NH 4 + ), major elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P) and trace metals (V, Cd, Pb, Sr, Ba, among others) were analyzed. The results were interpreted in terms of their variability during the rainy season (RS) and the dry season (DS). The data obtained revealed that the carbonaceous fraction (∼51%) and mineral dust (23%) were the main PM 10 components, followed by others (15%), Secondary Inorganic Compounds (SIC) (11%) and sea salt (0.4%). The average concentrations of soil, SIC and OC were higher during RS than DS. However, peak values were observed during the DS due to photochemical activity and forest fires. Although trace metals represented <1% of PM 10 , high concentrations of toxic elements such as Pb and Sb on RS, and Cu on DS, were obtained. By using a PMF model, six factors were identified (∼96% PM 10 ) including fugitive dust, road dust, metal processing, secondary PM, vehicles exhaust and industrial emissions. Traffic (exhaust emissions + road dust) was the major PM 10 source, accounting for ∼50% of the PM 10 . The results provided novel data about PM 10 chemical composition, its sources and its seasonal variability during the year, which can help the local government to define control strategies for the main emission sources during the most critical periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation into the Effect of Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrations on GPS Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Lau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS has been widely used in navigation, surveying, geophysical and geodynamic studies, machine guidance, etc. High-precision GPS applications such as geodetic surveying need millimeter and centimeter level accuracy. Since GPS signals are affected by atmospheric effects, methods of correcting or eliminating ionospheric and tropospheric bias are needed in GPS data processing. Relative positioning can be used to mitigate the atmospheric effect, but its efficiency depends on the baseline lengths. Air pollution is a serious problem globally, especially in developing countries that causes health problems to humans and damage to the ecosystem. Respirable suspended particles are coarse particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less, also known as PM10. Moreover, fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less are known as PM2.5. GPS signals travel through the atmosphere before arriving at receivers on the Earth’s surface, and the research question posed in this paper is: are GPS signals affected by the increased concentration of the PM2.5/PM10 particles? There is no standard model of the effect of PM2.5/PM10 particles on GPS signals in GPS data processing, although an approximate generic model of non-gaseous atmospheric constituents (<1 mm can be found in the literature. This paper investigates the effect of the concentration of PM2.5/PM10 particles on GPS signals and validates the aforementioned approximate model with a carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR-based empirical method. Both the approximate model and the empirical results show that the atmospheric PM2.5/PM10 particles and their concentrations have a negligible effect on GPS signals and the effect is comparable with the noise level of GPS measurements.

  9. Potential impact of particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM10) to ambient air quality of Jakarta and Palembang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustine, I.; Yulinawati, H.; Gunawan, D.; Suswantoro, E.

    2018-01-01

    Particulate is a main urban air pollutant affects the environment and human wellbeing. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM10) to ambient air quality of Jakarta and Palembang. The analysis is done with calendarPlot Function of openair model, which is based on the calculation of Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) or better known as Air Quality Index (AQI). The AQI category of “moderate” dominates Jakarta’s calendar from 2015 to 2016, which indicates the impact of PM10 is the visibility reduction. There was one day with category “unhealthy” that indicates the impact of dust exposure everywhere in Jakarta during 2015. Similar to Jakarta, the AQI category “moderate” also dominates Palembang’s calendar during 2015. However, the AQI category “hazardous” happened for few days in September and October 2015 during forest fires, which indicates the more harmful impacts of PM10, such as reduced visibility, dust exposure everywhere, increased sensitivity in patients with asthma and bronchitis to respiratory illness in all exposed populations. During 2016, AQI category of Jakarta mostly “moderate”, while in Palembang was “good”. Dominant AQI category from 2015 to 2016 shows higher PM10 concentration occurred in Jakarta compared to Palembang.

  10. PM10 source apportionment applying PMF and chemical tracer analysis to ship-borne measurements in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, M. C.; Brotto, P.; Calzolai, G.; Cassola, F.; Cavalli, F.; Fermo, P.; Hjorth, J.; Massabò, D.; Nava, S.; Piazzalunga, A.; Schembari, C.; Prati, P.

    2016-01-01

    A PM10 sampling campaign was carried out on board the cruise ship Costa Concordia during three weeks in summer 2011. The ship route was Civitavecchia-Savona-Barcelona-Palma de Mallorca-Malta (Valletta)-Palermo-Civitavecchia. The PM10 composition was measured and utilized to identify and characterize the main PM10 sources along the ship route through receptor modelling, making use of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) algorithm. A particular attention was given to the emissions related to heavy fuel oil combustion by ships, which is known to be also an important source of secondary sulphate aerosol. Five aerosol sources were resolved by the PMF analysis. The primary contribution of ship emissions to PM10 turned out to be (12 ± 4)%, while secondary ammonium sulphate contributed by (35 ± 5)%. Approximately, 60% of the total sulphate was identified as secondary aerosol while about 20% was attributed to heavy oil combustion in ship engines. The measured concentrations of methanesulphonic acid (MSA) indicated a relevant contribution to the observed sulphate loading by biogenic sulphate, formed by the atmospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emitted by marine phytoplankton.

  11. Temporal multiscaling characteristics of particulate matter PM 10 and ground-level ozone O3 concentrations in Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocoste, Thomas; Calif, Rudy; Jacoby-Koaly, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    A good knowledge of the intermittency of atmospheric pollutants is crucial for air pollution management. We consider here particulate matter PM 10 and ground-level ozone O3 time series in Guadeloupe archipelago which experiments a tropical and humid climate in the Caribbean zone. The aim of this paper is to study their scaling statistics in the framework of fully developed turbulence and Kolmogorov's theory. Firstly, we estimate their Fourier power spectra and consider their scaling properties in the physical space. The power spectra computed follows a power law behavior for both considered pollutants. Thereafter we study the scaling behavior of PM 10 and O3 time series. Contrary to numerous studies where the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is frequently applied, here, the classical structure function analysis is used to extract the scaling exponent or multifractal spectrum ζ(q) ; this function provides a full characterization of a process at all intensities and all scales. The obtained results show that PM 10 and O3 possess intermittent and multifractal properties. The singularity spectrum MS(α) also confirms both pollutants multifractal features. The originality of this work comes from a statistical modeling performed on ζ(q) and MS(α) by a lognormal model to compute the intermittency parameter μ. By contrast with PM 10 which mainly depends on puffs of Saharan dust (synoptic-scale), O3 is more intermittent due to variability of its local precursors. The results presented in this paper can help to better understand the mechanisms governing the dynamics of PM 10 and O3 in Caribbean islands context.

  12. Characteristics of PM2.5 in Seoul in relationship with PM10 and PM1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Lee, M.; Lim, S.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.; Chang, L.

    2017-12-01

    PM2.5 was enacted to an environmental standard in 2005 and then has enforced since 2015 in Korea. PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 mass and their chemical components were measured in Seoul during 2007-2008. To investigate the suitability of PM2.5 mass as an environmental standard for fine and coarse aerosols, samples were classified into three groups on the PM1.0 and PM10 mass relationship, in which three groups were divided into Group 1 (PM1.0 proportionally increased with PM10), Group 2 (PM10 dominantly increased rather than PM1.0) and Group 3 (PM1.0 relatively mainly increased rather than PM10). The average PM2.5 mass concentrations of former two groups exceeded the annual standard. In Group 1, PM1.0 and PM10 mass showed good correlation, in which SO42-, NO3-, OC, and EC increased when air masses passed over urbanized regions in East China along with trace gases. So, Group 1 represents fine aerosols episode impacted by Chinese outflows. The PM2.5 mass of Group 2 increased when air masses were transported from desert areas region as well as PM10 mass, and Ca2+. It reveals that the main source of Group 2 is Asian dust. Thus, these two high PM episodes were well captured by PM2.5 mass. Although the average PM2.5 mass concentration of Group 3 was lower than the annual standard, the proportion of carbonaceous fine aerosols against PM2.5 mass was noticeably increased while air massed were slowly moving through Seoul. The results of chemical analysis and NMF (Non-negative Matrix Factorization) receptor model implied that the increase of carbonaceous aerosols was associated with local traffic emission. These results show that PM2.5 mass is a suitable environmental standard for detecting high aerosol events in Korea. However, the high concentration of carbonaceous aerosols during non-episode days of Group 3 showed that caution and effort are needed to stem the rise of carbonaceous aerosols due to local emissions.

  13. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenhaut, Willy, E-mail: willy.maenhaut@ugent.be [Ghent University (UGent), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda [University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. - Highlights: • A one-year study with 4 urban background sites and a total of 372

  14. Risk estimation by exposure to PM10 particles in the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores R, J.H.; Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez M, A.; Morelos M, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Risk estimation to PM10 in the Toluca valley and surrounding areas was estimated, for several return periods, evaluating the occurrence probability to several interval times (1, 5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 years) using the extreme values of the Gumbel-1 distribution; those intervals were employed to predict and analyze the behaviour of maximum contaminant concentrations in the study region. A high degree of risk to health due to the mean concentration of these particles is obtained from statistical considerations. The evaluation took into consideration the eight monitoring years from the Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network (RAMAT) and its output predicts, if present conditions maintain, this statistical relation remain invariant between the next 20 years. Such particles affect the human respiratory system, besides, present a carcinogenic potential due to the volume of hydrocarbons combustion to the atmosphere. (Author)

  15. Influence of pavement macrotexture on PM10 emissions from paved roads: A controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; James, David E.

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates influence of pavement macrotexture on paved road PM10 emissions. This study was conducted on different paved roadway types (local, collector and minor arterial) in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. Pavement macrotexture was measured using the ASTM E 965 sand patch method and the Digital Surface Roughness Meter™ (DSRM™). A controlled constant soil loading with known PM10 fraction was applied to cleaned road surfaces. The Desert Research Institute's (DRI) Mini-PI-SWERL™ (Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab) was used to estimate PM10 mass emissions and cumulative mass emitted from pavement surfaces. PM10 mass emissions using controlled applied soil loadings generally declined with increasing pavement macrotexture at all applied shear levels. The relationships were statistically significant, and indicate that pavement macrotexture may need to be included in future development of revised paved road PM10 emissions factors. A change in the slope of emitted PM10 mass and pavement macrotexture occurred between 0.8 and 0.9 mm mean texture depth (MTD). Anomalies in PM10 mass emissions were observed at MTDs exceeding 1.2 mm. Two-way frequency distributions of pavement surface features obtained from DSRM measurements were analyzed to explain the observed anomalies. Results showed that pavement surface feature size distributions may influence on PM10 emissions from paved roads at similar MTDs. PM10 mass emissions were found to linearly depend on adjusted mode size of the pavement surface aggregate. A sharp decrease in friction velocities, computed from wind erosion theory, at MTDs above 0.9 mm matched an observed sharp decrease in PM10 emissions rates at MTDs above 0.9 mm, indicating that classical wind erosion theory could be adapted for non-erodible pavement surfaces and linearly relate PM10 emissions rates to applied shear stress at an aerodynamic roughness height of 0.075 mm.

  16. Geographic variation in Chinese children' forced vital capacity and its association with long-term exposure to local PM10: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Li, Qin; Guo, Yuming; Song, Jie-Yun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between Chinese children's forced vital capacity (FVC) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ). The FVC data of 71,763 children aged 7 to 18 was collected from 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students' Construction and Health (CNSSCH). The local annual average concentration of PM 10 , relative humidity, ambient temperature, and other air pollutant data of 30 cities was collected from China Meteorological Administration and Ministry of Environment Protection of China. Then, we used generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate the association between children's FVC and PM 10 . The obvious geographic variation in FVC was found in children of 30 Chinese cities ranging from 1647 ml in Xining to 2571 ml in Beijing. The annual average concentration of PM 10 was also different, ranging from 40 μg/m 3 in Haikou to 155 μg/m 3 in Lanzhou. After adjusted individual characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and other air pollutants (e.g., NO 2 and SO 2 ) in the generalized additive model, we found that the increase of PM 10 was associated with decrease of FVC in Chinese children. A 10-μg/m 3 increase of PM 10 was associated with 1.33-ml decrease in FVC (95% confidence interval: -2.18 to -0.47). We also found a larger effect estimate of PM 10 on FVC in boys than that in girls. Consistent associations were found in both physically inactive and active children. The increase of PM 10 was associated with decrease of children's FVC. We should develop proper public health policy to protect children's respiratory health during growth and development in polluted areas.

  17. Study on ambient concentrations of PM 10, PM 10-2.5, PM 2.5 and gaseous pollutants. Trace elements and chemical speciation of atmospheric particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongarrà, G.; Manno, E.; Varrica, D.; Lombardo, M.; Vultaggio, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study provides the first comprehensive report on mass concentrations of particulate matter of various sizes, inorganic and organic gas concentrations monitored at three sampling sites in the city of Palermo (Sicily, Italy). It also provides information on the water-soluble species and trace elements. A total of 2054 PM 10 (1333) and PM 2.5 (721) daily measurements were collected from November 2006 to February 2008. The highest mass concentrations were observed at the urban stations, average values being about two times higher than those at the suburban (control) site. Time variations in PM 10 and also PM 10-2.5 were observed at the urban stations, the highest concentrations being measured in autumn and winter. CO, NOx, NO 2, benzene, toluene and o-xylene concentrations peaked in autumn and winter, a pattern similar to those recorded for PM 10 and PM 10-2.5 mass levels, indicating the importance of traffic emissions in urban air pollution. 91% and 51% of the benzene measurements exceeded the limit of 5 μg m -3 at the two urban monitoring sites. Trace elements (As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb) suspected of being introduced into the atmosphere mainly by anthropogenic activities, were highly enriched with respect to local soil. Results indicate that a large fraction of PM 10 (31-47% in weight) and PM 2.5 (29% in weight) is made up of water-soluble ions. Ammonium sulphate and nitrate particles accounted for 14-29 wt% of particulate matter mass concentrations. Crustal and marine components, combined, account for 41% and 49% in PM 2.5 and PM 10, respectively. The calculated deficits in Cl - and NH 4+ ions suggest that a proportion of these ions are lost, via the formation of gaseous NH 4Cl or HCl and NH 3.

  18. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  19. Indoor pollution: PM2.5 and PM10 from cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianese, E.; Barone, G.; Castaldo, R.M.; Riccio, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work is aimed to establishing the temporal and spatial dispersion of PM 10 and PM 2.5 particulate matter fractions generated by cigarettes smoking in an indoor ambient. To this purpose, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were collected with a mobile instrument positioned in a room accommodating a smoking machine. [it

  20. PM 10 emission inventory of industrial and road transport vehicles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid development in industrial and road transportation sector in developing countries has contributing the environmental issue. Determining the estimated PM10 emission in Klang Valley, Malaysia is based on the best available resources. Emission of PM10 from both sources was estimated particularly from numbers of ...

  1. [PM10 environmental pollution in and around housing and respiratory capacity in Puerto Nare, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Rendon, María L; Zapata-Saldarriaga, Patricia M; Correa-Ochoa, Mauricio A

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the relationship between PM10 intra- and extra-domiciliary levels and the lung function of people living in La Sierra, Antioquia, Colombia. A survey and field observations were used for determining the environmental conditions and the immediate household environment of 124 people who had taken a spirometric test. Meteorological conditions were monitored: temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed and PM10 (24 hours) within and outside the houses. Indoor PM10 (0.05 mg/m3) in 50 % of the houses was PM10 (0.06 mg/m3); there was 79.08 % relative humidity, 33.03 mm rainfall, 28.75°C and 0.91 m/s wind speed. 25% of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was<74 %. There was a positive correlationbetween indoor and outdoor PM10 (0.197: p=0.029) and a negative correlation between indoor PM10 and wind speed (-0.215: p=0,017). A weak positive relationship was found between FEV1 and indoor and outdoor PM10. The results suggested that indoor pollution came from automobile emission, industrial combustionand unpaved roads (i.e. producing a lot of dust). PM10 decreased with increasing rain fall, higher relative humidity and increased wind speed.

  2. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. PM10-cause analysis based on hypothetical emissions scenarios. Sub-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    In this report, a PM10 cause analysis is presented, which provides an estimation of the extent to which the emitted substances from ten different source sectors are responsible for the calculated PM10 concentrations in Germany (PM = particulate matter). [de

  3. Update on the development of cotton gin PM10 emission factors for EPA's AP-42

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cotton ginning industry-supported project was initiated in 2008 to update the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) to include PM10 emission factors. This study develops emission factors from the PM10 emission factor data collected from ...

  4. Tillage and straw management affect PM10 emission potential in subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of PM10 (particulates =10 um in diameter regulated by many nations as an air pollutant) from agricultural soils can impact regional air quality. Little information exists that describes the potential for PM10 and airborne dust emissions from subarctic soils or agricultural soils subject to ...

  5. Two Different modes of Springtime PM10 Concentration Variations in Korea and the Associated Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Wie, J.; Lee, Y. K.; Moon, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study identifies the two EOF modes of springtime PM10 variations in Korea and their associated meteorological conditions. The daily PM10 data from 318 stations and NCEP reanlaysis data during four years (2012-2015) were used. The first EOF mode, which accounts for 70.3% of the total PM10 variation, shows the increase or decrease of PM10 concentrations in the entire region. Regression analysis between the PC time series of the first mode and the meteorological variables shows that the PM10 concentrations increase under dry conditions associated with the high pressure system. The lagged regression analysis also shows that the strong westerly winds at lag -l day contributes to enhanced PM10 concentration, implying the transport of PM10 from China. The second EOF mode, which accounts for 8.5% of the total variation, exhibits a dipole mode of opposite sign for the Gyeonggi region (north-western part of Korea) and the Yeongnam region (south-eastern part of Korea). In this mode, the decrease of PM10 concentrations is closely related to the precipitation associated with the mid-latitude cyclone.This research was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program"

  6. Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Urban PM10 in Bejaia City (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Benaissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used Health Impact Assessment (HIA to analyze the impact on a given population’s health outcomes in terms of all-causes mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations attributable to short-term exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm diameter (PM10 in Bejaia city, for which health effects of air pollution have never been investigated. Two scenarios of PM10 reduction were considered: first, a scenario where the PM10 annual mean is decreased by 5 µg/m3, and then a scenario where this PM10 mean is decreased to 20 µg/m3 (World Health Organization annual air quality guideline (WHO-AQG. Annual mean level of PM10 (81.7 µg/m3 was calculated from objective measurements assessed in situ. Each year, about 4 and 55 deaths could be postponed with the first and the second scenarios successfully. Furthermore, decreasing PM10 annual mean by 5 µg/m3 would avoid 5 and 3 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively, and not exceeding the PM10 WHO-AQG (20 µg/m3 would result in a potential gain of 36 and 23 per 100000 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively. Lowering in current levels of PM10 has a nonnegligible impact in terms of public health that it is expected to be higher in the case of long-term effects.

  7. Relationship between physico-chemical characteristics and potential toxicity of PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megido, Laura; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Negral, Luis; Castrillón, Leonor; Suárez, Susana; Fernández-Nava, Yolanda; Marañón, Elena

    2016-11-01

    PM10 was sampled at a suburban location affected by traffic and industry in the north of Spain. The samples were analysed to determine the chemical components of PM10 (organic and elemental carbon, soluble chemical species and metals). The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of PM10 in terms of the bulk analysis and the physico-chemical properties of the particles. Total carbon, sulphates, ammonium, chlorides and nitrates were found to be the major constituents of PM10. The contribution of the last of these was found to increase significantly with PM10 concentration (Pearson coefficient correlation of 0.7, p-value major risk to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The behaviour of PM10 and ozone in Malaysia through non-linear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapini, Muhamad Luqman; Rahim, Nurul Zahirah binti Abd; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md.

    2015-10-01

    Prediction of ozone (O3) and PM10 is very important as both these air pollutants affect human health, human activities and more. Short-term forecasting of air quality is needed as preventive measures and effective action can be taken. Therefore, if it is detected that the ozone data is of a chaotic dynamical systems, a model using the nonlinear dynamic from chaos theory data can be made and thus forecasts for the short term would be more accurate. This study uses two methods, namely the 0-1 Test and Lyapunov Exponent. In addition, the effect of noise reduction on the analysis of time series data will be seen by using two smoothing methods: Rectangular methods and Triangle methods. At the end of the study, recommendations were made to get better results in the future.

  9. The Effect of PM 10 on Ischemia- Reperfusion Induced Arrhythmias in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Radmanesh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies show that particulate matter (PM is the principal instigator of some adverse clinical symptoms involving cardiovascular diseases. PM exposure can increase experimental infarct size and potentiate myocardial ischemia and arrhythmias in experimental MI models such as ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury.The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of particulate matter (PM10 on ischemia- reperfusion induced arrhythmias with emphasis on the protective role of VA as an antioxidant on them. Male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups (n=10: Control, VAc, Sham, VA, PM1 (0.5 mg/kg, PM2 (2.5 mg/kg, PM3 group (5 mg/kg, PM3 + VA group. Within 48 hours, PM10 was instilled into trachea in two stages. Then the hearts were isolated, transferred to a Langendorff apparatus, and subjected to global ischemia (30 minutes followed by reperfusion (60 minutes. The ischemia- reperfusion induced ventricular arrhythmias were assessed according to the Lambeth conventions.In the present study,the number, incidence and duration of arrhythmiasduring30 minutes ischemia were demonstrated to be more than those in the reperfusion stage. PM exposure increased significantly the number, incidence and duration of arrhythmias in the ischemia and reperfusion duration. Vanillic acid reduced significantly the number, incidence and duration of arrhythmias during the ischemia and reperfusion period.In summary, the results of this study demonstrated that the protective and dysrhythmic effects of VA in the PM exposure rats in I/R model are probably related to its antioxidant properties.

  10. CV-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Every year, billions of tons of eroded mineral soils from the Saharan Desert and the Sahel region, the largest dust source in the world, cross Mediterranean towards Europe, western Asia and the tropical North Atlantic Ocean as far as the Caribbean and South America. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of dust on climate are not well understood and the bulk and surface chemistry of the mineral dust particles determines interactions with gaseous and other particle species. The quantification of the magnitude of warming or cooling remains open because of the strong variability of the atmospheric dust burden and the lack of representative data for the spatial and temporal distribution of the dust composition. CV-Dust is a project that aims at provide a detailed data on the size distribution and the size-resolved chemical and mineralogical composition of dust emitted from North Africa using a natural laboratory like Cape Verde. This archipelago is located in an area of massive dust transport from land to ocean, and is thus ideal to set up sampling devices that are able to characterize and quantify dust transported from Africa. Moreover, Cape Verde's future economic prospects depend heavily on the encouragement of tourism, therefore it is essential to elucidate the role of Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality. The main objectives of CV-Dust project are: 1) to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of dust transported from Africa by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in the strategic archipelago of Cape Verde; 2) to identify the sources of particles in Cape Verde by using receptor models; 3) to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality; 4) to model processes governing dust production, transport, interaction with the radiation field and removal from the atmosphere. Here we present part of the data obtained throughout the last year, involving a set of more

  11. The local contribution of wood burning to PM10 and PM2.5; De lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In January 2009, the concentrations of wood smoke in Schoorl, the Netherlands, were established by means of levoglucosan measurements (a hydrocarbon compound that is characteristic for wood smoke). Local wood smoke contributes significantly to the concentration of particulate matter: between 9% and 27% for PM10 and between 30% and 29% for PM2.5. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  12. Decadal changes in wind patterns impact on high PM10 concentration in the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Jeon, W.; Lee, H.; Lee, S.

    2017-12-01

    Principal component analysis is a statistical method that can be used not only to analyze the principal components of data, but also to reduce dimensionality and remove noise of data. And K-means cluster analysis is one of the commonly used non-hierarchical cluster analysis methods, which classifies clusters based on distance between data. In order to classify the wind patterns impact on high PM10 concentration in the Korean Peninsula, K-means cluster analysis was performed with reproducing the data using principal component analysis. We analyzed the decadal changes in the wind patterns around the Korean Peninsula and their impact on PM10 concentration. For the analysis, we obtained 900 hPa wind fields from the FNL analysis data and classified the specific patterns causing the PM10 episodes in the Korean Peninsula during the recent 10 years (2007-2016). We then investigated how the varying wind patterns affected the changes in the PM10 concentrations from past to present. The cluster analysis results indicated that the high PM10 episodes in the Korean Peninsula was strongly affected by winds from southwest and northwest, causing the PM10 transport from China to the Korean Peninsula. We also found that the wind patterns causing the high PM10 shows clear annual variation during the recent 10 years.

  13. Effects of Meteorological Parameters and PM10 on the Incidence of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruixue; Bian, Guolin; He, Tianfeng; Chen, Lv; Xu, Guozhang

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a globally-prevalent infectious disease. However, few data are available on prevention measures for HFMD. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impacts of temperature, humidity, and air pollution, particularly levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10 micrometers (PM10), on the incidence of HFMD in a city in Eastern China. Daily morbidity, meteorological, and air pollution data for Ningbo City were collected for the period from January 2012 to December 2014. A total of 86,695 HFMD cases were enrolled in this study. We used a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution to analyze the nonlinear lag effects of daily mean temperature, daily humidity, and found significant relationships with the incidence of HFMD; in contrast, PM10 level showed no relationship to the incidence of HFMD. Our findings will facilitate the development of effective preventive measures and early forecasting of HFMD outbreaks. PMID:27171104

  14. WRF prediction of two winter season Saharan dust events using PM10 concentrations: Boundary versus initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Gregory S.; Diokhane, Aminita Mbow

    2017-10-01

    During the northern hemisphere winter and spring seasons Saharan dust events overspreading West Africa are frequent and linked to mid-latitude interactions. The dust events have the ability to produce low visibilities, poor air quality and can promote respiratory disease. While a number of case studies have been undertaken, the ability to forecast Saharan dust events is largely unknown. To investigate this matter, we have performed hindcasts using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosols Radiation Transport (GOCART) module, with 6-h boundary conditions from the NOAA ' National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) final analysis (FNL). We use observed and forecasted PM10 concentrations to evaluate the hindcasts. The hindcasts begin with different conditions 3-8 days before two Saharan dust events where the maximum Particulate matter at 10 microns (PM10) concentrations are observed on 20 January and 7 February 2012 in Dakar, Senegal. The results show that all hindcasts are able to capture the timing of the peak on 20 January but the maximum peak during the second dust event occurs one day prior to the observed peak on 7 February with similar pattern from satellite based aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates. The hindcasts have positive biases in PM10 concentrations relative to the observations in Dakar Senegal. The hindcasts suggest that WRF model has the potential to effectively forecasts Saharan dust events in real-time forecasts, however, they must be evaluated against additional surface PM10 observations at varying locations, which are currently sparse over West Africa.

  15. Analysis of source regions and meteorological factors for the variability of spring PM10 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangho; Kim, Kwang-Yul

    2018-02-01

    CSEOF analysis is applied for the springtime (March, April, May) daily PM10 concentrations measured at 23 Ministry of Environment stations in Seoul, Korea for the period of 2003-2012. Six meteorological variables at 12 pressure levels are also acquired from the ERA Interim reanalysis datasets. CSEOF analysis is conducted for each meteorological variable over East Asia. Regression analysis is conducted in CSEOF space between the PM10 concentrations and individual meteorological variables to identify associated atmospheric conditions for each CSEOF mode. By adding the regressed loading vectors with the mean meteorological fields, the daily atmospheric conditions are obtained for the first five CSEOF modes. Then, HYSPLIT model is run with the atmospheric conditions for each CSEOF mode in order to back trace the air parcels and dust reaching Seoul. The K-means clustering algorithm is applied to identify major source regions for each CSEOF mode of the PM10 concentrations in Seoul. Three main source regions identified based on the mean fields are: (1) northern Taklamakan Desert (NTD), (2) Gobi Desert and (GD), and (3) East China industrial area (ECI). The main source regions for the mean meteorological fields are consistent with those of previous study; 41% of the source locations are located in GD followed by ECI (37%) and NTD (21%). Back trajectory calculations based on CSEOF analysis of meteorological variables identify distinct source characteristics associated with each CSEOF mode and greatly facilitate the interpretation of the PM10 variability in Seoul in terms of transportation route and meteorological conditions including the source area.

  16. Human health risk due to variations in PM10-PM2.5 and associated PAHs levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Beatriz S.; Porta, Andrés; Colman Lerner, Jorge Esteban; Banda Noriega, Roxana; Massolo, Laura

    2017-07-01

    WHO (2012) reports that chronic exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), causes the death of 7 million people, constituting the most important environmental risk for health in the world. IARC classifies contaminated outdoor air as carcinogenic, Group 1 category. However, in our countries there are few studies regarding air pollution levels and possible associated effects on public health. The current study determined PM and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in outdoor air, identified their possible emission sources and analysed health risks in the city of Tandil (Argentina). PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using a low volume sampler (MiniVol TAS) in three areas: city centre, industrial and residential. Concentrations were determined by gravimetric methods and the content of the US EPA 16 priority PAHs was found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Description of the main emission sources and selection of monitoring sites resulted from spatial analysis and the IVE (International Vehicle Emissions) model was used in the characterisation of the traffic flow. Median values of 35.7 μgm-3 and 9.6 μgm-3 in PM10 and PM2.5 respectively and characteristic profiles were found for each area. Local values PAHs associated to PM10 and PM2.5, in general, were lower than 10ngm-3. The estimated Unit Risk for the three areas exceeds US EPA standards (9 × 10-5). The number of deaths attributable to short term exposure to outdoor PM10 was 4 cases in children under 5 years of age, and 21 cases in total population, for a relative risk of 1.037.

  17. Size-fractionated PM10 monitoring in relation to the contribution of endotoxins in different polluted areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, D.; Alessandria, L.; Schilirò, T.; Gilli, G.

    2011-07-01

    10 and endotoxin levels was very high (above 1:10) as little as 50 m from the pollution source. This kind of model is useful to both improve our knowledge about PM10 endotoxin distribution and to evaluate the potential risks for the health of neighbouring populations.

  18. 78 FR 20001 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Idaho: Sandpoint PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... an annual arithmetic mean. The EPA also promulgated secondary PM 10 standards that were identical to... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those...

  19. The Effect of PM10 on Allergy Symptoms in Allergic Rhinitis Patients During Spring Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Il Gyu; Ju, Youn Hee; Jung, Joo Hyun; Ko, Kwang Pil; Oh, Dae Kyu; Kim, Jeong Hee; Lim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Young Hyo; Jang, Tae Young; Kim, Seon Tae

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asian sand dust (ASD) that originates in the Mongolian Desert in the spring induces serious respiratory health problems throughout East Asia (China, Korea, Japan). PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter allergic rhinitis during the spring season, when ASD frequently develops. Methods: We investigated the changes in allergic symptoms in 108 allergic patients and 47 healthy subjects by comparing their 120-day symptom scores from February to May 2012. At the same time, the contributions of pollen count and PM10 concentration were also assessed. We also compared symptom scores before and 2 days after the daily PM10 concentration was >100 μg/m3. Results: The PM10 concentration during the 120 days was allergic symptom scores (p > 0.05). However, allergic symptoms were significantly correlated with outdoor activity time (p allergic rhinitis during the 2012 ASD season. PMID:25590148

  20. US EPA Nonattainment Areas and Designations-PM10 (1987 NAAQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layer: PM10 Nonattainment Areas (1987 NAAQS). Full FGDC metadata records for each layer may be found by clicking the layer...

  1. 77 FR 58962 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Nogales PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... topography influence the observed exceedances of PM 10 NAAQS and there is a definite south-to-north... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  2. Procedures for identifying reasonably available control technology for stationary sources of PM-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ellefson, R.

    1992-09-01

    The guidance document sets forth procedures and identifies sources of information that will assist State and local air pollution control agencies in determining Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for PM-10 (particulate matter having a nominal aerometric diameter of 10 microns or less) emission from existing stationary sources on a case-by-case basis. It provides an annotated bibliography of documents to aid in identifying the activities that cause PM-10 emissions as well as applicable air pollution control measures and their effectiveness in reducing emissions. The most stringent state total particulate matter (PM) emission limits are identified for several categories of PM-10 sources and compared to available emission test data. Finally, guidance is provided on procedures for estimating total capital investment and total annual cost of the control measures which are generally used to control PM-10 emissions

  3. Suspended Particulates Concentration (PM10 under Unstable Atmospheric Conditions over Subtropical Urban Area (Qena, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Nouby Adam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the suspended particulates (PM10 in the atmosphere under unstable atmospheric conditions. The variation of PM10 was investigated and primary statistics were employed. The results show that, the PM10 concentrations values ranged from 6.00 to 646.74 μg m−3. The average value of PM10 is equal to 114.32 μg m−3. The high values were recorded in April and May (155.17 μg m−3 and 171.82 μg m−3, respectively and the low values were noted in February and December (73.86 μg m−3 and 74.05 μg m−3, respectively. The average value of PM10 of the hot season (125.35 × 10−6 g m−3 was higher than its value for the cold season (89.27 μg m−3. In addition, the effect of weather elements (air temperature, humidity and wind on the concentration of PM10 was determined. The multiple R between PM10 and these elements ranged from 0.05 to 0.47 and its value increased to reach 0.73 for the monthly average of the database used. Finally, the PM10 concentrations were grouped depending on their associated atmospheric stability class. These average values were equal to 122.80 ± 9 μg m−3 (highly unstable or convective, 109.37 ± 12 μg m−3 (moderately unstable and 104.42 ± 15 μg m−3 (slightly unstable.

  4. Using gravimetric measurement for determination of the mass fraction PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Chirilă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tried to determinate the air pollution level with mass fraction PM10 from Targu Mures area. For this purpose, determinations were made in University Petru Maior’s laboratory, using ADR 1200 S device and in Targu Mures Environmental Department’s laboratory. The results that we obtained show a low level of air pollution with mass fraction PM10 in Targu Mures area.

  5. Analysis of Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration in Khorramabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamed Mirhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in eight station of Khorramabad city was analyzed. Materials and Methods: For this study, the data were taken from April 2010 to March 2011. The eight sampling point were chosen in account to Khorramabad maps. During this period, 240 daily PM samples including coarse particle (PM 10 and fine particle (PM 2.5 were collected. A two-part sampler was used to collect samples of PM. According to one-way ANOVA, multiple comparisons Scheffe, the obtained data were analyzed and then compared with the Environment protection organization standard rates. Khorramabad Results: The results revealed that during measuring the maximum concentration of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was respectively 120.9 and 101.09 μ/m 3 at Shamshirabad station. There was a significant difference between the mean values of PM 10 concentration (μg/m 3 in the seasons of summer. In addition, the mean concentrations of PM 10 in warmer months exceeded to the maximum permissible concentration. Conclusions: Year comparison of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration with standard were revealed particle matter concentration in summer season was higher than standard. Although total mean of particle matter was less than standard concentration.

  6. Does maternal exposure to benzene and PM10 during pregnancy increase the risk of congenital anomalies? A population-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Malavolti, Marcella; Cherubini, Andrea; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Rodolfi, Rossella; Heck, Julia E.; Astolfi, Gianni; Calzolari, Elisa; Nicolini, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have suggested an association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution from vehicular traffic and risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring, but epidemiologic evidence is neither strong nor entirely consistent. In a population-based case-control study in a Northern Italy community encompassing 228 cases of birth defects and 228 referent newborns, we investigated if maternal exposure to PM10 and benzene from vehicular traffic during early pregnancy, as estimated through a dispersion model, was associated with excess teratogenic risk. In conditional logistic regression analysis, and with adjustment for the other pollutant, we found that higher exposure to PM10 but not benzene was associated with increased risk of birth defects overall. Anomaly categories showing the strongest dose-response relation with PM10 exposure were musculoskeletal and chromosomal abnormalities but not cardiovascular defects, with Down syndrome being among the specific abnormalities showing the strongest association, though risk estimates particularly for the less frequent defects were statistically very unstable. Further adjustment in the regression model for potential confounders did not considerably alter the results. All the associations were stronger for average levels of PM10 than for their maximal level. Findings of this study give some support for an excess teratogenic risk following maternal exposure during pregnancy to PM10, but not benzene. Such association appears to be limited to some birth defect categories. PMID:26410719

  7. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. PM10-cause analysis based on hypothetical emissions scenarios. Sub-report; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. PM10-Ursachenanalyse auf der Basis hypothetischer Emissionsszenarien. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Rainer [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    In this report, a PM10 cause analysis is presented, which provides an estimation of the extent to which the emitted substances from ten different source sectors are responsible for the calculated PM10 concentrations in Germany (PM = particulate matter). [German] In diesem Bericht wird eine PM10-Ursachenanalyse vorgestellt, die eine Abschaetzung liefert, in welchem Umfang die in Deutschland von den verschiedenen Verursachergruppen emittierten Stoffe fuer die in Deutschland berechneten PM10-Konzentrationen verantwortlich sind.

  8. Objectives and Design of Central California's 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study of the California Regional PM10/PM2.5Air Quality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul A; Magliano, Karen L

    1999-09-01

    The 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study (IMS95) is part of the Phase 1 planning efforts for the California Regional PM 10/ PM 2.5 Air Quality Study. Thus, the overall objectives of IMS95 are to (1) fill information gaps needed for planning an effective field program later this decade; (2) develop an improved conceptual model for pollution buildup (PM10, PM2.5, and aerosol precursors) in the San Joaquin Valley; (3) develop a uniform air quality, meteorological, and emissions database that can be used to perform initial evaluations of aerosol and fog air quality models; and (4) provide early products that can be used to help with the development of State Implementation Plans for PM 10. Consideration of the new particulate matter standards were also included in the planning and design of IMS95, although they were proposed standards when IMS95 was in the planning process.

  9. Elemental characterization and source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in the western coastal area of central Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chin-Yu; Chiang, Hung-Che; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated seasonal variations in PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass and associated trace metal concentrations in a residential area in proximity to the crude oil refinery plants and industrial parks of central Taiwan. Particle measurements were conducted during winter, spring and summer in 2013 and 2014. Twenty-six trace metals in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were analyzed using ICP-MS. Multiple approaches of the backward trajectory model, enrichment factor (EF), Lanthanum enrichment and positive matrix fraction (PMF) were used to identify potential sources of particulate metals. Mean concentrations of PM 10 in winter, spring and summer were 76.4 ± 22.6, 33.2 ± 9.9 and 37.4 ± 17.0 μg m −3 , respectively, while mean levels of PM 2.5 in winter, spring and summer were 47.8 ± 20.0, 23.9 ± 11.2 and 16.3 ± 8.2 μg m −3 , respectively. The concentrations of carcinogenic metals (Ni, As and adjusted Cr(VI)) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 exceeded the guideline limits published by WHO. The result of EF analysis confirmed that Mo, Sb, Cd, Zn, Mg, Cr, As, Pb, Cu, Ni and V were attributable to anthropogenic emission. PMF analysis demonstrated that trace metals in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were from the similar sources, such as coal combustion, oil combustion and traffic-related emission, except for soil dust and crustal element emissions only observed in PM 10 and secondary aluminum smelter only observed in PM 2.5 . Considering health-related particulate metals, the traffic-related emission and coal combustion for PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively, are important to control for reducing potential carcinogenic risk. The results could aid efforts to clarify the impact of source-specific origins on human health. - Highlights: • Multiple approaches to identify sources of PM 10 and PM 2.5 metals were used. • Four similar sources contributed to metals in PM 10 and PM 2.5 in the study area. • Six toxic metals fell below the limits of WHO Air quality guideline. • Control strategies can be

  10. Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 μg m(-3) in the mining area; 48 μg m(-3) in the rural area and 45 μg m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 μg m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. AJUSTE DE CURVAS MEDIANTE MÉTODOS NO PARAMÉTRICOS PARA ESTUDIAR EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE CONTAMINACIÓN DEL AIRE POR MATERIAL PARTICULADO PM10 AJUSTE DE CURVAS MEDIANTE MÉTODOS NÃO PARAMÉTRICOS PARA ESTUDAR O COMPORTAMENTO DE CONTAMINAÇÃO DO AR POR MATERIAL PARTICULADO PM10 CURVE FITTING NONPARAMETRIC METHODS FOR STUDYING BEHAVIOR FROM AIR POLLUTION PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhovana Reina

    2012-12-01

    comportamento do PM10 usando suavizadores kernel e spline. O processamento executa-se com o software estatístico de livre distribuição R. As curvas estimadas permitem observar um comportamento unimodal do PM10 durante as horas da manhã, diferenciado por dias da semana e por dias com chuva e sem chuva. Os modelos permitem caracterizar de maneira robusta o comportamento diário do PM10, tendo em conta observações heterocedásticas baixo um cenário de múltiplas respostas por ponto de desenho.One of the main air pollutants is the particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than 10 micrometers, usually referred as PM10. It is a fact that the PM10 behavior in the air varies in an irregular way, and also in a temporal way in the atmosphere, mainly due to human activities, to unstable atmospheric conditions, and to meteorological phenomena. Our main purpose is to characterize through a nonparametric smooth model the PM10 daily behavior, taking into account the day of the week, and the precipitation levels. We illustrate the model using records on PM10 contamination, as well as on data on rain precipitation in the north side of Cali, Colombia. We estimate daily typical curves of the PM10 behavior using kernel and spline estimators. We processed these data using the free distribution statistical software R. The estimated curves allow us to observe a PM10 unimodal behavior during the morning hours, which varies from one day to another and from rainy to non-rainy days. The fitted models allow a robust characterization of the PM10 daily behavior, considering heteroscedastic observations on a multiple response per design point scenario.

  12. Assessment of PM10 and heavy metals concentration in a Ceramic Cluster (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen Vicente, Ana; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teofilo; Bech, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Environmental pollution control is one of the most important goals in pollution risk assessment today. The aim of this study is conducting a retrospective view of the evolution of particulate matter (PM10) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni and Pb) at different localities in the Spanish cluster ceramic in the period between January 2007 and December 2011. The study area is in the province of Castellón. This province is a strategical area in the framework of European Union Pollution control. Approximately 80% of European ceramic tiles and ceramic frits manufacturers are concentrated in two areas, forming the so-called "Ceramics Clusters"; one is in Modena (Italy) and the other in Castellón (Spain). In this kind of areas, there are a lot of pollutants from this industry that represent an important contribution to soil contamination so it is necessary to control the air quality in them. These atmospheric particles are deposited in the ground through both dry and wet deposition. Soil is a major sink for heavy metals released into the environment. The level of pollution of soils by heavy metals depends on the retention capacity of the soil, especially on physical-chemical properties (mineralogy, grain size, organic matter) affecting soil particle surfaces and also on the chemical properties of the metal. The most direct consequences on the ground of air pollutants are acidification, salinization and the pollutions that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. For this purpose the levels of PM10 in ambient air and the corresponding annual and weekly trend were calculated. The results of the study show that the PM10 and heavy metals concentrations are below the limit values recommended by European Union Legislation for the protection of human health and ecosystems in the study period. There is an important reduction of them from 2009 in all control stations due to the economic crisis. References Moral, R., Gilkes, R.J., Jordán, M.M., 2005

  13. Health benefits of a reduction of PM10 and NO2 exposure after implementing a clean air plan in the Agglomeration Lausanne-Morges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Alberto; Künzli, Nino; Götschi, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to urban air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on cardio-vascular and respiratory health, both short and long term. Consequently, governments have applied policies to reduce air pollution. Quantitative health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution have been conducted at national and global level, but assessments of observed air pollution changes associated with specific clean air policies at a local or regional scale remain scarce. This study estimates health impacts attributable to a decrease in PM 10 and NO 2 exposure in the Agglomeration of Lausanne-Morges (ALM), Switzerland, between 2005 and 2015, corresponding to the implementation period of a supra-municipal plan of measures to reduce air pollution in different sectors such as transport, energy, and industry (called Plan OPair 05). The health impact assessment compares health effects attributed to air pollution exposure levels in 2015 (reference case) with those in 2005 (counterfactual scenario), using 2015 as baseline for all other input data. In the ALM, the modeled PM 10 exposure reduction of 3.3μg/m 3 from 2005 to 2015 prevents 26 premature deaths (equivalent to around 290 years of life lost), 215 hospitalization days due to cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases as well as approximately 47,000 restricted activity days annually. Monetized health impacts of the reduction of PM 10 exposure are valued at approximately CHF 36 million annually. Immaterial costs, mainly related to the economic valuation of years of life lost, dominate the monetized health impacts (90% of total value), while savings at the workplace (net loss in production and reoccupation costs) amount to about CHF 1.9 million, and savings in health care costs to about CHF 0.5 million. The assessment is sensitive to the value assigned to immaterial costs and to uncertainties in the relative risk estimates, whereas variations in the baseline year (i.e. using 2005 data instead of 2015 data) affect

  14. Identification of fine (PM1) and coarse (PM10-1) sources of particulate matter in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titos, G.; Lyamani, H.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2014-06-01

    PM10 and PM1 samples were collected at an urban site in southeastern Spain during 2006-2010. The chemical composition of all samples has been determined and analyzed by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique for fine and coarse source identification. The PMF results have been analyzed for working and non-working days in order to evaluate the change in PM sources contribution and possible future abatement strategies. A decreasing trend in PM10 levels and in its constituents has been observed, being partly associated to a reduction in anthropogenic activities due to the economic crisis. The use of fine and coarse PM in the PMF analysis allowed us for the identification of additional sources that could not be identified using only one size fraction. The mineral dust source was identified in both fractions and comprised 36 and 22% of the total mass in the coarse and fine fractions, respectively. This high contribution of the mineral source to the fine fraction may be ascribed to contamination of the source profile. The regional re-circulation source was traced by secondary sulfate, V and Ni. It was the most important source concerning PM1 mass concentration (41% of the total mass in this fraction). Although V and Ni are commonly associated to fuel oil combustion the seasonality of this source with higher concentrations in summer compared with winter suggest that the most important part of this source can be ascribed to regional pollution episodes. A traffic exhaust source was identified but only in the fine fraction, comprising 29% of the fine mass. The celestite mines source associated with nearby open-pit mines was typified by strontium, sulfate and mineral matter. PM10-1 levels were higher in working days, whereas PM1 levels remained fairly constant throughout the whole week. As a conclusion, traffic seems to be the main source to target in Granada.

  15. A Decadal Spatial and Temporal Analysis of PM10 in Istanbul: 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, D.; Baltacibasi, S.; Unal, A.; Kindap, T.

    2012-04-01

    This study provides valuable new insights into the key contributors to ambient air quality in Istanbul, one of the largest mega-cities in Europe. The study builds on work in Europe that links air quality with national dynamics such as economical, vehicle activity and, meteorology in the long-term. Spatial and temporal analysis was performed on PM10 levels measured at 10 air quality monitoring sta- tions (AQMSs) in Istanbul from 1998 to 2008. The analysis found that ambient air quality levels are linked with winter temperatures as well as economic activity. The mean annual PM10 levels in 2001 are among the three lowest years in the period. This decrease corresponds with daily temperature data and annual number of heating degree days which shows that 2001 was one of the warmest winters in Istanbul. Warmer temperatures led to a decrease in energy demand for heating purposes, as demonstrated by the coal sales data. Low ambient air quality levels in 2001 also correspond to a decrease in gross domestic product and electricity demand due to the national economic crisis in March 2001 which affected industrial activity and as a result industrial and energy production related emissions. The study also found that air quality levels in Istanbul are a threat to human health and the environment. Based on the annual and seasonal PM10 profiles of the stations, 5 of the 6 AQMSs in the European Side of the city had mean PM10 values above the EU limit for PM10 for over 50% of the time. According to the linear regression analysis, there is no significant increase or decrease in the annual PM10 trend in Istanbul, this may be due warm winter and economic crisis in 2001.

  16. Key Factors Determining Indoor Air PM10Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Primary Schools in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Branislava; Rakic, Uros; Jovanovic, Verica; Dejanovic, Snezana; Djonovic, Nela

    2017-10-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is rated as a serious public health issue. Knowing children are accounted as more vulnerable to environmental health hazards, data are needed on air quality in schools. A project was conducted from 2007 until 2009 (SEARCH, School Environment and Respiratory Health of Children), aiming to verify links between IAQ and children's respiratory health. Study was conducted in ten primary schools on 735 children, in 44 classrooms. Children were randomly selected. Research tools and indicators used for children's exposure to school environment were indoor and outdoor pollutants, two standardized questionnaires for school and classroom characteristics. In both classroom air and ambient air in front of them we measured, during a 5-day exposure period for continuous 24h measuring: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, indoor air temperature, relative humidity, and PM 10 during classes. PM 10 concentrations were significantly most frequent in an interval of ≥80.1μg/m 3 , that is, in the interval above 50μg/m 3 . Mean PM 10 value was 82.24±42.43 μg/m 3 , ranging from 32.00μg/m 3 to of 197.00μg/m 3 . The increase of outdoor PM 10 concentration significantly affects the increase of indoor PM 10 . A statistically significant difference exists for average IAQ PM 10 concentrations vs. indicators of indoor thermal comfort zone (p75%), and indoor temperature beyond 23°C, as well as bad ventilation habits (keeping windows shut most of the time).

  17. Ambient air pollutant PM10 and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xin; Qiu, Jie; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Qingmei; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Tang, Zhongfeng; Chen, Ya; Yue, Li; Da, Zhenqiang; Lv, Ling; Lin, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Zhang, Yaqun; Zhao, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between air borne particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ) exposure and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted, and fewer were conducted in areas with high levels of PM 10 . Methods: To examine the association between PM 10 and PIH by different exposure time windows during pregnancy, we analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted in Lanzhou, China including 8 745 pregnant women with available information on air pollution during pregnancy. A total of 333 PIH cases (127 gestational hypertension (GH) and 206 preeclampsia (PE)) were identified. PM 10 daily average concentrations of each subject were calculated according to the distance between home/work addresses and monitor stations using an inverse-distance weighting approach. Results: Average PM 10 concentration over the duration of entire pregnancy was significantly associated with PIH (OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.23 per 10 μg m −3 increase), PE (OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.30 per 10 μg m −3 increase), late onset PE (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32 per10 μg m −3 increase), and severe PE (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48 per 10 μg m −3 increase). Average PM 10 during the first 12 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of GH (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.21 per 10 μg m −3 increase), and PM 10 exposure before 20 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of severe PE (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30 per 10 μg m −3 increase). Conclusions: We found that high level exposure to ambient PM 10 during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of PIH, GH and PE and that the strength of the association varied by timing of exposure during pregnancy. (letter)

  18. Milano summer particulate matter (PM10 triggers lung inflammation and extra pulmonary adverse events in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Farina

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a link between particulate matter (PM exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases; accumulating evidences point to a new role for air pollution in CNS diseases. The purpose of our study is to investigate PM10sum effects on lungs and extra pulmonary tissues. Milano PM10sum has been intratracheally instilled into BALB/c mice. Broncho Alveolar Lavage fluid, lung parenchyma, heart and brain were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, cytokines, ET-1, HO-1, MPO, iNOS, cytotoxicity (LDH, ALP, Hsp70, Caspase8-p18, Caspase3-p17 for a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (Cyp1B1 and for TLR4 pathway activation. Brain was also investigated for CD68, TNF-α, GFAP. In blood, cell counts were performed while plasma was screened for endothelial activation (sP-selectin, ET-1 and for inflammation markers (TNF-α, MIP-2, IL-1β, MPO. Genes up-regulation (HMOX1, Cyp1B1, IL-1β, MIP-2, MPO and miR-21 have been investigated in lungs and blood. Inflammation in the respiratory tract of PM10sum-treated mice has been confirmed in BALf and lung parenchyma by increased PMNs percentage, increased ET-1, MPO and cytokines levels. A systemic spreading of lung inflammation in PM10sum-treated mice has been related to the increased blood total cell count and neutrophils percentage, as well as to increased blood MPO. The blood-endothelium interface activation has been confirmed by significant increases of plasma ET-1 and sP-selectin. Furthermore PM10sum induced heart endothelial activation and PAHs metabolism, proved by increased ET-1 and Cyp1B1 levels. Moreover, PM10sum causes an increase in brain HO-1 and ET-1. These results state the translocation of inflammation mediators, ultrafine particles, LPS, metals associated to PM10sum, from lungs to bloodstream, thus triggering a systemic reaction, mainly involving heart and brain. Our results provided additional insight into the toxicity

  19. Local contribution of wood combustion to PM10 and PM2.5; Lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In February 2009 the concentration of wood smoke in a residential area in Schoorl (Noord-Holland, Netherlands) was investigated over a period of three weeks. The aim was to assess the effect of local particulate matter (PM) emissions - caused by heating with wood stoves in this area - on local PM concentration. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  20. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  1. Carbonaceous material in fine particulate matter (PM10) of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocco, Domenico; Leonardi, Vittorio; Maso; Marco; Prignani, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    Total carbon (TC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in the fine particulate matter (PM10) were measured in the urban areas of Rome and Marino (Castelli Romani) by means a thermal method with a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR). The results showed that carbonaceous material constitutes 30-40% of the total aerosols in Rome and about 20% in Marino [it

  2. Development of cotton gin PM10 emission factors for EPA’s AP-42

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) emission factors are assigned ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), based on the quality of data used to develop them. All current PM10 cotton gin emission factors received quality ratings of D or lower. In an effort to improve these ratin...

  3. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  4. 78 FR 34095 - Adequacy Status of the Idaho, Northern Ada County PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ..., Northern Ada County PM 10 State Implementation Plan for Transportation Conformity Purposes AGENCY...), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the years 2008, 2015 and 2023 in the Northern Ada County PM... Northern Ada County. The EPA's finding was made pursuant to the adequacy review process for implementation...

  5. 76 FR 72404 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets in Submitted PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9495-4] Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets in Submitted PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Sacramento County; CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... found that the motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic...

  6. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  7. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P perform a detailed characterization of 12 priority PAHs proposed by the USEPA, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis. The concentration of Benzo[a]Pyrene, BaP (EU and National limit value: 1 ng m-3 in PM10), varied from 0.065 ng m-3 during autumn time to 0.872 ng m-3 in spring time (NA01) and from 0.120 ng m-3 during autumn time to 1.48 ng m-3 of winter time (NA02) with four overshoots. In NA02 the trend of Σ12 PAHs was comparable to NA01 but were observed higher values than NA01. In fact, the mean concentration of Σ12 PAHs, in urban-traffic site was generally 2 times greater than in urban-background site in all the campaigns. PAHs with 5 and 6 ring, many of which are suspected carcinogens or genotoxic agents, (i.e Benzo[a]Pyrene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene and Benzo[g,h,i]Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source

  8. Estimation of daily PM10concentrations in Italy (2006-2012) using finely resolved satellite data, land use variables and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Schwartz, Joel; Badaloni, Chiara; Bellander, Tom; Alessandrini, Ester; Cattani, Giorgio; De' Donato, Francesca; Gaeta, Alessandra; Leone, Gianluca; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; de Hoogh, Kees; Di, Qian; Forastiere, Francesco; Kloog, Itai

    2017-02-01

    Health effects of air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM), have been widely investigated. However, most of the studies rely on few monitors located in urban areas for short-term assessments, or land use/dispersion modelling for long-term evaluations, again mostly in cities. Recently, the availability of finely resolved satellite data provides an opportunity to estimate daily concentrations of air pollutants over wide spatio-temporal domains. Italy lacks a robust and validated high resolution spatio-temporally resolved model of particulate matter. The complex topography and the air mixture from both natural and anthropogenic sources are great challenges difficult to be addressed. We combined finely resolved data on Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm, ground-level PM 10 measurements, land-use variables and meteorological parameters into a four-stage mixed model framework to derive estimates of daily PM 10 concentrations at 1-km2 grid over Italy, for the years 2006-2012. We checked performance of our models by applying 10-fold cross-validation (CV) for each year. Our models displayed good fitting, with mean CV-R2=0.65 and little bias (average slope of predicted VS observed PM 10 =0.99). Out-of-sample predictions were more accurate in Northern Italy (Po valley) and large conurbations (e.g. Rome), for background monitoring stations, and in the winter season. Resulting concentration maps showed highest average PM 10 levels in specific areas (Po river valley, main industrial and metropolitan areas) with decreasing trends over time. Our daily predictions of PM 10 concentrations across the whole Italy will allow, for the first time, estimation of long-term and short-term effects of air pollution nationwide, even in areas lacking monitoring data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Análisis comparativo de las mediciones de material particulado PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rojano Alvarado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinaron las concentraciones de PM10 en la zona urbana del municipio de Riohacha, Colombia y se compararon dos métodos de muestreo de manera simultánea. Los instrumentos utilizados para la comparación fueron los equipos: muestreador de alto volumen PM10, Graseby Andersen y un nefelómetro DataRam 4 (Thermo Electron corporation. Los datos fueron obtenidos durante tres meses en dos sitios (Desalud y Bienestar de la zona urbana de Riohacha. Los resultados mostraron que el promedio de la concentración de PM10 fue de 23,64 ¿g/m3 y 36,86 ¿g/m3 en las dos estaciones utilizando el DataRam 4 y de 25,09 ¿g/m3 y 36,64 ¿g/m3 utilizando el muestreador de alto volumen PM10. El Análisis de correlación muestra una consistencia positiva para todas los pares en los dos métodos: R2 = 0,5377 para la estación Desalud y R2 = 0,7276 para la estación Bienestar. El coefi ciente aumentó cuando se correlacionaron los resultados para los días con Humedad Relativa menor del 70%, R2 = 0,89 estación Desalud y R2 = 0,69 estación Bienestar. Los resultados mostraron que el método fotométrico (DataRam 4, puede ser utilizado para determinar concentraciones de material partículado PM10, en las condiciones ambientales de Riohacha.

  10. Concentrations, correlations and chemical species of PM2.5/PM10 based on published data in China: Potential implications for the revised particulate standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuehua; Cao, Zhaoyu; Ma, Yujie; Wang, Linpeng; Wu, Ruidong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been of great concern in China due to the increasing haze pollution in recent years. In 2012, the Chinese national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) was amended with a "more strict" regulation on the PM concentrations, i.e., 35 and 70 µg/m(3) for annual PM2.5 and PM10 averages, respectively (Grade-Ⅱ, GB3095-2012). To evaluate the potential of China to attain such new NAAQS and provide a more generalized chemical profile of PM in China, a comprehensive statistical analysis was carried out based on the published data of parallel PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations and chemical compositions of PM2.5 and PM10. The results show that most of the measured concentrations far exceed the new NAAQS. PM2.5 and PM10 show a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.87, p < 0.01) with PM2.5 accounting for about 65% of PM10, suggesting that the abatement of PM2.5 is crucial for reducing PM pollution and hence improving air quality in China. Organic carbon (OC), sulfate and crustal species are the three major components of PM. The NO3(-)/SO4(2-) ratios are 0.43 ± 0.26 in PM2.5 and 0.56 ± 0.29 in PM10, and the OC/EC ratios are 3.63 ± 1.73 in PM2.5 and 4.17 ± 2.09 in PM10, signifying that the stationary emissions from coal combustion remain the main PM source. An evaluation of PM2.5 situation in current China was carried out and the results show that it would take about 27 years to meet the limit value of 35 µg/m(3) in the revised standard, implying a rigorous challenge in PM2.5 control in China in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal and daily source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in PM10 in a semirural European area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Drooge, Barend L; Pérez Ballesta, Pascual

    2009-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were analyzed from ambient air particulate matter (PM10) that was collected near Lago Maggiore (Lombardy) in Northern Italy from August 2008 to January 2009. Highest individual PAH concentrations ranged from 0.05 ng/m3 during mid-days in summer to about 6 ng/m3 duringthe nights of the coldest period. A multivariate experimental regression model for the estimation of PAH concentrations was used to apportion the identified local sources of PAHs. This model included specific markers (i.e., levoglucosan for wood combustion and hopanes for traffic emission) and meteorological parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and atmospheric mixing layer heights). In autumn and winter, wood combustion on a daily average contributed from 30 to 70% to the PAHs in ambient air PM10. In this period, the contribution of the wood combustion was less than 30% during mid-day, increasing sometimes to more than 80% during the night In the samples taken during the summer period, traffic contribution to PAH concentrations was about 30%, while wood combustion was insignificant.

  12. Comparison of PM10 concentrations and metal content in three different sites of the Venice Lagoon: an analysis of possible aerosol sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Daniele; Belosi, Franco; Gambaro, Andrea; Cesari, Daniela; Stortini, Angela Maria; Bove, Maria Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The Venice Lagoon is exposed to atmospheric pollutants from industrial activities, thermoelectric power plants, petrochemical plants, incinerator, domestic heating, ship traffic, glass factories and vehicular emissions on the mainland. In 2005, construction began on the mobile dams (MOSE), one dam for each channel connecting the lagoon to the Adriatic Sea as a barrier against high tide. These construction works could represent an additional source of pollutants. PM10 samples were taken on random days between 2007 and 2010 at three different sites: Punta Sabbioni, Chioggia and Malamocco, located near the respective dam construction worksites. Chemical analyses of V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl and Pb in PM10 samples were performed by Inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and results were used to identify the main aerosol sources. The correlation of measured data with meteorology, and source apportionment, failed to highlight a contribution specifically associated to the emissions of the MOSE construction works. The comparison of the measurements at the three sites showed a substantial homogeneity of metal concentrations in the area. Source apportionment with principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed that a four principal factors model could describe the sources of metals in PM10. Three of them were assigned to specific sources in the area and one was characterised as a source of mixed origin (anthropogenic and crustal). A specific anthropogenic source of PM10 rich in Ni and Cr, active at the Chioggia site, was also identified.

  13. Characteristics of PM10 and CO2 concentrations on 100 underground subway station platforms in 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Wha Me; Park, Jae Bum; Nam, Taegyun

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the concentrations of particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter (PM10) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured in 100 underground subway stations, and the potential health risks of PM10, and environmental factors affecting these concentrations were analyzed. The concentrations were measured from May 2014 to September 2015 in stations along Seoul Metro lines 1-4. There were significantly different PM10 concentrations among the underground subway stations along lines 1, 2, 3, and 4. The PM10 concentrations were associated with the CO2 concentrations, construction years, station depths, and numbers of passengers. The underground PM10 concentrations were significantly higher than the outdoor PM10 concentrations. In addition, the PM10 concentrations were higher in the stations that were constructed in the 1970s than in those constructed after the 1970s. The PM10 and CO2 concentrations varied significantly, depending on the construction year and number of passengers. The hazard quotient is higher than the acceptable level of 1.0 μg kg-1 day for children, indicating that they are at risk of exposure to unsafe PM10 levels when travelling by the metro. Therefore, stricter management may be necessary for the stations constructed in the 1970s as well as those with higher numbers of passengers.

  14. Associations of daily levels of PM10 and NO₂ with emergency hospital admissions and mortality in Switzerland: Trends and missed prevention potential over the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Laura; Grize, Leticia; Infanger, Denis; Künzli, Nino; Sommer, Hansjörg; Alt, Gian-Marco; Schindler, Christian

    2015-07-01

    In most regions of the world, levels and constituents of the air pollution mixture have substantially changed over the last decades. To evaluate if the effects of PM10 and NO2 on daily emergency hospital admissions and mortality have changed during a ~10 year period in Switzerland; to retrospectively estimate prevention potential of different policy choices. Thirteen Poisson-regression models across Switzerland were developed using daily PM10 and NO2 levels from central monitors and accounting for several temporal and seasonal confounders. Time trends of effects were evaluated with an interaction variable. Distributed lag models with 28 days exposure window were used to retrospectively predict missed prevention potential for each region. Overall, emergency hospitalizations and mortality from any medical cause increased by 0.2% (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 0.01, 0.33) and 0.2% (95% CI: -0.1, 0.6) for a 10 µg/m(3) increment of PM10, and 0.7% (95% CI: 0.1, 1.3) for NO2 and mortality. Over the study period, the association between respiratory emergencies and PM10 changed by a factor of 1.017 (95% CI: 1.001, 1.034) and by a factor of 0.977 [95% CI: 0.956, 0.998]) for respiratory mortality among the elderly for NO2. During the study period, abatement strategies targeting a 20% lower overall mean would have prevented four times more cases than abating days exceeding daily standards. During the last decade, the short term effects of PM10 and NO2 on hospitalizations and mortality in Switzerland have almost not changed. More ambitious strategies of air pollutant reduction in Switzerland would have had non negligible public health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparability of low-volume PM 10 sampler with β-attenuation monitor in background air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Vuokko

    A field study was carried out to evaluate the performance of a continuous particulate monitor for measuring particulate matter PM 10 at a low-concentration background air. The comparison was carried out using a LVS-PM 10 reference sampler described in EN 12341:1998 Annex B1 and a β-attenuation particulate monitor Eberline FH 62 I-R. The field test site is situated in central Finland (62°35' N, 24°12' E) . The experimental period was between 22 September and 5 December 2001 representing typical Finnish autumn and early winter weather conditions for the area. The comparison consisted of 42 parallel 24-h measurements. The PM 10 mass concentration varied in the range 1.5- 18 μg m -3 with an average of 5.1 μg m -3. The particulate monitor was found to be capable of measuring low concentrations down to 2 μg m -3 with an estimated measurement uncertainty of ±1 μg m -3. The PM 10 concentrations measured by the monitor were close to the results of the gravimetric reference sampler giving slightly higher concentrations. The mean ratio (monitor/reference sampler) of all results was 1.06±0.12. When relative humidity was over 85% and daily temperature was below 0°C, the monitor results were systematically about 0.5 μg m -3 higher than the results of the reference sampler. In three cases when temperature suddenly decreased under freezing point, the concentration difference was as high as 2 μg m -3. Absorption of water on the particles was the most probable reason for the concentration difference. As a part of validation the main water-soluble inorganic ions of the PM 10 samples were analyzed by ion chromatography. They accounted for about 40% of the measured PM 10 mass concentration and the relative proportion of sulfate was the largest. The variation of the chemical composition seemed not to have noticeable effect on the comparability of the two methods.

  16. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Bi Xinhui; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2006-01-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 μg m -3 were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 μg m -3 recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R 2 of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R 2 of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic and

  17. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2006-07-31

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 microg m(-3) were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 microg m(-3) recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R(2) of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R(2) of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic

  18. Basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, E; Reyes, E; Sánchez, G; Ortiz, E; Ruiz, M; Chow, J; Watson, J; Edgerton, S

    2002-03-27

    The high levels of fine particulate matter in Mexico City are of concern since they may induce severe public health effects as well as the attenuation of visible light. Sequential filter samplers were used at six different sites from 23 February to 22 March 1997. The sampling campaign was carried out as part of the project 'Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosferico-Aerosol and Visibility Evaluation Research'. This research was a cooperative project sponsored by PEMEX and by the US Department of Energy. Sampling sites represent the different land uses along the city, the northwest station, Tlalnepantla, is located in a mixed medium income residential and industrial area. The northeast station, Xalostoc, is located in a highly industrialized area, Netzahualcoyotl is located in a mixed land use area, mainly commercial and residential. Station La Merced is located in the commercial and administrative district downtown. The southwest station is located in the Pedregal de San Angel, in a high-income neighborhood, and the southeast station located in Cerro de la Estrella is a mixed medium income residential and commercial area. Samples were collected four times a day in Cerro de la Estrella (CES), La Merced (MER) and Xalostoc (XAL) with sampling periods of 6 h. In Pedregal (PED), Tlalnepantla (TLA) and Netzahualcoyot1 (NEZ) sampling periods were every 24 h. In this paper the basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations are presented. The average results showed that 49, 61, 46, 57, 51 and 44% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5 for CES, MER, XAL, PED, TLA and NEZ, respectively. The 24-h average highest concentrations of PM25 and PM10 were registered at NEZ (184 and 267 microg/m3) and the lowest at PED (22 and 39 microg/m3). The highest PM10 correlations were between XAL-CES (0.79), PED-TLA (0.80). In contrast, the highest PM2.5 correlations were between CES-PED (0.74), MER-CES (0.73) and TLA-PED (0.72), showing a lower correlation than the PM10

  19. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-03-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003-0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1-33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4-3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2-2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM10 emission of brake wear (3.8-4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2-8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9-10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM10 emission factor (16.7-19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1-12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prior selection for Gumbel distribution parameters using multiple-try metropolis algorithm for monthly maxima PM10 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2014-09-01

    The Multiple-try Metropolis (MTM) algorithm is the new alternatives in the field of Bayesian extremes for summarizing the posterior distribution. MTM produce efficient estimation scheme for modelling extreme data in term of the convergence and small burn-in periods. The main objective is to explore the accuracy of the parameter estimation to the change of priors and compare the results with a classical likelihood-based analysis. Focus is on modelling the extreme data based on block maxima approach using Gumbel distribution. The comparative study between MTM and MLE is shown by the numerical problems. Several goodness of fit tests are compute for selecting the best model. The application is on the monthly maxima PM10 data for Johor state.

  1. Organic characterisation of PM10 in Cape Verde under Saharan dust influxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, C.; Alves, C.; Nunes, T.; Rocha, S.; Cardoso, J.; Cerqueira, M.; Pio, C.; Almeida, S. M.; Hillamo, R.; Teinilä, K.

    2014-06-01

    The current study presents, for the first time, a long-term organic speciation of aerosol at the Cape Verde archipelago. The Cape Verde location, in the Atlantic Ocean, provides a unique laboratory to study background aerosol, long-range transport, aerosol mixing with mineral dust, biomass burning and sea surface components. In order to contribute to a better understanding of this environment, a one-year long measurement campaign was performed in Praia City, Santiago Island. PM10 concentrations (20.5-370 μg/m3) and the organic composition of PM10 were influenced by the African dust influxes. The carbonaceous content of PM10 was very low, suggesting that most of the mass has mineral origin. The PM10 composition was essentially characterised by a large variety of organic compounds, which can be grouped into general compound classes, such as n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-acids and sugars. The n-alkane total concentrations varied from 3.77 to 53.2 ng/m3. The n-alkanols distribution showed a significant biogenic contribution whether from microbial origin or from epicuticular plants during African dust outbreaks. The total concentrations of n-alkanoic acids varied from 0.011 to 4.51 ng/m3. The lower n-alkenoic acids content, obtained during the periods of long-range transport from Africa, indicated a more aged aerosol. The monosaccharide anhydrides were detected in all samples with a range of concentrations from 2.06 to 12.7 ng/m3.

  2. Environmental pollution: quantitative analysis of particulate matter (PM10) by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston da Silva; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution is a concern in the great urban centers, due its association with man pathologies. The Campinas region is one of the most urbanized of the Sao Paulo State and an important industrial center. Thus, due to its location and importance were installed three samplers for particulate material (PM 10 ). One sampler was located in downtown of Campinas city, in an avenue with high vehicular flow. Another sampler was installed in the UNICAMP campus and the third one in Paulinia city, near to REPLAN. For downtown of Campinas city PM 10 concentrations higher than regular air quality established by CETESB (150 μg.m -3 ) was observed. The PM 10 values for Paulinia and downtown of Campinas were higher than Barao Geraldo location. Employing SR-TXRF was possible identify and quantify 19 elements in the particulate material samples. All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, Campinas, SP. After statistics analysis by principal components and cluster analysis was possible to assemble the elements according emission sources. The dusty soil for coarse fraction contributed with 62%, 51% and 46% for Barao Geraldo, Paulinia and downtown of Campinas, respectively. The vehicular emission was responsible for 16% at downtown Campinas city as expected due to high vehicular flow at sampling place. The vehicular and industrial emissions contributed with 20% and 25%, respectively at Paulinia sampling site. The industrial emissions observed for Barao Geraldo and downtown of Campinas city were 27% and 33%, respectively. (author)

  3. Assessment of PM10 concentrations from domestic biomass fuel combustion in two rural Bolivian highland villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albalak, R.; Haber, M.

    1999-01-01

    PM 10 concentrations were measured in two contrasting rural Bolivian villages that cook with biomass fuels. In one of the villages, cooking was done exclusively indoors, and in the other, it was done primarily outdoors. Concentrations in all potential microenvironments of exposure (i.e., home, kitchen, and outdoors) were measured for a total of 621 samples. Geometric mean kitchen PM 10 concentrations were 1830 and 280 microg/m 3 and geometric mean home concentrations were 280 and 440 microg/m 3 for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. An analysis of pollutant concentrations using generalized estimating equation techniques showed significant effects of village location, and interaction of village and location on log-transformed PM 10 concentrations. Pollutant concentrations and activity pattern data were used to estimate total exposure using the indirect method of exposure assessment. Daily exposure for women during the nonwork season was 15 120 and 6240 microg h -1 m -3 for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. Differences in exposure to pollution between the villages were not as great as might be expected based on kitchen concentration alone. This study underscores the importance of measuring pollutant concentrations in all microenvironments where people spend time and of shifting the focus of air pollution studies to include rural populations in developing countries

  4. Urban enhancement of PM10 bioaerosol tracers relative to background locations in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Metwali, Nervana; Baker, Zach; Jayarathne, Thilina; Kostle, Pamela A.; Thorne, Peter S.; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2016-05-01

    Bioaerosols are well-known immune-active particles that exacerbate respiratory diseases. Human exposures to bioaerosols and their resultant health impacts depend on their ambient concentrations, seasonal and spatial variation, and copollutants, which are not yet widely characterized. In this study, chemical and biological tracers of bioaerosols were quantified in respirable particulate matter (PM10) collected at three urban and three background sites in the Midwestern United States across four seasons in 2012. Endotoxins from Gram-negative bacteria (and a few Gram-positive bacteria), water-soluble proteins, and tracers for fungal spores (fungal glucans, arabitol, and mannitol) were ubiquitous and showed significant seasonal variation and dependence on temperature. Fungal spores were elevated in spring and peaked in summer, following the seasonal growing cycle, while endotoxins peaked in autumn during the row crop harvesting season. Paired comparisons of bioaerosols in urban and background sites revealed significant urban enhancements in PM10, fungal glucans, endotoxins, and water-soluble proteins relative to background locations, such that urban populations have a greater outdoor exposure to bioaerosols. These bioaerosols contribute, in part, to the urban excesses in PM10. Higher bioaerosol mass fractions in urban areas relative to background sites indicate that urban areas serve as a source of bioaerosols. Similar urban enhancements in water-soluble calcium and its correlation with bioaerosol tracers point toward windblown soil as an important source of bioaerosols in urban areas.

  5. Pulmonary Function and Incidence of Selected Respiratory Diseases Depending on the Exposure to Ambient PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Badyda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is essential in pulmonary disease research to take into account traffic-related air pollutant exposure among urban inhabitants. In our study, 4985 people were examined for spirometric parameters in the presented research which was conducted in the years 2008–2012. The research group was divided into urban and rural residents. Traffic density, traffic structure and velocity, as well as concentrations of selected air pollutants (CO, NO2 and PM10 were measured at selected areas. Among people who live in the city, lower percentages of predicted values of spirometric parameters were noticed in comparison to residents of rural areas. Taking into account that the difference in the five-year mean concentration of PM10 in the considered city and rural areas was over 17 μg/m3, each increase of PM10 by 10 μg/m3 is associated with the decline in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration by 1.68%. These findings demonstrate that traffic-related air pollutants may have a significant influence on the decline of pulmonary function and the growing rate of respiratory diseases.

  6. GC-MS characterization of contemporary pesticides in PM10 of Valencia Region, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Elizabeth; Coscollà, Clara; Pastor, Agustín; Yusà, Vicent

    2012-12-01

    Better knowledge of the occurrence of pesticides in the inhalable fraction of particulate matter (PM10) could be very useful for future exposure assessment in individuals of the general public. The present work studies the spatial and temporal distribution of the occurrence of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in PM10. Ambient air samples were collected from January through December 2010 at one remote, one urban and three rural sites in Valencia Region (Spain) and analyzed for 42 CUPs using a gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (GC-MS/MS) approach. Overall, 24 pesticides were detected in the PM10 fraction, four of them currently banned pesticides. Among those detected, concentrations of two particle-bound pesticides (permethrin and pyrimethanil) were, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in air in the literature. The detected pesticides appeared at frequencies ranging from pesticide profile, which is linked to the different types of crops around each site. Seasonal patterns were observed in the rural stations of Alzira and Sant Jordi, correlating pesticide detection with their application in agricultural practices, mostly in spring and early summer. These findings suggest that more efforts are required to implement an extensive air monitoring network in Europe for pesticide control and to develop regulations or recommendations regarding pesticide levels in ambient air.

  7. Study of the potential use of isotopic compositions of Hg, Cd and Zn to constrain their origins in PM10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    As air pollution by dust remains an important issue because of its impact on human health and ecosystems, and as dusts having a diameter smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) have an actual impact on human health, this study aims at using mercury, zinc and cadmium isotopes in order to constrain their respective origins in the particle phase, in Paris atmosphere. Thus, the authors aim at developing a new isotopic tracing tool. After some generalities on the concerned isotopes, a description of analytical methods, a presentation of the different sampling sources, the authors discuss the obtained results for samples coming from particle sources (engines, buses, incinerators, power plants, collective boiler rooms) or from the ambient air (PM10 concentration in the Parisian air, Cd, Hg and Zn concentrations, Cd, Hg and Zn isotopes

  8. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Blom, M.; Weijers, E. P.; Rockmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The C-14 content in EC

  9. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Blom, M.; Weijers, E.P.; Röckmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The 14C content in EC

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10. PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. PPE at 10–100 μg mL−1 attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL−1. PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter.

  11. Assessment of vertically-resolved PM10 from mobile lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Raut

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate in this study the vertical PM10 distributions from mobile measurements carried out from locations along the Paris Peripherique (highly trafficked beltway around Paris, examine distinctions in terms of aerosol concentrations between the outlying regions of Paris and the inner city and eventually discuss the influence of aerosol sources, meteorology, and dynamics on the retrieved PM10 distributions. To achieve these purposes, we combine in situ surface measurements with active remote sensing observations obtained from a great number of research programs in Paris area since 1999. Two approaches, devoted to the conversion of vertical profiles of lidar-derived extinction coefficients into PM10, have been set up. A very good agreement is found between the theoretical and empirical methods with a discrepancy of 3%. Hence, specific extinction cross-sections at 355 nm are provided with a reasonable relative uncertainty lower than 12% for urban (4.5 m2 g−1 and periurban (5.9 m2 g−1 aersols, lower than 26% for rural (7.1 m2 g−1 aerosols, biomass burning (2.6 m2 g−1 and dust (1.1 m2 g−1 aerosols The high spatial and temporal resolutions of the mobile lidar (respectively 1.5 m and 1 min enable to follow the spatiotemporal variability of various layers trapping aerosols in the troposphere. Appropriate specific extinction cross-sections are applied in each layer detected in the vertical heterogeneities from the lidar profiles. The standard deviation (rms between lidar-derived PM10 at 200 m above ground and surface network stations measurements was ~14μg m−3. This difference is particularly ascribed to a decorrelation of mass concentrations in the first meters of the boundary layer, as highlighted through multiangular lidar observations. Lidar signals can be used to follow mass concentrations with an uncertainty lower than 25% above urban areas and provide useful information on PM10 peak forecasting that affect air quality.

  12. Long-term trend and variability of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bigi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a data set of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and background sites (either urban, suburban or rural. Of these 41 sites, 18 with 10 yr or longer record have been analysed for long-term trend in deseasonalized monthly means, in annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution. A widespread significant decreasing trend has been observed at most sites, up to a few percent per year, by a generalized least squares and Theil–Sen method. All 41 sites have been tested for significant weekly periodicity by Kruskal–Wallis test for mean anomalies and by Wilcoxon test for weekend effect magnitude. A significant weekly periodicity has been observed for most PM10 series, particularly in summer and ascribed mainly to anthropic particulate emissions. A cluster analysis has been applied in order to highlight stations sharing similar pollution conditions over the reference period. Five clusters have been found, two encompassing the metropolitan areas of Turin and Milan and their respective nearby sites and the other three clusters gathering northeast, northwest and central Po Valley sites respectively. Finally, the observed trends in atmospheric PM10 have been compared to trends in provincial emissions of particulates and PM precursors, and analysed along with data on vehicular fleet age, composition and fuel sales. A significant basin-wide drop in emissions occurred for gaseous pollutants, contrarily to emissions of PM10 and PM2.5, whose drop was low and restricted to a few provinces. It is not clear whether the decrease for only gaseous emissions is

  13. Vertical and horizontal variability of PM10 source contributions in Barcelona during SAPUSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brines, Mariola; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Amato, Fulvio; Cruz Minguillón, María; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    During the SAPUSS campaign (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies) PM10 samples at 12-hour resolution were simultaneously collected at four monitoring sites located in the urban agglomerate of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 221 samples were collected from 20 September to 20 October 2010. The Road Site (RS) site and the Urban Background (UB) site were located at street level, whereas the Torre Mapfre (TM) and the Torre Collserola (TC) sites were located at 150 m a.s.l. by the sea side within the urban area and at 415 m a.s.l. 8 km inland, respectively. For the first time, we are able to report simultaneous PM10 aerosol measurements, allowing us to study aerosol gradients at both horizontal and vertical levels. The complete chemical composition of PM10 was determined on the 221 samples, and factor analysis (positive matrix factorisation, PMF) was applied. This resulted in eight factors which were attributed to eight main aerosol sources affecting PM10 concentrations in the studied urban environment: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2-9 µg m-3, 10-27 % of PM10 mass on average), (2) road dust (2-4 µg m-3, 8-12 %), (3) mineral dust (5 µg m-3, 13-26 %), (4) aged marine (3-5 µg m-3, 13-20 %), (5) heavy oil (0.4-0.6 µg m-3, 2 %), (6) industrial (1 µg m-3, 3-5 %), (7) sulfate (3-4 µg m-3, 11-17 %) and (8) nitrate (4-6 µg m-3, 17-21 %). Three aerosol sources were found to be enhanced at the ground levels (confined within the urban ground levels of the city) relative to the upper levels: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2.8 higher), (2) road dust (1.8 higher) and (3) local urban industries/crafts workshops (1.6 higher). Surprisingly, the other aerosol sources were relatively homogeneous at both horizontal and vertical levels. However, air mass origin and meteorological parameters also played a key role in influencing the variability of the factor concentrations. The mineral dust and aged marine factors were found to be a mixture of natural and

  14. An integrated tool to assess the role of new planting in PM10 capture and the human health benefits: A case study in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Sinnett, Danielle; Peachey, Christopher; Chalabi, Zaid; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fletcher, Tony; Leonardi, Giovanni; Grundy, Chris; Azapagic, Adisa; Hutchings, Tony R.

    2009-01-01

    The role of vegetation in mitigating the effects of PM 10 pollution has been highlighted as one potential benefit of urban greenspace. An integrated modelling approach is presented which utilises air dispersion (ADMS-Urban) and particulate interception (UFORE) to predict the PM 10 concentrations both before and after greenspace establishment, using a 10 x 10 km area of East London Green Grid (ELGG) as a case study. The corresponding health benefits, in terms of premature mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, as a result of the reduced exposure of the local population are also modelled. PM 10 capture from the scenario comprising 75% grassland, 20% sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and 5% Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was estimated to be 90.41 t yr -1 , equating to 0.009 t ha -1 yr -1 over the whole study area. The human health modelling estimated that 2 deaths and 2 hospital admissions would be averted per year. - A combination of models can be used to estimate particulate matter concentrations before and after greenspace establishment and the resulting benefits to human health.

  15. PM10 emissions and PAHs: The importance of biomass type and combustion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosima, Angela T; Tzimou-Tsitouridou, Roxani D; Nikolaki, Spyridoula; Zikopoulos, Dimitrios; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, Maria Th

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the impact of biomass combustion with respect to conditions and fuel types on particle emissions (PM10) and their PAHs content. Special concern was on sampling, quantification and characterization of PM using different appliances, fuels and operating procedures. For this purpose different lab-scale burning conditions, two pellets stoves (8.5 and 10 kW) and one open fireplace were tested by using eight fuel types of biomass. An analytical method is described for the quantitative determination of 16 PAHs using liquid-liquid extraction and subsequent measurement by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Average PM10 emissions ranged from about 65 to 170 mg/m(3) at lab-scale combustions with flow oxygen at 13% in the exhaust gas, 85-220 mg/m(3) at 20% O2, 47-83 mg/m(3) at pellet stove of 10 kW, 34-69 mg/m(3) at pellet stove of 8.5 kW and 106-194 mg/m(3) at the open fireplace. The maximum permitted particle emission limit is 150 mg/m(3). Pellets originated from olive trees and from nonmixture trees were found to emit the lowest particulate matter in relation to the others, so they are considered healthiest and suitable for domestic heating reasons. In general, the results show that biomass open burning is an important PM10 and PAHs emission source.

  16. Validation of Satellite AOD Data with the Ground PM10 Data over Islamabad Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The issue of air pollution affects the entire globe, but the countries having huge urban growth and industries are specially confronted with high amounts of suspended particles in atmosphere. According to WHO, for the areas where air pollution is monitored in Pakistan, the air pollution is deteriorating the air quality as time is passing. Pakistan, during the last decade, has seen an extensive rise in population growth, urbanization, and industrialization, together with a great increase in motorization and energy use. As a result, rise has taken place in the emission of various air pollutants. However, due to the lack of air quality management, the country is suffering from deterioration of air quality. From the air quality point of view, spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols and its variations are very important. The variations in the atmospheric aerosol, land surface properties, greenhouse gases, solar radiations and climatic changes alter the energy balance of the earth's atmospheric system. The addition of aerosol particles to the atmosphere is not only dependent upon the anthropogenic sources but these are also formed by physical and chemical atmospheric processes. Aerosols are a mixture of particles and these are characterized by their shape, their size (from nanometers (nm) to micrometers (µm) in radius) and their chemical composition. PM10 is the designation for particulate matter in the atmosphere that has an aerodynamic diameter of 10µm or less. The sources of PM10 may be natural (volcanoes, dust, storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, or anthropogenic (burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and industrialization). The current interest in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) is mainly due to its effect on human health and its role in climate change. Therefore, the particulate matter must be monitored continuously to understand their likely impact on the atmosphere, environment and particularly human

  17. Air quality in terms of particulate matter (PM10) and element components in Antananarivo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Rakotondramanana, H.T.; Rasoazanany, E.O.; Randriamanivo, L.V.; Rasolofonirina, M.; Razafy Andrianarivo, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the size distribution of toxic elements, undesirables ones and PM10 in the aerosols of Antananarivo urban areas using Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence. This work was carried out in the framework of Co-ordinated Research Program organised by the IAEA in 1998. The air sampler DICHOTOMOUS was used for sampling, with which two types of aerosols could be obtained: respirable aerosols or fine particles (aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 μm PM-2 ,5 ) and inhalable or coarse particles (aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 μm to 10μm PM 10 ). Samples were taken from six sampling sites, namely Ambohidahy tunnel, Ambanidia tunnel, Andravoahangy, Soarano, Mahamasina and Ankorondrano. Then, they were digested with acid digestion bomb. The results showed the presence of elements such as sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl), kalium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), lead (Pb) in the aerosols. Their concentrations are higher in respirable particles. For classical air pollutant components, particularly lead and PM10, the 1.8 μg.m -3 mean concentration value of lead is largely higher than 0.5μg. m -3 , which is the WHO (World Health organization) adopted value, and above the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) maximum admissible one (1.5 μg.m -3 ) as well. Regarding the size distribution of lead, the results showed that the small particles were mainly enriched in lead. The same observation can also be stated for PM10 with a 240 μg.m -3 mean concentration value , higher than 150 μg.m - 3 , adopted by the two above-mentioned organizations. Therefore, the Antananarivo urban area is classified as saturated zone for both parameters (lead and particulate matter). In addition, the results of Mason enrichment factors showed that the elements such as sulfur (S), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), bromine (Br), and lead (Pb) are from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The elements such as kalium (K), chlorine (Cl), calcium (Ca

  18. Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cáceres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels’ surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.

  19. Release of IL-1β Triggered by Milan Summer PM10: Molecular Pathways Involved in the Cytokine Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengalli, Rossella; Molteni, Elisabetta; Longhin, Eleonora; Refsnes, Magne; Camatini, Marina; Gualtieri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure is related to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, with increased inflammatory status. The release of the proinflammatory interleukin- (IL-) 1β, is controlled by a dual pathway, the formation of inactive pro-IL-1β, through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activation, and its cleavage by NLRP3 inflammasome. THP-1-derived macrophages were exposed for 6 h to 2.5 μg/cm2 of Milan PM10, and the potential to promote IL-1β release by binding TLRs and activating NLRP3 has been examined. Summer PM10, induced a marked IL-1β response in the absence of LPS priming (50-fold increase compared to unexposed cells), which was reduced by caspase-1 inhibition (91% of inhibition respect summer PM10-treated cells) and by TLR-2 and TLR-4 inhibitors (66% and 53% of inhibition, resp.). Furthermore, summer PM10 increased the number of early endosomes, and oxidative stress inhibition nearly abolished PM10-induced IL-1β response (90% of inhibition). These findings suggest that summer PM10 contains constituents both related to the activation of membrane TLRs and activation of the inflammasome NLPR3 and that TLRs activation is of pivotal importance for the magnitude of the response. ROS formation seems important for PM10-induced IL-1β response, but further investigations are needed to elucidate the molecular pathway by which this effect is mediated. PMID:23509682

  20. Release of IL-1β Triggered by Milan Summer PM10: Molecular Pathways Involved in the Cytokine Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Bengalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM exposure is related to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, with increased inflammatory status. The release of the proinflammatory interleukin- (IL- 1β, is controlled by a dual pathway, the formation of inactive pro-IL-1β, through Toll-like receptors (TLRs activation, and its cleavage by NLRP3 inflammasome. THP-1-derived macrophages were exposed for 6 h to 2.5 μg/cm2 of Milan PM10, and the potential to promote IL-1β release by binding TLRs and activating NLRP3 has been examined. Summer PM10, induced a marked IL-1β response in the absence of LPS priming (50-fold increase compared to unexposed cells, which was reduced by caspase-1 inhibition (91% of inhibition respect summer PM10-treated cells and by TLR-2 and TLR-4 inhibitors (66% and 53% of inhibition, resp.. Furthermore, summer PM10 increased the number of early endosomes, and oxidative stress inhibition nearly abolished PM10-induced IL-1β response (90% of inhibition. These findings suggest that summer PM10 contains constituents both related to the activation of membrane TLRs and activation of the inflammasome NLPR3 and that TLRs activation is of pivotal importance for the magnitude of the response. ROS formation seems important for PM10-induced IL-1β response, but further investigations are needed to elucidate the molecular pathway by which this effect is mediated.

  1. PM10 speciation and determination of air quality target levels. A case study in a highly industrialized area of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M C; Querol, X; Alastuey, A; Monfort, E; Mantilla, E; Sanz, M J; Sanz, F; Roig, A; Renau, A; Felis, C; Miró, J V; Artíñano, B

    2007-01-01

    The paper shows how PM speciation studies allow the evaluation of the strategies to be followed to diminish PM pollution in highly industrialized areas with a large number of potential pollution sources. Evolution of levels and speciation of PM10 in the ceramic producing area of Castelló (East Spain) was studied from April 2002 until December 2005. PM10 levels were measured at one rural (Borriana-rural), two suburban (Almassora and Onda) and three urban (Borriana-urban, L'Alcora and Vila-real) sites, all influenced by the ceramics industry. Average PM10 levels varied between 27 and 36 microg/m3 for the study period. Evaluation of 1996-2005 PM data from Onda shows a clear decrease of PM levels since the beginning of 2002. Summer peak levels and winter minima occurred at both rural and suburban sites, whereas urban sites had no clear seasonal trend, with high PM10 episodes being due variously to local, regional, and African dust intrusion events. PM10 chemical analysis at four of the sites showed the dominant constituent to be mineral matter, exceeding by 5-12 microg/m3 the usual ranges of annual mineral loadings in PM10 at comparable Spanish urban or regional background sites with no industrial influence. Given current PM10 loadings, we recommend a lowering target of 3-5 microg/m3 of the annual mean at the urban sites, which should be achievable given available emission abatement techniques.

  2. MODELADO DE PARTÍCULAS PM10 Y PM2.5 MEDIANTE REDES NEURONALES ARTIFICIALES SOBRE CLIMA TROPICAL DE SAN FRANCISCO DE CAMPECHE, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Antonio Espinosa Guzmán

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computational methodology based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN was developed to estimate the index of PM10 and PM2.5 concentration in air of San Francisco de Campeche city. A three layer ANN architecture was trained using an experimental database composed by days of the week, time of day, ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and solar radiation. The best ANN architecture, composed by 30 neurons in hidden layer, was obtained using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM optimization algorithm, logarithmic sigmoid and linear transfer functions. Model results generate predictions with a determination coefficient of 93.01% and 90.10% for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The proposed methodology can be implemented in several studies as public health, environmental studies, urban development, and degradation of historical monuments.

  3. Evaluation and comparison of O3 and PM10 forecasts of ALARO-CAMx and WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandorfer, Claudia; Hirtl, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    ZAMG runs two models for Air-Quality forecasts operationally: ALARO-CAMx and WRF-Chem. ALARO-CAMx is a combination of the meteorological model ALARO and the photochemical dispersion model CAMx and is operated at ZAMG by order of the regional governments since 2005. The emphasis of this modeling system is to predict ozone peaks in the North-east Austrian flatlands. Two modeling domains are used with the highest resolution (5 km) in the Alpine region. Various new features have been implemented in the model in the past to improve the daily forecasts, e.g. data assimilation of O3 and PM10 observations from the Austrian measurement network (with optimum interpolation technique), MACC-II boundary conditions and the combination of high resolved emission inventories for Austria with TNO and EMEP data. The biogenic emissions are provided by the SMOKE model. The model runs 2 times per day for a period of 48 hours. The second model which is operational is the on-line coupled model WRF-Chem. Meteorology is simulated simultaneously with the emission, turbulent mixing, transport, transformation as well as the fate of trace gases and aerosols. 2 domains are used for the simulations. The mother domain covers Europe with a resolution of 12 km. The inner domain includes the Alpine region with a horizontal resolution of 4km. The model runs 2 times per day for a period of 72 hours and is initialized with ECMWF forecasts. The evaluation of both models is conducted for the months January to September 2016 with the main focus on the forecasts of ozone. The measurements of the Air-Quality stations are compared with the area forecasts for every province of Austria. Besides the evaluation a comparison of the forecasts of ALARO-CAMx and WRF-Chem is done. The summer 2016 was one of the 11th warmest summers since the beginning of the meteorological measurements in Austria, but one of the 15th rainiest summers, too. Due to the meteorological conditions, only two exceedances of the information

  4. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) in Istanbul: Origin, source areas and potential impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Theodosi, C.; Zarmpas, P.; Im, U.; Bougiatioti, A.; Yenigun, O.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Water-soluble ions (Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, CO4-, Na +, NH4+, K +, Mg 2+,Ca 2+), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) and trace metals (Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were measured in aerosol PM 10 samples above the megacity of Istanbul between November 2007 and June 2009. Source apportionment analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) indicates that approximately 80% of the PM 10 is anthropogenic in origin (secondary, refuse incineration, fuel oil and solid fuel combustion and traffic). Crustal and sea salt account for 10.2 and 7.5% of the observed mass, respectively. In general, anthropogenic (except secondary) aerosol shows higher concentrations and contributions in winter. Mean concentration and contribution of crustal source is found to be more important during the transitional period due to mineral dust transport from North Africa. During the sampling period, 42 events exceeding the limit value of 50 μg m -3 are identified. A significant percentage (91%; n = 38) of these exceedances is attributed to anthropogenic sources. Potential Source Contribution Function analysis highlights that Istanbul is affected from distant sources from Balkans and Western Europe during winter and from Eastern Europe during summer. On the other hand, Istanbul sources influence western Black Sea and Eastern Europe during winter and Aegean and Levantine Sea during summer.

  5. Assesment of Pb concentration in PM2,5 and PM10 at Serpong area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rita; Esrom Hamonangan; Halimah Syafrul; Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestian

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air pollution, especially Pb, in Serpong area has been detected since 1996. Pollution caused by heavy metals Pb deserve serious attention because of the impact is very influential on health such as reduced levels of intelligence, learning disability, symptoms of anemia, barriers to growth, poor cognitive development, weakened immune system, symptoms of autism, and even premature death. This study was conducted to determine Pb concentration of PM 2,5 and PM 10 in four residential locations in Serpong area as part of a series of comprehensive studies for the characterization and identification of sources pollution. Particulates were sampled using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler at 3 housing locations and 1 office location in the period of August 25 to November 3, 2008, Samples were analyzed using nuclear analytical techniques, Proton Induced X-ray Emission. The results showed that the activity concentration of Pb in PM 2,5 for the location of Setu, Pusarpedal, Batan Indah, and BSD were in the range of 33-388, 12-254, 6-282, and 5-332 ng/m 3 , while for PM 10 were 69-732, 59-647, 31-810, and 28718 ng/m 3 , respectively, In general, Pb concentrations in Serpong area were higher than those in some other cities in Asia region. These results are expected to be used as scientific based reference in formulating, taking action, and appropriate policies to overcome environmental problems. (author)

  6. Correlation Analysis of PM10 and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and lung cancer are closely related. In 2013, the World Health Organization listed outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic and regarded it as the most widespread carcinogen that humans are currently exposed to. Here, grey correlation and data envelopment analysis methods are used to determine the pollution factors causing lung cancer among residents in Nanchang, China, and identify population segments which are more susceptible to air pollution. This study shows that particulate matter with particle sizes below 10 micron (PM10 is most closely related to the incidence of lung cancer among air pollution factors including annual mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10, annual haze days, and annual mean Air Pollution Index/Air Quality Index (API/AQI. Air pollution has a greater impact on urban inhabitants as compared to rural inhabitants. When gender differences are considered, women are more likely to develop lung cancer due to air pollution. Smokers are more likely to suffer from lung cancer. These results provide a reference for the government to formulate policies to reduce air pollutant emissions and strengthen anti-smoking measures.

  7. Influence of Pedestrian Trajectories on School Children Exposure to PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three pedestrian trajectories are considered to study the influence of PM10 concentrations on children exposure, in a high-traffic street canyon. Two types of exposure were calculated: daily exposure for each wind condition and cumulative annual exposure considering all wind conditions. FLUENT was used to simulate the flow, turbulence, and PM10 dispersion in the street canyon. Our results indicate that exposure is influenced by the chosen walking trajectory and wind direction. When considering daily exposure, the highest value is achieved for the trajectory on the south side of the street, under westerly wind conditions, 13% higher than the baseline that assumes no traffic. The results indicate that a particular trajectory can be better for one specific wind direction but can represent the worst for a different wind direction. A difference of 3% to 13% higher exposure was achieved by choosing the best and worst trajectories. When computing cumulative annual exposure, trajectory on the north side of the street shows better results, 8.4% higher than the baseline value. Northerly and westerly winds result in the lowest and the highest exposure value for every studied trajectory. Careful selection of the best pedestrian paths can help reduce the exposure in busy street canyons.

  8. Preliminary PM2.5 and PM10 fractions source apportionment complemented by statistical accuracy determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samek Lucyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were collected between the years 2010 and 2013 at the urban area of Krakow, Poland. Numerous types of air pollution sources are present at the site; these include steel and cement industries, traffic, municipal emission sources and biomass burning. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the concentrations of the following elements: Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, As and Pb within the collected samples. Defining the elements as indicators, airborne particulate matter (APM source profiles were prepared by applying principal component analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multiple linear regression (MLR. Four different factors identifying possible air pollution sources for both PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were attributed to municipal emissions, biomass burning, steel industry, traffic, cement and metal industry, Zn and Pb industry and secondary aerosols. The uncertainty associated with each loading was determined by a statistical simulation method that took into account the individual elemental concentrations and their corresponding uncertainties. It will be possible to identify two or more sources of air particulate matter pollution for a single factor in case it is extremely difficult to separate the sources.

  9. Effect of particulate matter less than 10μm (PM10 on mortality in Bogota, Colombia: a time-series analysis, 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Camilo Blanco-Becerra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the association between daily mortality from different causes and acute exposure to particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10, in Bogota, Colombia. Materials and methods. A time-series ecological study was conducted from 1998 to 2006. The association between mortality (due to different causes and exposure was analyzed using single and distributed lag models and adjusting for potential confounders. Results. For all ages, the cumulative effect of acute mortality from all causes and respiratory causes increased 0.71% (95%CI 0.46-0.96 and 1.43% (95%CI 0.85-2.00, respectively, per 10μg/m3 increment in daily average PM10 with a lag of three days before death. Cumulative effect of mortality from cardiovascular causes was -0.03% (95%CI -0.49-0.44% with the same lag. Conclusions. The results suggest an association between an increase in PM10 concentrations and acute mortality from all causes and respiratory causes.

  10. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 and TSP in residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Karar, Kakoli; Srivastava, Anjali

    2007-04-02

    Daily average PM(10) (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and their chemical species mass concentrations were measured at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003-November 2004. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance model revealed that the most dominant source throughout the study period at residential site was coal combustion (42%), while vehicular emission (47%) dominates at industrial site to PM(10). Paved road, field burning and wood combustion contributed 21%, 7% and 1% at residential site, while coal combustion, metal industry and soil dust contributed 34%, 1% and 1% at industrial site, respectively, to PM(10) during the study period. The contributors to TSP included coal combustion (37%), soil dust (19%), road dust (17%) and diesel combustion (15%) at residential site, while soil dust (36%), coal combustion (17%), solid waste (17%), road dust (16%) and tyre wear (7%) at industrial site. Significant seasonal variations of the particulate matters have been observed during the study period. In the monitoring sites total carbon, organic carbon and iron were found to be the marker species of road dust, while organic carbon, total carbon, chloride and sulfate have been observed as the marker species of soil dust in TSP.

  11. Winter mass concentrations of carbon species in PM10, PM 2.5 and PM1 in Zagreb air, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Ranka; Čačković, Mirjana; Šega, Krešimir; Bešlić, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to examine the mass concentrations of EC, OC and TC (EC + OC) in PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) particle fractions. Daily PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) samples were collected at an urban background monitoring site in Zagreb during winter 2009. Average OC and EC mass concentrations were 11.9 and 1.8 μg m(-3) in PM(10), 9.0 and 1.4 μg m(-3) in PM(2.5), and 5.5 and 1.1 μg m(-3) in PM(1). Average OC/EC ratios in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were 7.4, 6.9 and 5.4, respectively.

  12. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AgusGindo S; Budi Hari H

    2008-01-01

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  13. Holi colours contain PM10 and can induce pro-inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossmann, Katrin; Bach, Sabine; Höflich, Conny; Valtanen, Kerttu; Heinze, Rita; Neumann, Anett; Straff, Wolfgang; Süring, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    At Holi festivals, originally celebrated in India but more recently all over the world, people throw coloured powder (Holi powder, Holi colour, Gulal powder) at each other. Adverse health effects, i.e. skin and ocular irritations as well as respiratory problems may be the consequences. The aim of this study was to uncover some of the underlying mechanisms. We analysed four different Holi colours regarding particle size using an Electric field cell counting system. In addition, we incubated native human cells with different Holi colours and determined their potential to induce a pro-inflammatory response by quantifying the resulting cytokine production by means of ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and the resulting leukocyte oxidative burst by flow cytometric analysis. Moreover, we performed the XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) and Propidium iodide cytotoxicity tests and we measured the endotoxin content of the Holi colour samples by means of the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test (LAL test). We show here that all tested Holi colours consist to more than 40 % of particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, so called PM10 particles (PM, particulate matter). Two of the analysed Holi powders contained even more than 75 % of PM10 particles. Furthermore we demonstrate in cell culture experiments that Holi colours can induce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor-α), IL-6 (Interleukine-6) and IL-1β (Interleukine-1β). Three out of the four analysed colours induced a significantly higher cytokine response in human PBMCs (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells) and whole blood than corn starch, which is often used as carrier substance for Holi colours. Moreover we show that corn starch and two Holi colours contain endotoxin and that certain Holi colours display concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in higher concentration. Furthermore we reveal that in principle Holi

  14. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  15. Ensemble forecasting with machine learning algorithms for ozone, nitrogen dioxide and PM10 on the Prev'Air platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debry, E.; Mallet, V.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the application of an ensemble forecasting approach to the Prev’Air operational platform. This platform aims at forecasting maps, on a daily basis, for ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter. It relies on several air quality models which differ by their physical parameterizations, their input data and numerical strategies, so that one model may perform better with respect to observations for a given pollutant, at a given time and location. We apply sequential aggregation methods to this ensemble of models, which has already proved good potential in previous research papers. Compared to these studies, the novelties of this paper are the variety of models, the real operational context, which requires robustness assessment, and the application to several pollutants. In this paper, we first introduce the ensemble forecasting methods and the operational platform Prev’Air along with its models. Then, the sequential aggregation performance and robustness are assessed using two different data sets. The results with the discounted ridge regression method show that the errors of the forecasts are respectively reduced by at least 29%, 35% and 19% for hourly, daily and peak O3 concentrations, by 19%, 26% and 20% for hourly, daily and peak NO2 concentrations, and finally by 17%, 19% and 11% for hourly, daily and peak PM10 concentrations. At last, we give a first insight of the ensemble ability to forecast threshold exceedances.

  16. Chemical characterization of individual particles (PM10) from ambient air in Guiyang City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, R.K.; Seip, H.M.; Leinum, J.R.; Winje, T.; Xiao, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    PM 10 samples were collected during 5 days in Guiyang, China in July 2003. A total of about 2300 particles was analyzed by an automated Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to identify different particle types that occurred in the aerosol. Seventeen particle types were identified and presented in the order of decreasing number abundance as: silicomanganese slag, soil and fly ash, coal burning, silicomanganese, quartz, syngenite, S-bearing iron, calcium rich, gypsum, sphalerite, dolomite, iron, alloy, lead sulfate, zinc rich, sulfur-rich particles and aluminum manufacturing dust. The majority of the particles in the studied size range are of anthropogenic origin, especially from metallurgical industry. The study illustrates the complexity of particle pollution in air of an industrial Chinese city and the results should be useful in planning mitigation measures

  17. Characterisation of PM 10 emissions from woodstove combustion of common woods grown in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Alves, Célia; Evtyugina, Margarita; Mirante, Fátima; Pio, Casimiro; Caseiro, Alexandre; Schmidl, Christoph; Bauer, Heidi; Carvalho, Fernando

    2010-11-01

    A series of source tests was performed to evaluate the chemical composition of particle emissions from the woodstove combustion of four prevalent Portuguese species of woods: Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus), Quercus suber (cork oak) and Acacia longifolia (golden wattle). Analyses included water-soluble ions, metals, radionuclides, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), humic-like substances (HULIS), cellulose and approximately l80 organic compounds. Particle (PM 10) emission factors from eucalyptus and oak were higher than those from pine and acacia. The carbonaceous matter represented 44-63% of the particulate mass emitted during the combustion process, regardless of species burned. The major organic components of smoke particles, for all the wood species studied, with the exception of the golden wattle (0.07-1.9% w/w), were anhydrosugars (0.2-17% w/w). Conflicting with what was expected, only small amounts of cellulose were found in wood smoke. As for HULIS, average particle mass concentrations ranged from 1.5% to 3.0%. The golden wattle wood smoke presented much higher concentrations of ions and metal species than the emissions from the other wood types. The results of the analysis of radionuclides revealed that the 226Ra was the naturally occurring radionuclide more enriched in PM 10. The chromatographically resolved organics included n-alkanes, n-alkenes, PAH, oxygenated PAH, n-alkanals, ketones, n-alkanols, terpenoids, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, alcohols, n-alkanoic acids, n-di-acids, unsaturated acids and alkyl ester acids.

  18. Contribution of mineral dust sources to street side ambient and suspension PM10 samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiainen, Kaarle; Ritola, Roosa; Stojiljkovic, Ana; Pirjola, Liisa; Malinen, Aleksi; Niemi, Jarkko

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative contributions of mineral dust sources, particularly pavement wear and traction sanding in the PM10 samples collected from 1) street side ambient air and 2) street dust suspension emission samples. The study was conducted between autumn 2011 and spring 2012 at Suurmetsäntie in Helsinki, Finland. The results showed that dust from pavement aggregates was the largest source during spring, accounting for 40-50 percent of the particulate matter in the air and suspension samples. Based on studies on formation of dust, major source of the dust from pavement aggregates is the wear by studded tyres. Traction sanding (1-5.6 mm wet sieved crushed stone) and road salting (NaCl) were applied frequently during the winter 2011/2012. Sanding material explained about 25 percent of the street dust in the air and suspension samples. Traction sanding is estimated to account for approximately few percent of the pavement dust via "the sandpaper effect". Effect of road salt was few percent in the samples. The source contributions from pavement and traction sanding observed in spring 2012 at Suurmetsäntie are similar to what has been estimated in a previous study conducted in the early 2000s in Finland. The general perception in Finland has been that traction sanding is the main source of airborne street dust. Studies conducted in 2000s and the results of this study, however, indicate that traction sanding has been an important but not the main source of dust in PM10 even in winters with extensive use of sanding for traction control.

  19. Determining the contribution of long-range transport, regional and local source areas, to PM10 mass loading in Hessen, Germany using a novel multi-receptor based statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Saryu; Sinha, Baerbel

    2017-10-01

    This study uses two newly developed statistical source apportionment models, MuSAM and MuReSAM, to perform quantitative statistical source apportionment of PM10 at multiple receptor sites in South Hessen. MuSAM uses multi-site back trajectory data to quantify the contribution of long-range transport, while MuReSAM uses wind speed and direction as proxy for regional transport and quantifies the contribution of regional source areas. On average, between 7.8 and 9.1 μg/m3 of PM10 (∼50%) at receptor sites in South Hessen is contributed by long-range transport. The dominant source regions are Eastern, South Eastern, and Southern Europe. 32% of the PM10 at receptor sites in South Hessen is contributed by regional source areas (2.8-9.41 μg/m3). This fraction varies from 40% for urban stations. Sources located within a 2 km radius around the receptor site are responsible for 7%-20% of the total PM10 mass (0.7-4.4 μg/m3). The perturbation study of the traffic flow due to the closing and reopening of the Schiersteiner Brücke revealed that the contribution of the bridge to PM10 mass loadings at two nearby receptor sites increased by approximately 120% after it reopened and became a bottleneck, although in absolute terms, the increase is small.

  20. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-01-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM 10 and PM 2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM 2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM 10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM 10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003–0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1–33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4–3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2–2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM 10 emission of brake wear (3.8–4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2–8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9–10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM 10 emission factor (16.7–19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1–12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. - Highlights: • Calculations of exhaust/non-exhaust particulate emission factors using tunnel sampling and source apportionment techniques. • Non-exhaust emission dominates in the fine particle fraction, considered responsible for adverse human health impacts. • Emission factors for non-exhaust sources (e.g. tyre and brake) were calculated. • Fleet source PM 10 emission factor were also calculated, which can be used in dispersion modelling and health risk assessment. • Tukey mean-difference plot shows

  1. First Results of the “Carbonaceous Aerosol in Rome and Environs (CARE” Experiment: Beyond Current Standards for PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Costabile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2017 the “Carbonaceous Aerosol in Rome and Environs (CARE” experiment was carried out in downtown Rome to address the following specific questions: what is the color, size, composition, and toxicity of the carbonaceous aerosol in the Mediterranean urban background area of Rome? The motivation of this experiment is the lack of understanding of what aerosol types are responsible for the severe risks to human health posed by particulate matter (PM pollution, and how carbonaceous aerosols influence radiative balance. Physicochemical properties of the carbonaceous aerosol were characterised, and relevant toxicological variables assessed. The aerosol characterisation includes: (i measurements with high time resolution (min to 1–2 h at a fixed location of black carbon (eBC, elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, particle number size distribution (0.008–10 μ m, major non refractory PM1 components, elemental composition, wavelength-dependent optical properties, and atmospheric turbulence; (ii 24-h measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, water soluble OC and brown carbon (BrC, and levoglucosan; (iii mobile measurements of eBC and size distribution around the study area, with computational fluid dynamics modeling; (iv characterisation of road dust emissions and their EC and OC content. The toxicological assessment includes: (i preliminary evaluation of the potential impact of ultrafine particles on lung epithelia cells (cultured at the air liquid interface and directly exposed to particles; (ii assessment of the oxidative stress induced by carbonaceous aerosols; (iii assessment of particle size dependent number doses deposited in different regions of the human body; (iv PAHs biomonitoring (from the participants into the mobile measurements. The first experimental results of the CARE experiment are presented in this paper. The objective here is to provide baseline levels of carbonaceous aerosols for Rome, and to address

  2. Urban aerosol in Oporto, Portugal: Chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Danilo; Ferreira, Catarina; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Mácio; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Frosini, Daniele; Colombi, Cristina; Gianelle, Vorne; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Several urban and industrial areas in Southern Europe are not capable of meeting the implemented EU standards for particulate matter. Efficient air quality management is required in order to ensure that the legal limits are not exceeded and that the consequences of poor air quality are controlled and minimized. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of suspended particulate matter on climate and public health are not well understood. The temporal variation of the chemical composition is still demanded, since it enables to adopt off-set strategies and to better estimate the magnitude of anthropogenic forcing on climate. This study aims to provide detailed information on concentrations and chemical composition of aerosol from Oporto city, an urban center in Southern Europe. This city is located near the coast line in the North of Portugal, being the country's second largest urban area. Moreover, Oporto city economic prospects depend heavily on a diversified industrial park, which contribute to air quality degradation. Another strong source of air pollution is traffic. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to characterize the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in a strategic place in Oporto; 2) to identify the sources of particles exploring parameters such as organic and inorganic markers (e.g. sugars as tracers for biomass burning; metals and elemental carbon for industrial and vehicular emissions); 3) to evaluate long range transport of pollutants using back trajectory analysis. Here we present data obtained between January 2013 and January 2014 in a heavy traffic roadside sampling site located in the city center. Different PM10 and PM2.5 samplers were operated simultaneously in order to collect enough mass on different filter matrixes and to fulfill the requirements of analytical methodologies. More than 100 aerosol samples were collected and then analysed for their mass concentration and

  3. Where is PM gone? Trends and variability of atmospheric PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 in the Po valley over the last decade (and more).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Alessandro; Ghermandi, Grazia

    2017-04-01

    The Po Valley is one of the largest European regions with a remarkably high concentration level of atmospheric pollutants, both for particulate and gaseous compounds. In the last decade stringent regulations on air quality standards and on anthropogenic emissions have been set by the European Commission, leading to an overall improvement in air quality across Europe. In order to assess the decadal pattern and variability in PM across the Po valley we thoroughly investigated the time series of PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 from 41, 44 and 15 sites respectively (Bigi & Ghermandi 2014, 2016). PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 (PM10) series with a 7 (10) year or longer record have been analysed for long term trend in deseasonalized monthly means, annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution by robust statistical methods. A widespread and significant decreasing trend was observed at several sites for all size fractions, with the drop, up to a few percent per year, occurring mainly in winter for PM2.5 and throughout the year for PM10. All series were tested for a significant weekly periodicity (a proxy to estimate the impact of primary anthropogenic emissions) by 3 different statistical methods, yielding positive results for summer PM2.5 and PM10, and for both summer and winter PM10-2.5. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed larger variability for PM10 than for PM2.5. The former was split in five clusters: two encompassing the metropolitan areas of Turin and Milan and their respective nearby sites and the other three clusters gathering northeast, northwest and central Po Valley sites respectively. PM2.5 clusters divide the valley in western, eastern and southern/Apennines foothill sectors. The trend in atmospheric concentration was compared with the time series of local primary and precursor emissions, vehicular fleet details and fuel sales. A significant basin-wide drop in emissions occurred for gaseous pollutants, contrarily to primary emissions of PM10 and PM2.5, whose drop was

  4. Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 at Mount Wutai Buddhism Scenic Spot, Shanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to effectively investigate the characteristics of airborne particulate pollutants PM10 and PM2.5 during the peak tourist season at Mount Wutai Buddhism scenic spot, Shanxi, China. Characteristics of the PM10 and PM2.5 in Wu Ye Temple (core incense burners, Manjusri Temple (a traffic hub, Yang Bai Lin Village (a residential district, and Nan Shan Temple (located in a primitive forest district, were determined. The results showed that the PM10 concentration was more than 1.01–1.14 times higher than the threshold (50 μg/m3 of World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (2005, and the PM2.5 concentration was 1.75–2.70 times higher than the above standard (25 μg/m3. Particle size analysis indicated that the distribution of fine particulate matter in Wu Ye Temple ranged from 0 to 3.30 μm. In other sampling points, the fine particulate was mainly distributed in the range of 0–5.90 μm. The particulates in Wu Ye Temple were mainly characterized by spherical, rod-like, and irregular soot aggregates (PM10 and spherical particles of dust (PM2.5. Manjusri Temple and Yang Bai Lin Village predominantly exhibited irregular soil mineral particulate matter (PM10, and amorphous ultrafine soot particulate matter (PM2.5.

  5. PM10 concentrations and emissions of six naturally ventilated dairy housings with cubicles and an outdoor exercise area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Schrade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Um die Datengrundlage für Emissionsinventare zu verbessern, wurden PM10-Emissionen in der am weitesten verbreiteten Laufstallhaltung der Schweiz bestimmt. Dazu wurden in sechs freigelüfteten Liegeboxen-Laufställen für Milchvieh mit planbefestigten Laufflächen und Laufhof jeweils in zwei von drei Jahreszeiten (Sommer, Übergangszeit, Winter Emissionsmessungen durchgeführt. Die Beprobung von PM10 erfolgte über 72 h anreichernd mit Impaktoren an 9 bis 14 Positionen im Stall, Laufhof und Hintergrund. Die Emissionen wurden mit einer Tracer-Ratio-Methode mit zwei Tracergasen (SF6, SF5CF3 bestimmt. Die PM10-Konzentrationen vom Tierbereich lagen meist knapp über oder im Bereich des Hintergrunds. Über alle Betriebe hinweg variierten die PM10-Emissionen zwischen 0,02 und 2,1 g GV-1 d-1. Mit dem vorliegenden Datenumfang war kein Zusammenhang mit den untersuchten Einflussgrössen nachweisbar. Der abgeleitete PM10-Emissionsfaktor liegt mit 0,64 g Kuh-1 d-1 deutlich tiefer als die Emissionsfaktoren, die derzeit in den Inventaren verwendet werden.

  6. Exposure to hazardous volatile organic compounds, PM 10 and CO while walking along streets in urban Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lirong; Wang, Xinming; He, Qiusheng; Wang, Hao; Sheng, Guoying; Chan, L. Y.; Fu, Jiamo; Blake, D. R.

    Toxic air pollutants in street canyons are important issues concerning public health especially in some large Asian cities like Guangzhou. In 1998 Guangzhou citizens used public transportation modes, with a majority commuting on foot (42%) or by bicycle (22%). Of the pedestrians, 57% were either senior citizens or students. In the present study, we measured toxic air pollutants while walking along urban streets in Guangzhou to evaluate pedestrian exposure. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected with sorbent tubes, and PM 10 and CO were measured simultaneously with portable analyzers. Our results showed that pedestrian exposure to PM 10 (with an average of 303 μg m -3 for all samples) and some toxic VOCs (for example, benzene) was relatively high. Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found to be the most abundant VOCs, and 71% of the samples had benzene levels higher than 30 μg m -3. Benzene, PM 10 and CO in walk-only streets were significantly lower ( ptransportation modes (bus and subway). The good correlations between BTEX, PM 10 and CO in the streets indicated that automotive emission might be their major source. Our study also showed that the risk to pedestrians due to air pollution was misinterpreted by the reported air quality index based on measurement of SO 2, NO x and PM 10 in the government monitoring stations. An urban roadside monitoring station might be needed by air quality monitoring networks in large Asian cities like Guangzhou, in order to survey exposure to air toxics in urban roadside microenvironments.

  7. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael; Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla; Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m 3 /ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis

  8. Identification of PM10 characteristics involved in cellular responses in human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Den Hond, Elly; Govarts, Eva; Colles, Ann; Koppen, Gudrun; Staelens, Jeroen; Mampaey, Maja; Janssen, Nicole; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding evidence is present that physicochemical characteristics of ambient particles attribute to adverse health effects, there is still some lack of understanding in this complex relationship. At this moment it is not clear which properties (such as particle size, chemical composition) or sources of the particles are most relevant for health effects. This study investigates the in vitro toxicity of PM 10 in relation to PM chemical composition, black carbon (BC), endotoxin content and oxidative potential (OP). In 2013–2014 PM 10 was sampled (24 h sampling, 108 sampling days) in ambient air at three sites in Flanders (Belgium) with different pollution characteristics: an urban traffic site (Borgerhout), an industrial area (Zelzate) and a rural background location (Houtem). To characterize the toxic potential of PM 10 , airway epithelial cells (Beas-2B cells) have been exposed to particles in vitro. Different endpoints were studied including cell damage and death (cell viability) using the Neutral red Uptake assay, the production of pro-inflammatory molecules by interleukin 8 (IL-8) induction and DNA-damaging activity using the FPG-modified Comet assay. The endotoxin levels in the collected samples were analysed and the capacity of PM 10 particles to produce reactive oxygen species (OP) was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Chemical characteristics of PM 10 (BC, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and meteorological conditions were recorded on the sampling days. PM 10 particles exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity in Beas-2B cells and were found to significantly induce the release of IL-8 in samples from the three locations. Oxidatively damaged DNA was observed in exposed Beas-2B cells. Endotoxin levels above the detection limit were detected in half of the samples. OP was measurable in all samples. Associations between PM 10 characteristics and biological effects of PM 10 were assessed by single and multiple regression analyses

  9. Assessment of microbial communities in PM1 and PM10 of Urumqi during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Huange; Lu, Jianjiang; Li, Shanman; Tong, Yanbin; Xie, Chunbin; Zheng, Xiaowu

    2016-07-01

    Recently, inhalable particulate matter has been reported to carry microorganisms responsible for human allergy and respiratory disease. The unique geographical environment and adverse weather conditions of Urumqi cause double pollution of dust and smog, but research on the microbial content of the atmosphere has not been commenced. In this study, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing were conducted to investigate the microbial composition of Urumqi's PM1 and PM10 pollutants in winter. Results showed that the bacterial community is mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria accounted for the most proportion which was significant difference in some aforementioned studies. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota constitute the main part of the fungal microbial community. The difference of bacterial relative abundance in sample point is greater than in particle sizes. The sequences of several pathogenic bacteria and opportunistic pathogens were also detected, such as Acinetobacter, Delftia, Serratia, Chryseobacterium, which may impact on immunocompromised populations (elderly, children and postoperative convalescence patients), and some fungal genera may cause several plant diseases. Our findings may serve an important reference value in the global air microbial propagation and air microbial research in desert. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure assessment of a cyclist to PM10 and ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghmans, P; Bleux, N; Int Panis, L; Mishra, V K; Torfs, R; Van Poppel, M

    2009-02-01

    Estimating personal exposure to air pollution is a crucial component in identifying high-risk populations and situations. It will enable policy makers to determine efficient control strategies. Cycling is again becoming a favorite mode of transport both in developing and in developed countries due to increasing traffic congestion and environmental concerns. In Europe, it is also seen as a healthy sports activity. However, due to high levels of hazardous pollutants in the present day road microenvironment the cyclist might be at a higher health risk due to higher breathing rate and proximity to the vehicular exhaust. In this paper we present estimates of the exposure of a cyclist to particles of various size fractions including ultrafine particles (UFP) in the town of Mol (Flanders, Belgium). The results indicate relatively higher UFP concentration exposure during morning office hours and moderate UFP levels during afternoon. The major sources of UFP and PM(10) were identified, which are vehicular emission and construction activities, respectively. We also present a dust mapping technique which can be a useful tool for town planners and local policy makers.

  11. Determination of chemical content of PM10 and TSP using SEM-EDAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masitah Alias; Zaini Hamzah

    2007-01-01

    The growing concern over the workers safety and health has lead many factories and organizations do the air monitoring to ensure the airborne at their workplace is safe for the worker's health and complying the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514). In this study, the monitoring covers an indoor air quality and chemical exposure to the workers in one of the power plant repair shop. A few workers from different sections namely blasting, welding, grinding, fitting and maintenance area were chosen to assist in the personal monitoring for 8 hours measurement. PM10 were measured at a few sampling points to collect dusts for 24 hours duration. The samples were brought back to the laboratory for gravimetric and SEM-EDAX analysis. The results were certainly exceed the limit for air quality, and many elements were detected such as Fe, Ni, Al, Si, Ca, K, Ba, S, Cr, Zn and Cl. The present of these elements shows that exposure to these particulate matters is quite risky and some measure needs to be taken for remedial action. (Author)

  12. PM10 and PM2.5 composition over the Central Black Sea: origin and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M; Mihalopoulos, N; Tutsak, E; Theodosi, C; Zarmpas, P; Kalegeri, P

    2015-11-01

    Daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected between April 2009 and July 2010 at a rural site (Sinop) situated on the coast of the Central Black Sea. The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 23.2 ± 16.7 and 9.8 ± 6.9 μg m(-3), respectively. Coarse and fine filters were analyzed for Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), C2O4(2-), PO4(3-), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) by using ion chromatography. Elemental and organic carbon content in bulk quartz filters were also analyzed. The highest PM2.5 contribution to PM10 was found in summer with a value of 0.54 due to enhanced secondary aerosols in relation to photochemistry. Cl(-), Na(+), and Mg(2+) illustrated their higher concentrations and variability during winter. Chlorine depletion was chiefly attributed to nitrate. Higher nssCa(2+) concentrations were ascribed to episodic mineral dust intrusions from North Africa into the region. Crustal material (31%) and sea salt (13%) were found to be accounted for the majority of the PM10. The ionic mass (IM), particulate organic matter (POM), and elemental carbon (EC) explained 13, 20, and 3% of the PM10 mass, correspondingly. The IM, POM, and EC dominated the PM2.5 (~74%) mass. Regarding EU legislation, the exceeded PM2.5 values were found to be associated with secondary aerosols, with a particular dominance of POM. For the exceeded PM10 values, six of the events were dominated by dust while two and four of these exceedances were caused by sea salt and mix events, respectively.

  13. Ultrastructural alterations in the mouse lung caused by real-life ambient PM10 at urban traffic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samara, Constantini; Kouras, Athanasios; Kaidoglou, Katerina; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida-Niki; Simou, Chrysanthi; Bousnaki, Maria; Kelessis, Apostolos

    2015-01-01

    Current levels of ambient air particulate matter (PM) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. Nevertheless, current knowledge does not allow precise quantification or definitive ranking of the health effects of individual PM components and indeed, associations may be the result of multiple components acting on different physiological mechanisms. In this paper, healthy Balb/c mice were exposed to ambient PM 10 at a traffic site of a large city (Thessaloniki, northern Greece), in parallel to control mice that were exposed to filtered air. Structural damages were examined in ultrafine sections of lung tissues by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM). Ambient PM 10 samples were also collected during the exposure experiment and characterized with respect to chemical composition and oxidative potential. Severe ultrastructural alterations in the lung tissue after a 10-week exposure of mice at PM 10 levels often exceeding the daily limit of Directive 2008/50/EC were revealed mainly implying PM-induced oxidative stress. The DTT-based redox activity of PM 10 was found within the range of values reported for traffic sites being correlated with traffic-related constituents. Although linkage of the observed lung damage with specific chemical components or sources need further elucidation, the magnitude of biological responses highlight the necessity for national and local strategies for mitigation of particle emissions from combustion sources. - Highlights: • Animal exposure to PM10 was conducted at a traffic site of a large city. • Chemical and toxicological characterization of PM10 was carried out. • Severe degenerative alterations in alveolar cells were revealed. • PM induced oxidative stress from carbonaceous species was suggested

  14. Preliminary analysis of levels of arsenic and other metalic elements in PM10 sampled near Copper Smelter Bor (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kovačević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the levels of twenty one elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Sr and Zn in PM10 are presented, as well as SO2 concentration, measured at the sampling site in an urban area of the town of Bor (40,000 inhabitants in eastern Serbia. The sampling site was located in a densely populated city center about 0.65 km away from one of the largest copper mines and copper smelters in Europe. For the first time PM10 was collected using the European standard sampler, during a preliminary campaign in duration of 7 days in early spring 2009. PM10 were sampled on PTFE membrane filters and element concentrations were quantified by GF AAS and ICP AES. Concentration levels and correlations within trace elements, PM10 and SO2 indicated that industrial activities underpinned with meteorological conditions of low wind speed (calm are the main factors that influence air pollution in a densely populated area. It was evident that both PM10 mass concentration and SO2 concentration once exceeded the daily limit values during a measuring period of seven days. Strong relationship was found between PM10 and Mn, Mg, Ca and B daily average concentrations. On the other hand, SO2 correlated strongly with As, Pb, Cd, Cu and S daily average concentrations. These results confirm the relationship between emissions of SO2 from the Copper Smelter Bor and calm meteorological conditions (wind speed less than 0.5 m/sec with the concentration levels of carcinogenic substances of arsenic, lead and cadmium in ambient air.

  15. Exposure of bakery and pastry apprentices to airborne flour dust using PM2.5 and PM10 personal samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier-Geyssant, Estelle; Barthélemy, Jean-François; Mouchot, Lory; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Background This study describes exposure levels of bakery and pastry apprentices to flour dust, a known risk factor of occupational asthma. Methods Questionnaires on work activity were completed by 286 students. Among them, 34 performed a series of two personal exposure measurements using a PM2.5 and PM10 personal sampler during a complete work shift, one during a cold ("winter") period, and the other during a hot ("summer") period. Results Bakery apprentices experience greater average PM2.5 and PM10 exposures than pastry apprentices (p bakery apprentices incur substantial exposure to known airways allergens, a situation that might elicit early induction of airways inflammation. PMID:17976230

  16. The oxidative potential of PM10 from coal, briquettes and wood charcoal burnt in an experimental domestic stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Longyi; Hou, Cong; Geng, Chunmei; Liu, Junxia; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Jones, Tim; Zhao, Chengmei; BéruBé, Kelly

    2016-02-01

    Coal contains many potentially harmful trace elements. Coal combustion in unvented stoves, which is common in most parts of rural China, can release harmful emissions into the air that when inhaled cause health issues. However, few studies have dealt specifically with the toxicological mechanisms of the particulate matter (PM) released by coal and other solid fuel combustion. In this paper, PM10 particles that were generated during laboratory stove combustion of raw powdered coal, clay-mixed honeycomb briquettes, and wood charcoal were analysed for morphology, trace element compositions, and toxicity as represented by oxidative DNA damage. The analyses included Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Plasmid Scission Assay (PSA). Gravimetric analysis indicated that the equivalent mass concentration of PM10 emitted by burning raw powdered coal was higher than that derived by burning honeycomb briquette. FESEM observation revealed that the coal burning-derived PM10 particles were mainly soot aggregates. The PSA results showed that the PM10 emitted by burning honeycomb briquettes had a higher oxidative capacity than that from burning raw powdered coal and wood charcoal. It is also demonstrated that the oxidative capacity of the whole particle suspensions were similar to those of the water soluble fractions; indicating that the DNA damage induced by coal burning-derived PM10 were mainly a result of the water-soluble fraction. An ICP-MS analysis revealed that the amount of total analysed water-soluble elements in the PM10 emitted by burning honeycomb briquettes was higher than that in PM produced by burning raw powdered coal, and both were higher than PM from burning wood charcoal. The total analysed water-soluble elements in these coal burning-derived PM10 samples had a significantly positive correlation with the level of DNA damage; indicating that the oxidative capacity of the coal burning

  17. Remaining in an Abusive Relationship: An Investment Model Analysis of Nonvoluntary Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbult, Caryl E.; Martz, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of interdependence in ongoing relationships, using an investment model to understand decisions to remain in abusive relationships. Found that feelings of commitment were greater among women who had poorer-quality economic alternatives, were more heavily invested in their relationship, and who experienced less dissatisfaction…

  18. Particle reduction strategies - PAREST. Evaluation of emission reduction scenarios using chemical transport calculations. PM10- and PM2.5-reduction potentials by package of measures for further immission reduction in Germany. Sub-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the effects of additional emission control measures the PM10 and PM2.5 air quality in Germany (PM = particulate matter). The immission effects of the planned measures were calculated with the Chemistry-Aerosol-Transport Model REM CALGRID (RCG). [de

  19. Source profiles and contributions of biofuel combustion for PM2.5, PM10 and their compositions, in a city influenced by biofuel stoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying-Ze; Chen, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Du, Xin; Wei, Jin-Jin; Fan, Hui; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Hai-Ting; Guan, Liao; Shi, Guo-Liang; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2017-12-01

    Source and ambient samples were collected in a city in China that uses considerable biofuel, to assess influence of biofuel combustion and other sources on particulate matter (PM). Profiles and size distribution of biofuel combustion were investigated. Higher levels in source profiles, a significant increase in heavy-biomass ambient and stronger correlations of K + , Cl - , OC and EC suggest that they can be tracers of biofuel combustion. And char-EC/soot-EC (8.5 for PM 2.5 and 15.8 for PM 10 of source samples) can also be used to distinguish it. In source samples, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were approximately 28.0%-68.8% (PM 2.5 ) and 27.2%-43.8% (PM 10 ) of OC. For size distribution, biofuel combustion mainly produces smaller particles. OC1, OC2, EC1 and EC2 abundances showed two peaks with one below 1 μm and one above 2 μm. An advanced three-way factory analysis model was applied to quantify source contributions to ambient PM 2.5 and PM 10 . Higher contributions of coal combustion, vehicular emission, nitrate and biofuel combustion occurred during the heavy-biomass period, and higher contributions of sulfate and crustal dust were observed during the light-biomass period. Mass and percentage contributions of biofuel combustion were significantly higher in heavy-biomass period. The biofuel combustion attributed above 45% of K + and Cl - , above 30% of EC and about 20% of OC. In addition, through analysis of source profiles and contributions, they were consistently evident that biofuel combustion and crustal dust contributed more to cation than to anion, while sulfate & SOC and nitrate showed stronger influence on anion than on cation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Methodology to Monitor Airborne PM10Dust Particles Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Erskine, Peter; Cliff, David; Heuff, Darlene

    2017-02-14

    Throughout the process of coal extraction from surface mines, gases and particles are emitted in the form of fugitive emissions by activities such as hauling, blasting and transportation. As these emissions are diffuse in nature, estimations based upon emission factors and dispersion/advection equations need to be measured directly from the atmosphere. This paper expands upon previous research undertaken to develop a relative methodology to monitor PM 10 dust particles produced by mining activities making use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A module sensor using a laser particle counter (OPC-N2 from Alphasense, Great Notley, Essex, UK) was tested. An aerodynamic flow experiment was undertaken to determine the position and length of a sampling probe of the sensing module. Flight tests were conducted in order to demonstrate that the sensor provided data which could be used to calculate the emission rate of a source. Emission rates are a critical variable for further predictive dispersion estimates. First, data collected by the airborne module was verified using a 5.0 m tower in which a TSI DRX 8533 (reference dust monitoring device, TSI, Shoreview, MN, USA) and a duplicate of the module sensor were installed. Second, concentration values collected by the monitoring module attached to the UAV (airborne module) obtaining a percentage error of 1.1%. Finally, emission rates from the source were calculated, with airborne data, obtaining errors as low as 1.2%. These errors are low and indicate that the readings collected with the airborne module are comparable to the TSI DRX and could be used to obtain specific emission factors from fugitive emissions for industrial activities.

  1. A Methodology to Monitor Airborne PM10 Dust Particles Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alvarado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the process of coal extraction from surface mines, gases and particles are emitted in the form of fugitive emissions by activities such as hauling, blasting and transportation. As these emissions are diffuse in nature, estimations based upon emission factors and dispersion/advection equations need to be measured directly from the atmosphere. This paper expands upon previous research undertaken to develop a relative methodology to monitor PM10 dust particles produced by mining activities making use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. A module sensor using a laser particle counter (OPC-N2 from Alphasense, Great Notley, Essex, UK was tested. An aerodynamic flow experiment was undertaken to determine the position and length of a sampling probe of the sensing module. Flight tests were conducted in order to demonstrate that the sensor provided data which could be used to calculate the emission rate of a source. Emission rates are a critical variable for further predictive dispersion estimates. First, data collected by the airborne module was verified using a 5.0 m tower in which a TSI DRX 8533 (reference dust monitoring device, TSI, Shoreview, MN, USA and a duplicate of the module sensor were installed. Second, concentration values collected by the monitoring module attached to the UAV (airborne module obtaining a percentage error of 1.1%. Finally, emission rates from the source were calculated, with airborne data, obtaining errors as low as 1.2%. These errors are low and indicate that the readings collected with the airborne module are comparable to the TSI DRX and could be used to obtain specific emission factors from fugitive emissions for industrial activities.

  2. Development of cotton gin PM10 emission factors for EPA’s AP-42-DUPLICATE DO NOT USE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) emission factors are assigned ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), based on the quality of data used to develop them. All current PM10 cotton gin emission factors received quality ratings of D or lower. In an effort to improve these ratin...

  3. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  4. 77 FR 32024 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Arizona; Pinal County; PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ..., within 18 months of redesignation, a revision to the Arizona state implementation plan that provides for... exceedances as caused by exceptional events) are those, such as traffic on paved and unpaved roads, cattle... activities. Arizona will be required to develop a plan that demonstrates attainment of the PM 10 standard...

  5. 76 FR 8300 - Finding of Failure To Submit State Implementation Plan Revisions for Particulate Matter, PM-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... 61144 (October 17, 2006). The 24-hour PM-10 standards of 150 micrograms per cubic meter ([micro]g/m\\3... above 150 [micro]g/m\\3\\, as determined in accordance with appendix K to 40 CFR part 50, is equal to or... entities include small businesses, small not-for-profit enterprises, and small governmental jurisdictions...

  6. Daily concentrations trend and change point of particulate matter (PM10) in Pahang, Malaysia - A case study at Balok Baru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Ujang, Suriyati

    2015-02-01

    Daily concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) could be very harmful to human health such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this paper is to describe on the experiences of air pollutants in the state of Pahang, Malaysia during the first quarter of year 2014. Data were gathered from available automatic air quality monitoring stations at Balok Baru, Pahang through the assistance from the Department of Environment. Cumulative sum technique shows that a change occurred at March, 8th with 88 μg/ m3, moderate air quality level. This change point indicated that the PM10 level started to have a potential in moderate or worse level. In addition, time series regression analysis shows that the trend of daily concentrations of Balok Baru station was an upward trend and for additional day, the PM10 level was increased by 0.1117 μg/ m3. It is hoped that this study will give a significant contribution for future researcher in the area of the study on the risk of PM10 or other types of air pollutant to air quality and also human health.

  7. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Blom, M.; Weijers, E. P.; Röckmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The 14C content in EC and OC concentrations was also determined, to distinguish the contribution from "modern" carbon (e.g., biogenic emissions, biomass burning and wildfires) and fossil fuel combustion. It was concluded that the urban background of PM2.5 and PM10 is dominated by the regional background, and that primary and secondary PM emission by urban sources contribute less than 15%. The 14C analysis revealed that 70% of OC originates from modern carbon and 30% from fossil fuel combustion. The corresponding percentages for EC are, respectively 17% and 83%. It is concluded that in particular the urban population living in street canyons with intense road traffic has potential health risks. This is due to exposure to elevated concentrations of a factor two for EC from exhaust emissions in PM2.5 and a factor 2-3 for heavy metals from brake and tyre wear, and re-suspended road dust in PM10. It follows that local air quality management may focus on local measures to street canyons with intense road traffic.

  8. The PM10 fraction of road dust in the UK and India: Characterization, source profiles and oxidative potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pallavi; Baker, Stephen J; Shukla, Anuradha; Maikawa, Caitlin; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J; Harrison, Roy M

    2015-10-15

    Most studies of road dust composition have sampled a very wide range of particle sizes, but from the perspective of respiratory exposure to resuspended dusts, it is the PM10 fraction which is of most importance. The PM10 fraction of road dust samples was collected at two sites in Birmingham, UK (major highway and road tunnel) and one site in New Delhi, India. Dust loadings were found to be much higher for New Delhi compared to Birmingham, while concentrations of several species were much higher in the case of Birmingham. Detailed chemical source profiles were prepared for both cities and previously generated empirical factors for source attribution to brake wear, tyre wear, and crustal dust were successfully applied to the UK sites. However, 100% of the mass for the Indian site could not be accounted for using these factors. This study highlights the need for generation of local empirical estimation factors for non-exhaust vehicle emissions. A limited number of bulk road dust and brake pad samples were also characterized. Oxidative potential (OP) was also determined for a limited number of PM10 and bulk road dust samples, and Cu was found to be a factor significantly associated with OP in PM10 and bulk road dust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of meteorology and source variation on airborne PM 10 levels in a high relief tropical Andean city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario González-Duque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de niveles de (PM 10 y su asociación con la meteorología, altura de capa de mezcla y fuentes de contaminación, se realizó en la ciudad tropical andina de Manizales durante un periodo de dos años (enero 2010 a diciembre 2012. Los mayores niveles de PM 10 se observaron en zonas con alta influencia vehicular, con valores de PM 10 en un intervalo de 18 - 69 μg m -3 . Las concentraciones de material particulado fueron influenciadas por factores meteorológicos, mostrando una asociación positiva con la temperatura (r = 0.40, y negativa con la humedad relativa (r = -0.47 y la precipitación (r = -0.38. Los efectos del fenómeno de scavenging por la precipitación fueron observados a través del análisis de concentraciones de PM 10 para periodos secos y húmedos. Los altos niveles de sulfatos observados en el PM 10 en comparación con los demás iones predominantes, fueron consistentes con la influencia de emisiones derivadas del transporte público y automóviles, los cuales utilizan diesel y gasolina como sus principales combustibles. Incrementos en la altura de capa de mezcla en la zona del centro histórico de la ciudad (de 900 m a 1600 m, explican la dilución efectiva de las emisiones provenientes del tráfico vehicular, tal como se observó mediante el monitoreo de PM 10 cada 30 segundos por periodos de 24 horas. Este análisis preliminar sugiere factores de importancia para implementar a futuro técnicas de modelización del PM 10 en ecosistemas tropicales de montaña caracterizados por su alta precipitación y alta densidad poblacional.

  10. Particulate matter (PM10) patterns in Europe: An exploratory data analysis using non-negative matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žibert, Janez; Cedilnik, Jure; Pražnikar, Jure

    2016-05-01

    In last decade space-density of monitoring stations increased, in to addition also air pollution modeling made big progress. Using diversity of big data can lead to better knowledge about air pollution at continental scale. The focus of presented study is the data-driven approach using non-negative matrix factorization to provide new insights and to study the characteristic space-time particulate-matter patterns across Europe. We analyzed the PM10 concentrations obtained from 1097 monitoring stations (AirBase data) and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) modeled fields for a period of 3 years. We distinguished five characteristic patterns obtained from the AirBase data and five patterns from the MACC data. A comparison between the AirBase and MACC data shows a good spatial overlap for the east Europe, central Europe and the Mediterranean patterns. However, it should be noted that an analysis of the MACC data revealed two additional marine patterns: the Celtic and the North Seas. The Po Valley and Balkan patterns were very clearly identified when analyzing the AirBase data. In order to better understand the influence of the synoptic situation on the particulate-matter concentrations the synoptic meteorological situations were additionally analyzed. The cold season, low wind and very stable conditions, which can last for several days, is the most common situation linked to high concentrations of anthropogenic air pollution with particulate matter. In contrast, for the Mediterranean pattern the most common situation (high factor loadings) is observed during the summer period. This pattern also exhibits a clearer annual cycle. A closer look at the sea-salt patterns (Celtic and North Seas) shows low time-series correlations between these two factors. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism is the same: a steep gradient between the cyclone and the anti-cyclone that causes high winds and, consequently, higher sea-salt production.

  11. Retrospective Geospatial Modeling of PM10 Exposures from Open Burning at Joint Base Balad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    carbonyls , and chlorobenzenes. Also, depending on the source material, metals, including lead and mercury, may be present. At lower-temperature...carbon monoxide, methane, ethene, ethyne, propene, formaldehyde , 2- hydroxyethanol, methanol, phenol, acetic acid, formic acid, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide...and carbonyl sulfide” (Susott, Ward, Reardon, & Griffith, 1997). Also, 2-hydroxyethanal was found to be a significant smoke component and

  12. Relationships of relative humidity with PM2.5 and PM10 in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Cairong; Liu, Hongyu; Li, Yufeng; Peng, Yan; Wang, Juan; Dai, Lingjun

    2017-10-23

    Severe particulate matter (PM, including PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) pollution frequently impacts many cities in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China, which has aroused growing concern. In this study, we examined the associations between relative humidity (RH) and PM pollution using the equal step-size statistical method. Our results revealed that RH had an inverted U-shaped relationship with PM 2.5 concentrations (peaking at RH = 45-70%), and an inverted V-shaped relationship (peaking at RH = 40 ± 5%) with PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 . The trends of polluted-day number significantly changed at RH = 70%. The very-dry (RH humidity (RH = 60-70%) conditions positively affected PM 2.5 and exerted an accumulation effect, while the mid-humidity (RH = 70-80%), high-humidity (RH = 80-90%), and extreme-humidity (RH = 90-100%) conditions played a significant role in reducing particle concentrations. For PM 10 , the accumulation and reduction effects of RH were split at RH = 45%. Moreover, an upward slope in the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio indicated that the accumulation effects from increasing RH were more intense on PM 2.5 than on PM 10 , while the opposite was noticed for the reduction effects. Secondary transformations from SO 2 and NO 2 to sulfate and nitrate were mainly responsible for PM 2.5 pollution, and thus, controlling these precursors is effective in mitigating the PM pollution in the YRD, especially during winter. The conclusions in this study will be helpful for regional air-quality management.

  13. MUTAGENIC AND CYTOTOXIC FACTORS IN PM10 AND PM2.5 FRACTIONS IN ATMOSPHERE IN SOSNOWIEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Air dust pollution enters human body via respiratory system. Its cytotoxic effect is surveyed using cell lines of mononuclear or pulmonary epithelial cell origins. Mutagenic properties are assessed using short-term assay on Salmonella typhimurium bacterial strains. Mutagenic and cytotoxic properties of air dust pollution – fractions PM10 and PM2.5, which were collected in autumn and in winter, were assessed using Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium strains and MTT cytoxicity assay on mononuclear cell line RAW 264.7, respectively. Samples of dust were collected on glass fiber filters by (Harvard impactor with air flow ca. 9 l/min, splitting samples to the fraction PM10 and PM2.5. Extraction of pollution was carried out using dichlorometane. Extracted samples were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO before analyses. The highest value of mutagenicity ratio (MR was observed in YG1041 strain with metabolic activation by S9 extract in the PM10 sample of dust collected in winter. The lowest one was observed in TA98 strain without activation in the PM2.5 sample of dust collected in autumn. Winter dust samples, both the fractions PM10 and PM2,5, were toxic for TA98 strain in both test conditions (5S9. MTT cytotoxicity assay using mononuclear cell line RAW 264.7 showed that fractions PM10 and PM2.5 collected in winter were of highest toxic properties. The viability of cells, which were treated with samples of 0,312 m3 air, were 1,7% and 1,6%, respectively, while for autumn samples for PM2,5 the viability was 63%.

  14. Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Gas Turbine Engine using Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Shazaib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine (GT engines are known for their high availability and reliability and are extensively used for power generation, marine and aero-applications. Maintenance of such complex machines should be done proactively to reduce cost and sustain high availability of the GT. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of autoregressive (AR models to predict remaining useful life (RUL of a GT engine. The Turbofan Engine data from NASA benchmark data repository is used as case study. The parametric investigation is performed to check on any effect of changing model parameter on modelling accuracy. Results shows that a single sensory data cannot accurately predict RUL of GT and further research need to be carried out by incorporating multi-sensory data. Furthermore, the predictions made using AR model seems to give highly pessimistic values for RUL of GT.

  15. Modelling of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service: A stepwise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.

  16. Assessment of the Possible Association of Air Pollutants PM10, O3, NO2 With an Increase in Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Diabetes Mortality in Panama City: A 2003 to 2013 Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Julio; Tarajia, Musharaf; Herrera, Víctor; Urriola, Wilfredo; Gómez, Beatriz; Motta, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Panama has experienced a marked economic growth, and this, in turn, has been associated with rapid urban development and degradation of air quality. This study is the first evaluation done in Panama on the association between air pollution and mortality. Our objective was to assess the possible association between monthly levels of PM10, O3, and NO2, and cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality, as well as the seasonal variation of mortality in Panama City, Panama.The study was conducted in Panama City, using air pollution data from January 2003 to December 2013. We utilized a Poisson regression model based on generalized linear models, to evaluate the association between PM10, NO2, and O3 exposure and mortality from diabetes, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The sample size for PM10, NO2, and O2 was 132, 132, and 108 monthly averages, respectively.We found that levels of PM10, O3, and NO2 were associated with increases in cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality. For PM10 levels ≥ 40 μg/m3, we found an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 9.7% (CI 5.8-13.6%), and an increase of 12.6% (CI 0.2-24.2%) in respiratory mortality. For O3 levels ≥ 20 μg/m3 we found an increase of 32.4% (IC 14.6-52.9) in respiratory mortality, after a 2-month lag period following exposure in the 65 to increase in respiratory mortality of 11.2% (IC 1.9-21.3), after a 2-month lag period following exposure among those aged between 65 and increase in cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality. This study confirms the urgent need to improve the measurement frequency of air pollutants in Panama.

  17. Particle reduction strategies - PAREST. Evaluation of emission reduction scenarios using chemical transport calculations. PM10- and NO2-immission contributions in Germany. Wood combustion in small combustion systems; installations of the 13th and 17th BImSchV (Federal Immission Control Act). Sub-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    This report was prepared within the research project ''Particle reduction strategies - PAREST.'' In this paper with the chemical transport model REM CALGRID following questions were investigated: 1 What is the contribution of the wood-fired small combustion plants in Germany to the PM10- and NO 2 -concentrations? 2 What is the contribution of the 13th and 17th BlmSchV covered installations to the PM10 and NO 2 concentrations in Germany? [de

  18. Fog-Water Chemicals and PAHs in PM10 of Foggy Days in Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S. X.; Yang, X. Z.; Huang, H. L.; Fan, T.; Li, H. S.

    2010-07-01

    Fog water samples during six heavy fog events were collected at Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST) during 15 November 2007 to 31 December 2007. Five kinds of water-soluble anion and fourteen kinds of metal element concentration were detected by the ion chromatograph and the plasma emission spectrometer. The results showed that the pH values ranged from 4.64 to 6.88 among these fog water samples. The average SO42- anion concentration (2864.9µmol•L-1) was the highest in fog water, followed by Cl-(1584.4µmol•L-1) and NO3-(736.0µmol•L-1). The average concentration of heavy metal elements Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr were 2.30,1.46,0.42,0.41and 0.37µmol•L-1 respectively while the Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al and Zn concentration with big value. The concentration of metal elements in fog water was high at the initial fog stage, then decreased with the fog development, whereas increased significantly after sunrise during traffic peak period. Obvious diurnal variation of NO2- was manifested as higher value at the night while very low or disappearing after sunrise. The average pH of fog water(6.20) was higher than rain water(4.91), but the conductivity of fog water was 10.5 times higher than that of rain water. The concentration of heavy metal elements(Cd,Cr,Ni,Cu and Pb) and water-soluble anions(SO42-,NO3-,Cl-) in fog water was far higher than rain water. Based on meteorological data and aerosol samples from Nov.15 to Dce.30,2007 in the north suburb of Nanjing, size distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 in foggy and sunny days were studied, and the concentrations of 16 PAHs were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection (GC-MS).The average concentrations of aerosols in the night (PM2.1:120.34μg•m-3; PM9.0:215.92μg•m-3) are close to those in the daytime (PM2.1:126.76μg•m-3; PM9.0:213.41μg•m-3) in fog days. The average concentrations of aerosols are higher in the night (PM2

  19. Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 and Their Metals Content in Different Typologies of Sites in South-Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Contini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 were collected discontinuously between 2003 and 2010 at fifteen monitoring sites (urban, background, industrial in the south-eastern part of Italy using a mobile laboratory. In total, 483 PM10 and 154 PM2.5 samples were collected and chemically analyzed for the determination of metal content. Data were used to investigate concentration differences among the typologies of sites, the seasonal patterns, and the influence of advection of Saharan dust (SD. PM10 and PM2.5 average concentrations increase from background to industrial and urban sites but the ratio PM2.5/PM10 is significantly lower (0.61 ± 0.10 in background sites. The average metals concentrations in PM10 and in PM2.5 do not show a clear dependence on site typology apart an increase in crustal elements in background sites and an increase in the enrichment factors of Ni and of Cr in PM10 in industrial sites. Urban sites show a statistically significant increase of PM10 average concentration during the cold seasons (autumn and winter, likely associated with the anthropogenic urban emissions, instead, the background sites show a decrease in concentrations during the cold seasons. This could be due to more frequent cases of SD observed in spring and summer periods that mainly influence background sites. The seasonal difference on the average concentration for industrial sites is not statistically significant. The SD cases influence both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations but their effect is significantly larger on PM10. Over the studied area, the effect is relatively limited on long-term average PM10 (estimated increase of 3.2% and PM2.5 (estimated increase of 1.5% concentrations but it is significant on daily concentrations. It is estimated an increase of 22% of the probability to overcome the air quality standard daily threshold for PM10.

  20. Odor, gaseous and PM10 emissions from small scale combustion of wood types indigenous to Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Magdalena; Schmidl, Christoph; Padouvas, Emmanuel; Giebl, Heinrich; Lohninger, Johann; Ellinger, Reinhard; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the emissions, including odor, from log wood stoves, burning wood types indigenous to mid-European countries such as Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland, as well as Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria (Germany) and South Tyrol (Italy). The investigations were performed with a modern, certified, 8 kW, manually fired log wood stove, and the results were compared to emissions from a modern 9 kW pellet stove. The examined wood types were deciduous species: black locust, black poplar, European hornbeam, European beech, pedunculate oak (also known as “common oak”), sessile oak, turkey oak and conifers: Austrian black pine, European larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, silver fir, as well as hardwood briquettes. In addition, “garden biomass” such as pine cones, pine needles and dry leaves were burnt in the log wood stove. The pellet stove was fired with softwood pellets. The composite average emission rates for log wood and briquettes were 2030 mg MJ-1 for CO; 89 mg MJ-1 for NOx, 311 mg MJ-1 for CxHy, 67 mg MJ-1 for particulate matter PM10 and average odor concentration was at 2430 OU m-3. CO, CxHy and PM10 emissions from pellets combustion were lower by factors of 10, 13 and 3, while considering NOx - comparable to the log wood emissions. Odor from pellets combustion was not detectable. CxHy and PM10 emissions from garden biomass (needles and leaves) burning were 10 times higher than for log wood, while CO and NOx rise only slightly. Odor levels ranged from not detectable (pellets) to around 19,000 OU m-3 (dry leaves). The odor concentration correlated with CO, CxHy and PM10. For log wood combustion average odor ranged from 536 OU m-3 for hornbeam to 5217 OU m-3 for fir, indicating a considerable influence of the wood type on odor concentration.

  1. Magnetic fraction in atmospheric PM10 at sites with different environmental settings: Seasonal variations and effect of climatic conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovský, Eduard; Kapička, Aleš; Fialová, Hana; Kotlík, B.; Zbořil, R.; Novák, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, Special issue (2008), s. 92-93 ISSN 1335-2806. [Paleo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism. Castle Meeting /11./. 22.06.2008-28.06.2008, Bojnice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : magnetic particles * PM10 concentration * pollution Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  2. On the origin and variability of suspended particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, Michael; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kizas, Christos; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean (EM) lies at the crossroad of three different continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa). EM is a densely populated region including several cities with 3M inhabitants or more (e.g. Athens, Istanbul, Izmir, and Cairo). It has been identified as the most polluted area in Europe with respect to particulate matter (PM) mainly due to the combination of high photochemical activity, which causes pollutants to oxidize and partitioning in the particle phase, with the elevated pollutants emissions from neighboring regions. In addition, the proximity to Africa and the Middle East allows frequent transport of dust particles. At the center of the Eastern Mediterranean lies the island of Cyprus, which has received very little attention regarding its PM levels despite being the location in Europe most frequently impacted by air masses from the Middle East. Herewith, we present a historical PM archive that spans 2 decades. It involves ongoing monitoring on a daily basis of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 μm (PM10), 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and 1 μm (PM1) conducted in at least one, of the 12 currently existing air quality stations in Cyprus since 1997, 2005, and 2009, respectively. The most extended PM datasets correspond a) to the Agia Marina Xyliatou (AMX) monitoring station established at a remote area at the foothills of mount Troodos and b) that of the inland capital, Nicosia. Based on this long-term dataset, the diurnal, temporal and annual variability is assessed. Prior to 2010, PM10 concentration at all sites remained relatively constant, but at different levels, violating the annual EU legislated PM10 limit of 40 μg m-3. Since 2010, coarse mode levels have decreased at all sites. The reported decrease was equal to 30% at AMX. As a result, since 2010 the observed levels comply with the EU legislation threshold. Satellite observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA

  3. Health Impact Assessment of PM10 and PM2.5 in 27 Southeast and East Asian Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Kashima, Saori; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the annual health impacts of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) and less than 2.5-μm diameter (PM2.5) in 27 cities in Southeast and East Asian countries (Japan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Vietnam) for the year 2009 (n = 50,756,699). We estimated the number of cases attributable to long-term exposure. We used a scenario that reduced the annual mean values for PM10 and PM2.5 to 20 and 10 μg/m, respectively. A reduction in long-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 would have postponed 8% to 9% of all-cause mortality or about 37,000 deaths. One third of them were associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and one ninth of them were associated with lung cancer mortality. Current air pollution levels in Southeast and East Asian countries have a nonnegligible public health impact.

  4. The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric PM2.5, PM10 and PAH in Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D; Gambaro, A; Belosi, F; De Pieri, S; Cairns, W R L; Donateo, A; Zanotto, E; Citron, M

    2011-09-01

    The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric levels of coarse and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10)) and fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been estimated in the urban area of Venice. Data analysis has been performed on results collected at three sites over the summer, when ship traffic is at a maximum. Results indicate that monitoring of the PM daily concentrations is not sufficiently detailed for the evaluation of this contribution, even though it could be useful for specific markers such as PAHs. Therefore a new methodology, based on high temporal resolution measurements coupled with wind direction information and the database of ship passages of the Harbour Authority of Venice has been developed. The sampling sites were monitored with optical detectors (DustTrack(®) and Mie pDR-1200) operating at a high temporal resolution (20s and 1s respectively) for PM(2.5) and PM(10). PAH in the particulate and gas phases were recovered from quartz fibre filters and polyurethane foam plugs using pressurised solvent extraction, the extracts were then analysed by gas chromatography- high-resolution mass spectrometry. Our results shows that the direct contribution of ships traffic to PAHs in the gas phase is 10% while the contribution to PM(2.5) and to PM(10) is from 1% up to 8%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PM10 sampler deposited air particulates: Ascertaining uniformity of sample on filter through rotated exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owoade, Oyediran K.; Olise, Felix S.; Obioh, Imoh B.; Olaniyi, Hezekiah B.; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Ferrero, Luca; Perrone, Grazia

    2006-01-01

    For reproducibility of analytical results of samples deposited on filters using PM 10 sampler, homogeneity of the sample on the filter is very important especially when the size of the X-ray beam for the analysis is less than the size of filter. It is against this background that the air particulate samples collected on using PM 10 samplers are analysed to determine the elemental concentrations. Each sample was divided into four quadrants and each was analysed under same conditions to determine if the particles were deposited uniformly over the filter. Each analysis was done using EDXRF technique. The spectrometer consists of four secondary targets, which are automatically switched to in sequence in analysing each sample. The concentration of various elements detected was determined using TURBOQUANT (a brand name for a SPECTRO method which is used for screening analysis). Sixteen elements were detected in every sample. Results show that there was less than 10% deviation in the concentrations in different quadrants. There were a few elements like Ba, Cs, etc., which have deviation greater than 20%. The concentrations of these latter elements were close to detection limits of the spectrometer. We conclude that the analytical result of particulate samples deposited on filters by the PM 10 sampler can be reliable in terms of the homogeneity of the deposition. For such analytes with low concentrations, it would be important that the sampling time be increased to allow for higher mass deposition on the filter

  6. Characteristics of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons during high PM 10 episodes and normal days in Foshan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Songjun; Tan, Jihua; Ma, Yongliang; Yang, Fumo; Yu, Yongchan; Wang, Jiewen

    2011-08-01

    Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were firstly studied during high PM 10 episodes and normal days in December 2008 in Foshan, China. Ethyne, ethene, i-pentane, toluene, ethane and propane are six abundant hydrocarbons, accounting for round 80% of total NMHCs. Both diurnal variations and concentration ratios of morning (evening)/afternoon implied vehicular emission for most hydrocarbons. Correlation coefficients (R 2) of ethene, propene, i-butene, benzene, toluene and i-/n-butanes with ethyne were 0.60-0.88 (they were 0.64-0.88 during high PM 10 episode and 0.60-0.85 in normal days) except for ethene and i-butene in normal days, indicating these hydrocarbons are mainly related to vehicular emission. It suggests liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas (NG) leakages are responsible for propane and ethane, respectively. The measured mean benzene/toluene (B/T) ratio (wt/wt) was 0.45 ± 0.29 during total sampling periods together with R 2 analysis, again indicating vehicular emission is main contributor to ambient hydrocarbons. And the lower B/T ratio (0.29 ± 0.11) during high PM 10 episodes than that (0.75 ± 0.29) in normal days is likely caused by air transport containing low B/T value (0.23) from Guangzhou as well as solvent application containing toluene in Foshan.

  7. Contribution of microenvironments to personal exposures to PM10 and PM2.5 in summer and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yunhyung; Lee, Kiyoung

    2018-02-01

    Personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) can be affected by time-activity patterns and microenvironmental concentrations. Particle size is closely associated with potential health problems, where smaller particles have greater effects on health. We investigated the effects of time-activity patterns on personal exposure and the contribution of the microenvironment to personal exposure to PM with maximal diameters of 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) in summer and winter. Technicians carried a nephelometer to detect various sizes of PM while engaging in one of nine scripted time-location-activity patterns. The scripted activities were based on the time-activity patterns of nine groups of inhabitants of Seoul, Korea. The monitoring was repeated in summer and winter to assess seasonal variation. The differences of personal exposures to PM10 and PM2.5 in summer and winter were not significant. The greatest PM concentrations occurred in restaurants. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios were varied from 0.35 at schools to 0.92 at stores. In both seasons, the residential indoor microenvironment was the largest contributor to personal PM exposure. The other major contributors were restaurants, offices, schools, buses, and walking, although their contributions differed by season and particle size. The different microenvironmental contributions among the activity pattern groups suggest that personal exposure significantly differs according to activity pattern.

  8. Exposure of bakery and pastry apprentices to airborne flour dust using PM2.5 and PM10 personal samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier-Geyssant, Estelle; Barthélemy, Jean-François; Mouchot, Lory; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2007-11-01

    This study describes exposure levels of bakery and pastry apprentices to flour dust, a known risk factor of occupational asthma. Questionnaires on work activity were completed by 286 students. Among them, 34 performed a series of two personal exposure measurements using a PM2.5 and PM10 personal sampler during a complete work shift, one during a cold ("winter") period, and the other during a hot ("summer") period. Bakery apprentices experience greater average PM2.5 and PM10 exposures than pastry apprentices (p < 0.006). Exposure values for both particulate fractions are greater in winter (average PM10 values among bakers = 1.10 mg.m-3 [standard deviation: 0.83]) than in summer (0.63 mg.m-3 [0.36]). While complying with current European occupational limit values, these exposures exceed the ACGIH recommendations set to prevent sensitization to flour dust (0.5 mg.m-3). Over half the facilities had no ventilation system. Young bakery apprentices incur substantial exposure to known airways allergens, a situation that might elicit early induction of airways inflammation.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere O Appendix O to Part 50 Protection of... Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere 1.0Applicability and Definition 1.1This method...

  10. Comparison of the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 particles collected in urban environments and volcanic areas of metropolitan Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PM10 and PM2,5 were sampled simultaneously in urban and volcanic environments in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica from October to November 2012. Higher mass concentrations (42-29 μgm-3 of PM10 and PM2,5 were found at industrial and commercial areas with high traffic flow (La Uruca, Heredia and Belen compared with those found in the volcanic areas. The daily concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 obtained in the Poas Volcano ranged from 3 -14 μgm-3 and 2-11 μgm-3, respectively. However the acidity of the collected particles in the Poas volcano was higher than those sampled in urban environments probably due to a lower occurrence rate of neutralization. The contribution of secondary ions was more important to the volcanic PM10 composition (around 40%, unlike the PM10 collected in urban areas.

  11. Estimating the remaining potential of the Reconcavo basin, Brazil: a basin modeling and material balance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Thamy C.S.D.; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Bedregal, Ricardo P.; Cuinas Filho, Elio P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    The existence of a petroleum system requires a number of essential elements (traps and source, reservoir and seal rocks) and processes (HC generation and migration and trap formation) besides an adequate timing among the elements and processes and a positive balance between the HC generation and losses due to (re)migration. Due to the complexity of petroleum systems dynamics, the basin modeling technique is the only one that allows the integration of all geological, geophysical and geochemical data as well as the simulation of the involved phenomena in a physically consistent way, providing an integrated view of the geologic history of the processes and elements of the petroleum system. The main objectives of this work are to show a reconstruction of the thermal and maturity evolution of the sedimentary section of the Reconcavo Basin using a multi-1D (pseudo 3D) approach, to model petroleum generation and expulsion, and the evolution of the pod(s) of source rock through time and space using the pseudo 3D approach, simulate petroleum migration along the main carrier-beds, accumulation and remigration from the potential traps. The advanced exploratory stage (mature), the geologic context (an intracratonic rift that resembles a close system) and the availability of large amounts of public data, make the Reconcavo Basin an excellent place to perform a study that can provide basis to an estimate of the remaining petroleum potential in analogous petroleum systems. (author)

  12. Source identification and long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) in an urban region of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Jong-Hwa Moon; Young-Jin Kim; Jong-Myoung Lim; Jin-Hong Lee

    2006-01-01

    For the identification of air pollution sources, about 500 airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) samples were collected by using a Gent air sampler and a polycarbonate filter in an urban region in the middle of Korea from 2000 to 2003. The concentrations of 25 elements in the samples were measured by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Receptor modeling was performed on the air monitoring data by using the positive matrix factorization (PMF2) method. According to this analysis, the existence of 6 to 10 PMF factors, such as metal-alloy, oil combustion, diesel exhaust, coal combustion, gasoline exhaust, incinerator, Cu-smelter, biomass burning, sea-salt, and soil dust were identified. (author)

  13. Studies in Atmospheric Chemistry. I. Assessing Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. I. Sulfur Oxides Chemistry Related to PM(10) Formation and Visibility Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caka, Fern M.

    I. Data from four DC-10 flights and forty-eight DC-9 flights are used to evaluate a model which predicts concentrations of ETS onboard commercial aircraft. A first order rate of penetration (decay) is shown to predict concentrations well. II. Two studies were conducted in Utah Valley and the Grand Canyon region. Annular diffusion denuders, impingers and real-time instruments were used to collect and measure sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide species, ammonia, particulate acidity, and various oxidants. The data provided information on the distribution between gas and particulate phase species as a function of time, location and meteorology. Trends in the data sets which shed light on the factors which may contribute to atmospheric particulate conversion and the effect on PM_{10} formation and visibility degradation are presented.

  14. Run-of-River Impoundments Can Remain Unfilled While Transporting Gravel Bedload: Numerical Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work at run-of-river (ROR) dams in northern Delaware has shown that bedload supplied to ROR impoundments can be transported over the dam when impoundments remain unfilled. Transport is facilitated by high levels of sand in the impoundment that lowers the critical shear stresses for particle entrainment, and an inversely sloping sediment ramp connecting the impoundment bed (where the water depth is typically equal to the dam height) with the top of the dam (Pearson and Pizzuto, in press). We demonstrate with one-dimensional bed material transport modeling that bed material can move through impoundments and that equilibrium transport (i.e., a balance between supply to and export from the impoundment, with a constant bed elevation) is possible even when the bed elevation is below the top of the dam. Based on our field work and previous HEC-RAS modeling, we assess bed material transport capacity at the base of the sediment ramp (and ignore detailed processes carrying sediment up and ramp and over the dam). The hydraulics at the base of the ramp are computed using a weir equation, providing estimates of water depth, velocity, and friction, based on the discharge and sediment grain size distribution of the impoundment. Bedload transport rates are computed using the Wilcock-Crowe equation, and changes in the impoundment's bed elevation are determined by sediment continuity. Our results indicate that impoundments pass the gravel supplied from upstream with deep pools when gravel supply rate is low, gravel grain sizes are relatively small, sand supply is high, and discharge is high. Conversely, impoundments will tend to fill their pools when gravel supply rate is high, gravel grain sizes are relatively large, sand supply is low, and discharge is low. The rate of bedload supplied to an impoundment is the primary control on how fast equilibrium transport is reached, with discharge having almost no influence on the timing of equilibrium.

  15. Geochemistry of PM10 over Europe during the EMEP intensive measurement periods in summer 2012 and winter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Aas, Wenche; Lucarelli, Franco; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Teresa; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Areskoug, Hans; Balan, Violeta; Catrambone, Maria; Ceburnis, Darius; Cerro, José C.; Conil, Sébastien; Gevorgyan, Lusine; Hueglin, Christoph; Imre, Kornelia; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Leeson, Sarah R.; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Mitosinkova, Marta; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Pey, Jorge; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Riffault, Véronique; Ripoll, Anna; Sciare, Jean; Sellegri, Karine; Spindler, Gerald; Espen Yttri, Karl

    2016-05-01

    The third intensive measurement period (IMP) organised by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) under the UNECE CLTRAP took place in summer 2012 and winter 2013, with PM10 filter samples concurrently collected at 20 (16 EMEP) regional background sites across Europe for subsequent analysis of their mineral dust content. All samples were analysed by the same or a comparable methodology. Higher PM10 mineral dust loadings were observed at most sites in summer (0.5-10 µg m-3) compared to winter (0.2-2 µg m-3), with the most elevated concentrations in the southern- and easternmost countries, accounting for 20-40 % of PM10. Saharan dust outbreaks were responsible for the high summer dust loadings at western and central European sites, whereas regional or local sources explained the elevated concentrations observed at eastern sites. The eastern Mediterranean sites experienced elevated levels due to African dust outbreaks during both summer and winter. The mineral dust composition varied more in winter than in summer, with a higher relative contribution of anthropogenic dust during the former period. A relatively high contribution of K from non-mineral and non-sea-salt sources, such as biomass burning, was evident in winter at some of the central and eastern European sites. The spatial distribution of some components and metals reveals the influence of specific anthropogenic sources on a regional scale: shipping emissions (V, Ni, and SO42-) in the Mediterranean region, metallurgy (Cr, Ni, and Mn) in central and eastern Europe, high temperature processes (As, Pb, and SO42-) in eastern countries, and traffic (Cu) at sites affected by emissions from nearby cities.

  16. Health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals in the ambient air PM10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Alavi, Nadali; Geravandi, Sahar; Idani, Esmaeil; Behrooz, Hamid Reza Adeli; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alamdari, Farzaneh Aslanpour; Dobaradaran, Sina; Farhadi, Majid; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metals (HM) are one of the main components of urban air pollution. Today, megacities and industrial regions in southwest of Iran are frequently suffering from severe haze episodes, which essentially caused by PM10-bound heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the ambient air PM10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. In this study, we estimated healthy people from the following scenarios: (S3) residential site; (S2) high-traffic site; (S1) industrial site in Ahvaz metropolitan during autumn and winter. In the current study, high-volume air samplers equipped with quartz fiber filters were used to sampling and measurements of heavy metal concentration. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was utilized for detection of heavy metal concentration (ng m-3). Also, an estimate of the amount of health risk assessment (hazard index) of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn of heavy metal exposure to participants was used. Result of this study showed that the residential and industrial areas had the lowest and the highest level of heavy metal. Based on the result of this study, average levels of heavy metal in industrial, high-traffic, and residential areas in autumn and winter were 31.48, 30.89, and 23.21 μg m-3 and 42.60, 37.70, and 40.07 μg m-3, respectively. Based on the result of this study, the highest and the lowest concentration of heavy metal had in the industrial and residential areas. Zn and Pb were the most abundant elements among the studied PM10-bound heavy metals, followed by Cr and Ni. The carcinogenic risks of Cr, Pb, and the integral HQ of metals in PM10 for children and adults via inhalation and dermal exposures exceeded 1 × 10-4 in three areas. Also, based on the result of this study, the values of hazard index (HI) of HM exposure in different areas were significantly higher than standard. The health risks attributed to HM should be further

  17. Concentration and chemical composition of PM10 particles in the metropolitan area of ​Costa Rica in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Herrera; José F. Rojas; Víctor H. Beita; Agustín Rodríguez; David Solórzano; Hazel Argüello

    2014-01-01

    During 2012 the PM10 concentrations were measured in 13 sampling sites distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. The samples were collected using high volume samplers and subsequently analyzed for: ions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-), trace metals (V, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Pb, Ni), organic and elemental carbon content. Sampling sites located in high traffic commercial and industrial zones exhibited significative increased concentrations (42 – 29 µg/m3) compared to low traffic com...

  18. Inhalable Microorganisms in Beijing’s PM2.5 and PM10 Pollutants during a Severe Smog Event

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Chen; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Buying; Fang, Jianhuo; Lang, Jidong; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhu, Ting F.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA g...

  19. Identification of dicarboxylic acids and aldehydes of PM10 and PM2.5 aerosols in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Niu, Sulian; Liu, Caie; Wang, Liansheng

    In this study aerosol samples of PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 18 February 2001 to 1 May 2001 in Nanjing, China were analyzed for their water-soluble organic compounds. A series of homologous dicarboxylic acids (C 2-10) and two kinds of aldehydes (methylglyoxal and 2-oxo-malonaldehyde) were detected by GC and GC/MS. Among the identified compounds, the concentration of oxalic acid was the highest at all the five sites, which ranged from 178 to 1423 ng/m 3. The second highest concentration of dicarboxylic acids were malonic and succinic acids, which ranged from 26.9 to 243 ng/m 3. Higher level of azelaic acid was also observed, of which the maximum was 301 ng/m 3. As the highest fraction of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid comprised from 28% to 86% of total dicarboxylic acids in PM10 and from 41% to 65% of total dicarboxylic acids in PM2.5. The dicarboxylic acids (C 2, C 3, C 4) together accounted for 38-95% of total dicarboxylic acids in PM10 and 59-87% of dicarboxylic acids in PM2.5. In this study, the total dicarboxylic acids accounted for 2.8-7.9% of total organic carbon (TOC) of water-soluble matters for PM10 and 3.4-11.8% of TOC for PM2.5. All dicarboxylic acids detected in this study together accounted for about 1% of particle mass. The concentration of azelaic acid was higher at one site than others, which may be resulted from higher level of volatile fat used for cooking. The amounts of dicarboxyic acids (C 2,3,4,9) and 2-oxo-malonaldehyde of PM2.5 were higher in winter and lower in spring. Compared with other major metropolitans in the world, the level of oxalic acid concentration of Nanjing is much higher, which may be contributed to higher level of particle loadings, especially for fine particles.

  20. EVALUATION OF AIR POLLUTION FROM ROVINARI (GORJ WITH SUBSTANCES IN SOSPENSION (PM10 AS A RESULT OF AUTO TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Cătălin ŞCHIOPU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a short introduction of the impact that auto transportation has on air quality and on the main pollutants resulting from fuel burning in the engines with internal combustion. Also here are presented the results obtained as a result of monitoring substances in suspension, fraction PM10, realized in the proximity of the most important auto traffic roads of Rovinari. The comparison of the results obtained was realized according to Law 104/2011 on the protection of ambient air quality

  1. Health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals in the ambient air PM10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Alavi, Nadali; Geravandi, Sahar; Idani, Esmaeil; Behrooz, Hamid Reza Adeli; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alamdari, Farzaneh Aslanpour; Dobaradaran, Sina; Farhadi, Majid; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad

    2018-02-20

    Heavy metals (HM) are one of the main components of urban air pollution. Today, megacities and industrial regions in southwest of Iran are frequently suffering from severe haze episodes, which essentially caused by PM 10 -bound heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the ambient air PM 10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. In this study, we estimated healthy people from the following scenarios: (S3) residential site; (S2) high-traffic site; (S1) industrial site in Ahvaz metropolitan during autumn and winter. In the current study, high-volume air samplers equipped with quartz fiber filters were used to sampling and measurements of heavy metal concentration. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was utilized for detection of heavy metal concentration (ng m -3 ). Also, an estimate of the amount of health risk assessment (hazard index) of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn of heavy metal exposure to participants was used. Result of this study showed that the residential and industrial areas had the lowest and the highest level of heavy metal. Based on the result of this study, average levels of heavy metal in industrial, high-traffic, and residential areas in autumn and winter were 31.48, 30.89, and 23.21 μg m -3 and 42.60, 37.70, and 40.07 μg m -3 , respectively. Based on the result of this study, the highest and the lowest concentration of heavy metal had in the industrial and residential areas. Zn and Pb were the most abundant elements among the studied PM 10 -bound heavy metals, followed by Cr and Ni. The carcinogenic risks of Cr, Pb, and the integral HQ of metals in PM 10 for children and adults via inhalation and dermal exposures exceeded 1 × 10 -4 in three areas. Also, based on the result of this study, the values of hazard index (HI) of HM exposure in different areas were significantly higher than standard. The health risks attributed to HM should

  2. Variation of the PM10, PM2.5 and BC particulate masses of urban aerosol in Debrecen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely-Kiss, I.; Dobos, E.; Kertesz, Zs.; Koltay, E.; Szabo, Gy.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Airborne particulate mass and its elemental composition are usually used for the qualification of local air at a given region. PM10 particulate mass includes both fine and coarse dust particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter. PM2.5 mass includes fine particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. Coarse dust particles are between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in diameter. Black carbon (BC) is a particulate pollutant of aerosol emitted from the combustion of carbonaceous material. Mass concentrations of coarse and fine aerosol fractions, and the BC content of fine aerosol were studied from Nov. 1996 to Nov. 2006 in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI). Elemental concentrations of both aerosol fractions were also determined (see next abstract). Aerosol samples were collected in the yard of ATOMKI twice a week with a two-stage 'GENT' SFU (stacked filter unit) sampler. Airborne particulate masses (coarse and fine) were measured using a Sartorius microbalance. The black carbon content of fine aerosol was determined by a Smokestain reflectometer. Monthly average concentrations of the particulate mass were calculated from the database. From the variation of the monthly average concentrations conclusions were drawn on the seasonal behaviour of the PM10, PM2.5 and BC concentrations. Smoothed curves on Fig.1. show winter maxima of concentration in PM2.5, BC and PM10. The concentration of fine mode aerosol exceeds the concentration of coarse one in this site. Comparing our data to the annual standard value set by the European Commission (40 μg/m 3 ) we can conclude that PM10 concentrations are under this limit. EU legislation has no standard yet for PM2.5. We compared our fine mode data to the US-EPA annual standard (15 μg/m 3 ) and can remark that the PM2.5 concentrations here exceeded this limit almost always in the last decade. (author)

  3. Comprehensive urban air quality studies of Islamabad: elemental characterization of PM10 and PM2.5, source apportionment and transboundary pollutant migration (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Daud, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long term urban air quality of Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, has been investigated as a part of the joint UNDP/IAEA/RCA/RAS/7/015 project, entitled C haracterization and source identification of particulate air pollution in the Asian region (RCA) . Around 380 pairs of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) polycarbonate filters from the Nilore area were collected using GENT sampler. The average PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 masses at this site were found to be 15.02 and 37.01 g/m/sup 3/ respectively that are far below to the Pakistani limit for PM10 of 100 g/m/sup 3/. The average Black Carbon (BC) was found to be 2.58 and 1.22 g/m/sup 3/ corresponding to 20.7% and 4.54% of the fine and coarse mass respectively. The non destructive Ion Beam Analysis method, Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) were employed to quantify more than 40 elements in both fine and coarse fractions. The acquired elemental data has been statistically treated and subjected to mass closure studies, principal component and factor analysis to calculate correlation matrices. The reconstructed mass (RCM) was calculated for both particle modes using soil, sulphate, smoke, sea salt and BC as pseudo sources. Data analysis performed using EPA-PMF3 shows that the fine and coarse data for the suburban site identifies 4 sources; biomass/ combustion, road dust, soil and automobile. Long range transport of pollutants was studied using HYSPLIT4 model. It was observed that high fine soil contributions in this area were mainly from dust storms arriving from west and North West of the country. (author)

  4. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  5. Particle reduction strategies - PAREST. Evaluation of emission reduction scenarios using chemical transport calculations. PM10- and PM2.5-reduction potentials by package of measures for further immission reduction in Germany. Sub-report.; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Bewertung von Emissionsminderungsszenarien mit Hilfe chemischer Transportberechnungen. PM10- und PM2,5-Minderungspotenziale von Massnahmenpaketen zur weiteren Reduzierung der Immissionen in Deutschland. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Rainer [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    This report documents the effects of additional emission control measures the PM10 and PM2.5 air quality in Germany (PM = particulate matter). The immission effects of the planned measures were calculated with the Chemistry-Aerosol-Transport Model REM CALGRID (RCG). [German] Dieser Bericht dokumentiert die Auswirkungen zusaetzlicher emissionsmindernder Massnahmen auf die PM10 und PM2.5-Luftqualitaet in Deutschland. Die immissionsseitigen Auswirkungen der geplanten Massnahmen wurden auf der Basis von Berechnungen mit dem Chemie-Aerosol-Transportmodell REM-CALGRID (RCG) bestimmt. Grundlage der Szenarienrechnungen sind die im Rahmen des F and E-Vorhabens entwickelten Emissionsabschaetzungen, die die Aenderung der Emissionen aufgrund von technischen oder nicht-technischen Massnahmen beschreiben. Die den Berechnungen zugrunde liegende horizontale Aufloesung betraegt 0.125 Laenge und 0.0625 Breite oder circa 7 km x 8 km. Das meteorologische Referenzjahr ist 2005.

  6. PIXE characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter collected during the winter season in Shanghai city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Wang Yingsong; Li Delu; Li Aiguo; Li Yan; Zhang Guilin

    2006-01-01

    The samples of PM2.5 and PM10 inhalable particulate matter had been collected during the period of December 2002-January 2003 at nineteen representative sites of Shanghai urban and suburb area in order to investigate the chemical characterization of aerosol particle in winter. The samples were analyzed to determine the average concentrations for up to twenty elements by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). It was found that the average elemental concentrations in the urban center are higher than those in the suburb, except for Ti and P. The particulate mass data demonstrate that the ratio range of PM2.5/PM10 is from 0.32 to 0.85 and its average ratio is 0.6. The result of the enrichment factor shows that the inhalable particles may be divided into two categories, i.e., soil elements from the earth crust and anthropogenic pollution elements. It is noticed that toxic or harmful elements such as S, As, Pb, Ni, Mn and Se are enriched mainly in fine particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm. The fingerprints of major pollution sources such as coal (or oil) burning, vehicle exhaust emission and industry are also presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Particulate pollution of PM10 and PM2.5 due to strong anthropopressure in Sosnowiec city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air contamination with particulate matter causes a serious problem in large cities and urban-industrial agglomerations both in Poland and Europe. Anthropogenic sources of air pollution in urban areas are emissions from municipal, industrial and transportation sector. Many epidemiological studies have revealed that exposure to air pollution, especially the fine particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2,5 micrometer, can pose a threat to human health exposed to exceedingly high concentrations of particulate matter. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 and PM2,5 mass concentrations in autumn and winter season in the city of Sosnowiec, in relation to ambient air quality standards in Poland and the European Union. Results: The average concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 in autumn-winter seasons in Sosnowiec city 2010–2011 were 2,1 to 2,7 times higher than limit values, specified in the legislation acts.

  8. Characterization of PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of Spanish urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2011-02-01

    Urban areas constitute major pollution sources due to anthropogenic activities located in these areas. Among the legislated air pollutants, the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microns (PM10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are controlled under Directive 2008/50/EC and Directive 2004/107/EC, respectively due to their adverse health effects. A study was carried out at four urban and rural Spanish areas during the warm and cold seasons in 2008-2009 to quantify 19 PAH associated with the atmospheric PM10 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS-MS) with the internal standard method. The particle-bound composition of the analysed PAH was 5 and 10 times greater in industrial and urban areas, respectively when compared to those measured in rural areas. The highest PAH concentrations during the cold period were possibly due to the additional contribution of domestic heating sources and meteorological conditions such as low temperature and solar irradiation. The use of molecular diagnostic ratios indicated that the possible, major PAH pollution sources in the most polluted areas were pyrogenic sources, mainly attributed to petroleum combustion sources (motor vehicle emissions and crude oil combustion). Petrogenic sources related to evaporative emissions also seemed to contribute in the most polluted area during the warm period. Those dates with high carcinogenic character according to the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaP-eq) were also possibly attributed to petroleum combustion sources.

  9. Pollution Level, Sources, and Lung Cancer Risk of PM10-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Summer in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the pollution level, sources, and lung cancer risk of PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in summer in Nanjing, China. PM10 samples were collected in summer of the year 2015 in Nanjing. 16 USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. The mean concentrations of PAHs and BaPeq were 7.49±2.60 and 1.21±0.24 ng/m3, respectively, being in a middle level among results from regions worldwide. According to the results of diagnostic ratios, PAHs originated mainly from traffic exhaust, especially diesel vehicle emissions. Owing to the inhalation exposure, the median values of incremental lung cancer risk (ILCR were estimated to be 3.36×10-8, 2.50×10-8, 1.69×10-7, 2.54×10-8, 1.38×10-7, 1.18×10-7, 1.27×10-7, and 1.11×10-7 for boys, male adolescents, male adults, male seniors, girls, female adolescents, female adults, and female seniors, respectively, indicating low potential lung cancer risk.

  10. Concentration and chemical composition of PM10 particles in the metropolitan area of ​Costa Rica in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2012 the PM10 concentrations were measured in 13 sampling sites distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. The samples were collected using high volume samplers and subsequently analyzed for: ions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-, trace metals (V, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Pb, Ni, organic and elemental carbon content. Sampling sites located in high traffic commercial and industrial zones exhibited significative increased concentrations (42 – 29 µg/m3 compared to low traffic commercial and residential zones (23 – 15 µg/m3. As for speciation, crustal contribution increases from 13-14 % found in high traffic industrial zones to 28 % in residential zones. While marine aerosol contribution ranges from 2,5 to 5% for all sampling sites without a distinctive pattern. The OC and EC fraction was the most important contribution to the PM10 composition, mainly in HE-01 and BE-01 sampling sites accounting for around 53 and 56 % of the total mass. This reflects the importance of combustion sources to the fine particulate matter composition. In the case of the trace metals fraction it was the lowest one found for all the sampling sites.

  11. PM10 levels in the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada: an overview of spatiotemporal variations and meteorological controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, I G

    2000-03-01

    Three years of hourly averaged PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter) tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) data from 10 sites in the large coastal valley incorporating Greater Vancouver were used to investigate the spatiotemporal dimensions and air pollution meteorology of particulate pollution. During the period studied, the provincial "acceptable" objective daily concentration of 50 micrograms m-3 was exceeded at 7 of the 10 sites. The highest annual, seasonal, and maximum hourly concentrations were recorded at Abbotsford in the central valley. Mean seasonal PM10 concentrations were highest in the wintertime in the western Lower Fraser Valley (LFV) and in the summertime at the central and eastern valley locations. Within the network, interstation correlations of daily average concentrations exceed 0.8 at interstation distances less than 20 km and decrease thereafter. For daily maximum concentrations (hourly), interstation correlations decrease sharply with distance. Meteorological conditions responsible for elevated particulate concentrations in the LFV are associated with (1) short periods (1- to 3-hr duration) of reduced dispersion during summer nights at sites close to primary sources, (2) summer anticyclonic conditions when photochemical pollutant concentrations build up across the entire valley, and (3) occasional wintertime "gap wind" events in the eastern valley.

  12. Fugitive emission rates assessment of PM2.5 and PM10 from open storage piles in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiqi; Liu, Tao; He, Jiao

    2018-03-01

    An assessment of the fugitive emission rates of PM2.5 and PM10 from an open static coal and mine storage piles. The experiment was conducted at a large union steel enterprises in the East China region to effectively control the fugitive particulate emissions pollution on daily work and extreme weather conditions. Wind tunnel experiments conducted on the surface of static storage piles, and it generated specific fugitive emission rates (SERs) at ground level of between ca.10-1 and ca.102 (mg/m2·s) for PM2.5 and between ca.101 and ca.103 (mg/m2·s) for PM10 under the u*(wind velocity) between ca.3.0 (m/s) and 10.0 (m/s). Research results show that SERs of different materials differ a lot. Material particulate that has lower surface moisture content generate higher SER and coal material generate higher SER than mine material. For material storage piles with good water infiltrating properties, aspersion is a very effective measure for control fugitive particulate emission.

  13. Health effects of PM10 air pollution in a low-income country: the case of Algiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laïd, Y; Atek, M; Oudjehane, R; Filleul, L; Baough, L; Zidouni, N; Boughedaoui, M; Tessier, J F

    2006-12-01

    Although there are proven risk factors related to air pollution, the prevalent situation in low-income countries is not well known. To quantify the health impacts associated with particulate air pollution in the city of Algiers. Descriptive study to evaluate a health impact assessment (HIA) approach based on a dose-response curve from the literature. A study area was defined around an air quality monitoring site in Algiers. Daily health data were obtained from a network of physicians practising in out-patient health centres. Over the period studied, the number of consultations for respiratory reasons attributable to PM10 exposure was 439, representing 4.5% of all health events observed. Different scenarios were examined, showing that a reduction in ambient levels of PM10 would be accompanied by important public health gains. The study allowed us to test the applicability of the HIA approach in a low-income country and to confirm the interest of the approach. Although the estimation of dose-response functions obeys a complex methodology, the HIA is an alternative that constitutes an important decision-making tool.

  14. Exposure of bakery and pastry apprentices to airborne flour dust using PM2.5 and PM10 personal samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes exposure levels of bakery and pastry apprentices to flour dust, a known risk factor of occupational asthma. Methods Questionnaires on work activity were completed by 286 students. Among them, 34 performed a series of two personal exposure measurements using a PM2.5 and PM10 personal sampler during a complete work shift, one during a cold ("winter" period, and the other during a hot ("summer" period. Results Bakery apprentices experience greater average PM2.5 and PM10 exposures than pastry apprentices (p 10 values among bakers = 1.10 mg.m-3 [standard deviation: 0.83] than in summer (0.63 mg.m-3 [0.36]. While complying with current European occupational limit values, these exposures exceed the ACGIH recommendations set to prevent sensitization to flour dust (0.5 mg.m-3. Over half the facilities had no ventilation system. Conclusion Young bakery apprentices incur substantial exposure to known airways allergens, a situation that might elicit early induction of airways inflammation.

  15. Variations in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 in an Urban Area of the Sichuan Basin and Their Relation to Meteorological Factors

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    Yang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily average monitoring data for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 and meteorological parameters at Chengdu from 2009 to 2011 are analyzed using statistical methods to replicate the effect of urban air pollution in Chengdu metropolitan region of the Sichuan Basin. The temporal distribution of, and correlation between, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 particles are analyzed. Additionally, the relationships between particulate matter (PM and certain meteorological parameters are studied. The results show that variations in the average mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 generally have the same V-shaped distributions (except for April, with peak/trough values for PM average mass concentrations appearing in January/September, respectively. From 2009 to 2011, the inter-annual average mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 fall year on year. The correlation coefficients of daily concentrations of PM10 with PM2.5, PM10 with PM1.0, and PM2.5 with PM1.0 were high, reaching 0.91, 0.83 and 0.98, respectively. In addition, the average ratios of PM2.5/PM10, PM1.0/PM10 and PM1.0/PM2.5 were 85%, 78% and 92%, respectively. From this, fine PM is determined to be the principal pollutant in the Chengdu region. Except for averaged air pressure values, negative correlations exist between other meteorological parameters and PM. Temperature and air pressure influenced the transport and accumulation of PM by affecting convection. Winds promoted PM dispersion. Precipitation not only accelerated the deposition of wet PM, but also inhibited surface dust transport. There was an obvious correlation between PM and visibility; the most important cause of visibility degradation was due to the light extinction of aerosol particles.

  16. Mobile air quality studies (MAQS in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program

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    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter (PM is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. Methods By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. Results PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 – 50 km/h the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission zone. Conclusions The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

  17. Predicting PM10concentration in Seoul metropolitan subway stations using artificial neural network (ANN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sechan; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Minhae; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2018-01-05

    The indoor air quality of subway systems can significantly affect the health of passengers since these systems are widely used for short-distance transit in metropolitan urban areas in many countries. The particles generated by abrasion during subway operations and the vehicle-emitted pollutants flowing in from the street in particular affect the air quality in underground subway stations. Thus the continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) in underground station is important to evaluate the exposure level of PM to passengers. However, it is difficult to obtain indoor PM data because the measurement systems are expensive and difficult to install and operate for significant periods of time in spaces crowded with people. In this study, we predicted the indoor PM concentration using the information of outdoor PM, the number of subway trains running, and information on ventilation operation by the artificial neural network (ANN) model. As well, we investigated the relationship between ANN's performance and the depth of underground subway station. ANN model showed a high correlation between the predicted and actual measured values and it was able to predict 67∼80% of PM at 6 subway station. In addition, we found that platform shape and depth influenced the model performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of PM10 by Forests as a Nature-Based Solution for Air Quality Improvement in the Metropolitan City of Rome

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    Federica Marando

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based solutions have been identified by the European Union as being critical for the enhancement of environmental qualities in cities, where urban and peri-urban forests play a key role in air quality amelioration through pollutant removal. A remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS approach was applied to the Metropolitan City (MC of Rome to assess the seasonal particulate matter (PM10 removal capacity of evergreen (broadleaves and conifers and deciduous species. Moreover, a monetary evaluation of PM10 removal was performed on the basis of pollution externalities calculated for Europe. Deciduous broadleaves represent the most abundant tree functional group and also yielded the highest total annual PM10 deposition values (1769 Mg. By contrast, PM10 removal efficiency (Mg·ha−1 was 15%–22% higher in evergreen than in deciduous species. To assess the different removal capacity of the three functional groups in an area with homogeneous environmental conditions, a study case was performed in a peri-urban forest protected natural reserve (Castelporziano Presidential Estate. This study case highlighted the importance of deciduous species in summer and of evergreen communities as regards the annual PM10 removal balance. The monetary evaluation indicated that the overall PM10 removal value of the MC of Rome amounted to 161.78 million Euros. Our study lends further support to the crucial role played by nature-based solutions for human well-being in urban areas.

  19. Size fractionation in mercury-bearing airborne particles (HgPM 10) at Almadén, Spain: Implications for inhalation hazards around old mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Higueras, Pablo; Jones, Tim; McDonald, Iain; Gibbons, Wes

    Almadén has a >2000y mining history and an unprecedented legacy of mercury contamination. Resuspended airborne particles were extracted from mine waste (Las Cuevas), retort site soil (Almadenejos), and urban car park dust (Almadén), separated into fine (PM 10) and coarse (PM >10 μm ) fractions, analysed for mercury using ICP-MS, and individual HgPM characterised using SEM. Cold extractable mercury concentrations in PM 10 range from 100 to 150 μg g -1 (car parks), to nearly 6000 μg g -1 (mine waste), reaching a world record of 95,000 μg g -1 above the abandoned retort at Almadenejos where ultrafine HgPM have pervaded the brickwork and soil and entered the food chain: edible wild asparagus stem material from here contains 35-65 μg g -1 Hg, and pig hair from animals living, inhaling and ingesting HgPM 10 at the site yielded 8-10 μg g -1. The PM 10 fraction (dusts easily wind transported and deeply inhaled) contains much more mercury than the coarser fraction. The contribution of HgPM 10 to ecosystem contamination and potential human health effects around old mercury mines has been underestimated.

  20. Wintertime indoor air levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at public places and their contributions to TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Chen, Rui; Shen, Xingxing; Mao, Xiaoling

    2004-04-01

    From 26 October 2002 to 8 March 2003, particulate matter (PM) concentrations (total suspended particles [TSP], PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured at 49 public places representing different environments in the urban area of Beijing. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indoor PM concentrations in public places, (2) to evaluate the potential indoor sources and (3) to investigate the contribution of PM10 to TSP and the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10. Additionally, The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in the same type of indoor environment were employed to investigate the I/O level, and comparison was made between I/O levels in different types of indoor environment. Construction activities and traffic condition were the major outdoor sources to influence the indoor particle levels. The contribution of PM10 to TSP was even up to 68.8%, while the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10 were not as much as that of PM10 to TSP.

  1. Characterization of PM 10 source profiles for fugitive dust in Fushun-a city famous for coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Lu, Bing; Chen, Li; Han, Bin; Li, Zhiyong; Bai, Zhipeng

    2011-09-01

    A total of 120 fugitive dust samples were collected to acquire chemical source profiles of PM 10 in Fushun including 27 soil dust samples, 32 road dust samples, 19 construction dust samples, 13 coal storage pile samples, 2 cement production samples, 13 coal-fired power plant fly ash samples, 5 fly ash samples from iron smelt plant and 9 samples from industrial raw material and production piles. The samples were classified as 20 subtypes. The dust samples were dried, sieved, resuspended and sampled through a PM 10 inlet onto filters, and then chemically analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, ion chromatograph and thermal/optical reflectance methods were adopted for analyzing twenty elements including Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb and Hg and nine ions including Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, F -, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42- as well as OC and EC, respectively. The chemical compositions were compared for 20 subtypes. Si and Ca were the most abundant elements in all the fugitive dust profiles. Enrichment factors of elements in fly ashes compared to raw coal were calculated with Fe as reference element. The highest enriched elements were Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. Significant difference existed among PM 10 profiles with the coefficient of divergence values ranging from 0.28 to 0.78. Profiles were compared with others. Si exhibited lower content in this study for soil and road dust while EC and Cr showed much higher content compared to others indicating the influence of coal mining and industries activities in Fushun. This was validated by source signatures analysis which indicated almost all the fugitive dust were relative to coal and may also be influenced by metallurgy. The ratios of Mn/V, V/Ni, Zn/Pb and Zn/Cd were calculated for source identification. Elemental ratios may vary widely even for the same source types with different processing courses. Chemical profiles of fugitive dust should be established based

  2. The future of prescribed fire in the West considering PM10 standards and other air quality programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahm, P.W.; Haddow, D.V.; Lamb, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    The potential conflict between the public's desire for clean air and good visibility versus the ecological need for using prescribed fire as a land management tool presents a continuing challenge for land management agencies. In many western states, prescribed fire is a large, intermittent source of particulates that can have a significant short-term impact on fine particulate concentrations and visibility. In general, the ecological need for the use of prescribed fire in the West is increasing as fuel loadings increase, unnatural successional changes continue, and research clarifies the role of fire in natural ecosystems. This paper discusses the future use of prescribed fire as a land management tool given the development of new air quality standards designed to control PM 10 and air toxics and new programs designed to protect and enhance visibility

  3. Elemental composition of atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 for a savanna (Cerrado) region of southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Santanna, F. B.; Almeida Filho, E. O.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Nogueira, J. D. S.; Palácios, R.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems such as the Amazonian tropical forest and savanna (known locally as Cerrado) are undergoing sweeping changes, such as deforestation and burning to expand new areas of agriculture and farming. These activities generate an increase in the concentration of gases and particles emitted into the atmosphere, which can affect energy balance and biogeochemical cycles. To determine how human activities affected the emission of coarse and fine particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), atmospheric aerosol samples were collected continuously from June 2004 until April 2005 in the Cuiaba Basin of south-central Mato Grosso, Brazil, which contains a mixture of urban, agricultural, and native Cerrado land surface types. Aerosols were sampled using stacked filter units (SFU), which separate fine (dCerrado and Amazonian forest areas that are undergoing rapid and spatially extensive land-cover change.

  4. Retrieval of aerosol mass load (PM10 from MERIS/Envisat top of atmosphere spectral reflectance measurements over Germany

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    M. Vountas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of a new methodology for retrievals of surface particulate matter concentration (PM10 from satellite reflectance measurements over Germany are presented in this paper. The retrieval derives effective radii from Ångström-α exponents and benefits from the fitting of a smooth spectral slope from seven MERIS spectrometer channels. Comparisons with ground measurements from the air quality surveillance show standard deviations of 33.9% with −18.9% bias over Hamburg. Over rural sites a standard deviation of 17.9% (bias 12.9% is reached. We discuss critically limitations and potential applications of the retrieval. Additionally, we talk about the aspects at comparing of retrieved particulate matter with ground station measurements.

  5. Hazard Quotients, Hazard Indexes, and Cancer Risks of Toxic Metals in PM10 during Firework Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonfire night is a worldwide phenomenon given to numerous annual celebrations characterised by bonfires and fireworks. Since Thailand has no national ambient air quality standards for metal particulates, it is important to investigate the impacts of particulate injections on elevations of air pollutants and the ecological health impacts resulting from firework displays. In this investigation, Pb and Ba were considered potential firework tracers because their concentrations were significantly higher during the episode, and lower than/comparable with minimum detection limits during other periods, indicating that their elevated concentrations were principally due to pyrotechnic displays. Pb/Ca, Pb/Al, Pb/Mg, and Pb/Cu can be used to pin-point emissions from firework displays. Air mass backward trajectories (72 h from the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model indicated that areas east and north-east of the study site were the main sources of the airborne particles. Although the combined risk associated with levels of Pb, Cr, Co., Ni, Zn, As, Cd, V, and Mn was far below the standards mentioned in international guidelines, the lifetime cancer risks associated with As and Cr levels exceeded US-EPA guidelines, and may expose inhabitants of surrounding areas of Bangkok to an elevated cancer risk.

  6. Characterization of biomass burning from olive grove areas: A major source of organic aerosol in PM10 of Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Salvador, Pedro; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Artiñano, Begoña; Coz, Esther; Márquez, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The inorganic and organic geochemistry of aerosol particulate matter (APM) was studied in a major olive grove area from Southwest Europe (Baena, Spain). The biomass consists of olive tree branches and the solid waste resulting of the olive oil production. Moreover, high PM10 levels were obtained (31.5 μg m- 3), with two days of exceedance of the daily limit of 50 μg m- 3 (2008/50/CE; EU, 2008) during the experimental period. A high mean levoglucosan concentration was obtained representing up 95% of the total mass of the isomers analysed (280 ng m- 3), while galactosan and mannosan mean concentrations were lower (8.64 ng m- 3 and 7.86 ng m- 3, respectively). The contribution of wood smoke in Baena was estimated, representing 19% of OC and 17% of OM total mass. Positive matrix factor (PMF) was applied to the organic and inorganic aerosols data, which has permitted the identification of five source categories: biomass burning, traffic, mineral dust, marine aerosol and SIC (secondary inorganic compounds). The biomass burning category reached the highest mean contribution to the PM10 mass (41%, 17.6 μg m- 3). In light of these results, the use of biomass resulting from the olive oil production for residential heating and industry must be considered the most important aerosol source during the winter months. The results of this paper can be extrapolated to other olive oil producing areas in the Mediterranean basin. Therefore, a fuller understanding of this type of biomass combustion is required in order to be able to establish appropriate polices and reduce the environmental impact on the population.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitrated derivatives associated with PM10 from Kraków city during heating season

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    Styszko Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs, their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs and hundreds of other organic compounds are present in ambient air in gas and particulate form. PAHs and NPAHs originate from diesel and gasoline exhaust emission and other combustion sources. NPAHs are also formed through the nitration of parent PAHs in the atmosphere. Concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs in the particulate matter fraction PM10 collected in the centre of Kraków (27.01.2014 – 17.02.2014 were investigated. The thirteen PAHs and four NPAHs: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, 2-nitrofluorene, 9-nitroanthracene, 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene were extracted from particulate matter and analysed applying the GC/MS technique. Depending on the compounds the relative recoveries ranged from 72 to 94%. The concentrations of PM10 in the study period ranged between 23.5 and 153.8 μg·m-3. The average concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs ranged from 26.6 to 276.4 ng·m-3 and from 0.6 to 9.1 ng·m-3, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed for benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, pyrene and fluoranthene. The average concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which is a marker for the particle-bound atmospheric PAHs, was 9.5 ng·m-3. The concentrations of 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene were below the quantification limits of the method (< MQL.

  8. Regional transport, source apportionment and health impact of PM10bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Singapore's atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbančok, Dejan; Payne, Anthony J R; Webster, Richard D

    2017-10-01

    A study of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority listed PAHs associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ) was conducted in Singapore during the period 29th May 2015 to 28th May 2016. The sampling period coincided with an extensive, regional smoke haze episode (5th September to 25th October) that occurred as a result of forest and peat fires in neighboring Indonesia. Throughout this study, 54 atmospheric PM 10 samples were collected in 24 h periods using a high volume sampler (HVS) and quarts fiber filters (QFF) as the collection medium. Hysplit software for computing 3-D backward air mass trajectories, diagnostic ratio analysis and ring number distribution calculations were used to examine the sources of PAHs in the atmosphere in Singapore. Under normal conditions the total PAH concentrations were in a range from 0.68 ng m -3 to 3.07 ng m -3 , while for the high haze period the results showed approximately double the concentrations with a maximum value of 5.97 ng m -3 . Diagnostic ratio (DR) and principal component analysis (PCA) were conducted and indicated the contribution of the traffic as a dominant pyrogenic source of PAHs during normal periods, while results from the haze dataset showed relatively strong influence of smoke from peat and forest fires in Indonesia. Environmental and health risk from PAHs were assessed for both regular and hazy days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro tests to assess toxic effects of airborne PM(10) samples. Correlation with metals and chlorinated dioxins and furans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Rovira, Joaquim; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2013-01-15

    Inhalation is an important exposure pathway to airborne pollutants such as heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and particulate matter. Chronic exposure to those chemicals, which form part of complex environmental mixtures, may mean important human health risks. In the present study, the suitability of different in vitro tests to evaluate the toxic effects of air PM(10) pollutants is investigated. In addition, it is also assessed how to distinguish the contribution of chemical pollutants to toxicity. Sixty-three air samples were collected in various areas of Catalonia (Spain), and the levels of ecotoxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated. Aqueous acidic extractions of quartz fiber filters, where PM(10) had been retained, were performed. The photo-luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®) bioassay was performed to assess ecotoxicity. Moreover, MTT and Comet Assays, both using human lung epithelial cells A549 as target cells, were applied to assess the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of air samples, respectively. The results show that Microtox® is an excellent screening test to perform a first evaluation of air quality, as it presented a significant correlation with chemical contaminants, contrasting with MTT Assay. Although none of the samples exhibited genotoxicity, a high correlation was found between this in vitro test and carcinogenic agents. Urban samples from traffic-impacted areas would be significantly more toxic. Finally, environmental temperature was identified as a key parameter, as higher values of ecotoxicity were found in winter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Formation and emission of PM10 in combustion of biofuels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Linda; Tullin, Claes; Leckner, Bo

    2004-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown correlations between negative health effects and increased particle concentrations in the ambient air. Because of this correlation and the increasing biofuel combustion, there is a need to more carefully investigate formation and emissions from biofuel combustion to secure good air quality in the future. This project is limited to primary combustion particles emitted from small-scale biofuel combustion. Small-scale is here defined as combustion devices with an output less than 10 MW. The project is divided into two parts. In the first part, particles from small-scale biofuel combustion have been characterised. In the second part, the formation of particles during biofuel combustion is studied. Characterisation of particle emissions has been performed for a range of different combustion units, i.e. pellet stove with a thermal output of a few kW, domestic wood and pellet boilers and district-heating boilers with thermal outputs around 2 MW. Mass concentration of particles was measured according to Swedish Standard method. Particle mass size distribution was measured using Dekati Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI, size range 30 nm - 10 μm). The number of particles and corresponding size distribution were measured with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI, 30 nm - 10 μm). To some extent, the particle emissions were investigated regarding chemical content and morphology. In all measurement cases, gas concentrations were measured in the flue gas as a control of combustion conditions. The highest mass concentration of particles (2,200 mg/MJ fuel ) was recorded in the flue gas from an old domestic wood log boiler with poor combustion conditions resulting in very high emissions of unburnt (soot). On the other hand, the lowest mass concentration of particles (20 mg/MJ fueI ) was recorded during optimally adjusted pellet combustion, where 83 % of the particles were found to be inorganic. The remaining part consists of unburnt material (e

  11. Source apportionment of PM10 mass and particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Mann; Park, Jin-Soo; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hyunjae; Jeon, Haeun; Cho, Chaeyoon; Kim, Ji-Hyoung; Hong, Seungkyu; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico K.; Park, Rokjin J.; Hong, Jihyung; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2015-12-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal is a bowl-shaped urban basin in the Himalayan foothills with a serious problem of fine particulate air pollution that impacts local health and impairs visibility. Particulate carbon concentrations have reached severe levels that threaten the health of 3.5 million local residents. Moreover, snow and ice on the Himalayan mountains are melting as a result of additional warming due to particulate carbon, especially high black carbon concentrations. To date, the sources of the Valley's particulate carbon and the impacts of different sources on particulate carbon concentrations are not well understood. Thus, before an effective control strategy can be developed, these particulate carbon sources must be identified and quantified. Our study has found that the four primary sources of particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley during winter are brick kilns, motor vehicles, fugitive soil dust, and biomass/garbage burning. Their source contributions are quantified using a recently developed new multivariate receptor model SMP. In contrast to other highly polluted areas such as China, secondary contribution is almost negligible in Kathmandu Valley. Brick kilns (40%), motor vehicles (37%) and biomass/garbage burning (22%) have been identified as the major sources of elemental carbon (black carbon) in the Kathmandu Valley during winter, while motor vehicles (47%), biomass/garbage burning (32%), and soil dust (13%) have been identified as the most important sources of organic carbon. Our research indicates that controlling emissions from motor vehicles, brick kilns, biomass/garbage burning, and soil dust is essential for the mitigation of the particulate carbon that threatens public health, impairs visibility, and influences climate warming within and downwind from the Kathmandu Valley. In addition, this paper suggests several useful particulate carbon mitigation methods that can be applied to Kathmandu Valley and other areas in South Asia with

  12. Association between PM10, PM2.5, NO2, O3 and self-reported diabetes in Italy: A cross-sectional, ecological study.

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    Riccardo Orioli

    Full Text Available Air pollution represents a serious threat to health on a global scale, being responsible for a large portion of the global burden of disease from environmental factors. Current evidence about the association between air pollution exposure and Diabetes Mellitus (DM is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate the association between area-level ambient air pollution and self-reported DM in a large population sample in Italy.We extracted information about self-reported and physician diagnosed DM, risk factors and socio-economic status from 12 surveys conducted nationwide between 1999 and 2013. We obtained annual averaged air pollution levels for the years 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2010 from the AMS-MINNI national integrated model, which simulates the dispersion and transformation of pollutants. The original maps, with a resolution of 4 x 4 km2, were normalized and aggregated at the municipality class of each Italian region, in order to match the survey data. We fit logistic regression models with a hierarchical structure to estimate the relationship between PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3 four-years mean levels and the risk of being affected by DM.We included 376,157 individuals aged more than 45 years. There were 39,969 cases of DM, with an average regional prevalence of 9.8% and a positive geographical North-to-South gradient, opposite to that of pollutants' concentrations. For each 10 μg/m3 increase, the resulting ORs were 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07 for PM10, 1.04 (95% CI 1.02-1.07 for PM2.5, 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05 for NO2 and 1.06 (95% CI 1.01-1.11 for O3, after accounting for relevant individual risk factors. The associations were robust to adjustment for other pollutants in two-pollutant models tested (ozone plus each other pollutant.We observed a significant positive association between each examined pollutant and prevalent DM. Risk estimates were consistent with current evidence, and robust to sensitivity analysis. Our study adds evidence about the effects

  13. Dynamic, spatial models of parasite transmission in wildlife: Their structure, applications and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren A; Forester, James D; Craft, Meggan E

    2017-09-25

    Individual differences in contact rate can arise from host, group and landscape heterogeneity and can result in different patterns of spatial spread for diseases in wildlife populations with concomitant implications for disease control in wildlife of conservation concern, livestock and humans. While dynamic disease models can provide a better understanding of the drivers of spatial spread, the effects of landscape heterogeneity have only been modelled in a few well-studied wildlife systems such as rabies and bovine tuberculosis. Such spatial models tend to be either purely theoretical with intrinsic limiting assumptions or individual-based models that are often highly species- and system-specific, limiting the breadth of their utility. Our goal was to review studies that have utilized dynamic, spatial models to answer questions about pathogen transmission in wildlife and identify key gaps in the literature. We begin by providing an overview of the main types of dynamic, spatial models (e.g., metapopulation, network, lattice, cellular automata, individual-based and continuous-space) and their relation to each other. We investigate different types of ecological questions that these models have been used to explore: pathogen invasion dynamics and range expansion, spatial heterogeneity and pathogen persistence, the implications of management and intervention strategies and the role of evolution in host-pathogen dynamics. We reviewed 168 studies that consider pathogen transmission in free-ranging wildlife and classify them by the model type employed, the focal host-pathogen system, and their overall research themes and motivation. We observed a significant focus on mammalian hosts, a few well-studied or purely theoretical pathogen systems, and a lack of studies occurring at the wildlife-public health or wildlife-livestock interfaces. Finally, we discuss challenges and future directions in the context of unprecedented human-mediated environmental change. Spatial models

  14. A probabilistic degradation model for the estimation of the remaining life distribution of feeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.-X.; Pandey, M.D.; Bickel, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Wall thinning due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is a pervasive form of degradation in the outlet feeder pipes of the primary heat transport system of CANDU reactors. The prediction of the end-of-life of a feeder from wall thickness measurement data is confounded by the sampling and temporal uncertainties associated with the FAC degradation phenomenon. Traditional regression-based statistical methods deal with only the sampling uncertainties, leaving the temporal uncertainties unresolved. This paper presents an advanced probabilistic model, which is able to integrate the temporal uncertainties into the prediction of lifetime. In particular, a random gamma process model is proposed to model the FAC process and it is calibrated with a set of wall thickness measurements using the method of maximum likelihood. This information can be used to establish an optimum strategy for inspection and replacement of feeders. (author)

  15. Validation of an analytical method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high efficiency liquid chromatography in PM10 and PM2,5 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Murillo, Jorge; Chaves Villalobos, Maria del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method was validated for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM2,5 particles collected from air by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was validated. The PAHs analyzed in the methodology include: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Acenaphthene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, Benzo (a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo (b)fluoranthene, Benzo (k)fluoranthene, Benzo (a)pyrene, Dibenzo (a, h)anthracene, Benzo (g, h, i)perylene and Indeno (1,2,3-CD)pyrene. For these compounds, the detection limit and quantification limit have been between 0,02 and 0,1 mg/l. An equipment DIONEX, ICS 3000 model is used, that has two in series detectors: one ultraviolet model VWD-1, and fluorescence detector, model RF-2000, separating the different absorption and emission signals for proper identification of individual compounds. For all the compounds analyzed, the recovery factor has found not significantly different from each other and the repeatability and reproducibility has been to be suitable for an analytical method, especially for the lighter PAHs. (author) [es

  16. Chemical composition of PM10 and its in vitro toxicological impacts on lung cells during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Ghadiri, Ata; Idani, Esmaeil; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Ali; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Rouhizadeh, Ahmad; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2016-04-01

    Reports on the effects of PM10 from dust storm on lung cells are limited. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro toxicological impacts of PM10 suspensions, its water-soluble fraction, and the solvent-extractable organics extracted from Middle Eastern Dust storms on the human lung epithelial cell (A549). Samples of dust storms and normal days (PM10 chemical composition and cytotoxicity were analyzed by ICP- OES and Lactase Dehydrogenase (LDH) reduction assay, respectively. The results showed that PM10 suspensions, their water-soluble fraction and solvent-extractable organics from both dust storm and normal days caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in LDH in supernatant in a dose-response manner. Although samples of normal days showed higher cytotoxicity than those of dust storm at the highest treated dosage, T Test showed no significant difference in cytotoxicity between normal days and dust event days (P value > 0.05). These results led to the conclusions that dust storm PM10 as well as normal day PM10 could lead to cytotoxicity, and the organic compounds (PAHs) and the insoluble particle-core might be the main contributors to cytotoxicity. Our results showed that cytotoxicity and the risk of PM10 to human lung may be more severe during dust storm than normal days due to inhalation of a higher mass concentration of airborne particles. Further research on PM dangerous fractions and the most responsible components to make cytotoxicity in exposed cells is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study and evaluation of atmospheric pollution in Spain: necessary measures arising from the EC Directive on PM10 and PM2.5 particles in the Ceramic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, S.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission Directive, 1999/30/EC, approved on the 22nd of April 1999, on atmospheric particles establishes a standard that is more stringent than the current one. This Directive proposes the monitoring of particles lower than 10 μm (PM10, thoracic particles based on health impact criteria. The proposed EC limits are 40 μgPM10.m-3 and 20 μgPM10.m-3 as annual means in 2005 and 2010, respectively. In accordance with the European Commission (EC, the future PM10 limits will be revised in 2003 if the European States can demonstrate that the exceedances of the new limits are attributed to natural inputs. The exceedances due to natural inputs are more frequent in Mediterranean countries due to the re-suspension of natural soil particles and to the higher frequency of Saharan air mass intrusions. This study summarises the preliminary results obtained from two research projects in Spain focused on: 1 establishing the criteria for the discrimination of natural/anthropogenic inputs of PM10; 2 identifying the events when the proposed limits are exceeded by natural inputs and 3 determining the most suitable monitoring parameter, PM10 or PM2.5, in order to avoid natural interference. Given the importance of the ceramic industry in Castelló, special attention will be placed on the preliminary results obtained this area.La Directiva de la comisión Europea, 1999/30/CE, aprobada el 22 de Abril de 1999, referida a partículas atmosféricas en suspensión, establece una normativa más estricta que la vigente. Esta normativa propone el control de las partículas inferiores a 10 μm (PM10, partículas torácicas basándose en criterios de impacto en la salud. Según esta directiva no se podrán superar medias diarias anuales de 40 μgPM10.m-3 en el 2005 y de 20 μgPM10.m-3 en el 2010. La directiva contempla la revisión de los límites normativos y de los parámetros de control en el 2003, pudiendo variar estos en el caso de que los Estados miembros

  18. The oxidative potential and biological effects induced by PM10 obtained in Mexico City and at a receptor site during the MILAGRO Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Raul; Serrano, Jesús; Gómez, Virginia; de Foy, Benjamin; Miranda, Javier; Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia; Vega, Elizabeth; Vázquez-López, Inés; Molina, Luisa T; Manzano-León, Natalia; Rosas, Irma; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2011-12-01

    As part of a field campaign that studied the impact of Mexico City pollution plume at the local, sub-regional and regional levels, we studied transport-related changes in PM(10) composition, oxidative potential and in vitro toxicological patterns (hemolysis, DNA degradation). We collected PM(10) in Mexico City (T(0)) and at a suburban-receptor site (T(1)), pooled according to two observed ventilation patterns (T(0) → T(1) influence and non-influence). T(0) samples contained more Cu, Zn, and carbon whereas; T(1) samples contained more of Al, Si, P, S, and K (p < 0.05). Only SO(4)(-2) increased in T(1) during the influence periods. Oxidative potential correlated with Cu/Zn content (r = 0.74; p < 0.05) but not with biological effects. T(1) PM(10) induced greater hemolysis and T(0) PM(10) induced greater DNA degradation. Influence/non-influence did not affect oxidative potential nor biological effects. Results indicate that ventilation patterns had little effect on intrinsic PM(10) composition and toxicological potential, which suggests a significant involvement of local sources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Song Remains the Same: A Replication and Extension of the MUSIC Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Gosling, Samuel D.; Levitin, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    There is overwhelming anecdotal and empirical evidence for individual differences in musical preferences. However, little is known about what drives those preferences. Are people drawn to particular musical genres (e.g., rap, jazz) or to certain musical properties (e.g., lively, loud)? Recent findings suggest that musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of five orthogonal dimensions: Mellow, Unpretentious, Sophisticated, Intense, and Contemporary (conveniently, MUSIC). The aim of the present research is to replicate and extend that work by empirically examining the hypothesis that musical preferences are based on preferences for particular musical properties and psychological attributes as opposed to musical genres. Findings from Study 1 replicated the five-factor MUSIC structure using musical excerpts from a variety of genres and subgenres and revealed musical attributes that differentiate each factor. Results from Studies 2 and 3 show that the MUSIC structure is recoverable using musical pieces from only the jazz and rock genres, respectively. Taken together, the current work provides strong evidence that preferences for music are determined by specific musical attributes and that the MUSIC model is a robust framework for conceptualizing and measuring such preferences. PMID:24825945

  20. The Song Remains the Same: A Replication and Extension of the MUSIC Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Goldberg, Lewis R; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Gosling, Samuel D; Levitin, Daniel J

    2012-12-01

    There is overwhelming anecdotal and empirical evidence for individual differences in musical preferences. However, little is known about what drives those preferences. Are people drawn to particular musical genres (e.g., rap, jazz) or to certain musical properties (e.g., lively, loud)? Recent findings suggest that musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of five orthogonal dimensions: Mellow, Unpretentious, Sophisticated, Intense, and Contemporary (conveniently, MUSIC). The aim of the present research is to replicate and extend that work by empirically examining the hypothesis that musical preferences are based on preferences for particular musical properties and psychological attributes as opposed to musical genres. Findings from Study 1 replicated the five-factor MUSIC structure using musical excerpts from a variety of genres and subgenres and revealed musical attributes that differentiate each factor. Results from Studies 2 and 3 show that the MUSIC structure is recoverable using musical pieces from only the jazz and rock genres, respectively. Taken together, the current work provides strong evidence that preferences for music are determined by specific musical attributes and that the MUSIC model is a robust framework for conceptualizing and measuring such preferences.

  1. Similarities and differences in PM 10 chemical source profiles for geological dust from the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Magliano, Karen L.

    A systematic sampling and analysis approach was followed to acquire chemical source profiles for six types of geological dust in California's San Joaquin Valley. Forty-seven samples from 37 locations included: (1) urban and rural paved roads, (2) residential and agricultural unpaved roads and parking areas, (3) almond, cotton, grape, safflower, and tomato fields, (4) dairy and feedlot surfaces, (5) salt-laden lake and irrigation canal drainage deposits, and (6) building and roadway construction/earthmoving soil. These samples were dried, sieved, resuspended, sampled through a PM 10 inlet onto filters, and chemically analyzed to construct PM 10 source profiles (fractional mass abundances and uncertainties) for 40 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U), 7 ions (Cl -, NO 3-, PO 42-, SO 42-, Na +, K +, and NH 4+), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), 8 carbon fractions (OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, OP, EC1, EC2, and EC3), and carbonate carbon. Individual source profiles with analytical precisions were averaged and compared to quantify differences in chemical abundances for: (1) duplicate laboratory resuspension sampling, (2) multiple sampling within the same agricultural field, (3) sampling at different locations for the same land-use activity, (4) sampling of different activities regardless of location, and (5) grouping of different activities into generalized emission inventory source categories. Distinguishing features were found among composite source profiles of six source types. Elemental carbon and Pb marked paved road dust; Na +, Na, S, and SO 42- marked salt deposits; OC, PO 42-, P, K +, K, and Ca characterized animal husbandry; and several metals (Ti, V, Mn) marked construction soil, with abundances 2-10 times higher than those of other profiles. High-sensitivity X-ray fluorescence analysis resulted in detectable alkali and rare earth

  2. Characteristics of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10, and Their Relation to Black Carbon in Wuhan, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hourly average monitoring data for mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and black carbon (BC were measured in Wuhan from December 2013 to December 2014, which has a flourishing steel industry, to analyze the characteristics of PM and their relation to BC, using statistical methods. The results indicate that variations in the monthly average mass concentrations of PM have similar concave parabolic shapes, with the highest values occurring in January and the lowest values appearing in August or September. The correlation coefficient of the linear regression model between PM1 and PM2.5 is quite high, reaching 0.99. Furthermore, the proportion of PM1 contained within PM2.5 is roughly 90%, directly proving that ultrafine particles whose diameter less than 1 μm may be a primary component of PM2.5 in Wuhan. Additionally, better seasonal correlation between PM and BC occurs only in summer and autumn, due to multiple factors such as topography, temperature, and the atmosphere in winter and spring. Finally, analysis of the diurnal variation of PM and BC demonstrates that the traffic emissions during rush hour, exogenous pollutants, and the shallow PBLH with stagnant atmosphere, all contribute to the severe pollution of Wuhan in winter.

  3. The effect of long-range air mass transport pathways on PM10 and NO2 concentrations at urban and rural background sites in Ireland: Quantification using clustering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Aoife A; Broderick, Brian M; Misstear, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) quantify the effects of various long range transport pathways nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with diameter less than 10μm (PM10) concentrations in Ireland and identify air mass movement corridors which may lead to incidences poor air quality for application in forecasting; (ii) compare the effects of such pathways at various sites; (iii) assess pathways associated with a period of decreased air quality in Ireland. The origin of and the regions traversed by an air mass 96h prior to reaching a receptor is modelled and k-means clustering is applied to create air-mass groups. Significant differences in air pollution levels were found between air mass cluster types at urban and rural sites. It was found that easterly or recirculated air masses lead to higher NO2 and PM10 levels with average NO2 levels varying between 124% and 239% of the seasonal mean and average PM10 levels varying between 103% and 199% of the seasonal mean at urban and rural sites. Easterly air masses are more frequent during winter months leading to higher overall concentrations. The span in relative concentrations between air mass clusters is highest at the rural site indicating that regional factors are controlling concentration levels. The methods used in this paper could be applied to assist in modelling and forecasting air quality based on long range transport pathways and forecast meteorology without the requirement for detailed emissions data over a large regional domain or the use of computationally demanding modelling techniques.

  4. Quality control and gap-filling of PM10daily mean concentrations with the best linear unbiased estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, R; Bolignano, A; Ceradini, S; Morelli, M; Petenko, I; Argentini, S

    2017-10-15

    According to the European Directive 2008/50/CE, the air quality assessment consists in the measurement of the concentration fields, and the evaluation of the mean, number of exceedances, etc. of some chemical species dangerous to human health. The measurements provided by an air quality ground-based monitoring network are the main information source but the availability of these data is often limited by several technical and operational problems. In this paper, the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) is proposed to validate the pollutant concentration values and to fill the gaps in the measurement of time series collected by a monitoring network. The BLUE algorithm is tested using the daily mean concentrations of particulate matter having aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μ (PM 10 concentrations) measured by the air quality monitoring sensors operating in the Lazio Region in Italy. The comparison between the estimated and measured data evidences an error comparable with the measurement uncertainty. Due to its simplicity and reliability, the BLUE will be used in the routine quality test procedures of the Lazio air quality monitoring network measurements.

  5. Automated method for simultaneous lead and strontium isotopic analysis applied to rainwater samples and airborne particulate filters (PM10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Blanca; Avivar, Jessica; Mola, Montserrat; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Leal, Luz O

    2013-09-03

    A new automated, sensitive, and fast system for the simultaneous online isolation and preconcentration of lead and strontium by sorption on a microcolumn packed with Sr-resin using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector was developed, hyphenating lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA). Pb and Sr are directly retained on the sorbent column and eluted with a solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) ammonium oxalate. The detection limits achieved were 0.04 ng for lead and 0.03 ng for strontium. Mass calibration curves were used since the proposed system allows the use of different sample volumes for preconcentration. Mass linear working ranges were between 0.13 and 50 ng and 0.1 and 50 ng for lead and strontium, respectively. The repeatability of the method, expressed as RSD, was 2.1% and 2.7% for Pb and Sr, respectively. Environmental samples such as rainwater and airborne particulate (PM10) filters as well as a certified reference material SLRS-4 (river water) were satisfactorily analyzed obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110% for both elements. The main features of the LOV-MSFIA-ICP-MS system proposed are the capability to renew solid phase extraction at will in a fully automated way, the remarkable stability of the column which can be reused up to 160 times, and the potential to perform isotopic analysis.

  6. Characterization of As and trace metals embedded in PM10 particles in Puebla City, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-García, S S; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Jonathan, M P; Navarrete-López, M; Herrera-García, M A; Muñoz-Sevilla, N P

    2014-01-01

    Forty-eight air-filter samples (PM10) were analysed to identify the concentration level of partially leached metals (PLMs; As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and V) from Puebla City, México. Samples were collected during 2008 from four monitoring sites: (1) Tecnológico (TEC), (2) Ninfas (NIN), (3) Hermanos Serdán (HS) and (4) Agua Santa (AS). The results indicate that in TEC, As (avg. 424 ng m(-3)), V (avg. 19.2 ng m(-3)), Fe (avg. 1,202 ng m(-3)), Cu (avg. 86.6 ng m(-3)), Cr (41.9 ng m(-3)) and Ni (18.6 ng m(-3)) are on the higher side than other populated regions around the world. The enrichment of PLMs is due to the industrial complexes generating huge dust particles involving various operations. The results are supported by the correlation of metals (Mn, Cd and Co) with Fe indicating its anthropogenic origin and likewise, As with Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Pb and V. The separate cluster of As, Fe and Mn clearly signifies that it is due to continuous eruption of fumaroles from the active volcano Popocatépetl in the region.

  7. Inhalable Microorganisms in Beijing’s PM2.5 and PM10 Pollutants during a Severe Smog Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing’s PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners. PMID:24456276

  8. Inhalable microorganisms in Beijing's PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants during a severe smog event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Buying; Fang, Jianhuo; Lang, Jidong; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhu, Ting F

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing's PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners.

  9. PENGARUH FAKTOR METEOROLOGIS DAN KONSENTRASI PARTIKULAT (PM10 TERHADAP KEJADIAN INFEKSI SALURAN PERNAPASAN AKUT (ISPA (Studi Kasus Kecamatan Banjarbaru Selatan, Kota Banjarbaru Tahun 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiji Cahyadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of meteorological factors directly or indirectly through the concentration of particulate (PM10 on the incidence of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI in the District of South Banjarbaru, Banjarbaru. The method used in this research is cross-sectional study, where data meteorological factors, the concentration of particulate matter (PM10 and the incidence of ARI are collected simultaneously. Data meteorological factors and the concentration of particulate matter (PM10 derived from Banjarbaru Climatological Station, while data came from health ARI Banjarbaru and Sei Besar which is located in the district of South Banjarbaru. While the analysis used in this study were Path Analysis (path analysis was an analysis of the relationship between the independent variables, intermediate variables, and the dependent variable was presented in the form of a diagram. The results showed the meteorological factors that had a direct impact on the incidence of ARI was the largest factor relative air humidity of by 18.7%, followed by a factor of 7.1% of air temperature, wind speed factor and its influence on the intensity of rainfall was below 1%. While the indirect influence of meteorological factors on the concentration of particulate matter (PM10 on the incidence of ARI in the District of South Banjarbaru effect was below 1%. It can be concluded that the direct effect of meteorological factors and the concentration of particulate matter (PM10 on the incidence of ARI in the District of South Banjarbaru significant factor was the relative air humidity and air temperature. While the indirect influence of meteorological factors against ARI through PM10, the effect was not significant.

  10. Characterization of carbonaceous materials in PM2.5 and PM10 size fractions in Morogoro, Tanzania, during 2006 wet season campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Chi Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions were collected in parallel at a rural site in Morogoro during wet season in March and April 2006. All samples were analysed for the particulate matter mass, for organic, elemental, and total carbon (OC, EC, and TC), and for water-soluble OC (WSOC). The average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and associated standard deviations were 14 ± 13 μg/m 3 and 7.3 ± 4 μg/m 3 respectively. On average, TC accounted for 33% of the PM10 mass and 44% of the PM2.5 mass for the campaign. The average OC/PM percentage ratios were 27% and 33% in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions respectively and a larger fraction of the OC was water-soluble. The observed low EC/TC mean percentage ratios of 10-14% respectively for PM10 and PM2.5 fractions indicate that the carbonaceous aerosol originates mainly from biogenic aerosols and/or biomass burning. A simple source apportionment approach was used to apportion the OC to biofuel and charcoal burning. On average, 93% of the PM10 OC was attributed to biofuel and 7% to charcoal burning in the 2006 wet season campaign. However, it is suggested that a contribution to the OC at Morogoro could also come from other natural biogenic matter, and/or biomass burning aerosols. The results for the sources of OC at Morogoro should therefore be considered with great caution.

  11. Partículas suspendidas (PST y partículas respirables (PM10 en el Valle de Aburrá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Saldarriaga Molina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Valle de Aburrá, región noroccidental de Colombia, habitado por tres millones de personas, recorrido por 400.000 vehículos aproximadamente y con la presencia de un sector industrial textil, de alimentos y metal-mecánico importante, se evaluaron las concentraciones de partículas suspendidas totales (PST y partículas respirables (PM10, durante el período de diciembre de 2000 a junio de 2001.Las determinaciones de PST y PM10 se realizaron en diez estaciones, distribuidas de norte a sur, cubriendo zonas urbanas y rurales de los municipios de Girardota, Bello, Medellín, Itagüí, Sabaneta y Caldas. Al analizar la relación PM10/PST, se encontró que las mejores correlaciones estadísticas se localizan en las zonas centro y sur del valle de Aburrá. Además se observó la tendencia creciente en la relación PM10/PST, desde 0,527 en la estación rural Girardota (Norte, hasta 0,813 en la estación urbana Caldas (Sur.Dicho gradiente en la relación PM10/PST parece estar relacionado con el régimen de vientos que predomina en el Valle de Aburrá con dirección norte-sur, el cual hace que las partículas más pequeñas migren de norte a sur, incrementando la relación PM10/PST en la misma dirección

  12. Implementation of Remaining Useful Lifetime Transformer Models in the Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lybeck, Nancy J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pham, Binh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rusaw, Richard [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Bickford, Randall [Expert Microsystems, Orangevale, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Research and development efforts are required to address aging and reliability concerns of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. As most plants continue to operate beyond the license life (i.e., towards 60 or 80 years), plant components are more likely to incur age-related degradation mechanisms. To assess and manage the health of aging plant assets across the nuclear industry, the Electric Power Research Institute has developed a web-based Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite for diagnosis and prognosis. FW-PHM is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases, comprised of the Diagnostic Advisor, the Asset Fault Signature Database, the Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and the Remaining Useful Life Database, that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of prognostic models for generator step-up transformers in the FW-PHM Suite. One prognostic model discussed is based on the functional relationship between degree of polymerization, (the most commonly used metrics to assess the health of the winding insulation in a transformer) and furfural concentration in the insulating oil. The other model is based on thermal-induced degradation of the transformer insulation. By utilizing transformer loading information, established thermal models are used to estimate the hot spot temperature inside the transformer winding. Both models are implemented in the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW-PHM Suite. The Remaining Useful Life Advisor utilizes the implemented prognostic models to estimate the remaining useful life of the paper winding insulation in the transformer based on actual oil testing and operational data.

  13. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM10 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.2) and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 mum and 2.2-10 mum sizes. Samples of fine (PM(2.2)) and coarse (PM(2.2-10)) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM(2.2) and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM(2.2), PM(2.2-10) and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC.

  14. Association between PM10 air pollution and birth weight after full-term pregnancy in Krakow city 1995–2009 – trimester specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Merklinger-Gruchala

    2015-05-01

    PM10 air pollution at levels currently encountered in Krakow city adversely affect infant birth weight; however, the effect seems to be very small. The influence of particulate air pollution on foetal growth in early gestation is one of several possible explanations for the results, but further research is needed to establish possible biological mechanisms explaining the observed relationship.

  15. Assessment of social losses of pollution's health caused by man-made pollution of atmospheric air with emissions of particulate matters (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turos Ye.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to available estimates, about 3% of lethal outcomes from cardiac-pulmonary pathology and 5% from lung cancer are related to the impact of patriculate matters (PM. In the course of the study there were assessed social losses of population’s health (additional death cases caused by risk conditions of atmospheric air pollution with PM of various air-dynamic diameter (PM10, proper to emissions of various industrial enterprises. It was established that 90% of population of cities under study live under high exposures (≥50 µg/m3 health and risks for population (IRM=10-3÷10-4, caused by PM10 emissions. Results showed that metallurgical industry is responsible for 7,2 to 2193 additional mortality cases. The impact of machine building enterprises – from 0.06 to 21 cases; coke and chemical – from 1.5 to 36 cases; mining – from 1.1 to 14,6 cases. The findings revealed 0.6 % increase in lifetime mortality for each 10 µg/m3 in 24-hour average PM10 concentration. Based on research outcomes, a set of instruments was developed for implementation of air pollution risk management programs aimed at mitigation of health risks from (PM10 in highly exposed groups.

  16. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  17. Comparison of WindTrax and flux-gradient technique in determining PM10 emission rates from a beef cattle feedlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...

  18. Black carbon A n additional indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborne Particles Compared with PM10 and PM2.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current air quality standards for particulate matter (PM) use the PM mass concentration [PM with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) or ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] as a metric. It has been suggested that particles from combustion sources are more relevant to human health than are particles from

  19. Relative roles of emissions and meteorology in the diurnal pattern of urban PM10: analysis of the daylight saving time effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ricardo C

    2012-06-01

    Daylight saving time (DST) is a common practice in many countries, in which Official Time (OT) is abruptly shifted 1 hour with respect to solar time on two occasions every year (in fall and spring). All anthropogenic emitting processes tied to OT like job and school commuting traffic, abruptly change in this moment their timing with respect to solar time, inducing a sudden shift between emissions and the meteorological factors that control the dispersion and transport of air pollutants. Analyzing 13 years of hourly particulate matter (PM10) concentrations measured in Santiago, Chile, we demonstrate that the DST practice has observable non-trivial effects in the PM10 diurnal cycle. The clearest impact is in the morning peak of PM10 during the fall DST change, which occurs later and has on average a significant smaller magnitude in the days after the DST change as compared to the days before it. This decrease in magnitude is most remarkable because it occurs in a period of the year when overall PM10 concentrations increase due to generally worsening of the dispersion conditions. Results are shown for seven monitoring stations around the city, and for the fall and spring DST changes. They show clearly the interplay of emissions and meteorology in conditioning urban air pollution problems, highlighting the role of the morning and evening transitions of the atmospheric boundary layer in shaping the diurnal pattern of urban air pollutant concentrations.

  20. Mobile load simulators - A tool to distinguish between the emissions due to abrasion and resuspension of PM10 from road surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, R.; Zeyer, K.; Bukowiecki, N.; Lienemann, P.; Poulikakos, L. D.; Furger, M.; Buchmann, B.

    2010-12-01

    Mechanically produced abrasion particles and resuspension processes are responsible for a significant part of the PM10 emissions of road traffic. However, specific differentiation between PM10 emissions due to abrasion and resuspension from road pavement is very difficult due to their similar elemental composition and highly correlated variation in time. In this work Mobile Load Simulators were used to estimate PM10 emission factors for pavement abrasion and resuspension on different pavement types for light and heavy duty vehicles. From the experiments it was derived that particle emissions due to abrasion from pavements in good condition are quite low in the range of only a few mg·km -1 per vehicle if quantifiable at all. Considerable abrasion emissions, however, can occur from damaged pavements. Resuspension of deposited dust can cause high and extremely variable particle emissions depending strongly on the dirt load of the road surface. Porous pavements seem to retain deposited dust better than dense pavements, thus leading to lower emissions due to resuspension compared to pavements with a dense structure (e.g. asphalt concrete). Tyre wear seemed not to be a quantitatively significant source of PM10 emissions from road traffic.

  1. Indoor/outdoor concentrations and elemental composition of PM10/PM2.5 in urban/industrial areas of Kocaeli City, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekey, B; Bozkurt, Z B; Pekey, H; Doğan, G; Zararsiz, A; Efe, N; Tuncel, G

    2010-04-01

    This study presents indoor/outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations measured during winter and summer in 15 homes in Kocaeli, which is one of the most industrialized areas in Turkey. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations and elemental composition were determined using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Quantitative information was obtained on mass concentrations and other characteristics such as seasonal variation, indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio, PM2.5/PM10 ratio, correlations and sources. Average indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were 29.8 and 23.5 microg/m(3) for the summer period, and 24.4 and 21.8 microg/m(3) for the winter period, respectively. Average indoor and outdoor PM10 concentrations were 45.5 and 59.9 microg/m(3) for the summer period, and 56.9 and 102.3 microg/m(3) for the winter period, respectively. A varimax rotated factor analysis (FA) was performed separately on indoor and outdoor datasets in an effort to identify possible heavy metal sources of PM2.5 and PM10 particle fractions. FA of outdoor data produced source categories comprising polluted soil, industry, motor vehicles, and fossil fuel combustion for both PM fractions, while source categories determined for indoor data for both PM2.5 and PM10 comprised industry, polluted soil, motor vehicles, and smoking, with an additional source category of cooking activities detected for the PM2.5 fraction. Practical Implications In buildings close to industrial areas or traffic arteries, outdoor sources may have an important effect on indoor air pollution. Therefore, indoor and outdoor investigations should be conducted simultaneously to assess the relationship between indoor and outdoor pollution. This study presents the simultaneous measurement of PM fractions (PM2.5 and PM10) and their elemental compositions to determine the sources of respirable PM and the heavy metals bound to these particles in indoor air. Factor analysis of indoor data indicated that the contribution of outdoor

  2. V and V-based remaining fault estimation model for safety–critical software of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung-seop; Park, Gee-yong; Jang, Seung-cheol; Son, Han Seong; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A software fault estimation model based on Bayesian Nets and V and V. ► Use of quantified data derived from qualitative V and V results. ► Faults insertion and elimination process was modeled in the context of probability. ► Systematically estimates the expected number of remaining faults. -- Abstract: Quantitative software reliability measurement approaches have some limitations in demonstrating the proper level of reliability in cases of safety–critical software. One of the more promising alternatives is the use of software development quality information. Particularly in the nuclear industry, regulatory bodies in most countries use both probabilistic and deterministic measures for ensuring the reliability of safety-grade digital computers in NPPs. The point of deterministic criteria is to assess the whole development process and its related activities during the software development life cycle for the acceptance of safety–critical software. In addition software Verification and Validation (V and V) play an important role in this process. In this light, we propose a V and V-based fault estimation method using Bayesian Nets to estimate the remaining faults for safety–critical software after the software development life cycle is completed. By modeling the fault insertion and elimination processes during the whole development phases, the proposed method systematically estimates the expected number of remaining faults.

  3. Association between PM10 air pollution and birth weight after full-term pregnancy in Krakow city 1995–2009 – trimester specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Merklinger-Gruchala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The results of epidemiological studies indicate that the higher maternal exposure to air pollution, especially with particulate matter during pregnancy, the lower the infant’s birth weight. The aim of this study was to estimate entire pregnancy and trimester-specific exposure of pregnant women in the city of Krakow, southern Poland, to fine particulate matter [≤10 µg (PM10], and to assess its effect on the birth weight of boys and girls separately. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 85,000 singleton, live, full-term births in Krakow city during a 15-year period (data from the birth registry. The mean concentrations of the pollutant for each month of gestation were estimated using continuous municipal monitoring data. Results. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that the mean PM10 concentration during entire pregnancy was inversely associated with birth weight in girls and the group of boys and girls combined, after adjusting for maternal age, gestational age and year of birth; in boys the relationship was not statistically significant. Maternal exposure to PM10 during the first trimester was negatively associated with birth weight separately in girls and boys, and the group of boys and girls combined. However, the PM10 exposure during the second and third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with birth weight. Conclusions. PM10 air pollution at levels currently encountered in Krakow city adversely affect infant birth weight; however, the effect seems to be very small. The influence of particulate air pollution on foetal growth in early gestation is one of several possible explanations for the results, but further research is needed to establish possible biological mechanisms explaining the observed relationship.

  4. Indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations in primary schools in Sari, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyan, Mahmoud; Shabankhani, Bijan

    2013-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the distribution of particles in classrooms in primary schools located in the centre of the city of Sari, Iran and identify the relationship between indoor classroom particle levels and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations. Outdoor PM2.5 and indoor PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were monitored using a real-time Micro Dust Pro monitor and a GRIMM monitor, respectively. Both monitors were calibrated by gravimetric method using filters. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that all indoor and outdoor data fitted normal distribution. Mean indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations for all of the classrooms were 17.6 μg m(-3), 46.6 μg m(-3), 400.9 μg m(-3), and 36.9 μg m(-3), respectively. The highest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured at the Shahed Boys School (69.1 μg m(-3) and 115.8 μg m(-3), respectively). The Kazemi school had the lowest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (29.1 μg m(-3) and 15.5 μg m(-3), respectively). In schools located near both main and small roads, the association between indoor fine particle (PM2.5 and PM1) and outdoor PM2.5 levels was stronger than that between indoor PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 levels. Mean indoor PM2.5 and PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 were higher than the standards for PM2.5 and PM10, and there was a good correlation between indoor and outdoor fine particle concentrations.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and gas phase in office environment in Shanghai, China: occurrence and human exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate risk via inhalation exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs in office environment, thirty-six pairs air samples including PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm, total suspended particles (TSP with matching gas phase were collected in office environment in Shanghai, China. The average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP were 20.4, 27.2 and 50.3 μg/m3, respectively. Σ15PBDEs mean concentrations in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and gas phase were 51.8, 110.7, 148 and 59.6 pg/m3, respectively. Much more PBDEs distributed in fine fractions than coarse ones. PBDEs congener profiles found in PM2.5, PM10 and TSP (dominated by BDE-209 were different from that in gas phase (dominated by the tri- to penta-BDEs. Approximately 3.20 pg/kg/d PM2.5 bound PBDEs can be inhaled into the lung; 3.62 pg/kg/d PM10-PM2.5(particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-10 μm bound PBDEs tended to be deposited in the upper part of respiratory system, and the intake of PBDEs via gas-phase was 2.74 pg/kg/d. The exposure of PBDEs was far below the minimal risk levels (MRLs, indicating lower risk from PBDEs via inhalation in the studied office in Shanghai.

  6. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement (III):. effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM 10 road dust emissions in the Treasure Valley, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; Gillies, J.; Chow, J.; Hendrickson, K.; McGown, M.; Pitchford, M.

    compared. PM 10 paved road dust emission inventories calculated with the TRAKER method were 61% higher in winter and 180% higher in summer than inventories calculated from on-site silt loading measurements. Emissions calculated from silt loading measurements conducted on-site indicated that the AP-42 default values are too low for the Treasure Valley by a factor of 1.5 for summer conditions and by a factor of 3.8 for winter. Both silt loading and TRAKER are techniques that were calibrated against the horizontal flux of dust, which was estimated by the difference in PM 10 concentration between instruments located upwind and downwind of an unpaved road. The upwind/downwind method, and therefore both silt loading and TRAKER, gives a measure of the dust emitted near the source, and not the dust that can be transported on a regional or air shed scale. Correcting the measured dust emissions for deposition and removal near the source is outside the scope of this work, but is a continuing area of research among dispersion modelers.

  7. Temporal and Spatial variations in Organic and Elemental carbon concentrations in PM10/PM2.5 in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Ramos, A.; Herrera Murillo, J.; Rodriguez-Roman, S.; Cardenas, B.; Blanco-Jimenez, S.

    2011-12-01

    During 2010-2011, as part of a Binational Cooperation Project between Mexico and Costa Rica, samples collected weekly in 15 and 5 sites for PM10 and PM2,5 respectively, in the Metropolitan area of Costa Rica, a region of 2.5 million habitants. Based on the high PM2.5 mass concentrations found (17-38 μg/m3), samples were analyzed to determinate the organic and elemental carbon concentrations using DRI Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer (Atmoslytic Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA). Organic (OC) and Elemental (EC) carbon concentrations exhibited a clear seasonal pattern with higher concentrations in the rainy period than in the dry period, due to cooperative effects of changes in emission rates and seasonal meteorology. Spatial variations in carbonaceous species concentrations were observed mostly influenced by the local sources at the different sampling sites in the following magnitude of contribution: vehicle emissions > industrial > agricultural burning. Total carbonaceous aerosol accounted for 42.7% and 26.8% of PM2.5 mass in rainy and dry period, respectively. Good correlation (R = 0.87-0.93) between OC and EC indicated that they had common dominant sources of combustion such as heavy fuels used in industries and traffic emissions. The estimated secondary organic carbon (SOC) accounted for 46.9% and 35.3% of the total OC in the rainy and dry period, respectively, indicating that SOC may be an important contributor to fine organic aerosol in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica. These results will be used to improve the National Emissions Inventory, particularly for PM2.5.

  8. Seasonal variations and source identification of selected organic acids associated with PM10 in the coastal area of Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Schwab, James; Liu, Bi-Lian; Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2015-03-01

    PM10 aerosols from the coastal area of Southeastern China were collected from April 2010 to March 2011 and were measured for C2-C10 dicarboxylic acids, phthalic acids (Ph) and five fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and elaidic acids). For all sites and seasons, molecular distributions of diacids were always characterized by a predominance of oxalic acid (C2), with a relative abundance of 68-87%, followed by malonic acid (C3) and by either succinic acid (C4) or phthalic acid (Ph). This observed molecular composition was different from that in Chinese megacities where Ph was significantly higher than C3 and C4 diacids, which was likely due to the less intensive traffic emissions in the coastal area. Seasonal means of total diacids ranged between 394 and 547 ng m- 3 at the coastal urban sites and between 163 and 245 ng m- 3 at off-island sites. These levels were much lower than those reported in Chinese megacities (668-1568 ng m- 3) and slightly lower than those in Jeju Island, Korea (464-744 ng m- 3) but higher than those in marine and continental background locations. In all seasons, saturated fatty acids were significantly higher than unsaturated fatty acids due to their greater photochemical stabilities in the atmosphere. Most organic acids showed higher levels in spring and winter and lower levels in summer and fall, which was likely due to the influence of transport and meteorology. The diagnostic ratios of malonic acid to succinic acid (C3/C4), adipic acid to azelaic acid (C6/C9) and phthalic acid to azelaic acid (Ph/C9) were significantly higher in summer than in winter. These diagnostic ratios in the sampled ambient aerosols were completely different from those in primary emissions, suggesting the importance of photochemical production - especially in summer. The diurnal variations of diacids and fatty acid as well as the diagnostic ratios are associated with higher solar radiation and anthropogenic activities during the daytime. Principal

  9. Modelling PM10 aerosol data from the Qalabotjha low-smoke fuels macro-scale experiment in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, JP

    2000-03-30

    Full Text Available D-grade (i.e. poor quality) coal is widely used for household cooking and heating purposes by lower-income urban communities in South Africa. The smoke from the combustion of coal has had a severe impact on the health of society in the townships...

  10. Desert dust contribution to PM10 loads in Italy: Methods and recommendations addressing the relevant European Commission Guidelines in support to the Air Quality Directive 2008/50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, Francesca; Bolignano, Andrea; Di Liberto, Luca; Morelli, Matteo; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Perrino, Cinzia; Canepari, Silvia; Basart, Sara; Costabile, Francesca; Dionisi, Davide; Ciampichetti, Spartaco; Sozzi, Roberto; Gobbi, Gian Paolo

    2017-07-01

    In 2011 the European Commission (EC) released specific 'Guidelines' describing the methods to quantify and subtract the contribution of natural sources from the PM10 values regulated by the European Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC). This work investigates the applicability to Italy of the EC-Methodology suggested for desert-dust, describes main limitations encountered and proposes specific modifications embedded within a 'revised-Methodology' to extend/improve its use. The revised-Methodology capabilities are evaluated using original, chemically-resolved mineral-dust mass concentration measurements, showing better performances in predicting timing and absolute values of the desert-dust contribution to the daily-PM10 with respect to the current EC-approach. The revised-Methodology is then translated into an automatic (user-independent) tool tailored to the expected final-users. This tool is applied over Central Italy across a 3-year long period (2012-2014), and over the whole Italian country for a calendar year (2012). The derived results confirm and extend to Italian regions never addressed before some previously observed features of the desert-dust impact over the country, such as a clear latitudinal dependence of the desert-dust impact on the yearly average PM10 (from more than 5 μg/m3 to less than 0.5 μg/m3, going from south to north Italy). The modifications introduced within the revised-Methodology also suggest a non-negligible role of desert-dust resuspension in areas characterized by both high traffic levels and soil sealing (urban areas and along the major Italian routes). In the Rome area, such an effect is found to add a contribution of about 2 μg/m3 (i.e., of 20%) to the mean desert-dust load per dust day (about 10 μg/m3). At the national level, this effect contributes increasing the total number of desert-dust-driven exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value even in the northern regions, where the desert-dust impact on the PM10 yearly average is

  11. Isotopic signatures suggest important contributions from recycled gasoline, road dust and non-exhaust traffic sources for copper, zinc and lead in PM10 in London, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuofei; Ochoa Gonzalez, Raquel; Harrison, Roy M.; Green, David; North, Robin; Fowler, Geoff; Weiss, Dominik

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of what controls the isotope composition of Cu, Zn and Pb in particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment and to develop these isotope systems as possible source tracers. To this end, isotope ratios (Cu, Zn and Pb) and trace element concentrations (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba, Pb, Cr, Ni and V) were determined in PM10 collected at two road sites with contrasting traffic densities in central London, UK, during two weeks in summer 2010, and in potential sources, including non-combustion traffic emissions (tires and brakes), road furniture (road paint, manhole cover and road tarmac surface) and road dust. Iron, Ba and Sb were used as proxies for emissions derived from brake pads, and Ni, and V for emissions derived from fossil fuel oil. The isotopic composition of Pb (expressed using 206Pb/207Pb) ranged between 1.1137 and 1.1364. The isotope ratios of Cu and Zn expressed as δ65CuNIST976 and δ66ZnLyon ranged between -0.01‰ and +0.51‰ and between -0.21‰ and +0.33‰, respectively. We did not find significant differences in the isotope signatures in PM10 over the two weeks sampling period and between the two sites, suggesting similar sources for each metal at both sites despite their different traffic densities. The stable isotope composition of Pb suggests significant contribution from road dust resuspension and from recycled leaded gasoline. The Cu and Zn isotope signatures of tires, brakes and road dust overlap with those of PM10. The correlation between the enrichments of Sb, Cu, Ba and Fe in PM10 support the previously established hypothesis that Cu isotope ratios are controlled by non-exhaust traffic emission sources in urban environments (Ochoa Gonzalez et al., 2016). Analysis of the Zn isotope signatures in PM10 and possible sources at the two sites suggests significant contribution from tire wear. However, temporary additional sources, likely high temperature industrial emissions, need to be invoked

  12. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1 the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2 the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3 the particle interception efficiency of the two forest belts over the three months in descending order was PM10 > PM1 > PM2.5; and (4 the two shelterbelts captured air pollutants at rates of 1496.285 and 909.075 kg/month and the major atmospheric pollutant in Beijing city is PM10. Future research directions are to study PM mass concentration variation of shelterbelt with different tree species and different configuration.

  13. Application of the Data Mining Methods to Assess the Impact of Meteorological Conditions on the Episodes of High Concentrations of PM10 along the Polish - Czech Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ośródka, Leszek; Krajny, Ewa; Wojtylak, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an attempt to use selected data mining methods to determine the influence of a complex of meteorological conditions on the concentrations of PM10 (PM2.5) proffering the example of the regions of Silesia and Northern Moravia. The collection of standard meteorological data has been supplemented by increments and derivatives of measurable weather elements such as vertical pseudo-gradient of air temperature. The main objective was to develop a universal methodology for the assessment of these impacts, i.e. one that would be independent of the analysed pollution. The probability of occurrence (at a given location) of the assumed concentration level as exceeding the value of the specified distributional quintile was adopted as the discriminant of the incidence. As a result of the analyses conducted, incidences of elevated concentrations of air pollution particulate matter PM10 have been identified and the types of weather responsible for the emergence of such situations have also been determined.

  14. Characterization of PAHs and metals in indoor/outdoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Naddafi, Kazem; Faridi, Sasan; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Momeniha, Fatemeh; Gholampour, Akbar; Arhami, Mohammad; Kashani, Homa; Zare, Ahad; Niazi, Sadegh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Ghani, Maryam; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-15

    In the present work, we investigated the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal(loid)s in indoor/outdoor PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory in Tehran from May 2012 to May 2013. The results indicated that the annual levels of indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 were much higher than the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The most abundant detected metal(loid)s in PM were Si, Fe, Zn, Al, and Pb. We found higher percentages of metal(loid)s in smaller size fractions of PM. Additionally, the results showed that the total PAHs (ƩPAHs) bound to PM were predominantly (83-88%) found in PM2.5, which can penetrate deep into the alveolar regions of the lungs. In general, carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 40-47% of the total PAHs concentrations; furthermore, the smaller the particle size, the higher the percentage of carcinogenic PAHs. The percentages of trace metal(loid)s and carcinogenic PAHs in PM2.5 mass were almost twice as high as those in PM10. This can most likely be responsible for the fact that PM2.5 can cause more adverse health effects than PM10 can. The average BaP-equivalent carcinogenic (BaP-TEQ) levels both indoors and outdoors considerably exceeded the maximum permissible risk level of 1 ng/m(3) of BaP. The enrichment factors and diagnostic ratios indicated that combustion-related anthropogenic sources, such as gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles as well as natural gas combustion, were the major sources of PAHs and trace metal(loid)s bound to PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary analysis of variability in concentration of fine particulate matter - PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in area of Poznań city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sówka, Izabela; Chlebowska-Styś, Anna; Mathews, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    It is commonly known, that suspended particulate matter pose a threat to human life and health, negatively influence the flora, climate and also materials. Especially dangerous is the presence of high concentration of particulate matter in the area of cities, where density of population is high. The research aimed at determining the variability of suspended particulate matter concentration (PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10) in two different thermal seasons, in the area of Poznań city. As a part of carried out work we analyzed the variability of concentrations and also performed a preliminary analysis of their correlation. Measured concentrations of particulate matter were contained within following ranges: PM10 - 8.7-69.6 μg/m3, PM2.5 - 2.2-88.5 μg/m3, PM1.0 - 2.5-22.9 μg/m3 in the winter season and 1.0-42.8 μg/m3 (PM10), 1.2-40.3 μg/m3 (PM2.5) and 2.7-10.4 (PM1.0) in the summer season. Preliminary correlative analysis indicated interdependence between the temperature of air, the speed of wind and concentration of particulate matter in selected measurement points. The values of correlation coefficients between the air temperature, speed of wind and concentrations of particulate matter were respectively equal to: for PM10: -0.59 and -0.55 (Jana Pawła II Street), -0.53 and -0.53 (Szymanowskiego Street), for PM2.5: -0.60 and -0.53 (Jana Pawła II Street) and for PM1.0 -0.40 and -0.59 (Jana Pawła II Street).

  16. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  17. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Air Pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO in the Inland Basin City of Chengdu, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most cities in China are experiencing severe air pollution due to rapid economic development and accelerated urbanization. Long-term air pollution data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to support research into physical and chemical processes that affect air quality, and the corresponding health risks. For the first time, data on PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO concentrations in 23 ambient air quality automatic monitoring stations and routine meteorological were collected between January 2014 and December 2016 to determine the spatial and temporal variation in these pollutants and influencing factors in Chengdu. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded the standard of Chinese Ambient Air Quality and World Health Organization guidelines standards at all of the stations. The concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and CO decreased from 2014 to 2016, and the NO2 level was stable, whereas the O3 level increased markedly during this period. The air pollution characteristics in Chengdu showed simultaneously high PM concentrations and O3. High PM concentrations were mainly observed in the middle region of Chengdu and may have been due to the joint effects of industrial and vehicle emissions. Ozone pollution was mainly due to vehicle emissions in the downtown area, and industry had a more important effect on O3 in the northern area with fewer vehicles. The concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and CO were highest in winter and lowest in summer; the highest SO2 concentration was also observed in winter and was lowest in autumn, whereas the O3 concentration peaked in summer. Haze pollution can easily form under the weather conditions of static wind, low temperature and relative humidity, and high surface pressure inside Chengdu. In contrast, severe ozone pollution is often associated with high temperature.

  18. Preliminary analysis of variability in concentration of fine particulate matter - PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in area of Poznań city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sówka Izabela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known, that suspended particulate matter pose a threat to human life and health, negatively influence the flora, climate and also materials. Especially dangerous is the presence of high concentration of particulate matter in the area of cities, where density of population is high. The research aimed at determining the variability of suspended particulate matter concentration (PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in two different thermal seasons, in the area of Poznań city. As a part of carried out work we analyzed the variability of concentrations and also performed a preliminary analysis of their correlation. Measured concentrations of particulate matter were contained within following ranges: PM10 – 8.7-69.6 μg/m3, PM2.5 – 2.2-88.5 μg/m3, PM1.0 – 2.5-22.9 μg/m3 in the winter season and 1.0-42.8 μg/m3 (PM10, 1.2-40.3 μg/m3 (PM2.5 and 2.7-10.4 (PM1.0 in the summer season. Preliminary correlative analysis indicated interdependence between the temperature of air, the speed of wind and concentration of particulate matter in selected measurement points. The values of correlation coefficients between the air temperature, speed of wind and concentrations of particulate matter were respectively equal to: for PM10: -0.59 and -0.55 (Jana Pawła II Street, -0.53 and -0.53 (Szymanowskiego Street, for PM2.5: -0.60 and -0.53 (Jana Pawła II Street and for PM1.0 -0.40 and -0.59 (Jana Pawła II Street.

  19. Ecotoxicity of water-soluble PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO) in Jeju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. A.; Lee, M.; Yoon, H. O.; Bae, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The water-soluble components of aerosols are rapidly permeated to various biosurfaces through the deposition process due to their high solubility and have profound effects on ecosystem functioning as well as human health. In this context, the ecotoxicity of atmospheric aerosol was assessed, particularly for water-soluble components. For measurements of ecotoxicity of water soluble components, ambient aerosols of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were collected on filters at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO), Jeju, Korea in May, August, October 2010, March and July 2011. The ecotoxicity was estimated using Vibrio fischeri based on bioluminescence inhibition bioassay. In this study, EC10 (10% effective concentration) value was used as an ecotoxicity indicator. The EC10 value was generally in good relation with major water-soluble constituents such as SO42-, NH4+, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The characteristics of ecotoxicity was different in PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 aerosols. The EC10 of PM10 was correlated well with SO42- (r=-0.53) and Mg2+(r=-0.52). The ecotoxicity was relatively high in smaller particles with either high NO3-/SO42- ratio or WSOC concentration. The high ecotoxicity was found in outflows mostly from nearby lands especially under stagnant condition.

  20. Partitioning of magnetic particles in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, María Aránzazu; McIntosh, Gregg; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    2014-05-01

    A combined magnetic-chemical study of 15 daily, simultaneous PM10-PM2.5-PM1 urban background aerosol samples has been carried out. The magnetic properties are dominated by non-stoichiometric magnetite, with highest concentrations seen in PM10. Low temperature magnetic analyses showed that the superparamagnetic fraction is more abundant when coarse, multidomain particles are present, confirming that they may occur as an oxidized outer shell around coarser grains. A strong association of the magnetic parameters with a vehicular PM10 source has been identified. Strong correlations found with Cu and Sb suggests that this association is related to brake abrasion emissions rather than exhaust emissions. For PM1 the magnetic remanence parameters are more strongly associated with crustal sources. Two crustal sources are identified in PM1, one of which is of North African origin. The magnetic particles are related to this source and so may be used to distinguish North African dust from other sources in PM1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbonaceous species in PM2.5 and PM10 in urban area of Zhengzhou in China: Seasonal variations and source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Jiang, Nan; Yin, Shasha; Li, Xiao; Yu, Fei; Guo, Yue; Zhang, Ruiqin

    2017-07-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples were simultaneously collected in an urban site in Zhengzhou, China from October 2014 to July 2015 representing the four seasons. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and non-polar organic compounds including n-alkanes (C8-C40) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified. The characteristics of their concentrations, seasonal variations, and sources of n-alkanes and PAHs were investigated. Diagnostic ratios and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were used to characterize carbonaceous species, identify their possible sources, and apportion the contributions from each possible source. The concentrations of the components exhibited distinct seasonal variation, that is, the concentrations are high in winter and low in summer. This finding could be associated with increase in air pollutant emissions during heating season and stable weather condition. The estimated total carbonaceous aerosol accounts for 32% of PM2.5 and 30% of PM10. Hence, carbonaceous compounds were the major components of particulate matter in the study area. Moreover, OC, EC, PAHs, and n-alkanes preferentially accumulated into fine particles. The carbonaceous components exhibited high correlation in PM2.5 and PM10, thereby indicating that their sources were similar. The PMF results revealed that the main sources of PAHs were coal combustion (40%) and motor vehicles (29%); n-alkanes were mainly from burning of fossil fuel (48%). These sources were consistent with the diagnostic ratios obtained. This study provides guidance for improving air quality and reducing human exposure to toxic air pollutants.

  2. Mineralogical and geochemical composition of particulate matter (PM10) in coal and non-coal industrial cities of Henan Province, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Shao, Longyi; Zheng, Qiming; Yang, Shushen

    2014-06-01

    A total of 19 24-h PM10 samples, the 11 for a typical coal industrial city and 8 for a non-coal industrial city, were collected by a TSP-PM10 sampler during a serious and continuous haze event in Henan Province, North China. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) was used to determine the morphology and chemical composition of the PM10 samples. The crystalline phases that were identified by XRD mainly include sulfate (dominated by koktaite, boussingaultite, gypsum, etc.) and silicate (quartz and kaolinite) as well as small amount of chloride (sal-ammoniac). Silicate particles mainly originate from crust as well as waste dumps for coal industrial cities, and usually have an irregular shape, while sulfate particles occur as individual sheets or needles, and have an anthropogenic origin, which are the products of chemical reaction of preexisting carbonate with SO2 emitted by coal combustion. Nitrogen, S and Cl occurring in particulate matter are considered to have an anthropogenic origin due to their high enrichment factors, and their abundance in particulate matter is associated with coal industrial activities. Nitrogen mainly occurs as NH4+ in sulfate, as well as in small amount of organic matter. Sulfur mainly occurs as SO42 - in sulfate. Chlorine mainly occurs in chloride.

  3. Identification of possible sources of atmospheric PM10 using particle size, SEM-EDS and XRD analysis, Jharia Coalfield Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debananda; Singh, Gurdeep; Gosai, Nitin

    2015-11-01

    Identification of responsible sources of pollution using physical parameter particulate matter (PM)10 in a critically polluted area is discussed in this paper. Database was generated by Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (AAQM) with respect to PM10 and PM2.5 in 18 monitoring stations at Jharia coalfield as per the siting criteria (IS: 5182, Part XIV) during 2011 to 2012. Identification of the probable sources of PM10 was carried out through particle size, shape, morphology analysis (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), suitable compounds (X-ray diffraction (XRD)) and elements (energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS)). Monitoring stations nearby opencast mine were affected by the big-sized and irregular-shaped particles; on the other hand, monitoring stations nearby city were affected by the small-sized and regular-shaped particles. In a city area, additional sources like diesel generator (DG) set, construction activities, coal burning, etc., were identified. Blistering effects were also observed in the particles from mine fire-affected areas. Using the X-ray diffraction technique, presence of FeS2, CuO, FeSO4 and CuSO4 compounds was observed, which indicates the effects of mine fire on particulate emission due to presence of SO4(2-) and S2- ions.

  4. Trends and variability of atmospheric PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 concentration in the Po Valley, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Alessandro; Ghermandi, Grazia

    2016-12-01

    The Po Valley is one of the largest European regions with a remarkably high concentration level of atmospheric pollutants, both for particulate and gaseous compounds. In the last decade stringent regulations on air quality standards and on anthropogenic emissions have been set by the European Commission, including also for PM2.5 and its main components since 2008. These regulations have led to an overall improvement in air quality across Europe, including the Po Valley and specifically PM10, as shown in a previous study by Bigi and Ghermandi (2014). In order to assess the trend and variability in PM2.5 in the Po Valley and its role in the decrease in PM10, we analysed daily gravimetric equivalent concentration of PM2.5 and of PM10-2.5 at 44 and 15 sites respectively across the Po Valley. The duration of the times series investigated in this work ranges from 7 to 10 years. For both PM sizes, the trend in deseasonalized monthly means, annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution was estimated: this showed a significant decreasing trend at several sites for both size fractions and mostly occurring in winter. All series were tested for a significant weekly periodicity (a proxy to estimate the impact of primary anthropogenic emissions), yielding positive results for summer PM2.5 and for summer and winter PM10-2.5. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed moderate variability in PM2.5 across the valley, with two to three main clusters, dividing the area in western, eastern and southern/Apennines foothill sectors. The trend in atmospheric concentration was compared with the time series of local emissions, vehicular fleet details and fuel sales, suggesting that the decrease in PM2.5 and in PM10 originates from a drop both in primary and in precursors of secondary inorganic aerosol emissions, largely ascribed to vehicular traffic. Potentially, the increase in biomass burning emissions in winter and the modest decrease in NH3 weaken an otherwise even larger drop in

  5. [Effectiveness of low emission zones of stage 1: analysis of the changes in fine dust concentrations (PM10) in 19 German cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, P; Groneberg, D A; Spallek, M

    2014-03-01

    It is not known/is disputed whether introduction of low emission zones (LEZs) leads to a reduction of fine dust pollutants. Data on PM10 concentrations obtained from measurement stations within and outside of LEZs from 19 German cities (Augsburg, Berlin, Dortmund, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Frankfurt a. M., Hannover, Herrenberg, Ilsfeld, Karlsruhe, Köln, Ludwigsburg, Mannheim, München, Reutlingen, Stuttgart, Tübingen, Wuppertal) were analyzed in order to investigate the effect of banning vehicles ("tier 1") of the pollutant group 1 (without stickers) on the pollutant concentration, i.e, this study focused on LEZs that restricted cars of EURO 1 standard without appropriate retrofitting systems from entering these zones. For the period from about 2005 until the end of 2009, data from continuous half-hour measurements as well as gravimetrically determined daily measurements of PM10 were collected. The analysis consisted of four pairwise corresponding measurement values as matched quadruples of two index and two reference values (index stations are inside, and reference stations are outside the LEZs). One index value and the simultaneous reference value were measured during the active LEZ period, and the other pair of values was measured before the LEZ was introduced. The pairs of values had a difference in time of 364 days or a multiple of 364 days keeping the season, weekday and time of day constant within the quadruple. Differences in index values were regressed on differences in reference values while meteorological parameters (height of the inversion base, amount of precipitation, wind velocity), school holidays, period of environmental bonus paid, periods when trucks were banned as well as baseline data at index and reference stations were taken into account as covariates in so-called "fixed effects" regression analyses of the quadruples (difference score method in the two-period case). The statistical approach was successfully validated prior to this

  6. Temporal and spatial analyses of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and its relationship with meteorological parameters over an urban city in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Ma, Yanjun; Wang, Yangfeng; Liu, Ningwei; Hong, Ye

    2017-12-01

    Temporal and spatial characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and its relationship with meteorology over Shenyang, a city in northeast China, were statistically analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM mass concentrations measured at 11 locations and surface meteorological parameters, from January 2014 to May 2016. Using averaged data from 11 stations in Shenyang, it was found that the monthly mean PM2.5 mass concentrations were higher in winter (97.2 ± 11.2 μg m- 3) and autumn (85.5 ± 42.9 μg m- 3), and lower in spring (62.0 ± 14.0 μg m- 3) and summer (42.5 ± 8.4 μg m- 3), similar to the seasonal variation in PM10 concentrations. The monthly ratios of PM2.5/PM10 ranged from 0.41 to 0.87, and were larger in autumn and winter but lowest in spring due to dust activities. PM pollution was concentrated mainly in the central, northern, and western areas of Shenyang in most seasons mainly due to anthropogenic activities such as traffic and residential emission and construction activity as well as natural dust emission. PM concentrations observed over different areas in all seasons generally exhibited two peaks, at 08:00-10:00 local time (LT) and 21:00-23:00 LT, with the exception of PM2.5 in summer, which showed only one peak during the daytime. In addition, PM10 concentrations peaked around 14:00 LT during spring in the western area of Shenyang because of strong thermal and dynamic turbulence, resulting in elevated dust emissions from adjacent dust sources. The relationship between daily PM concentrations and meteorological parameters showed both seasonal and annual variation. Overall, both PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were negatively correlated with atmospheric visibility, with correlation coefficients (R) of 0.71 and 0.56, respectively. In most seasons, PM concentrations also exhibited negative correlations with wind speed, but showed positive correlations with air pressure, air temperature, and relative humidity. Strong wind

  7. Inter-Comparison of Carbon Content in PM2.5 and PM10 Collected at Five Measurement Sites in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Dinoi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A field campaign was performed simultaneously at five measurement sites, having different characteristics, to characterize the spatial distribution of the carbonaceous content in atmospheric aerosol in Southern Italy during the winter season. Organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC were measured at urban (Naples, suburban (Lecce, coastal/marine (Lamezia Terme and Capo Granitola, and remote (Monte Curcio locations. OC and EC mass concentrations were quantified by the thermal-optical transmission (TOT method, in 24-h PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected on quartz fiber filters, from 25 November 2015 to 1 January 2016. The different sites showed marked differences in the average concentrations of both carbonaceous species. Typically, OC average levels (±standard deviation were higher at the sites of Naples (12.8 ± 5.1 and 11.8 ± 4.6 μg/m3 and Lecce (10.7 ± 5.8 and 9.0 ± 4.7 μg/m3, followed by Lamezia Terme (4.3 ± 2.0 and 4.0 ± 1.9 μg/m3, Capo Granitola (2.3 ± 1.2 and 1.7 ± 1.1 μg/m3, and Monte Curcio (0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.9 ± 0.3 μg/m3 in PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Similarly, EC average levels (±standard deviation were higher at the urban sites of Naples (2.3 ± 1.1 and 1.8 ± 0.5 μg/m3 and Lecce (1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 0.7 μg/m3, followed by Lamezia Terme (0.6 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.3 μg/m3, Capo Granitola (0.3 ± 0.3 and 0.3 ± 0.2 μg/m3, and Monte Curcio (0.06 ± 0.04 and 0.05 ± 0.03 μg/m3 in PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. An opposite trend was observed for the OC/EC ratios ranging from 6.4 to 15.9 in PM10 and from 6.4 to 15.5 in PM2.5 with lower values in urban sites compared to remote sites. Different OC-EC correlations, 0.36 < R2 < 0.90, were found in four observation sites. This behavior suggests the contributions of similar sources and common atmospheric processes in both fractions. No correlations were observed between OC and EC at the site of Naples. The average secondary organic carbon (SOC concentrations, quantified

  8. Risk assessment of heavy metals in road and soil dusts within PM2.5, PM10 and PM100 fractions in Dongying city, Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Lu, Bing; Ji, Yaqin; Zhao, Xueyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Yonghai; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Hua

    2012-03-01

    15 road and 14 soil dust samples were collected from an oilfield city, Dongying, from 11/2009-4/2010 and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb within PM(2.5), PM(10) and PM(100) fractions synchronously. Metal concentrations, sources and human health risk were studied. Results showed that both soil and road dust exhibited higher values for Mn and Zn and lower values for Co and Cd for the three fractions. Mass concentration ratios of PM(2.5)/PM(10) and PM(10)/PM(100) for metals in road and soil dust indicate that most of the heavy metals tend to concentrate in fine particles. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factors analysis showed that Cu, Zn and Cd exhibited moderate or heavy contamination and significant enrichment, indicating the influence of anthropogenic sources. Vanadium, Cr, Mn and Co were mostly not enriched and were mainly influenced by crustal sources. For Ni, As and Pb, they ranged from not enriched to moderately enriched and were influenced by both crustal materials and anthropogenic sources. The conclusions were confirmed by multivariate analysis methods. Principle component analysis revealed that the major sources were vehicle emission, industrial activities, coal combustion, agricultural activities and crustal materials. The risk assessment results indicated that metal ingestion appeared to be the main exposure route followed by dermal contact. The most likely cause for cancer and other health risks are both the fine particles of soil and road dusts. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  9. Air Pollution Quality Index (AQI and Density of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in the Air of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdari M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Air pollution has broad social, economical, political and technical aspects. one of the major issues in this regard is taking measures to prevent its increase. Since suspended particles are among the standard pollutants, the present study was carried out with the aim of measuring the amounts of these particles.Methods: In the present study, the suspended particles ( PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at two sites in Qom city. For each of them, 60 samples were selected with the Enviro Check during five consecutive months during summer (2 months and fall.Results: During sampling, PM10 in the period between October 22'th to November 22nd 2007 had the maximum amount with the mean of 117µg/m3 and in the period between September 22'th to October 22nd 2007 it had the minimum amount with the mean of 83µg/m3. PM2.5 in the period between November 22nd to December 22nd 2007 with the mean of 33µg/m3 had the maximum amount and in the period between July 22nd to October 22nd 2007 it had the minimum amount with the mean of 8µg/m3. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the densities of suspended particles PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were below the standard levels on most occasions. The amounts of AQI for them were normal and acceptable.

  10. Water soluble organic carbon in aerosols (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) and various precipitation forms (rain, snow, mixed) over the southern Baltic Sea station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowska, Anita U

    2016-12-15

    In the urbanized coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, complex measurements of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were conducted between 2012 and 2015, involving atmospheric precipitation in its various forms (rain, snow, mixed) and PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols. WSOC constituted about 60% of the organic carbon mass in aerosols of various sizes. The average concentration of WSOC was equal to 2.6μg∙m -3 in PM1, 3.6μg∙m -3 in PM2.5 and 4.4μg∙m -3 in PM10. The lowest concentration of WSOC was noted in summer as a result of effective removal of this compound with rainfall. The highest WSOC concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols were measured in spring, which should be associated with developing vegetation on land and in the sea. On the other hand, the highest WSOC concentrations in PM1 occurred in winter at low air temperatures and greatest atmospheric stability, when there were increased carbon emissions from fuel combustion in the communal-utility sector and from transportation. WSOC concentrations in precipitation were determined by its form. Mixed precipitation turned out to be the richest in soluble organic carbon (5.1mg·dm -3 ), while snow contained the least WSOC (1.7mg·dm -3 ). Snow and rain cleaned carbon compounds from the atmosphere more effectively when precipitation lasted longer than 24h, while in the case of mixed precipitation WSOC was removed most effectively within the first 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Geochemistry of PM10 over Europe during the EMEP intensive measurement periods in summer 2012 and winter 2013

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    A. Alastuey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The third intensive measurement period (IMP organised by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP under the UNECE CLTRAP took place in summer 2012 and winter 2013, with PM10 filter samples concurrently collected at 20 (16 EMEP regional background sites across Europe for subsequent analysis of their mineral dust content. All samples were analysed by the same or a comparable methodology. Higher PM10 mineral dust loadings were observed at most sites in summer (0.5–10 µg m−3 compared to winter (0.2–2 µg m−3, with the most elevated concentrations in the southern- and easternmost countries, accounting for 20–40 % of PM10. Saharan dust outbreaks were responsible for the high summer dust loadings at western and central European sites, whereas regional or local sources explained the elevated concentrations observed at eastern sites. The eastern Mediterranean sites experienced elevated levels due to African dust outbreaks during both summer and winter. The mineral dust composition varied more in winter than in summer, with a higher relative contribution of anthropogenic dust during the former period. A relatively high contribution of K from non-mineral and non-sea-salt sources, such as biomass burning, was evident in winter at some of the central and eastern European sites. The spatial distribution of some components and metals reveals the influence of specific anthropogenic sources on a regional scale: shipping emissions (V, Ni, and SO42− in the Mediterranean region, metallurgy (Cr, Ni, and Mn in central and eastern Europe, high temperature processes (As, Pb, and SO42− in eastern countries, and traffic (Cu at sites affected by emissions from nearby cities.

  12. The cardioprotective effect of vanillic acid on hemodynamic parameters, malondialdehyde, and infarct size in ischemia-reperfusion isolated rat heart exposed to PM10

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    Esmat Radmanesh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Particulate matter (PM exposure can promote cardiac ischemia and myocardial damage. The effects of PM10 on hemodynamic parameters, lipid peroxidation, and infarct size induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury and the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA in isolated rat heart were investigated. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats (250–300 g were divided into 8 groups (n=10: Control, Sham, VAc, VA, PMa (0.5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, PMb (2.5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, PMc (5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, and PMc + VA (5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation; and 10 mg/kg vanillic acid, gavage for 10 days. PM10 was instilled into the trachea in two stages, within 48 hr. After isolating the hearts and transfer to a Langendorff apparatus, hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 60 min reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters (±dp/dt, LVSP, LVDP, and RPP, production of lipid peroxidation (MDA, and infarct size were assessed. Results: A significant decrease in ±dp/dt, LVSP, LVDP and RPP occurred in PM groups. A significant increase in MDA and myocardial infarct size occurred in PM groups. A significant increase in LVDP, LVSP, ±dp/dt, RPP and decrease in infarct size, MDA, and myocardial dysfunction was observed in groups that received vanillic acid after ischemia–reperfusion. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that PM10 increases MDA, as well as the percentage of cardiac infarct size, and has negative effects on hemodynamic parameters. This study suggests that vanillic acid may serve as an adjunctive treatment in delaying the progression of ischemic heart disease.

  13. Caracterización Quimica de material particulado fraciión respirable pm 10 en la atmósfera de Rioacha la Guajira Colombia

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    Calos Julio Doria Argumedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la importancia desde el punto de vista de la contaminación ambiental, que tienen las partículas inhalables PM 10 en ambientes urbanos, y que los efectos que se puedan generar en la salud dependen de la composición química del material formado por partículas, se realizó este estudio con el objetivo de revelar la composición química de las partículas atmosféricas a través de técnicas de Espectrofotometría UV-VIS y Espectrometría de Masas con fuente de Plasma de Acoplamiento, generados principalmente por fuentes naturales y antrópicas en la ciudad de Riohacha al norte de Colombia; para ello se recolectaron 30 muestras de partículas atmosféricas por medio de filtros de cuarzo con una frecuencia mensual, durante el período de marzo a diciembre de 2014. Las PM 10 presentan una concentración promedio de 52,9 µg/m 3 y los iones solubles de mayor concentración corresponden a Na + , Cl - , Ca +2 y Mg +2 . Las diferencias entre los sitios de muestreo no fueron significativas (p> 0,6. El 70% del Ca +2 es de origen no marino, atribuyéndose al suelo y al tráfico vehicular y peatonal. Conocer la composición química del material particulado, PM 10 tiene relevancia no sólo desde el punto de vista de la química de la atmósfera, sino también sobre la calidad del aire que se respira en las ciudades.

  14. CARACTERIZACIÓN QUÍMICA DE MATERIAL PARTICULADO PM10 EN LA ATMÓSFERA DE RIOHACHA-LA GUAJIRA COLOMBIA

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    Calos Julio Doria Argumedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la importancia desde el punto de vista de la contaminación ambiental, que tienen las partículas inhalables PM 10 en ambientes urbanos, y que los efectos que se puedan generar en la salud dependen de la composición química del material formado por partículas, se realizó este estudio con el objetivo de revelar la composición química de las partículas atmosféricas a través de técnicas de Espectrofotometría UV-VIS y Espectrometría de Masas con fuente de Plasma de Acoplamiento, generados principalmente por fuentes naturales y antrópicas en la ciudad de Riohacha al norte de Colombia; para ello se recolectaron 30 muestras de partículas atmosféricas por medio de filtros de cuarzo con una frecuencia mensual, durante el período de marzo a diciembre de 2014. Las PM 10 presentan una concentración promedio de 52,9 µg/m 3 y los iones solubles de mayor concentración corresponden a Na + , Cl - , Ca +2 y Mg +2 . Las diferencias entre los sitios de muestreo no fueron significativas (p> 0,6. El 70% del Ca +2 es de origen no marino, atribuyéndose al suelo y al tráfico vehicular y peatonal. Conocer la composición química del material particulado, PM 10 tiene relevancia no sólo desde el punto de vista de la química de la atmósfera, sino también sobre la calidad del aire que se respira en las ciudades

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF MEASUREMENT OF CONCENTRATIONS OF AIR POLLUTION WITH PM10 AND PM2.5 MEASURING STATION SQUARE OF POZNAN IN BYDGOSZCZ

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    Rafał Pasela

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of suspended particulate pollution PM10 and PM2.5 occurs in large urban areas where the main source of their presence is communication, which is primarily related to the combustion of liquid fuels. PM2.5 dust pollution is a major risk factor for diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and allergy. Act regulating the standards and target dates for reducing concentrations of particulate matter in urban areas and in all the cities of over 100 thousand. residents of the Directive of the European Parliament and Council Directive 2008/50/EC of 21 May 2008. on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (CAFE. The acceptable level of average daily concentration of PM10 is 50 μg/m3 and may be exceeded by not more than 35 times a year, while the level of allowable annual average concentration of 40 μg/m3. The aim of this study was to assess the state of air pollution of dust PM10 and PM2.5 for the selected area of the city of Bydgoszcz. The analysis was conducted using data from air monitoring stations located at Poznanska street. The station is owned by the Provincial Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (VIEP in Bydgoszcz. The studies have shown that the annual average concentration of particulate matter analyzed station in Bydgoszcz in the years 2013-2015 amounted to PM10 41 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 23 μg/m3. The results are on the borderline of acceptable levels of concentration resulting from the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of 2 August 2012. The concentrations of particulate matter in ambient air are strongly associated with meteorological conditions. The definitely higher concentrations observed in the autumn-winter season. The decrease in temperature causes the combustion in the boiler house of fuels with a high emissions. The highest average daily concentration of suspended particulate matter was observed on Thursday and Friday in the winter months, and while the lowest concentration was recorded in the

  16. Assessment of annual air pollution levels with PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and associated heavy metals in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbi, Abdelhamid; Kerchich, Yacine; Kerbachi, Rabah; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr

    2018-01-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter less than 1  μm, 2.5  μm, 10 μm and their contents of heavy metals were investigated in two different stations, urban and roadside at Algiers (Algeria). Sampling was conducted during two years by a high volume samplers (HVS) equipped with a cascade impactor at four levels stage, for one year sampling. The characterization of the heavy metals associated to the particulate matter (PM) was carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF). The annual average concentration of PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 in both stations were 18.24, 32.23 and 60.01 μg m -3 respectively. The PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations in roadside varied from 13.46 to 25.59 μg m -3 , 20.82-49.85 μg m -3 and 45.90-77.23 μg m -3 respectively. However in the urban station, the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations varied from 10.45 to 26.24 μg m -3 , 18.53-47.58 μg m -3 and 43.8-91.62 μg m -3 . The heavy metals associated to the PM were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses (SEM-EDX). The different spots of PM 2.5 analysis by SEM-EDX shows the presence of nineteen elements with anthropogenic and natural origins, within the heavy metal detected, the lead was found with maximum of 5% (weight percent). In order to determine the source contributions of PM levels at the two sampling sites sampling, principal compound analysis (PCA) was applied to the collected data. Statistical analysis confirmed anthropogenic source with traffic being a significant source and high contribution of natural emissions. At both sites, the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio is lower than that usually recorded in developed countries. The study of the back-trajectories of the air masses starting from Sahara shows that desert dust influences the concentration and the composition of the PM measured in Algiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mass and chemical composition of size-segregated aerosols (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) over Athens, Greece: local versus regional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosi, C.; Grivas, G.; Zarmpas, P.; Chaloulakou, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-11-01

    To identify the relative contribution of local versus regional sources of particulate matter (PM) in the Greater Athens Area (GAA), simultaneous 24-h mass and chemical composition measurements of size segregated particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) were carried out from September 2005 to August 2006 at three locations: one urban (Goudi, Central Athens, "GOU"), one suburban (Lykovrissi, Athens, "LYK") in the GAA and one at a regional background site (Finokalia, Crete, "FKL"). The two stations in the GAA exceeded the EU-legislated PM10 limit values, both in terms of annual average (59.0 and 53.6 μg m-3 for Lykovrissi and Goudi, respectively) and of 24-h value. High levels of PM2.5 and PM1 were also found at both locations (23.5 and 18.6 for Lykovrissi, while 29.4 and 20.2 μg m-3 for Goudi, respectively). Significant correlations were observed between the same PM fractions at both GAA sites indicating important spatial homogeneity within GAA. During the warm season (April to September), the PM1 ratio between GAA and FKL ranged from 1.1 to 1.3. On the other hand this ratio was significantly higher (1.6-1.7) during the cold season (October to March) highlighting the role of long-range transport and local sources during the warm and cold seasons respectively. Regarding the coarse fraction no seasonal trend was observed for both GAA sites with their ratio (GAA site/FKL) being higher than 2 indicating significant contribution from local sources such as soil and/or road dust. Chemical speciation data showed that on a yearly basis, ionic and crustal mass represent up to 67-70% of the gravimetrically determined mass for PM10 samples in the GAA and 67% for PM1 samples in LYK. The unidentified mass might be attributed to organic matter (OM) and elemental carbon (EC), in agreement with the results reported by earlier studies in central Athens. At all sites, similar seasonal patterns were observed for nss-SO42-, a secondary compound, indicating significant contribution from

  18. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamhari, Anas Ahmad; Sahani, Mazrura; Latif, Mohd Talib; Chan, Kok Meng; Tan, Hock Seng; Khan, Md Firoz; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati

    2014-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10) associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined at two sites within the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur (urban, KL) and Petaling Jaya (industrial, PJ), and one site outside the Klang Valley, Bangi (semi-urban, BG). This study aimed to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 and the source of origin through principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio analysis. This study also assessed the health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq. PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filter paper using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) for 24 h between September 2010 and April 2011. The filter papers with PM10 were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1), and analysis of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined using gas chromatography with mass spectra (GC-MS). Health risk assessment was estimated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) which quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for age specific group. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations throughout seasonal monsoons for KL, PJ and BG ranged from 1.33 ng m-3 to 2.97 ng m-3, 2.24 ng m-3 to 4.84 ng m-3 and 1.64 ng m-3 to 3.45 ng m-3 respectively. More than 80% of total PAHs consisted of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP). The presence of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP) with high concentration at all locations suggested a source indicator for traffic emission. PCA and diagnostic ratio analysis also suggested substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. The use of total BaPeq concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities, where they contributed to more than 50% of the potential health risk. Health risk assessment showed that the estimated incremental

  19. Spatiotemporal evaluation of EMEP4UK-WRF v4.3 atmospheric chemistry transport simulations of health-related metrics for NO2, O3, PM10, and PM2. 5 for 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun; Heal, Mathew R.; Vieno, Massimo; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Armstrong, Ben G.; Butland, Barbara K.; Milojevic, Ai; Chalabi, Zaid; Atkinson, Richard W.; Stevenson, David S.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Wilkinson, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This study was motivated by the use in air pollution epidemiology and health burden assessment of data simulated at 5 km × 5 km horizontal resolution by the EMEP4UK-WRF v4.3 atmospheric chemistry transport model. Thus the focus of the model-measurement comparison statistics presented here was on the health-relevant metrics of annual and daily means of NO2, O3, PM2. 5, and PM10 (daily maximum 8 h running mean for O3). The comparison was temporally and spatially comprehensive, covering a 10-year period (2 years for PM2. 5) and all non-roadside measurement data from the UK national reference monitor network, which applies consistent operational and QA/QC procedures for each pollutant (44, 47, 24, and 30 sites for NO2, O3, PM2. 5, and PM10, respectively). Two important statistics highlighted in the literature for evaluation of air quality model output against policy (and hence health)-relevant standards - correlation and bias - together with root mean square error, were evaluated by site type, year, month, and day-of-week. Model-measurement statistics were generally better than, or comparable to, values that allow for realistic magnitudes of measurement uncertainties. Temporal correlations of daily concentrations were good for O3, NO2, and PM2. 5 at both rural and urban background sites (median values of r across sites in the range 0.70-0.76 for O3 and NO2, and 0.65-0.69 for PM2. 5), but poorer for PM10 (0.47-0.50). Bias differed between environments, with generally less bias at rural background sites (median normalized mean bias (NMB) values for daily O3 and NO2 of 8 and 11 %, respectively). At urban background sites there was a negative model bias for NO2 (median NMB = -29 %) and PM2. 5 (-26 %) and a positive model bias for O3 (26 %). The directions of these biases are consistent with expectations of the effects of averaging primary emissions across the 5 km × 5 km model grid in urban areas, compared with monitor locations that are more influenced by these

  20. Relación entre las partículas finas (PM 2.5 y respirables PM 10 en la ciudad de Medellín Relation between fine particles (PM 2.5 and breathable particles (PM 10 in Medellin city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Echeverri Londoño

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta parte de los resultados del proyecto 'Patologías respiratorias en niños preescolares y su relación con la contaminación atmosférica de Medellín', realizado por la Universidad de Medellín y la Universidad CES para la Secretaria de Salud de Medellín dentro del contrato 4700026668 de 2006. Se realizaron mediciones simultáneas de partículas finas (PM2.5 y respirables (PM10 durante el período de febrero a octubre de 2007 en varios sitios de la ciudad de Medellín, capital del departamento de Antioquia, habitada aproximadamente por 2’250.000 personas. Los resultados del análisis muestran, en la mayoría de los casos, una correlación positiva y lineal entre los dos parámetros. La relación (PM2.5/PM10 promedio para los sitios o zonas bajo consideración en este estudio fue de aproximadamente 0.67, valor bastante considerable que hace pensar que probablemente se puede cumplir con la norma anual para PM10, pero no para PM2.5. Los resultados obtenidos identifican las partículas finas como uno de los principales problemas de contaminación en la ciudad de Medellín.This article shows part of the results from the project called: 'Respiratory pathologies in pre-school children and their relation to atmospheric contamination in Medellin,' carried out by Universidad de Medellin and Universidad CES for Medellin Health Secretariat according to contract No. 4700026668, year 2006. Simultaneous measurements of fine particles (PM2.5 and breathable particles (PM10 were made from February to October, 2007 in several sites of Medellin, the capital city of Antioquia State, where about 2,250,000 inhabitants live. In almost all cases, analysis results show a positive and linear correlation between both parameters. Average ratio (PM2.5/PM10 for sites and zones tested in this study was 0.67 approximately, which is a very meaningful value, what makes us think that annual norm for PM10 can probably be accomplished, but not the one

  1. Evaluation of the levels of particles PM10 and nitrogen dioxide at the city of San Jose, Costa Rica: 2005-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Murillo, Jorge; Rodriguez Roman, Susana

    2009-01-01

    The levels of particulate matter PM 10 were determined at two sites of San Jose City (Catedral Metropolitana and Junta de Educacion), during a year (September 2005-September 2006), obtaining as annual average 36 ± 8 μg/m 3 and 25 ± 7 μg/m 3 , respectively. Also, the levels of sulfates, nitrates and chlorides were measured for both sites. The annual averages have resulted not to be significantly different for both sites, with a level of significance of 5%. Three of the fourteen sites of measurement of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the city, have presented higher values to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, monitoring for one month. The principal component analysis that were applied to the data of this gas, has showed that the variations in the levels are due to large-scale phenomena (meteorological). However, the concentration of sulfate present in the particulate matter has reached higher values to those recorded in cities like Rio de Janeiro and Mexico D.F., product probably of the high sulfur content present in the fuels that are used by the vehicle fleet at Costa Rica. The principal component analysis indicates that has existed a strong correlation between the concentrations of sulfate and nitrate present in the particles PM 10 , pointing the contribution of anthropogenic sources. In the case of chloride, has highlighted the strong existing relationship with the meteorological parameters that were registered during the sampling period. (author) [es

  2. The Distribution of PM10 and PM2.5 Dust Particles Diameter in Airborne at the Cement Factory Neighboring Area, Citeureup - Bogor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatot Suhariyono; Muji Wiyono

    2003-01-01

    The distribution analysis in PM 10 and PM 2.5 dust particle diameter has been carried out at residence area around the cement factory, Citeureup - Bogor to estimate deposition of dust particles that is accepted by public. The dust particles were sampled at the dwellings by using a cascade impactor on four wind directions and 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 m radius from the Plant one as the center of the cement factory at Citeureup - Bogor. Measurements at the north direction were the Gunung Putri, Kranggan, Bojong Nangka villages, and Gunung Putri dwellings. The south directions were Tarikolot and Pasir Mukti villages. The west directions were guest house, Puspanegara, Puspasari, and Citatah villages. The northwest directions were Puspanegara, Gunung Putri, Puspasari, and Kranggan villages. The analysis result showed that the diameter distribution of PM 10 dust particles at outdoor is ranging from 0.4 to 4.7 μm, and has the weight percentage is high in average approximate 17.91 % of total dust weight on 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 m radius. The distributions of indoor PM 2.5 dust particles diameter show a stable 12.27 % weight percentage of total dust weight from 0.4 to 2.1 μm. (author)

  3. Diagnosis of Dust- and Pollution- Impacted PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 Aerosols Observed at Gosan Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, X.; Lee, M.; LIM, S.; Gustafsson, O.; Lee, G.; Chang, L.

    2017-12-01

    In East Asia, dust is prevalent and used to be mixed with various pollutants during transportation, causing a large uncertainty in estimating the climate forcing of aerosol and difficulty in making environmental policy. In order to diagnose the influence of dust particles on aerosol, we conducted a long-term measurement of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 for mass, water-soluble ions, and carbonaceous compounds at Gosan Climate Observatory, South Korea from August 2007 to February 2012. The result of principle component analysis reveals that anthropogenic, typical soil dust, and saline dust impact explain 46 %, 16 %, and 9 % of the total variance for all samples, respectively. The mode analysis of mass distributions provides the criteria to distinguish these principle factors. The anthropogenic impact was most pronounced in PM1 and diagnosed by the PM1 mass higher than mean+σ. If PM10 mass was greater than mean+σ, it was highly likely to be affected by typical soil dust. This criterion is also applicable for PM2.5 mass, which was enhanced by both haze and dust particles, though. In the present study, saline dust was recognized by relatively high concentrations of Na and Cl ions in PM1.0. However, their existence was not manifested by increased mass in any of three PM types.

  4. Correlating bioaerosol load with PM2.5 and PM10cf concentrations: a comparison between natural desert and urban-fringe aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreson, Justin; Dillner, Ann M.; Peccia, Jordan

    2004-11-01

    Seasonal allergies and microbial mediated respiratory diseases, can coincide with elevated particulate matter concentrations, often when dry desert soils are disturbed. In addition to effects from the allergens, allergic and asthmatic responses may be enhanced when chemical and biological constituents of particulate matter (PM) are combined together. Because of these associations and also the recent regulatory and health-related interests of monitoring PM2.5, separately from total PM10, the biological loading between the fine (dpurban fringe site located in the expanding Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area during winter, spring, and summer seasons. Elemental carbon and inorganic ions were measured to determine the relative influence that anthropogenic sources, such as traffic, had on the aerosol composition. Total protein concentration was used as a surrogate measure of total biological concentration within the PM2.5 and PM10cf (coarse fraction) size ranges. In all seasons, coarse protein at the urban fringe was consistently higher than the natural desert. When high-anthropogenic PM events were separated from the data set, a positive significant correlation (purban fringe and natural desert. Both sites contained allergenic organisms. Some groups of eukaryotic species were exclusive to only one of the sites. The natural desert contained more species of Basidiomycota fungi and the urban fringe contained more species of green plants, suggesting that the biological loading at each site was different due to local influences.

  5. Determination of the levels of particles PM10 and nitrogen dioxide at the city of Heredia, Costa Rica: 2005-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Murillo, Jorge; Rodriguez-Roman, Susana; Solis-Torres, Ligia Dina

    2009-01-01

    The levels of particulate matter PM 10 were determined at two sites of Heredia City (Rectory of the Universidad Nacional and Plazoleta del Fortin) of March to August 2006, obtaining as annual average 48 ± 8 and 31 ± 8 μg/m 3 , respectively. Also, the levels of sulfates, nitrates and chlorides were measured for both sites. The annual averages have resulted not to be significantly different for both sites, with a level of significance of 5%. In one of the ten sites of measurement of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the city, has presented higher values to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, monitoring for one month. The principal component analysis that were applied to the data of this gas, has showed that the variations in the levels are due to large-scale phenomena (meteorological). However, the concentration of sulfate present in the particulate matter has reached higher values to those recorded in cities like Rio de Janeiro and Mexico D.F., product probably of the high sulfur content present in the fuels that are used by the vehicle fleet at Costa Rica. The principal component analysis indicates that has existed a a strong correlation between the concentrations of sulfate and nitrate present in the particles PM 10 , pointing the contribution of anthropogenic sources. In the case of chloride, has highlighted the strong existing relationship with the meteorological parameters that were registered during the sampling period. (author) [es

  6. Determination of water-soluble elements in PM2.5, PM10, and PM2.5-10 collected in the surroundings of power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Mainka, Anna; Kaczmarek, Konrad

    2018-01-01

    The analysis reported in this study was performed to characterize the concentrations and water-soluble content of trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se) in PM2.5, PM10 and PM2.5-10 samples collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. The solubility of trace elements bound to PM2.5 and PM10 was higher than for PM2.5-10, and in most cases, significant differences were revealed in the relative percentage concentrations of the water-soluble fractions. The occurrence of Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Se in first PCA (Principal Component Analysis) factor (PC1) - indicate coal combustion processes as the potential source of these elements. Other factors indicate two further anthropogenic sources: the resuspension of road dust due to vehicular activities and waste burning in domestic sources - factor (PC2), and, soil dust sources affected by fugitive dust from the mining processes and unpaved roads, as well as transportation and deposition of coal -factor (PC3).

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements bounded to airborne PM10 in the harbor of Volos, Greece: Implications for the impact of harbor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, E.; Chelioti-Chatzidimitriou, A.; Karageorgou, K.; Kouras, A.; Voutsa, D.; Samara, C.; Kampanos, I.

    2017-10-01

    Harbors are often characterized by high levels of air pollutants that are emitted from ship traffic and other harbor activities. In the present study, the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements (As, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Mn, Zn, and Fe) bounded to the inhalable particulate matter PM10 were studied in the harbor of Volos, central Greece, during a 2-year period (2014-2015). Seasonal and daily variations were investigated. Moreover, total carcinogenic and mutagenic activities of PAHs were calculated. The effect of major wind sectors (sea, city, industrial, harbor) was estimated to assess the potential contribution of ship traffic and harbor activities, such as scrap metal handling operations. Results showed that the harbor sector (calm winds ≤ 0.5 m s-1) was associated with the highest concentrations of PM10. The harbor sector was also associated with relatively increased levels of trace elements (As, Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni), however the effect of this sector was lower than the corresponding effect of the industrial wind sector. The sea sector showed only a slight increase in B[a]Py and Σ12PAHs, whereas the highest increasing effect for PAHs and traffic-related elements, such as Pb and Zn, was evidenced for the city sector.

  8. Evaluation of the RWEQ and SWEEP in simulating soil and PM10 loss from a portable wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion threatens sustainable agriculture and environmental quality in the Columbia Plateau region of the US Pacific Northwest. Wind erosion models such as Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) have been developed as tools for identifying practices t...

  9. A simulated approach to estimating PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations downwind from cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton gins are required to obtain operating permits from state air pollution regulatory agencies (SAPRA), which regulate the amount of particulate matter that can be emitted. Industrial Source Complex Short Term version 3 (ISCST3) is the Gaussian dispersion model currently used by some SAPRAs to pr...

  10. 40 CFR Table E-1 to Subpart E of... - Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 E Table E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53..., Subpt. E, Table E-1 Table E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53—Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Subpart E procedure Performance test Performance...

  11. Remaining missed opportunities of child survival in Peru: modelling mortality impact of universal and equitable coverage of proven interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Tam; Luis Huicho; Carlos A. Huayanay-Espinoza; María Clara Restrepo-Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru has made great improvements in reducing stunting and child mortality in the past decade, and has reached the Millennium Development Goals 1 and 4. The remaining challenges or missed opportunities for child survival needs to be identified and quantified, in order to guide the next steps to further improve child survival in Peru. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to project the mortality impact of proven interventions reaching every women and child in need, and the mor...

  12. Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 and associated heavy metals at the crossroads and urban background site in Zabrze, Upper Silesia, Poland, during the smog episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszka, Jozef S; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira

    2010-09-01

    The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Pb) associated with PM10 and PM2.5 at the crossroads and the background sites have been studied in Zabrze, Poland, during smog episodes. Although the background level was unusually elevated due to both high particulate emission from the industrial and municipal sources and smog favorable meteorological conditions, significant increase of the concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 as well as associated heavy metals in the roadside air compared to the urban background has been documented. The average daily difference between the roadside and corresponding urban background aerosol concentration was equal to 39.5 microg m(-3) for PM10 and 41.2 microg m(-3) for PM2.5. The highest levels of the studied metals in Zabrze appeared for iron carried by PM10 particles: 1,706 (background) and 28,557 ng m(-3) (crossroads). The lowest concentration level (in PM10) has been found for cadmium: 7 and 77 ng m(-3) in the background and crossroads site, respectively. Also the concentrations of heavy metals carried by the fine particles (PM2.5) were very high in Zabrze during the smog episodes. Concentrations of all studied metals associated with PM10 increased at the roadside compared to the background about ten times (one order) while metals contained in PM2.5 showed two to three times elevated concentrations (except Fe-five times and Cr-no increase).

  13. Elemental characterization of New Year's Day PM10 and PM2.2 particulates matter at several sites in Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Morco, Ryan P.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    In the Philippines, it has been a yearly tradition to welcome the coming of the New Year with the loudest noise as can be achieved. Firecrackers and fireworks have been a necessity for Filipinos during this time despite bans on the use of most of these and despite the Department of Health (DOH) campaign to use alternative safe practices to welcome the New Year. Data for PM 10 samples (fractionated as PM 10-2.2 or the course fraction and PM2.2 or the fine fraction) collected in four PNRI sampling sites in Metro Manila show the air pollution impacts of fireworks on New Year's Eve. Samples were collected from 1998 to 2006 using a Gent dichotomous sampler in connection with the PNRI project P articulate Matter Source Apportionment Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques . Particulate mass was determined by gravimetry. Elemental analysis of the air filters was done using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (X RF) or Particle induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), multielemental non-destructive nuclear analytical techniques. Black carbon was analyzed using reflectometry. PM 10 values increased by two to four times the usual averages (36.4 to 55.4 ug/cum) and in 2002 even exceeded the PNAAQ short-term guideline value of 150 ug/cum at the ADMU sampling station. PM2.2 values increased by two to six times the usual averages (15 to 28 ug/cum), even many times exceeding US EPA short-term guideline value of 65 ug/cum. The increase in the particulate mass of New Year's Day samples can be attributed more to an increase in the metal pollutants rather than the black carbon, with higher contribution to the fine fraction. Increase in the elemental concentrations of Al, S, Cl, K, Ba, Sr, Ti, V, Mn, Cu and Pb were observed with the highest contribution from K. Results show that the usual practices of burning firecrackers and fireworks during New Year's day celebration is a very strong source of air pollution which contributes significantly high amount of metal pollutants in the air

  14. Ionic and carbonaceous compositions of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 at Gosan ABC Superstation and their ratios as source signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were sampled at Gosan ABC Superstation on Jeju Island from August 2007 to September 2008. The carbonaceous aerosols were quantified with the thermal/optical reflectance (TOR method, which produced five organic carbon (OC fractions, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, and pyrolyzed organic carbon (OP, and three elemental carbon (EC fractions, EC1, EC2, and EC3. The mean mass concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 13.7 μg m−3, 17.2 μg m−3, and 28.4 μg m−3, respectively. The averaged mass fractions of OC and EC were 23.0% and 10.4% for PM1.0, 22.9% and 9.8% for PM2.5, and 16.4% and 6.0% for PM10. Among the OC and EC sub-components, OC2 and EC2+3 were enriched in the fine mode, but OC3 and OC4 in the coarse mode. The filter-based PM1.0 EC agreed well with black carbon (BC measured by an Aethalometer, and PM10 EC was higher than BC, implying less light absorption by larger particles. EC was well correlated with sulfate, resulting in good relationships of sulfate with both aerosol scattering coefficient measured by Nephelometer and BC concentration. Our measurements of EC confirmed the definition of EC1 as char-EC emitted from smoldering combustion and EC2+3 as soot-EC generated from higher-temperature combustion such as motor vehicle exhaust and coal combustion (Han et al., 2010. In particular, EC1 was strongly correlated with potassium, a traditional biomass burning indicator, except during the summer, when the ratio of EC1 to EC2+3 was the lowest. We also found the ratios of major chemical species to be a useful tool to constrain the main sources of aerosols, by which the five air masses were well distinguished: Siberia, Beijing, Shanghai, Yellow Sea, and East Sea types. Except Siberian air, the continental background of the study region, Beijing plumes showed the highest EC1 (and OP to sulfate ratio, which implies that this air mass had the highest net warming by aerosols of the four air masses. Shanghai-type air, which was

  15. Caracterización espacial de PM10 en la ciudad de Medellín mediante modelos geoestadísticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libardo Antonio Londoño Ciro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un modelo geoestadístico para caracterizar espacialmente el comportamiento del contaminante PM10 en la ciudad de Medellín Colombia. Los datos se han tomado de nueve sitios de monitoreo en valor promedio mensual (µg/m3 durante el periodo enero 2003 a diciembre 2007. Se evaluaron diferentes modelos mediante pruebas de validación cruzada. El mejor modelo es el j-bessel. Se calculan los parámetros del modelo mediante pruebas ANOVA para agrupaciones trimestrales. Con Kriging ordinario y sistemas de información geográfica, se obtienen mapas de caracterización espacial del contaminante.

  16. Chemical characteristics and influence of continental outflow on PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 measured at Tuoji island in the Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmei; Yang, Lingxiao; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Wen, Liang; Yang, Yumeng; Gao, Ying; Jiang, Pan; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the chemical characteristics and sources of size-segregated particles in the background region, PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 samples were collected in Tuoji Island (TI) during the winter of 2014. Water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) including Na + , NH 4 + , K + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl - , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- , organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were analysed. The average mass concentrations of PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 44.5μg/m 3 , 62.0μg/m 3 and 94.4μg/m 3 , respectively, and particles were importantly enriched in PM 1.0 . Secondary WSIIs (NH 4 + , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- ) were the most abundant species, and their contribution was highest in PM 1.0 . The average values of NOR and SOR were more than 0.1 in PM 1.0 , suggesting that secondary formation of SO 4 2- and NO 3 - from the gas precursors SO 2 and NO 2 occurred in PM 1.0 . Secondary organic carbon accounted for 62.3% in PM 1.0 , 61.9% in PM 1.0-2.5 and 48.9% in PM 2.5-10 of OC, formed mainly in the fine mode. The particles concentrations were mainly affected by air mass from the North China Plain, especially the air mass from the southwest of Shandong province, which had low speed and altitude. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term exposure to PM 10, PM 2.5, ultrafine particles and CO 2 for passengers at an intercity bus terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Hsiao-Peng; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2011-04-01

    The Taipei Bus Station is the main transportation hub for over 50 bus routes to eastern, central, and southern Taiwan. Daily traffic volume at this station is about 2500 vehicles, serving over 45,000 passengers daily. The station is a massive 24-story building housing a bus terminal, a business hotel, a shopping mall, several cinemas, offices, private residential suites, and over 900 parking spaces. However, air quality inside this bus terminal is a concern as over 2500 buses are scheduled to run daily. This study investigates the PM 10, PM 2.5, UFP and CO 2 levels inside and outside the bus terminal. All measurements were taken between February and April 2010. Measurement results show that coarse PM inside the bus terminal was resuspended by the movement of large numbers of passengers. The fine and ultrafine PM in the station concourse were from outside vehicles. Moreover, fine and ultrafine PM at waiting areas were exhausted directly from buses in the building. The CO 2 levels at waiting areas were likely elevated by bus exhaust and passengers exhaling. The PM 10, PM 2.5 and CO 2 levels at the bus terminal were lower than Taiwan's EPA suggested standards for indoor air quality. However, UFP levels at the bus terminal were significantly higher than those in the urban background by about 10 times. Therefore, the effects of UFPs on the health of passengers and workers must be addressed at this bus terminal since the levels of UFPs are higher than >1.0 × 10 5 particles cm -3.

  18. PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0—Emissions from industrial plants—Results from measurement programmes in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, C.; Noll, G.; Kalkoff, W.-D.; Baumbach, G.; Dreiseidler, A.

    Emission measurement programmes were carried out at industrial plants in several regions of Germany to determine the fine dust in the waste gases; the PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 fractions were sampled using a cascade impactor technique. The installations tested included plants used for: combustion (brown coal, heavy fuel oil, wood), cement production, glass production, asphalt mixing, and processing plants for natural stones and sand, ceramics, metallurgy, chemical production, spray painting, wood processing/chip drying, poultry farming and waste treatment. In addition waste gas samples were taken from small-scale combustion units, like domestic stoves, firing lignite briquettes or wood. In total 303 individual measurement results were obtained during 106 different measurement campaigns. In the study it was found that in more than 70% of the individual emission measurement results from industrial plants and domestic stoves the PM 10 portion amounted to more than 90% and the PM 2.5 portion between 50% and 90% of the total PM (particulate matter) emission. For thermal industrial processes the PM 1.0 portion constituted between 20% and 60% of the total PM emission. Typical particle size distributions for different processes were presented as cumulative frequency distributions and as frequency distributions. The particle size distributions determined for the different plant types show interesting similarities and differences depending on whether the processes are thermal, mechanical, chemical or mixed. Consequently, for the groups of plant investigated, a major finding of this study has been that the particle size distribution is a characteristic of the industrial process. Attempts to correlate particle size distributions of different plants to different gas cleaning technologies did not lead to usable results.

  19. Remaining missed opportunities of child survival in Peru: modelling mortality impact of universal and equitable coverage of proven interventions

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    Yvonne Tam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peru has made great improvements in reducing stunting and child mortality in the past decade, and has reached the Millennium Development Goals 1 and 4. The remaining challenges or missed opportunities for child survival needs to be identified and quantified, in order to guide the next steps to further improve child survival in Peru. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to project the mortality impact of proven interventions reaching every women and child in need, and the mortality impact of eliminating inequalities in coverage distribution between wealth quintiles and urban–rural residence. Results Our analyses quantified the remaining missed opportunities in Peru, where prioritizing scale-up of facility-based case management for all small and sick babies will be most effective in mortality reduction, compared to other evidenced-based interventions that prevent maternal and child deaths. Eliminating coverage disparities between the poorest quintiles and the richest will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 22.0 and 40.6 %, while eliminating coverage disparities between those living in rural and urban areas will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 29.3 and 45.2 %. This projected neonatal mortality reduction achieved by eliminating coverage disparities is almost comparable to that already achieved by Peru over the past decade. Conclusions Although Peru has made great strides in improving child survival, further improvement in child health, especially in newborn health can be achieved if there is universal and equitable coverage of proven, quality health facility-based interventions. The magnitude of reduction in mortality will be similar to what has been achieved in the past decade. Strengthening health system to identify, understand, and direct resources to the poor and rural areas will ensure that Peru achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

  20. Remaining missed opportunities of child survival in Peru: modelling mortality impact of universal and equitable coverage of proven interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Yvonne; Huicho, Luis; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara

    2016-10-04

    Peru has made great improvements in reducing stunting and child mortality in the past decade, and has reached the Millennium Development Goals 1 and 4. The remaining challenges or missed opportunities for child survival needs to be identified and quantified, in order to guide the next steps to further improve child survival in Peru. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to project the mortality impact of proven interventions reaching every women and child in need, and the mortality impact of eliminating inequalities in coverage distribution between wealth quintiles and urban-rural residence. Our analyses quantified the remaining missed opportunities in Peru, where prioritizing scale-up of facility-based case management for all small and sick babies will be most effective in mortality reduction, compared to other evidenced-based interventions that prevent maternal and child deaths. Eliminating coverage disparities between the poorest quintiles and the richest will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 22.0 and 40.6 %, while eliminating coverage disparities between those living in rural and urban areas will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 29.3 and 45.2 %. This projected neonatal mortality reduction achieved by eliminating coverage disparities is almost comparable to that already achieved by Peru over the past decade. Although Peru has made great strides in improving child survival, further improvement in child health, especially in newborn health can be achieved if there is universal and equitable coverage of proven, quality health facility-based interventions. The magnitude of reduction in mortality will be similar to what has been achieved in the past decade. Strengthening health system to identify, understand, and direct resources to the poor and rural areas will ensure that Peru achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

  1. New model for estimating the relationship between surface area and volume in the human body using skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasabova, Boryana E; Holliday, Trenton W

    2015-04-01

    A new model for estimating human body surface area and body volume/mass from standard skeletal metrics is presented. This model is then tested against both 1) "independently estimated" body surface areas and "independently estimated" body volume/mass (both derived from anthropometric data) and 2) the cylindrical model of Ruff. The model is found to be more accurate in estimating both body surface area and body volume/mass than the cylindrical model, but it is more accurate in estimating body surface area than it is for estimating body volume/mass (as reflected by the standard error of the estimate when "independently estimated" surface area or volume/mass is regressed on estimates derived from the present model). Two practical applications of the model are tested. In the first test, the relative contribution of the limbs versus the trunk to the body's volume and surface area is compared between "heat-adapted" and "cold-adapted" populations. As expected, the "cold-adapted" group has significantly more of its body surface area and volume in its trunk than does the "heat-adapted" group. In the second test, we evaluate the effect of variation in bi-iliac breadth, elongated or foreshortened limbs, and differences in crural index on the body's surface area to volume ratio (SA:V). Results indicate that the effects of bi-iliac breadth on SA:V are substantial, while those of limb lengths and (especially) the crural index are minor, which suggests that factors other than surface area relative to volume are driving morphological variation and ecogeographical patterning in limb prorportions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Temporal and spatial distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 pollution status and the correlation of particulate matters and meteorological factors during winter and spring in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen-Xi; Wang, Yun-Qi; Wang, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Lan; Zhao, Bing-Qing

    2014-02-01

    Fogs and hazes broke out many times in winter and spring of 2012-2013 in Beijing, inducing severe pollution of respirable particulate matters (PM10). As a fine particle component in PM10, PM2.5 would cause more severe air pollution if the proportion of PM2.5 to PM10 is high. Based on this, 30 monitoring stations recording the concentration of PM2.5 and PM1.0 all over Beijing were selected, and the contamination characteristics of particulate matters were analyzed, which further served to determine the characteristics of temporal and spatial pollution variations of PM2.5 and PM10. The distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration in winter and spring in Beijing were derived by the Original Kriging interpolation method, and it was depicted from the figure that the concentration of particulate matters gradually increased from the northern mountain area to the southern part of Beijing; in the central urban area, the particulate concentration of the western region was generally higher than that of the eastern region, with certain differences between urban and rural area within some local areas. Monthly variation curve of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration showed single peak-valley pattern: the maximum was in January and the minimum was in April; daily variation indicated a good correlation between PM2.5 and PM10, both of which were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions; diurnal variation curve showed a double peak-valley type. Meteorological factors such as daily average temperature (degrees C), relative humidity (%), wind speed (wind scale), precipitation (mm) were chosen and their individual relationships with concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were investigated using Spearman rank correlation analyses. It was demonstrated that the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity, respectively, and strongly negatively correlated with wind speed; wind speed and relative humidity were two key factors

  3. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

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    Celo V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs, in particular platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rh, from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM is important for the estimation of potential risks to human health and to the ecosystem. The aim of this study is to present the first results from an analysis on the concentration and distribution of Pt, Pd and Rh in PM collected on Teflon filters at two selected urban sites (Toronto, Ontario; Edmonton, Alberta collected within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network. In this work, a quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, combined with microwave assisted acid digestion using aqua regia was used. A cation exchange separation was used to alleviate the matrix-induced spectral and nonspectral interferences prior to ICP-MS analysis. To obtain sufficient material needed for PGEs analysis, fine PM (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm; PM2.5 and coarse PM (with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 mm; PM10-2.5 samples were combined into composite samples on a seasonal basis. The obtained results will be discussed and compared with literature data.

  4. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement—Part II: Effect of precipitation, wintertime road sanding, and street sweepers on inferred PM 10 emission potentials from paved and unpaved roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, H.; Etyemezian, V.; Green, M.; Hendrickson, Karin; McGown, Michael; Barton, Kevin; Pitchford, Marc

    Testing Re-Entrained Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) is a new technique to infer paved and unpaved road dust PM 10 emission potentials based on particulate matter (PM) measurements made onboard a moving vehicle. Light scattering instruments mounted in front and behind the vehicle's tires measure the differential particle concentration of dust suspended by the vehicle's tire in contact with the road surface. Through empirical regressions relating the differential concentration (i.e. TRAKER signal) with the vehicle speed and the downwind flux of PM 10 particles from the road, an equation is derived to infer the speed independent road dust emission potential from the measured TRAKER signal. Measurements from TRAKER offer a new perspective on the processes that affect road dust emissions. The system was used to investigate temporal changes in emission potentials from paved roads in both the winter and summer in the Treasure Valley in Southwest Idaho. During the 3-week wintertime sampling period, the residential road dust PM 10 emission potential decreased by ˜50%. Summertime PM 10 emission potentials were similar to those observed at the end of the winter sampling and showed no upward or downward trends. Wintertime unpaved road emissions increased consistently with the number of days since the last rainfall. Measurement of road dust emission potentials after road sanding on dry roads indicated a 75% increase in PM 10 emissions after 2.5 h. This effect was short lived and emission potentials returned to their pre-sanding levels within 8 h of the sand application. Street sweeping with mechanical and vacuum sweepers was found to offer no measurable reduction in PM 10 emission potentials. On several roads, the PM 10 emission potentials actually increased immediately after vacuum sweeping. Long term effects of street sweeping on road dust emissions were not evaluated as part of this study and may offer some overall reduction in PM emissions from paved roads.

  5. Contaminación atmosférica y calidad del aire en Madrid: Análisis de las concentraciones de SO2, CO, NO2, ozono y PM10 (1980-2003

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    Fernández García, Felipe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the limit values of the new EU air quality Directive (1999/30/EC for SO2; CO; NO2; PM10 and O3 pollutans. The annual average concentrations are decreasing from 1980 to 1990; from 1990 to 2003, NO2 and PM10 have been stable, SO2 and CO continuing downwards and the ozone has increased. Concentrations of NO2 and PM10 are higher of limit values in more of 96% of the urban stations, by contrast the highest concentrations of ozone occurs in the surronundings.[es] En este artículo analizamos la calidad del aire en Madrid a partir de los límites propuestos por la Directiva europea (1999/30/EC para el SO2, CO, NO2, ozono y PM10. Los resultados más importantes han sido: una clara tendencia descendente en las concentraciones medias entre 1980 y 1990; a partir de ese año las concentraciones de NO2 y PM10 permanecen estables, las del SO2 y del CO continúan descendiendo y el ozono aumenta. En el periodo 2001 y 2003 las medias de NO2 y PM10 superan los valores límites en más del 96% de las estaciones urbanas, mientras que los mayores valores del ozono se registran en las áreas suburbanas. [fr] Dans cet article nous avons utilisé les valeurs limites proposées par la Directive Européenne (1999/30/EC pour le SO2; CO; NO2; PM10et l'ozone. Les principaux résultats sont : les concentrations moyennes annuelles ont diminué entre 1980 et 1990 ; entre 1990 et 2003, les concentrations de NO2 et de PM10 se sont stabilisées, celles de SO2 et de CO ont continué la diminution, et la tendance de l'ozone est positive. NO2 et PM10 ont dépassé les limites dans le 96% des stations urbaines, mais l´ozone est au maximum dans les zones suburbaines prochaines.

  6. Spatial/temporal variations of elemental carbon, organic carbon, and trace elements in PM10 and the impact of land-use patterns on community air pollution in Paterson, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Meng, Qingyu; Zhu, Xianlei; Korn, Leo; Bonanno, Linda J

    2011-06-01

    An urban community PM10 (particulate matter NJ, a mixed land-use community that is interspersed with industrial, commercial, mobile, and residential land-use types. This paper examines (1) the spatial/temporal variation of PM10, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and nine elements; and (2) the impact of land-use type on those variations. Air samples were collected from three community-oriented locations in Paterson that attempted to capture industrial, commercial, and mobile source-dominated emissions. Sampling was conducted for 24 hr every 6 days from November 2005 through December 2006. Samples were concurrently collected at the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection-designated air toxics background site in Chester, NJ. PM10 mass, EC, OC, and nine elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, S, Ti, and Zn) that had more than 50% of samples above detection and known sources or are toxic were selected for spatial/temporal analysis in this study. The concentrations of PM10, EC, OC, and eight elements (except S) were significantly higher in Paterson than in Chester (P 0.05). These results indicated that anthropogenic sources of air pollution were present in Paterson. The source apportionment confirmed the impact of vehicular and industrial emissions on the PM10 ambient air pollution in Paterson. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that categorical land-use type was a significant predictor for all air pollution levels, explaining up to 42% of the variability in concentration by land-use type only.

  7. Evolution of air pollution source contributions over one decade, derived by PM10 and PM2.5 source apportionment in two metropolitan urban areas in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapouli, E.; Manousakas, M.; Vratolis, S.; Vasilatou, V.; Maggos, Th; Saraga, D.; Grigoratos, Th; Argyropoulos, G.; Voutsa, D.; Samara, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2017-09-01

    Metropolitan Urban areas in Greece have been known to suffer from poor air quality, due to variety of emission sources, topography and climatic conditions favouring the accumulation of pollution. While a number of control measures have been implemented since the 1990s, resulting in reductions of atmospheric pollution and changes in emission source contributions, the financial crisis which started in 2009 has significantly altered this picture. The present study is the first effort to assess the contribution of emission sources to PM10 and PM2.5 concentration levels and their long-term variability (over 5-10 years), in the two largest metropolitan urban areas in Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki). Intensive measurement campaigns were conducted during 2011-2012 at suburban, urban background and urban traffic sites in these two cities. In addition, available datasets from previous measurements in Athens and Thessaloniki were used in order to assess the long-term variability of concentrations and sources. Chemical composition analysis of the 2011-2012 samples showed that carbonaceous matter was the most abundant component for both PM size fractions. Significant increase of carbonaceous particle concentrations and of OC/EC ratio during the cold period, especially in the residential urban background sites, pointed towards domestic heating and more particularly wood (biomass) burning as a significant source. PMF analysis further supported this finding. Biomass burning was the largest contributing source at the two urban background sites (with mean contributions for the two size fractions in the range of 24-46%). Secondary aerosol formation (sulphate, nitrate & organics) was also a major contributing source for both size fractions at the suburban and urban background sites. At the urban traffic site, vehicular traffic (exhaust and non-exhaust emissions) was the source with the highest contributions, accounting for 44% of PM10 and 37% of PM2.5, respectively. The long

  8. In vitro investigations of platinum, palladium, and rhodium mobility in urban airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) using simulated lung fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    Environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) have been increasing since the introduction of automotive catalytic converters to control harmful emissions. Assessments of the human health risks of exposures to these elements, especially through the inhalation of PGE-associated airborne particulate matter (PM), have been hampered by a lack of data on their bioaccessibility. The purpose of this study is to apply in vitro methods using simulated human lung fluids [artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution] to assess the mobility of the PGE, platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) in airborne PM of human health concern. Airborne PM samples (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. For comparison, the same extraction experiments were conducted using the standard reference material, Used Auto Catalyst (monolith) (NIST 2557). Pt and Pd concentrations were measured using isotope dilution ICP-Q-MS, while Rh was measured directly with ICP-Q-MS (in collision mode with He), following established matrix separation and enrichment procedures, for both solid (filtered residues) and extracted sample phases. The mobilized fractions measured for PGE in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were highly variable, which can be attributed to the heterogenic nature of airborne PM and its composition. Overall, the mobility of PGE in airborne PM samples was notable, with a mean of 51% Rh, 22% Pt, and 29% Pd present in PM(1) being mobilized by ALF after 24 h. For PM(1) exposed to Gamble's solution, a mean of 44% Rh, 18% Pt, and 17% Pd was measured in solution after 24 h. The mobility of PGE associated with airborne PM was also determined to be much higher compared to that measured for the auto catalyst standard reference material. The results suggest that PGE emitted from automotive catalytic converters are likely to undergo chemical transformations during and/or after being emitted in the environment. This study highlights the need

  9. Characterization of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in outdoor/indoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1.0 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Wang, Runhua; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui

    2017-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were listed in the Stockholm Convention, because of their adverse health effects, persistence, bioaccumulation and ubiquitous presence in the environment. Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), chlorinated derivatives of n-alkanes, have been listed as candidate POPs under Stockholm Convention. Inhalation uptake was an important exposure pathway for non-occupational adult human and the pollution of particle matter has caused great concern. There are some studies focused on POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different size particles. However, there were no studies that discussed CP concentrations in particulate matter (PM) with different sizes. In this study, a total of 30 PM samples were collected both outdoors and indoors at a sampling site in Beijing. These samples were used to investigate the concentrations and distributions of SCCPs and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in PM fractions of different sizes, and to evaluate inhalation exposure risks. The results showed that the average SCCPs and MCCPs in the outdoor PM 10 were 23.9 and 3.6 ng m -3 , while the mean values in indoor were 61.1 and 6.9 ng m -3 , respectively. The levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in indoor and outdoor were relatively high. SCCP and MCCP concentrations in the indoor PM 10 /PM 2.5 /PM 1.0 samples were higher than the corresponding values in the outdoor, because of the using of some products containing CPs in the indoors, like paints and coatings, leather and rubber products. In both outdoor and indoor air, CPs are mainly associated with particles ≤2.5 μm in diameter. The main homolog groups for both SCCPs and MCCPs were C 10-11 Cl 7-8 . It is assumed that SCCPs in the outdoor and indoor PM samples may mainly derive from the production and use of CP-42 and CP-52. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Saharan dust outbreaks and carbon content on oxidative potential of water-soluble fractions of PM2.5 and PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirizzi, Daniela; Cesari, Daniela; Guascito, Maria Rachele; Dinoi, Adelaide; Giotta, Livia; Donateo, Antonio; Contini, Daniele

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) leads to adverse health effects although the exact mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood. Several studies suggested that a large number of PM health effects could be due to the oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particles leading to high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The contribution to OP of specific anthropogenic sources like road traffic, biomass burning, and industrial emissions has been investigated in several sites. However, information about the OP of natural sources are scarce and no data is available regarding the OP during Saharan dust outbreaks (SDO) in Mediterranean regions. This work uses the a-cellular DTT (dithiothreitol) assay to evaluate OP of the water-soluble fraction of PM2.5 and PM10 collected at an urban background site in Southern Italy. OP values in three groups of samples were compared: standard characterised by concentrations similar to the yearly averages; high carbon samples associated to combustion sources (mainly road traffic and biomass burning) and SDO events. DTT activity normalised by sampled air volume (DTTV), representative of personal exposure, and normalised by collected aerosol mass (DTTM), representing source-specific characteristics, were investigated. The DTTV is larger for high PM concentrations. DTTV is well correlated with secondary organic carbon concentration. An increased DTTV response was found for PM2.5 compared to the coarse fraction PM2.5-10. DTTV is larger for high carbon content samples but during SDO events is statistically comparable with that of standard samples. DTTM is larger for PM2.5 compared to PM10 and the relative difference between the two size fractions is maximised during SDO events. This indicates that Saharan dust advection is a natural source of particles having a lower specific OP with respect to the other sources acting on the area (for water-soluble fraction). OP should be taken into account in epidemiological

  11. A New Predictive Model Based on the ABC Optimized Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Approach for Predicting the Remaining Useful Life in Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life (RUL estimation is considered as one of the most central points in the prognostics and health management (PHM. The present paper describes a nonlinear hybrid ABC–MARS-based model for the prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. Indeed, it is well-known that an accurate RUL estimation allows failure prevention in a more controllable way so that the effective maintenance can be carried out in appropriate time to correct impending faults. The proposed hybrid model combines multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, which have been successfully adopted for regression problems, with the artificial bee colony (ABC technique. This optimization technique involves parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. However, its use in reliability applications has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, remaining useful life values have been predicted here by using the hybrid ABC–MARS-based model from the remaining measured parameters (input variables for aircraft engines with success. A correlation coefficient equal to 0.92 was obtained when this hybrid ABC–MARS-based model was applied to experimental data. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. The main advantage of this predictive model is that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the aircraft engine.

  12. Validación de un método de análisis para la determinación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia en partículas PM10 Y PM2,5 Validation of an analytical method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high efficiency liquid chromatography in PM10 and PM2, 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Murillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se validó un método analítico para la determinación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos presentes en partículas PM10 y PM 2,5 recolectadas en el aire mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR. Los HPA incluidos en la metodología comprenden: Naftaleno, Acenaftileno, Fluoreno, Acenafteno, Fenantreno, Antraceno, Fluoranteno, Pireno, Benzo (aantraceno, Criseno, Benzo (bfluoranteno, Benzo (kfluoranteno, Benzo (apireno, Dibenzo (a,h antraceno, Benzo (g,h,iperileno y Indeno (1,2,3- C.D pireno. Para estos compuestos, los límites de detección y cuantificación estuvieron entre 0,02 y 0,1 mg/l utilizando un equipo marca Dionex modelo ICS- 3000, el cual consta de dos detectores en serie, un ultravioleta modelo VWD-1 y un detector de fluorescencia modelo RF-2000, permitiendo diferenciar las distintas señales de absorción y emisión para la debida identificación de los distintos compuestos. Para todos los compuestos analizados, el factor de recuperación resultó no ser significativamente diferente de uno y la repetibilidad y reproducibilidad resultó ser adecuada para un método analítico, especialmente para los HPA más ligeros.An analytical method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM 2.5 par ticles collected from air by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was validated. The PAHs analyzed in the methodology include: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Acenaphthene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, fluoranthene,pyrene,Benzo(aanthracene,Chrysene, Benzo (bfluoranthene, Benzo (kfluoranthene, Benzo (apyrene Dibenzo (a, hanthracene, Benzo (g, h, iperylene and Indeno (1,2,3-CDpyrene. For these compounds, the detection limit and quantification limit were between 0,02 and 0,1 mg/l using a DIONEX ICS 3000 model cromatograph, that has two in serie detectors: UV/Vis and Fluorescense, separating the different absorption and emission signals for proper identification of individual compounds. For all the compounds

  13. Geochemical behaviour of PM10 aerosol constituents under the influence of succeeding anticyclonic/cyclonic situations: case of Sfax City, southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahloul, Moez; Chabbi, Iness; Dammak, Rim; Amdouni, Ridha; Medhioub, Khaled; Azri, Chafai

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigates the geochemical behaviour of PM10 aerosol constituents (Cl, Na, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Zn, S) at Sfax City (Tunisia) under succeeding meteorological conditions, including short-lived anticyclonic, cyclonic and prolonged anticyclonic situations. The results revealed daily total concentrations fluctuating between 4.07 and 88.51 μg/m(3). The highest level recorded was noted to occur under the effect of the short-lived anticyclonic situation characterized by low wind speeds. It was 1.5 times higher than those recorded during cyclonic and long-lived anticyclonic situations characterized by moderate to high wind speeds. During the cyclonic situation, the marked increase of (Na and Cl) concentrations is associated with relatively high sea wind speeds (6 to 9 m/s), which are in turn responsible for a slight increase of crustal elements such as Al, Ca, Si, Fe and Mg, by the entrainment in the air of dust from roads and undeveloped areas. During the two anticyclonic situations, the simultaneous increase (due to communal transport) of crustal (Ca, Si, Al, Fe, Mg) and man-made (Mn, S, Pb, Zn) elements was noted to be associated with the dominance of terrigenious wind flows with speeds varying between 1.5 and 4 m/s. However, the significant contribution rates observed for Cl under the prevalence of such winds as compared to other crustal elements such as Fe suggested the influence of the sebkhas of Southern Tunisia.

  14. A twelve month study of PM2.5 and PM10 fine particle aerosol composition in the Sydney region using ion beam analysis techniques. Appendix 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, David D.; Bailey, G.M.; Kondepudi, Ramesh

    1995-01-01

    The accelerator based ion beam (IBA) analysis techniques of PIXE, PIGME, PESA, and RBS have been used to characterise fine particles at selected sites in the Sydney region. The four techniques operating simultaneously provide elemental concentrations on 24 chemical species, including H, Q N, 0, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Br and Pb. The total mass and the elemental carbon by laser integrated plate techniques were also measured. A stacked filter system, built by the University of Gent, Belgium and supplied by the IAEA was used to provide fine particle data on PM2.5 and PM10 particles. While a cyclone sampler, built at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, was used to provide data on PM2.5 particles only. The two different types of units were operated along side each other for the whole of 1994 and the results compared. The use of the multi-elemental IBA techniques also allowed for some fine particle source fingerprinting to be performed. (author)

  15. Main components and human health risks assessment of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in two areas influenced by cement plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soberón, Francisco; Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L.; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2015-11-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is widely recorded as a source of diseases, being more harmful those particles with smaller size. PM is released to the environment as a consequence of different activities, being one of them cement production. The objective of this pilot study was to characterize PM of different sizes around cement facilities to have a preliminary approach of their origin, and evaluate their potential health risks. For that purpose, three fractions of PM (10, 2.5, and 1) were collected in the nearby area of two cement plants with different backgrounds (urban and rural) in different seasons. Subsequently, main components, outdoor and indoor concentrations, exposure, and human health risks were assessed. Greatest levels of PM1, organic matter, and metals were found in urban location, especially in winter. Consequently, environmental exposure and human health risks registered their highest values in the urban plant during wintertime. Exposure was higher for indoor activities, expressing some metals their peak values in the PM1 fraction. Non-carcinogenic risks were below the safety threshold (HQ < 1). Carcinogenic risks for most of the metals were below the limit of 10-5, except for Cr (VI), which exceeded it in both locations, but being in the range considered as assumable (10-6-10-4).

  16. Real Time Cascade Impactor Based On Surface Acoustic Wave Delay Lines for PM10 and PM2.5 Mass Concentration Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoumi, Lyes; Vanotti, Meddy; Blondeau-Patissier, Virginie

    2018-01-16

    In this research, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors are combined with a cascade impactor to perform real time PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration measurements. The SAW sensors consist of 125 MHz delay lines based on Love waves propagating on an AT-cut quartz substrate. The Love waves are guided on the substrate's surface using a silica layer. SAW sensors themselves are not capable to discriminate particles by their size, therefore, particle separation based on aerodynamic diameter is achieved using a 3 Lpm dedicated cascade impactor. The latter was designed to integrate the SAW sensors which are monitored using a phase shift measurement. The collected particles impact on the acoustic sensor's surface inducing a gravimetric effect that modifies the acoustic wave propagation conditions. The resulted phase shift allows the measurement of the mass deposited on the sensitive zone. The novel cascade impactor with SAW sensors as particle collecting stages is exposed to different aerosols in the 0-150 μg/m³ concentration range and proved to be able to detect and differentiate particles based on their size in real time. The system's response was compared to a commercial optical counter based on light scattering technology and was found to be in good agreement with it.

  17. PM 10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Concentrations, source characterization and estimating their risk in urban, suburban and rural areas in Kandy, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, A. P.; Karunaratne, D. G. G. P.; Sivakanesan, R.

    2011-05-01

    Kandy, a world heritage city, is a rapidly urbanized area in Sri Lanka, with a high population density of ˜6000 hab km -2. As it is centrally located in a small valley of 26 km 2 surrounded by high mountains, emissions from the daily flow of >100,000 vehicles, most are old and poorly maintained, get stagnant over the study area with an increased emphasis on the associated health impacts. Particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be major pollutants in vehicular emissions; while PAHs account for the majority of mutagenic potency of PM. The purpose of the current study is to determine the 8 h average concentrations of ambient PM 10 PAHs at twenty sites distributed in the urban, suburban and rural Kandy. Samples on glass micro fibre filters were collected with a high volume air sampler from July/2008 to March/2009, prepared through standard procedures and analyzed for PAHs by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet visible detection. Further, the type and strength of possible anthropogenic emission sources that cause major perturbations to the atmosphere were assessed by traffic volume (24 h) counts and firewood mass burnt/d at each sampling site, with the subsequent societal impact through quantitative cancer risk assessment. The results can serve as a base set to assess the PAH sources, pollution levels and human exposure. Mean total concentrations of 16 prioritized PAHs (∑PAHs) ranged from 57.43 to 1246.12 ng m -3 with 695.94 ng m -3 in urban heavy traffic locations (U/HT), 105.55 ng m -3 in urban light traffic locations, 337.45 ng m -3 in suburban heavy traffic stations, 154.36 ng m -3 in suburban light traffic stations, 192.48 ng m -3 in rural high firewood burning area and 100.31 ng m -3 in rural low firewood burning area. The mean PM 10 concentration was 129 μg m -3 (55-221 μg m -3); which is beyond the WHO air quality standards. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon signature and the spatial variation

  18. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10 and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kowalska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5 on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old, obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health

  19. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10) and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Krzysztof

    2016-09-28

    Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5) on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm) has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old), obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health are necessary.

  20. Characterization of metals in PM1 and PM10 and health risk evaluation at an urban site in the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, N; Yubero, E; Nicolás, J F; Varea, M; Crespo, J

    2018-06-01

    PM 1 and PM 10 samples collected in the urban center of Elche during two years were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence in order to determine the concentrations of the following metals: K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Ba. The influence of traffic and Saharan dust intrusions on PM levels and metal content was studied in this work. The results indicate that the coarse fraction was affected more by variations in traffic intensity than the submicron fraction. The concentrations of Ca, commonly used as a tracer of road dust, showed the highest decreases during the weekends due to the reduction in traffic-induced resuspension. In contrast, Saharan events had a greater impact on the levels of other metals such as Ti and Fe, significantly affecting their seasonal variability. High concentrations of V and Ni compared with the values found at larger urban areas were observed. This could be attributed to a significant contribution from soils, Saharan dust and even ship emissions. Enrichment factors calculated using Ti as a reference element indicate that Zn and Cu are predominantly emitted by anthropogenic activities. In fact, Saharan dust intrusions had a minor influence on the average concentrations of these metals. Non-carcinogenic health hazards associated with exposure to airborne metals were lower than the safety threshold (hazard quotient < 1). Carcinogenic risks for Cr (VI) and Ni were between 10 -6 and 10 -4 and, therefore, within the range considered acceptable by the US EPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of inorganic chemical compositions of atmospheric TSP, PM10and PM2.5in northern and southern Chinese coastal cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiding; Wang, Zongshuang; Tan, Yufei; Xu, Shu; Kong, Shaofei; Wu, Gang; Wu, Xuefang; Li, Hong

    2017-05-01

    To compare the inorganic chemical compositions of TSP (total suspended particulate), PM 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10μm) and PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5μm) in southern and northern cities in China, atmospheric particles were synchronously collected in Dalian (the northern city) and Xiamen (the southern city) in spring and autumn of 2004. The mass concentrations, twenty-three elements and nine soluble ions were assessed. The results show that in Dalian, the mass concentrations of Mg, Al, Ca, Mn and Fe in spring were 4.0-10.1, 2.6-8.0, 4.1-12, 1.2-3.6 and 2.9-7.9 times higher, respectively, than those in Xiamen. The dust storm influence is more obvious in Dalian in spring. However, in Xiamen, heavy metals accounted for 13.9%-17.9% of TSP, while heavy metals contributed to 5.5%-9.3% of TSP in Dalian. These concentrations suggest that heavy metal pollution in Xiamen was more serious. In addition, the concentrations of Na + , Cl - , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ were higher in Dalian due to the influence of marine aerosol, construction activities and soil dust. The NO 3- /SO 4 2- ratios in Dalian (0.25-0.49) were lower than those in Xiamen (0.51-0.62), indicating that the contributions of vehicle emission to particles in Xiamen were higher. Coefficient of divergence values was higher than 0.40, implying that the inorganic chemical composition profiles for the particles of Dalian and Xiamen were quite different from each other. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  3. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  4. Sources and Formation Processes of Short-Chain Saturated Diacids (C2–C4 in Inhalable Particles (PM10 from Huangshi City, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available PM10 samples were collected from Huangshi (HS city, Central China during April 2012 to March 2013, and were analyzed for short-chain saturated dicarboxylic acids (diacids using a capillary gas chromatograph (GC. We found that oxalic acid (C2, 318 ± 104 ng·m−3 was the most abundant diacid species, followed by malonic acid (C3, 25.4 ± 9.11 ng·m−3 and succinic acid (C4, 2.09 ± 0.52 ng·m−3. The concentrations of C2 and C4 diacids were highest in winter, followed by summer and spring, and lowest in autumn. C3 diacid was decreased in the order of summer > winter > autumn > spring. Further, the seasonal variations of WSOC (water-soluble organic carbon- and OC (organic carbon-normalized diacid concentrations were similar to those of diacid concentrations, suggesting that both primary emission and secondary production are important sources for diacids in Huangshi (HS aerosols. Strong correlations were found among C2 diacid and the three ions SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ in summer and winter, suggesting that the species could undergo a similar secondary oxidation processing. C2 had good correlation with K+ in summer and autumn, which indicates an enhanced contribution of combustion sources for C2 diacid. Moreover, according to the ratio of C2/K+, we can conclude that C2 diacid should be formed by a secondary reaction of biomass combustion in HS aerosols, especially in summer and autumn. The ratios of C2/C4 and C3/C4 were compared with those reported in other sites, and the results suggest that HS aerosols should be more photochemically aged than at other urban areas. Principal component analysis of diacids and selected water-soluble inorganic ions over four seasons suggests that HS aerosols are influenced not only from primary emission, but also from secondary reaction. According to the linear relation between C2 and C3 diacids, the results indicate that C2 diacid is formed from the oxidation of hydrocarbon compounds in spring, while it is from

  5. Growth, extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity, and kinetic characteristic responses of the bloom-forming toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM>10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziran; Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (APM), commonly seen and widely excited in environment, appears great enough to influence the biochemical processes in aquatic microorganisms and phytoplankton. Understanding the response of cyanobacteria to various factors is fundamental for eutrophication control. To clarify the response of cyanobacteria to APM, the effects of PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 , and PM >10 on Microcystis aeruginosa were researched. Variabilities in cell density, chlorophyll a, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, extracellular activity, and kinetic parameters of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by lab-cultured experiments. Results showed that the PM 2.5 had a slight stimulation impact on the growth and enhanced both of the 48- and 72-h extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), the affinity of alkaline phosphatase for substrate, and the 72-h maximum enzymatic reaction velocity (V max ). Moreover, the stimulations in extracellular APA and V max enhanced with the increasing exposure concentrations. We also found there were no obvious distinctions on the effects of growth and alkaline phosphatase in M. aeruginosa between PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exposure groups. Obviously, inhibitory effects on growth existed in 4.0 and 8.0 mg/L PM 2.5-10 and 8.0 mg/L PM >10 at 120 h. Furthermore, PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exerted inhibitory effects on the extracellular APA during the 72-h exposure. Simultaneously, the V max was notably inhibited and the affinity of alkaline phosphatase for substrate was more inseparable compared with control in PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 treatments. Nevertheless, the inhibitors in extracellular APA and kinetic parameters were unrelated to PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exposure concentrations. Two-way ANOVA results revealed that there were significant interactions between exposure concentration and diameter of APM on the 120-h cell density, soluble protein content, APA, and 72 h APA of M. aeruginosa. These results in our study would be meaningful to further

  6. Análisis del origen de PM10 y PM2.5 en Bogotá usando gráficos polares (Analysis of the origin of PM10 and PM2.5 in Bogota by using polar plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alejandro García Ávila

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Determinar la procedencia de los contaminantes del aire registrados por una red de monitoreo es fundamental para diseñar acciones de prevención y control de la contaminación. Con este fin, se analizaron, mediante la aplicación Openair®, los registros de material particulado (PM10 y PM2.5, velocidad y dirección de los vientos, en 10 estaciones de monitoreo de calidad del aire en Bogotá para el período 2009-2011, encontrándose la influencia de fuentes locales y regionales. Se determinaron altas concentraciones de material particulado relacionadas con velocidades de viento superiores a 5 m/s procedentes del occidente, lo cual sugiere un transporte regional de contaminantes desde los municipios vecinos del occidente de la ciudad (Soacha, Funza, Mosquera, Madrid, hacia su centro geográfico. Estos municipios concentran actividad industrial y transporte pesado de bienes desde y hacia Bogotá. Las fuentes localizadas al interior de la ciudad, en particular aquellas que emplean carbón como combustible y las fuentes móviles que transitan sobre las vías principales, contribuyen a generar altos niveles de material particulado cuando los vientos son débiles, pero en menor magnitud que las fuentes externas. (Abstract. The design of pollution prevention strategies and plans requires information about the origin of the pollutants. In this work, particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, wind speed and wind direction records from 10 air quality monitoring stations in Bogota between 2009 and 2011 were analyzed using Openair®. The influence of local and regional sources was established. High concentrations of particulate matter associated with wind speeds exceeding 5 m/s from the West were found, suggesting regional transport from the neighboring municipalities of Soacha, Funza, Mosquera and Madrid, towards its geographic center. These municipalities have a significant industrial activity and heavy transport of goods to and from Bogota. Sources located

  7. Empirical estimates to reduce modeling uncertainties of soil organic carbon in permafrost regions: a review of recent progress and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U.; Jastrow, J.D.; Matamala, R.; Hugelius, G.; Koven, C.D.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Ping, S.L.; Michaelson, G.J.; Fan, Z.; Miller, R.M.; McGuire, A.D.; Tarnocai, C.; Kuhry, P.; Riley, W.J.; Schaefer, K.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Hinzman, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    The vast amount of organic carbon (OC) stored in soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost region is a potentially vulnerable component of the global carbon cycle. However, estimates of the quantity, decomposability, and combustibility of OC contained in permafrost-region soils remain highly uncertain, thereby limiting our ability to predict the release of greenhouse gases due to permafrost thawing. Substantial differences exist between empirical and modeling estimates of the quantity and distribution of permafrost-region soil OC, which contribute to large uncertainties in predictions of carbon–climate feedbacks under future warming. Here, we identify research challenges that constrain current assessments of the distribution and potential decomposability of soil OC stocks in the northern permafrost region and suggest priorities for future empirical and modeling studies to address these challenges.

  8. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part 53...

  9. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10−2.5 Class II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Illustration...

  10. Modelling the impact of mulching the soil with plant remains on water regime formation, crop yield and energy costs in agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy M.; Dzhogan, Larisa Y.; Nasonova, Olga N.

    2018-02-01

    The model MULCH, developed by authors previously for simulating the formation of water regime in an agricultural field covered by straw mulch layer, has been used for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of Russia and Ukraine. It simulates the dynamics of water budget components in a soil rooting zone at daily time step from the beginning of spring snowmelt to the beginning of the period with stable negative air temperatures. The model was designed for estimation of mulching efficiency in terms of increase in plant water supply and crop yield under climatic and soil conditions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones. It is used for studying the mulching effect on some characteristics of water regime and yield of winter wheat growing at specific sites located in semi-arid and arid regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the eastern and southern parts of the East-European (Russian) plain. In addition, a previously developed technique for estimating the energetic efficiency of various agricultural technologies with accounting for their impact on changes in soil energy is applied for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European Russia: (1) moldboard tillage of soil without irrigation, (2) moldboard tillage of soil with irrigation, (3) subsurface cultivation, and (4) subsurface cultivation with mulching the soil with plant remains.

  11. Disability-adjusted life years and economic cost assessment of the health effects related to PM2.5 and PM10 pollution in Mumbai and Delhi, in India from 1991 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Kamal Jyoti; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Deshpande, Ashok

    2017-02-01

    Particulate air pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban cities in India due to air pollution-related health effects associated with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic loss. To obtain the quantitative result of health impact of particulate matter (PM) in most populated Mumbai City and most polluted Delhi City in India, an epidemiology-based exposure-response function has been used to calculate the attributable number of mortality and morbidity cases from 1991 to 2015 in a 5-year interval and the subsequent DALYs, and economic cost is estimated of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. Here, we report the attributable number of mortality due to PM 10 in Mumbai and Delhi increased to 32,014 and 48,651 in 2015 compared with 19,291 and 19,716 in year 1995. And annual average mortality due to PM 2.5 in Mumbai and Delhi was 10,880 and 10,900. Premature cerebrovascular disease (CEV), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes are about 35.3, 33.3, and 22.9% of PM 2.5 -attributable mortalities. Total DALYs due to PM10 increased from 0.34 million to 0.51 million in Mumbai and 0.34 million to 0.75 million in Delhi from average year 1995 to 2015. Among all health outcomes, mortality and chronic bronchitis shared about 95% of the total DALYs. Due to PM 10 , the estimated total economic cost at constant price year 2005 US$ increased from 2680.87 million to 4269.60 million for Mumbai City and 2714.10 million to 6394.74 million for Delhi City, from 1995 to 2015, and the total amount accounting about 1.01% of India's gross domestic product (GDP). A crucial presumption is that in 2030, PM 10 levels would have to decline by 44% (Mumbai) and 67% (Delhi) absolutely to maintain the same health outcomes in year 2015 levels. The results will help policy makers from pollution control board for further cost-benefit analyses of air pollution management programs in Mumbai and Delhi.

  12. Análise de regressão múltipla das concentrações de PM10 em função de elementos meteorológicos para Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em 2005 e 2006 = Multiple regression analysis of PM10 concentration concerning to meteorological elements for Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, in 2005 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Radünz Lazzari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O ar é um meio eficiente de dispersão de poluentes atmosféricos e seucomportamento depende dos movimentos atmosféricos que ocorrem na troposfera. Em Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, há um grande tráfego diário e uma concentração de indústrias que podem ser responsáveis por emissões atmosféricas. Neste trabalho, estudou-se ocomportamento das concentrações diárias de material particulado (PM10 desta cidade, considerando a influência dos elementos meteorológicos. A análise dos dados foi realizada a partir de estatísticas descritivas, correlação linear e regressão múltipla. Os dados foram fornecidos pela Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler - RS (FEPAM e pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET. A partir das análises pôde-se verificar que: asconcentrações do PM10, medidos diariamente às 16h, não ultrapassaram os padrões nacionais de qualidade do ar; os elementos meteorológicos que influenciam nas concentrações do PM10 foram: a velocidade média diária do vento e a radiação média diária com relações negativas; astemperaturas médias diárias do ar e as direções, norte e noroeste, do vento, com relações positivas. As direções do vento que contribuem significativamente para diminuir as concentrações nos locais medidos são Leste e Sudeste.Air is an efficient means of atmospheric pollutants dispersal and its r behavior depends on the atmospheric movements that occur in the troposphere. In Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, there is a large daily traffic and a concentration of industries that may be responsible for atmospheric emission. In the present work we studied the behavior of daily concentrations of particulate matter (PM10, in this city, considering the influence of meteorological variables. Dataanalysis was performed from descriptive statistics, linear correlation and multiple regressions. Data were provided by the State Foundation of Environmental

  13. An environmental, economical and socio-political analysis of a variety of urban air-pollution reduction policies for primary PM10 and NOx: The case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, M.; Perrone, M.G.; Cusumano, N.; Ferrero, L.; Sangiorgi, G.; Bolzacchini, E.; Lorenzoni, A.; Ballarin Denti, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PM10 and NO x emission reduction by different policies have been estimated. • Various actions have been considered, in the transport and residential sectors. • Environmental, economic and socio-political data were jointly evaluated. • Results are reported for the case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy). • Bike use fostering best matches cost–benefit results and socio-political acceptance. - Abstract: In the frame of urban air-pollution reduction policies, economic costs and environmental benefits of a variety of actions have been quantitatively assessed for the Province of Milan (Northern Italy), focusing on PM10 and NO x emission sources. Short-to-mid-term interventions that have been taken into consideration include reduction of inner temperature in residential buildings, banning of residential biomass heating syst