WorldWideScience

Sample records for models originally developed

  1. Development of dark disk model of positron anomaly origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotsky, K. M.; Kirillov, A. A.; Solovyov, M. L.

    Dark disk model could be a remedy for dark matter (DM) explanation of positron anomaly (PA) in cosmic rays (CR). The main difficulty in PA explanation relates to cosmic gamma-radiation which is inevitably produced in DM annihilation or decay leading to tension with respective observation data. Introduction of “active” (producing CR) DM component concentrating in galactic disk alleviates this tension. Earlier, we considered 2-lepton modes, with branching ratios being chosen to fit in the best way all the observation data. Here we considered, in the framework of the same dark disk model, two cases: 2-body final state annihilation and 4-body one, and in each case a quark mode is added to the leptonic ones. It is shown that 4-body mode case is a little better than 2-body one from viewpoint of quality of observation data description at the fixed all other parameters (of CR propagation, background, disk height). The values of DM particle mass around 350GeV and 500GeV are more favorable for 2- and 4-body modes, respectively. Higher values would improve description of data on positrons only but accounting for data on gamma-radiation prevents it because of unwanted more abundant high-energy gamma production. Inclusion of the quark modes improves a little fitting data in both 4- and 2-body mode cases, contrary to naive expectations. In fact, quark mode has a bigger gammas yield than that of most gamma-productive leptonic mode — tau, but they are softer due to bigger final state hadron multiplicity.

  2. Model FRBR in origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Lúcia Pacheco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This article aims at identifying the genesis of the studies the conceptual model Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR, published in 1998 by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA with the proposal to develop new approach to the bibliographic record. Method. For this appealed to bibliographical research, primarily the sources of official information IFLA, in order to investigate the trajectory preceding the publication of the model and determine the intellectual debate on its elaboration. Results. It was found that the FRBR model was born with eminently practical purposes and generates a set of expectations about the reduction of cataloging costs, indicating a minimum level element in bibliographic records that meet the needs of the users associated with the various types of materials and contexts of use. Conclusions. The accumulation of scientific knowledge coupled with sustained and brought experiential dimension in the model, changes the paradigms of traditional cataloging, but model the final report does not present the foundations that support it.

  3. Development and assessment of a lysophospholipid-based deep learning model to discriminate geographical origins of white rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Lim, Dong Kyu; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-08-17

    Geographical origin determination of white rice has become the major issue of food industry. However, there is still lack of a high-throughput method for rapidly and reproducibly differentiating the geographical origins of commercial white rice. In this study, we developed a method that employed lipidomics and deep learning to discriminate white rice from Korea to China. A total of 126 white rice of 30 cultivars from different regions were utilized for the method development and validation. By using direct infusion-mass spectrometry-based targeted lipidomics, 17 lysoglycerophospholipids were simultaneously characterized within minutes per sample. Unsupervised data exploration showed a noticeable overlap of white rice between two countries. In addition, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) were prominent in white rice from Korea while lysophosphatidylethanolamines (lysoPEs) were enriched in white rice from China. A deep learning prediction model was built using 2014 white rice and validated using two different batches of 2015 white rice. The model accurately discriminated white rice from two countries. Among 10 selected predictors, lysoPC(18:2), lysoPC(14:0), and lysoPE(16:0) were the three most important features. Random forest and gradient boosting machine models also worked well in this circumstance. In conclusion, this study provides an architecture for high-throughput classification of white rice from different geographical origins.

  4. Albergo Diffuso as a model of original hospitality and sustainable development of small historical villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Dall'Ara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper fits within the wider context related to the definition of restoration strategies and models, and revitalization of small historical towns and villages, focusing on touristic use and on the Albergo Diffuso (AD model. This latter, in its functional elements, includes solutions to solve degeneration and gradual depopulation problems, typical in these cases, by enhancing both tangible and intangible resources. The purpose of this research study was to verify, about 20 years after the first implementations, to what extent and by means of what type of intervention the AD model influenced regeneration processes of historical villages and refunctionalization of reused building heritage. By means of an exploratory investigation and an in situ monitoring activity, it was possible to outline an initial measurement of both direct and indirect results following the application of ADs. The activities confirmed the virtuosity of the model and identified both critical issues and strong points, directly connected to the type of users and to the sustainability features of the interventions.

  5. A statistical model for estimating maternal-zygotic interactions and parent-of-origin effects of QTLs for seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Li

    Full Text Available Proper development of a seed requires coordinated exchanges of signals among the three components that develop side by side in the seed. One of these is the maternal integument that encloses the other two zygotic components, i.e., the diploid embryo and its nurturing annex, the triploid endosperm. Although the formation of the embryo and endosperm contains the contributions of both maternal and paternal parents, maternally and paternally derived alleles may be expressed differently, leading to a so-called parent-of-origin or imprinting effect. Currently, the nature of how genes from the maternal and zygotic genomes interact to affect seed development remains largely unknown. Here, we present a novel statistical model for estimating the main and interaction effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs that are derived from different genomes and further testing the imprinting effects of these QTLs on seed development. The experimental design used is based on reciprocal backcrosses toward both parents, so that the inheritance of parent-specific alleles could be traced. The computing model and algorithm were implemented with the maximum likelihood approach. The new strategy presented was applied to study the mode of inheritance for QTLs that control endoreduplication traits in maize endosperm. Monte Carlo simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical properties of the new model with the data simulated under different imprinting degrees. The false positive rate of imprinting QTL discovery by the model was examined by analyzing the simulated data that contain no imprinting QTL. The reciprocal design and a series of analytical and testing strategies proposed provide a standard procedure for genomic mapping of QTLs involved in the genetic control of complex seed development traits in flowering plants.

  6. Origin, development, and evolution of butterfly eyespots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Antónia

    2015-01-07

    This article reviews the latest developments in our understanding of the origin, development, and evolution of nymphalid butterfly eyespots. Recent contributions to this field include insights into the evolutionary and developmental origin of eyespots and their ancestral deployment on the wing, the evolution of eyespot number and eyespot sexual dimorphism, and the identification of genes affecting eyespot development and black pigmentation. I also compare features of old and more recently proposed models of eyespot development and propose a schematic for the genetic regulatory architecture of eyespots. Using this schematic I propose two hypotheses for why we observe limits to morphological diversity across these serially homologous traits.

  7. Historical Development of Origins Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Following the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, many naturalists adopted the idea that living organisms were the historical outcome of gradual transformation of lifeless matter. These views soon merged with the developments of biochemistry and cell biology and led to proposals in which the origin of protoplasm was equated with the origin of life. The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s was part of this tradition, which Oparin enriched by transforming the discussion of the emergence of the first cells into a workable multidisciplinary research program. On the other hand, the scientific trend toward understanding biological phenomena at the molecular level led authors like Troland, Muller, and others to propose that single molecules or viruses represented primordial living systems. The contrast between these opposing views on the origin of life represents not only contrasting views of the nature of life itself, but also major ideological discussions that reached a surprising intensity in the years following Stanley Miller’s seminal result which showed the ease with which organic compounds of biochemical significance could be synthesized under putative primitive conditions. In fact, during the years following the Miller experiment, attempts to understand the origin of life were strongly influenced by research on DNA replication and protein biosynthesis, and, in socio-political terms, by the atmosphere created by Cold War tensions. The catalytic versatility of RNA molecules clearly merits a critical reappraisal of Muller’s viewpoint. However, the discovery of ribozymes does not imply that autocatalytic nucleic acid molecules ready to be used as primordial genes were floating in the primitive oceans, or that the RNA world emerged completely assembled from simple precursors present in the prebiotic soup. The evidence supporting the presence of a wide range of organic molecules on the primitive Earth, including membrane

  8. The Halo Model of Origin Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Alexander; Lukas, Bryan A.; Whitwell, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    National origin has gained importance as a marketing tool for practitioners to sell their goods and services. However, because origin-image research has been troubled by several fundamental limitations, academia has become sceptical of the current status and strategic implications of the concept....... The aim of this paper was threefold, namely, to provide a state-of-the-art review of origin-image research in marketing, develop and empirically test a new origin-image model and, present the implications of the study....

  9. Origin and development of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresak, L.

    1989-01-01

    The comets are the most primitive and probably also the oldest members of the solar system. Comet cores are brittle bodies of an irregular shape and of a size of 1 to 10 km whose main component is ice. Around 130 comets move along short-period paths whose aphelia are concentrated in the area of Jupiter. They are in the last stage of development. About 20 comets have periods of 20 to 200 years and feature higher motion stability. Roughly 180 comets have elliptical orbits of a period exceeding 200 years, 200 comets have parabolic and 120 comets have hyperbolic orbits. The most distant comets form the Oort cloud around the solar system consisting of about one billion comets. Comets originated roughly 4.6 thousand million years ago together with planets, probably inside the Oort cloud. (M.D.). 11 figs

  10. Development and Implementation of Efficiency-Improving Analysis Methods for the SAGE III on ISS Thermal Model Originating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; Scola, Salvatore; Tobin, Steven; McLeod, Shawn; Mannu, Sergio; Guglielmo, Corrado; Moeller, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2015. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Several novel methods have been implemented to facilitate efficient payload-level thermal analysis, including the use of a design of experiments (DOE) methodology to determine the worst-case orbits for SAGE III while on ISS, use of TD assemblies to move payloads from the Dragon trunk to the Enhanced Operational Transfer Platform (EOTP) to its final home on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carrier (ELC)-4, incorporation of older models in varying unit sets, ability to change units easily (including hardcoded logic blocks), case-based logic to facilitate activating heaters and active elements for varying scenarios within a single model, incorporation of several coordinate frames to easily map to structural models with differing geometries and locations, and streamlined results processing using an Excel-based text file plotter developed in-house at LaRC. This document presents an overview of the SAGE III thermal model and describes the development and implementation of these efficiency-improving analysis methods.

  11. Adventist Education: origin, development and expasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Vieira Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to present a brief historical report of the origin, development and consolidation of the Adventist Education Network. Thus, it will be possible to know about its emergence, philosophy of education and the genesis of this confessional network operating in the Brazilian educational scenario for more than a century. The research method includes bibliographical analysis of the main theoreticians of the Brazilian history of education and rescues facts cited by Adventist historians. The research situated the Adventist Education Network in the Brazilian historical context and identified the Seventh-day Adventists as a religious group and as agents in the field of school education.

  12. Modeling X-linked ancestral origins in multiparental populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Chaozhi

    2015-01-01

    The models for the mosaic structure of an individual's genome from multiparental populations have been developed primarily for autosomes, whereas X chromosomes receive very little attention. In this paper, we extend our previous approach to model ancestral origin processes along two X chromosomes

  13. Origin of holographic dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Seo, Min-Gyun

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the origin of holographic dark energy models which were recently proposed to explain the dark energy-dominated universe. For this purpose, we introduce the spacetime foam uncertainty of δl≥l p α l α-1 . It was argued that the case of α=2/3 could describe the dark energy with infinite statistics, while the case of α=1/2 can describe the ordinary matter with Bose-Fermi statistics. However, two cases may lead to the holographic energy density if the latter recovers from the geometric mean of UV and IR scales. Hence the dark energy with infinite statistics based on the entropy bound is not an ingredient for deriving the holographic dark energy model. Furthermore, it is shown that the agegraphic dark energy models are the holographic dark energy model with different IR length scales

  14. Development of the nervus terminalis: origin and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2004-09-01

    The origin of the nervus terminalis is one of the least well understood developmental events involved in generating the cranial ganglia of the forebrain in vertebrate animals. This cranial nerve forms at the formidable interface of the anteriormost limits of migrating cranial neural crest cells, the terminal end of the neural tube and the differentiating olfactory and adenohypophyseal placodes. The complex cellular interactions that give rise to the various structures associated with the sensory placode (olfactory) and endocrine placode (adenohypophysis) surround and engulf this enigmatic cranial nerve. The tortured history of nervus terminalis development (see von Bartheld, this issue, pages 13-24) reflects the lack of consensus on the origin (or origins), as well as the experimental difficulties in uncovering the origin, of the nervus terminalis. Recent technical advances have allowed us to make headway in understanding the origin(s) of this nerve. The emergence of the externally fertilized zebrafish embryo as a model system for developmental biology and genetics has shed new light on this century-old problem. Coupled with new developmental models are techniques that allow us to trace lineage, visualize gene expression, and genetically ablate cells, adding to our experimental tools with which to follow up on studies provided by our scientific predecessors. Through these techniques, a picture is emerging in which the origin of at least a subset of the nervus terminalis cells lies in the cranial neural crest. In this review, the data surrounding this finding will be discussed in light of recent findings on neural crest and placode origins. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Jigsaw model of the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, John F.

    2002-02-01

    It is suggested that life originated in a three-step process referred to as the jigsaw model. RNA, proteins, or similar organic molecules polymerized in a dehydrated carbon-rich environment, on surfaces in a carbon-rich environment, or in another environment where polymerization occurs. These polymers subsequently entered an aqueous environment where they folded into compact structures. It is argued that the folding of randomly generated polymers such as RNA or proteins in water tends to partition the folded polymer into domains with hydrophobic cores and matching shapes to minimize energy. In the aqueous environment hydrolysis or other reactions fragmented the compact structures into two or more matching molecules, occasionally producing simple living systems, also knows as autocatalytic sets of molecules. It is argued that the hydrolysis of folded polymers such as RNA or proteins is not random. The hydrophobic cores of the domains are rarely bisected due to the energy requirements in water. Hydrolysis preferentially fragments the folded polymers into pieces with complementary structures and chemical affinities. Thus the probability of producing a system of matched, interacting molecules in prebiotic chemistry is much higher than usually estimated. Environments where this process may occur are identified. For example, the jigsaw model suggests life may have originated at a seep or carbonaceous fluids beneath the ocean. The polymerization occurred beneath the sea floor. The folding and fragmentation occurred in the ocean. The implications of this hypothesis for seeking life or prebiotic chemistry in the Solar System are explored.

  16. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  17. Original Research Development of a subspecialty cardiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This online interactive ... curriculum model included post-module quizzes on cardiac topics as well as registrar self-assessments regarding confidence in content ... Our innovative hybrid approach, combining online educational modules with ...

  18. Development and Analysis of Original UNIFAC-CI and Modified UNIFAC-CI Models for Prediction of VLE and SLE Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustaffa, Azizul Azri; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kang, Jeong Won

    approach that is able to extend the application range of property models has been developed for mixture properties. This so-called GCPlus approach is a hybrid model which combines GC and valence connectivity indices (CI). The main idea is the use of CI to describe the molecular fragmentation that relates...... parameters are checked using a quality assessment algorithm which combines four widely used consistency tests (Herington, Van Ness, Point/Differential and Infinite Dilution tests) and also a check on the consistencies of the data with the pure component vapor pressures. The overall quality factors, QVLE...

  19. Mathematical Modeling of the Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of early metabolism - a network of catalyzed chemical reactions that supported self-maintenance, growth, reproduction and evolution of the ancestors of contemporary cells (protocells) was a critical, but still very poorly understood step on the path from inanimate to animate matter. Here, it is proposed and tested through mathematical modeling of biochemically plausible systems that the emergence of metabolism and its initial evolution towards higher complexity preceded the emergence of a genome. Even though the formation of protocellular metabolism was driven by non-genomic, highly stochastic processes the outcome was largely deterministic, strongly constrained by laws of chemistry. It is shown that such concepts as speciation and fitness to the environment, developed in the context of genomic evolution, also held in the absence of a genome.

  20. 2D and 3D simulation of cavitating flows: development of an original algorithm in code Saturne and study of the influence of turbulence modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebli, Rezki

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation is one of the most demanding physical phenomena influencing the performance of hydraulic machines. It is therefore important to predict correctly its inception and development, in order to quantify the performance drop it induces, and also to characterize the resulting flow instabilities. The aim of this work is to develop an unsteady 3D algorithm for the numerical simulation of cavitation in an industrial CFD solver 'Code Saturne'. It is based on a fractional step method and preserves the minimum/maximum principle of the void fraction. An implicit solver, based on a transport equation of the void fraction coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations is proposed. A specific numerical treatment of the cavitation source terms provides physical values of the void fraction (between 0 and 1) without including any artificial numerical limitation. The influence of RANS turbulence models on the simulation of cavitation on 2D geometries (Venturi and Hydrofoil) is then studied. It confirms the capability of the two-equation eddy viscosity models, k-epsilon and k-omega-SST, with the modification proposed by Reboud et al. (1998) to reproduce the main features of the unsteady sheet cavity behavior. The second order model RSM-SSG, based on the Reynolds stress transport, appears able to reproduce the highly unsteady flow behavior without including any arbitrary modification. The three-dimensional effects involved in the instability mechanisms are also analyzed. This work allows us to achieve a numerical tool, validated on complex configurations of cavitating flows, to improve the understanding of the physical mechanisms that control the three-dimensional unsteady effects involved in the mechanisms of instability. (author)

  1. Cardiovascular risk status of Afro-origin populations across the spectrum of economic development: findings from the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Lara R; Forrester, Terrence E; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Lambert, Estelle V; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cao, Guichan; Cooper, Richard S; Khatib, Rasha; Tonino, Laura; Riesen, Walter; Korte, Wolfgang; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Luke, Amy

    2017-05-12

    Cardiovascular risk factors are increasing in most developing countries. To date, however, very little standardized data has been collected on the primary risk factors across the spectrum of economic development. Data are particularly sparse from Africa. In the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS) we examined population-based samples of men and women, ages 25-45 of African ancestry in metropolitan Chicago, Kingston, Jamaica, rural Ghana, Cape Town, South Africa, and the Seychelles. Key measures of cardiovascular disease risk are described. The risk factor profile varied widely in both total summary estimates of cardiovascular risk and in the magnitude of component factors. Hypertension ranged from 7% in women from Ghana to 35% in US men. Total cholesterol was well under 200 mg/dl for all groups, with a mean of 155 mg/dl among men in Ghana, South Africa and Jamaica. Among women total cholesterol values varied relatively little by country, following between 160 and 178 mg/dl for all 5 groups. Levels of HDL-C were virtually identical in men and women from all study sites. Obesity ranged from 64% among women in the US to 2% among Ghanaian men, with a roughly corresponding trend in diabetes. Based on the Framingham risk score a clear trend toward higher total risk in association with socioeconomic development was observed among men, while among women there was considerable overlap, with the US participants having only a modestly higher risk score. These data provide a comprehensive estimate of cardiovascular risk across a range of countries at differing stages of social and economic development and demonstrate the heterogeneity in the character and degree of emerging cardiovascular risk. Severe hypercholesterolemia, as characteristic in the US and much of Western Europe at the onset of the coronary epidemic, is unlikely to be a feature of the cardiovascular risk profile in these countries in the foreseeable future, suggesting that stroke may remain the

  2. Cardiovascular risk status of Afro-origin populations across the spectrum of economic development: findings from the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara R. Dugas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are increasing in most developing countries. To date, however, very little standardized data has been collected on the primary risk factors across the spectrum of economic development. Data are particularly sparse from Africa. Methods In the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS we examined population-based samples of men and women, ages 25–45 of African ancestry in metropolitan Chicago, Kingston, Jamaica, rural Ghana, Cape Town, South Africa, and the Seychelles. Key measures of cardiovascular disease risk are described. Results The risk factor profile varied widely in both total summary estimates of cardiovascular risk and in the magnitude of component factors. Hypertension ranged from 7% in women from Ghana to 35% in US men. Total cholesterol was well under 200 mg/dl for all groups, with a mean of 155 mg/dl among men in Ghana, South Africa and Jamaica. Among women total cholesterol values varied relatively little by country, following between 160 and 178 mg/dl for all 5 groups. Levels of HDL-C were virtually identical in men and women from all study sites. Obesity ranged from 64% among women in the US to 2% among Ghanaian men, with a roughly corresponding trend in diabetes. Based on the Framingham risk score a clear trend toward higher total risk in association with socioeconomic development was observed among men, while among women there was considerable overlap, with the US participants having only a modestly higher risk score. Conclusions These data provide a comprehensive estimate of cardiovascular risk across a range of countries at differing stages of social and economic development and demonstrate the heterogeneity in the character and degree of emerging cardiovascular risk. Severe hypercholesterolemia, as characteristic in the US and much of Western Europe at the onset of the coronary epidemic, is unlikely to be a feature of the cardiovascular risk profile in these

  3. Development and Tissue Origins of the Mammalian Cranial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, S.; Bamforth, S. D.; Olsen, B. R.; Morriss-Kay, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    The vertebrate cranial base is a complex structure composed of bone, cartilage and other connective tissues underlying the brain; it is intimately connected with development of the face and cranial vault. Despite its central importance in craniofacial development, morphogenesis and tissue origins of the cranial base have not been studied in detail in the mouse, an important model organism. We describe here the location and time of appearance of the cartilages of the chondrocranium. We also examine the tissue origins of the mouse cranial base using a neural crest cell lineage cell marker, Wnt1-Cre/R26R, and a mesoderm lineage cell marker, Mesp1-Cre/R26R. The chondrocranium develops between E11 and E16 in the mouse, beginning with development of the caudal (occipital) chondrocranium, followed by chondrogenesis rostrally to form the nasal capsule, and finally fusion of these two parts via the midline central stem and the lateral struts of the vault cartilages. X-Gal staining of transgenic mice from E8.0 to 10 days post-natal showed that neural crest cells contribute to all of the cartilages that form the ethmoid, presphenoid, and basisphenoid bones with the exception of the hypochiasmatic cartilages. The basioccipital bone and non-squamous parts of the temporal bones are mesoderm derived. Therefore the prechordal head is mostly composed of neural crest-derived tissues, as predicted by the New Head Hypothesis. However, the anterior location of the mesoderm-derived hypochiasmatic cartilages, which are closely linked with the extra-ocular muscles, suggests that some tissues associated with the visual apparatus may have evolved independently of the rest of the “New Head”. PMID:18680740

  4. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American...

  5. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American Carbon...

  6. A CP violetion model of cosmological origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppel, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    It's presented a model of spontaneous violation of the CP symmetry whose mechanism of symmetry breaking is of cosmological nature. The main feature is the conformal coupling of the field of a λφ 4 theory with a background gravitational field. We show that, for the open Friedmann model of the universe, the reason of the critical temperaTure for the symmetry restoration to the equilibrium temperature of the universe rrmains constant, so that either the symmetry breaking never happened or, if happened, it can't be reverted by means of thermal effects. Upon coupling the boson to a fermion, this symmetry breaking id related to the CP non-conservation in two distinct ways: violating the P and T symmetries, and violating the C and T symmetries. (author) [pt

  7. A Compound Model for the Origin of Earth's Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izidoro, A.; de Souza Torres, K.; Winter, O. C.; Haghighipour, N.

    2013-04-01

    One of the most important subjects of debate in the formation of the solar system is the origin of Earth's water. Comets have long been considered as the most likely source of the delivery of water to Earth. However, elemental and isotopic arguments suggest a very small contribution from these objects. Other sources have also been proposed, among which local adsorption of water vapor onto dust grains in the primordial nebula and delivery through planetesimals and planetary embryos have become more prominent. However, no sole source of water provides a satisfactory explanation for Earth's water as a whole. In view of that, using numerical simulations, we have developed a compound model incorporating both the principal endogenous and exogenous theories, and investigating their implications for terrestrial planet formation and water delivery. Comets are also considered in the final analysis, as it is likely that at least some of Earth's water has cometary origin. We analyze our results comparing two different water distribution models, and complement our study using the D/H ratio, finding possible relative contributions from each source and focusing on planets formed in the habitable zone. We find that the compound model plays an important role by showing greater advantage in the amount and time of water delivery in Earth-like planets.

  8. A COMPOUND MODEL FOR THE ORIGIN OF EARTH'S WATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izidoro, A.; Winter, O. C.; De Souza Torres, K.; Haghighipour, N.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important subjects of debate in the formation of the solar system is the origin of Earth's water. Comets have long been considered as the most likely source of the delivery of water to Earth. However, elemental and isotopic arguments suggest a very small contribution from these objects. Other sources have also been proposed, among which local adsorption of water vapor onto dust grains in the primordial nebula and delivery through planetesimals and planetary embryos have become more prominent. However, no sole source of water provides a satisfactory explanation for Earth's water as a whole. In view of that, using numerical simulations, we have developed a compound model incorporating both the principal endogenous and exogenous theories, and investigating their implications for terrestrial planet formation and water delivery. Comets are also considered in the final analysis, as it is likely that at least some of Earth's water has cometary origin. We analyze our results comparing two different water distribution models, and complement our study using the D/H ratio, finding possible relative contributions from each source and focusing on planets formed in the habitable zone. We find that the compound model plays an important role by showing greater advantage in the amount and time of water delivery in Earth-like planets.

  9. Modelling of large-scale structures arising under developed turbulent convection in a horizontal fluid layer (with application to the problem of tropical cyclone origination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Levina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is concerned with the results of theoretical and laboratory modelling the processes of the large-scale structure generation under turbulent convection in the rotating-plane horizontal layer of an incompressible fluid with unstable stratification. The theoretical model describes three alternative ways of creating unstable stratification: a layer heating from below, a volumetric heating of a fluid with internal heat sources and combination of both factors. The analysis of the model equations show that under conditions of high intensity of the small-scale convection and low level of heat loss through the horizontal layer boundaries a long wave instability may arise. The condition for the existence of an instability and criterion identifying the threshold of its initiation have been determined. The principle of action of the discovered instability mechanism has been described. Theoretical predictions have been verified by a series of experiments on a laboratory model. The horizontal dimensions of the experimentally-obtained long-lived vortices are 4÷6 times larger than the thickness of the fluid layer. This work presents a description of the laboratory setup and experimental procedure. From the geophysical viewpoint the examined mechanism of the long wave instability is supposed to be adequate to allow a description of the initial step in the evolution of such large-scale vortices as tropical cyclones - a transition form the small-scale cumulus clouds to the state of the atmosphere involving cloud clusters (the stage of initial tropical perturbation.

  10. ENTERPRISES DEVELOPMENT: MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Shenderivska

    2018-01-01

    , the enterprises’ organizational structure change, investment development. The actuality of diversification’s activity for profit increase due to new markets development is determined. It was found that corporations are the most acceptable organizational form for the enterprise. The urgency of investment development for printing companies is proved connected with the production modernization’s necessity, ensuring the manufacture of competitive products. Value/originality. To ensure the effective enterprises’ development based on development concept, a model for managing the printing companies’ development is worked out. The model for managing the companies’ development is prepared based on the concept that takes into account the peculiarities of enterprise activity and priority directions of their development, improves the directions for enterprises adaptation understanding in the competitiveness growth conditions.

  11. Translanguaging: Origins and Development from School to Street and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gwyn; Jones, Bryn; Baker, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The article traces the Welsh origins of "translanguaging" from the 1980s to the recent global use, analysing the development and extension of the term. It suggests that the growing popularity of the term relates to a change in the way bilingualism and multilingualism have ideologically developed not only among academics but also amid…

  12. Origin,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  13. Low-energy positron beams - origins, developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beling, C.D.; Charlton, M.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last 15 years there have been rapid advances in the technology associated with low-energy positron beams. The origins of these advances, and some of the major developments, are discussed. Some applications from the diverse fields of surface physics, atomic scattering and positronium studies are highlighted. (author)

  14. An overview: origins and development of green chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the origins and development of green chemistry. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of green chemistry, basically from a historical point of view, this overview argues that contextual influences and the user friendliness of the term are drivers for the

  15. RSMASS system model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Gallup, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    RSMASS system mass models have been used for more than a decade to make rapid estimates of space reactor power system masses. This paper reviews the evolution of the RSMASS models and summarizes present capabilities. RSMASS has evolved from a simple model used to make rough estimates of space reactor and shield masses to a versatile space reactor power system model. RSMASS uses unique reactor and shield models that permit rapid mass optimization calculations for a variety of space reactor power and propulsion systems. The RSMASS-D upgrade of the original model includes algorithms for the balance of the power system, a number of reactor and shield modeling improvements, and an automatic mass optimization scheme. The RSMASS-D suite of codes cover a very broad range of reactor and power conversion system options as well as propulsion and bimodal reactor systems. Reactor choices include in-core and ex-core thermionic reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors, particle bed reactors, and prismatic configuration reactors. Power conversion options include thermoelectric, thermionic, Stirling, Brayton, and Rankine approaches. Program output includes all major component masses and dimensions, efficiencies, and a description of the design parameters for a mass optimized system. In the past, RSMASS has been used as an aid to identify and select promising concepts for space power applications. The RSMASS modeling approach has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for guiding optimization of the power system design; consequently, the model is useful during system design and development as well as during the selection process. An improved in-core thermionic reactor system model RSMASS-T is now under development. The current development of the RSMASS-T code represents the next evolutionary stage of the RSMASS models. RSMASS-T includes many modeling improvements and is planned to be more user-friendly. RSMASS-T will be released as a fully documented, certified code at the end of

  16. A model for the stochastic origins of Schrodinger's equation

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Mark P.

    2001-01-01

    A model for the motion of a charged particle in the vacuum is presented which, although purely classical in concept, yields Schrodinger's equation as a solution. It suggests that the origins of the peculiar and nonclassical features of quantum mechanics are actually inherent in a statistical description of the radiative reactive force.

  17. Thapsigargin, origin, chemistry, structure-activity relationships and prodrug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Thi Quynh Nhu; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2015-01-01

    Thapsigargin was originally isolated from the roots of the Mediterranean umbelliferous plant Thapsia garganica in order to characterize the skin irritant principle. The biological activity was related to the subnanomolar affinity for the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase. Prolonged......) targeted against prostate cancer. Conjugation to a peptide, which only is a substrate for prostate specific membrane antigen enabled development of a prodrug (G202), which is targeted towards a number of cancer diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. G202 has under the name of mipsagargin in clinical...

  18. Evolutionary origins and early development of number processing

    CERN Document Server

    Geary, David C; Mann Koepke, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The first volume in this ground-breaking series focuses on the origins and early development of numerical cognition in non-human primates, lower vertebrates, human infants, and preschool children. The text will help readers understand the nature and complexity of these foundational quantitative concepts and skills along with evolutionary precursors and early developmental trajectories. Brings together and focuses the efforts and research of multiple disciplines working in math cognition.The contributors bring vast knowledge and experience to bear on resolving extant

  19. A model for the origin of solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundhausen, A.J.; Burlaga, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    The basic variations in solar wind properties that have been observed at 'stream interfaces' near 1 AU are explained by a gas dynamic model in which a radially propagating stream, produced by a temperature variation in the solar envelope, steepens nonlinearly while moving through interplanetary space. The region thus identified with the stream interface separates the ambient solar wind from the fresh hot material originally in the stream. However, the interface regions given by the present model are thicker than most stream interfaces observed in the solar wind, a fact suggesting that some additional physical process may be important in determining that thickness. Variations in the density, speed, or Alfven pressure alone appear not to produce streams with such an interface

  20. Origins and development of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringström, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The seminal work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published in 1952 demonstrates that it is possible to formulate Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the background to and impact of this achievement, as well as the result itself. In some respects, the idea of viewing the field equations of general relativity as a system of evolution equations goes back to Einstein himself; in an argument justifying that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, Einstein used a special choice of coordinates to derive a system of wave equations for the linear perturbations on a Minkowski background. Over the following decades, Hilbert, de Donder, Lanczos, Darmois and many others worked to put Einstein's ideas on a more solid footing. In fact, the issue of local uniqueness (giving a rigorous justification for the statement that the speed of propagation of the gravitational field is bounded by that of light) was already settled in the 1930s by the work of Stellmacher. However, the first person to demonstrate both local existence and uniqueness in a setting in which the notion of finite speed of propagation makes sense was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. In this sense, her work lays the foundation for the formulation of Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. Following a description of the results of Choquet-Bruhat, we discuss the development of three research topics that have their origin in her work. The first one is local existence. One reason for addressing it is that it is at the heart of the original paper. Moreover, it is still an active and important research field, connected to the problem of characterizing the asymptotic behaviour of solutions that blow up in finite time. As a second topic, we turn to the questions of global uniqueness and strong cosmic censorship. These questions are of fundamental importance to anyone interested in justifying that the Cauchy problem makes sense globally. They are

  1. A model-building approach to the origin of flavor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Erik

    2017-01-24

    In this thesis we link the recent anomalies reported in B meson and h→μτ decays to the smallness of neutrino masses and aspects of the flavor puzzle, including the hierarchy of the Yukawa couplings and the disparate fermion mixings. By formulating various new models we attempt to shed light on the potential common origin of the distinct measurements in the flavor sector. To this end, discrete symmetries are utilized in this work as the governing principle behind all fermion interactions. The first two models based on the S{sub 3} and the A{sub 4} symmetry, respectively, aim to unify the diverse fermion masses and mixings. Special features separate the frameworks from the flavor models in the literature that often lack testable predictions. While the first model provides interesting flavor-violating signatures in top quark decays, the second one ties the flavor to the grand unification scale in a novel way. In the three following models we focus on the anomalies that hint at lepton flavor and universality violation. We propose that the large flavor violation observed in h→μτ decays is dictated by the scalar mixing of an enlarged S{sub 4}-symmetric Higgs sector. By constructing two leptoquark models we show for the first time that leptoquark couplings shaped by a Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism can accommodate the B meson anomalies and simultaneously generate naturally-small neutrino masses. Emphasizing the importance of testability, we demonstrate how these models can be probed by future diphoton resonances, using the recent 750 GeV excess as an example scenario.

  2. Superficiary Right of Building: Origin and Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has been dealing for the last four years with a legal revolution in the field of private law. A new Civil Code was adopted in 2012 and many new and forgotten legal figures were restored in the text of the code. An interesting example of forgotten legal figures is the superficiary right of building, which has again entered the legal order of the Czech Republic after a long one hundred years. Unlike the Act on the Superficiary Right of Building of 1912, the new Civil Code extends the scope of persons that may create the superficiary right of building to their land. This should eliminate the obstacle that has substantially limited its wider use. The superficiary right of building is not likely to become a legal concept very frequently seen in public registers. The aim of this paper is, therefore, a reflection on divided ownership and the purpose and genesis of the superficiary right of building in relation to its origins, as well as a prediction of future developments of this legal concept in the real estate market. To analyse the concept, the paper employs formal and legal methods (logical, grammatical and historical method. A comparative study is conducted in the spirit of the comparative method. The superficiary right of building is a suitable complement to the range of options of property rights offered by the new Civil Code. The author concludes that the use of the superficiary right of building, although not limited in comparison with the 1912 Act, will likely be less frequent and focused on longer-term projects.

  3. Traditional products: Base for the sustainable development of Serbian animal origin products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jasna Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research results on the diversity of traditional products of animal origin from certain areas of the Republic of Serbia, provides an opportunity to become part of the sustainable quality development, which would be based on their promotion and protection of local resources. Traditional products of animal origin are different and inseparable from the local identity, typical for nation and its food culture. Through confidence-building, and protection from oblivion, the value of domestic products, had preserved trough centuries-old tradition. Nowadays, each domestic product has its own recognisable taste, representing climate of the Republic of Serbia, from which it comes. Universally accepted model of rural institutional structure does not exist. Instead it accommodates and develops in accordance to needs, possibilities and area specific characteristics. By the efficient protection rural models becomes an investment incentives and contribute to general economic and industrial prosperity of the society.

  4. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  5. Collapse of the wave function models, ontology, origin, and implications

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This is the first single volume about the collapse theories of quantum mechanics, which is becoming a very active field of research in both physics and philosophy. In standard quantum mechanics, it is postulated that when the wave function of a quantum system is measured, it no longer follows the Schrödinger equation, but instantaneously and randomly collapses to one of the wave functions that correspond to definite measurement results. However, why and how a definite measurement result appears is unknown. A promising solution to this problem are collapse theories in which the collapse of the wave function is spontaneous and dynamical. Chapters written by distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics discuss the origin and implications of wave-function collapse, the controversies around collapse models and their ontologies, and new arguments for the reality of wave function collapse. This is an invaluable resource for students and researchers interested in the philosophy of physics and foundations of ...

  6. The Neuroanatomical, Neurophysiological and Psychological Basis of Memory: Current Models and Their Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Camina, Eduardo; Güell, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to classify and clarify, from a neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and psychological perspective, different memory models that are currently widespread in the literature as well as to describe their origins. We believe it is important to consider previous developments without which one cannot adequately understand the kinds of models that are now current in the scientific literature. This article intends to provide a comprehensive and rigorous overview for understanding and...

  7. Rules of origin and development of regional production network in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Simpler Rules of Origin (RoO) with product specific rules can act as a catalyst in trade even if tariff rates are not low. Sector specific restrictiveness across trade agreements are assessed, in view of potential growth of International production networks (IPN). RoO is shown to play a significant role in promoting IPN.

  8. Developing mathematical modelling competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Jensen, Tomas Højgaard

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of mathematical modelling competence, by which we mean being able to carry through a whole mathematical modelling process in a certain context. Analysing the structure of this process, six sub-competences are identified. Mathematical modelling competence...... cannot be reduced to these six sub-competences, but they are necessary elements in the development of mathematical modelling competence. Experience from the development of a modelling course is used to illustrate how the different nature of the sub-competences can be used as a tool for finding...... the balance between different kinds of activities in a particular educational setting. Obstacles of social, cognitive and affective nature for the students' development of mathematical modelling competence are reported and discussed in relation to the sub-competences....

  9. Father involvement in Mexican-origin families: Preliminary development of a culturally informed measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinov, Danielle S; Luecken, Linda J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Crnic, Keith A

    2016-04-01

    An increasing body of research has documented the significant influence of father involvement on children's development and overall well-being. However, extant research has predominately focused on middle-class Caucasian samples with little examination of fathering in ethnic minority and low-income families, particularly during the infancy period. The present study evaluated measures of early father involvement (paternal engagement, accessibility, and responsibility) that were adapted to capture important cultural values relevant to the paternal role in Mexican-origin families. A sample of 180 Mexican-origin mothers (M age = 28.3) and 83 Mexican-origin fathers (M age = 31.5) were interviewed during the perinatal period. Descriptive analyses indicated that Mexican-origin fathers are involved in meaningful levels of direct interaction with their infant. A 2-factor model of paternal responsibility was supported by factor analyses, consisting of a behavioral responsibility factor aligned with previous literature and culturally derived positive machismo factor. Qualities of the romantic relationship, cultural orientation, and maternal employment status were related to indices of father involvement. These preliminary results contribute to understanding of the transition to fatherhood among low-income Mexican-origin men and bring attention to the demographic, social, and cultural contexts in which varying levels of father involvement may emerge. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Father involvement in Mexican origin families: Preliminary development of culturally-informed measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinov, Danielle S.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An increasing body of research has documented the significant influence of father involvement on children’s development and overall well-being. However, extant research has predominately focused on middle-class Caucasian samples with little examination of fathering in ethnic minority and low-income families, particularly during the infancy period. The present study evaluated measures of early father involvement (paternal engagement, accessibility, and responsibility) that were adapted to capture important cultural values relevant to the paternal role in Mexican origin families. Methods A sample of 180 Mexican origin mothers (M age = 28.3) and 83 Mexican origin fathers (M age = 31.5) were interviewed during the perinatal period. Results Descriptive analyses indicated that Mexican origin fathers are involved in meaningful levels of direct interaction with their infant. A two-factor model of paternal responsibility was supported by factor analyses, consisting of a behavioral responsibility factor aligned with previous literature and culturally-derived positive machismo factor. Qualities of the romantic relationship, cultural orientation, and maternal employment status were related to indices of father involvement. Conclusions These preliminary results contribute to understanding of the transition to fatherhood among low-income Mexican origin men and bring attention to the demographic, social, and cultural contexts in which varying levels of father involvement may emerge. PMID:26237543

  11. A model for the origin and mechanisms of CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.

    1995-01-01

    In this talk I will show that the two-Higgs doublet model with vacuum CP violation and approximate global U(1) family symmetries may provide one of the simplest and attractive models for understanding the origin and mechanisms of CP violation. It is shown that the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking provides not only a mechanism for generating masses of the bosons and fermions, but also a mechanism for creating CP-phases of the bosons and fermions, so that CP violation occurs, after spontaneous symmetry breaking, in all possible ways from a single CP phase of the vacuum and is generally classified into four types of CP-violating mechanism. A new type of CP-violating mechanism in the charged Higgs boson interactions of the fermions is emphasized and can provide a consistent description for both established and reported CP-, P-, and T-violating phenomena. Of particular importance is the new source of CP violation for charged Higgs boson interactions that lead to the value of ε'/ε as large as 10 -3 independent of the CKM phase. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. The origins of computer weather prediction and climate modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulation of an ever-increasing range of geophysical phenomena is adding enormously to our understanding of complex processes in the Earth system. The consequences for mankind of ongoing climate change will be far-reaching. Earth System Models are capable of replicating climate regimes of past millennia and are the best means we have of predicting the future of our climate. The basic ideas of numerical forecasting and climate modeling were developed about a century ago, long before the first electronic computer was constructed. There were several major practical obstacles to be overcome before numerical prediction could be put into practice. A fuller understanding of atmospheric dynamics allowed the development of simplified systems of equations; regular radiosonde observations of the free atmosphere and, later, satellite data, provided the initial conditions; stable finite difference schemes were developed; and powerful electronic computers provided a practical means of carrying out the prodigious calculations required to predict the changes in the weather. Progress in weather forecasting and in climate modeling over the past 50 years has been dramatic. In this presentation, we will trace the history of computer forecasting through the ENIAC integrations to the present day. The useful range of deterministic prediction is increasing by about one day each decade, and our understanding of climate change is growing rapidly as Earth System Models of ever-increasing sophistication are developed

  13. The two-process model : Origin and perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, S.; Hut, R. A.; Beersma, D.

    In the two-process model as developed in the early 1980's sleep is controlled by a process-S, representing the rise and fall of sleep demand resulting from prior sleep-wake history, interacting with a process-C representing circadian variation in sleep propensity. S and C together optimize sleep

  14. Models for the structure and origin of bipolar nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.

    1981-01-01

    The appearance of bipolar nebulae-symmetric reflection nebulae centered on evolved, mass-losing stars-can most simply be accounted for in terms of an axisymmetric distribution of outflowing dust in which the dust is concentrated towards an equatorial plane and declines monotonically with latitude above that plane. The symmetrically placed ''horns'' that can be seen radiating out of some bipolar nebulae, notably GL 2688, are a natural consequence of such a dust distribution if, at some latitude, the radial optical depth to starlight falls rapidly below unity. Several models of bipolar nebulae are presented. These structural models for bipolar nebulae lead in turn to an investigation of how such a geometry might arise. Although nonradial pulsation, rotationally forced mass ejection by a single star, and mass loss from a common envelope binary are all considered, the most attractive origin for bipolar nebulae is a binary star system in which the primary is evolving up the red giant branch to the point at which its radius approaches its tidal radius. If this occurs before corotation of the primary with the secondary's orbit can be achieved, then matter from the primary's enveloped can be gravitationally ejected from the system by the secondary, the ejected material being concentrated toward the system's equatorial plane. Numerical models of this phenomenon show that gravitational ejection from an asynchronous binary system easily leads to terminal outflow velocities in the observed range (20--50 km s -1 ), and that the rate of mass loss and the time scale over which the mass ejection takes place are consistent with observations if the particle density in the outer layers of the primary's atmosphere from which the material is extracted is in the range 10 14 --10 15 cm -3 . If this hypothesis is applicable, bipolar nebulae will probably become planetary nebulae, as previously suggested on observational grounds

  15. NACP Regional: Original Observation Data and Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the originally-submitted observation measurement data, terrestrial biosphere model output data, and inverse model simulations that various...

  16. NACP Regional: Original Observation Data and Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the originally-submitted observation measurement data, terrestrial biosphere model output data, and inverse model simulations that...

  17. Familial ethnic socialization, gender role attitudes, and ethnic identity development in Mexican-origin early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma; Arango, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the relations between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity development in 438 Mexican-origin (n = 242 boys and n = 196 girls) preadolescents. In addition, machismo and marianismo gender role attitudes were examined as potential mediators in this link. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the Familial Ethnic Socialization Scale (FES), Machismo Measure (MM), Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS), and the Ethnic Identity Brief Scale (EISB) were conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican-origin sample. Separate path analyses of analytic models were then performed on boys and girls. Results of the CFAs for survey measures revealed that for the FES, a 1-factor version indicated acceptable fit; for the MM, the original 2-factor structure indicated acceptable model fit; for the MBS, a revised 3-factor version indicated acceptable model fit; and, for the EISB, the affirmation and resolution dimensions showed acceptable fit. Among boys, FES was significantly and positively linked to caballerismo, and EISB affirmation and resolution; furthermore, the links between FES and EISB affirmation and resolution were indirectly connected by caballerismo. In addition, traditional machismo was negatively linked to EISB affirmation, and caballerismo was positively linked to EISB affirmation and resolution. Among girls, FES was significantly and positively related to the MBS-virtuous/chaste pillar, and EISB affirmation and resolution. The MBS-subordinate to others pillar was negatively linked to EISB affirmation. This study underscores the importance of FES and positive gender role attitudes in the link to ethnic identity development among Mexican-origin preadolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. On the Origin and Development of the Medical Nutrition Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Weenen (Tamar)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Product development in the health and life sciences is shifting from the development of target-specific pharmaceutical products to multi-target therapies, including medical nutrition. Medical nutrition consists of nutritional compositions, prescribed by medical

  19. Original analytic solution of a half-bridge modelled as a statically indeterminate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, Emil M.; Panait, Cornel; Raicu, Alexandra; Barhalescu, Mihaela

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents an original computer based analytical model of a half-bridge belonging to a circular settling tank. The primary unknown is computed using the force method, the coefficients of the canonical equation being calculated using either the discretization of the bending moment diagram in trapezoids, or using the relations specific to the polygons. A second algorithm based on the method of initial parameters is also presented. Analyzing the new solution we came to the conclusion that most of the computer code developed for other model may be reused. The results are useful to evaluate the behavior of the structure and to compare with the results of the finite element models.

  20. Home economics: origin, development and professional working field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Menezes de Oliveira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Home Economics is not only a set of practical knowledge housewives must possess to prepare food empirically, make and repair clothes, take care of their children and do domestic chores. The objective of this article is to discuss the area of Economics defined as Home Economics, focusing on its origin, evolution, the working field of its specialists and its prospects for the 21st century. Results show the need for scientific and professional knowledge of Home Economics in schools, families and society. The study of Home Economics is of great importance because both school and family are part of society and present very complex phenomena, therefore an adequate and efficient solution for those phenomena demand the knowledge of specialized scientific notions of Home Economics.

  1. Origin and early development of the chicken adenohypophysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSanchez-Arrones

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The adenohypophysis (ADH is an important endocrine organ involved in the regulation of many physiological processes. The late morphogenesis of this organ at neural tube stages is well known: the epithelial ADH primordium is recognized as an invagination of the stomodeal roof (Rathke’s pouch, whose walls later thicken and differentiate as the primordium becomes pediculated, and then fully separated from the stomodeum. The primordium attaches to the pial surface of the basal hypothalamus, next to the neurohypophyseal field (NH; future posterior pituitary, from which it was previously separated by migrating prechordal plate cells. Once the NH evaginates, the ADH surrounds it and jointly forms with it the pituitary gland. In contrast, little is known about the precise origin of the ADH precursors at neural plate stages and how the primordium reaches the stomodeum. For that reason, we produced in the chicken a specific ADH fate map at early neural plate stages, which was amplified with gene markers. By means of experiments labelling the mapped presumptive ADH, we were able to follow the initial anlage into its transformation into Rathke’s pouch. The ADH origin was corroborated to be strictly extraneural, i.e., to lie at stage HH4/5 outside of the anterior neural plate within the pre-placodal field. The ADH primordium is fully segregated from the anterior neural border cells and the neighboring olfactory placodes both in terms of precursor cells and molecular profile from head fold stages onwards. The placode becomes visible as a molecularly characteristic ectodermal thickening from stage HH10 onwards. The onset of ADH genoarchitectonic regionalization into intermediate and anterior lobes occurs at closed neural tube stages.

  2. A common mode of origin of power laws in models of market and earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Pratip; Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2007-07-01

    We show that there is a common mode of origin for the power laws observed in two different models: (i) the Pareto law for the distribution of money among the agents with random-saving propensities in an ideal gas-like market model and (ii) the Gutenberg-Richter law for the distribution of overlaps in a fractal-overlap model for earthquakes. We find that the power laws appear as the asymptotic forms of ever-widening log-normal distributions for the agents’ money and the overlap magnitude, respectively. The identification of the generic origin of the power laws helps in better understanding and in developing generalized views of phenomena in such diverse areas as economics and geophysics.

  3. Dual odontogenic origins develop at the early stage of rat maxillary incisor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriangkrai, Rungarun; Iseki, Sachiko; Eto, Kazuhiro; Chareonvit, Suconta

    2006-03-01

    Developmental process of rat maxillary incisor has been studied through histological analysis and investigation of tooth-related gene expression patterns at initial tooth development. The tooth-related genes studied here are fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf-8), pituitary homeobox gene-2 (Pitx-2), sonic hedgehog (Shh), muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1), paired box-9 (Pax-9) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp-4). The genes are expressed in oral epithelium and/or ectomesenchyme at the stage of epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development. Both the histological observation and tooth-related gene expression patterns during early stage of maxillary incisor development demonstrate that dual odontogenic origins aligned medio-laterally in the medial nasal process develop, subsequently only single functional maxillary incisor dental placode forms. The cascade of tooth-related gene expression patterns in rat maxillary incisor studied here is quite similar to those of the previous studies in mouse mandibular molar, even though the origins of oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme involved in development of maxillary incisor and mandibular molar are different. Thus, we conclude that maxillary incisor and mandibular molar share a similar signaling control of Fgf-8, Pitx-2, Shh, Msx-1, Pax-9 and Bmp-4 genes at the stage of oral epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development.

  4. New droplet model developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorso, C.O.; Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.; Moeller, P.; Treiner, J.; Weiss, M.S.

    1985-09-01

    A brief summary is given of three recent contributions to the development of the Droplet Model. The first concerns the electric dipole moment induced in octupole deformed nuclei by the Coulomb redistribution. The second concerns a study of squeezing in nuclei and the third is a study of the improved predictive power of the model when an empirical ''exponential'' term is included. 25 refs., 3 figs

  5. Original Article Pubertal Development of Penile Nitric Oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    penile tissue in different age groups in the rat and to measure serum testosterone levels ... shaft specimen was taken for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase ..... The rat as a model for the study of penile erection.

  6. Probabilistic Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Develop a Probabilistic Model for the Solar Energetic Particle Environment. Develop a tool to provide a reference solar particle radiation environment that: 1) Will not be exceeded at a user-specified confidence level; 2) Will provide reference environments for: a) Peak flux; b) Event-integrated fluence; and c) Mission-integrated fluence. The reference environments will consist of: a) Elemental energy spectra; b) For protons, helium and heavier ions.

  7. Transdisciplinarity: A Review of Its Origins, Development, and Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Hillel Bernstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinarity originated in a critique of the standard configuration of knowledge in disciplines in the curriculum, including moral and ethical concerns. Pronouncements about it were first voiced between the climax of government-supported science and higher education and the long retrenchment that began in the 1970s. Early work focused on questions of epistemology and the planning of future universities and educational programs. After a lull, transdisciplinarity re-emerged in the 1990s as an urgent issue relating to the solution of new, highly complex, global concerns, beginning with climate change and sustainability and extending into many areas concerning science, technology, social problems and policy, education, and the arts. Transdisciplinarity today is characterized by its focus on “wicked problems” that need creative solutions, its reliance on stakeholder involvement, and engaged, socially responsible science. In simultaneously studying multiple levels of, and angles on, reality, transdisciplinary work provides an intriguing potential to invigorate scholarly and scientific inquiry both in and outside the academy.

  8. Simulations of living cell origins using a cellular automata model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the generalized mechanisms of cell self-assembly is fundamental for applications in various fields, such as mass producing molecular machines in nanotechnology. Thus, the details of real cellular reaction networks and the necessary conditions for self-organized cells must be elucidated. We constructed a 2-dimensional cellular automata model to investigate the emergence of biological cell formation, which incorporated a looped membrane and a membrane-bound information system (akin to a genetic code and gene expression system). In particular, with an artificial reaction system coupled with a thermal system, the simultaneous formation of a looped membrane and an inner reaction process resulted in a more stable structure. These double structures inspired the primitive biological cell formation process from chemical evolution stage. With a model to simulate cellular self-organization in a 2-dimensional cellular automata model, 3 phenomena could be realized: (1) an inner reaction system developed as an information carrier precursor (akin to DNA); (2) a cell border emerged (akin to a cell membrane); and (3) these cell structures could divide into 2. This double-structured cell was considered to be a primary biological cell. The outer loop evolved toward a lipid bilayer membrane, and inner polymeric particles evolved toward precursor information carriers (evolved toward DNA). This model did not completely clarify all the necessary and sufficient conditions for biological cell self-organization. Further, our virtual cells remained unstable and fragile. However, the "garbage bag model" of Dyson proposed that the first living cells were deficient; thus, it would be reasonable that the earliest cells were more unstable and fragile than the simplest current unicellular organisms.

  9. Original article Rehabilitation model program for seriously ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Kegye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients receiving cancer treatment start lifestyle changes mostly at the end of the treatment during the rehabilitation period. Most often, the first step is a dietary change and physical exercises built into the daily routine. Patients who do this in groups led by qualified therapists and based on professional counseling can build more effective and more permanent changes into their life. To develop a complex rehabilitation program which, in the short term, aims to familiarize patients with a lifestyle which harmonizes the physical, mental, spiritual and social spheres of life and, in the long term, to build it into their everyday life in order to ameliorate the physical and mental state and reduce the psychological symptoms and the isolation of patients. The physical component focuses on diet and exercise. The psycho-social-spiritual support focuses on discovering inner sources of strength, developing active coping mechanisms and helping to achieve more open communication. Participants and procedure In February and March 2011, 8 patients treated for malignant tumors participated in the model program. The components of the model program were psychotherapy, physiotherapy, cancer consultation, nutrition counseling, creative activities and walking. Results During the period of the model program the isolation of the patients decreased and their social support and ability of coping with the illness ameliorated. They reported an ease in anxiety and depression in their everyday activities. According to feedback, their communication with each other, with the staff and with their relatives became more open. Altogether this had advantageous effects on the functioning of the ward and the mood of the staff. Conclusions The rehabilitation program confirmed that beside individual psycho-social support, beneficial and economic psycho-social support can be provided for the patients in group form along with the most effective assignment of the

  10. IVF and embryo transfer: historical origin and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, John D

    2012-08-01

    IVF and embryo transfer for the treatment of human infertility has now resulted in the birth of over 4 million babies. The technique did not arise as a quantum event but was built on the efforts of many earlier workers in the fields of reproductive endocrinology and development. One should remember the famous saying of Isaac Newton: 'If I have seen further than most, it is because I have stood on the shoulder's of giants'. Ethical and moral issues have always arisen when investigators study early mammalian development, particularly human development. This paper documents these earlier studies and also draws attention to the ethical and moral arguments that inevitably arose. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Origins of Social Security in Developing Countries: the Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... arrangements or schemes have developed in the way they have, nor has there been an in depth analysis of the structure of the current institutions, the range and scope of covers, as well as the process of benefit delivery. The paper attempts such a study. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.7(1) 1998: 61-68 ...

  12. Community Psychology in South Africa: Origins, Developments, and Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Mohamed; Lazarus, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This article represents a South African contribution to the growing international body of knowledge on histories of community psychology. We trace the early antecedents of social-community psychology interventions and describe the social forces and academic influences that provided the impetus for the emergence and development of community…

  13. THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF JUJU MUSIC: 1900-1990 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imitch

    Nigerian popular music was largely neglected and many key areas such as its history remained unaddressed ... development of juju from its early beginnings in the early 1900s to when it ..... The relationship between sound and movement was exploited by Juju musicians realizing that their fame .... is not a load fit for a child.

  14. Origins and Hallmarks of Macrophages: Development, Homeostasis, and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas A.; Chawla, Ajay; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Preface Macrophages the most plastic cells of the hematopoietic system are found in all tissues and exhibit great functional diversity. They have roles in development, homeostasis, tissue repair, and immunity. While anatomically distinct, resident tissue macrophages exhibit different transcriptional profiles, and functional capabilities, they are all required for the maintenance of homeostasis. However, these reparative and homeostatic functions can be subverted by chronic insults, resulting in a causal association of macrophages with disease states. In this review, we discuss how macrophages regulate normal physiology and development and provide several examples of their pathophysiologic roles in disease. We define the “hallmarks” of macrophages performing particular functions, taking into account novel insights into the diversity of their lineages, identity, and regulation. This diversity is essential to understand because macrophages have emerged as important therapeutic targets in many important human diseases. PMID:23619691

  15. Origin, development, and evolution of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR has led to a great number of studies since its appearance in 1989. The aim of this article is to describe EMDR development and evolution to the present day. With this purpose a search was carried out on MEDLINE and PsycINFO with the entry "eye movement desensitization". After revising the resulting 797 articles, those that because of their relevance explained best the development and evolution of the technique were chosen and shaped into a lifeline graphically representing the history of EMDR. Despite the fact that during the first years the focus of research was on the validation of the technique for post-traumatic disorder (PTSD, it was soon applied to other areas. Only 14% of the articles found account for controlled studies. Up to date, in spite of the effectiveness of EMDR for the treatment of PTSD that has been proven, many different explanatory hypotheses are still up for discussion.

  16. Coupled geochemical/hydrogeological modelling to assess the origin of salinity at the Tono area (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimera, Jordi; Ruiz, Eduardo; Luna, Miguel; Arcos, David; Jordana, Salvador; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2005-01-01

    Numerical models are powerful tools for the characterization of groundwater flow, especially when integrating geochemical and hydrogeological data. This paper describes modeling exercises performed in the area surrounding the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Construction Site in central Japan. A particular issue being investigated at the MIU Site is the presence of saline water detected at depth in certain boreholes. The main objective of this study is to develop conceptual physical models for the origin of this salinity and to test these conceptual models using numerical modeling techniques. One scenario being investigated is that the saline fluids represent residual Miocene age seawater which has been slightly altered by water-rock interactions. It is likely that during Miocene times, seawater inundated the Tono area. This hypothesis is partially supported by carbon and oxygen isotopic data of the calcite fracture filling materials. (author)

  17. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  18. Rectenna thermal model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiramangalam, Murall; Alden, Adrian; Speyer, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Deploying rectennas in space requires adapting existing designs developed for terrestrial applications to the space environment. One of the major issues in doing so is to understand the thermal performance of existing designs in the space environment. Toward that end, a 3D rectenna thermal model has been developed, which involves analyzing shorted rectenna elements and finite size rectenna element arrays. A shorted rectenna element is a single element whose ends are connected together by a material of negligible thermal resistance. A shorted element is a good approximation to a central element of a large array. This model has been applied to Brown's 2.45 GHz rectenna design. Results indicate that Brown's rectenna requires redesign or some means of enhancing the heat dissipation in order for the diode temperature to be maintained below 200 C above an output power density of 620 W/sq.m. The model developed in this paper is very general and can be used for the analysis and design of any type of rectenna design of any frequency.

  19. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  20. On the origin of mass in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundman, S.

    2013-01-01

    A model is proposed in which the presently existing elementary particles are the result of an evolution proceeding from the simplest possible particle state to successively more complex states via a series of symmetry-breaking transitions. The properties of two fossil particles — the tauon and muon — together with the observed photon–baryon number ratio provide information that makes it possible to track the early development of particles. A computer simulation of the evolution reveals details about the purpose and history of all presently known elementary particles. In particular, it is concluded that the heavy Higgs particle that generates the bulk of the mass of the Z and W bosons also comes in a light version, which generates small mass contributions to the charged leptons. The predicted mass of this 'flyweight' Higgs boson is 0.505 MeV/c 2 , 106.086 eV/c 2 or 12.0007 μeV/c 2 (corresponding to a photon of frequency 2.9018 GHz) depending on whether it is associated with the tauon, muon or electron. Support for the conclusion comes from the Brookhaven muon g-2 experiment, which indicates the existence of a Higgs particle lighter than the muon. (author)

  1. Origin and structures of solar eruptions II: Magnetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Cheng, Xin; Ding, MingDe

    2017-07-01

    The topology and dynamics of the three-dimensional magnetic field in the solar atmosphere govern various solar eruptive phenomena and activities, such as flares, coronal mass ejections, and filaments/prominences. We have to observe and model the vector magnetic field to understand the structures and physical mechanisms of these solar activities. Vector magnetic fields on the photosphere are routinely observed via the polarized light, and inferred with the inversion of Stokes profiles. To analyze these vector magnetic fields, we need first to remove the 180° ambiguity of the transverse components and correct the projection effect. Then, the vector magnetic field can be served as the boundary conditions for a force-free field modeling after a proper preprocessing. The photospheric velocity field can also be derived from a time sequence of vector magnetic fields. Three-dimensional magnetic field could be derived and studied with theoretical force-free field models, numerical nonlinear force-free field models, magnetohydrostatic models, and magnetohydrodynamic models. Magnetic energy can be computed with three-dimensional magnetic field models or a time series of vector magnetic field. The magnetic topology is analyzed by pinpointing the positions of magnetic null points, bald patches, and quasi-separatrix layers. As a well conserved physical quantity, magnetic helicity can be computed with various methods, such as the finite volume method, discrete flux tube method, and helicity flux integration method. This quantity serves as a promising parameter characterizing the activity level of solar active regions.

  2. Adjustment and Characterization of an Original Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure in Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Barandon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and characterize an original experimental model to create a chronic ischemic heart failure in pig. Two ameroid constrictors were placed around the LAD and the circumflex artery. Two months after surgery, pigs presented a poor LV function associated with a severe mitral valve insufficiency. Echocardiography analysis showed substantial anomalies in radial and circumferential deformations, both on the anterior and lateral surface of the heart. These anomalies in function were coupled with anomalies of perfusion observed in echocardiography after injection of contrast medium. No demonstration of myocardial infarction was observed with histological analysis. Our findings suggest that we were able to create and to stabilize a chronic ischemic heart failure model in the pig. This model represents a useful tool for the development of new medical or surgical treatment in this field.

  3. Photochirogenesis: Photochemical Models on the Origin of Biomolecular Homochirality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Meinert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research focuses on a better understanding of the origin of biomolecular asymmetry by the identification and detection of the possibly first chiral molecules that were involved in the appearance and evolution of life on Earth. We have reasons to assume that these molecules were specific chiral amino acids. Chiral amino acids have been identified in both chondritic meteorites and simulated interstellar ices. Present research reasons that circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation was identified in interstellar environments and an asymmetric interstellar photon-molecule interaction might have triggered biomolecular symmetry breaking. We review on the possible prebiotic interaction of ‘chiral photons’ in the form of circularly polarized light, with early chiral organic molecules. We will highlight recent studies on enantioselective photolysis of racemic amino acids by circularly polarized light and experiments on the asymmetric photochemical synthesis of amino acids from only one C and one N containing molecules by simulating interstellar environments. Both approaches are based on circular dichroic transitions of amino acids that will be presented as well.

  4. On a radiative origin of the Standard Model from trinification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Molina, José Eliel; Morais, António P.; Pasechnik, Roman; Wessén, Jonas

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a trinification-based grand unified theory incorporating a global SU(3) family symmetry that after a spontaneous breaking leads to a left-right symmetric model. Already at the classical level, this model can accommodate the matter content and the quark Cabbibo mixing in the Standard Model (SM) with only one Yukawa coupling at the unification scale. Considering the minimal low-energy scenario with the least amount of light states, we show that the resulting effective theory enables dynamical breaking of its gauge group down to that of the SM by means of radiative corrections accounted for by the renormalisation group evolution at one loop. This result paves the way for a consistent explanation of the SM breaking scale and fermion mass hierarchies.

  5. Illuminating the origins of spectral properties of green fluorescent proteins via proteochemometric and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantasenamat, Chanin; Simeon, Saw; Owasirikul, Wiwat; Songtawee, Napat; Lapins, Maris; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2014-10-15

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has immense utility in biomedical imaging owing to its autofluorescent nature. In efforts to broaden the spectral diversity of GFP, there have been several reports of engineered mutants via rational design and random mutagenesis. Understanding the origins of spectral properties of GFP could be achieved by means of investigating its structure-activity relationship. The first quantitative structure-property relationship study for modeling the spectral properties, particularly the excitation and emission maximas, of GFP was previously proposed by us some years ago in which quantum chemical descriptors were used for model development. However, such simplified model does not consider possible effects that neighboring amino acids have on the conjugated π-system of GFP chromophore. This study describes the development of a unified proteochemometric model in which the GFP chromophore and amino acids in its vicinity are both considered in the same model. The predictive performance of the model was verified by internal and external validation as well as Y-scrambling. Our strategy provides a general solution for elucidating the contribution that specific ligand and protein descriptors have on the investigated spectral property, which may be useful in engineering novel GFP variants with desired characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The statistical multifragmentation model: Origins and recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donangelo, R.; Souza, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    We review the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMM) which considers a generalization of the liquid-drop model for hot nuclei and allows one to calculate thermodynamic quantities characterizing the nuclear ensemble at the disassembly stage. We show how to determine probabilities of definite partitions of finite nuclei and how to determine, through Monte Carlo calculations, observables such as the caloric curve, multiplicity distributions, heat capacity, among others. Some experimental measurements of the caloric curve confirmed the SMM predictions of over 10 years before, leading to a surge in the interest in the model. However, the experimental determination of the fragmentation temperatures relies on the yields of different isotopic species, which were not correctly calculated in the schematic, liquid-drop picture, employed in the SMM. This led to a series of improvements in the SMM, in particular to the more careful choice of nuclear masses and energy densities, specially for the lighter nuclei. With these improvements the SMM is able to make quantitative determinations of isotope production. We show the application of SMM to the production of exotic nuclei through multifragmentation. These preliminary calculations demonstrate the need for a careful choice of the system size and excitation energy to attain maximum yields.

  7. The statistical multifragmentation model: Origins and recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donangelo, R., E-mail: donangel@fing.edu.uy [Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de la República, Julio Herrera y Reissig 565, 11300, Montevideo (Uruguay); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Souza, S. R., E-mail: srsouza@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P. 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre - RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-07

    We review the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMM) which considers a generalization of the liquid-drop model for hot nuclei and allows one to calculate thermodynamic quantities characterizing the nuclear ensemble at the disassembly stage. We show how to determine probabilities of definite partitions of finite nuclei and how to determine, through Monte Carlo calculations, observables such as the caloric curve, multiplicity distributions, heat capacity, among others. Some experimental measurements of the caloric curve confirmed the SMM predictions of over 10 years before, leading to a surge in the interest in the model. However, the experimental determination of the fragmentation temperatures relies on the yields of different isotopic species, which were not correctly calculated in the schematic, liquid-drop picture, employed in the SMM. This led to a series of improvements in the SMM, in particular to the more careful choice of nuclear masses and energy densities, specially for the lighter nuclei. With these improvements the SMM is able to make quantitative determinations of isotope production. We show the application of SMM to the production of exotic nuclei through multifragmentation. These preliminary calculations demonstrate the need for a careful choice of the system size and excitation energy to attain maximum yields.

  8. Cultural-historical and cognitive approaches to understanding the origins of development of written speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Obukhova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the emergence and development of written speech, its relationship to the oral speech, connections to the symbolic and modeling activities of preschool children – playing and drawing. While a child's drawing is traditionally interpreted in psychology either as a measure of intellectual development, or as a projective technique, or as a criterion for creative giftedness of the child, in this article, the artistic activity is analyzed as a prerequisite for development of written speech. The article substantiates the hypothesis that the mastery of “picture writing” – the ability to display the verbal content in a schematic picturesque plan – is connected to the success of writing speech at school age. Along with the classical works of L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin, A.R. Luria, dedicated to finding the origins of writing, the article presents the current Russian and foreign frameworks of forming the preconditions of writing, based on the concepts of cultural-historical theory (“higher mental functions”, “zone of proximal development”, etc.. In Western psychology, a number of pilot studies used the developmental function of drawing for teaching the written skills to children of 5-7 years old. However, in cognitive psychology, relationship between drawing and writing is most often reduced mainly to the analysis of general motor circuits. Despite the recovery in research on writing and its origins in the last decade, either in domestic or in foreign psychology, the written speech is not a sufficiently studied problem.

  9. Λ(t)CDM model as a unified origin of holographic and agegraphic dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yun; Zhu Zonghong; Xu Lixin; Alcaniz, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that any nonzero Λ can introduce a length scale or a time scale into Einstein's theory, r Λ =ct Λ =√(3/|Λ|). Conversely, any cosmological length scale or time scale can introduce a Λ(t), Λ(t)=3/r Λ 2 (t)=3/(c 2 t Λ 2 (t)). In this Letter, we investigate the time varying Λ(t) corresponding to the length scales, including the Hubble horizon, the particle horizon and the future event horizon, and the time scales, including the age of the universe and the conformal time. It is found out that, in this scenario, the Λ(t)CDM model can be taken as the unified origin of the holographic and agegraphic dark energy models with interaction between the matter and the dark energy, where the interacting term is determined by Q=-ρ . Λ . We place observational constraints on the Λ(t)CDM models originating from different cosmological length scales and time scales with the recently compiled 'Union2 compilation' which consists of 557 Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) covering a redshift range 0.015≤z≤1.4. In conclusion, an accelerating expansion universe can be derived in the cases taking the Hubble horizon, the future event horizon, the age of the universe and the conformal time as the length scale or the time scale.

  10. Development of the physical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zunqi; Morsy, Samir

    2001-01-01

    descriptions in the categories of especially-designed or prepared equipment, dual-use equipment, non-nuclear material, nuclear material, technology/training/R and D, other observables, by-products/effluents and end products. The most distinguished feature of the Physical Model is to characterize each technology and process in terms of indicators specifying the existence or development of the specific technology or process. The specificity of indicators for a given nuclear technology or process is assessed, based on which relative strength is designated to each indicator as strong, medium or weak. The objectives of the development of the Physical Model are three-fold: (i) provide a general and easily accessible reference for fuel cycle activities; (ii) to provide a model for a State's nuclear program which would be a subset of the Physical Model and (iii) to provide a simple mapping function from the indicators to the existence or development of specific nuclear activities. It is intended to be used as a technical tool in implementing the enhanced information analysis. For example, it provides a model template to organize the consistency evaluation to justify the internal consistency of a State's nuclear program. The Physical Model indicators provide a means to associate a question or inconsistency with a specific nuclear activity. The designated strength of an indicator provides a reference to assess the proliferation significance of the question or inconsistency. The indicators and designated strengths will also help determine clarification or follow-up actions to respond to a given situation. In developing and implementing State-level safeguards approaches, the Physical Model will help to characterize a State's fuel cycle program and assess its potential to acquire weapons-usable materials based on identification of the acquisition paths at the State level. Originally issued in eight volumes in October 1998, the need to include Spent Fuel Management, Intermediate and High

  11. The Neuroanatomical, Neurophysiological and Psychological Basis of Memory: Current Models and Their Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camina, Eduardo; Güell, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to classify and clarify, from a neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and psychological perspective, different memory models that are currently widespread in the literature as well as to describe their origins. We believe it is important to consider previous developments without which one cannot adequately understand the kinds of models that are now current in the scientific literature. This article intends to provide a comprehensive and rigorous overview for understanding and ordering the latest scientific advances related to this subject. The main forms of memory presented include sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Information from the world around us is first stored by sensory memory, thus enabling the storage and future use of such information. Short-term memory (or memory) refers to information processed in a short period of time. Long-term memory allows us to store information for long periods of time, including information that can be retrieved consciously (explicit memory) or unconsciously (implicit memory).

  12. Selected sports talent development models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vičar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sports talent in the Czech Republic is generally viewed as a static, stable phenomena. It stands in contrast with widespread praxis carried out in Anglo-Saxon countries that emphasise its fluctuant nature. This is reflected in the current models describing its development. Objectives: The aim is to introduce current models of talent development in sport. Methods: Comparison and analysing of the following models: Balyi - Long term athlete development model, Côté - Developmental model of sport participation, Csikszentmihalyi - The flow model of optimal expertise, Bailey and Morley - Model of talent development. Conclusion: Current models of sport talent development approach talent as dynamic phenomenon, varying in time. They are based in particular on the work of Simonton and his Emergenic and epigenic model and of Gagné and his Differentiated model of giftedness and talent. Balyi's model is characterised by its applicability and impications for practice. Côté's model highlights the role of family and deliberate play. Both models describe periodization of talent development. Csikszentmihalyi's flow model explains how the athlete acquires experience and develops during puberty based on the structure of attention and flow experience. Bailey and Morley's model accents the situational approach to talent and development of skills facilitating its growth.

  13. Controlling Decoherence in Superconducting Qubits: Phenomenological Model and Microscopic Origin of 1/f Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    quasiparticle poisoning which include a completely novel physical origin of these noises. We also proposed a model for excess low frequency flux noise which...and quasiparticle poisoning which include a completely novel physical origin of these noises. We also proposed a model for excess low frequency flux...metallic nanomechanical resonators, Phys. Rev. B 81, 184112 (2010). 3) L. Faoro, A. Kitaev and L. B. Ioffe, Quasiparticle poisoning and Josephson current

  14. Selected sports talent development models

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Vičar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sports talent in the Czech Republic is generally viewed as a static, stable phenomena. It stands in contrast with widespread praxis carried out in Anglo-Saxon countries that emphasise its fluctuant nature. This is reflected in the current models describing its development. Objectives: The aim is to introduce current models of talent development in sport. Methods: Comparison and analysing of the following models: Balyi - Long term athlete development model, Côté - Developmen...

  15. Introductory Biology Students’ Conceptual Models and Explanations of the Origin of Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Neil; Momsen, Jennifer; Reinagel, Adam; Le, Paul; Taqieddin, Ranya; Long, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Mutation is the key molecular mechanism generating phenotypic variation, which is the basis for evolution. In an introductory biology course, we used a model-based pedagogy that enabled students to integrate their understanding of genetics and evolution within multiple case studies. We used student-generated conceptual models to assess understanding of the origin of variation. By midterm, only a small percentage of students articulated complete and accurate representations of the origin of variation in their models. Targeted feedback was offered through activities requiring students to critically evaluate peers’ models. At semester's end, a substantial proportion of students significantly improved their representation of how variation arises (though one-third still did not include mutation in their models). Students’ written explanations of the origin of variation were mostly consistent with their models, although less effective than models in conveying mechanistic reasoning. This study contributes evidence that articulating the genetic origin of variation is particularly challenging for learners and may require multiple cycles of instruction, assessment, and feedback. To support meaningful learning of the origin of variation, we advocate instruction that explicitly integrates multiple scales of biological organization, assessment that promotes and reveals mechanistic and causal reasoning, and practice with explanatory models with formative feedback. PMID:25185235

  16. Calculus domains modelled using an original bool algebra based on polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, E.; Panait, C.; Raicu, A.; Barhalescu, M.; Axinte, T.

    2016-08-01

    Analytical and numerical computer based models require analytical definitions of the calculus domains. The paper presents a method to model a calculus domain based on a bool algebra which uses solid and hollow polygons. The general calculus relations of the geometrical characteristics that are widely used in mechanical engineering are tested using several shapes of the calculus domain in order to draw conclusions regarding the most effective methods to discretize the domain. The paper also tests the results of several CAD commercial software applications which are able to compute the geometrical characteristics, being drawn interesting conclusions. The tests were also targeting the accuracy of the results vs. the number of nodes on the curved boundary of the cross section. The study required the development of an original software consisting of more than 1700 computer code lines. In comparison with other calculus methods, the discretization using convex polygons is a simpler approach. Moreover, this method doesn't lead to large numbers as the spline approximation did, in that case being required special software packages in order to offer multiple, arbitrary precision. The knowledge resulted from this study may be used to develop complex computer based models in engineering.

  17. Econometric models for biohydrogen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duu-Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong; Veziroglu, Ayfer

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is considered as an attractive clean energy source due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. Analyzing various economic scenarios can help decision makers to optimize development strategies for the biohydrogen sector. This study surveys econometric models of biohydrogen development, including input-out models, life-cycle assessment approach, computable general equilibrium models, linear programming models and impact pathway approach. Fundamentals of each model were briefly reviewed to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The input-output model and the simplified economic input-output life-cycle assessment model proved most suitable for economic analysis of biohydrogen energy development. A sample analysis using input-output model for forecasting biohydrogen development in the United States is given. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Origin of the Squantum 'Tillite', Massachusetts, USA: Modern Analogs and Implications for Neoproterozoic Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carto, S. L.; Eyles, N.

    2009-05-01

    A central challenge to the 'Snowball Earth' hypothesis is whether the sedimentary rocks deposited during the Neoproterozoic (c. 750-570 Ma) are glacial tillites that accumulated under global ice sheets during this era. This uncertainty stems from the fact that diamictites are not uniquely glacial in origin, as the slumping and mixing of sediment downslope can also produce diamictites. A key deposit in this debate is the Squantum 'tillite' (ca. 595-570 Ma) preserved in the Boston Basin in Massachusetts, USA, which originated as an arc- related basin within the Avalon island arc terrane during the Neoproterozoic. Detailed field examinations of the Squantum by the author suggest that it owes its origin to the downslope transport of large volumes of unstable volcanic and sedimentary debris from steep basin margin slopes. No evidence of a glacial environment was identified. Thin-section analysis of this deposit has revealed a significant volcanic influence on sedimentation in the form of hitherto unrecognized volcanic lapilli tuff horizons and turbidites consisting of reworked ash in strata associated with Squantum diamictite. These results point to deposition related to tectonic activity and basin development rather than severe global glacial conditions. In light of these results, the Squantum diamictite was compared to the volcaniclastic mass flows deposits exposed along the active Lesser Antilles Arc in the Caribbean. Many of these flows are transported into the adjacent Grenada back-arc Basin by debris flows and turbidity currents resulting in the deposition of volcaniclastic conglomerates, diamictites and thin ash turbidites. Gross stratigraphic and sedimentological similarities of the mass flow facies in the Caribbean can be identified with the Squantum deposits, suggesting that appropriate depositional analogs for the Squantum can be found along the Lesser Antilles Arc. The significance of these results is that they emphasize the importance of detailed field

  19. Assessment of yellow fever epidemic risk: an original multi-criteria modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Briand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF virtually disappeared in francophone West African countries as a result of YF mass vaccination campaigns carried out between 1940 and 1953. However, because of the failure to continue mass vaccination campaigns, a resurgence of the deadly disease in many African countries began in the early 1980s. We developed an original modeling approach to assess YF epidemic risk (vulnerability and to prioritize the populations to be vaccinated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We chose a two-step assessment of vulnerability at district level consisting of a quantitative and qualitative assessment per country. Quantitative assessment starts with data collection on six risk factors: five risk factors associated with "exposure" to virus/vector and one with "susceptibility" of a district to YF epidemics. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA modeling method was specifically adapted to reduce the five exposure variables to one aggregated exposure indicator. Health districts were then projected onto a two-dimensional graph to define different levels of vulnerability. Districts are presented on risk maps for qualitative analysis in consensus groups, allowing the addition of factors, such as population migrations or vector density, that could not be included in MCA. The example of rural districts in Burkina Faso show five distinct clusters of risk profiles. Based on this assessment, 32 of 55 districts comprising over 7 million people were prioritized for preventive vaccination campaigns. CONCLUSION: This assessment of yellow fever epidemic risk at the district level includes MCA modeling and consensus group modification. MCA provides a standardized way to reduce complexity. It supports an informed public health decision-making process that empowers local stakeholders through the consensus group. This original approach can be applied to any disease with documented risk factors.

  20. Law and Islamic finance: How legal origins affect Islamic finance development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Grassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown that differences in legal origin explain differences in financial development. Using historical comparisons and cross-country regressions for 30 countries observed for the period from 2005 to 2010, this study tried to assess if different legal origins impacted on the development of Islamic finance. More particularly, this paper tried to assess empirically why and how Shari'a Law's legal origins adopted wholly or partially (combined with Common or Civil Law could explain the level of development of Islamic finance in different jurisdictions. Firstly, we found that countries adopting a Shari'a legal system had a very well developed Islamic financial system. Secondly, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on Common Law and Shari'a Law, were characterized by the flexibility of their legal systems to make changes to their laws in response to the changing socioeconomic conditions and that these helped the development of the Islamic financial industry. However, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on both Civil Law and Shari'a Law, were less flexible in making changes to their old laws and this thwarted the development of the Islamic financial industry in these countries. Thirdly, we found that the concentration of Muslim population (the percentage of Muslim population had a positive effect on the development of the Islamic banking system. Also, the level of income had a positive and significant effect on the development of Islamic banking.

  1. Models for Sustainable Regional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2008-01-01

    The chapter presents a model for integrated cross-cultural knowledge building and entrepreneurship. In addtion, narrative and numeric simulations methods are suggested to promote a further development and implementation of the model in China.......The chapter presents a model for integrated cross-cultural knowledge building and entrepreneurship. In addtion, narrative and numeric simulations methods are suggested to promote a further development and implementation of the model in China....

  2. The Influences of the Family of Origin on Career Development: A Review and Analysis. Major Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiston, Susan C.; Keller, Briana K.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a developmental contextual perspective advocated by Vondracek, Lerner, and Schulenberg, this article provides a comprehensive review of the research published since 1980 related to family of origin influences on career development and occupational choice. Because individuals are most likely to seek assistance with career decisions from…

  3. Performance of fire behavior fuel models developed for the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Ziel; W. Matt Jolly

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, 40 new fire behavior fuel models were published for use with the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model. These new models are intended to augment the original 13 developed in 1972 and 1976. As a compiled set of quantitative fuel descriptions that serve as input to the Rothermel model, the selected fire behavior fuel model has always been critical to the resulting...

  4. Noncoding origins of anthropoid traits and a new null model of transposon functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario, Ricardo C H; Rayan, Nirmala Arul; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about novel genetic elements that drove the emergence of anthropoid primates. We exploited the sequencing of the marmoset genome to identify 23,849 anthropoid-specific constrained (ASC) regions and confirmed their robust functional signatures. Of the ASC base pairs, 99.7% were noncoding, suggesting that novel anthropoid functional elements were overwhelmingly cis-regulatory. ASCs were highly enriched in loci associated with fetal brain development, motor coordination, neurotransmission, and vision, thus providing a large set of candidate elements for exploring the molecular basis of hallmark primate traits. We validated ASC192 as a primate-specific enhancer in proliferative zones of the developing brain. Unexpectedly, transposable elements (TEs) contributed to >56% of ASCs, and almost all TE families showed functional potential similar to that of nonrepetitive DNA. Three L1PA repeat-derived ASCs displayed coherent eye-enhancer function, thus demonstrating that the "gene-battery" model of TE functionalization applies to enhancers in vivo. Our study provides fundamental insights into genome evolution and the origins of anthropoid phenotypes and supports an elegantly simple new null model of TE exaptation. © 2014 del Rosario et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Development and implementation of methods for determination of the origin of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, M.; Pajo, L.; Mayer, K.

    2001-01-01

    The determination of the origin of seized nuclear material is important for authorities in the context of the criminal investigation, in order to return the material to its last legal owner and to help preventing any further diversion of material from this source. Origin determination is based on a complex pattern of parameters obtained through analytical measurements. The information required to determine the origin of nuclear materials may be divided into two categories: endogenous information (e.g. age or mode of production of the material) which is self-explanatory; whereas exogenous information (e.g. dimensions, surface roughness, impurities) requires a database to which the parameters can be compared. The Institute for Transuranium Elements has developed methods to determine characteristic parameters like impurities, surface roughness, or microstructural information. Furthermore, a database was set up containing relevant information on reactor fuels. (author)

  6. Origin of galaxies: a review of recent theoretical developments and their confrontation with observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    The subject of galaxy formation has advanced considerably during the past decade. On the theoretical side two theories in particular were developed to the point where confrontation with observation will be possible; these are the ''gravitational instability picture'' and the ''cosmic turbulence theory.'' These theories are discussed at some length, with particular attention to the question of the origin of cosmic angular momentum and the nature of the initial conditions. There is now a considerable body of data on galaxies; the problem is in deciding which kind of observation is most relevant to understanding the origin of galaxies. Throughout the review an attempt is made both to put the present research in its historical perspective and to stress the possibilities for future advances towards the goal of understanding the origin of cosmic structure

  7. Origins and consequences of technology acquirement by independent-living seniors: towards an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, S T M; Luijkx, K G; Vrijhoef, H J M; Nieboer, M E; Aarts, S; van der Voort, C S; Rijnaard, M D; Wouters, E J M

    2017-08-22

    Living independently can be challenging for seniors. Technologies are expected to help older adults age in place, yet little empirical research is available on how seniors develop a need for technologies, how they acquire these technologies, and how these subsequently affect their lives. Aging is complex, dynamic and personal. But how does this translate to seniors' adoption and acceptance of technology? To better understand origins and consequences of technology acquirement by independent-living seniors, an explorative longitudinal qualitative field study was set up. Home visits were made to 33 community-dwelling seniors living in the Netherlands, on three occasions (2012-2014). Semi-structured interviews were conducted on the timeline of acquirements, and people and factors involved in acquirements. Additionally, participants were interviewed on experiences in using technologies since acquirement. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze interview transcripts, using a realist approach to better understand the contexts, mechanisms and outcomes of technology acquirements. Findings were accumulated in a new conceptual model: The Cycle of Technology Acquirement by Independent-Living Seniors (C-TAILS), which provides an integrative perspective on why and how technologies are acquired, and why these may or may not prove to be appropriate and effective, considering an independent-living senior's needs and circumstances at a given point in time. We found that externally driven and purely desire-driven acquirements led to a higher risk of suboptimal use and low levels of need satisfaction. Technology acquirement by independent-living seniors may be best characterized as a heterogeneous process with many different origins, pathways and consequences. Furthermore, technologies that are acquired in ways that are not congruent with seniors' personal needs and circumstances run a higher risk of proving to be ineffective or inappropriate. Yet, these needs and circumstances are

  8. Strategies for developing competency models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Anne F; Tondora, Janis; Hoge, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    There is an emerging trend within healthcare to introduce competency-based approaches in the training, assessment, and development of the workforce. The trend is evident in various disciplines and specialty areas within the field of behavioral health. This article is designed to inform those efforts by presenting a step-by-step process for developing a competency model. An introductory overview of competencies, competency models, and the legal implications of competency development is followed by a description of the seven steps involved in creating a competency model for a specific function, role, or position. This modeling process is drawn from advanced work on competencies in business and industry.

  9. Genomic Analyses Reveal the Influence of Geographic Origin, Migration, and Hybridization on Modern Dog Breed Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi G. Parker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are nearly 400 modern domestic dog breeds with a unique histories and genetic profiles. To track the genetic signatures of breed development, we have assembled the most diverse dataset of dog breeds, reflecting their extensive phenotypic variation and heritage. Combining genetic distance, migration, and genome-wide haplotype sharing analyses, we uncover geographic patterns of development and independent origins of common traits. Our analyses reveal the hybrid history of breeds and elucidate the effects of immigration, revealing for the first time a suggestion of New World dog within some modern breeds. Finally, we used cladistics and haplotype sharing to show that some common traits have arisen more than once in the history of the dog. These analyses characterize the complexities of breed development, resolving longstanding questions regarding individual breed origination, the effect of migration on geographically distinct breeds, and, by inference, transfer of trait and disease alleles among dog breeds.

  10. COMPUTATIONAL MODELS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Monendra Grover; Rajesh Kumar; Tapan Kumar Mondal; S. Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    Genetic erosion is a serious problem and computational models have been developed to prevent it. The computational modeling in this field not only includes (terrestrial) reserve design, but also decision modeling for related problems such as habitat restoration, marine reserve design, and nonreserve approaches to conservation management. Models have been formulated for evaluating tradeoffs between socioeconomic, biophysical, and spatial criteria in establishing marine reserves. The percolatio...

  11. Introductory biology students' conceptual models and explanations of the origin of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Elena Bray; Shaw, Neil; Momsen, Jennifer; Reinagel, Adam; Le, Paul; Taqieddin, Ranya; Long, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Mutation is the key molecular mechanism generating phenotypic variation, which is the basis for evolution. In an introductory biology course, we used a model-based pedagogy that enabled students to integrate their understanding of genetics and evolution within multiple case studies. We used student-generated conceptual models to assess understanding of the origin of variation. By midterm, only a small percentage of students articulated complete and accurate representations of the origin of variation in their models. Targeted feedback was offered through activities requiring students to critically evaluate peers' models. At semester's end, a substantial proportion of students significantly improved their representation of how variation arises (though one-third still did not include mutation in their models). Students' written explanations of the origin of variation were mostly consistent with their models, although less effective than models in conveying mechanistic reasoning. This study contributes evidence that articulating the genetic origin of variation is particularly challenging for learners and may require multiple cycles of instruction, assessment, and feedback. To support meaningful learning of the origin of variation, we advocate instruction that explicitly integrates multiple scales of biological organization, assessment that promotes and reveals mechanistic and causal reasoning, and practice with explanatory models with formative feedback. © 2014 E. Bray Speth et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Extended precision data types for the development of the original computer aided engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaru, A.; Oanta, E.; Axinte, T.; Dascalescu, A.-D.

    2015-11-01

    Computer aided engineering is based on models of the phenomena which are expressed as algorithms. The implementations of the algorithms are usually software applications which are processing a large volume of numerical data, regardless the size of the input data. In this way, the finite element method applications used to have an input data generator which was creating the entire volume of geometrical data, starting from the initial geometrical information and the parameters stored in the input data file. Moreover, there were several data processing stages, such as: renumbering of the nodes meant to minimize the size of the band length of the system of equations to be solved, computation of the equivalent nodal forces, computation of the element stiffness matrix, assemblation of system of equations, solving the system of equations, computation of the secondary variables. The modern software application use pre-processing and post-processing programs to easily handle the information. Beside this example, CAE applications use various stages of complex computation, being very interesting the accuracy of the final results. Along time, the development of CAE applications was a constant concern of the authors and the accuracy of the results was a very important target. The paper presents the various computing techniques which were imagined and implemented in the resulting applications: finite element method programs, finite difference element method programs, applied general numerical methods applications, data generators, graphical applications, experimental data reduction programs. In this context, the use of the extended precision data types was one of the solutions, the limitations being imposed by the size of the memory which may be allocated. To avoid the memory-related problems the data was stored in files. To minimize the execution time, part of the file was accessed using the dynamic memory allocation facilities. One of the most important consequences of the

  13. Parent of origin, mosaicism, and recurrence risk: probabilistic modeling explains the broken symmetry of transmission genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian M; Stewart, Jonathan R; James, Regis A; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Olofsson, Peter; Shaw, Chad A

    2014-10-02

    Most new mutations are observed to arise in fathers, and increasing paternal age positively correlates with the risk of new variants. Interestingly, new mutations in X-linked recessive disease show elevated familial recurrence rates. In male offspring, these mutations must be inherited from mothers. We previously developed a simulation model to consider parental mosaicism as a source of transmitted mutations. In this paper, we extend and formalize the model to provide analytical results and flexible formulas. The results implicate parent of origin and parental mosaicism as central variables in recurrence risk. Consistent with empirical data, our model predicts that more transmitted mutations arise in fathers and that this tendency increases as fathers age. Notably, the lack of expansion later in the male germline determines relatively lower variance in the proportion of mutants, which decreases with paternal age. Subsequently, observation of a transmitted mutation has less impact on the expected risk for future offspring. Conversely, for the female germline, which arrests after clonal expansion in early development, variance in the mutant proportion is higher, and observation of a transmitted mutation dramatically increases the expected risk of recurrence in another pregnancy. Parental somatic mosaicism considerably elevates risk for both parents. These findings have important implications for genetic counseling and for understanding patterns of recurrence in transmission genetics. We provide a convenient online tool and source code implementing our analytical results. These tools permit varying the underlying parameters that influence recurrence risk and could be useful for analyzing risk in diverse family structures. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Neuroanatomical, Neurophysiological and Psychological Basis of Memory: Current Models and Their Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Camina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to classify and clarify, from a neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and psychological perspective, different memory models that are currently widespread in the literature as well as to describe their origins. We believe it is important to consider previous developments without which one cannot adequately understand the kinds of models that are now current in the scientific literature. This article intends to provide a comprehensive and rigorous overview for understanding and ordering the latest scientific advances related to this subject. The main forms of memory presented include sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Information from the world around us is first stored by sensory memory, thus enabling the storage and future use of such information. Short-term memory (or memory refers to information processed in a short period of time. Long-term memory allows us to store information for long periods of time, including information that can be retrieved consciously (explicit memory or unconsciously (implicit memory.

  15. The Neuroanatomical, Neurophysiological and Psychological Basis of Memory: Current Models and Their Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camina, Eduardo; Güell, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to classify and clarify, from a neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and psychological perspective, different memory models that are currently widespread in the literature as well as to describe their origins. We believe it is important to consider previous developments without which one cannot adequately understand the kinds of models that are now current in the scientific literature. This article intends to provide a comprehensive and rigorous overview for understanding and ordering the latest scientific advances related to this subject. The main forms of memory presented include sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Information from the world around us is first stored by sensory memory, thus enabling the storage and future use of such information. Short-term memory (or memory) refers to information processed in a short period of time. Long-term memory allows us to store information for long periods of time, including information that can be retrieved consciously (explicit memory) or unconsciously (implicit memory). PMID:28713278

  16. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cells in Tumor Suppressor Mouse Models of Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R; Xie, Xuanhua; Parada, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    The cellular origins and the mechanisms of progression, maintenance of tumorigenicity, and therapeutic resistance are central questions in the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) field. Using tumor suppressor mouse models, our group recently reported two independent populations of adult GBM-initiating central nervous system progenitors. We found different functional and molecular subtypes depending on the tumor-initiating cell lineage, indicating that the cell of origin is a driver of GBM subtype diversity. Using an in vivo model, we also showed that GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) or glioma stem cells (GSCs) contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and that genetic ablation of GSCs leads to a delay in tumor progression. These studies are consistent with the cell of origin and CSCs as critical regulators of the pathogenesis of GBM. © 2016 Alcantara Llaguno et al; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  18. De novo formation of nucleoli in developing mouse embryos originating from enucleolated zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Fulka, Josef; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Miyano, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    The large, compact oocyte nucleoli, sometimes referred to as nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs), are essential for embryonic development in mammals; in their absence, the oocytes complete maturation and can be fertilized, but no nucleoli are formed in the zygote or embryo, leading to developmental failure. It has been convincingly documented that zygotes inherit the oocyte nucleolar material and form NPBs again in pronuclei. It is commonly accepted that during early embryonic development, the original compact zygote NPBs gradually transform into reticulated nucleoli of somatic cells. Here, we show that zygote NPBs are not required for embryonic and full-term development in the mouse. When NPBs were removed from late-stage zygotes by micromanipulation, the enucleolated zygotes developed to the blastocyst stage and, after transfer to recipients, live pups were obtained. We also describe de novo formation of nucleoli in developing embryos. After removal of NPBs from zygotes, they formed new nucleoli after several divisions. These results indicate that the zygote NPBs are not used in embryonic development and that the nucleoli in developing embryos originate from de novo synthesized materials. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. The lateral mesodermal divide: an epigenetic model of the origin of paired fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño de la Rosa, Laura; Müller, Gerd B; Metscher, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    By examining development at the level of tissues and processes, rather than focusing on gene expression, we have formulated a general hypothesis to explain the dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior placement of paired appendage initiation sites in vertebrates. According to our model, the number and position of paired appendages are due to a commonality of embryonic tissue environments determined by the global interactions involving the two separated layers (somatic and visceral) of lateral plate mesoderm along the dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior axes of the embryo. We identify this distribution of developmental conditions, as modulated by the separation/contact of the two LPM layers and their interactions with somitic mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm as a dynamic developmental entity which we have termed the lateral mesodermal divide (LMD). Where the divide results in a certain tissue environment, fin bud initiation can occur. According to our hypothesis, the influence of the developing gut suppresses limb initiation along the midgut region and the ventral body wall owing to an "endodermal predominance." From an evolutionary perspective, the lack of gut regionalization in agnathans reflects the ancestral absence of these conditions, and the elaboration of the gut together with the concomitant changes to the LMD in the gnathostomes could have led to the origin of paired fins. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    language in social interaction( Anto et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2012). While such ..... 10 items on a five-point Likert scale originally developed by Benard et al. (2007). ..... self-confidence, and hold down their anxiety levels. In this study ...

  1. Original Product Resolution (OPR) Source Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) - USGS National Map 3DEP Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data collection is the Original Product Resolution (OPR) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as provided to the USGS. This DEM is delivered in the original...

  2. Testing a Model of Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…

  3. Modeling of Possible Conditions for Origin of First Organic Forms in hot Mineral Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat Ignatov; Oleg Mosin

    2014-01-01

    The composition of water, its temperature and pH value was analyzed in experiments with modelling of primary hydrosphere and possible conditions for origin of first organic forms in hot mineral water. For this aim the authors performed experiments with hot mineral and seawater from Bulgaria by IR-spectrometry (DNES-method). As model systems were used cactus juice of Echinopsis pachanoi and Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. It was considered the reactions of condensation and deh...

  4. Brief communication: human cranial variation fits iterative founder effect model with African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Lycett, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies comparing craniometric and neutral genetic affinity matrices have concluded that, on average, human cranial variation fits a model of neutral expectation. While human craniometric and genetic data fit a model of isolation by geographic distance, it is not yet clear whether this is due to geographically mediated gene flow or human dispersal events. Recently, human genetic data have been shown to fit an iterative founder effect model of dispersal with an African origin, in line with the out-of-Africa replacement model for modern human origins, and Manica et al. (Nature 448 (2007) 346-349) have demonstrated that human craniometric data also fit this model. However, in contrast with the neutral model of cranial evolution suggested by previous studies, Manica et al. (2007) made the a priori assumption that cranial form has been subject to climatically driven natural selection and therefore correct for climate prior to conducting their analyses. Here we employ a modified theoretical and methodological approach to test whether human cranial variability fits the iterative founder effect model. In contrast with Manica et al. (2007) we employ size-adjusted craniometric variables, since climatic factors such as temperature have been shown to correlate with aspects of cranial size. Despite these differences, we obtain similar results to those of Manica et al. (2007), with up to 26% of global within-population craniometric variation being explained by geographic distance from sub-Saharan Africa. Comparative analyses using non-African origins do not yield significant results. The implications of these results are discussed in the light of the modern human origins debate. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. BioQ: tracing experimental origins in public genomic databases using a novel data provenance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Scott F; Quan, Jiaxi; Jones, Peter L

    2012-04-15

    Public genomic databases, which are often used to guide genetic studies of human disease, are now being applied to genomic medicine through in silico integrative genomics. These databases, however, often lack tools for systematically determining the experimental origins of the data. We introduce a new data provenance model that we have implemented in a public web application, BioQ, for assessing the reliability of the data by systematically tracing its experimental origins to the original subjects and biologics. BioQ allows investigators to both visualize data provenance as well as explore individual elements of experimental process flow using precise tools for detailed data exploration and documentation. It includes a number of human genetic variation databases such as the HapMap and 1000 Genomes projects. BioQ is freely available to the public at http://bioq.saclab.net.

  6. Origine et developpement des industries de la langue (Origin and Development of Language Utilities). Publication K-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Homme, Marie-Claude

    The evolution of "language utilities," a concept confined largely to the francophone world and relating to the uses of language in computer science and the use of computer science for languages, is chronicled. The language utilities are of three types: (1) tools for language development, primarily dictionary databases and related tools;…

  7. A Developmental-Contextual Model of Depressive Symptoms in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.

    2011-01-01

    The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564

  8. Determination of Original Infection Source of H7N9 Avian Influenza by Dynamical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Jin, Zhen; Sun, Gui-Quan; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Wang, You-Ming; Huang, Baoxu

    2014-05-01

    H7N9, a newly emerging virus in China, travels among poultry and human. Although H7N9 has not aroused massive outbreaks, recurrence in the second half of 2013 makes it essential to control the spread. It is believed that the most effective control measure is to locate the original infection source and cut off the source of infection from human. However, the original infection source and the internal transmission mechanism of the new virus are not totally clear. In order to determine the original infection source of H7N9, we establish a dynamical model with migratory bird, resident bird, domestic poultry and human population, and view migratory bird, resident bird, domestic poultry as original infection source respectively to fit the true dynamics during the 2013 pandemic. By comparing the date fitting results and corresponding Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values, we conclude that migrant birds are most likely the original infection source. In addition, we obtain the basic reproduction number in poultry and carry out sensitivity analysis of some parameters.

  9. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  10. Modelling the fathering role: Experience in the family of origin and father involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper deals with the effects of experiences with father in the family of origin on the fathering role in the family of procreation. The results of the studies so far point to great importance of such experiences in parental role modelling, while recent approaches have suggested the concept of introjected notion or an internal working model of the fathering role as the way to operationalise the transgenerational transfer. The study included 247 two-parent couple families whose oldest child attended preschool education. Fathers provided information on self-assessed involvement via the Inventory of father involvement, while both fathers and mothers gave information on introjected experiences from the family of origin via the inventory Presence of the father in the family of origin. It was shown that father’s experiences from the family of origin had significant direct effects on his involvement in child-care. Very important experiences were those of negative emotional exchange, physical closeness and availability of the father, as well as beliefs about the importance of the father as a parent. Although maternal experiences from the family of origin did not contribute significantly to father involvement, shared beliefs about father’s importance as a parent in the parenting alliance had an effect on greater involvement in child-care. The data provide confirmation of the hypotheses on modelling of the fathering role, but also open the issue of the factor of intergenerational maintenance of traditional forms of father involvement in families in Serbia.

  11. Origin of pluripotent germ cell tumours: the role of microenvironment during embryonic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Sonne, Si Brask; Ottesen, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    into virtually any type of tissue and form teratomas (non-seminomas). CIS cells display a close phenotypic similarity to fetal germ cells (primordial germ cells or gonocytes) suggesting an origin due to a developmental delay or arrest of differentiation of early germ cells. The pluripotency of these neoplasms...... in several tissue specific stem cells, such as TFAP2C (AP-2gamma) or KIT. CIS and seminomas highly express a number of pre-meiotic germ cell specific genes, which are down-regulated during development to non-seminomas, while the expression of other embryonic markers, such as SOX2, is up...

  12. China Changes the Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Rzeszotarska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the twentieth century fundamentally changed the situation in the global economy. China's spectacular economic success has increased an interest in this country. The short time in which China moved on from the a poor agricultural country into a global economic power is admirable. China's model combines conflicted elements of different economic systems: the bureaucratic planning, island-capitalism, simple goods production and natural economy. The current development and transformation of the economy have brought about spectacular achievements and successes. However, the "the world's manufacturer" produces goods designed in other countries. In contrast, the modern idea is to build a modern and independent Chinese industry. The possibilities of the current model of economic development based on simple reserves and large statedriven infrastructure projects, which no longer drive the economy to the extent they previously did, dried out. Thus, the "Middle Kingdom" will have to compete against the rest of the world on quality and innovation. Therefore the development of the new model is a prerequisite to ensure progress in the future. Discussion on further development has been expedited in 2011, when it became abundantly clear that the Chinese economy would share the experience of the effects of the global crisis. The Chinese look at the challenges that the economy is facing realistically in thinking about the modern technology which begins to dominate the country. China is determined to become the leading technological superpower of the world. Today, many developing countries are looking towards China watching the development model implemented there with the hope of its adaptation in their economies. However, China is a unique entity. Therefore, it may be that adaptation of the Chinese model of development in other countries is not possible.

  13. Developments in Coastal Ocean Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2001-12-01

    Capabilities in modeling continental shelf flow fields have improved markedly in the last several years. Progress is being made toward the long term scientific goal of utilizing numerical circulation models to interpolate, or extrapolate, necessarily limited field measurements to provide additional full-field information describing the behavior of, and providing dynamical rationalizations for, complex observed coastal flow. The improvement in modeling capabilities has been due to several factors including an increase in computer power and, importantly, an increase in experience of modelers in formulating relevant numerical experiments and in analyzing model results. We demonstrate present modeling capabilities and limitations by discussion of results from recent studies of shelf circulation off Oregon and northern California (joint work with Newberger, Gan, Oke, Pullen, and Wijesekera). Strong interactions between wind-forced coastal currents and continental shelf topography characterize the flow regimes in these cases. Favorable comparisons of model and measured alongshore currents and other variables provide confidence in the model-produced fields. The dependence of the mesoscale circulation, including upwelling and downwelling fronts and flow instabilities, on the submodel used to parameterize the effects of small scale turbulence, is discussed. Analyses of model results to provide explanations for the observed, but previously unexplained, alongshore variability in the intensity of coastal upwelling, which typically results in colder surface water south of capes, and the observed development in some locations of northward currents near the coast in response to the relaxation of southward winds, are presented.

  14. A Testbed for Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. A.; Van der Tol, C.; Kornfeld, A.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon cycle and land-surface models used in global simulations need to be computationally efficient and have a high standard of software engineering. These models also make a number of scaling assumptions to simplify the representation of complex biochemical and structural properties of ecosystems. This makes it difficult to use these models to test new ideas for parameterizations or to evaluate scaling assumptions. The stripped down nature of these models also makes it difficult to "connect" with current disciplinary research which tends to be focused on much more nuanced topics than can be included in the models. In our opinion/experience this indicates the need for another type of model that can more faithfully represent the complexity ecosystems and which has the flexibility to change or interchange parameterizations and to run optimization codes for calibration. We have used the SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes) model in this way to develop, calibrate, and test parameterizations for solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence, OCS exchange and stomatal parameterizations at the canopy scale. Examples of the data sets and procedures used to develop and test new parameterizations are presented.

  15. Efficiency of economic development models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Camelia Iacob

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the world: the European, American and Asian. This study will focus on analyzing European development model, and a brief comparison with the United States. In addition, this study aims to highlight the relationship between efficiency and social equity that occurs in each submodel in part of the European model, given that social and economic performance in the EU are not homogeneous. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze different indicators related to social equity and efficiency respectively, to observe the performance of each submodel individually. The article analyzes data to determine submodel performance according to social equity and economic efficiency.

  16. The Role of Stochastic Models in Interpreting the Origins of Biological Chirality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lente

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent stochastic modeling efforts in the theoretical research aimed at interpreting the origins of biological chirality. Stochastic kinetic models, especially those based on the continuous time discrete state approach, have great potential in modeling absolute asymmetric reactions, experimental examples of which have been reported in the past decade. An overview of the relevant mathematical background is given and several examples are presented to show how the significant numerical problems characteristic of the use of stochastic models can be overcome by non-trivial, but elementary algebra. In these stochastic models, a particulate view of matter is used rather than the concentration-based view of traditional chemical kinetics using continuous functions to describe the properties system. This has the advantage of giving adequate description of single-molecule events, which were probably important in the origin of biological chirality. The presented models can interpret and predict the random distribution of enantiomeric excess among repetitive experiments, which is the most striking feature of absolute asymmetric reactions. It is argued that the use of the stochastic kinetic approach should be much more widespread in the relevant literature.

  17. Development of large scale fusion plasma simulation and storage grid on JAERI Origin3800 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idomura, Yasuhiro; Wang, Xin

    2003-01-01

    Under the Numerical EXperiment of Tokamak (NEXT) research project, various fluid, particle, and hybrid codes have been developed. These codes require a computational environment which consists of high performance processors, high speed storage system, and high speed parallelized visualization system. In this paper, the performance of the JAERI Origin3800 system is examined from a point of view of these requests. In the performance tests, it is shown that the representative particle and fluid codes operate with 15 - 40% of processing efficiency up to 512 processors. A storage area network (SAN) provides high speed parallel data transfer. A parallel visualization system enables order to magnitude faster visualization of a large scale simulation data compared with the previous graphic workstations. Accordingly, an extremely advanced simulation environment is realized on the JAERI Origin3800 system. Recently, development of a storage grid is underway in order to improve a computational environment of remote users. The storage grid is constructed by a combination of SAN and a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). The preliminary tests show that compared with the existing data transfer methods, it enables dramatically high speed data transfer ∼100 Gbps over a wide area network. (author)

  18. Mathematical toy model inspired by the problem of the adaptive origins of the sexual orientation continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Same-sex sexual behaviour is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, but its adaptive origins remain a prominent puzzle. Here, I suggest the possibility that same-sex sexual behaviour arises as a consequence of the competition between an evolutionary drive for a wide diversity in traits, which improves the adaptability of a population, and a drive for sexual dichotomization of traits, which promotes opposite-sex attraction and increases the rate of reproduction. This trade-off is explored via a simple mathematical `toy model'. The model exhibits a number of interesting features and suggests a simple mathematical form for describing the sexual orientation continuum.

  19. Recent developments in multiperipheral models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Tar, C.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments do not provide all detailed information required in order to select among possible formulations of the multiperipheral model the correct one (''uniqueness problem''). There are at least three directions which lead away from the uniqueness problem. The first is simplified models with only enough complexity so as to satisfy the data approximately. The second involves invoking theoretical constraints which limit the theoretical flexibility of the model. The third and ultimate solution may be provided by the quark-gluon models or string models. The recent interest in the role of clusters in multiple production is a good illustration of the phenomenological problems facing multiperipheral models. The existence of clusters is certainly agreed upon, but for determination of their size directly from rapidity distributions the result so far depends on what one assumes about how they are produced. Theoretical work toward a unified picture of strong interactions has also led to some novel developments in multiperipheral models and the Regge pole theory. It is a problem now to choose between the more traditional picture of two vacuum singularities or the more novel approach which makes an effort to deal not merely with four-body amplitudes but in a more profound way, with multiple production processes which are related to them through unitarity

  20. The Biblicism of the Korean Protestant churches: Its origin and early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Buhm Hwang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify the origin and early stages of the Biblicism of the Korean Protestant churches in general, and of the Presbyterian Church of Korea (PCK in particular. The Biblicism is very important for Korean Protestant churches, because it is believed to be a main cause of their unusual growth on the one hand, and on the other hand, of their Fundamentalism and many schisms in the post-liberation era. The article, in the beginning part, investigates the four crucial elements of Korean Biblicism and then examines how the four elements worked together to form a resilient Biblicism whose two distinctive theological forms were practical on the one hand, and dogmatic (fundamentalist, on the other. Among the four basic Biblicist elements, the first was the firm Biblicist theology of the early North American missionaries in Korea who tried to follow and flower their original, puritanical and Old Princeton theology in Korea. The second was Korean Protestants’ original, Neo-Confucian biblicism, which facilitated them to readily accept the missionaries’ Biblicist teachings of the Bible. The third element was the so-called Nevius [Mission] Methods, which emphasised simplistic Biblicist Bible studies, and offered both opportunities of learning and ways to become meaningful leaders in their communities. The fourth and last element was the Biblicist creed of PCK, which became the fundamentalist weapon against its modernist or liberalist wing. To sum up, Korean Biblicism has been the result of those four Biblicist elements working together. The Korean Biblicism was developed into two more or less different positions; the one being practical, exemplified by Rev. Samuel A. Moffett; and the other, dogmatic and fundamentalist, represented by Rev. Dr W.D. Reynolds.

  1. The Biblicism of the Korean Protestant churches: Its origin and early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Buhm Hwang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify the origin and early stages of the Biblicism of the Korean Protestant churches in general, and of the Presbyterian Church of Korea (PCK in particular. The Biblicism is very important for Korean Protestant churches, because it is believed to be a main cause of their unusual growth on the one hand, and on the other hand, of their Fundamentalism and many schisms in the post-liberation era. The article, in the beginning part, investigates the four crucial elements of Korean Biblicism and then examines how the four elements worked together to form a resilient Biblicism whose two distinctive theological forms were practical on the one hand, and dogmatic (fundamentalist, on the other. Among the four basic Biblicist elements, the first was the firm Biblicist theology of the early North American missionaries in Korea who tried to follow and flower their original, puritanical and Old Princeton theology in Korea. The second was Korean Protestants’ original, Neo-Confucian biblicism, which facilitated them to readily accept the missionaries’ Biblicist teachings of the Bible. The third element was the so-called Nevius [Mission] Methods, which emphasised simplistic Biblicist Bible studies, and offered both opportunities of learning and ways to become meaningful leaders in their communities. The fourth and last element was the Biblicist creed of PCK, which became the fundamentalist weapon against its modernist or liberalist wing. To sum up, Korean Biblicism has been the result of those four Biblicist elements working together. The Korean Biblicism was developed into two more or less different positions; the one being practical, exemplified by Rev. Samuel A. Moffett; and the other, dogmatic and fundamentalist, represented by Rev. Dr W.D. Reynolds.

  2. Tweets and Facebook Posts, the Novelty Techniques in the Creation of Origin-Destination Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malema, H. K.; Musakwa, W.

    2016-06-01

    Social media and big data have emerged to be a useful source of information that can be used for planning purposes, particularly transportation planning and trip-distribution studies. Cities in developing countries such as South Africa often struggle with out-dated, unreliable and cumbersome techniques such as traffic counts and household surveys to conduct origin and destination studies. The emergence of ubiquitous crowd sourced data, big data, social media and geolocation based services has shown huge potential in providing useful information for origin and destination studies. Perhaps such information can be utilised to determine the origin and destination of commuters using the Gautrain, a high-speed railway in Gauteng province South Africa. To date little is known about the origins and destinations of Gautrain commuters. Accordingly, this study assesses the viability of using geolocation-based services namely Facebook and Twitter in mapping out the network movements of Gautrain commuters. Explorative Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA), Echo-social and ArcGis software were used to extract social media data, i.e. tweets and Facebook posts as well as to visualize the concentration of Gautrain commuters. The results demonstrate that big data and geolocation based services have the significant potential to predict movement network patterns of commuters and this information can thus, be used to inform and improve transportation planning. Nevertheless use of crowd sourced data and big data has privacy concerns that still need to be addressed.

  3. TWEETS AND FACEBOOK POSTS, THE NOVELTY TECHNIQUES IN THE CREATION OF ORIGIN-DESTINATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Malema

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social media and big data have emerged to be a useful source of information that can be used for planning purposes, particularly transportation planning and trip-distribution studies. Cities in developing countries such as South Africa often struggle with out-dated, unreliable and cumbersome techniques such as traffic counts and household surveys to conduct origin and destination studies. The emergence of ubiquitous crowd sourced data, big data, social media and geolocation based services has shown huge potential in providing useful information for origin and destination studies. Perhaps such information can be utilised to determine the origin and destination of commuters using the Gautrain, a high-speed railway in Gauteng province South Africa. To date little is known about the origins and destinations of Gautrain commuters. Accordingly, this study assesses the viability of using geolocation-based services namely Facebook and Twitter in mapping out the network movements of Gautrain commuters. Explorative Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA, Echo-social and ArcGis software were used to extract social media data, i.e. tweets and Facebook posts as well as to visualize the concentration of Gautrain commuters. The results demonstrate that big data and geolocation based services have the significant potential to predict movement network patterns of commuters and this information can thus, be used to inform and improve transportation planning. Nevertheless use of crowd sourced data and big data has privacy concerns that still need to be addressed.

  4. The early life origin theory in the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Runa; Ververis, Katherine; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Life expectancy has been examined from a variety of perspectives in recent history. Epidemiology is one perspective which examines causes of morbidity and mortality at the population level. Over the past few 100 years there have been dramatic shifts in the major causes of death and expected life length. This change has suffered from inconsistency across time and space with vast inequalities observed between population groups. In current focus is the challenge of rising non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the search to discover methods to combat the rising incidence of these diseases, a number of new theories on the development of morbidity have arisen. A pertinent example is the hypothesis published by David Barker in 1995 which postulates the prenatal and early developmental origin of adult onset disease, and highlights the importance of the maternal environment. This theory has been subject to criticism however it has gradually gained acceptance. In addition, the relatively new field of epigenetics is contributing evidence in support of the theory. This review aims to explore the implication and limitations of the developmental origin hypothesis, via an historical perspective, in order to enhance understanding of the increasing incidence of NCDs, and facilitate an improvement in planning public health policy.

  5. Using inertial measurement units originally developed for biomechanics for modal testing of civil engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, David; Brownjohn, James; Bocian, Mateusz; Xu, Yan; Quattrone, Antonino

    2018-05-01

    This paper explores the use of wireless Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) originally developed for bio-mechanical research applications for modal testing of civil engineering infrastructure. Due to their biomechanics origin, these devices combine a triaxial accelerometer with gyroscopes and magnetometers for orientation, as well as on board data logging capability and wireless communication for optional data streaming and to coordinate synchronisation with other IMUs in a network. The motivation for application to civil structures is that their capabilities and simple operating procedures make them suitable for modal testing of many types of civil infrastructure of limited dimension including footbridges and floors while also enabling recovering of dynamic forces generated and applied to structures by moving humans. To explore their capabilities in civil applications, the IMUs are evaluated through modal tests on three different structures with increasing challenge of spatial and environmental complexity. These are, a full-scale floor mock-up in a laboratory, a short span road bridge and a seven story office tower. For each case, the results from the IMUs are compared with those from a conventional wired system to identify the limitations. The main conclusion is that the relatively high noise floor and limited communication range will not be a serious limitation in the great majority of typical civil modal test applications where convenient operation is a significant advantage over conventional wired systems.

  6. The origins, early development and status of Bourdieu's concept of 'cultural capital'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Derek

    2005-03-01

    The paper examines the context of the first introduction of the concept of 'cultural capital' in the sociology of education analyses undertaken in the early 1960s and published by Bourdieu in collaboration with Jean-Claude Passeron in 'Les etudiants et leurs etudes' (1964a) and Les Heritiers (1964b). It first considers the cultural contexts within which Bourdieu's thinking about culture originated--both in relation to his social origins and in relation to his intellectual training. It then examines the extent to which Bourdieu's early anthropological research in Algeria was influenced by his knowledge of American acculturation theory. It concludes that Bourdieu sought to use acculturation theory in a distinctive way--one which he articulated more confidently as he explored the relationship between agency and structural explanation in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The specific educational researches which stimulated the articulation of the concept of 'linguistic' or 'cultural' capital belonged to the period in which Bourdieu was only just beginning to refine his post-structuralist philosophy of social scientific explanation. To use these concepts now involves deploying them reflexively in accordance with Bourdieu's later thinking rather than at face value as they were first developed during the period in which he and Passeron were 'apprentice' researchers.

  7. An original piecewise model for computing energy expenditure from accelerometer and heart rate signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ugalde, Hector M; Garnotel, M; Doron, M; Jallon, P; Charpentier, G; Franc, S; Huneker, E; Simon, C; Bonnet, S

    2017-07-28

    Activity energy expenditure (EE) plays an important role in healthcare, therefore, accurate EE measures are required. Currently available reference EE acquisition methods, such as doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry, are complex, expensive, uncomfortable, and/or difficult to apply on real time. To overcome these drawbacks, the goal of this paper is to propose a model for computing EE in real time (minute-by-minute) from heart rate and accelerometer signals. The proposed model, which consists of an original branched model, uses heart rate signals for computing EE on moderate to vigorous physical activities and a linear combination of heart rate and counts per minute for computing EE on light to moderate physical activities. Model parameters were estimated from a given data set composed of 53 subjects performing 25 different physical activities (light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), and validated using leave-one-subject-out. A different database (semi-controlled in-city circuit), was used in order to validate the versatility of the proposed model. Comparisons are done versus linear and nonlinear models, which are also used for computing EE from accelerometer and/or HR signals. The proposed piecewise model leads to more accurate EE estimations ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] J kg -1 min -1 and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] J kg -1 min -1 on each validation database). This original approach, which is more conformable and less expensive than the reference methods, allows accurate EE estimations, in real time (minute-by-minute), during a large variety of physical activities. Therefore, this model may be used on applications such as computing the time that a given subject spent on light-intensity physical activities and on moderate to vigorous physical activities (binary classification accuracy of 0.8155).

  8. Supo Thermal Model Development II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Alexander Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-14

    This report describes the continuation of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Supo cooling system described in the report, Supo Thermal Model Development1, by Cynthia Buechler. The goal for this report is to estimate the natural convection heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of the system using the CFD results and to compare those results to remaining past operational data. Also, the correlation for determining radiolytic gas bubble size is reevaluated using the larger simulation sample size. The background, solution vessel geometry, mesh, material properties, and boundary conditions are developed in the same manner as the previous report. Although, the material properties and boundary conditions are determined using the appropriate experiment results for each individual power level.

  9. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  10. Modelling the transport of solid contaminants originated from a point source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Dora V.; Conde, Daniel A. S.; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton J.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    The solid phases of natural flows can comprise an important repository for contaminants in aquatic ecosystems and can propagate as turbidity currents generating a stratified environment. Contaminants can be desorbed under specific environmental conditions becoming re-suspended, with a potential impact on the aquatic biota. Forecasting the distribution of the contaminated turbidity current is thus crucial for a complete assessment of environmental exposure. In this work we validate the ability of the model STAV-2D, developed at CERIS (IST), to simulate stratified flows such as those resulting from turbidity currents in complex geometrical environments. The validation involves not only flow phenomena inherent to flows generated by density imbalance but also convective effects brought about by the complex geometry of the water basin where the current propagates. This latter aspect is of paramount importance since, in real applications, currents may propagate in semi-confined geometries in plan view, generating important convective accelerations. Velocity fields and mass distributions obtained from experiments carried out at CERIS - (IST) are used as validation data for the model. The experimental set-up comprises a point source in a rectangular basin with a wall placed perpendicularly to the outer walls. Thus generates a complex 2D flow with an advancing wave front and shocks due to the flow reflection from the walls. STAV-2D is based on the depth- and time-averaged mass and momentum equations for mixtures of water and sediment, understood as continua. It is closed in terms of flow resistance and capacity bedload discharge by a set of classic closure models and a specific high concentration formulation. The two-layer model is derived from layer-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, resulting in a system of layer-specific non-linear shallow-water equations, solved through explicit first or second-order schemes. According to the experimental data for mass distribution, the

  11. How the challenge of explaining learning influenced the origins and development of John B. Watson's behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, M

    2000-01-01

    Before he invented behaviorism, John B. Watson considered learning one of the most important topics in psychology. Watson conducted excellent empirical research on animal learning. He developed behaviorism in part to promote research and elevate the status of learning in psychology. Watson was much less successful in the adequacy and originality of the mechanisms he proposed to explain learning. By assimilating the method of classical conditioning and adopting Pavlov's theory of stimulus substitution, Watson linked behaviorism with a new method that could compete with both Titchener's method of introspection and Freud's methods of psychoanalysis. Watson's interest in explaining psychopathology led to the discovery of conditioned emotional responses and a behavioristic explanation for the learning of phobic behavior. Watson established learning as a central topic for basic research and application in American psychology.

  12. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and Sustainable Development Goals: mapping the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajee, N; Sobngwi, E; Macnab, A; Daar, A S

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, meant to stimulate debate, we argue that there is considerable benefit in approaching together the implementation of two seemingly separate recent developments. First, on the global development agenda, we have the United Nations General Assembly's 2015 finalized list of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Several of the SDGs are related to health. Second, the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) has garnered enough compelling evidence demonstrating that early exposures in life affect not only future health, but that the effects of that exposure can be transmitted across generations - necessitating that we begin to focus on prevention. We argue that implementing the SDGs and DOHaD together will be beneficial in several ways; and will require attending to multiple, complex and multidisciplinary approaches as we reach the point of translating science to policy to impact. Here, we begin by providing the context for our work and making the case for a mutually reinforcing, synergistic approach to implementing SDGs and DOHaD, particularly in Africa. To do this, we initiate discussion via an early mapping of some of the overlapping considerations between SDGs and DOHaD.

  13. Guinea pig models for translation of the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis into the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Janna L; Botting, Kimberley J; Darby, Jack R T; David, Anna L; Dyson, Rebecca M; Gatford, Kathryn L; Gray, Clint; Herrera, Emilio A; Hirst, Jonathan J; Kim, Bona; Kind, Karen L; Krause, Bernardo J; Matthews, Stephen G; Palliser, Hannah K; Regnault, Timothy R H; Richardson, Bryan S; Sasaki, Aya; Thompson, Loren P; Berry, Mary J

    2018-04-06

    Over 30 years ago Professor David Barker first proposed the theory that events in early life could explain an individual's risk of non-communicable disease in later life: the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. During the 1990s the validity of the DOHaD hypothesis was extensively tested in a number of human populations and the mechanisms underpinning it characterised in a range of experimental animal models. Over the past decade, researchers have sought to use this mechanistic understanding of DOHaD to develop therapeutic interventions during pregnancy and early life to improve adult health. A variety of animal models have been used to develop and evaluate interventions, each with strengths and limitations. It is becoming apparent that effective translational research requires that the animal paradigm selected mirrors the tempo of human fetal growth and development as closely as possible so that the effect of a perinatal insult and/or therapeutic intervention can be fully assessed. The guinea pig is one such animal model that over the past two decades has demonstrated itself to be a very useful platform for these important reproductive studies. This review highlights similarities in the in utero development between humans and guinea pigs, the strengths and limitations of the guinea pig as an experimental model of DOHaD and the guinea pig's potential to enhance clinical therapeutic innovation to improve human health. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  14. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  15. The fuel cell model of abiogenesis: a new approach to origin-of-life simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; Kee, Terence P; Doloboff, Ivria J; Hampton, Joshua M P; Ismail, Mohammed; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; Zeytounian, John; Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Lin, Chung-Kuang; Kidd, Richard D; Kanik, Isik

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss how prebiotic geo-electrochemical systems can be modeled as a fuel cell and how laboratory simulations of the origin of life in general can benefit from this systems-led approach. As a specific example, the components of what we have termed the "prebiotic fuel cell" (PFC) that operates at a putative Hadean hydrothermal vent are detailed, and we used electrochemical analysis techniques and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components to test the properties of this PFC and other geo-electrochemical systems, the results of which are reported here. The modular nature of fuel cells makes them ideal for creating geo-electrochemical reactors with which to simulate hydrothermal systems on wet rocky planets and characterize the energetic properties of the seafloor/hydrothermal interface. That electrochemical techniques should be applied to simulating the origin of life follows from the recognition of the fuel cell-like properties of prebiotic chemical systems and the earliest metabolisms. Conducting this type of laboratory simulation of the emergence of bioenergetics will not only be informative in the context of the origin of life on Earth but may help in understanding whether life might emerge in similar environments on other worlds.

  16. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L

    2014-08-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  17. The early origins of food preferences: targeting the critical windows of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, Jessica Rose; Ong, Zhi Yi; Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara

    2015-02-01

    The nutritional environment to which an individual is exposed during the perinatal period plays a crucial role in determining his or her future metabolic health outcomes. Studies in rodent models have demonstrated that excess maternal intake of high-fat and/or high-sugar "junk foods" during pregnancy and lactation can alter the development of the central reward pathway, particularly the opioid and dopamine systems, and program an increased preference for junk foods in the offspring. More recently, there have been attempts to define the critical windows of development during which the opioid and dopamine systems within the reward pathway are most susceptible to alteration and to determine whether it is possible to reverse these effects through nutritional interventions applied later in development. This review discusses the progress made to date in these areas, highlights the apparent importance of sex in determining these effects, and considers the potential implications of the findings from rodent models in the human context. © FASEB.

  18. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  19. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  20. Development models, unification and deterritorialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotelo Perez, I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to provide an overview of the development models and territorial organization from the perspective of the relationship between the urban environment, rururban and rural, in Spain. Therefore, once know and appreciate the conceptual and thematic approach, urban growth is studied in our country in recent decades, analyzing in detail the importance acquired and charges the legislative implementation of laws, plans and policies, both in the own urban growth and housing demand in the Spanish cities and, similarly, linking both to the price of housing, relating to the issue of rurbanization and rural. (Author)

  1. Prenatal development supports a single origin of laryngeal echolocation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhu, Tengteng; Xue, Huiling; Fang, Na; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Libiao; Pang, Jian; Teeling, Emma C; Zhang, Shuyi

    2017-01-09

    Bat laryngeal echolocation is considered as one of the most complex and diverse modes of auditory sensory perception in animals and its evolutionary history has been the cause of many scientific controversies in the past two decades. To date, the majority of scientific evidence supports that bats (Chiroptera) are divided into two subordinal groups: Yinpterochiroptera, containing the laryngeal echolocating superfamily Rhinolophidae as sister taxa to the non-laryngeal echolocating family Pteropodidae; and Yangochiroptera, containing all other laryngeal echolocating lineages. This topology has led to an unanswered question in mammalian biology: was laryngeal echolocation lost in the ancestral pteropodids or gained convergently in the echolocating bat lineages? To date, there is insufficient and conflicting evidence from fossil, genomic, morphological and phylogenomic data to resolve this question. We detail an ontogenetic study of fetal cochlear development from seven species of bats and five outgroup mammals and show that in early fetal development, all bats including the non-laryngeal echolocating pteropodids have a similarly large cochlea typically associated with laryngeal echolocation abilities. The subsequent cochlear growth rate in the pteropodids is the slowest of all mammals and leads to the pteropodids and the non-echolocating lineages eventually sharing a similar cochlear morphospace as adults. The results suggest that pteropodids maintain a vestigial developmental stage indicative of past echolocation capabilities and thus support a single origin of laryngeal echolocation in bats.

  2. [Development of Inhalable Dry Powder Formulations Loaded with Nanoparticles Maintaining Their Original Physical Properties and Functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

     Functional nanoparticles, such as liposomes and polymeric micelles, are attractive drug delivery systems for solubilization, stabilization, sustained release, prolonged tissue retention, and tissue targeting of various encapsulated drugs. For their clinical application in therapy for pulmonary diseases, the development of dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulations is considered practical due to such advantages as: (1) it is noninvasive and can be directly delivered into the lungs; (2) there are few biocomponents in the lungs that interact with nanoparticles; and (3) it shows high storage stability in the solid state against aggregation or precipitation of nanoparticles in water. However, in order to produce effective nanoparticle-loaded dry powders for inhalation, it is essential to pursue an innovative and comprehensive formulation strategy in relation to composition and powderization which can achieve (1) the particle design of dry powders with physical properties suitable for pulmonary delivery through inhalation, and (2) the effective reconstitution of nanoparticles that will maintain their original physical properties and functions after dissolution of the powders. Spray-freeze drying (SFD) is a relatively new powderization technique combining atomization and lyophilization, which can easily produce highly porous dry powders from an aqueous sample solution. Previously, we advanced the optimization of components and process conditions for the production of SFD powders suitable to DPI application. This review describes our recent results in the development of novel DPI formulations effectively loaded with various nanoparticles (electrostatic nanocomplexes for gene therapy, liposomes, and self-assembled lipid nanoparticles), based on SFD.

  3. Characteristics and development of European cyclones with tropical origin in reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Mark M.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Vries, Hylke de; Baatsen, Michiel; Delden, Aarnout J. van

    2018-01-01

    Major storm systems over Europe frequently have a tropical origin. This paper analyses the characteristics and dynamics of such cyclones in the observational record, using MERRA reanalysis data for the period 1979-2013. By stratifying the cyclones along three key phases of their development (tropical phase, extratropical transition and final re-intensification), we identify four radically different life cycles: the tropical cyclone and extratropical cyclone life cycles, the classic extratropical transition and the warm seclusion life cycle. More than 50% of the storms reaching Europe from low latitudes follow the warm seclusion life cycle. It also contains the strongest cyclones. They are characterized by a warm core and a frontal T-bone structure, with a northwestward warm conveyor belt and the effects of dry intrusion. Rapid deepening occurs in the latest phase, around their arrival in Europe. Both baroclinic instability and release of latent heat contribute to the strong intensification. The pressure minimum occurs often a day after entering Europe, which enhances the potential threat of warm seclusion storms for Europe. The impact of a future warmer climate on the development of these storms is discussed.

  4. On the tsunami model of the origin of multi-ring basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Zengyuan; Zhang Bin; Chen Daohan.

    1990-03-01

    By use of the theory of shallow water waves generated by an impulsive pressure, the tsunami theory of the origin of multi-ring basins is rediscussed and an approximate formula used for calculating the ring location is derived. From the computed ring spacing of three multi-ring basins on the moon (Orientale, Moscoviense and Serenitatis South), it is shown that the tsunami model can only be applied to the area within the IV ring which signifies the rim of the excavated basin and the end of the fluidized region. In the frame of the tsunami model, no explanation for ring spacing is equally plausible for exterior rings as well as interior ones. (author). 14 refs, 1 tab

  5. A new conceptual model for whole mantle convection and the origin of hotspot plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2014-08-01

    A new conceptual model of mantle convection is constructed for consideration of the origin of hotspot plumes, using recent evidence from seismology, high-pressure experiments, geodynamic modeling, geoid inversion studies, and post-glacial rebound analyses. This conceptual model delivers several key points. Firstly, some of the small-scale mantle upwellings observed as hotspots on the Earth's surface originate at the base of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), in which the Archean granitic continental material crust (TTG; tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) with abundant radiogenic elements is accumulated. Secondly, the TTG crust and the subducted oceanic crust that have accumulated at the base of MTZ could act as thermal or mechanical insulators, leading to the formation of a hot and less viscous layer just beneath the MTZ; which may enhance the instability of plume generation at the base of the MTZ. Thirdly, the origin of some hotspot plumes is isolated from the large low shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) under Africa and the South Pacific. I consider that the conceptual model explains why almost all the hotspots around Africa are located above the margins of the African LLSVP. Because a planetary-scale trench system surrounding a “Pangean cell” has been spatially stable throughout the Phanerozoic, a large amount of the oceanic crustal layer is likely to be trapped in the MTZ under the Pangean cell. Therefore, under Africa, almost all of the hotspot plumes originate from the base of the MTZ, where a large amount of TTG and/or oceanic crusts has accumulated. This conceptual model may explain the fact that almost all the hotspots around Africa are located on margins above the African LLSVP. It is also considered that some of the hotspot plumes under the South Pacific thread through the TTG/oceanic crusts accumulated around the bottom of the MTZ, and some have their roots in the South Pacific LLSVP while others originate from the MTZ. The numerical simulations

  6. Origin-Dependent Inverted-Repeat Amplification: Tests of a Model for Inverted DNA Amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonita J Brewer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication errors are a major driver of evolution--from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale copy number variations (CNVs. Here we test a specific replication-based model to explain the generation of interstitial, inverted triplications. While no genetic information is lost, the novel inversion junctions and increased copy number of the included sequences create the potential for adaptive phenotypes. The model--Origin-Dependent Inverted-Repeat Amplification (ODIRA-proposes that a replication error at pre-existing short, interrupted, inverted repeats in genomic sequences generates an extrachromosomal, inverted dimeric, autonomously replicating intermediate; subsequent genomic integration of the dimer yields this class of CNV without loss of distal chromosomal sequences. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to test the feasibility of the proposed replication error and its downstream consequences on chromosome structure in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that the proposed replication error-the ligation of leading and lagging nascent strands to create "closed" forks-can occur in vitro at short, interrupted inverted repeats. The removal of molecules with two closed forks results in a hairpin-capped linear duplex that we show replicates in vivo to create an inverted, dimeric plasmid that subsequently integrates into the genome by homologous recombination, creating an inverted triplication. While other models have been proposed to explain inverted triplications and their derivatives, our model can also explain the generation of human, de novo, inverted amplicons that have a 2:1 mixture of sequences from both homologues of a single parent--a feature readily explained by a plasmid intermediate that arises from one homologue and integrates into the other homologue prior to meiosis. Our tests of key features of ODIRA lend support to this mechanism and suggest further avenues of enquiry to unravel the origins

  7. Origin-Dependent Inverted-Repeat Amplification: Tests of a Model for Inverted DNA Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Bonita J; Payen, Celia; Di Rienzi, Sara C; Higgins, Megan M; Ong, Giang; Dunham, Maitreya J; Raghuraman, M K

    2015-12-01

    DNA replication errors are a major driver of evolution--from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale copy number variations (CNVs). Here we test a specific replication-based model to explain the generation of interstitial, inverted triplications. While no genetic information is lost, the novel inversion junctions and increased copy number of the included sequences create the potential for adaptive phenotypes. The model--Origin-Dependent Inverted-Repeat Amplification (ODIRA)-proposes that a replication error at pre-existing short, interrupted, inverted repeats in genomic sequences generates an extrachromosomal, inverted dimeric, autonomously replicating intermediate; subsequent genomic integration of the dimer yields this class of CNV without loss of distal chromosomal sequences. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to test the feasibility of the proposed replication error and its downstream consequences on chromosome structure in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that the proposed replication error-the ligation of leading and lagging nascent strands to create "closed" forks-can occur in vitro at short, interrupted inverted repeats. The removal of molecules with two closed forks results in a hairpin-capped linear duplex that we show replicates in vivo to create an inverted, dimeric plasmid that subsequently integrates into the genome by homologous recombination, creating an inverted triplication. While other models have been proposed to explain inverted triplications and their derivatives, our model can also explain the generation of human, de novo, inverted amplicons that have a 2:1 mixture of sequences from both homologues of a single parent--a feature readily explained by a plasmid intermediate that arises from one homologue and integrates into the other homologue prior to meiosis. Our tests of key features of ODIRA lend support to this mechanism and suggest further avenues of enquiry to unravel the origins of interstitial

  8. [Origin and development of pathological anatomy in Trieste: a paradigmatic history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, M

    1997-10-01

    gave way to a more specialised discipline which was able to transfer--to post-mortem examinations first and soon after to surgically removed tissues--the wealth of notions developed in the middle of the 19th C in the basic sciences of chemistry, microbiology and physiology, as had been advanced by the second founding father of the discipline, Virchow. Trieste, therefore, may be said to offer a unique example of the origins and development of pathologic anatomy in Central Europe. And the recollection of the city's experience promotes, in the modern pathologist, an awareness of belonging to a discipline which has always been the soundest leader in the advancement of medicine.

  9. Technical comparison of the commercialized Racon model 21000 Portable, Reconfigurable Line Sensor (PRLS) and original Sandia/USAF prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattman, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The military has been moving from a global strategic response with fixed site asset protection to regional tactical response requirements. This change necessitates high security sensor systems that can be easily relocated and rapidly placed in operation by unskilled operators. The Portable, Reconfigurable Line Sensor (PRLS) was developed by Sandia National Laboratories with United States Air Force funding. Racon, Inc. is now commercializing the PRLS through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) with the United States Air Force. The commercialized design of the new PRLS bi-static radar sensor benefits from the extensive field testing of the original Sandia/USAF-developed engineering prototype systems of the 1980s. Tests conducted in hot, cold, wind, rain, and snow conditions verified exceptional intruder detection capability, resistance to spoofing attempts, and insusceptibility to mutual interference and nuisance alarms caused by birds or small animals. The use of 1990's implementation technology combined with extensive testing information has resulted in significant product performance enhancements as well as cost savings. This paper compares technical features of the original Sandia/USAF prototypes with the new commercialized Racon model 21000 Portable, Reconfigurable Line Sensor. The PRLS advances the art of outdoor security to meet the Relocatable Sensor System (RSS) challenge of the 1990s

  10. A model of accumulation of radionuclides in biosphere originating from groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Jansson, Per-Erik; Karlberg, Louise [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. Land and Water Resources

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study is to introduce a module in CoupModel describing the transport and accumulation in the biosphere of a radionuclide originating from a ground water contamination. Two model approaches describing the plant uptake of a radionuclide were included, namely passive and active uptake. Passive uptake means in this study that the root uptake rate of a radionuclide is governed by water uptake. Normal mechanism for the passive water uptake is the convective flux of water from the soil to the plant. An example of element taken up passively is Ca. Active plant uptake is in this model defined as the root uptake rate of a radionuclide that is governed by carbon assimilation i.e. photosynthesis and plant growth. The actively taken up element can for example be an element essential to plant, but not available in high enough concentration by passive uptake alone, like the major nutrients N and P or an element that very well resembles a plant nutrient, like Cs resembles K. Active uptake of trace element may occur alone or in addition to passive uptake. Normal mechanism for the active uptake is molecular diffusion from the soil solution to the roots or via any other organism living in symbiosis with the roots like the mycorrhiza. Also a model approach describing adsorption was introduced. CoupModel dynamically couples and simulates the flows of water, heat, carbon and nitrogen in the soil/plant/atmosphere system. Any number of plants may be defined and are divided into roots, leaves, stem and grain. The soil is considered in one vertical profile that may be represented into a maximum of 100 layers. The model is the windows-successor and integrated version of the DOS-models SOIL and SOILN, which have been widely used on different ecosystems and climate regions during 25 years time period. To this soil/plant/atmosphere model were introduced a module describing accumulation of a radionuclide in the biosphere originating from groundwater contamination. The

  11. A model of accumulation of radionuclides in biosphere originating from groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke; Jansson, Per-Erik; Karlberg, Louise

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study is to introduce a module in CoupModel describing the transport and accumulation in the biosphere of a radionuclide originating from a ground water contamination. Two model approaches describing the plant uptake of a radionuclide were included, namely passive and active uptake. Passive uptake means in this study that the root uptake rate of a radionuclide is governed by water uptake. Normal mechanism for the passive water uptake is the convective flux of water from the soil to the plant. An example of element taken up passively is Ca. Active plant uptake is in this model defined as the root uptake rate of a radionuclide that is governed by carbon assimilation i.e. photosynthesis and plant growth. The actively taken up element can for example be an element essential to plant, but not available in high enough concentration by passive uptake alone, like the major nutrients N and P or an element that very well resembles a plant nutrient, like Cs resembles K. Active uptake of trace element may occur alone or in addition to passive uptake. Normal mechanism for the active uptake is molecular diffusion from the soil solution to the roots or via any other organism living in symbiosis with the roots like the mycorrhiza. Also a model approach describing adsorption was introduced. CoupModel dynamically couples and simulates the flows of water, heat, carbon and nitrogen in the soil/plant/atmosphere system. Any number of plants may be defined and are divided into roots, leaves, stem and grain. The soil is considered in one vertical profile that may be represented into a maximum of 100 layers. The model is the windows-successor and integrated version of the DOS-models SOIL and SOILN, which have been widely used on different ecosystems and climate regions during 25 years time period. To this soil/plant/atmosphere model were introduced a module describing accumulation of a radionuclide in the biosphere originating from groundwater contamination. The

  12. [The origin, diffusion and development of healing doctrines in medical history--exemplified by homeopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2007-01-01

    As a paradigmatic case study of the origin, spread, and development of medical systems, this paper investigates the 200-years history of homeopathy from different perspectives of medical history. On the basis of new research on Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), first, a concise and critical overview on the principles, explanations, and implications of his doctrine is presented. The historical, conceptual, and social background of the founder of homeopathy is then elaborated in terms of history of medicine, science, philosophy, sociology, culture, and ideas, as well as theory of science, theory of communication, and sociology of science. The process of the world wide spread of homeopathy is examined from different points of view, ranging from history of heroes, institutions, professionalisation, politics, economics, religion, and organisations to history of patients, perception, and semiotics. Finally, a comparative approach to the different development and status of homeopathy in different countries results in the extraction of a set of crucial variables, such as charismatic personage, influential patronage, economic sponsorship, political protection, media support, and patients' demand, which might explane a major part of these differences. Eventually, the notorious splits of homeopathy's doctrine suggest the idea that--in analogy to theory of evolution--a variety of concurrent strains (rather than one monolithic block) of a doctrine may prove to be a kind of advantage for survival. In conclusion, acceptance and relevance of medical systems are determined by many factors. Since external ones are usually outweighing internal ones, medical history may offer a broader and more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of their spread and development than clinical trials and scientific objection alone.

  13. Parental Modeling and Deidentification in Romantic Relationships Among Mexican-origin Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated youth's modeling of and de-identification from parents in romantic relationships, using two phases of data from adolescent siblings, mothers, and fathers in 246 Mexican-origin families. Each parent reported his/her marital satisfaction and conflict, and youth reported on parent-adolescent warmth and conflict at Time 1. Youth's reports of modeling of and de-identification from their mothers and fathers and three romantic relationship outcomes were assessed at Time 2. Findings revealed that higher parental marital satisfaction, lower marital conflict, and higher warmth and lower conflict in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with more modeling and less de-identification from parents. Moreover, higher de-identification was linked to a greater likelihood of youth being involved in a romantic relationship and cohabitation, whereas more modeling was linked to a lower likelihood of cohabitation and older age of first sex. Discussion underscores the importance of assessing parental modeling and de-identification and understanding correlates of these processes.

  14. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents’ cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized Integrative Family Stress Model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across three times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers’ perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms five years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers’ perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers’ familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways. PMID:25751100

  15. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic ... Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated ... GBS development in diabetics. An Italian ...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... Reproductive development and function in human and other ... sulting solution was filtered and left to stand for three days to ..... male rat brain and pituitary. Brain Res 164,.

  17. Using Item Response Theory to Develop Measures of Acquisitive and Protective Self-Monitoring From the Original Self-Monitoring Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Michael P; Kostal, Jack W; Stillwell, David; Kosinski, Michal

    2017-07-01

    For the past 40 years, the conventional univariate model of self-monitoring has reigned as the dominant interpretative paradigm in the literature. However, recent findings associated with an alternative bivariate model challenge the conventional paradigm. In this study, item response theory is used to develop measures of the bivariate model of acquisitive and protective self-monitoring using original Self-Monitoring Scale (SMS) items, and data from two large, nonstudent samples ( Ns = 13,563 and 709). Results indicate that the new acquisitive (six-item) and protective (seven-item) self-monitoring scales are reliable, unbiased in terms of gender and age, and demonstrate theoretically consistent relations to measures of personality traits and cognitive ability. Additionally, by virtue of using original SMS items, previously collected responses can be reanalyzed in accordance with the alternative bivariate model. Recommendations for the reanalysis of archival SMS data, as well as directions for future research, are provided.

  18. Origin and Development of Drug Addiction in South Asia with Special Reference to Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Farhana Sarfaraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During the course of this search man has extracted opium from poppy plant, cocaine from the leaves of coca bush, and cannabis from the hemp plant. Initially the use of these was only for the purpose of relieving the physical and mental capabilities, and for medicinaland surgical purpose. But the human spirit of innovation must have led to the use of these substances for mood-altering effects and offer an escape from the real and difficult world of existence to a more agreeable world of fantasy. These things are perhaps a few of the oldest natural substances a fewer of the oldest natural substances used by human race.The major purpose of the study is to highlight the origin and development of the drug addiction in the South Asian region, and discover its impacts on Pakistan. The problem of the drug addiction, which once could be learned as a by-product of drug traffickingthroughout Pakistan has become a major challenge for the governments, philanthropists and the social reformers of this age. The present extent of addiction depicts a bleak future for the generation to come, unless a revolutionary, well-coordinated and determined approach is envisaged and implemented.

  19. The GMOC Model : Supporting Development of Systems for Human Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirner, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Train traffic control is a complex task in a dynamic environment. Different actors have to cooperate to meet strong requirements regarding safety, punctuality, capacity utilization, energy consumption, and more. The GMOC model has been developed and utilized in a number of studies in several different areas. This thesis describes GMOC and uses train traffic control as the application area for evaluating its utility. The GMOC model has its origin in control theory and relates to concepts of dy...

  20. Developing a Plant Culture Medium Composed of Vinasse Originating from Haematococcus Pluvialis Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollo, A. L.; Silva, A. L. L. D.; Lima, K. K. D. D.; Camara, M. C.; Rodrigues, C.; Vandenberghe, L. P. D. S.; Soccol, V. T.; Soccol, C. R.; Biasi, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    The mineral nutrients in vinasse provide support for algal and plant growth. Algal culture releases organic compounds into its liquid culture medium. These organic and inorganic substances can be useful for formulating a plant tissue culture medium, because tissue culture medium is composed of organic and inorganic components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a plant culture medium by using the vinasse that is employed for Haematococcus pluvialis culture (algal filtrate); to investigate the possible beneficial effects of the biocompounds in the micropropagation of Nidularium procerum (Bromeliaceae), to evaluate quercetin content, total phenolics content in vinasse and to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the media by performing a bioassay with Artemia salina. The vinasse that originated from H. pluvialis culture can be used to formulate plant tissue culture at a 3% dilution, and its mineral nutrients can support In vitro plant growth, but some nutrients must be supplemented to enhance its efficiency. An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for N. procerum. The micropropagated plants were suitable for transfer to the field (they were acclimatized). This culture medium provides a way to reuse wastewater, gives a rational alternative to vinasse disposal and adds value to what is currently considered to be an undesirable residue. Moreover, this process can reduce the production costs of clonal seedlings and/or bioactive compounds in biofactories. There was no apparent biostimulatory effect by the algal filtrate on morphogenesis; however, it did increase quercetin production. The H. pluvialis culture that was grown in the vinasse decreased the cytotoxicity and phenolic compound contents, which prevented explant tissue necrosis and represented a treatment for this residue for safer disposal in the environment. (author)

  1. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins programs manage Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Thronson, Harley; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-07-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" and "Are we alone?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos2 (PCOS), Cosmic Origins3 (COR), and Exoplanet Exploration Program4 (ExEP) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the

  2. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins Technology Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-01-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the Astrophysics Division's main investment method to mature technologies

  3. The origin of Venusian channels: Modelling of thermal erosion by lava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, D. B. J.; Sorensen, S-A.; Guest, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Magellan imagery has revealed that channels, apparently volcanic in origin, are abundant on the surface of Venus. There has been much debate about the origin of these channels. Are they the result of erosional (either thermal or mechanical) or constructional processes? A common characteristic of the simple sinuous channels is that they show evidence of erosion near their source and then become purely constructional, forming levees and in some cases roofing over completely. One method of showing that thermal erosion is capable of producing the type of channels seen is to use computer modeling incorporating the physical conditions on Venus and the physical characteristics of the different types of lava that may have been erupted. It is possible to calculate, relatively easily, two channel parameters. The first is the erosion rate, which combined with eruption duration, gives depth. The second is for how long after leaving the source the erupted lava will continue to be capable of thermal erosion before constructional processes dominate. Making assumptions about the rheology of the lava (e.g., assume it behaves as a Bingham plastic) along with the slope angle yields a flow velocity and therefore a distance over which thermal erosion will take place. Due to the resolution (both vertical and horizontal) of the Magellan altimetric data, the distance from the source that the channel is erosional can be much more accurately measured than the depth of the channel. This will remain the case until stereo imagery becomes available for large areas of the planet.

  4. Orphan Drug Pricing: An Original Exponential Model Relating Price to the Number of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Messori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In managing drug prices at the national level, orphan drugs represent a special case because the price of these agents is higher than that determined according to value-based principles. A common practice is to set the orphan drug price in an inverse relationship with the number of patients, so that the price increases as the number of patients decreases. Determination of prices in this context generally has a purely empirical nature, but a theoretical basis would be needed. The present paper describes an original exponential model that manages the relationship between price and number of patients for orphan drugs. Three real examples are analysed in detail (eculizumab, bosentan, and a data set of 17 orphan drugs published in 2010. These analyses have been aimed at identifying some objective criteria to rationally inform this relationship between prices and patients and at converting these criteria into explicit quantitative rules.

  5. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-27

    Research and Analysis Victoria , B.C. 2 7 F e b r u a r y 2 0 1 5 Document No. 5758-001 Version 01 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as...British Columbia, Canada; Victoria , British Columbia, Canada; Vladivostok, Russia; and Yokohama, Japan. Originally, 20 different shipping routes were...Canada 2 Tofino, British Columbia, Canada 3 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada 1 Victoria , British Columbia, Canada 2 The routes were produced by using

  6. Extending product modeling methods for integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hauksdóttir, Dagný

    2013-01-01

    Despite great efforts within the modeling domain, the majority of methods often address the uncommon design situation of an original product development. However, studies illustrate that development tasks are predominantly related to redesigning, improving, and extending already existing products...... and PVM methods, in a presented Product Requirement Development model some of the individual drawbacks of each method could be overcome. Based on the UML standard, the model enables the representation of complex hierarchical relationships in a generic product model. At the same time it uses matrix....... Updated design requirements have then to be made explicit and mapped against the existing product architecture. In this paper, existing methods are adapted and extended through linking updated requirements to suitable product models. By combining several established modeling techniques, such as the DSM...

  7. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S.; Medland, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. PMID:26451004

  9. Developing a model of chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingyang; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2011-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition that has a high incidence in the increasing elderly population of many countries. Pathologically, it is defined as a persistent liquefied hematoma in the subdural space more than 3 weeks old that is generally encased by a membraneous capsule. CSDHs likely originate after minor head trauma, with a key factor in its development being the potential for a subdural cavity to permit its expansion within, which is usually due to craniocerebral disproportion. The pathogenesis of CSDH has been attributed to osmotic or oncotic pressure differences, although measurements of these factors in the CSDH fluid do not support this theory. Current belief is that CSDH arises from recurrent bleeding in the subdural space, caused by a cycle of local angiogenesis, inflammation, coagulation and ongoing fibrinolysis. However, because of a lack of detailed knowledge about the precise mechanisms, treatment is often limited to surgical interventions that are invasive and often prone to recurrence. Thus, it is possible that an easily reproducible and representative animal model of CSDH would facilitate research in the pathogenesis of CSDH and aid with development of treatment options.

  10. Dormant origins as a built-in safeguard in eukaryotic DNA replication against genome instability and disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Naoko; Pederson, Kayla D

    2017-08-01

    DNA replication is a prerequisite for cell proliferation, yet it can be increasingly challenging for a eukaryotic cell to faithfully duplicate its genome as its size and complexity expands. Dormant origins now emerge as a key component for cells to successfully accomplish such a demanding but essential task. In this perspective, we will first provide an overview of the fundamental processes eukaryotic cells have developed to regulate origin licensing and firing. With a special focus on mammalian systems, we will then highlight the role of dormant origins in preventing replication-associated genome instability and their functional interplay with proteins involved in the DNA damage repair response for tumor suppression. Lastly, deficiencies in the origin licensing machinery will be discussed in relation to their influence on stem cell maintenance and human diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictive models of moth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degree-day models link ambient temperature to insect life-stages, making such models valuable tools in integrated pest management. These models increase management efficacy by predicting pest phenology. In Wisconsin, the top insect pest of cranberry production is the cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis v...

  12. A Fovea Localization Scheme Using Vessel Origin-Based Parabolic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yuan Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the center of the macula, fovea plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. To locate the fovea, this paper proposes a vessel origin (VO-based parabolic model, which takes the VO as the vertex of the parabola-like vasculature. Image processing steps are applied to accurately locate the fovea on retinal images. Firstly, morphological gradient and the circular Hough transform are used to find the optic disc. The structure of the vessel is then segmented with the line detector. Based on the characteristics of the VO, four features of VO are extracted, following the Bayesian classification procedure. Once the VO is identified, the VO-based parabolic model will locate the fovea. To find the fittest parabola and the symmetry axis of the retinal vessel, an Shift and Rotation (SR-Hough transform that combines the Hough transform with the shift and rotation of coordinates is presented. Two public databases of retinal images, DRIVE and STARE, are used to evaluate the proposed method. The experiment results show that the average Euclidean distances between the located fovea and the fovea marked by experts in two databases are 9.8 pixels and 30.7 pixels, respectively. The results are stronger than other methods and thus provide a better macular detection for further disease discovery.

  13. Modeling the Origin and Possible Control of the Wealth Inequality Surge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase of wealth inequality in the past few decades is a most disturbing social and economic issue of our time. In order to control, and even reverse that surge, its origin and underlying mechanisms should be revealed. One of the challenges in studying these mechanisms is to incorporate realistic individual dynamics in the population level in a self-consistent manner. Our theoretical approach meets the challenge by using interacting multi-agent master-equations to model the dynamics of wealth inequality. The model is solved using stochastic multi-agent iterated maps. Taking into account growth rate, return on capital, private savings and economic mobility, we were able to capture the historical dynamics of wealth inequality in the United States during the course of the 20th century. We show that the fraction of capital income in the national income and the fraction of private savings are the critical factors that govern the wealth inequality dynamics. In addition, we found that economic mobility plays a crucial role in wealth accumulation. Notably, we found that the major decrease in private savings since the 1980s could be associated primarily with the recent surge in wealth inequality and if nothing changes in this respect we predict further increase in wealth inequality in the future. However, the 2007-08 financial crisis brought an opportunity to restrain the wealth inequality surge by increasing private savings. If this trend continues, it may lead to prevention, and even reversing, of the ongoing inequality surge.

  14. The Centennial of Counselor Education: Origin and Early Development of a Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    July 7, 2011, marks the centennial of counselor education as a formal discipline. In recognition of its 100th birthday, the author of this article describes the origins of the discipline, beginning with its prehistory in the work of Frank Parsons to establish the practice of vocational guidance, describing the 1st course in counselor education at…

  15. The origin, development and a brief appraisal of the doctrine of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-12

    Mar 12, 2013 ... Faith Tabernacle Church', falls outside the focus of this work. The constitution of the CAC was drafted in 1942 ... Apostolic Church was originally called the Faith Tabernacle.' Again, Alokan's claim (1991:147) that the ..... poison with immunity and the ability to heal the sick. The. CAC Constitution and Doctrine ...

  16. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...... and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study...

  17. Developing Personal Network Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the issue of business modeling in relation to personal networks, PNs. The paper builds on research performed on business models in the EU 1ST MAGNET1 project (My personal Adaptive Global NET). The paper presents the Personal Network concept and briefly reports...

  18. The Development of Global and Domain Self-Esteem from Ages 10 to 16 for Mexican-Origin Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A.; Wetzel, Eunike; Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H.

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the development of global and domain (academic, physical, same-sex peer relationship, opposite-sex peer relationship) self-esteem from age 10 to 16 in a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents. Participants' (N = 674) responses on the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ; Marsh, 2005) II-S showed moderate rank-order…

  19. Therapeutic Potential and Pharmaceutical Development of Thymoquinone: A Multitargeted Molecule of Natural Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer N. Goyal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone, a monoterpene molecule is chemically known as 2-methyl-5-isopropyl-1, 4-benzoquinone. It is abundantly present in seeds of Nigella sativa L. that is popularly known as black cumin or black seed and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. A large number of studies have revealed that thymoquinone is the major active constituent in N. sativa oil this constituent is responsible for the majority of the pharmacological properties. The beneficial organoprotective activities of thymoquinone in experimental animal models of different human diseases are attributed to the potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thymoquinone has also been shown to alter numerous molecular and signaling pathways in many inflammatory and degenerative diseases including cancer. Thymoquinone has been reported to possess potent lipophilicity and limited bioavailability and exhibits light and heat sensitivity. Altogether, these physiochemical properties encumber the successful formulation for the delivery of drug in oral dosages form and restrict the pharmaceutical development. In recent past, many efforts were undertaken to improve the bioavailability for clinical usage by manipulating the physiochemical parameters. The present review aimed to provide insights regarding the physicochemical characteristics, pharmacokinetics and the methods to promote pharmaceutical development and endorse the clinical usage of TQ in future by overcoming the associated physiochemical obstacles. It also enumerates briefly the pharmacological and molecular targets of thymoquinone as well as the pharmacological properties in various diseases and the underlying molecular mechanism. Though, a convincing number of experimental studies are available but human studies are not available with thymoquinone despite of the long history of use of black cumin in different diseases. Thus, the clinical studies including pharmacokinetic studies and regulatory toxicity studies are required

  20. Therapeutic Potential and Pharmaceutical Development of Thymoquinone: A Multitargeted Molecule of Natural Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sameer N; Prajapati, Chaitali P; Gore, Prashant R; Patil, Chandragouda R; Mahajan, Umesh B; Sharma, Charu; Talla, Sandhya P; Ojha, Shreesh K

    2017-01-01

    Thymoquinone, a monoterpene molecule is chemically known as 2-methyl-5-isopropyl-1, 4-benzoquinone. It is abundantly present in seeds of Nigella sativa L. that is popularly known as black cumin or black seed and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae . A large number of studies have revealed that thymoquinone is the major active constituent in N. sativa oil this constituent is responsible for the majority of the pharmacological properties. The beneficial organoprotective activities of thymoquinone in experimental animal models of different human diseases are attributed to the potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thymoquinone has also been shown to alter numerous molecular and signaling pathways in many inflammatory and degenerative diseases including cancer. Thymoquinone has been reported to possess potent lipophilicity and limited bioavailability and exhibits light and heat sensitivity. Altogether, these physiochemical properties encumber the successful formulation for the delivery of drug in oral dosages form and restrict the pharmaceutical development. In recent past, many efforts were undertaken to improve the bioavailability for clinical usage by manipulating the physiochemical parameters. The present review aimed to provide insights regarding the physicochemical characteristics, pharmacokinetics and the methods to promote pharmaceutical development and endorse the clinical usage of TQ in future by overcoming the associated physiochemical obstacles. It also enumerates briefly the pharmacological and molecular targets of thymoquinone as well as the pharmacological properties in various diseases and the underlying molecular mechanism. Though, a convincing number of experimental studies are available but human studies are not available with thymoquinone despite of the long history of use of black cumin in different diseases. Thus, the clinical studies including pharmacokinetic studies and regulatory toxicity studies are required to encourage the

  1. The mouse and ferret models for studying the novel avian-origin human influenza A (H7N9) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Deng, Wei; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Ting; Lv, Qi; Li, Fengdi; Yuan, Jing; Xiang, Zhiguang; Gao, Kai; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Jiangning; Yao, Yanfeng; Yu, Pin; Yong, Weidong; Wei, Qiang; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2013-08-08

    The current study was conducted to establish animal models (including mouse and ferret) for the novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus. A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) virus was administered by intranasal instillation to groups of mice and ferrets, and animals developed typical clinical signs including body weight loss (mice and ferrets), ruffled fur (mice), sneezing (ferrets), and death (mice). Peak virus shedding from respiratory tract was observed on 2 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) for mice and 3-5 d.p.i. for ferrets. Virus could also be detected in brain, liver, spleen, kidney, and intestine from inoculated mice, and in heart, liver, and olfactory bulb from inoculated ferrets. The inoculation of H7N9 could elicit seroconversion titers up to 1280 in ferrets and 160 in mice. Leukopenia, significantly reduced lymphocytes but increased neutrophils were also observed in mouse and ferret models. The mouse and ferret model enables detailed studies of the pathogenesis of this illness and lay the foundation for drug or vaccine evaluation.

  2. Morality Principles for Risk Modelling: Needs and Links with the Origins of Plausible Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana-Ortega, Alberto; Solana, Vicente

    2009-12-01

    In comparison with the foundations of probability calculus, the inescapable and controversial issue of how to assign probabilities has only recently become a matter of formal study. The introduction of information as a technical concept was a milestone, but the most promising entropic assignment methods still face unsolved difficulties, manifesting the incompleteness of plausible inference theory. In this paper we examine the situation faced by risk analysts in the critical field of extreme events modelling, where the former difficulties are especially visible, due to scarcity of observational data, the large impact of these phenomena and the obligation to assume professional responsibilities. To respond to the claim for a sound framework to deal with extremes, we propose a metafoundational approach to inference, based on a canon of extramathematical requirements. We highlight their strong moral content, and show how this emphasis in morality, far from being new, is connected with the historic origins of plausible inference. Special attention is paid to the contributions of Caramuel, a contemporary of Pascal, unfortunately ignored in the usual mathematical accounts of probability.

  3. The Standard Model Higgs as the origin of the hot Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa, Daniel G.

    2017-04-10

    If the Standard Model (SM) Higgs is weakly coupled to the inflationary sector, the Higgs is expected to be universally in the form of a condensate towards the end of inflation. The Higgs decays rapidly after inflation -- via non-perturbative effects -- into an out-of-equilibrium distribution of SM species, which thermalize soon afterwards. If the post-inflationary equation of state of the universe is stiff, $w \\simeq +1$, the SM species eventually dominate the total energy budget. This provides a natural origin for the relativistic thermal plasma of SM species, required for the onset the `hot Big Bang' era. The viability of this scenario requires the inflationary Hubble scale $H_*$ to be lower than the instability scale for Higgs vacuum decay, the Higgs not to generate too large curvature perturbations at cosmological scales, and the SM dominance to occur before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We show that successful reheating into the SM can only be obtained in the presence of a non-minimal coupling to gravity $\\x...

  4. [Necrotizing cervico-facial cellulitis of dental origin in a developing country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, S; Ouattara, M A; Saye, J; Sangaré, I; Touré, M; Maiga, I; Dakouo, D J; Xing, L; Guo, L; Zhou, A J; Koumaré, S; Koita, A K; Sanogo, Z Z; Yéna, S

    2017-09-01

    Necrotizing cellulitis of dental origin is a serious disease and requires prompt and effective management to avoid adverse outcomes. The purpose of this work is to describe the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties encountered in this condition. This was a prospective study in the thoracic surgery department of Mali Hospital from January 2011 to February 2015. We collected consecutively 19 cases of complicating cervico-facial cellulitis of dental origin. The anatomical and clinical aspects, therapeutic modalities and difficulties are described. Dental pain and fever were the predominant symptoms followed by cervical edema. Chest CT-scan was the basis for the diagnosis in all cases. Cervicotomy with debridement was the most performed surgical procedure. Pleural drainage was performed in 6 cases. Three patients (15.8%) died. Necrotizing cellulitis of dental origin is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality. The key radiological examination is the thoracic CT-scan. Early medico-surgical management by emergency care, tailored antibiotic therapy, removal of necrotizing tissues and drainage of collections are required to deliver a good outcome. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing warm Comptonization models for the origin of the soft X-ray excess in AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, P.-O.; Ursini, F.; De Rosa, A.; Bianchi, S.; Cappi, M.; Matt, G.; Dadina, M.; Malzac, J.

    2018-03-01

    The X-ray spectra of many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show a soft X-ray excess below 1-2 keV on top of the extrapolated high-energy power law. The origin of this component is uncertain. It could be a signature of relativistically blurred, ionized reflection or the high-energy tail of thermal Comptonization in a warm (kT 1 keV), optically thick (τ ≃ 10-20) corona producing the optical/UV to soft X-ray emission. The purpose of the present paper is to test the warm corona model on a statistically significant sample of unabsorbed, radio-quiet AGNs with XMM-Newton archival data, providing simultaneous optical/UV and X-ray coverage. The sample has 22 objects and 100 observations. We use two thermal Comptonization components to fit the broadband spectra, one for the warm corona emission and one for the high-energy continuum. In the optical/UV, we also include the reddening, the small blue bump, and the Galactic extinction. In the X-rays, we include a warm absorber and a neutral reflection. The model gives a good fit (reduced χ2 uniformly distributed in the 0.1-1 keV range, while the optical depth is in the range 10-40. These values are consistent with a warm corona covering a large fraction of a quasi-passive accretion disk, i.e., that mostly reprocesses the warm corona emission. The disk intrinsic emission represents no more than 20% of the disk total emission. According to this interpretation, most of the accretion power would be released in the upper layers of the accretion flow.

  6. Business Model Prototyping – Using the Morphological Analysis to Develop New Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Seidenstricker, Sven; Scheuerle, Stefan; Linder, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Practice has shown that new businesses have managed to change the structure of market sectors and to open positions of power by business model innovation. Often, the origin was new technological possibilities, innovative products, changes in the supply chain management, optimized cost structures or unique resources. Regarding strategic marketing and innovation management, it now is interesting how such potentials can be unlocked and implemented in business model innovations. Here, development...

  7. The TOPOMOD-ITN project: unravel the origin of Earth's topography from modelling deep-surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.

    2012-04-01

    EC-Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN) projects aim to improve the career perspectives of young generations of researchers. Institutions from both academic and industry sectors form a collaborative network to recruit research fellows and provide them with opportunities to undertake research in the context of a joint research training program. In this frame, TOPOMOD - one of the training activities of EPOS, the new-born European Research Infrastructure for Geosciences - is a funded ITN project designed to investigate and model how surface processes interact with crustal tectonics and mantle convection to originate and develop topography of the continents over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The multi-disciplinary approach combines geophysics, geochemistry, tectonics and structural geology with advanced geodynamic numerical/analog modelling. TOPOMOD involves 8 European research teams internationally recognized for their excellence in complementary fields of Earth Sciences (Roma TRE, Utrecht, GFZ, ETH, Cambridge, Durham, Rennes, Barcelona), to which are associated 5 research institutions (CNR-Italy, Univ. Parma, Univ. Lausanne, Univ. Montpellier, Univ. Mainz) , 3 high-technology enterprises (Malvern Instruments, TNO, G.O. Logical Consulting) and 1 large multinational oil and gas company (ENI). This unique network places emphasis in experience-based training increasing the impact and international visibility of European research in modeling. Long-term collaboration and synergy are established among the overmentioned research teams through 15 cross-disciplinary research projects that combine case studies in well-chosen target areas from the Mediterranean, the Middle and Far East, west Africa, and South America, with new developments in structural geology, geomorphology, seismology, geochemistry, InSAR, laboratory and numerical modelling of geological processes from the deep mantle to the surface. These multidisciplinary projects altogether aim to

  8. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodemetallization of different origin vacuum residues : new modeling approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira , Cristina; Tayakout-Fayolle , Melaz; Guibard , Isabelle; Lemos , Francisco

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In order to be able to upgrade the heaviest part of the crude oil one needs to remove several impurities, such as sulfur or metals. Residue hydrotreatment in fixed beds, under high hydrogen pressure can achieve high removal performances, with an industrial catalysts optimized staging. Despite the recent improvements, petroleum residues remain very difficult to describe and characterize in detail. Several kinetic models have been developed, but mostly they are feed depe...

  9. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of industrialised countries, which has consequences for energy modelling. New requirements need to be met by present-day energy models to adequately explore the future of developing countries' energy systems. This paper aims to assess if the main characteristics of developing countries are adequately incorporated in present-day energy models. We first discuss these main characteristics, focusing particularly on developing Asia, and then present a model comparison of 12 selected energy models to test their suitability for developing countries. We conclude that many models are biased towards industrialised countries, neglecting main characteristics of developing countries, e.g. the informal economy, supply shortages, poor performance of the power sector, structural economic change, electrification, traditional bio-fuels, urban-rural divide. To more adequately address the energy systems of developing countries, energy models have to be adjusted and new models have to be built. We therefore indicate how to improve energy models for increasing their suitability for developing countries and give advice on modelling techniques and data requirements

  10. Development Smart Water Aquaponics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contributes to the modeling aquaculture. The paper main objectives are to identify an analysis smart water aquaponics. The purpose is to add more value to end aquaponics products. Aquaculture production depends on physical, chemical and biological qualities of pond water to a greater extent. The successful pond management requires an understanding of water quality. Intensification of pond makes the water quality undesirable with a number of water quality parameters. The objective of this model is to test and predicts plant and fish growth and net ammonium and nitrate concentrations in water in an aquaponic system. This is done by comparing the model outputs with measurements under controlled conditions in order to assess the accuracy of the tool to simulate nutrient concentrations in water and fish and plant biomass production of the system.

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    source of blood supply whilst in developed countries VNRDs are the major source. This study de- termined and ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ..... ferral rate of females in comparison to males as pre- .... nors at blood bank of a medical college,. Australia. Med J Armed Forces 61: 131- 4.

  12. Modeling of Karachaganak field development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadvakasov, A. A.; Shamsutdinova, G. F.; Almukhametova, E. M.; Gabdrakhmanov, N. Kh

    2018-05-01

    Management of a geological deposit includes the study and analysis of oil recovery, identification of factors influencing production performance and oil-bearing rock flooding, reserve recovery and other indicators characterizing field development in general. Regulation of oil deposits exploitation is a mere control over the fluid flow within a reservoir, which is ensured through the designed system of development via continuous improvement of production and injection wells placement, optimum performance modes, service conditions of downhole and surface oil-field equipment taking into account various changes and physical-geological properties of a field when using modern equipment to obtain the best performance indicators.

  13. Toy models of developed turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Hnatich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the advection of a passive scalar quantity by incompressible helical turbulent flow within the framework of extended Kraichnan model. Turbulent fluctuations of velocity field are assumed to have the Gaussian statistics with zero mean and defined noise with finite time-correlation. Actual calculations have been done up to two-loop approximation within the framework of field-theoretic renormalization group approach. It turned out that space parity violation (helicity of turbulent environment does not affect anomalous scaling which is a peculiar attribute of the corresponding model without helicity. However, stability of asymptotic regimes, where anomalous scaling takes place, strongly depends on the amount of helicity. Moreover, helicity gives rise to the turbulent diffusivity, which has been calculated in one-loop approximation.

  14. Development of container failure models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.

    1990-01-01

    In order to produce a complete performance assessment for a Canadian waste vault some prediction of container failure times is required. Data are limited; however, the effects of various possible failure scenarios on the rest of the vault model can be tested. For titanium and copper, the two materials considered in the Canadian program, data are available on the frequency of failures due to manufacturing defects; there is also an estimate on the expected size of such defects. It can be shown that the consequences of such small defects in terms of the dose to humans are acceptable. It is not clear, from a modelling point of view, whether titanium or copper are preferable

  15. Fetal Origins of Life Stage Disease: A Zebrafish Model for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S., childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years, affects 35% of adults, and costs the U.S. healthcare industry >$200 billion annually. The chemical environment in the womb may cause susceptibility to different life-stage and life-long metabolic diseases including obesity. The challenge is to understand if exposures during developmentally sensitive windows impact life-stage disease, such as obesity, by increasing adipose tissue mass. In vitro models lack the integrated systems approach needed to assess adipose development, while mammalian models are impractical in a screen of thousands of chemicals. Therefore, an obesogen screening method was developed to interrogate bioactivity using a full systems approach, in a vertebrate zebrafish model with complete metabolic activity, at a time when the full signaling repertoire is expressed and active, to optimally examine how chemical dose and duration impact life-stage adipose mass. A time-line for adipose depot formation was mapped in zebrafish 6−14 days post fertilization (dpf) using the lipophilic dye, Nile Red, in combination with fluorescent microscopy. Those time points were then used to investigate the impact of embryonic tributyltin chloride (TBT, a known obesogen) exposure (10nM daily renewal, 0−5dpf) on adipose mass. Fluorescent microscopy revealed adipose depots that were larger and appeared 2 days earlier in TBT treated compared to contro

  16. Spent fuel: prediction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almassy, M.Y.; Bosi, D.M.; Cantley, D.A.

    1979-07-01

    The need for spent fuel disposal performance modeling stems from a requirement to assess the risks involved with deep geologic disposal of spent fuel, and to support licensing and public acceptance of spent fuel repositories. Through the balanced program of analysis, diagnostic testing, and disposal demonstration tests, highlighted in this presentation, the goal of defining risks and of quantifying fuel performance during long-term disposal can be attained

  17. Feather development genes and associated regulatory innovation predate the origin of Dinosauria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Craig B; Clarke, Julia A; Baker, Allan J; Haussler, David; Edwards, Scott V

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of avian feathers has recently been illuminated by fossils and the identification of genes involved in feather patterning and morphogenesis. However, molecular studies have focused mainly on protein-coding genes. Using comparative genomics and more than 600,000 conserved regulatory elements, we show that patterns of genome evolution in the vicinity of feather genes are consistent with a major role for regulatory innovation in the evolution of feathers. Rates of innovation at feather regulatory elements exhibit an extended period of innovation with peaks in the ancestors of amniotes and archosaurs. We estimate that 86% of such regulatory elements and 100% of the nonkeratin feather gene set were present prior to the origin of Dinosauria. On the branch leading to modern birds, we detect a strong signal of regulatory innovation near insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) 2 and IGFBP5, which have roles in body size reduction, and may represent a genomic signature for the miniaturization of dinosaurian body size preceding the origin of flight. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. A Model for Learning Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilfoil, W. R.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the way in which people perceive learning and the impact of these perceptions on teaching methods within the context of learning development in distance education. The context could, in fact, be any type of teaching and learning environment. The point is to balance approaches to teaching and learning depending on student…

  19. Development of a technoeconomic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Tadayoni, Reza

    2011-01-01

    included interviews and surveys-face-to-face discussions and questionnaires. The results show that deployment of intelligent vehicle tracking technology (IVTT) will address the problems of inefficiencies experienced in the Ghanaian road transport haulage tracking industry. Research for ITS development...

  20. Macroeconomic model of national economy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naval

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Some approaches to modeling of national economy development are considered. Methods and models for determination of forecasting values of macroeconomic parameters are proposed at availability or absence of external financing.

  1. The origin of platyrrhines: An evaluation of the Antarctic scenario and the floating island model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, A

    1999-08-01

    This paper evaluates whether 1) protoplatyrrhines could have migrated to South America via Antarctica, and 2) the floating island model is a plausible transoceanic mode of dispersal for land vertebrates like protoplatyrrhines. Results show that Eocene Antarctica and Australia supported large and dense forests, and that the Antarctic fauna was comprised of many species of vertebrates, including placental and marsupial land mammals. However, no primate remains have ever been reported from these continents. Antarctica and South America were connected until the Middle Eocene (i.e., after the oldest Asian anthropoids), but two major water barriers existed between Antarctica and Asia since the Early Eocene. The Eocene and Oligocene water gap separating Africa and Antarctica was excessively large. Thus, all scenarios involving an Antarctic route have been rejected. The African scenario is difficult to falsify because only one water barrier existed, both paleowinds and paleocurrents were favorable, and Paleogene African anthropoids show phylogenetic affinities to platyrrhines. I tested whether a journey on a hypothetical floating island over the Paleogene Atlantic Ocean exceeds the survival limit of a genetically viable group of animals such as protoplatyrrhines. Studies of water deprivation suggest that they could have been able, with a body weight averaging 1 kg, to survive without water for at least 13 days. I have used the present Atlantic Ocean as a model for the velocity of Paleogene paleowinds and paleocurrents. Considering winds as the key accelerating force of floating islands, the Paleogene Atlantic water barrier could have been crossed, in the most conservative scenario, in 8 days at 50 Mya, 11 days at 40 Mya, and 15 days at 30 Mya. In order to survive a transoceanic journey, however, protoplatyrrhines had to be preadapted to strong seasonal variations in water availability in their original (African) environment. Once on the sea, their brains would have

  2. Modeling Energy and Development : An Evaluation of Models and Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, Bas van; Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der; Vries, Bert de; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2008-01-01

    Most global energy models are developed by institutes from developed countries focusing primarily oil issues that are important in industrialized countries. Evaluation of the results for Asia of the IPCC/SRES models shows that broad concepts of energy and development. the energy ladder and the

  3. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  4. Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

    2005-12-01

    We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3

  5. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Practices. Problems. Supervision. Primary School. *Corresponding Author: Asrat Dagnew. E-mail: asratboza@yahoo.com tructional support. The relevant and ... vision is one of indispensable system pment. Supervision is a system of that directly concerned on the aff members in a school or other. Original Research ...

  6. Nepheloid Layers: Origin and Development In A Narrow Continental Shelf (nw Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A.; Vitorino, J.; Rodrigues, A.; Jouanneau, J. M.; Weber, O.; Dias, J. A.

    A general hydrographic, nephelometric and sedimentological surveying of the NW Portuguese continental shelf and slope was undertaken, under winter and spring con- ditions in order to elaborate a conceptual model of suspended sediments (nepheloid layer) dynamics. Two major situations were found: 1) Spring/Summer - with northerly winds (upwelling) and low energetic wave regime that favour the deposition of sedi- ments. The northerly winds promote offshore transport in the surface nepheloid layer (SNL) and the establishment of a seasonal thermocline allow the expansion of the SNL to the west. The SNL can reach or even cross the shelf-break (50 km from coastline). Particulate organic carbon (POC) content in this layer highlights the higher contribution of biogenic particles (average concentration of 22%); 2) Winter, with southerly winds (downwelling) and high energetic wave regime that favour mid- shelf sediments resuspension and offshore transport in the bottom nepheloid layer (BNL). In the shelf-break the BNL detached to form intermediate nepheloid layers (INL). The SNL is restricted to the inner shelf. The effect of southerly winds gener- ates shoreward Ekman transport and detains the offshore westward extension of this layer even during high river run-off periods. The POC content indicates a dominance of litogenic particles in suspension (average concentration of 8%). Over the mid- and inner-shelf the dominant resuspension mechanism is associated with surface waves (Vitorino et al., 2002). Estimates based on wave measurements at mid-shelf (86m depth) suggested that, in winter, the wave shear velocity frequently exceeds 1 cm/s, assumed as the critical shear velocity for the resuspension of the fine grained sedi- ments (34m) of the bottom cover. Storm events, such as the one observed in November 1996 easily increase the wave shear velocities over 3 cm/s, leading to the increase of the BNL thickness (20-30m) (Vitorino et al., 2002; Oliveira et al., 2002). Low

  7. The Zebrafish Models to Explore Genetic and Epigenetic Impacts on Evolutionary Developmental Origins of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Can we reset, reprogram, rejuvenate or reverse the organismal aging process? Certain genetic manipulations could at least reset and reprogram epigenetic dynamics beyond phenotypic plasticity and elasticity in cells, which can be further manipulated into organisms. However, in a whole complex aging organism, how can we rejuvenate intrinsic resources and infrastructures in an intact/noninvasive manner? The incidence of diseases increases exponentially with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but essentially inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena to rejuvenate over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states based on diverse epigenotypes, in response to intrinsic or extrinsic environmental cues and genetic perturbations. We hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds and windows of plasticity and its robustness by molecular genetic and chemical epigenetic approaches, we have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during their embryonic and/or larval stages (“embryonic/larval senescence”). Subsequently, at least some of these mutant animals were found to show shortened lifespan, while some others would be expected to live longer in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other

  8. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GRA model development at Bruce Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, R.; Ngo, K.; Cruchley, I.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, Bruce Power undertook a project, in partnership with AMEC NSS Limited, to develop a Generation Risk Assessment (GRA) model for its Bruce B Nuclear Generating Station. The model is intended to be used as a decision-making tool in support of plant operations. Bruce Power has recognized the strategic importance of GRA in the plant decision-making process and is currently implementing a pilot GRA application. The objective of this paper is to present the scope of the GRA model development project, methodology employed, and the results and path forward for the model implementation at Bruce Power. The required work was split into three phases. Phase 1 involved development of GRA models for the twelve systems most important to electricity production. Ten systems were added to the model during each of the next two phases. The GRA model development process consists of developing system Failure Modes and Effects Analyses (FMEA) to identify the components critical to the plant reliability and determine their impact on electricity production. The FMEAs were then used to develop the logic for system fault tree (FT) GRA models. The models were solved and post-processed to provide model outputs to the plant staff in a user-friendly format. The outputs consisted of the ranking of components based on their production impact expressed in terms of lost megawatt hours (LMWH). Another key model output was the estimation of the predicted Forced Loss Rate (FLR). (author)

  10. Development of Molecular Markers for Determining Continental Origin of Wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilke Schroeder

    Full Text Available To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica as a reference, we identified 861 variant sites (672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 189 insertion/deletion (indel polymorphism from representative species of three continents (Q. mongolica from Asia; Q. petraea and Q. robur from Europe; Q. alba from North America, and we identified additional chloroplast polymorphisms in pools of 20 individuals each from Q. mongolica (789 variant sites and Q. robur (346 variant sites. Genome sequences were screened for indels to develop markers that identify continental origin of oak species, and that can be easily evaluated using a variety of detection methods. We identified five indels and one SNP that reliably identify continent-of-origin, based on evaluations of up to 1078 individuals representing 13 white oak species and three continents. Due to the size of length polymorphisms revealed, this marker set can be visualized using capillary electrophoresis or high resolution gel (acrylamide or agarose electrophoresis. With these markers, we provide the wood trading market with an instrument to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber.

  11. Model Driven Development of Data Sensitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Petur

    2014-01-01

    storage systems, where the actual values of the data is not relevant for the behavior of the system. For many systems the values are important. For instance the control flow of the system can be dependent on the input values. We call this type of system data sensitive, as the execution is sensitive...... to the values of variables. This theses strives to improve model-driven development of such data-sensitive systems. This is done by addressing three research questions. In the first we combine state-based modeling and abstract interpretation, in order to ease modeling of data-sensitive systems, while allowing...... efficient model-checking and model-based testing. In the second we develop automatic abstraction learning used together with model learning, in order to allow fully automatic learning of data-sensitive systems to allow learning of larger systems. In the third we develop an approach for modeling and model-based...

  12. The RNA World as a Model System to Study the Origin of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Abe; Blanco, Celia; Chen, Irene A

    2015-10-05

    Understanding how life arose is a fundamental problem of biology. Much progress has been made by adopting a synthetic and mechanistic perspective on originating life. We present a current view of the biochemistry of the origin of life, focusing on issues surrounding the emergence of an RNA World in which RNA dominated informational and functional roles. There is cause for optimism on this difficult problem: the prebiotic chemical inventory may not have been as nightmarishly complex as previously thought; the catalytic repertoire of ribozymes continues to expand, approaching the goal of self-replicating RNA; encapsulation in protocells provides evolutionary and biophysical advantages. Nevertheless, major issues remain unsolved, such as the origin of a genetic code. Attention to this field is particularly timely given the accelerating discovery and characterization of exoplanets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tissue engineered vascular grafts: Origins, development, and current strategies for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrashid, Ehsan; McCoy, Christopher C; Youngwirth, Linda M; Kim, Jina; Manson, Roberto J; Otto, James C; Lawson, Jeffrey H

    2016-04-15

    Since the development of a dependable and durable synthetic non-autogenous vascular conduit in the mid-twentieth century, the field of vascular surgery has experienced tremendous growth. Concomitant with this growth, development in the field of bioengineering and the development of different tissue engineering techniques have expanded the armamentarium of the surgeon for treating a variety of complex cardiovascular diseases. The recent development of completely tissue engineered vascular conduits that can be implanted for clinical application is a particularly exciting development in this field. With the rapid advances in the field of tissue engineering, the great hope of the surgeon remains that this conduit will function like a true blood vessel with an intact endothelial layer, with the ability to respond to endogenous vasoactive compounds. Eventually, these engineered tissues may have the potential to supplant older organic but not truly biologic technologies, which are used currently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Stirling System Dynamic Model with Enhanced Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2005-02-01

    The Stirling Convertor System Dynamic Model developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is a software model developed from first principles that includes the mechanical and mounting dynamics, the thermodynamics, the linear alternator, and the controller of a free-piston Stirling power convertor, along with the end user load. As such it represents the first detailed modeling tool for fully integrated Stirling convertor-based power systems. The thermodynamics of the model were originally a form of the isothermal Stirling cycle. In some situations it may be desirable to improve the accuracy of the Stirling cycle portion of the model. An option under consideration is to enhance the SDM thermodynamics by coupling the model with Gedeon Associates' Sage simulation code. The result will be a model that gives a more accurate prediction of the performance and dynamics of the free-piston Stirling convertor. A method of integrating the Sage simulation code with the System Dynamic Model is described. Results of SDM and Sage simulation are compared to test data. Model parameter estimation and model validation are discussed.

  15. Continuous Competence Development Model for Teacher Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    2014-01-01

    "This paper presents the development of the IT‐Pedagogical Think Tank for Teacher Teams (ITP4T), a continuous competence development model. The model was co‐designed following a design‐based research approach with teachers from VUC Storstrøm’s (VUC) Global Classroom (GC), an innovative hybrid...... to create their own continuous competence development. This article describes how and why the different components of the model were developed in response to the teachers’ challenges. Such challenges included lack of time, competence and support from the educational organisation to innovate learning design...

  16. Striation and slickenline development on quartz fault surfaces at crustal conditions : Origin and effect on friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toy, Virginia G.; Niemeijer, André; Renard, Francois; Morales, Luiz; Wirth, Richard

    Fragments of optically flat silica discs embedded in synthetic gouge were deformed to examine the relationship between the development of striations and slickenlines, and deformation mechanisms, conditions, and fault rheology. Experiments were performed under hydrothermal conditions in a rotary

  17. Development of additional pituitary hormone deficiencies in pediatric patients originally diagnosed with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Blum (Werner); C.L. Deal (Cheri Lynn); A.G. Zimmermann (Alan); E.P. Shavrikova (Elena); C.J. Child (Christopher); C.A. Quigley (Charmian); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); G. Cutler (Gordon); R.G. Rosenfeld (Ron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We assessed the characteristics of children initially diagnosed with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) who later developed additional (multiple) pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD). Design: Data were analyzed for 5805 pediatric patients with idiopathic IGHD, who were

  18. Glial origin of mesenchymal stem cells in a tooth model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaukua, Nina; Shahidi, Maryam Khatibi; Konstantinidou, Chrysoula; Dyachuk, Vyacheslav; Kaucka, Marketa; Furlan, Alessandro; An, Zhengwen; Wang, Longlong; Hultman, Isabell; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars; Blom, Hans; Brismar, Hjalmar; Lopes, Natalia Assaife; Pachnis, Vassilis; Suter, Ueli; Clevers, Hans; Thesleff, Irma; Sharpe, Paul; Ernfors, Patrik; Fried, Kaj; Adameyko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells occupy niches in stromal tissues where they provide sources of cells for specialized mesenchymal derivatives during growth and repair. The origins of mesenchymal stem cells have been the subject of considerable discussion, and current consensus holds that perivascular cells

  19. Shareholder Protection and Stock Market Development: An Empirical Test of the Legal Origins Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour; Simon Deakin; Prabirjit Sarkar; Mathias Siems; Ajit Singh

    2008-01-01

    We test the ‘law matters’ and ‘legal origin’claims using a newly created panel dataset measuring legal change over time in a sample of developed and developing countries. Our dataset improves on previous ones by avoiding country-specific variables in favour of functional and generic descriptors, by taking into account a wider range of legal data, and by considering the effects of weighting variables in different ways, thereby ensuring greater consistency of coding....

  20. Evidence of Selection against Complex Mitotic-Origin Aneuploidy during Preimplantation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Rajiv C.; Demko, Zachary P.; Ryan, Allison; Banjevic, Milena; Hill, Matthew; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Rabinowitz, Matthew; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-chromosome imbalances affect over half of early human embryos and are the leading cause of pregnancy loss. While these errors frequently arise in oocyte meiosis, many such whole-chromosome abnormalities affecting cleavage-stage embryos are the result of chromosome missegregation occurring during the initial mitotic cell divisions. The first wave of zygotic genome activation at the 4–8 cell stage results in the arrest of a large proportion of embryos, the vast majority of which contain whole-chromosome abnormalities. Thus, the full spectrum of meiotic and mitotic errors can only be detected by sampling after the initial cell divisions, but prior to this selective filter. Here, we apply 24-chromosome preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) to 28,052 single-cell day-3 blastomere biopsies and 18,387 multi-cell day-5 trophectoderm biopsies from 6,366 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. We precisely characterize the rates and patterns of whole-chromosome abnormalities at each developmental stage and distinguish errors of meiotic and mitotic origin without embryo disaggregation, based on informative chromosomal signatures. We show that mitotic errors frequently involve multiple chromosome losses that are not biased toward maternal or paternal homologs. This outcome is characteristic of spindle abnormalities and chaotic cell division detected in previous studies. In contrast to meiotic errors, our data also show that mitotic errors are not significantly associated with maternal age. PGS patients referred due to previous IVF failure had elevated rates of mitotic error, while patients referred due to recurrent pregnancy loss had elevated rates of meiotic error, controlling for maternal age. These results support the conclusion that mitotic error is the predominant mechanism contributing to pregnancy losses occurring prior to blastocyst formation. This high-resolution view of the full spectrum of whole-chromosome abnormalities affecting early embryos provides insight

  1. Evidence of Selection against Complex Mitotic-Origin Aneuploidy during Preimplantation Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv C McCoy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whole-chromosome imbalances affect over half of early human embryos and are the leading cause of pregnancy loss. While these errors frequently arise in oocyte meiosis, many such whole-chromosome abnormalities affecting cleavage-stage embryos are the result of chromosome missegregation occurring during the initial mitotic cell divisions. The first wave of zygotic genome activation at the 4-8 cell stage results in the arrest of a large proportion of embryos, the vast majority of which contain whole-chromosome abnormalities. Thus, the full spectrum of meiotic and mitotic errors can only be detected by sampling after the initial cell divisions, but prior to this selective filter. Here, we apply 24-chromosome preimplantation genetic screening (PGS to 28,052 single-cell day-3 blastomere biopsies and 18,387 multi-cell day-5 trophectoderm biopsies from 6,366 in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. We precisely characterize the rates and patterns of whole-chromosome abnormalities at each developmental stage and distinguish errors of meiotic and mitotic origin without embryo disaggregation, based on informative chromosomal signatures. We show that mitotic errors frequently involve multiple chromosome losses that are not biased toward maternal or paternal homologs. This outcome is characteristic of spindle abnormalities and chaotic cell division detected in previous studies. In contrast to meiotic errors, our data also show that mitotic errors are not significantly associated with maternal age. PGS patients referred due to previous IVF failure had elevated rates of mitotic error, while patients referred due to recurrent pregnancy loss had elevated rates of meiotic error, controlling for maternal age. These results support the conclusion that mitotic error is the predominant mechanism contributing to pregnancy losses occurring prior to blastocyst formation. This high-resolution view of the full spectrum of whole-chromosome abnormalities affecting early embryos

  2. Origin of Androgen-Insensitive Poorly Differentiated Tumors in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy J. Huss

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Following castration, the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP model demonstrates rapid development of SV40-Tag-driven poorly differentiated tumors that express neuroendocrine cell markers. The cell population dynamics within the prostates of castrated TRAMP mice were characterized by analyzing the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd and the expression of SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and androgen receptor (AR. Fourteen days postcastration, the remaining epithelial cells and adenocarcinoma cells were nonproliferative and lacked detectable SV40-Tag or synaptophysin expression. In contrast, morphologically distinct intraglandular foci were identified which expressed SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and Ki67, but that lacked AR expression. These proliferative SV40-Tag and synaptophysin-expressing intraglandular foci were associated with the rare BrdUrd-retaining cells. These foci expanded rapidly in the postcastration prostate environment, in contrast to the AR- and SV40-Tag-expressing adenocarcinoma cells that lost SV40-Tag expression and underwent apoptosis after castration. Intraglandular foci of synaptophysin-expressing cells were also observed in the prostates of intact TRAMP mice at a comparable frequency; however, they did not progress to rapidly expanding tumors until much later in the life of the mice. This suggests that the foci of neuroendocrine-like cells that express SV40-Tag and synaptophysin, but lack AR, arise independent of androgen-deprivation and represent the source of the poorly differentiated tumors that are the lethal phenotype in the TRAMP model.

  3. Revival of the Deser-Woodard nonlocal gravity model: Comparison of the original nonlocal form and a localized formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun

    2018-02-01

    We examine the origin of two opposite results for the growth of perturbations in the Deser-Woodard (DW) nonlocal gravity model. One group previously analyzed the model in its original nonlocal form and showed that the growth of structure in the DW model is enhanced compared to general relativity (GR) and thus concluded that the model was ruled out. Recently, however, another group has reanalyzed it by localizing the model and found that the growth in their localized version is suppressed even compared to the one in GR. The question was whether the discrepancy originates from an intrinsic difference between the nonlocal and localized formulations or is due to their different implementations of the subhorizon limit. We show that the nonlocal and local formulations give the same solutions for the linear perturbations as long as the initial conditions are set the same. The different implementations of the subhorizon limit lead to different transient behaviors of some perturbation variables; however, they do not affect the growth of matter perturbations at the sub-horizon scale much. In the meantime, we also report an error in the numerical calculation code of the former group and verify that after fixing the error the nonlocal version also gives the suppressed growth. Finally, we discuss two alternative definitions of the effective gravitational constant taken by the two groups and some open problems.

  4. Developing Integrated Care: Towards a development model for integrated care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.N. Minkman (Mirella)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis adresses the phenomenon of integrated care. The implementation of integrated care for patients with a stroke or dementia is studied. Because a generic quality management model for integrated care is lacking, the study works towards building a development model for integrated

  5. Developing a Domain Model for Relay Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stepwise develop a domain model for relay circuits as used in railway control systems. First we provide an abstract, property-oriented model of networks consisting of components that can be glued together with connectors. This model is strongly inspired by a network model...... for railways madeby Bjørner et.al., however our model is more general: the components can be of any kind and can later be refined to e.g. railway components or circuit components. Then we show how the abstract network model can be refined into an explicit model for relay circuits. The circuit model describes...... the statics as well as the dynamics of relay circuits, i.e. how a relay circuit can be composed legally from electrical components as well as how the components may change state over time. Finally the circuit model is transformed into an executable model, and we show how a concrete circuit can be defined...

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kaur*

    2017-01-01

    No geek is unfamiliar with the concept of software development life cycle (SDLC). This research deals with the various SDLC models covering waterfall, spiral, and iterative, agile, V-shaped, prototype model. In the modern era, all the software systems are fallible as they can’t stand with certainty. So, it is tried to compare all aspects of the various models, their pros and cons so that it could be easy to choose a particular model at the time of need

  7. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    interactions network by pathway engineering. (Rowinsky, 2003). ... modeling of such molecular, signal proces pathways is very ... stochastic simulation and model checking (Re et al., 2001). ... of enzymes by protein kinases or regulation of.

  8. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  9. Model based development of engine control algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Model based development of engine control systems has several advantages. The development time and costs are strongly reduced because much of the development and optimization work is carried out by simulating both engine and control system. After optimizing the control algorithm it can be executed

  10. An Aristotelian Model of Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderse, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Despite the Aristotelian renaissance in the philosophy of education, the development of virtue has not received much attention. This is unfortunate, because an attempt to draft an Aristotelian model of moral development can help philosophers to evaluate the contribution Aristotelian virtue ethics can make to our understanding of moral development,…

  11. Ethnic Socialization in Neighborhood Contexts: Implications for Ethnic Attitude and Identity Development Among Mexican-Origin Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Knight, George P; Jensen, Michaeline; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2018-05-01

    Neighborhood Latino ethnic concentration, above and beyond or in combination with mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization, may have beneficial implications for minority adolescents' ethnic attitude and identity development. These hypotheses, along with two competing hypotheses, were tested prospectively (from x¯age = 12.79-15.83 years) in a sample of 733 Mexican-origin adolescents. Neighborhood ethnic concentration had beneficial implications for ethnic identity processes (i.e., ethnic exploration and perceived peer discrimination) but not for ethnic attitudes. For Mexico-born adolescents, high maternal ethnic socialization compensated for living in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. Findings are discussed vis-à-vis the ways in which they address major gaps in the neighborhood effects literature and the ethnic and racial identity development literature. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Origin and dynamics of oligodendrocytes in the developing brain : Implications for perinatal white matter injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Erik; de Theije, Caroline G.M.; van Hal, Maurik; Wagenaar, Nienke; de Vries, Linda S.; Benders, Manon J.; Rowitch, David H; Nijboer, Cora H.

    2018-01-01

    Infants born prematurely are at high risk to develop white matter injury (WMI), due to exposure to hypoxic and/or inflammatory insults. Such perinatal insults negatively impact the maturation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), thereby causing deficits in myelination. To elucidate the precise pathophysiology

  13. Accreditation in the USA: Origins, Developments and Future Prospects. Improving the Managerial Effectiveness of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khawas, Elaine

    This study analyzes the accreditation experience in the United States with special emphasis on the issues and decisions that surrounded the development of evaluation procedures and standards. Attention is given to the relationship between accrediting agencies and governmental agencies, the effect of accrediting requirements on the way that…

  14. What Develops in Moral Development? A Model of Moral Sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic…

  15. The statistical model of origin and evolution planets of Solar system and planetary satellities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, A.

    There are the theories for exploring Solar system formation in accord Titius-Bode's low: electromagnetic theories (Birkeland (1912), Alfven (1942)), gravitational theories (Schmidt (1944), Woolfson (1964), Safronov (1969), Dole (1970)), nebular theories (Weizsaecker (1943), Kuiper (1949), Nakano (1970)) [1]-[3]. In spite of great number of work aimed to exploring formation of the Solar system, however, the mentioned theories were not able to explain all phenomena. In this connection the statistical theory for a cosmological body forming (so-called the spheroidal body model) has been proposed in [4]-[11]. Within the framework of this theory, bodies have fuzzy outlines and are represented by means of spheroidal forms. In the work [6], which is a continuation of the papers [4], [5], it has been investigated a slowly evolving in time process of a gravitational compression of a spheroidal body close to an unstable equilibrium state. In the papers [7],[8]the equation of motion of particles inside the weakly gravitating spheroidal body modeled by means of an ideal liquid has been obtained. Using Schwarzschild's and Kerr's metrics a consistency of the proposed statistical model with the general relativity has been shown in [12]. The proposed theory proceeds from the conception for forming a spheroidal body as a protoplanet from planetary nebula; it permits to derive the form of distribution functions for an immovable and rotating spheroidal body [4]-[6],[10]-[13] as well as their density masses (gravitational potentials and strengths) and also to find the distribution function of specific angular momentum of the rotating uniformly spheroidal body [13],[14]. Using the specific angular momentum distribution function this work considers a gas- dust protoplanetary cloud as a rotating and gravitating spheroidal body. Because the specific angular momenta are averaged during conglomeration process the specific angular momenta for a planets of Solar system is found. As a result a

  16. Further development of the coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuser, A.; Stiller, J.C.; Peschke, J.

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainties arising from different sources have to be considered for the quantification of common cause failures (CCFs). At GRS a CCF model (coupling model) has been developed for the estimation of CCF probabilities. An essential feature of the coupling model is the consideration of these uncertainties by using Bayesian estimation methods. Experiences from applying the coupling model to CCF event data over several years and analyzing the results in detail has led to improvements in the application of the model. In this paper the improved methodology of the coupling model is presented. Special emphasis is given to the description of the sources of uncertainties which are considered in the coupling model and the mathematical methodology, how these uncertainties are represented and propagated through the model. In closing topics of future improvements of the coupling models are discussed. (orig.)

  17. [Management of military medical service in Ukraine: origin, trends, and mechanism of development (1992-2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radysh, Ia F

    2005-01-01

    Three periods of the development of military medical service management in Ukraine can be outlined according to the findings of the conducted study, they are the following: formation (1992-1994), consolidation and development (the end of 1994-2003), functional and structural transformation (2004). Leading tendencies of the formation of the management of medical military service in the period are shown in the article to be democratization and structural order of units of the system of the management of military service, integration of efforts and resources of medical military service in one medically covered area of the state, introduction and intensive expansion in army prophylactic and treatment institutions of wide spectrum of requiring payment medical service, rendering out-patient medical service to armed forces personnel and pensioner of Ministry of Defense by family physicians, orientation toward effective management.

  18. Changes of the agricultural enterprises economic environment originated by the agribusiness development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Bečvářová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon analyses of the Common Agricultural Policy development and its economic tools reforming the process of changing is characterised there. It deals with the multifunctionality of agriculture as well as the influence of the CAP on environment of the production tasks of agriculture and food processing industry accomplishment. Paper generalises results of new trends of the agribusiness economic environment development and the opportunity of an effective utilization of production factors in agriculture. It deals with the sources and economic implications of partial enhancement of interest and redirection of support within framework and type of tools of agrarian policy. New quality of structure of relevant information needs and economic support for agricultural enterprises decision making process are pointed out.

  19. Local hidden variable modelling, classicality, quantum separability and the original Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubenets, Elena R

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a general condition sufficient for the validity of the original Bell inequality (1964) in a local hidden variable (LHV) frame. This condition can be checked experimentally and incorporates only as a particular case the assumption on perfect correlations or anticorrelations usually argued for this inequality in the literature. Specifying this general condition for a quantum bipartite case, we introduce the whole class of bipartite quantum states, separable and nonseparable, that (i) admit an LHV description under any bipartite measurements with two settings per site; (ii) do not necessarily exhibit perfect correlations and may even have a negative correlation function if the same quantum observable is measured at both sites, but (iii) satisfy the 'perfect correlation' version of the original Bell inequality for any three bounded quantum observables A 1 , A 2 = B 1 , B 2 at sites 'A' and 'B', respectively. Analysing the validity of this general LHV condition under classical and quantum correlation scenarios with the same physical context, we stress that, unlike the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, the original Bell inequality distinguishes between classicality and quantum separability.

  20. NASA Astrophysics Cosmic Origins (COR) and Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Strategic Technology Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Seery, Bernard D.

    2015-01-01

    The COR and PCOS Program Offices (PO) reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), serving as the NASA Astrophysics Division's implementation arm for matters relating to the two programs. One aspect of the PO's activities is managing the COR and PCOS Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, helping mature technologies to enable and enhance future astrophysics missions.The PO is guided by the National Research Council's 'New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics' Decadal Survey report, and NASA's Astrophysics Implementation Plan. Strategic goals include dark energy; gravitational waves; X-ray observatories, e.g., US participation in ATHENA; Inflation probe; and a large UV/Visible telescope.To date, 51 COR and 65 PCOS SAT proposals have been received, of which 11 COR and 18 PCOS projects were funded. Notable successes include maturation of a new far-IR detector, later adopted by the SOFIA HAWC instrument; maturation of the H4RG near-IR detector, adopted by WFIRST; development of an antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometer, a technology deployed by BICEP2 that allowed measurement of B-mode polarization in the CMB signal, a possible signature of Inflation; and finally, the REXIS instrument on OSIRIS-REx is incorporating CCDs with directly deposited optical blocking filters developed by another SAT-funded project.We discuss our technology development process, with community input and strategic prioritization informing calls for SAT proposals and guiding investment decisions. We also present results of this year's technology gap prioritization and showcase our current portfolio of technology development projects. These include five newly selected projects, kicking off in FY 2015.For more information, visit the COR Program website at cor.gsfc.nasa.gov and the PCOS website at pcos.gsfc.nasa.gov.

  1. Origin and development of plasma membrane derived invaginations in Vinca rosea l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlberg, P.; Walkinshaw, C.; Olson, K.

    1971-01-01

    The occurrence, morphology, and possible ontogeny of plasma-membrane-related structures are described which can develop into invaginations or intravacuolar formations. An underlying study of meristematic tissues from the shoot of Vinca rosea supports the interpretation that endocytosis does occur in plant cells and that it is appropriate to refer to these structures as endocytoses. The function of these invaginations or their content remains to be elucidated.

  2. Cell chirality: its origin and roles in left-right asymmetric development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaki, Mikiko; Liu, Jingyang; Matsuno, Kenji

    2016-12-19

    An item is chiral if it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Most biological molecules are chiral. The homochirality of amino acids ensures that proteins are chiral, which is essential for their functions. Chirality also occurs at the whole-cell level, which was first studied mostly in ciliates, single-celled protozoans. Ciliates show chirality in their cortical structures, which is not determined by genetics, but by 'cortical inheritance'. These studies suggested that molecular chirality directs whole-cell chirality. Intriguingly, chirality in cellular structures and functions is also found in metazoans. In Drosophila, intrinsic cell chirality is observed in various left-right (LR) asymmetric tissues, and appears to be responsible for their LR asymmetric morphogenesis. In other invertebrates, such as snails and Caenorhabditis elegans, blastomere chirality is responsible for subsequent LR asymmetric development. Various cultured cells of vertebrates also show intrinsic chirality in their cellular behaviours and intracellular structural dynamics. Thus, cell chirality may be a general property of eukaryotic cells. In Drosophila, cell chirality drives the LR asymmetric development of individual organs, without establishing the LR axis of the whole embryo. Considering that organ-intrinsic LR asymmetry is also reported in vertebrates, this mechanism may contribute to LR asymmetric development across phyla.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Cell chirality: its origin and roles in left–right asymmetric development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaki, Mikiko; Liu, Jingyang

    2016-01-01

    An item is chiral if it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Most biological molecules are chiral. The homochirality of amino acids ensures that proteins are chiral, which is essential for their functions. Chirality also occurs at the whole-cell level, which was first studied mostly in ciliates, single-celled protozoans. Ciliates show chirality in their cortical structures, which is not determined by genetics, but by ‘cortical inheritance’. These studies suggested that molecular chirality directs whole-cell chirality. Intriguingly, chirality in cellular structures and functions is also found in metazoans. In Drosophila, intrinsic cell chirality is observed in various left–right (LR) asymmetric tissues, and appears to be responsible for their LR asymmetric morphogenesis. In other invertebrates, such as snails and Caenorhabditis elegans, blastomere chirality is responsible for subsequent LR asymmetric development. Various cultured cells of vertebrates also show intrinsic chirality in their cellular behaviours and intracellular structural dynamics. Thus, cell chirality may be a general property of eukaryotic cells. In Drosophila, cell chirality drives the LR asymmetric development of individual organs, without establishing the LR axis of the whole embryo. Considering that organ-intrinsic LR asymmetry is also reported in vertebrates, this mechanism may contribute to LR asymmetric development across phyla. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821533

  4. On the Ethnic Origins of African Development: Chiefs and Precolonial Political Centralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent findings of a fruitful research agenda that explores the importance of ethnic-specific traits in shaping African development. First, using recent surveys from Sub-Saharan African countries, we document that individuals identify with their ethnic group as often as with the nation pointing to the salience of ethnicity. Second, we focus on the various historical and contemporary functions of tribal leaders (chiefs) and illustrate their influence on various aspects of the economy and the polity. Third, we elaborate on a prominent dimension of ethnicity, that of the degree of complexity of pre-colonial political organization. Building on insights from the African historiography, we review recent works showing a strong association between pre-colonial centralization and contemporary comparative development both across and within countries. We also document that the link between pre-colonial political centralization and regional development -as captured by satellite images of light density at night-is particularly strong in areas outside the vicinity of the capitals, where due to population mixing and the salience of national institutions ethnic traits play a lesser role. Overall, our evidence is supportive to theories and narratives on the presence of a “dual” economic and institutional environment in Africa. PMID:27011760

  5. Origin and development of «mcuniversity»: course on economization the educational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Klyov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the concept of «McUniversity», introduced in 1995 by British sociologists M.Parker and J.Jary. However, attention is drawn to the concept of McDonaldization, masovization that lead to the emergence of phenomena of economization in education. It is noted that the principle of McDonaldization is used by the most businesses organizations, and the McDonald’s is the epitome of efficiency, predictability and automation; gradually moving to the University, it manifests itself in rationalization, excessive consumption, the use of advertising, which creates the illusion of consumer cooperation, which focused on human behavior, freedom and impartiality. The article states that the educational sector reformers often confuse economization of education and its commercialization. The processes of economization of education are one of the most important factors of economic development and cause change. After all, education is increasingly starting to be not as education for education and obtain «pure knowledge», namely as a powerful fact of development that allows countries to enter new innovative technological frontier. In general, education is seen as a major factor of social and economic progress and stability of the social system. So the concept of «McUniversity», introduced in 1995, is becoming increasingly important today, setting the stage for the development of the economization of education in our society, because the modern era characterized rankings of universities and faculties at the international and national levels, strengthening the competitive spirit among faculties and tutors, establishing schools and faculties that operate as businesses due to the fact that they perform managerial principles.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA, chloroplast DNA and the origins of development in eukaryotic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendich Arnold J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several proposals have been made to explain the rise of multicellular life forms. An internal environment can be created and controlled, germ cells can be protected in novel structures, and increased organismal size allows a "division of labor" among cell types. These proposals describe advantages of multicellular versus unicellular organisms at levels of organization at or above the individual cell. I focus on a subsequent phase of evolution, when multicellular organisms initiated the process of development that later became the more complex embryonic development found in animals and plants. The advantage here is realized at the level of the mitochondrion and chloroplast. Hypothesis The extreme instability of DNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts has not been widely appreciated even though it was first reported four decades ago. Here, I show that the evolutionary success of multicellular animals and plants can be traced to the protection of organellar DNA. Three stages are envisioned. Sequestration allowed mitochondria and chloroplasts to be placed in "quiet" germ line cells so that their DNA is not exposed to the oxidative stress produced by these organelles in "active" somatic cells. This advantage then provided Opportunity, a period of time during which novel processes arose for signaling within and between cells and (in animals for cell-cell recognition molecules to evolve. Development then led to the enormous diversity of animals and plants. Implications The potency of a somatic stem cell is its potential to generate cell types other than itself, and this is a systems property. One of the biochemical properties required for stemness to emerge from a population of cells might be the metabolic quiescence that protects organellar DNA from oxidative stress. Reviewers This article was reviewed by John Logsdon, Arcady Mushegian, and Patrick Forterre.

  7. Development and tuning of an original search engine for patent libraries in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Kreim, Olivier; Oezdemir-Zaech, Fatma; Vachon, Therese; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The large increase in the size of patent collections has led to the need of efficient search strategies. But the development of advanced text-mining applications dedicated to patents of the biomedical field remains rare, in particular to address the needs of the pharmaceutical & biotech industry, which intensively uses patent libraries for competitive intelligence and drug development. We describe here the development of an advanced retrieval engine to search information in patent collections in the field of medicinal chemistry. We investigate and combine different strategies and evaluate their respective impact on the performance of the search engine applied to various search tasks, which covers the putatively most frequent search behaviours of intellectual property officers in medical chemistry: 1) a prior art search task; 2) a technical survey task; and 3) a variant of the technical survey task, sometimes called known-item search task, where a single patent is targeted. The optimal tuning of our engine resulted in a top-precision of 6.76% for the prior art search task, 23.28% for the technical survey task and 46.02% for the variant of the technical survey task. We observed that co-citation boosting was an appropriate strategy to improve prior art search tasks, while IPC classification of queries was improving retrieval effectiveness for technical survey tasks. Surprisingly, the use of the full body of the patent was always detrimental for search effectiveness. It was also observed that normalizing biomedical entities using curated dictionaries had simply no impact on the search tasks we evaluate. The search engine was finally implemented as a web-application within Novartis Pharma. The application is briefly described in the report. We have presented the development of a search engine dedicated to patent search, based on state of the art methods applied to patent corpora. We have shown that a proper tuning of the system to adapt to the various search tasks

  8. Lung adenocarcinoma originates from retrovirus infection of proliferating type 2 pneumocytes during pulmonary post-natal development or tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Claudio; Caporale, Marco; Ceesay, Ousman; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Ferri, Nicola; Varasano, Vincenzo; de las Heras, Marcelo; Palmarini, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a unique oncogenic virus with distinctive biological properties. JSRV is the only virus causing a naturally occurring lung cancer (ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, OPA) and possessing a major structural protein that functions as a dominant oncoprotein. Lung cancer is the major cause of death among cancer patients. OPA can be an extremely useful animal model in order to identify the cells originating lung adenocarcinoma and to study the early events of pulmonary carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that lung adenocarcinoma in sheep originates from infection and transformation of proliferating type 2 pneumocytes (termed here lung alveolar proliferating cells, LAPCs). We excluded that OPA originates from a bronchioalveolar stem cell, or from mature post-mitotic type 2 pneumocytes or from either proliferating or non-proliferating Clara cells. We show that young animals possess abundant LAPCs and are highly susceptible to JSRV infection and transformation. On the contrary, healthy adult sheep, which are normally resistant to experimental OPA induction, exhibit a relatively low number of LAPCs and are resistant to JSRV infection of the respiratory epithelium. Importantly, induction of lung injury increased dramatically the number of LAPCs in adult sheep and rendered these animals fully susceptible to JSRV infection and transformation. Furthermore, we show that JSRV preferentially infects actively dividing cell in vitro. Overall, our study provides unique insights into pulmonary biology and carcinogenesis and suggests that JSRV and its host have reached an evolutionary equilibrium in which productive infection (and transformation) can occur only in cells that are scarce for most of the lifespan of the sheep. Our data also indicate that, at least in this model, inflammation can predispose to retroviral infection and cancer.

  9. [The origin and development of fragrance activity in Chinese ancient times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie-yun; Jin, Zhi-jun

    2010-05-01

    It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China. During the period of pre-Qin, it was mainly used in the therapy and worship. Until the Three Kingdoms, the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials. People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms, prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily. In the worship, the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies. The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines, the formula of spices were used more widely. Then, during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty, the fragrance activities climbed to the peak. The fragrance activities were institutionalized, when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities. Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices. In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the fragrance activities spread among the public. The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility, when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities. External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical. In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming. After a long period, the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture.

  10. [Elementary exploration of the origin and development of marine Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hua-Shi; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wu, Qiang-Ming; Wang, Chang-Yun; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Deng-Zhao

    2009-05-01

    According to archaeological discoveries, humans began to make use of marine natural resources early in the Palaeolithic era. In the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, they began to use marine life as medicines and also had simple cognitions on their efficacy and processing. In the Qin and Han dynasties, people further deepened the understanding of the marine Chinese materia medica and created prescriptions making use of marine drugs. In the Tang and Song period, the number of marine Chinese materia medica species and corresponding prescriptions apparently increased. The cognitions of the property, flavor, efficacy as well as the compatible principle of marine Chinese materia medica was further deepened and the scope of their treatment also significantly expanded. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the cognition of the marine Chinese materia medica was mainly the conclusions of the previous experience. After the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with the development of science and technologies, the ability of exploiting and utilizing the marine Chinese materia medica by people dramatically increased, and the species of marine Chinese materia medica reached more than one thousand. However, the development of marine Chinese materia medica is confronted with new problems; although the number of species of marine Chinese materia medica increased, the understanding of their property and flavor is obviously lagging behind, which seriously affects the clinical application of marine Chinese materia medica.

  11. The origin and historical development of branding and advertising in the old civilizations of Africa, Asia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of branding and advertising has always been mutually conditioned. The goal of this research is to determine the origin and show historic development of branding and advertising in the ancient civilizations of Africa, Asia and Europe. The historical method of research was used. New evidence on various means of branding, advertising and other promotional activities application in the ancient history is presented. What was found is that social development imposed a need for marking of goods and promotional activities. It was done in a similar manner in all ancient civilizations, regardless of different time span. There were two types of branding and advertising: commercial and personal. The roles of branding and advertising were versatile and similar to their contemporary roles.

  12. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  13. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  14. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    ever increasing number of complaints about the quality skins available to local tanners and the ..... Data were analyzed using the general linear model procedure of SAS (2008). Mean differences were tested using Tukey honest significant differences test. The model for data analysis was: Yij = μ + Ti + Bi + Eij, Where Yij =.

  15. Sixty years of the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP): origins and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a historical overview of the Interamerican Society of Psychology, which was founded on December 17, 1951, in Mexico City. Firstly, the historical circumstances of the foundation period are presented, as well as the people who made this organization possible, and the state of psychology on the American continent at that time. Secondly, the most important activities that the Interamerican Society of Psychology has developed during its 60 years are mentioned, such as the publication of books and scientific journals, the creation of several task forces and the Interamerican Congresses of Psychology. Basically, the purpose of this paper is to review the history of the Interamerican Society of Psychology through the recovery and use of various documentary sources.

  16. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Evolutionary origins and development of saw-teeth on the sawfish and sawshark rostrum (Elasmobranchii; Chondrichthyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, Monique; Smith, Moya Meredith; Underwood, Charlie; Johanson, Zerina

    2015-09-01

    A well-known characteristic of chondrichthyans (e.g. sharks, rays) is their covering of external skin denticles (placoid scales), but less well understood is the wide morphological diversity that these skin denticles can show. Some of the more unusual of these are the tooth-like structures associated with the elongate cartilaginous rostrum 'saw' in three chondrichthyan groups: Pristiophoridae (sawsharks; Selachii), Pristidae (sawfish; Batoidea) and the fossil Sclerorhynchoidea (Batoidea). Comparative topographic and developmental studies of the 'saw-teeth' were undertaken in adults and embryos of these groups, by means of three-dimensional-rendered volumes from X-ray computed tomography. This provided data on development and relative arrangement in embryos, with regenerative replacement in adults. Saw-teeth are morphologically similar on the rostra of the Pristiophoridae and the Sclerorhynchoidea, with the same replacement modes, despite the lack of a close phylogenetic relationship. In both, tooth-like structures develop under the skin of the embryos, aligned with the rostrum surface, before rotating into lateral position and then attaching through a pedicel to the rostrum cartilage. As well, saw-teeth are replaced and added to as space becomes available. By contrast, saw-teeth in Pristidae insert into sockets in the rostrum cartilage, growing continuously and are not replaced. Despite superficial similarity to oral tooth developmental organization, saw-tooth spatial initiation arrangement is associated with rostrum growth. Replacement is space-dependent and more comparable to that of dermal skin denticles. We suggest these saw-teeth represent modified dermal denticles and lack the 'many-for-one' replacement characteristic of elasmobranch oral dentitions.

  18. Origin and development of the new U-Mo nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, M.; Languille, A.; Thomasson, J.; Hamy, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Historically most research reactors have used highly enriched nuclear fuels (enrichment > 90 %). Since 1977 the non-proliferation policy has imposed to convert these reactors to far less enriched fuels (< 20 %). An international consensus has evolved towards a nuclear fuel with an enrichment factor of 19,75 %, this fuel is made of a powdered U-Mo alloy scattered in an aluminium die. The external dimensions and the cladding materials of the fuel plate are unchanged in order to minimize development and qualification costs. The U-Mo fuel is expected to maintain or even to increase the performance of reactors and to allow the processing of spent fuels in the same installations as those used for fuels issuing from power plants. Cea, Cogema, Cerca, Framatome, and Technicatome have shared their technical means, their know-how and their financial resources to develop this new nuclear fuel. 2006 is the contract date by which American authorities will stop repatriating the ancient spent fuel (uranium silicide) from research reactors so it is imperative to make available by this date a new nuclear fuel with a satisfactory end of cycle. This article also presents the French program of qualification of the U-Mo fuel. 2 series of irradiation have already been performed, one (Isis-1) in Osiris reactor (Saclay, France) and the second (Umus) in HFR (Petten, Netherlands). A clad failure has led to stop the Umus experiment. 2 new series of irradiation are scheduled to start in 2002. In a parallel way, in the framework of the design of the RJH (Jules Horowitz reactor) Cea will soon perform irradiation of U-Mo fuel plates in BR2 (Mol, Belgium). (A.C.)

  19. Modelling accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems originating from a long-term groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke I. [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7001, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Eckersten, Henrik [Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, SLU, P.O. Box 7042, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Reinlert, Andre [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); MMT, Sven Kaellfelts Gata 11 SE 426 71 Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Dept. Land and Water Resources, KTH, SE 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, Per-Anders [Facilia AB, Gustavlundsvaegen 151A, 167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Greger, Maria [Dept. of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted as part of the risk assessment of final deposits of nuclear fuel waste. The overall objective is to assess the possible accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems after an eventual long-term groundwater contamination. The specific objectives are to assess: i) What proportion of the contamination will accumulate in the soil-plant-system? ii) Where in the soil-plant- system will it accumulate? iii) Which ecosystem characteristics and radionuclides properties are important for the accumulation? and iv) Under which circumstances do losses from the ecosystems occur? We developed the dynamic model Tracey (Gaerdenaes et al. 2009) describing cycling of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems with high temporal resolution (1 day). The model is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclides are described for different plant parts and soil pools in each of the 10 soil layers. The radionuclide fluxes are driven either by water or carbon fluxes. The water and the carbon fluxes are simulated with the dynamic, bio-geophysical Coup Model (Jansson and Karlberg, 2004). Tracey includes two root uptake approaches of radionuclides; (i) passive uptake driven by root water uptake and (ii) active uptake driven by plant growth. A linear approach describes the adsorption of radionuclides to soil particles and organic matter. Tracey was applied on two ecosystems with contrasting hydrology, the mixed Pinus-Picea forests found in the dry, elevated areas and the Alnus forests found in the wet, low-land areas of Uppland in central east Sweden. Different varieties of the two forest types were created by varying the root depth and radiation use efficiency. The climate was cold-temperate and based on 30-year daily weather data from Uppsala. The assumed groundwater contamination was close to 1 mg of an unspecified radionuclide per m2 and year. This load corresponds to 1 Bq per m{sup 2} and year of {sup 238}U, a common long

  20. Sibling Influence on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Deviant and Sexual Risk Behaviors: The Role of Sibling Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other’s health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths’ deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. Methods The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk taking behaviors in two home interviews across a two-year span. Results A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings’ perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings’ deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings’ subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings’ earlier and younger siblings’ later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings’ earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Conclusions Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. PMID:24287013

  1. Sectioning Clay Models Makes Anatomy & Development Tangible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Carina Endres; Howell, James Endres

    2010-01-01

    Clay models have proved to be useful teaching aids for many topics in biology that depend on three-dimensional reasoning. Students studying embryonic development struggle to mentally reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of embryos and larvae by observing prepared slides of cross-sectional slices. Students who build clay models of embryos…

  2. MVP: A Volunteer Development & Recognition Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Gary W.

    This model was developed to provide a systematic, staged approach to volunteer personnel management. It provides a general process for dealing with volunteers from the point of organization entry through volunteer career stages to the time of exiting the organization. The model provides the structural components necessary to (1) plan, coordinate,…

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING MODEL FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of minor maintenance, for each machine within this time span. In order to minimize the total cost of repairs and production. A numerical application of this development model in a case study is presented. Key words: Maintenance, modeling, scheduling, optimization. [Global Jnl Engineering Res. Vol.1(2) 2002: 107-118] ...

  4. Development of a generalized integral jet model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan; Kessler, A.; Markert, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Integral type models to describe stationary plumes and jets in cross-flows (wind) have been developed since about 1970. These models are widely used for risk analysis, to describe the consequences of many different scenarios. Alternatively, CFD codes are being applied, but computational requireme......Integral type models to describe stationary plumes and jets in cross-flows (wind) have been developed since about 1970. These models are widely used for risk analysis, to describe the consequences of many different scenarios. Alternatively, CFD codes are being applied, but computational...... requirements still limit the number of scenarios that can be dealt with using CFD only. The integral models, however, are not suited to handle transient releases, such as releases from pressurized equipment, where the initially high release rate decreases rapidly with time. Further, on gas ignition, a second...... model is needed to describe the rapid combustion of the flammable part of the plume (flash fire) and a third model has to be applied for the remaining jet fire. The objective of this paper is to describe the first steps of the development of an integral-type model describing the transient development...

  5. Development of a realistic human airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizal, Frantisek; Elcner, Jakub; Hopke, Philip K; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Numerous models of human lungs with various levels of idealization have been reported in the literature; consequently, results acquired using these models are difficult to compare to in vivo measurements. We have developed a set of model components based on realistic geometries, which permits the analysis of the effects of subsequent model simplification. A realistic digital upper airway geometry except for the lack of an oral cavity has been created which proved suitable both for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and for the fabrication of physical models. Subsequently, an oral cavity was added to the tracheobronchial geometry. The airway geometry including the oral cavity was adjusted to enable fabrication of a semi-realistic model. Five physical models were created based on these three digital geometries. Two optically transparent models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for flow velocity measurements, two realistic segmented models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for particle deposition measurements, and a semi-realistic model with glass cylindrical airways was developed for optical measurements of flow velocity and in situ particle size measurements. One-dimensional phase doppler anemometry measurements were made and compared to the CFD calculations for this model and good agreement was obtained.

  6. Development and applications of TOHR, an original emission tomography system, adapted to small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploux, Lydie

    1997-01-01

    For many neuro-biological studies, it is necessary to link microscopic aspects of the brain's organization with integrated brain functions. Details of the former are obtained by in vitro and in situ molecular biology techniques, whereas the latter are acquired through behavioural studies. In vivo radio-imaging methods, like emission tomography are the ideal tools to investigate the links between these two levels of brain organization. The work which is presented here focuses on a new approach of emission tomography adapted to small animal studies: TOHR (French, acronym for TOmographe Haute Resolution). The principle is based on the use of a large solid angle, high resolution and high efficiency focusing collimator. High resolution and high signal to noise ratio are improved by using nuclides having a two-photon decay with small angular correlation ( 125 I, 123 I, 111 In,...). The image is built step-by-step, by moving the animal relative to the collimator focal point. First, numerical simulation showed the possibility of reaching sub-millimetric resolutions; these results led to the collimator geometry (at present 10 over the 20 faces of an icosahedron, 15 faces in the future). Then, a prototype of TOHR has been built and characterized. Its performance is very close to the numerical prediction: spatial resolution of 1.4 mm and detection efficiency 0.64%. Finally, experiments on a rat thyroid allowed the preparation and realization of the first experiments on a rat striatum. The good quality of these images shows that it is now possible to evaluate TOHR capabilities on a dopaminergic neuron degeneration model in rats in the field of neuro-degenerative disease studies. (author)

  7. Health effects of low level exposure to ionizing radiation: origin and development of a controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, Roland

    2014-06-01

    Health hazard assessment related to doses of ionizing radiation lower than 100-200 mSv is a matter of controversy, and more acutely when choosing transition towards a new energetic paradigm. Neither epidemiological nor experimental data can be used to determine the shape of the dose-effect relationship from 0 to 100 mSv. Recently, however, long term follow-up of children and young adults exposed to CT scans evidenced that doses of 50 to 60 mGy delivered at high dose-rate were associated to a significant increase of leukemias and cancers, including brain cancer. On the basis of the available data, this article leaves some questions about the plausibility of the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT) used by radiological protection bodies to control overexposure of the members of public and workers. It concludes that although the plausibility of LNT is fairly weak, using LNT helps to situate the order of magnitude of health risks associated with the development of nuclear power plants and to compare them with those resulting from burning fossil fuels and biomass; the results show that sparing human lives can only be achieved with nuclear for the same quantity of energy produced. (author)

  8. A Generic Modeling Process to Support Functional Fault Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, William A.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Bis, Rachael A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional fault models (FFMs) are qualitative representations of a system's failure space that are used to provide a diagnostic of the modeled system. An FFM simulates the failure effect propagation paths within a system between failure modes and observation points. These models contain a significant amount of information about the system including the design, operation and off nominal behavior. The development and verification of the models can be costly in both time and resources. In addition, models depicting similar components can be distinct, both in appearance and function, when created individually, because there are numerous ways of representing the failure space within each component. Generic application of FFMs has the advantages of software code reuse: reduction of time and resources in both development and verification, and a standard set of component models from which future system models can be generated with common appearance and diagnostic performance. This paper outlines the motivation to develop a generic modeling process for FFMs at the component level and the effort to implement that process through modeling conventions and a software tool. The implementation of this generic modeling process within a fault isolation demonstration for NASA's Advanced Ground System Maintenance (AGSM) Integrated Health Management (IHM) project is presented and the impact discussed.

  9. The development of a sustainable development model framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannoura, Alim P.; Cothren, Gianna M.; Khairy, Wael M.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of the 'sustainable development' concept as a response to the mining of natural resources for the benefit of multinational corporations has advanced the cause of long-term environmental management. A sustainable development model (SDM) framework that is inclusive of the 'whole' natural environment is presented to illustrate the integration of the sustainable development of the 'whole' ecosystem. The ecosystem approach is an inclusive framework that covers the natural environment relevant futures and constraints. These are dynamically interconnected and constitute the determinates of resources development component of the SDM. The second component of the SDM framework is the resources development patterns, i.e., the use of land, water, and atmospheric resources. All of these patterns include practices that utilize environmental resources to achieve a predefined outcome producing waste and by-products that require disposal into the environment. The water quality management practices represent the third component of the framework. These practices are governed by standards, limitations and available disposal means subject to quantity and quality permits. These interconnected standards, practices and permits shape the resulting environmental quality of the ecosystem under consideration. A fourth component, environmental indicators, of the SDM framework provides a measure of the ecosystem productivity and status that may differ based on societal values and culture. The four components of the SDM are interwoven into an outcome assessment process to form the management and feedback models. The concept of Sustainable Development is expressed in the management model as an objective function subject to desired constraints imposing the required bounds for achieving ecosystem sustainability. The development of the objective function and constrains requires monetary values for ecosystem functions, resources development activities and environmental cost. The

  10. MODELS OF TOURIST DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borma Afrodita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Third year PhD candidate at the University of Oradea, under the guidance of Professor Mrs. Alina Bădulescu in the doctoral research project entitled: "Doctoral studies and Ph.D. candidates for competitive research on a knowledge based society", a co-financed project by the European Social Fund through the Sectoral Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007 - 2013, Priority Axis 1. "Education and training in support for growth and development of a knowledge based society" I chose to present this subject in order to demonstrate the connection that exists between tourism and regional development. Having as research topic "Tourism and development in the Euro regional context” I felt it would be appropriate to devote a subchapter in presenting the impact of tourism in regional development. Thus I have analysed a number of specialised papers found at national and international level in order to achieve a synthesis on the approached topic. Authors such as Williams and Shaw (1991, Sharma (2004, Keskin and Cansiz (2010 were concerned with presenting the positive aspects of tourism in regional development. Condes (2004 presents on one hand the secrets regarding success in matter of tourist development, and on the other side he presents the possible risks that follow the development of tourism in a country / region (Condes 2004. Following the gathered information we found that indeed tourism plays an important role in regional development. The used research methodology consisted in using specialised literature in order to identify some models that illustrate the potential success of tourism in regional development. The space-temporal development model of tourism proposed by Opperman (1993, although it was developed at national level represents a useful tool in illustrating the potential success of tourism in regional development. Miossec's model (Sharma 2004:300 describes the structural evolution of touristic regions in

  11. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    models over predicted the path losses, while Ericsson. However, Hata, Davidson ... planning tools, required by the radio network designer ... variability in VHF and UHF frequency band ...... Electronics and Computer Science (SCEECS), 2014.

  12. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2012-08-12

    Aug 12, 2012 ... The hydrogeological study revea sediment .... literature review, field investigation, and data analysis using ... hydrogeological information, i.e., locating of water points ... models, the geophysical survey was conducted with the ...

  13. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    2015-03-08

    Mar 8, 2015 ... variables using ordinary least squares or tobit regression. This approach has ... The Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) is an analytical approach that .... discussing about parameter estimates of the models, tests of hypotheses ...

  14. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-23

    Jun 23, 2013 ... conomics, College of Business and Economics, Wollega University, ost Box No: ... The Logit model is used to investigate .... providing subsidies, relief, and reducing taxes. The ... the minimum calorie requirement for survival.

  15. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    continent for the treatment of different diseases a complaints. In certain .... use of a rotator vapor (Buchi, model R-144, Switzerland) at temperature between ..... indicated that infectious skin disorders are very common in Ethiopia. Thus, the fact ...

  16. MODEL DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT OF ONLINE BANKING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresfelean Vasile Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In case of online applications the cycle of software development varies from the routine. The online environment, the variety of users, the treatability of the mass of information created by them, the reusability and the accessibility from different devices are all factors of these systems complexity. The use of model drive approach brings several advantages that ease up the development process. Working prototypes that simplify client relationship and serve as the base of model tests can be easily made from models describing the system. These systems make possible for the banks clients to make their desired actions from anywhere. The user has the possibility of accessing information or making transactions.

  17. Some Recent Developments in Turbulence Closure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence closure models are central to a good deal of applied computational fluid dynamical analysis. Closure modeling endures as a productive area of research. This review covers recent developments in elliptic relaxation and elliptic blending models, unified rotation and curvature corrections, transition prediction, hybrid simulation, and data-driven methods. The focus is on closure models in which transport equations are solved for scalar variables, such as the turbulent kinetic energy, a timescale, or a measure of anisotropy. Algebraic constitutive representations are reviewed for their role in relating scalar closures to the Reynolds stress tensor. Seamless and nonzonal methods, which invoke a single closure model, are reviewed, especially detached eddy simulation (DES) and adaptive DES. Other topics surveyed include data-driven modeling and intermittency and laminar fluctuation models for transition prediction. The review concludes with an outlook.

  18. Development of a working Hovercraft model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, S. H. Mohamed; Syam, K.; Jaafar, A. A.; Mohamad Sharif, M. F.; Ghazali, M. R.; Ibrahim, W. I.; Atan, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the development process to fabricate a working hovercraft model. The purpose of this study is to design and investigate of a fully functional hovercraft, based on the studies that had been done. The different designs of hovercraft model had been made and tested but only one of the models is presented in this paper. In this thesis, the weight, the thrust, the lift and the drag force of the model had been measured and the electrical and mechanical parts are also presented. The processing unit of this model is Arduino Uno by using the PSP2 (Playstation 2) as the controller. Since our prototype should be functioning on all kind of earth surface, our model also had been tested in different floor condition. They include water, grass, cement and tile. The Speed of the model is measured in every case as the respond variable, Current (I) as the manipulated variable and Voltage (V) as the constant variable.

  19. <Original Paper>Interaction Model of Mental Disability (IMMD) based on ICIDH

    OpenAIRE

    YAMANE, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    I propose an "Interaction Model of Mental Disability (IMMD)". Several models based on ICIDH are being proposed and tested around the world focusing on different aspects of disability. Though ICIDH is an inclusive model in health services, social security, insurance, education, and so on, the remarkable point of IMMD is to visualize the mutual relation of mental disability (impairment, disability and handicap) and other factors (environmental factors, personal factors). IMMD is a practical reh...

  20. Reference model for apparel product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Moretti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to develop a reference model for the implementation of the process of product development (PDP for apparel. The tool was developed through an interactive process of comparison between theoretical. Managers in companies and professionals working in this market can utilize the reference model as a source for the organization and improvement of the PDP for apparel and the universities as a reference source for systematized teaching of this process. This model represents the first comprehensive attempt to develop an instrument at a detailed level (macro phases, phases, activities, inputs and outputs at each stage and at the gates to systematize the PDP process for fashion products and to consider its particularities.

  1. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Worley, B.A.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-01-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. Since October 1991, US (DOE), (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review. The vision and strategy of the interagency team for developing NTP system models will be discussed in this paper. A review of the progress on the Level 1 interagency model is also presented

  2. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    In this rega educational theory has proposed a teaching approa which is called ..... that they serve as major factors in guiding and influencing teachers' thoughts ... cognitive development and language are shaped by a student's interaction with ...

  3. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    of plants lies in chemical components cal ... ical screening, content of total phenolics, antifungal and ... provide lead compounds for developing new drugs ..... from extracts and to determine their biological activities. ... Authors also thank Prof.

  4. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    communication skills were identified as peer mediat respectively. ... allows students to work together in small peer whereby .... and achievement in academic performance are worth ..... cognitive development influence each other, in such a.

  5. Virulence Studies of Different Sequence Types and Geographical Origins of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in a Mouse Model of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Auger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing previously identified three predominant sequence types (STs of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: ST1 strains predominate in Eurasia while North American (NA strains are generally ST25 and ST28. However, ST25/ST28 and ST1 strains have also been isolated in Asia and NA, respectively. Using a well-standardized mouse model of infection, the virulence of strains belonging to different STs and different geographical origins was evaluated. Results demonstrated that although a certain tendency may be observed, S. suis serotype 2 virulence is difficult to predict based on ST and geographical origin alone; strains belonging to the same ST presented important differences of virulence and did not always correlate with origin. The only exception appears to be NA ST28 strains, which were generally less virulent in both systemic and central nervous system (CNS infection models. Persistent and high levels of bacteremia accompanied by elevated CNS inflammation are required to cause meningitis. Although widely used, in vitro tests such as phagocytosis and killing assays require further standardization in order to be used as predictive tests for evaluating virulence of strains. The use of strains other than archetypal strains has increased our knowledge and understanding of the S. suis serotype 2 population dynamics.

  6. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents'…

  7. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    assland, wetland and bare land) using remote sensing-GIS ... the land and the environment r and Turner, 1998). .... According to the agro-climatic classification of Ethiopia ... The image of the 1986 TM has found with cloud ..... agriculture over steep slopes results in a disastrous effect ..... Transition Potential Modeling for.

  8. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    local market, Mysore and was authenticated by Dr. Nagamani ... Limit test was carried out in accordance to the OECD guideline ... by Tukey's multiple comparison test. p<0.05 was ..... acid B on an Aβ25–35 peptide-induced mouse model of.

  9. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... ost all the organizations in performing their business. The ... ital role in a company's wad and ..... perceived risk of failure, complexity, security, and .... model of technology-based selfservice: moderating ... strategic distribution channel decisions, International ... Managerial Auditing Journal 14(7): 329-338.

  10. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    expression for propagation of path loss in land and mobile radio services. ... work reviewed; show that empirical path loss models ...... Communications 5(1): 44-51. Ayeni, A.A. ... Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing 7(6):11. Faruk, N.

  11. The “sanctity” of marriage – an archaeology of a socio-religious construct: Mythological origins, forms and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to argue that the sexual difference between female and male should be regarded as soteriologically indifferent. Though a biological reality of being human, sexuality is profoundly influenced by social constructs and the institution of marriage itself is a social construct. In this article the biological and social aspects are taken into account in a theological approach which on the one hand is interested in the relationship between God and human beings, and on the other in the way in which the Bible elucidates sexuality and marriage. The article indicates that the idea of sexual intercourse between a man and a woman as being equal to Godgiven “holy matrimony” has mythological origins. It focuses on these origins and on the multifarious forms of marital arrangements and models.

  12. An exploration of viscosity models in the realm of kinetic theory of liquids originated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azad; Ghafoor, Saadia; Malik, M. Y.; Jamal, Sarmad

    The preeminent perspective of this article is to study flow of an Eyring Powell fluid model past a penetrable plate. To find the effects of variable viscosity on fluid model, continuity, momentum and energy equations are elaborated. Here, viscosity is taken as function of temperature. To understand the phenomenon, Reynold and Vogel models of variable viscosity are incorporated. The highly non-linear partial differential equations are transfigured into ordinary differential equations with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The numerical solution of the problem is presented. Graphs are plotted to visualize the behavior of pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles.

  13. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  14. Origin and evolution of Sariñena Lake (central Ebro Basin): A piping-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Carmen; Javier Gracia, F.; Rodríguez-Ochoa, Rafael; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; Desir, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    The origin and nature of the numerous lakes in the central Ebro Basin have been interpreted according to the prevailing arid or semiarid conditions, the easily-eroded materials and the solubility of the gypsum- and/or carbonate-rich Tertiary/Cenozoic substratum, involving important dissolution (karstic) and/or aeolian deflation. However, the origin of Sariñena Lake, the largest in the central Ebro Basin, remains unknown since the typical lake-generating processes in the region are not applicable. This work provides significant clues to the genesis and evolution of Sariñena Lake in a regional context. The combination of geomorphological mapping and high resolution LiDAR data together with sedimentological observations, the characterisation of soils and sediments around the lake, and the application of high-resolution geophysical techniques suggest that piping is the major genetic process driving the evolution of the Sariñena depression and lake. Field evidence demonstrates that piping is, at present, the most important erosive process in the region, generating significant collapse and surface lowering. Sariñena Lake is located within a deep endorheic depression excavated from Na-rich Tertiary materials. This work hypothesises that once an early, fluvially-originated palustrine area had developed, the progressive lowering of the regional water table linked to regional fluvial incision favoured the establishment of a hydrological gradient high enough to trigger piping processes within the claystones and siltstones underlying the original palustrine area. The Quaternary evolution of the Sariñena lacustrine basin was then controlled by successive water table fluctuations, linked to different phases of incision and alluvial deposition in the surrounding fluvial systems. All the evidence supporting a piping-related origin for this lake, together with examples of lakes generated by similar processes in different contexts, is used to propose a new genetic type of

  15. A novel modelling framework to prioritize estimation of non-point source pollution parameters for quantifying pollutant origin and discharge in urban catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, I; Charters, F J; O'Sullivan, A D; Cochrane, T A

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater runoff in urban catchments contains heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead) and suspended solids (TSS) which can substantially degrade urban waterways. To identify these pollutant sources and quantify their loads the MEDUSA (Modelled Estimates of Discharges for Urban Stormwater Assessments) modelling framework was developed. The model quantifies pollutant build-up and wash-off from individual impervious roof, road and car park surfaces for individual rain events, incorporating differences in pollutant dynamics between surface types and rainfall characteristics. This requires delineating all impervious surfaces and their material types, the drainage network, rainfall characteristics and coefficients for the pollutant dynamics equations. An example application of the model to a small urban catchment demonstrates how the model can be used to identify the magnitude of pollutant loads, their spatial origin and the response of the catchment to changes in specific rainfall characteristics. A sensitivity analysis then identifies the key parameters influencing each pollutant load within the stormwater given the catchment characteristics, which allows development of a targeted calibration process that will enhance the certainty of the model outputs, while minimizing the data collection required for effective calibration. A detailed explanation of the modelling framework and pre-calibration sensitivity analysis is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of an Origin Trace Method based on Bayesian Inference and Artificial Neural Network for Missing or Stolen Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, Yim Ho; Min, Lee Seung; Min, Kim Kyung; Jeong, Hong Yoon; Kim, Jae Kwang [Nuclear Security Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Thus, 'to put nuclear materials under control' is an important issue for prosperity mankind. Unfortunately, numbers of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials have been increased for decades. Consequently, security of nuclear materials is recently spotlighted. After the 2{sup nd} Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul in 2012, the president of Korea had showed his devotion to nuclear security. One of the main responses for nuclear security related interest of Korea was to develop a national nuclear forensic support system. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published the document of Nuclear Security Series No.2 'Nuclear Forensics Support' in 2006 to encourage international cooperation of all IAEA member states for tracking nuclear attributions. There are two main questions related to nuclear forensics to answer in the document. The first question is 'what type of material is it?', and the second one is 'where did the material come from?' Korea Nuclear Forensic Library (K-NFL) and mathematical methods to trace origins of missing or stolen nuclear materials (MSNMs) are being developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control (KINAC) to answer those questions. Although the K-NFL has been designed to perform many functions, K-NFL is being developed to effectively trace the origin of MSNMs and tested to validate suitability of trace methods. New fuels and spent fuels need each trace method because of the different nature of data acquisition. An inductive logic was found to be appropriate for new fuels, which had values as well as a bistable property. On the other hand, machine learning was suitable for spent fuels, which were unable to measure, and thus needed simulation.

  17. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  18. Fine-needle aspiration cytology: its origin, development, and present status with special reference to a developing country, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dilip K

    2003-06-01

    one or more ancillary techniques on fine-needle aspirates were adopted in 72.5% centers. Of the 772 publications from the developing world during 1987-2002, India alone contributed to 374 (48.4%). During 1975-2002, 154 articles on FNA were published needles were used in all the centers, but syringe holders were used in only in 61% of centers. In 86% of laboratories, two or more routine stains were used, and one or more ancillary techniques on fine-needle aspirates were adopted in 72.5% centers. Of the 772 publications from the developing world during 1987-2002, India alone contributed to 374 (48.4%). During 1975-2002, 154 articles on FNA were published in 15 indexed Indian journals.

  19. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Abstract. The aim of the present research is to develop the f effect of ... Science, Technology and Arts Research J. Sci. Technol. ..... “Science, Technology and Innovation for National ... Latin American Journal of Pharmacy 3: 1135-1141. Vemula ...

  20. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    2009-09-17

    Sep 17, 2009 ... agriculture systems in Edo state, Nigeria and char ... were inferred as different varieties of the species of th ... tate, Nigeria and characterize them using molecular marker ... Article Information ... The development of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) ... Quarters, University of Benin Teaching Hospital.

  1. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    financial, emotional, personal and social costs fo families and twins themselves. It accounts for a. 10% of perinatal mortality (Dera et al., 2007; Gess. 2007 and Abasiattai et al., 2010). A number of unique complications develop i pregnancies. They include conjoined twinning, t twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), growth discor.

  2. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The work aims at developing a strategy for the ide target by analyzing signaling pathways. The strateg and tested in concern with Toll Like Receptor. TLR4 pathway is a major pathway which ge polysaccheride (LPS) stimulus. The work describe potent drug targets by understanding the flow of pathways by representing them ...

  3. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Abstract. This study focused on the evaluation of supply variability. Nigeria. The field work of the study involved the use installation of water meters to obtain data on household within the metropolis. The findings of the study revealed water use was 86.22 liters/capita/day which liters/capita/day for developing nations.

  4. Origins of cratonic mantle discontinuities: A view from petrology, geochemistry and thermodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, Sonja; Massuyeau, Malcolm; Gaillard, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Geophysically detectible mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLD) and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries (LAB) beneath cratons have received much attention over recent years, but a consensus on their origin has not yet emerged. Cratonic lithosphere composition and origin is peculiar due to its ultra-depletion during plume or accretionary tectonics, cool present-day geothermal gradients, compositional and rheological stratification and multiple metasomatic overprints. Bearing this in mind, we integrate current knowledge on the physical properties, chemical composition, mineralogy and fabric of cratonic mantle with experimental and thermodynamic constraints on the formation and migration of melts, both below and within cratonic lithosphere, in order to find petrologically viable explanations for cratonic mantle discontinuities. LABs characterised by strong seismic velocity gradients and increased conductivity require the presence of melts, which can form beneath intact cratonic roots reaching to 200-250 km depth only in exceptionally warm and/or volatile-rich mantle, thus explaining the paucity of seismical LAB observations beneath cratons. When present, pervasive interaction of these - typically carbonated - melts with the deep lithosphere leads to densification and thermochemical erosion, which generates topography at the LAB and results in intermittent seismic LAB signals or conflicting seismic, petrologic and thermal LAB depths. In rare cases (e.g. Tanzanian craton), the tops of live melt percolation fronts may appear as MLDs and, after complete lithosphere rejuvenation, may be sites of future, shallower LABs (e.g. North China craton). Since intact cratons are presently tectonomagmatically quiescent, and since MLDs produce both positive and negative velocity gradients, in some cases with anisotropy, most MLDs may be best explained by accumulations (metasomes) of seismically slow minerals (pyroxenes, phlogopite, amphibole, carbonates) deposited during past

  5. [Development and application of real-time PCR for identification and detection of horse meat in animal-origin products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jiahui; Shen, Qing; Han, Chunhui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fengqin; Xu, Jin; Jiang, Tao

    2013-11-01

    To develop a real-time PCR method for identification and detection of domestic horse meat (Equus caballus) in animal-origin products. The primer and TaqMan-probe was designed and synthesized according to the EU reference laboratory and 87 bp fragments was amplified for horse ingredients. The specificity and sensitivity was tested by artificially spiked horse meat into other domestic meat, such as cattle, sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit. 122 samples of cattle and sheep products were random collected in Beijing market and the detection of horse meat was carried out. The real-time PCR in this study has high specificity and sensitivity for horse meat. No cross-reaction was observed between the horse and sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit meat. There was little cross reaction between horse and cattle when the CT value reach 33. 81. The method can detect 0.1% of horse meat mixed with other domestic animal-origin products. No horse meat ingredients were detected in 122 samples in this survey. There was no horse meat mixed into cattle and sheep products in Beijing marked.

  6. Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development - September 30–October 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Wang, Xiaobin; Binns, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a conference: “Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development”, held in Chicago on September 30–October 1, 2010. The conference was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health and the Williams Heart Foundation, to achieve the conference objective: forging a next-step research agenda related to the early origins of childhood obesity. This research agenda was to include working with an array of factors (from genetic determinants to societal ones) along a continuum from prenatal life to age 7, with an emphasis on how the developing child deals with the challenges presented by his/her environment (prenatal, parental, nutritional, etc.). The conference offered a unique opportunity to facilitate communication and planning of future work among a variety of researchers whose work separately addresses different periods in early life. Over the span of two days, speakers addressed existing, critical research topics within each of the most-studied age ranges. On the final day, workshops fostered the discussion needed to identify the highest priority research topics related to linking varied early factor domains. These are presented for use in planning future research and research funding. PMID:23443002

  7. Energy and Development. A Modelling Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ruijven, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used to explore possible future developments of the global energy system and identify policies to prevent potential problems. Such estimations of future energy use in developing countries are very uncertain. Crucial factors in the future energy use of these regions are electrification, urbanisation and income distribution, issues that are generally not included in present day global energy models. Model simulations in this thesis show that current insight in developments in low-income regions lead to a wide range of expected energy use in 2030 of the residential and transport sectors. This is mainly caused by many different model calibration options that result from the limited data availability for model development and calibration. We developed a method to identify the impact of model calibration uncertainty on future projections. We developed a new model for residential energy use in India, in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Science. Experiments with this model show that the impact of electrification and income distribution is less univocal than often assumed. The use of fuelwood, with related health risks, can decrease rapidly if the income of poor groups increases. However, there is a trade off in terms of CO2 emissions because these groups gain access to electricity and the ownership of appliances increases. Another issue is the potential role of new technologies in developing countries: will they use the opportunities of leapfrogging? We explored the potential role of hydrogen, an energy carrier that might play a central role in a sustainable energy system. We found that hydrogen only plays a role before 2050 under very optimistic assumptions. Regional energy

  8. First study about the development of adult Echinococcus canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin in experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Debiaggi, María Florencia; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Pianciola, Luis Alfredo; Bergagna, Héctor Fabián Jesús; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Mazzeo, Melina Leonor; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2016-09-15

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (E. granulosus sl) must be considered as a species complex, comprising Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (E. granulosus ss, genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus canadensis (G6-G10) although the species status of E. canadensis is still controversial. These genotypes closely match the intermediate hosts associated strains described in earlier times among which E. canadensis G6 corresponds to the camel strain. As there are no studies concerning the development of adult stages of the G6 genotype from non-camel origin, the aims of the present study were: to characterize for the first time the development of E. canadensis G6 in dogs experimentally infected with protoscoleces derived from goats, to describe the resultant adult morphology, to evaluate the growth of their rostellar hooks from larval to adult stages and to determine the prepatent period of the strobilar stage of E. canadensis G6 derived from goats. The development of the strobilar stage of E. canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin was examined by studying the growth (variation of the total worm length) and segmentation in experimentally infected dogs at 14, 25, 35 and 56days post infection. A morphological characterization of 35-day-old worms as well as of larval and adult rostellar hooks was also carried out by conventional optical microscopic observations and/or by scanning electron microscopy. The prepatent period of the strobilar stage was assessed by microscopic examination of faeces from 2 infected dogs. Our results were compared with published data from the camel and other strains. The roles of the host, genotype and species in morphological and developmental features as well as the taxonomic position of E. canadensis G6 were discussed. The prepatent period of E. canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin was determined as at least, 41days. The obtained results contribute to increase the knowledge about the biology

  9. Determination of cognitive development: postnonclassical theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Pogozhina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop a postnonclassical cognitive processes content determination model in which mental processes are considered as open selfdeveloping, self-organizing systems. Three types of systems (dynamic, statistical, developing were analysed and compared on the basis of the description of the external and internal characteristics of causation, types of causal chains (dependent, independent and their interactions, as well as the nature of the relationship between the elements of the system (hard, probabilistic, mixed. Mechanisms of open non-equilibrium nonlinear systems (dissipative and four dissipative structures emergence conditions are described. Determination models of mental and behaviour formation and development that were developed under various theoretical approaches (associationism, behaviorism, gestaltism, psychology of intelligence by Piaget, Vygotsky culture historical approach, activity approach and others are mapped on each other as the models that describe behaviour of the three system types mentioned above. The development models of the mental sphere are shown to be different by the following criteria: 1 allocated determinants amount; 2 presence or absence of the system own activity that results in selecting the model not only external, but also internal determinants; 3 types of causal chains (dependent-independent-blended; 4 types of relationships between the causal chain that ultimately determines the subsequent system determination type as decisive (a tough dynamic pattern or stochastic (statistical regularity. The continuity of postnonclassical, classical and non-classical models of mental development determination are described. The process of gradual refinement, complexity, «absorption» of the mental determination by the latter models is characterized. The human mental can be deemed as the functioning of the open developing non-equilibrium nonlinear system (dissipative. The mental sphere is

  10. A Dynamic Bayesian Observer Model Reveals Origins of Bias in Visual Path Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarasimhan, Kaushik J; Petsalis, Marina; Park, Hyeshin; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Pitkow, Xaq; Angelaki, Dora E

    2018-06-20

    Path integration is a strategy by which animals track their position by integrating their self-motion velocity. To identify the computational origins of bias in visual path integration, we asked human subjects to navigate in a virtual environment using optic flow and found that they generally traveled beyond the goal location. Such a behavior could stem from leaky integration of unbiased self-motion velocity estimates or from a prior expectation favoring slower speeds that causes velocity underestimation. Testing both alternatives using a probabilistic framework that maximizes expected reward, we found that subjects' biases were better explained by a slow-speed prior than imperfect integration. When subjects integrate paths over long periods, this framework intriguingly predicts a distance-dependent bias reversal due to buildup of uncertainty, which we also confirmed experimentally. These results suggest that visual path integration in noisy environments is limited largely by biases in processing optic flow rather than by leaky integration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An exsolution silica-pump model for the origin of myrmekite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, R.O.; Lindsley, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    Myrmekite, as defined here, is the microscopic intergrowth between vermicular quartz and modestly anorthitic plagioclase (calcic albite-oligoclase), intimately associated with potassium feldspar in plutonic rocks of granitic composition. Hypotheses previously invoked in explanation of myrmekite include: (1) direct crystallization; (2) replacement; (3) exsolution. The occurrence of myrmekite in paragneisses and its absence in rocks devold of discrete grains of potassium feldspar challenge those hypotheses based on direct crystallization or replacement. However, several lines of evidence indicate that myrmekite may in fact originate in response to kinetic effects associated with the exsolution of calcic alkali feldspar into discrete potassium feldspar and plagioclase phases. Exsolution of potassium feldspar system projected from [AlSi2O8] involves the exchange CaAlK-1Si-1, in which the AlSi-1 tetrahedral couple is resistant to intracrystalline diffusion. By contrast, diffusion of octahedral K proceeds relatively easily where it remains uncoupled to the tetrahedral exchange. We suggest here that where the ternary feldspar system is open to excess silica, the exchange reaction that produces potassium feldspar in the ternary plane is aided by the net-transfer reaction K+Si=Orthoclase, leaving behind indigenous Si that reports as modal quartz in the evolving plagioclase as the CaAl component is concomitantly incorporated in this same phase. Thus silica is "pumped" into the reaction volume from a "silica reservoir", a process that enhances redistribution of both Si and Al through the exsolving ternary feldspar. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Development of three dimensional solid modeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, R.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at developing a three dimensional solid modeler employing computer graphics techniques using C-Language. Primitives have been generated, by combination of plane surfaces, for various basic geometrical shapes including cylinder, cube and cone. Back face removal technique for hidden surface removal has also been incorporated. Various transformation techniques such as scaling, translation, and rotation have been included for the object animation. Three dimensional solid modeler has been created by the union of two primitives to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed program. (author)

  13. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-13

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL's researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects and is revised with 2017 figures.

  14. Rate turnover in mechano-catalytic coupling: A model and its microscopic origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Mahua; Grazioli, Gianmarc; Andricioaei, Ioan, E-mail: andricio@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    A novel aspect in the area of mechano-chemistry concerns the effect of external forces on enzyme activity, i.e., the existence of mechano-catalytic coupling. Recent experiments on enzyme-catalyzed disulphide bond reduction in proteins under the effect of a force applied on the termini of the protein substrate reveal an unexpected biphasic force dependence for the bond cleavage rate. Here, using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations combined with Smoluchowski theory, we propose a model for this behavior. For a broad range of forces and systems, the model reproduces the experimentally observed rates by solving a reaction-diffusion equation for a “protein coordinate” diffusing in a force-dependent effective potential. The atomistic simulations are used to compute, from first principles, the parameters of the model via a quasiharmonic analysis. Additionally, the simulations are also used to provide details about the microscopic degrees of freedom that are important for the underlying mechano-catalysis.

  15. Geometrical origin of tricritical points of various U(1) lattice models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, W.; Kleiert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review the dual relationship between various compact U(1) lattice models and Abelian Higgs models, the latter being the disorder field theories of line-like topological excitations in the system. The authors point out that the predicted first-order transitions in the Abelian Higgs models (Coleman-Weinberg mechanism) are, in three dimensions, in contradiction with direct numerical investigations in the compact U(1) formulation since these yield continuous transitions in the major part of the phase diagram. In four dimensions, there are indications from Monte Carlo data for a similar situation. Concentrating on the strong-coupling expansion in terms of geometrical objects, surfaces or lines, with certain statistical weights, the authors present semi-quantitative arguments explaining the observed cross-over from first-order to continuous transitions by the balance between the lowest two weights (2:1 ratio) of these geometrical objects

  16. Rate turnover in mechano-catalytic coupling: A model and its microscopic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Mahua; Grazioli, Gianmarc; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    A novel aspect in the area of mechano-chemistry concerns the effect of external forces on enzyme activity, i.e., the existence of mechano-catalytic coupling. Recent experiments on enzyme-catalyzed disulphide bond reduction in proteins under the effect of a force applied on the termini of the protein substrate reveal an unexpected biphasic force dependence for the bond cleavage rate. Here, using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations combined with Smoluchowski theory, we propose a model for this behavior. For a broad range of forces and systems, the model reproduces the experimentally observed rates by solving a reaction-diffusion equation for a “protein coordinate” diffusing in a force-dependent effective potential. The atomistic simulations are used to compute, from first principles, the parameters of the model via a quasiharmonic analysis. Additionally, the simulations are also used to provide details about the microscopic degrees of freedom that are important for the underlying mechano-catalysis

  17. Model-Driven Development of Safety Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain

    2017-01-01

    We describe the use of model-driven development for safety assurance of a pioneering NASA flight operation involving a fleet of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) flying beyond visual line of sight. The central idea is to develop a safety architecture that provides the basis for risk assessment and visualization within a safety case, the formal justification of acceptable safety required by the aviation regulatory authority. A safety architecture is composed from a collection of bow tie diagrams (BTDs), a practical approach to manage safety risk by linking the identified hazards to the appropriate mitigation measures. The safety justification for a given unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operation can have many related BTDs. In practice, however, each BTD is independently developed, which poses challenges with respect to incremental development, maintaining consistency across different safety artifacts when changes occur, and in extracting and presenting stakeholder specific information relevant for decision making. We show how a safety architecture reconciles the various BTDs of a system, and, collectively, provide an overarching picture of system safety, by considering them as views of a unified model. We also show how it enables model-driven development of BTDs, replete with validations, transformations, and a range of views. Our approach, which we have implemented in our toolset, AdvoCATE, is illustrated with a running example drawn from a real UAS safety case. The models and some of the innovations described here were instrumental in successfully obtaining regulatory flight approval.

  18. A review on pilot plant development models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Darmawan

    2005-01-01

    After more than 30 years, MINT has been able to produce many new findings, products and processes. Some of these have been able to penetrate local and international markets. This was achieved through a systematic commercialisation program practiced in MINT with its technological chain and MINT Technology Park program. This paper will review the development process of MINT pilot plants and compare them with a few other models from other institutions in Malaysia and abroad. The advantages and disadvantages of each model are reviewed and a discussion against MINT's model is presented. (Author)

  19. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-03

    This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiation. It is based on the model used to calculate temperatures and volume fractions in an annular vessel containing an aqueous solution of uranium . The experiment was repeated at several electron beam power levels, but the CFD analysis was performed only for the 12 kW irradiation, because this experiment came the closest to reaching a steady-state condition. The aim of the study is to compare results of the calculation with experimental measurements to determine the validity of the CFD model.

  20. Development of Model for Providing Feasible Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Dhika

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current work focuses on the development of a model to determine a feasible scholarship recipient on the basis of the naiv¨e Bayes’ method using very simple and limited attributes. Those attributes are the applicants academic year, represented by their semester, academic performance, represented by their GPa, socioeconomic ability, which represented the economic capability to attend a higher education institution, and their level of social involvement. To establish and evaluate the model performance, empirical data are collected, and the data of 100 students are divided into 80 student data for the model training and the remaining of 20 student data are for the model testing. The results suggest that the model is capable to provide recommendations for the potential scholarship recipient at the level of accuracy of 95%.

  1. Status report on dissolution model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    The computer program PROTOCOL models the dissolution reactions of chemical species in water. It is being developed particularly to study the dissolution of proposed nuclear waste forms and related phases. Experimentally derived leaching rate functions are coupled to thermochemical equilibrium calculations and water flow rates. The program has been developed over a period of years. This report describes improvements that have been done in the past year

  2. Development modeling of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Roe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between insect development and temperature has been well established and has a wide range of uses, including the use of blow flies for postmortem (PMI interval estimations in death investigations. To use insects in estimating PMI, we must be able to determine the insect age at the time of discovery and backtrack to time of oviposition. Unfortunately, existing development models of forensically important insects are only linear approximations and do not take into account the curvilinear properties experienced at extreme temperatures. A series of experiments were conducted with Lucilia sericata, a forensically important blow fly species, that met the requirements needed to create statistically valid development models. Experiments were conducted over 11 temperatures (7.5 to 32.5 °C, at 2.5 °C with a 16:8 L:D cycle. Experimental units contained 20 eggs, 10 g beef liver, and 2.5 cm of pine shavings. Each life stage (egg to adult had five sampling times. Each sampling time was replicated four times, for a total of 20 measurements per life stage. For each sampling time, the cups were pulled from the chambers and the stage of each maggot was documented morphologically through posterior spiracle slits and cephalopharyngeal skeletal development. Data were normally distributed with the later larval stages (L3f, L3m having the most variation within and transitioning between stages. The biological minimum was between 7.5 °C and 10 °C, with little egg development and no egg emergence at 7.5 °C. Temperature-induced mortality was highest from 10.0 to 17.5 °C and 32.5 °C. The development data generated illustrates the advantages of large datasets in modeling Lucilia sericata development and the need for curvilinear models in describing development at environmental temperatures near the biological minima and maxima.

  3. 3D implicit modeling of the Sishen Mine: new resolution of the geometry and origin of Fe mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoch, B.; Anthonissen, C. J.; McCall, M.-J.; Basson, I. J.; Deacon, J.; Cloete, E.; Botha, J.; Britz, J.; Strydom, M.; Nel, D.; Bester, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Sishen deposit is one of the largest iron ore concentrations in current production. Hematite mineralization occurs along a strike length of 14 km, with a width of 3.2 km and a maximum vertical extent of 400 m below the original surface. The 986-Mt reserve incorporates a suite of individual orebodies, beneath a locally preserved tectonized unconformity, with a wide range of geometries, depths, and orientations. Fully constrained, implicit 3D modeling of the entire mining volume (> 70 km3), was undertaken to the original, pre-mining topography. The model incorporates 5287 mapping points and > 21,000 drillholes and provides exceptional insight into the original configuration of ore and its relationship to contacts, unconformities, and structures in the enclosing country rock. The bulk of ore occurs to the west of a strike-extensive, partially inverted normal fault (Sloep Fault), within an asymmetrical synclinal structure on its western flank. This linear, N-S distribution of deep, thick ore is punctuated by palaeosinkholes, wherein base-of-ore dips of greater than 45°, are concentrically arranged. Localized ore volumes also occur along faults and in fault-bounded, downthrown blocks, to the north of NW-SE- and NE-SW-trending strike-slip faults that show relatively minor uplift to the south, probably due to the Lomanian Namaqua-Natal Orogeny. The revised model demonstrates the proximity of ore to a tectonized unconformity and highlights the structural control on ore volumes, implying that Fe mineralization at Sishen cannot be exclusively attributed to supergene enrichment and concentric palaeosinkhole formation.

  4. Sibling influence on mexican-origin adolescents' deviant and sexual risk behaviors: the role of sibling modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Zeiders, Katharine H; Killoren, Sarah E; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other's health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths' deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk-taking behaviors in two home interviews across a 2-year span. A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings' perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings' deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings' subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings' earlier and younger siblings' later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings' earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Research on the Development of E-commerce Model of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic commerce of agricultural products has developed rapidly. In the development process of electronic commerce of agricultural products,many classic cases and business models have emerged. Such as tootoo industrial commune model (product drive type, Original life model (marketing driven type, Suichang model (service platform type. The author analyzes and compares each model from 7 aspects, and summarizes their differences and links. Finally, The author puts forward suggestions on the development of electronic commerce of agricultural products in china.

  6. Bereday and Hilker: Origins of the "Four Steps of Comparison" Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adick, Christel

    2018-01-01

    The article draws attention to the forgotten ancestry of the "four steps of comparison" model (description--interpretation--juxtaposition--comparison). Comparativists largely attribute this to George Z. F. Bereday [1964. "Comparative Method in Education." New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston], but among German scholars, it is…

  7. Modelling the solar magnetism: from its internal origin to its manifestations at the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, Laurene

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is part of the general study of dynamical processes involved in stars such as convection, rotation or magnetic fields and of their nonlinear interactions. The results of numerical simulations using the 2D finite element code STELEM and the pseudo-spectral 3D code ASH are presented. The first part of this work focuses on the global modeling of the solar dynamo. Through 2D simulations using mean-field theory, I studied the influence of a complex profile of meridional flow in Babcock-Leighton models. We show that there may be doubts about the ability of such models to reproduce the main characteristics of the solar cycle. In order to better constrain the effects of solar variability on the Earth climate, we present a first application in solar physics of sophisticated prediction methods which are used in meteorology. I also computed the first 3D MHD simulations in spherical geometry of a key step in the solar dynamo: the nonlinear evolution of magnetic structures from the base of the convection zone up to the surface where they produce active regions. Weak fields are likely to be modulated by convective motions, thus creating favored longitudes of emergence. If these structures are sufficiently arched, the orientation of bipolar spots corresponds to Joy's law. The introduction of an atmosphere in these models is a step towards a 3D global vision of our Sun. (author) [fr

  8. Broken-and-Intact Cell Model for Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Its Origin and Limits.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, SI (2017), s. 3-8 ISSN 0896-8446. [Iberoamerican Conference on Supercritical Fluids ProSCiba 2016 /4./. Vina del Mar, 28.03.2016-01.04.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : modelling * extraction kinetics * supercritical CO2 Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  9. A new approach for developing adjoint models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, P. E.; Funke, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Many data assimilation algorithms rely on the availability of gradients of misfit functionals, which can be efficiently computed with adjoint models. However, the development of an adjoint model for a complex geophysical code is generally very difficult. Algorithmic differentiation (AD, also called automatic differentiation) offers one strategy for simplifying this task: it takes the abstraction that a model is a sequence of primitive instructions, each of which may be differentiated in turn. While extremely successful, this low-level abstraction runs into time-consuming difficulties when applied to the whole codebase of a model, such as differentiating through linear solves, model I/O, calls to external libraries, language features that are unsupported by the AD tool, and the use of multiple programming languages. While these difficulties can be overcome, it requires a large amount of technical expertise and an intimate familiarity with both the AD tool and the model. An alternative to applying the AD tool to the whole codebase is to assemble the discrete adjoint equations and use these to compute the necessary gradients. With this approach, the AD tool must be applied to the nonlinear assembly operators, which are typically small, self-contained units of the codebase. The disadvantage of this approach is that the assembly of the discrete adjoint equations is still very difficult to perform correctly, especially for complex multiphysics models that perform temporal integration; as it stands, this approach is as difficult and time-consuming as applying AD to the whole model. In this work, we have developed a library which greatly simplifies and automates the alternate approach of assembling the discrete adjoint equations. We propose a complementary, higher-level abstraction to that of AD: that a model is a sequence of linear solves. The developer annotates model source code with library calls that build a 'tape' of the operators involved and their dependencies, and

  10. A wide low-mass binary model for the origin of axially symmetric non-thermal radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, M. de; Heuvel, E.P.J. van den

    1985-01-01

    An accreting binary model has been proposed by recent workers to account for the origin of the axially symmetric non-thermal radio sources. The authors show that the only type of binary system that can produce the observed structural properties, is a relatively wide neutron star binary, in which the companion of the neutron star is a low-mass giant. Binaries of this type are expected to resemble closely the eight brightest galactic bulge X-ray sources as well as the progenitors of the two wide radio pulsar binaries. (U.K.)

  11. A model for the origin of bursty star formation in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2018-01-01

    We propose a simple analytic model to understand when star formation is time steady versus bursty in galaxies. Recent models explain the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between star formation rate and gas surface densities in galaxies as resulting from a balance between stellar feedback and gravity. We argue that bursty star formation occurs when such an equilibrium cannot be stably sustained, and identify two regimes in which galaxy-scale star formation should be bursty: (i) at high redshift (z ≳ 1) for galaxies of all masses, and (ii) at low masses (depending on gas fraction) for galaxies at any redshift. At high redshift, characteristic galactic dynamical time-scales become too short for supernova feedback to effectively respond to gravitational collapse in galactic discs (an effect recently identified for galactic nuclei), whereas in dwarf galaxies star formation occurs in too few bright star-forming regions to effectively average out. Burstiness is also enhanced at high redshift owing to elevated gas fractions in the early Universe. Our model can thus explain the bursty star formation rates predicted in these regimes by recent high-resolution galaxy formation simulations, as well as the bursty star formation histories observationally inferred in both local dwarf and high-redshift galaxies. In our model, bursty star formation is associated with particularly strong spatiotemporal clustering of supernovae. Such clustering can promote the formation of galactic winds and our model may thus also explain the much higher wind mass loading factors inferred in high-redshift massive galaxies relative to their z ∼ 0 counterparts.

  12. A new vision of the origin and the oocyte development in the Ostariophysi applied to Gymnotus sylvius (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisleine Fernanda França

    Full Text Available Based on new knowledge coming from marine perciform species, the origin of oocytes and their development in the Ostariophysi, Gymnotus sylvius is described. In both Gymnotus sylvius and marine perciform fish, oogonia are found in the germinal epithelium that forms the surface of the ovarian lamellae. At the commencement of folliculogenesis, proliferation of oogonia and their entrance into meiosis gives rise to germ cell nests that extend into the stroma from the germinal epithelium. Both cell nests and the germinal epithelium are supported by the same basement membrane that separates them from the stroma. At the time of meiotic arrest, oocytes in a cell nest become separated one from the other as processes of prefollicle cells, these being derived from epithelial cells in the germinal epithelium, gradually encompass and individualize them while also synthesizing a basement membrane around themselves during folliculogenesis. The oocyte enters primary growth while still within the cell nest. At the completion of folliculogenesis, the oocyte and follicle cells, composing the follicle, are encompassed by a basement membrane. The follicle remains connected to the germinal epithelium as the both share a portion of common basement membrane. Cells originating from the stroma encompass the ovarian follicle, except where there is a shared basement membrane, to form the theca. The follicle, basement membrane and theca form the follicular complex. Oocyte development occurs inside the follicular complex. Development is divided into the stages primary and secondary growth, oocyte maturation and ovulation. Cortical alveoli appear in the ooplasm just prior to the beginning of secondary growth, the vitellogenic stage that begins with yolk deposition and proceeds until the oocyte is full-grown and the ooplasm is filled with yolk globules. Maturation is characterized by the germinal vesicle or nuclear migration, germinal vesicle breakdown or nuclear envelop

  13. Built To Last: Using Iterative Development Models for Sustainable Scientific Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiak, M. E.; Truslove, I.; Savoie, M.

    2013-12-01

    In scientific research, software development exists fundamentally for the results they create. The core research must take focus. It seems natural to researchers, driven by grant deadlines, that every dollar invested in software development should be used to push the boundaries of problem solving. This system of values is frequently misaligned with those of the software being created in a sustainable fashion; short-term optimizations create longer-term sustainability issues. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has taken bold cultural steps in using agile and lean development and management methodologies to help its researchers meet critical deadlines, while building in the necessary support structure for the code to live far beyond its original milestones. Agile and lean software development and methodologies including Scrum, Kanban, Continuous Delivery and Test-Driven Development have seen widespread adoption within NSIDC. This focus on development methods is combined with an emphasis on explaining to researchers why these methods produce more desirable results for everyone, as well as promoting developers interacting with researchers. This presentation will describe NSIDC's current scientific software development model, how this addresses the short-term versus sustainability dichotomy, the lessons learned and successes realized by transitioning to this agile and lean-influenced model, and the current challenges faced by the organization.

  14. Development of an Integrated Global Energy Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a forefront analysis tool for application to enhance understanding of long-term, global, nuclear-energy and nuclear-material futures. To this end, an existing economics-energy-environmental (E 3 ) model was adopted, modified, and elaborated to examine this problem in a multi-regional (13), long-term (approximately2,100) context. The E 3 model so developed was applied to create a Los Alamos presence in this E 3 area through ''niche analyses'' that provide input to the formulation of policies dealing with and shaping of nuclear-energy and nuclear-materials futures. Results from analyses using the E 3 model have been presented at a variety of national and international conferences and workshops. Through use of the E 3 model Los Alamos was afforded the opportunity to participate in a multi-national E 3 study team that is examining a range of global, long-term nuclear issues under the auspices of the IAEA during the 1998-99 period . Finally, the E 3 model developed under this LDRD project is being used as an important component in more recent Nuclear Material Management Systems (NMMS) project

  15. Turbulence models development and engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groetzbach, G.; Ammann, T.; Dorr, B.; Hiltner, I.; Hofmann, S.; Kampczyk, M.; Kimhi, Y.; Seiter, C.; Woerner, M.; Alef, M.; Hennemuth, A.

    1995-01-01

    The FLUTAN code is used for analyzing the decay heat removal in new reactor concepts. The turbulence models applied in FLUTAN are improved by the development of the TURBIT code. TURBIT serves for a numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow. (orig.)

  16. Mechanical Model Development for Composite Structural Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Santiago, Diana; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel composite structural supercapacitor concepts have recently been developed as a means both to store electrical charge and to provide modest mechanical load carrying capability. Double-layer composite supercapacitors are often fabricated by impregnating a woven carbon fiber fabric, which serves as the electrodes, with a structural polymer electrolyte. Polypropylene or a glass fabric is often used as the separator material. Recent research has been primarily limited to evaluating these composites experimentally. In this study, mechanical models based on the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells (MSGMC) were developed and used to calculate the shear and tensile properties and response of two composite structural supercapacitors from the literature. The modeling approach was first validated against traditional composite laminate data. MSGMC models for composite supercapacitors were developed, and accurate elastic shear/tensile properties were obtained. It is envisioned that further development of the models presented in this work will facilitate the design of composite components for aerospace and automotive applications and can be used to screen candidate constituent materials for inclusion in future composite structural supercapacitor concepts.

  17. Developing a TQM quality management method model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1997-01-01

    From an extensive review of total quality management literature, the external and internal environment affecting an organization's quality performance and the eleven primary elements of TQM are identified. Based on the primary TQM elements, a TQM quality management method model is developed. This

  18. A Computational Model of Spatial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Kazuo; Sashima, Akio; Phillips, Steven

    Psychological experiments on children's development of spatial knowledge suggest experience at self-locomotion with visual tracking as important factors. Yet, the mechanism underlying development is unknown. We propose a robot that learns to mentally track a target object (i.e., maintaining a representation of an object's position when outside the field-of-view) as a model for spatial development. Mental tracking is considered as prediction of an object's position given the previous environmental state and motor commands, and the current environment state resulting from movement. Following Jordan & Rumelhart's (1992) forward modeling architecture the system consists of two components: an inverse model of sensory input to desired motor commands; and a forward model of motor commands to desired sensory input (goals). The robot was tested on the `three cups' paradigm (where children are required to select the cup containing the hidden object under various movement conditions). Consistent with child development, without the capacity for self-locomotion the robot's errors are self-center based. When given the ability of self-locomotion the robot responds allocentrically.

  19. Energy and development : A modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521

    2008-01-01

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used explore

  20. Broken-and-Intact Cell Model for Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Its Origin and Limits.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, SI (2017), s. 3-8 ISSN 0896-8446. [Iberoamerican Conference on Supercritical Fluid s ProSCiba 2016 /4./. Vina del Mar, 28.03.2016-01.04.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : modelling * extraction kinetics * supercritical CO2 Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  1. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells: II. Origin, disease models and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janne; Holm, Thomas Lindebo; Claesson, Mogens H

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases afflict approximately 5% of the population and reflect a failure in the immune system to discriminate between self and non-self resulting in the breakdown of self-tolerance. Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to play an important role in the maintenance ...... in disease models such as autoimmune gastritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Finally, we will consider some aspects of the therapeutic potential of Treg cells....

  2. An alternative model for the origin of gaps in circumstellar disks

    OpenAIRE

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Regaly, Zsolt; Guedel, Manuel; Lin, D. N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent observational and numerical studies suggesting that collapsing protostellar cores may be replenished from the local environment, we explore the evolution of protostellar cores submerged in the external counter-rotating environment. These models predict the formation of counter-rotating disks with a deep gap in the gas surface density separating the inner disk (corotating with the star) and the outer counter-rotating disk. The properties of these gaps are compared to those ...

  3. Computational modeling reveals dendritic origins of GABA(A-mediated excitation in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lewin

    Full Text Available GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system, but in some circumstances can lead to a paradoxical excitation that has been causally implicated in diverse pathologies from endocrine stress responses to diseases of excitability including neuropathic pain and temporal lobe epilepsy. We undertook a computational modeling approach to determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABA(A-dependent excitation in isolated post-synaptic CA1 hippocampal neurons because it may constitute a trigger for pathological synchronous epileptiform discharge. In particular, the interplay intracellular chloride accumulation via the GABA(A receptor and extracellular potassium accumulation via the K/Cl co-transporter KCC2 in promoting GABA(A-mediated excitation is complex. Experimentally it is difficult to determine the ionic mechanisms of depolarizing current since potassium transients are challenging to isolate pharmacologically and much GABA signaling occurs in small, difficult to measure, dendritic compartments. To address this problem and determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABA(A-mediated excitation, we built a detailed biophysically realistic model of the CA1 pyramidal neuron that includes processes critical for ion homeostasis. Our results suggest that in dendritic compartments, but not in the somatic compartments, chloride buildup is sufficient to cause dramatic depolarization of the GABA(A reversal potential and dominating bicarbonate currents that provide a substantial current source to drive whole-cell depolarization. The model simulations predict that extracellular K(+ transients can augment GABA(A-mediated excitation, but not cause it. Our model also suggests the potential for GABA(A-mediated excitation to promote network synchrony depending on interneuron synapse location - excitatory positive-feedback can occur when interneurons synapse onto distal dendritic compartments, while interneurons projecting to the perisomatic

  4. Evolutionary modelling of transitions to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarzynska, K.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis has examined how evolutionary economics can contribute to modelling the micromechanisms that underlie transitions towards sustainable development. In general, transitions are fundamental or structural system changes. They involve, or even require, escaping lock-in of dominant, environmentally unsustainable technologies, introducing major technical or social innovations, and changing prevailing social practices and structures. Due to the complexity of socioeconomic interactions, it is not always possible to identify, and thus target with appropriate policy instruments, causes of specific unsustainable patterns of behaviour. Formal modelling exercises can help improve our understanding of the interaction of various transition mechanisms which are otherwise difficult to grasp intuitively. They allow exploring effects of policy interventions in complex systems. However, existing models of transitions focus on social phenomena and seldom address economic problems. As opposed, mainstream (neoclassical) economic models of technological change do not account for social interactions, and changing heterogeneity of users and their perspectives - even though all of these can influence the direction of innovations and patterns of socio-technological development. Evolutionary economics offers an approach that goes beyond neoclassical economics - in the sense of employing more realistic assumptions regarding the behaviour and heterogeneity of consumers, firms and investors. It can complement current transition models by providing them with a better understanding of associated economic dynamics. In this thesis, formal models were proposed to illustrate the usefulness of a range of evolutionary-economic techniques for modelling transitions. Modelling exercises aimed to explain the core properties of socio-economic systems, such as lock-in, path-dependence, coevolution, group selection and recombinant innovation. The studies collected in this dissertation illustrate that

  5. Comparison of intratumoral FDG and Cu-ATSM distributions in cancer tissue originated spheroid (CTOS) xenografts, a tumor model retaining the original tumor properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Takako; Yuan, Qinghua; Jin, Zhao-Hui; Aung, Winn; Yoshii, Yukie; Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Endo, Hiroko; Inoue, Masahiro; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The intratumoral distributions of [ 18 F]FDG and [ 64 Cu]Cu-ATSM have been reported to be similar in adenocarcinomas but different in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in clinical studies. In the present study, we compared the intratumoral distributions of these two tracers in cancer tissue originated spheroid (CTOS) xenografts derived from adenocarcinoma and SCC, which retain the histological characteristics of the original tumors, and in cancer cell line xenografts of corresponding origin, to investigate the underlying mechanism of the distinct FDG and Cu-ATSM distribution patterns in adenocarcinoma and SCC. Methods: CTOSs derived from colon adenocarcinoma and lung SCC and cell lines established from colon adenocarcinoma and lung SCC, which were used for comparison, were subcutaneously transplanted into immunodeficient mice. One hour after administering [ 14 C]FDG and [ 64 Cu]Cu-ATSM, the intratumoral distributions were compared in the xenografts by using dual-tracer autoradiography. Adjacent sections were evaluated for necrosis, vasculature anatomy, Ki-67 antigen, and pimonidazole adducts using hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining. Results: There was a higher regional overlap of high FDG and Cu-ATSM accumulations in the adenocarcinoma CTOS xenografts than in the SCC CTOS xenografts, while the overlap in the adenocarcinoma cell line xenograft was lower than that observed in the SCC cell line. High FDG accumulation occurred primarily in proximity to necrotic or pimonidazole adduct positive regions, while high Cu-ATSM accumulation occurred primarily in live cell regions separate from the necrotic regions. The adenocarcinoma CTOS xenograft had the stereotypical glandular structure, resulting in more intricately mixed regions of live and necrotic cells compared to those observed in the SCC CTOS or the cell line xenografts. Conclusion: Tumor morphological characteristics, specifically the spatial distribution of live and necrotic cell

  6. Analysing the origin of long-range interactions in proteins using lattice models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Ron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-range communication is very common in proteins but the physical basis of this phenomenon remains unclear. In order to gain insight into this problem, we decided to explore whether long-range interactions exist in lattice models of proteins. Lattice models of proteins have proven to capture some of the basic properties of real proteins and, thus, can be used for elucidating general principles of protein stability and folding. Results Using a computational version of double-mutant cycle analysis, we show that long-range interactions emerge in lattice models even though they are not an input feature of them. The coupling energy of both short- and long-range pairwise interactions is found to become more positive (destabilizing in a linear fashion with increasing 'contact-frequency', an entropic term that corresponds to the fraction of states in the conformational ensemble of the sequence in which the pair of residues is in contact. A mathematical derivation of the linear dependence of the coupling energy on 'contact-frequency' is provided. Conclusion Our work shows how 'contact-frequency' should be taken into account in attempts to stabilize proteins by introducing (or stabilizing contacts in the native state and/or through 'negative design' of non-native contacts.

  7. Origins and consequences of technology acquirement by independent-living seniors : Towards an integrative model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, S.T.M.; Luijkx, K.G.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Nieboer, M.N.; Aarts, S.; van der Voort, C.S.; Rijnaard, M.D.; Wouters, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Living independently can be challenging for seniors. Technologies are expected to help older adults age in place, yet little empirical research is available on how seniors develop a need for technologies, how they acquire these technologies, and how these subsequently affect their lives.

  8. Model Driven Software Development for Agricultural Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten

    The design and development of agricultural robots, consists of both mechan- ical, electrical and software components. All these components must be de- signed and combined such that the overall goal of the robot is fulfilled. The design and development of these systems require collaboration between...... processing, control engineering, etc. This thesis proposes a Model-Driven Software Develop- ment based approach to model, analyse and partially generate the software implementation of a agricultural robot. Furthermore, Guidelines for mod- elling the architecture of an agricultural robots are provided......, assisting with bridging the different engineering disciplines. Timing play an important role in agricultural robotic applications, synchronisation of robot movement and implement actions is important in order to achieve precision spraying, me- chanical weeding, individual feeding, etc. Discovering...

  9. The Dutch sustainable building policy: A model for developing countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchert, Luciana [Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Lago, 876, CEP 05508.900, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    This article explores the institutionalization of environmental policies in the Dutch building sector and the applicability of the current model to developing countries. First, it analyzes the transition of sustainable building practices in the Netherlands from the 1970s until today, exploring how these were originally embedded in a discourse on 'de-modernization', which attempted to improve the environmental performance of building stocks by means of self-sufficient technologies, whereas nowadays they adopt a framework of 'ecological modernization', with integrative approaches seeking to improve the environmental performance of building stocks through more efficient-rather than self-sufficient-technologies. The study subsequently shows how the current Dutch sustainable building framework has thereby managed to achieve a pragmatic and widely accepted rationale, which can serve to orient the ecological restructuring of building stocks in developing countries. (author)

  10. High-Energy Pulsar Models: Developments and New Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The past few years have seen a major advance in observational knowledge of high-energy (HE) pulsars. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and AGILE have increased the number of known gamma-ray pulsars by an order of magnitude, its members being divided roughly equally among millisecond pulsars (MSPs), young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. Many new and diverse emission characteristics are being measured, while radio and X-ray follow-up observations increase the pulsar detection rate and enrich our multiwavelength picture of these extreme sources. The wealth of new data has provided impetus for further development and improvement of existing theoretical pulsar models. Geometric light curve (LC) modelling has uncovered three broad classes into which HE pulsars fall: those where the radio profile leads, is aligned with, or lags the gamma-ray profile. For example, the original MSP and original black widow system are members of the second class, requiring co-located emission regions and thereby breaking with traditional notions of radio emission origin. These models imply narrow accelerator gaps in the outer magnetosphere, indicating copious pair production even in MSP magnetospheres that were previously thought to be pair-starved. The increased quality and variety of the LCs necessitate construction of ever more sophisticated models. We will review progress in global magnetosphere solutions which specify a finite conductivity on field lines above the stellar surface, filling the gap between the standard vacuum and force-free (FF; plasma-filled) models. The possibility of deriving phase-resolved spectra for the brightest pulsars, coupled with the fact that the HE pulsar population is sizable enough to allow sampling of various pulsar geometries, will enable much more stringent testing of future radiation models. Reproduction of the observed phase-resolved behavior of this disparate group will be one of the next frontiers in pulsar science, impacting on

  11. Origin of lavas from the Ninetyeast Ridge, Eastern Indian Ocean: An evaluation of fractional crystallization models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludden, J.N.; Thompson, G.; Bryan, W.B.; Frey, F.A.

    1980-08-10

    Ferrobasalts from DSDP sites 214 and 216 on the Ninetyeast Ridge are characterized by high absolute iron (FeO>12.9 wt %), FeO/MgO>1.9, and TiO/sub 2/>2.0 wt %. Their trace element abundances indicate a tholeiitic affinity; however, they are distinct from midocean ridge incompatible element-depleted tholeiites owing to higher contents of Ba, Zr, and Sr and flat to slightly light-REE-enriched, chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Calculations using major and trace element abundances and phase compositions are generally consistent with a model relating most major elements and phase compositions in site 214 and 216 ferrobasalts by fractionation of clinopyroxene and plagio-class. However, some incompatible element abundances for site 216 basalts are not consistent with the fractional crystallization models. Baslats from site 214 can be related to andesitic rocks from the same site by fractionating clinopyroxene, plagioclase and titanomagnetite. Site 254 basalts, at the southern end of the Ninetyeast Ridge, and island tholeiites in the southern Indian Ocean (Amsterdam-St. Paul or Kerguelen-Heard volcanic provinces) possibly represent the most recent activity associated with a hot spot forming the Ninetyeast Ridge. These incompatible-element-enriched tholeiites have major element compositions consistent with those expected for a parental liquid for the site 214 and 216 ferrobasalts. However, differences in the trace element contents of the basalts from the Ninetyeast Ridge sites are not consistent with simple fractional crystallization derivation but require either a complex melting model or a heterogeneous mantle source.

  12. Complexation modeling of uranium and other actinides by organic compounds of natural or synthetic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouby, M.

    1998-01-01

    The behaviour of nuclear wastes raises many questions, the answers of which require a precise knowledge of the physical, chemical and biological processes affecting the properties of the radio-elements present in the wastes. Three ways of research are approached. The results obtained give some elements of answer to these questions. The experimental methods that have been used are the neutron activation analysis, the UV-visible spectrophotometry, and the time-resolved laser spectro-fluorimetry. The analysis of the results has permitted to model part of the phenomena evidenced by using suitable ionic force correction models (Davies or MSA type) when chemical equilibria have been considered. The main results show: the bio-sorption capacities of Mycobacterium phlei microorganism with respect to UO 2 2+ and NpO 2+ cations such as: Q eq (UO 2 2+ ) = 60 and Q eq (NpO 2+ ) = 444 moles of cation per g of dry biomass; the retention capacities, in various leaching conditions, of this bacteria of the preliminarily adsorbed ions; the complexation properties of two siderophores with respect to UO 2 2+ , U 4+ and Th 4+ cations. One siderophore, Pyoverdine A, shows a selectiveness which is explained by the value of the thermodynamic equilibrium constant determined for each cation using the same model: K(UO 2 2+ ) 4+ ) 4+ ). The behaviour in highly acid environment (HCl and HClO 4 up to 12 M) of acylisoxazolone HPBI (1-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone) and the value of its acidity thermodynamical constant (0.13 th 4 and CF 3 SO 3 H up to 12 M). It seems that a complexation between uranyl and the counter-ions present in the solution occurs. (J.S.)

  13. The Benslimane's Artistic Model for Females' Gaze Beauty: An Original Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslimane, Fahd; van Harpen, Laura; Myers, Simon R; Ingallina, Fabio; Ghanem, Ali M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the aesthetic characteristics of the human females' gaze using anthropometry and to present an artistic model to represent it: "The Frame Concept." In this model, the eye fissure represents a painting, and the most peripheral shadows around it represent the frame of this painting. The narrower the frame, the more aesthetically pleasing and youthful the gaze appears. This study included a literature review of the features that make the gaze appear attractive. Photographs of models with attractive gazes were examined, and old photographs of patients were compared to recent photographs. The frame ratio was defined by anthropometric measurements of modern portraits of twenty consecutive Miss World winners. The concept was then validated for age and attractiveness across centuries by analysis of modern female photographs and works of art acknowledged for portraying beautiful young and older women in classical paintings. The frame height inversely correlated with attractiveness in modern female portrait photographs. The eye fissure frame ratio of modern idealized female portraits was similar to that of beautiful female portraits idealized by classical artists. In contrast, the eye fissure frames of classical artists' mothers' portraits were significantly wider than those of beautiful younger women. The Frame Concept is a valid artistic tool that provides an understanding of both the aesthetic and aging characteristics of the female periorbital region, enabling the practitioner to plan appropriate aesthetic interventions. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the A3 online Instructions to Authors. www.springer.com/00266 .

  14. Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Nickkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.

  15. Developing Project Duration Models in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Bourque; Serge Oligny; Alain Abran; Bertrand Fournier

    2007-01-01

    Based on the empirical analysis of data contained in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group(ISBSG) repository, this paper presents software engineering project duration models based on project effort. Duration models are built for the entire dataset and for subsets of projects developed for personal computer, mid-range and mainframeplatforms. Duration models are also constructed for projects requiring fewer than 400 person-hours of effort and for projectsre quiring more than 400 person-hours of effort. The usefulness of adding the maximum number of assigned resources as asecond independent variable to explain duration is also analyzed. The opportunity to build duration models directly fromproject functional size in function points is investigated as well.

  16. Optimization and planning of operating theatre activities: an original definition of pathways and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Simone; Corradi, Luca; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Iannucci, Marina; Porro, Ivan; Rosso, Nicola; Tanfani, Elena; Testi, Angela

    2015-05-17

    The Operating Room (OR) is a key resource of all major hospitals, but it also accounts for up 40% of resource costs. Improving cost effectiveness, while maintaining a quality of care, is a universal objective. These goals imply an optimization of planning and a scheduling of the activities involved. This is highly challenging due to the inherent variable and unpredictable nature of surgery. A Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN 2.0) was used for the representation of the "OR Process" (being defined as the sequence of all of the elementary steps between "patient ready for surgery" to "patient operated upon") as a general pathway ("path"). The path was then both further standardized as much as possible and, at the same time, keeping all of the key-elements that would allow one to address or define the other steps of planning, and the inherent and wide variability in terms of patient specificity. The path was used to schedule OR activity, room-by-room, and day-by-day, feeding the process from a "waiting list database" and using a mathematical optimization model with the objective of ending up in an optimized planning. The OR process was defined with special attention paid to flows, timing and resource involvement. Standardization involved a dynamics operation and defined an expected operating time for each operation. The optimization model has been implemented and tested on real clinical data. The comparison of the results reported with the real data, shows that by using the optimization model, allows for the scheduling of about 30% more patients than in actual practice, as well as to better exploit the OR efficiency, increasing the average operating room utilization rate up to 20%. The optimization of OR activity planning is essential in order to manage the hospital's waiting list. Optimal planning is facilitated by defining the operation as a standard pathway where all variables are taken into account. By allowing a precise scheduling, it feeds the process of

  17. Testing Software Development Project Productivity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Ilya

    Software development is an increasingly influential factor in today's business environment, and a major issue affecting software development is how an organization estimates projects. If the organization underestimates cost, schedule, and quality requirements, the end results will not meet customer needs. On the other hand, if the organization overestimates these criteria, resources that could have been used more profitably will be wasted. There is no accurate model or measure available that can guide an organization in a quest for software development, with existing estimation models often underestimating software development efforts as much as 500 to 600 percent. To address this issue, existing models usually are calibrated using local data with a small sample size, with resulting estimates not offering improved cost analysis. This study presents a conceptual model for accurately estimating software development, based on an extensive literature review and theoretical analysis based on Sociotechnical Systems (STS) theory. The conceptual model serves as a solution to bridge organizational and technological factors and is validated using an empirical dataset provided by the DoD. Practical implications of this study allow for practitioners to concentrate on specific constructs of interest that provide the best value for the least amount of time. This study outlines key contributing constructs that are unique for Software Size E-SLOC, Man-hours Spent, and Quality of the Product, those constructs having the largest contribution to project productivity. This study discusses customer characteristics and provides a framework for a simplified project analysis for source selection evaluation and audit task reviews for the customers and suppliers. Theoretical contributions of this study provide an initial theory-based hypothesized project productivity model that can be used as a generic overall model across several application domains such as IT, Command and Control

  18. Limitations of JEDI Models | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group's IMPLAN accounting software. For JEDI, these are updated every two years for the best available -output modeling remains a widely used methodology for measuring economic development activity. Definition definition of the geographic area under consideration. Datasets of multipliers from IMPLAN are available at

  19. Dynamics models and modeling of tree stand development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rogozin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brief analysis of scientific works in Russia and in the CIS over the past 100 years. Logical and mathematical models consider the conceptual and show some of the results of their verification. It was found that the models include different laws and the parameters, the sum of which allows you to divide them into four categories: models of static states, development models, models of care for the natural forest and models of cultivation. Each category has fulfilled and fulfills its tasks in economic management. Thus, the model states in statics (table traverse growth played a prominent role in figuring out what may be the most productive (full stands in different regions of the country. However, they do not answer the question of what the initial states lead to the production of complete stands. In a study of the growth of stands used system analysis, and it is observed dominance of works studying static state, snatched from the biological time. Therefore, the real drama of the growth of stands remained almost unexplored. It is no accident there were «chrono-forestry» «plantation forestry» and even «non-traditional forestry», where there is a strong case of a number of new concepts of development stands. That is quite in keeping with Kuhn (Kuhn, 2009 in the forestry crisis began – there were alternative theories and coexist conflicting scientific schools. To develop models of stand development, it is proposed to use a well-known method of repeated observations within 10–20 years, in conjunction with the explanation of the history of the initial density. It mounted on the basis of studying the dynamics of its indicators: the trunk, crown overlap coefficient, the sum of volumes of all crowns and the relative length of the crown. According to these indicators, the researcher selects natural series of development stands with the same initial density. As a theoretical basis for the models it is possible to postulate the general properties of

  20. Origins of Tropospheric Ozone Interannual Variation (IAV) over Reunion: A Model Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhua; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Olsen, Mark A.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Posny, Francoise

    2016-01-01

    Observations from long-term ozonesonde measurements show robust variations and trends in the evolution of ozone in the middle and upper troposphere over Reunion Island (21.1 degrees South Latitude, 55.5 degrees East Longitude) in June-August. Here we examine possible causes of the observed ozone variation at Reunion Island using hindcast simulations by the stratosphere-troposphere Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model for 1992-2014, driven by assimilated Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields. Reunion Island is at the edge of the subtropical jet, a region of strong stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. Our analysis implies that the large interannual variation (IAV) of upper tropospheric ozone over Reunion is driven by the large IAV of the stratospheric influence. The IAV of the large-scale, quasi-horizontal wind patterns also contributes to the IAV of ozone in the upper troposphere. Comparison to a simulation with constant emissions indicates that increasing emissions do not lead to the maximum trend in the middle and upper troposphere over Reunion during austral winter implied by the sonde data. The effects of increasing emission over southern Africa are limited tothe lower troposphere near the surface in August-September.

  1. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  2. Prediction of Chemical Function: Model Development and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) project is developing both statistical and mechanism-based computational models for predicting exposures to thousands of chemicals, including those in consumer products. The high-throughput (HT) screening-level exposures developed under ExpoCast can be combined with HT screening (HTS) bioactivity data for the risk-based prioritization of chemicals for further evaluation. The functional role (e.g. solvent, plasticizer, fragrance) that a chemical performs can drive both the types of products in which it is found and the concentration in which it is present and therefore impacting exposure potential. However, critical chemical use information (including functional role) is lacking for the majority of commercial chemicals for which exposure estimates are needed. A suite of machine-learning based models for classifying chemicals in terms of their likely functional roles in products based on structure were developed. This effort required collection, curation, and harmonization of publically-available data sources of chemical functional use information from government and industry bodies. Physicochemical and structure descriptor data were generated for chemicals with function data. Machine-learning classifier models for function were then built in a cross-validated manner from the descriptor/function data using the method of random forests. The models were applied to: 1) predict chemi

  3. Modeling the origins of mammalian sociality: moderate evidence for matrilineal signatures in mouse lemur vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sharon E; Radespiel, Ute; Hasiniaina, Alida I F; Leliveld, Lisette M C; Nash, Leanne T; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-02-20

    Maternal kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity and it requires that kin are distinctive from nonkin. The transition from the ancestral state of asociality to the derived state of complex social groups is thought to have occurred via solitary foraging, in which individuals forage alone, but, unlike the asocial ancestors, maintain dispersed social networks via scent-marks and vocalizations. We hypothesize that matrilineal signatures in vocalizations were an important part of these networks. We used the solitary foraging gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) as a model for ancestral solitary foragers and tested for matrilineal signatures in their calls, thus investigating whether such signatures are already present in solitary foragers and could have facilitated the kin selection thought to have driven the evolution of increased social complexity in mammals. Because agonism can be very costly, selection for matrilineal signatures in agonistic calls should help reduce agonism between unfamiliar matrilineal kin. We conducted this study on a well-studied population of wild mouse lemurs at Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. We determined pairwise relatedness using seven microsatellite loci, matrilineal relatedness by sequencing the mitrochondrial D-loop, and sleeping group associations using radio-telemetry. We recorded agonistic calls during controlled social encounters and conducted a multi-parametric acoustic analysis to determine the spectral and temporal structure of the agonistic calls. We measured 10 calls for each of 16 females from six different matrilineal kin groups. Calls were assigned to their matriline at a rate significantly higher than chance (pDFA: correct = 47.1%, chance = 26.7%, p = 0.03). There was a statistical trend for a negative correlation between acoustic distance and relatedness (Mantel Test: g = -1.61, Z = 4.61, r = -0.13, p = 0.058). Mouse lemur agonistic calls are

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY AFTER THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION OF 1917: ORIGINS, PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gibadullin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. During the period of the fall of technical and technological stability of the Russian electric power industry, the issues related to the study of the historical experience of the origin, construction and development of such large industrial complexes are actualized. The present study aims to analyze the history of the development of the Russian electric power industry after the October Revolution of 1917, to reveal the influence of the revolution on the electric power industry, to investigate the postwar period of the formation of the Unified Energy System and to assess the current state of the electric power industry in the absence of large-scale projects and programs for updating and modernizing production facilities, propose mechanisms to improve technical and technological stability of electricity of the Russian Federation.Materials and methods. In 1920, after the October Revolution of 1917, the first plan related to the development of economic activities of the national economy was adopted, which was called the State Plan for the Electrification of Russia. This document contained the main mechanisms and requirements for the formation and establishment of a new branch for the economy. Based on the use of data from the Government of the Russian Federation, Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, Joint-stock company “United Energy System of Russia”, as well as electric power companies, the post-revolutionary period of the electric power industry development, the current state and the existing potential of the Russian electric power industry are analyzed. Using the economic-statistical, comparative and logical methods, the main results of the study were presented.Results. Analyzed indices of the electric power industry in the period 1920–1935 indicate a breakthrough in the development of the Russian energy sector, this period was marked by the

  5. Pig models on intestinal development and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lanmei; Yang, Huansheng; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Yali; Ding, Xueqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2017-12-01

    The gastrointestinal tract plays a vital role in nutrient supply, digestion, and absorption, and has a crucial impact on the entire organism. Much attention is being paid to utilize animal models to study the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases in response to intestinal development and health. The piglet has a body size similar to that of the human and is an omnivorous animal with comparable anatomy, nutritional requirements, and digestive and associated inflammatory processes, and displays similarities to the human intestinal microbial ecosystem, which make piglets more appropriate as an animal model for human than other non-primate animals. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize key attributes of the piglet model with which to study human intestinal development and intestinal health through probing into the etiology of several gastrointestinal diseases, thus providing a theoretical and hopefully practical, basis for further studies on mammalian nutrition, health, and disease, and therapeutics. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young piglets and humans, the piglet has been used as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Because of similarities in anatomy and physiology between pigs and mankind, more emphasises are put on how to use the piglet model for human organ transplantation research.

  6. Demographic origins of skewed operational and adult sex ratios: perturbation analyses of two-sex models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veran, Sophie; Beissinger, Steven R

    2009-02-01

    Skewed sex ratios - operational (OSR) and Adult (ASR) - arise from sexual differences in reproductive behaviours and adult survival rates due to the cost of reproduction. However, skewed sex-ratio at birth, sex-biased dispersal and immigration, and sexual differences in juvenile mortality may also contribute. We present a framework to decompose the roles of demographic traits on sex ratios using perturbation analyses of two-sex matrix population models. Metrics of sensitivity are derived from analyses of sensitivity, elasticity, life-table response experiments and life stage simulation analyses, and applied to the stable stage distribution instead of lambda. We use these approaches to examine causes of male-biased sex ratios in two populations of green-rumped parrotlets (Forpus passerinus) in Venezuela. Female local juvenile survival contributed the most to the unbalanced OSR and ASR due to a female-biased dispersal rate, suggesting sexual differences in philopatry can influence sex ratios more strongly than the cost of reproduction.

  7. Origin and Evolution of the Yellowstone Hotspot from Seismic-GPS Imaging and Geodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. B.; Jordan, M.; Puskas, C. M.; Farrell, J.; Waite, G. P.

    2006-12-01

    The Yellowstone hotspot resulted from interaction of a mantle plume with the overriding North America plate. This feature and related processes have influenced a large part of the western U.S., producing the 16 Ma Yellowstone-Snake River Plain-Newberry silicic-basalt volcanic field (YSRPN). We integrate results from a multi-institution experiment that deployed 80 seismic stations and 160 campaign and 21 permanent GPS stations for 1999-2003. Crust and mantle velocity models were derived from inversion of teleseismic and local earthquake data. Kinematic and dynamic models were derived from inversion of GPS velocities constrained by stresses associated the topography and the +15 m geoid anomaly. Tomography revealed a P- and S-wave low-velocity body at depths of 8-16 km beneath the caldera that is interpreted as partial melt of 8-15% that feeds the youthful Yellowstone volcanic field. Volume changes in the magma chamber are responsible for GPS-measured episodes of uplift and subsidence of the caldera at decadal scales with average rates of ~20 mm/yr but much higher short-term rates of up to 80 mm/yr. An upper-mantle low-velocity body was imaged by inverting teleseismic data constrained by the geoid structure, crustal structure, and the upper mantle discontinuities. This low P and S velocity body extends from 80 km to ~250 km directly beneath Yellowstone and then continues to 650 km with unexpected tilt to the west at ~60°. The tilt is consistent with the ascent of the buoyant magma entrained in eastward return-flow of the upper mantle. We estimate this body has an excess temperature from 85K to 120K, depending on the water content and with up to 1.5% melt. Using the inclined plume-geometry and plate motion history, we extrapolate the Yellowstone mantle source southwestward ~800 km as a plume-head in oceanic lithosphere centered beneath the Columbia Plateau basalt field at 16 Ma. Magma ascent was truncated there by the passage of thicker continental lithosphere over

  8. Physical Origin of Density Dependent Force of the Skyrme Type within the Quark Meson Coupling Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre Guichon; Hrayr Matevosyan; N. Sandulescu; Anthony Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A density dependent, effective nucleon-nucleon force of the Skyrme type is derived from the quark-meson coupling model--a self-consistent, relativistic quark level description of nuclear matter. This new formulation requires no assumption that the mean scalar field is small and hence constitutes a significant advance over earlier work. The similarity of the effective interaction to the widely used SkM* force encourages us to apply it to a wide range of nuclear problems, beginning with the binding energies and charge distributions of doubly magic nuclei. Finding impressive results in this conventional arena, we apply the same effective interaction, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach, to the properties of nuclei far from stability. The resulting two neutron drip lines and shell quenching are quite satisfactory. Finally, we apply the relativistic formulation to the properties of dense nuclear matter in anticipation of future application to the properties of neutron stars

  9. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Age model for Site U1438

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Antony; Maffione, Marco; Kender, Sev; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Bandini, Alexandre; Guerra, Rodrigo do Monte

    2015-04-01

    We report preliminary paleomagnetic and paleontological results from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 351, which recovered an unprecedented ~1.4 km thick volcaniclastic sedimentary record documenting the initiation and subsequent evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) intra-oceanic arc-basin system. Magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic constraints provide a high-resolution temporal framework for interpretation of this record. Paleomagnetic analyses of archive half core samples provide a continuous record of the geomagnetic field inclination down to 847 mbsf that allows construction of a detailed site magnetostratigraphy that closely matches the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale (Gradstein et al., 2012). A total of 87 geomagnetic reversals have been recognized in the studied succession, extending back to ~36 Ma. Despite sporadic microfossil occurrences in parts, calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians each contribute to the age model for the entire Site. All nannofossil marker species for Oligocene to Eocene Zones NP25 to NP19/20 are recognised. Beneath paleomagnetic control (847-1449 mbsf), foraminifera and radiolarians provide the only age control. The most salient features of the age model are that: (i) average linear sedimentation rates during the Plio-Pleistocene range from 1.4 to 2.2 cm/ka; (ii) there was a reduction in sedimentation rates to 0.25 - 0.5 cm/ka throughout the Miocene; and (iii) sedimentation rates sharply increase again in the Oligocene to Late Eocene to a maximum of ~20 cm/ka. These quantitative constraints closely match (non-quantitative) inferences based on the lithostratigraphy of the site, with fine-grained/coarse-grained sediments dominating in periods with low/high sedimentation rates respectively.

  10. Complexation modelling of uranium and other actinides by organic compounds of natural or synthetic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouby, M.

    1998-01-01

    The future of nuclear wastes raises a lot of questions. Their resolution require an accurate knowledge of the physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the properties of radioelements constituting the wastes. 3 research themes have been approached. The experimental methods used are: neutronic activation analysis, UV-visible spectrophotometry and time-resolved induced laser spectro-fluorimetry. A part of the phenomena has been modelled by ionic strength correction models (as Davies or MSA). The main results have revealed: 1)the bio-sorption capacities of the microorganism (Mycobacterium phlei) for UO 2 2+ and NpO 2+ (in conditions where the specific adsorption capacities Qe(UO 2 2+ )=60 and Qe(NpO 2+ )=444 moles cations/g dry biomass 2)the retention capacities, in various leaching conditions, by this bacteria of the ions initially adsorbed 3)the complexation properties of 2 siderophores for the cations UO 2 2+ , U 4+ and Th 4+ . The thermodynamical equilibrium constants were determined for one of the siderophore: the pyoverdine A; they were such that KUO 2 2+ ≤KU 4+ ≤KTh 4+ 4)in very acidic media (HCl and HClO 4 until 12 M), the behaviour of the acylisoxazolone HPBI (1-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone) and the value of its acidity thermodynamical constant is such that 0.13≤KATh≤0.32 at 25 degrees Celsius 5)the variations of the fluorescence properties of the uranyl cation in terms of the acidity of the concentrated media (HClO 4 and CF 3 SO 3 H) in which they are in solution; it seems that a complexation between the uranyl ion and the counter-ions present in solution occur. (O.M.)

  11. An animal model of tinnitus: a decade of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Sasaki, C T

    1994-01-01

    Although tinnitus affects approximately 9 million people in the United States, a cure remains elusive and the mechanisms of its origin are speculative. The crucial obstacle in tinnitus research has been the lack of an animal model. Over the last decade we have been creating such a model by combining a variety of methodologies, including a behavioral component, to allow for the detection of tinnitus perception. Initially, 2-deoxyglucose had been used to map changes in the metabolic activity after unilateral destruction of the cochlea. It has been found that the initial decrease of the metabolic rate in the auditory nuclei recovered to preoperative values, which could be attributable to the development of tinnitus. The spontaneous activity of single units recorded from the inferior colliculus before and after salicylate administration revealed an increase of discharges, which might reflect the presence of salicylate-induced tinnitus. Recent data have confirmed, and further elaborated this observation, including the discovery of abnormal, epileptic-like, neuronal activity. Finally, the authors have developed a behavioral model of tinnitus, tested it extensively, and used it to measure tinnitus pitch and loudness. The model is presently used for investigating the hypotheses for the mechanisms of tinnitus.

  12. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Ke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Bradley R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This interim report presents progress towards the development of meso-scale models of magnetic behavior that incorporate microstructural information. Modeling magnetic signatures in irradiated materials with complex microstructures (such as structural steels) is a significant challenge. The complexity is addressed incrementally, using the monocrystalline Fe (i.e., ferrite) film as model systems to develop and validate initial models, followed by polycrystalline Fe films, and by more complicated and representative alloys. In addition, the modeling incrementally addresses inclusion of other major phases (e.g., martensite, austenite), minor magnetic phases (e.g., carbides, FeCr precipitates), and minor nonmagnetic phases (e.g., Cu precipitates, voids). The focus of the magnetic modeling is on phase-field models. The models are based on the numerical solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. From the computational standpoint, phase-field modeling allows the simulation of large enough systems that relevant defect structures and their effects on functional properties like magnetism can be simulated. To date, two phase-field models have been generated in support of this work. First, a bulk iron model with periodic boundary conditions was generated as a proof-of-concept to investigate major loop effects of single versus polycrystalline bulk iron and effects of single non-magnetic defects. More recently, to support the experimental program herein using iron thin films, a new model was generated that uses finite boundary conditions representing surfaces and edges. This model has provided key insights into the domain structures observed in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Simulation results for single crystal thin-film iron indicate the feasibility of the model for determining magnetic domain wall thickness and mobility in an externally applied field. Because the phase-field model dimensions are limited relative to the size of most specimens used in

  13. Sodium-concrete reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1982-07-01

    Major observations have been formulated after reviewing test results for over 100 sodium-concrete reaction tests. The observations form the basis for developing a mechanistic model to predict the transient behavior of sodium-concrete reactions. The major observations are listed. Mechanisms associated with sodium and water transport to the reaction zone are identified, and represented by appropriate mathematical expressions. The model attempts to explain large-scale, long-term (100 h) test results were sodium-concrete reactions terminated even in the presence of unreacted sodium and concrete

  14. Molecular recognition of the environment and mechanisms of the origin of species in quantum-like modeling of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2017-11-01

    A review of the mechanisms of speciation is performed. The mechanisms of the evolution of species, taking into account the feedback of the state of the environment and mechanisms of the emergence of complexity, are considered. It is shown that these mechanisms, at the molecular level, cannot work steadily in terms of classical mechanics. Quantum mechanisms of changes in the genome, based on the long-range interaction potential between biologically important molecules, are proposed as one of possible explanation. Different variants of interactions of the organism and environment based on molecular recognition and leading to new species origins are considered. Experiments to verify the model are proposed. This bio-physical study is completed by the general operational model of based on quantum information theory. The latter is applied to model of epigenetic evolution. We briefly present the basics of the quantum-like approach to modeling of bio-informational processes. This approach is illustrated by the quantum-like model of epigenetic evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - cost module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiciak, R.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    The design-constructional process is a creation activity which strives to fulfil, as well as it possible at the certain moment of time, all demands and needs formulated by a user taking into account social, technical and technological advances. Engineer knowledge and skills and their inborn abilities have the greatest influence on the final product quality and cost. They have also deciding influence on product technical and economic value. Taking into account above it seems to be advisable to make software tools that support an engineer in the process of manufacturing cost estimation. The Cost module is built with analytical procedures which are used for relative manufacturing cost estimation. As in the case of the Generator module the Cost module was written in object programming language C# in Visual Studio environment. During the research the following eight factors, that have the greatest influence on overall manufacturing cost, were distinguished and defined: (i) a gear wheel teeth type it is straight or helicoidal, (ii) a gear wheel design shape A, B with or without wheel hub, (iii) a gear tooth module, (iv) teeth number, (v) gear rim width, (vi) gear wheel material, (vii) heat treatment or thermochemical treatment, (viii) accuracy class. Knowledge of parameters (i) to (v) is indispensable for proper modelling of 3D gear wheels models in CAD system environment. These parameters are also processed in the Cost module. The last three parameters it is (vi) to (viii) are exclusively used in the Cost module. The estimation of manufacturing relative cost is based on indexes calculated for each particular parameter. Estimated in this way the manufacturing relative cost gives an overview of design parameters influence on the final gear wheel manufacturing cost. This relative manufacturing cost takes values from 0.00 to 1,00 range. The bigger index value the higher relative manufacturing cost is. Verification whether the proposed algorithm of relative manufacturing

  16. Comparative study originated photoneutrons different energy linear accelerators, manufacturer and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposito, M. R.; Terron, J. A.; Domingo, C.; Amgarou, K.; Garcia-Fuente, M. J.; Gonzalez-Soto, J.; Legares, J. I.; Gomez, F.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.

    2011-01-01

    Pollution neutron radiotherapy with photon beams of energy greater than 10 MV represents a major inconvenience for patients in treatment, given the increased likelihood of developing a second radiation-induced cancer. Most of these neutrons are generated in the accelerator head as a result of the interaction of photons with heavy metals. As a result, knowledge of the effect on patients in the fields of neutrons from the accelerator should lead to improvements in design and selection of components from manufacturers. For this purpose, we have performed comparative measurements of the neutron fields present in both the patient (represented by an anthropomorphic phantom) and in the treatment room, considering almost all types of machines currently operating in the world.

  17. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  18. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI, enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n=3 or without (n=3 pancreatic duct ligation (PL were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C, there was an almost complete pcD (>92% except for potato starch (61.5% which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%. Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  19. Development of multipurpose regulatory PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Sung, Key Yong; Kim, Hho Jung; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    Generally, risk information for nuclear facilities comes from the results of Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). PSA is a systematic tool to ensure the safety of nuclear facilities, since it is based on thorough and consistent application of probability models. In particular, the PSA has been widely utilized for risk-informed regulation (RIR), including various licensee-initiated risk-informed applications (RIA). In any regulatory decision, the main goal is to make a sound safety decision based on technically defensible information. Also, due to the increased public requests for giving a safety guarantee, the regulator should provide the visible means of safety. The use of PSA by the regulator can give the answer on this problem. Therefore, in order to study the applicability of risk information for regulatory safety management, it is a demanding task to prepare a well-established regulatory PSA model and tool. In 2002, KINS and KAERI together made a research cooperation to form a working group to develop the regulatory PSA model - so-called MPAS model. The MPAS stands for multipurpose probabilistic analysis of safety. For instance, a role of the MPAS model is to give some risk insights in the preparation of various regulatory programs. Another role of this model is to provide an independent risk information to the regulator during regulatory decision-making, not depending on the licensee's information

  20. A model for Business Intelligence Systems’ Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manole VELICANU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Often, Business Intelligence Systems (BIS require historical data or data collected from var-ious sources. The solution is found in data warehouses, which are the main technology used to extract, transform, load and store data in the organizational Business Intelligence projects. The development cycle of a data warehouse involves lots of resources, time, high costs and above all, it is built only for some specific tasks. In this paper, we’ll present some of the aspects of the BI systems’ development such as: architecture, lifecycle, modeling techniques and finally, some evaluation criteria for the system’s performance.

  1. Ecological aspects in sustainable development model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlapov, L.I.

    1996-01-01

    Environment problems are caused by intensive use of natural resources due to scientific progress in combination with the present structure of unlimited consumption. To prevent the impending ecological disaster a model of sustainable development has been worked out. It is aimed at satisfying the ever-growing requirements of the modern man without damaging the environment. Scientifically grounded use of nature mat contribute to solution of the problem. The acceptable use of nature should take account of the land ecosystem resources which is ensured by reliable model including flow balance in particular. Irreversible flows generate entropy which could be the universal measure of technic genetics impact. Entropic condition of the acceptable (sustainable) development are started: techno-genic entropy production must be less than natural entropy production. Particular sciences should be re-oriented towards environmental problems. Environmental monitoring strategy should provide for determination of macro properties as well as flows. (author)

  2. Modelling the canopy development of bambara groundnut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunaratne, A.S.; Azam-Ali, S.N.; Al-Shareef, I.

    2010-01-01

    Canopy development of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) is affected by temperature stress, drought stress and photoperiod. The quantification of these documented effects by means of a suitable crop model, BAMGRO is presented in this paper. Data on canopy development from five growth...... chamber, four glasshouse and three field experiments were analyzed to calibrate and validate the BAMGRO model to produce simulations for temperature stress, drought stress and photoperiodic effect on two contrasting landraces; Uniswa Red (Swaziland) and S19-3 (Namibia). The daily initiation rate of new...... leaves is calculated by means of a Gaussian function and is altered by temperature stress, drought stress, photoperiod and plant density. The rate in dead leaf number is dependent upon the maximum senescence fraction which can be explained by physiological maturity, mutual shading, temperature stress...

  3. Developing Soil Models for Dynamic Impact Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes fundamental soils characterization work performed at NASA Langley Research Center in support of the Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) Aeronautics Program and the Orion Landing System (LS) Advanced Development Program (ADP). LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark)1 soil impact model development and test-analysis correlation results are presented for: (1) a 38-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section, outfitted with four blocks of deployable energy absorbers (DEA), onto sand, and (2) a series of impact tests of a 1/2-scale geometric boilerplate Orion capsule onto soil. In addition, the paper will discuss LS-DYNA contact analysis at the soil/structure interface, methods used to estimate frictional forces, and the sensitivity of the model to density, moisture, and compaction.

  4. Model of the Product Development Lifecycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Sunny L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roe, Natalie H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wood, Evan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nachtigal, Noel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helms, Jovana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    While the increased use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf information technology equipment has presented opportunities for improved cost effectiveness and flexibility, the corresponding loss of control over the product's development creates unique vulnerabilities and security concerns. Of particular interest is the possibility of a supply chain attack. A comprehensive model for the lifecycle of hardware and software products is proposed based on a survey of existing literature from academic, government, and industry sources. Seven major lifecycle stages are identified and defined: (1) Requirements, (2) Design, (3) Manufacturing for hardware and Development for software, (4) Testing, (5) Distribution, (6) Use and Maintenance, and (7) Disposal. The model is then applied to examine the risk of attacks at various stages of the lifecycle.

  5. Hot model of formation of galaxies: galaxy sizes and the origin of the stellar component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchkov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Within the framework of the ''hot'' model of the formation of galaxies, a mechanism proposed is by which a protogalaxy transforms into a stellar system. It gives a quantitative relation between the mass and size of galaxy which well fits in with the observational relation; also it specifies two characteristic values of mass which coincide with masses of stars and globular clusters. It is shown that a ''hot protogalaxy'' (T ∼ 10 7 K) contracting under the gravity of a massive dark halo attains a critical size and fragments into separate clouds via thermal instability. The clouds form a collisionless system which collapses quasiadiabatically and reaches the equilibrium after its size decreases approximately by a factor of two. This defines the final zero of the system:R S ∼ 10 (M S /10 11 M sun ) 1/2 kpc. It is close to the sizes of elliptical galaxies and halos of spiral galaxies, and agree with the Faber-Jackson relation. The instability forms clouds with temperatures T c ' ∼ 10 4 K and T c ∼ (10-10 2 ) K. The sharp temperature and density change caused by the cloud formation leads to a sharp change of the Jeans mass. It value drops to M J ∼ 10 5 M sun for the clouds with T c ∼ 10 4 K, and to M J ' ∼ (10 -1 -10) M sun for the clouds with T c ' ∼ (10-10 2 ) K. This may explain why the mass spectrum of galactic objects is rather sharply peaked at two values corresponding to stellar mass and globular cluster mass

  6. Macroeconomic model of national economy development (extended

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diaconova

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroeconomic model offered in this paper describes complex functioning of national economy and can be used for forecasting of possible directions of its development depending on various economic policies. It is the extension of [2] and adaptation of [3]. With the purpose of determination of state policies influence in the field of taxes and exchange rate national economy is considered within the framework of three sectors: government, private and external world.

  7. Continued development of modeling tools and theory for RF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Mission Research Corporation (MRC) is pleased to present the Department of Energy (DOE) with its renewal proposal to the Continued Development of Modeling Tools and Theory for RF Heating program. The objective of the program is to continue and extend the earlier work done by the proposed principal investigator in the field of modeling (Radio Frequency) RF heating experiments in the large tokamak fusion experiments, particularly the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) device located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). An integral part of this work is the investigation and, in some cases, resolution of theoretical issues which pertain to accurate modeling. MRC is nearing the successful completion of the specified tasks of the Continued Development of Modeling Tools and Theory for RF Heating project. The following tasks are either completed or nearing completion. (1) Anisotropic temperature and rotation upgrades; (2) Modeling for relativistic ECRH; (3) Further documentation of SHOOT and SPRUCE. As a result of the progress achieved under this project, MRC has been urged to continue this effort. Specifically, during the performance of this project two topics were identified by PPPL personnel as new applications of the existing RF modeling tools. These two topics concern (a) future fast-wave current drive experiments on the large tokamaks including TFTR and (c) the interpretation of existing and future RF probe data from TFTR. To address each of these topics requires some modification or enhancement of the existing modeling tools, and the first topic requires resolution of certain theoretical issues to produce self-consistent results. This work falls within the scope of the original project and is more suited to the project's renewal than to the initiation of a new project

  8. Game dynamic model for yeast development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhijun

    2012-07-01

    Game theoretic models, along with replicator equations, have been applied successfully to the study of evolution of populations of competing species, including the growth of a population, the reaching of the population to an equilibrium state, and the evolutionary stability of the state. In this paper, we analyze a game model proposed by Gore et al. (Nature 456:253-256, 2009) in their recent study on the co-development of two mixed yeast strains. We examine the mathematical properties of this model with varying experimental parameters. We simulate the growths of the yeast strains and compare them with the experimental results. We also compute and analyze the equilibrium state of the system and prove that it is asymptotically and evolutionarily stable.

  9. Animal Migraine Models for Drug Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is number seven in WHO's list of all diseases causing disability and the third most costly neurological disorder in Europe. Acute attacks are treatable by highly selective drugs such as the triptans but there is still a huge unmet therapeutic need. Unfortunately, drug development...... for headache has almost come to a standstill partly because of a lack of valid animal models. Here we review previous models with emphasis on optimal characteristics of a future model. In addition to selection of animal species, the method of induction of migraine-like changes and the method of recording...... responses elicited by such measures are crucial. The most naturalistic way of inducing attacks is by infusion of endogenous signaling molecules that are known to cause migraine in patients. The most valid response is recording of neural activity in the trigeminal system. The most useful headache related...

  10. [Ecological, functional, and thermodynamic prerequisites and consequences of homoeothermy origin and development, with avian energetics as a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, V M

    2012-01-01

    Homoeothermy has formed in birds and mammals independently and in different geological ages. However, in both groups it originated as a side effect of selection for aerobic metabolism improvement that provided a higher level of activity. Advantages of having high and stable body temperature, which are inevitably related with metabolism intensification, led to development of thermoregulatory adaptations such as fur and feathers. This made it possible to retain the metabolically generated heat and reduce heat absorption in hot environments. Emergence of homoeothermy with aerobic supply of motion activity, possibilities to regulate the level of metabolism and thermolysis, has opened a lot of opportunities for homoeothermic animals. Achieving such a level of energy utilization allowed them to maintain activity for a longer time, while its sensory support led to complication and diversification of birds' behavioral repertoire (as well as that of mammals) facilitating the conquest of almost entire part of the biosphere that is suitable for living. This process was favoured by the development of nurturing and passing on the information, collected throughout the life, to new generations. Formation of high levels of aerobic metabolism in birds and mammals was proceeding in parallel among different groups of reptilian ancestors. The level of homoeothermy, at which aerobic metabolism is able to maintain prolonged activity, developed in birds and mammals in different ways: they have got dissimilar partitioning of venous and arterial networks, erythrocytes with or without a cell nucleus, different lungs design--but, at that, similar minimum metabolic power and rather close body temperatures which correspond well to the environmental conditions on the Earth. Natural selection allowed animals with high energetic metabolism to increase their diversity and abundance, but only when homoeothermic animals could satisfy their demands for food resources, that have risen manifold. That

  11. Development of molecular markers for determining continental origin of wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke Schroeder; Richard Cronn; Yulai Yanbaev; Tara Jennings; Malte Mader; Bernd Degen; Birgit Kersten; Dusan Gomory

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica...

  12. Agribusiness model approach to territorial food development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murcia Hector Horacio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Several research efforts have coordinated the academic program of Agricultural Business Management from the University De La Salle (Bogota D.C., to the design and implementation of a sustainable agribusiness model applied to food development, with territorial projection. Rural development is considered as a process that aims to improve the current capacity and potential of the inhabitant of the sector, which refers not only to production levels and productivity of agricultural items. It takes into account the guidelines of the Organization of the United Nations “Millennium Development Goals” and considered the concept of sustainable food and agriculture development, including food security and nutrition in an integrated interdisciplinary context, with holistic and systemic dimension. Analysis is specified by a model with an emphasis on sustainable agribusiness production chains related to agricultural food items in a specific region. This model was correlated with farm (technical objectives, family (social purposes and community (collective orientations projects. Within this dimension are considered food development concepts and methodologies of Participatory Action Research (PAR. Finally, it addresses the need to link the results to low-income communities, within the concepts of the “new rurality”.

  13. Exploring the origin of broad-band emissions of Mrk 501 with a two-zone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Maichang; Yang, Chuyuan; Wang, Jiancheng; Yang, Xiaolin

    2018-04-01

    We propose a two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, including an inner gamma-ray emitting region with spherical shape and a conical radio emitting region located at the extended jet, to alleviate the long-standing "bulk Lorentz factor crisis" in blazars. In this model, the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of blazars are produced by considering the gamma-ray emitting region inverse Compton scattering of both the synchrotron photons itself and the ambient photons from the radio emitting region. Applying the model to Mrk 501, we obtain that the radio emitting region has a comoving length of ˜0.15 pc and is located at sub-parsec scale from the central engine by modeling the radio data; the flux of the Compton scattering of the ambient photons is so low that it can be neglected safely. The characteristic hard gamma-ray spectrum can be explained by the superposition of two SSC processes, and the model can approximately explain the very high energy (VHE) data. The insights into the spectral shape and the inter-band correlations under the flaring state will provide us with a diagnostic for the bulk Lorentz factor of radio emitting region, where the low and upper limits of 8 and 15 are preferred, and for the two-zone SSC model itself. In addition, our two-zone SSC model shows that the gamma-ray emitting region creates flare on the timescale of merely a few hours, and the long time outbursts more likely originate from the extended radio emitting region.

  14. The IR obstruction to UV completion for Dante’s Inferno model with higher-dimensional gauge theory origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki [Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal University,Manipal, Karnataka 576104 (India); Koyama, Yoji [National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing-Hua University,Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan R.O.C. (China)

    2016-06-21

    We continue our investigation of large field inflation models obtained from higher-dimensional gauge theories, initiated in our previous study http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2015/02/031. We focus on Dante’s Inferno model which was the most preferred model in our previous analysis. We point out the relevance of the IR obstruction to UV completion, which constrains the form of the potential of the massive vector field, under the current observational upper bound on the tensor to scalar ratio. We also show that in simple examples of the potential arising from DBI action of a D5-brane and that of an NS5-brane that the inflation takes place in the field range which is within the convergence radius of the Taylor expansion. This is in contrast to the well known examples of axion monodromy inflation where inflaton takes place outside the convergence radius of the Taylor expansion. This difference arises from the very essence of Dante’s Inferno model that the effective inflaton potential is stretched in the inflaton field direction compared with the potential for the original field.

  15. Original analytical model of the hydrodynamic loads applied on the half-bridge of a circular settling tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, Emil M.; Dascalescu, Anca-Elena; Sabau, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents an original analytical model of the hydrodynamic loads applied on the half-bridge of a circular settling tank. The calculus domain is defined using analytical geometry and the calculus of the local dynamic pressure is based on the radius from the center of the settling tank to the current area, i.e. the relative velocity of the fluid and the depth where the current area is located, i.e. the density of the fluid. Calculus of the local drag forces uses the discrete frontal cross sectional areas of the submerged structure in contact with the fluid. In the last stage is performed the reduction of the local drag forces in the appropriate points belonging to the main beam. This class of loads is producing the flexure of the main beam in a horizontal plane and additional twisting moments along this structure. Taking into account the hydrodynamic loads, the results of the theoretical models, i.e. the analytical model and the finite element model, may have an increased accuracy.

  16. The IR obstruction to UV completion for Dante’s Inferno model with higher-dimensional gauge theory origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki; Koyama, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    We continue our investigation of large field inflation models obtained from higher-dimensional gauge theories, initiated in our previous study http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2015/02/031. We focus on Dante’s Inferno model which was the most preferred model in our previous analysis. We point out the relevance of the IR obstruction to UV completion, which constrains the form of the potential of the massive vector field, under the current observational upper bound on the tensor to scalar ratio. We also show that in simple examples of the potential arising from DBI action of a D5-brane and that of an NS5-brane that the inflation takes place in the field range which is within the convergence radius of the Taylor expansion. This is in contrast to the well known examples of axion monodromy inflation where inflaton takes place outside the convergence radius of the Taylor expansion. This difference arises from the very essence of Dante’s Inferno model that the effective inflaton potential is stretched in the inflaton field direction compared with the potential for the original field.

  17. Genomic, RNAseq, and Molecular Modeling Evidence Suggests That the Major Allergen Domain in Insects Evolved from a Homodimeric Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas A.; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects. PMID:24253356

  18. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young as a model for elucidating the multifactorial origin of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Yukio

    2018-02-06

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a form of diabetes classically characterized as having autosomal dominant inheritance, onset before the age of 25 years in at least one family member and partly preserved pancreatic β-cell function. The 14 responsible genes are reported to be MODY type 1~14, of which MODY 2 and 3 might be the most common forms. Although MODY is currently classified as diabetes of a single gene defect, it has become clear that mutations in rare MODYs, such as MODY 5 and MODY 6, have small mutagenic effects and low penetrance. In addition, as there are differences in the clinical phenotypes caused by the same mutation even in the same family, other phenotypic modifying factors are thought to exist; MODY could well have characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is of multifactorial origin. Here, we outline the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the known phenotypes of MODY, focusing mainly on the examples of MODY 5 and 6, which have low penetrance, as suggestive models for elucidating the multifactorial origin of type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. A microhomology-mediated break-induced replication model for the origin of human copy number variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Hastings

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome structural changes with nonrecurrent endpoints associated with genomic disorders offer windows into the mechanism of origin of copy number variation (CNV. A recent report of nonrecurrent duplications associated with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease identified three distinctive characteristics. First, the majority of events can be seen to be complex, showing discontinuous duplications mixed with deletions, inverted duplications, and triplications. Second, junctions at endpoints show microhomology of 2-5 base pairs (bp. Third, endpoints occur near pre-existing low copy repeats (LCRs. Using these observations and evidence from DNA repair in other organisms, we derive a model of microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR for the origin of CNV and, ultimately, of LCRs. We propose that breakage of replication forks in stressed cells that are deficient in homologous recombination induces an aberrant repair process with features of break-induced replication (BIR. Under these circumstances, single-strand 3' tails from broken replication forks will anneal with microhomology on any single-stranded DNA nearby, priming low-processivity polymerization with multiple template switches generating complex rearrangements, and eventual re-establishment of processive replication.

  20. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. ► We merge attitude–behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. ► Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. ► Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. ► Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude–behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz’s altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals’ engagement in future policies.

  1. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula, E-mail: a.bortoleto@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  2. On the Origins of Mars' Exospheric Nonthermal Oxygen Component as Observed by MAVEN and Modeled by HELIOSARES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, F.; Chaufray, J. Y.; Modolo, R.; Leclercq, L.; Curry, S.; Luhmann, J.; Lillis, R.; Hara, T.; McFadden, J.; Halekas, J.; Schneider, N.; Deighan, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Benna, M.; Johnson, R. E.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Forget, F.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Eparvier, F. G.; Jakosky, B.

    2017-12-01

    The first measurements of the emission brightness of the oxygen atomic exosphere by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission have clearly shown that it is composed of a thermal component produced by the extension of the upper atmosphere and of a nonthermal component. Modeling these measurements allows us to constrain the origins of the exospheric O and, as a consequence, to estimate Mars' present oxygen escape rate. We here propose an analysis of three periods of MAVEN observations based on a set of three coupled models: a hybrid magnetospheric model (LATmos HYbrid Simulation (LatHyS)), an Exospheric General Model (EGM), and the Global Martian Circulation model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-GCM), which provide a description of Mars' environment from the surface up to the solar wind. The simulated magnetosphere by LatHyS is in good agreement with MAVEN Plasma and Field Package instruments data. The LMD-GCM modeled upper atmospheric profiles for the main neutral and ion species are compared to Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer/MAVEN data showing that the LMD-GCM can provide a satisfactory global view of Mars' upper atmosphere. Finally, we were able to reconstruct the expected emission brightness intensity from the oxygen exosphere using EGM. The good agreement with the averaged measured profiles by Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph during these three periods suggests that Mars' exospheric nonthermal component can be fully explained by the reactions of dissociative recombination of the O2+ ion in Mars' ionosphere, limiting significantly our ability to extract information from MAVEN observations of the O exosphere on other nonthermal processes, such as sputtering.

  3. Development of a smart DC grid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma’rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made, E-mail: imadejoni@phys.unpad.ac.id [Lab. of Instrumentation System and Functional Material Processing, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM21, Jatinangor 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become ‘smart’. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  4. Development of a smart DC grid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma’rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-01-01

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become ‘smart’. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  5. Ongoing Model Development Analyzing Glass Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, G.; Bojtar, I.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements of the ...... an overview of the structure of the research and a summary of current status archived so far.......Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements...... of the residual stress state before failure and high-speed camera recordings of the failure are being performed in order to verify the numerical model. The primary goal of this research is to follow the overall fracture of a structural element – e.g. beam – loaded inplane. Present paper would like to give...

  6. Methodological Developments in Geophysical Assimilation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, George

    2005-06-01

    This work presents recent methodological developments in geophysical assimilation research. We revisit the meaning of the term "solution" of a mathematical model representing a geophysical system, and we examine its operational formulations. We argue that an assimilation solution based on epistemic cognition (which assumes that the model describes incomplete knowledge about nature and focuses on conceptual mechanisms of scientific thinking) could lead to more realistic representations of the geophysical situation than a conventional ontologic assimilation solution (which assumes that the model describes nature as is and focuses on form manipulations). Conceptually, the two approaches are fundamentally different. Unlike the reasoning structure of conventional assimilation modeling that is based mainly on ad hoc technical schemes, the epistemic cognition approach is based on teleologic criteria and stochastic adaptation principles. In this way some key ideas are introduced that could open new areas of geophysical assimilation to detailed understanding in an integrated manner. A knowledge synthesis framework can provide the rational means for assimilating a variety of knowledge bases (general and site specific) that are relevant to the geophysical system of interest. Epistemic cognition-based assimilation techniques can produce a realistic representation of the geophysical system, provide a rigorous assessment of the uncertainty sources, and generate informative predictions across space-time. The mathematics of epistemic assimilation involves a powerful and versatile spatiotemporal random field theory that imposes no restriction on the shape of the probability distributions or the form of the predictors (non-Gaussian distributions, multiple-point statistics, and nonlinear models are automatically incorporated) and accounts rigorously for the uncertainty features of the geophysical system. In the epistemic cognition context the assimilation concept may be used to

  7. The origin of the moon and the early history of the earth - A chemical model. Part 1: The moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, H. St.C.

    1991-01-01

    The chemical implications of a giant impact model for the origin of the moon are examined, both for the moon and for the earth. The Impactor is taken to be an approximately Mars-sized body. It is argued that the likeliest bulk chemical composition of the moon is quite similar to that of the earth's mantle, and that this composition may be explained in detail if about 80% of the moon came from the primitive earth's mantle after segregation of the earth's core. The other 20% of the moon is modelled as coming from (a) the Impactor, which is constrained to be an oxidized, probably undifferentiated body of roughly CI chondritic composition (on a volatile free basis) and (b) a late stage veneer, with a composition and oxidation state similar to that of the H-group ordinary chondrites. This latter component is the source of all the volatile elements in the moon, which failed to condense from the earth-and Impactor-derived materials; this component constitutes about 4% of the moon. It is argued that Mo may behave as a volatile element under the relatively oxidising conditions necessary for the condensation of the proto-moon. The model accounts satisfactorily for most of the siderophile elements, including Fe, Ni, Co, W, P, and Cu. The relatively well-constrained lunar abundances of V, Cr, and Mn are also accounted for; their depletion in the moon is inherited from the earth's mantle

  8. The origin of the moon and the early history of the earth - a chemical model. Part 2: The earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, H.St.C.

    1991-01-01

    The geochemical implications for the earth of a giant impact model for the origin of the earth-moon system are discussed, using a mass balance between three components: the proto-earth, the Impactor, and a late veneer. It is argued that the proto-earth accretes from material resembling a high temperature condensate from the solar nebula. Core formation takes place under very reducing conditions, resulting in the mantle of the proto-earth being completely stripped of all elements more siderophile than Fe, and partly depleted in the barely siderophile elements V, Cr, and perhaps Si. The Impactor then collides with the proto-earth, causing vaporisation of both the Impactor and a substantial portion of the earth's mantle. Most of this material recondenses to the earth, but some forms the moon. The Impactor adds most of the complement of the siderophile elements of the present mantle in an oxidized form. The oxidation state of the mantle is set near to its present, oxidized level. Finally, the addition of a late veneer, of composition similar to that of the H-group ordinary chondrites, accounts for the complement of the highly siderophile elements of the present mantle. The model accounts at least semi-quantitatively for the siderophile element abundances of the present mantle. Implications for the composition of the earth's core are discussed; the model predicts that neither S, O, nor Si should be present in sufficient quantities to provide the required light element in the core, whose identity, therefore, remains enigmatic

  9. Development of a new fuzzy exposure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Wagner Eustaquio de; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Texeira, Marcello Goulart

    2007-01-01

    The main topic of this study is the development of an exposure fuzzy model to evaluate the exposure of inhabitants in an area containing uranium, which present a high natural background. In this work, a fuzzy model was created, based on some of the following main factors: activity concentration of uranium, physiological factors and characteristic customs of the exposed individuals. An inference block was created to evaluate some factors of radiation exposure. For this, AHP-fuzzy technique (Analytic Hierarchic Process) was used and its application was demonstrated for a subjected population to the radiation of the natural uranium. The Mandami type fuzzy model was also created from the opinion of specialists. The Monte Carlo method was used to generate a statistics of input data and the daily average exposure served as comparison parameter between the three techniques. The output fuzzy sets were expressed in form of linguistic variables, such as high, medium and low. In the qualitative analysis, the obtained results were satisfactory when translating the opinion of the specialists. In the quantitative analysis, the obtained values are part of the same fuzzy set as the values found in literature. The global results suggest that this type of fuzzy model is highly promising for analysis of exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  10. Development of a new fuzzy exposure model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Wagner Eustaquio de; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Engenharia de Reatores], E-mail: wagner@ufpe.br, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br; Texeira, Marcello Goulart [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Terrestrial Modelling Group], E-mail: marcellogt@ime.eb.br

    2007-07-01

    The main topic of this study is the development of an exposure fuzzy model to evaluate the exposure of inhabitants in an area containing uranium, which present a high natural background. In this work, a fuzzy model was created, based on some of the following main factors: activity concentration of uranium, physiological factors and characteristic customs of the exposed individuals. An inference block was created to evaluate some factors of radiation exposure. For this, AHP-fuzzy technique (Analytic Hierarchic Process) was used and its application was demonstrated for a subjected population to the radiation of the natural uranium. The Mandami type fuzzy model was also created from the opinion of specialists. The Monte Carlo method was used to generate a statistics of input data and the daily average exposure served as comparison parameter between the three techniques. The output fuzzy sets were expressed in form of linguistic variables, such as high, medium and low. In the qualitative analysis, the obtained results were satisfactory when translating the opinion of the specialists. In the quantitative analysis, the obtained values are part of the same fuzzy set as the values found in literature. The global results suggest that this type of fuzzy model is highly promising for analysis of exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  11. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Original Business Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Kristiansen, Kristian Brøndum

    2017-01-01

    This extended abstract aims to design a research method for studying potential meaningful roles creativity may take in entrepreneurship training. It suggests an experimental setup using a 30 ECTS entrepreneurship course at a Danish university for conducting the experiments and the data collection...

  13. Development and application of earth system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  14. A study on online monitoring system development using empirical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sang Ha

    2010-02-15

    Maintenance technologies have been progressed from a time-based to a condition-based manner. The fundamental idea of condition-based maintenance (CBM) is built on the real-time diagnosis of impending failures and/or the prognosis of residual lifetime of equipment by monitoring health conditions using various sensors. The success of CBM, therefore, hinges on the capability to develop accurate diagnosis/prognosis models. Even though there may be an unlimited number of methods to implement models, the models can normally be classified into two categories in terms of their origins: using physical principles or historical observations. I have focused on the latter method (sometimes referred as the empirical model based on statistical learning) because of some practical benefits such as context-free applicability, configuration flexibility, and customization adaptability. While several pilot-scale systems using empirical models have been applied to work sites in Korea, it should be noticed that these do not seem to be generally competitive against conventional physical models. As a result of investigating the bottlenecks of previous attempts, I have recognized the need for a novel strategy for grouping correlated variables such that an empirical model can accept not only statistical correlation but also some extent of physical knowledge of a system. Detailed examples of problems are as follows: (1) missing of important signals in a group caused by the lack of observations, (2) problems of signals with the time delay, (3) problems of optimal kernel bandwidth. In this study an improved statistical learning framework including the proposed strategy and case studies illustrating the performance of the method are presented.

  15. Development of Dynamic Environmental Effect Calculation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il

    2010-01-01

    The short-term, long-term decay heat, and radioactivity are considered as main environmental parameters of SF and HLA. In this study, the dynamic calculation models for radioactivity, short-term decay heat, and long-term heat load of the SF are developed and incorporated into the Doneness code. The spent fuel accumulation has become a major issue for sustainable operation of nuclear power plants. If a once-through fuel cycle is selected, the SF will be disposed into the repository. Otherwise, in case of fast reactor or reuse cycle, the SF will be reprocessed and the high level waste will be disposed

  16. Developmental origins of metabolic disorders: The need for biomarker candidates and therapeutic targets from adequate preclinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on obesity and associated disorders have changed from an scenario in which genome drove the phenotype to a dynamic setup in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions are determinant. However, research in human beings is difficult due to confounding factors (lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity plus ethical issues. Hence, there is currently an intensive effort for developing adequate preclinical models, aiming for an adequate combination of basic studies in rodent models and specific preclinical studies in large animals. The results of these research strategies may increase the identification and development of contrasted biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  17. Original Misunderstanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  18. Some recent developments in the recombination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A critical review of the recombination model for hadron production at low P/sub T/ is first given, emphasizing not so much the successes as unanswered questions that the model faces. A systematic program to answer some of the basic questions is then developed. The theoretical framework is quantum chromodynamics. First, in what may appear as a digression, the possibility of formation of valence quark clusters (called valons) in a nucleon due to gluon bremsstrahlung and quark-pair creation is considered. Evidences are found not only for the valons in neutrino scattering data, but also indications for their momentum distribution in a nucleon. When similar considerations are applied to a meson, the meaning of the recombination function is discussed and its normalization as well as its shape are determined. Next, the problem of quark decay in a hard scattering process (e.g., pion production in e + e - annihilation) is considered. The joint distribution of partons in a quark jet is determined in QCD. The quark decay function for pions in the recombination model is then obtained with excellent fit to the data. Similar investigation is applied to the problem of photoproduction of pions in the fragmentation region; again good agreement with data is achieved. The results indicate the reliability of the recombination model when the two-parton distributions can be calculated in QCD. Finally, hadron initiated reactions are considered. A duality between quark recombination and valon fragmentation is suggested. The picture is consistent with dual Regge model. A possible way to determine the inclusive distribution in the context of QCD is suggested

  19. Development of A Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; questions of the cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology.A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1-5% (it is not a null mutation. Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer.Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention.

  20. [Educational model to develop trustworthy professional activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamui-Sutton, Alicia; Varela-Ruiz, Margarita; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Torruco-García, Uri

    2015-01-01

    The reorganization of the national health system (SNS), enforces reflection and transformation on medical education in clinical contexts. The study presents an educational model to develop entrusted professionals activities (MEDAPROC) to train human resources in health with reliable knowledge, skills and attitudes to work in the shifting scenario of the SNS. The paper discusses international and national documents on skills in medicine. Based on the analysis of 8 domains, 50 skills and 13 entrusted professional activities (RPA) proposed by the Association of the American Medical College (AAMC) we propose a curriculum design, with the example of the undergraduate program of Gynecology and Obstetrics, with the intention to advance to internship and residency in a continuum that marks milestones and clinical practices. The pedagogical design of MEDAPROC was developed within three areas: 1) proposal of the AAMC; 2) curricular content of programs in pre and postgraduate education 3) organization of the daily agenda with academic mechanisms to develop the competencies, cover program items and develop clinical practice in deliberate learning activities, as well as milestones. The MEDAPROC offers versatility, student mobility and curricular flexibility in a system planed by academic units in diverse clinical settings.

  1. Knowledge Management Practices for Development - Slovak Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aferdita Dervishi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and its management, innovation and technology are key elements for economic growth and sustainable development in technology and globalization era. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of best practices of knowledge management in Slovakia, a$ empting to present a model that may serve to improve access to knowledge management and technology in Albania. This paper analyses practices of research & development, intellectual capital, the link between knowledge, innovation and technology transfer and trends of economic development in Slovakia. This study has used the qualitative method, supported on secondary source of data. From the assessment perspective, the findings are believable that investing on intellectual capital and managing knowledge properly, stable effects on the development of economy, industry and other fields is reached. Knowledge is managed by higher scientific institutions supported by the state. Today, in Slovakia are operating the most powerful companies. Albanians possess human capital that may face the difficult technological challenges and innovations. Both, Albania and Kosovo governments need to create a more coherent and national access to knowledge management and innovation through the establishment of National Council of Science, Knowledge and Technology Transfer.

  2. Development of hydrogen combustion analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Tae Jin; Lee, K. D.; Kim, S. N. [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, J. S.; Kwon, H. Y. [Seoul National Polytechnic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. B.; Kim, J. S. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The objectives of this project is to construct a credible DB for component reliability by developing methodologies and computer codes for assessing component independent failure and common cause failure probability, incorporating applicability and dependency of the data. In addition to this, the ultimate goal is to systematize all the analysis procedures so as to provide plans for preventing component failures by employing flexible tools for the change of specific plant or data sources. For the first subject, we construct a DB for similarity index and dependence matrix and propose a systematic procedure for data analysis by investigating the similarity and redundancy of the generic data sources. Next, we develop a computer code for this procedure and construct reliability data base for major components. The second subject is focused on developing CCF procedure for assessing the plant specific defense ability, rather than developing another CCF model. We propose a procedure and computer code for estimating CCF event probability by incorporating plant specific defensive measure. 116 refs., 25 tabs., 24 figs. (author)

  3. The origins of originality: the neural bases of creative thinking and originality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay-Tsoory, S G; Adler, N; Aharon-Peretz, J; Perry, D; Mayseless, N

    2011-01-01

    Although creativity has been related to prefrontal activity, recent neurological case studies postulate that patients who have left frontal and temporal degeneration involving deterioration of language abilities may actually develop de novo artistic abilities. In this study, we propose a neural and cognitive model according to which a balance between the two hemispheres affects a major aspect of creative cognition, namely, originality. In order to examine the neural basis of originality, that is, the ability to produce statistically infrequent ideas, patients with localized lesions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and posterior parietal and temporal cortex (PC), were assessed by two tasks involving divergent thinking and originality. Results indicate that lesions in the mPFC involved the most profound impairment in originality. Furthermore, precise anatomical mapping of lesions indicated that while the extent of lesion in the right mPFC was associated with impaired originality, lesions in the left PC were associated with somewhat elevated levels of originality. A positive correlation between creativity scores and left PC lesions indicated that the larger the lesion is in this area the greater the originality. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between originality scores and lesions in the right mPFC. It is concluded that the right mPFC is part of a right fronto-parietal network which is responsible for producing original ideas. It is possible that more linear cognitive processing such as language, mediated by left hemisphere structures interferes with creative cognition. Therefore, lesions in the left hemisphere may be associated with elevated levels of originality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Canadian Whole-Farm Model Holos - Development, Stakeholder Involvement, and Model Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroebel, R.; Janzen, H.; Beauchemin, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Holos model, based mostly on emission factors, aims to explore the effect of management on Canadian whole-farm greenhouse gas emissions. The model includes 27 commonly grown annual and perennial crops, summer fallow, grassland, and 8 types of tree plantings, along with beef, dairy, sheep, swine and other livestock or poultry operations. Model outputs encompass net emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O (in CO2 equivalents), calculated for various farm components. Where possible, algorithms are drawn from peer-reviewed publications. For consistency, Holos is aligned with the Canadian sustainability indicator and national greenhouse gas inventory objectives. Although primarily an exploratory tool for research, the model's design makes it accessible and instructive also to agricultural producers, educators, and policy makers. Model development, therefore, proceeds iteratively, with extensive stakeholder feedback from training sessions or annual workshops. To make the model accessible to diverse users, the team developed a multi-layered interface, with general farming scenarios for general use, but giving access to detailed coefficients and assumptions to researchers. The model relies on extensive climate, soil, and agronomic databases to populate regionally-applicable default values thereby minimizing keyboard entries. In an initial application, the model was used to assess greenhouse gas emissions from the Canadian beef production system; it showed that enteric methane accounted for 63% of total GHG emissions and that 84% of emissions originated from the cow-calf herd. The model further showed that GHG emission intensity per kg beef, nationally, declined by 14% from 1981 to 2011, owing to gains in production efficiency. Holos is now being used to consider further potential advances through improved rations or other management options. We are now aiming to expand into questions of grazing management, and are developing a novel carbon

  5. On the origins of sex-based differences in respiratory disorders: Lessons and hypotheses from stress neuroendocrinology in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Tenorio-Lopes, Luana; Baldy, Cécile; Janes, Tara Adele; Fournier, Stéphanie; Kinkead, Richard

    2017-11-01

    The environment plays a critical role in shaping development and function of the brain. Stress, especially when experienced early in life, can interfere with these processes. In the context of respiratory control, perinatal stress can therefore alter the ability to achieve the "fine-tuning" necessary for proper detection of chemosensory stimuli and production of an adequate motor (respiratory) command. Depending on the timing, intensity, and duration, the detrimental consequences of perinatal exposure to adverse conditions on the respiratory network become manifest at various life stages and can persist into adulthood. During early life, respiratory diseases commonly associated with dysfunction of neural networks include apnea of prematurity (AOP) and cardio-respiratory failure leading to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) can occur at various life stages, including adulthood. Regardless of age, a common element of these disorders is their greater prevalence in males. While this sexual dimorphism points to a potential role of sex hormones, our understanding of the neuroendocrine mechanisms remain poorly understood. In addition to their modulatory influence on breathing, gonadal hormones regulate sexual differentiation of the brain. Stress alters these effects, and over the years our laboratory has used various perinatal stress protocols to gain insight into the origins of sex-based differences in respiratory disorders. This review discusses our recent advances with a focus on the sex-specific impact of early life stress on O 2 -chemoreflex function both in newborn and adult rats. We conclude by discussing the basic principles emerging from this work, potential mechanisms, and clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using vegetation model-to-data comparisons to test the role of abiotic factors in the Neogene and Quaternary origins of modern C4 grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, D. L.; Strömberg, C.; Pau, S.; Taylor, L.; Lehmann, C.; Osborne, C.; Beerling, D. J.; Still, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Grasslands dominated by taxa using the C4 photosynthetic pathway evolved on several continents during the Neogene and Quaternary, long after C4 photosynthesis first evolved among grasses. The histories of these ecosystems are relatively well documented in the geological record from stable carbon isotopes (fossil vertebrate herbivores, paleosols) and the plant microfossil record (pollen, phytoliths). The distinct biogeography and ecophysiology of modern C3 and C4 grasses have led to hypotheses explaining the origins of C4 grasslands in terms of long term changes in the Earth system such as increased aridity and decreasing atmospheric pCO2. However, proxies for key parameters of these hypotheses (e.g., temperature, precipitation, pCO2) are still in development, not yet widely applied, or remain contentious, so testing the hypotheses globally remains difficult. To understand better possible links between changes in the Earth system and the origin of C4 grasslands on different continents, we are undertaking a global scale comparison between observational records of C4 grass abundances in Miocene and Pliocene localities compiled from the literature, and three increasingly complex models of C4 dominance and abundance. The literature compilation comprises >2,600 δ13C values of both fossil vertebrates and of paleosol carbonates and >6,700 paleobotanical records. We are using paleoclimate output from the HadCM3L GCM over a range of pCO2 values for each epoch to model C4 dominance or abundance in grid cells as (Model 1) months per year exceeding the temperature at which net assimilation is greater for C4 than C3 photosynthesis (crossover temperature); (Model 2) the number of months per year exceeding the crossover temperature and having sufficient precipitation for growth (≥25 cm/yr; Collatz model); and (Model 3) the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM), output from which includes biomass (g C/m2/yr) for distinct structural components (roots, stems, leaves

  7. Switching from originator brand medicines to generic equivalents in selected developing countries: how much could be saved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Alexandra; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Laing, Richard Ogilvie

    2012-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, patients and reimbursement agencies that purchase medicines in the private sector pay more for originator brands when generic equivalents exist. We estimated the savings that could be obtained from a hypothetical switch in medicine consumption from originator brands to lowest-priced generic equivalents for a selection of medicines in 17 countries. In this cost minimization analysis, the prices of originator brands and their lowest-priced generic equivalents were obtained from facility-based surveys conducted by using a standard methodology. Fourteen medicines most commonly included in the surveys, plus three statins, were included in the analysis. For each medicine, the volume of private sector consumption of the originator brand product was obtained from IMS Health, Inc. Volumes were applied to the median unit prices for both originator brands and their lowest-priced generics to estimate cost savings. Prices were adjusted to 2008 by using consumer price index data and were adjusted for purchasing power parity. For the medicines studied, an average of 9% to 89% could be saved by an individual country from a switch in private sector purchases from originator brands to lowest-priced generics. In public hospitals in China, US $ 370 million could be saved from switching only four medicines, saving an average of 65%. Across individual medicines, average potential savings ranged from 11% for beclometasone inhaler to 73% for ceftriaxone injection. Substantial savings could be achieved by switching private sector purchases from originator brand medicines to lowest-priced generic equivalents. Strategies to promote generic uptake, such as generic substitution by pharmacists and increasing confidence in generics by professionals and the public, should be included in national medicines policies. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at three beam power levels, 6, 12 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was observed. This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiations. The previous report described an initial analysis performed on a geometry that had not been updated to reflect the as-built solution vessel. Here, the as-built geometry is used. Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were performed on the updated geometry, and these results were used to define the power deposition profile for the CFD analyses, which were performed using Fluent, Ver. 16.2. CFD analyses were performed for the 12 and 15 kW irradiations, and further improvements to the model were incorporated, including the consideration of power deposition in nearby vessel components, gas mixture composition, and bubble size distribution. The temperature results of the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A MATURITY MODEL FOR TELEMEDICINE#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: For more than a decade, the South African National Department of Health (DoH has recognised the potential benefit of information and communication technology (ICT in the delivery of health care to rural areas. Despite generous funding and proven technology, not many telemedicine systems have proved sustainable after the pilot phase. The purpose of this paper is to develop a maturity model that can be implemented to measure and manage the capability of a health system, for use in the delivery of sustainable health care after the pilot phase of a telemedicine project. The validity of the telemedicine maturity model (TMMM is tested within the context of the South African public health sector.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Suid Afrikaanse Nasionale Departement van Gesondheid het reeds meer as ’n dekade gelede die voordeel besef wat inligtings- en kommunikasietegnologie kan bied ten opsigte van die lewering van gesondheidsorg in afgeleë gebiede. Ten spyte van ruim befondsing en bewese tegnologie, is daar egter min volgehoue telegeneeskundedienste in die publieke gesondheidstelsel van Suid Afrika. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n volwassenheids-model te ontwikkel wat gebruik kan word om die vermoë van ’n gesondheidstelsel te bepaal en bestuur, ten einde telegeneeskunde loodsprojekte vol te hou. Die geldigheid van hierdie telegeneeskunde volwassenheidsmodel (TMMM is getoets binne konteks van die publieke gesondheidsektor van Suid Afrika.

  10. Origins of the Asian-Australian monsoons related to Cenozoic plate movement and Tibetan Plateau uplift - A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Dong, B.; Yin, Z. Y.; Smith, R. S.; Guo, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of monsoon is a subject that has attracted much attention in the scientific community and even today it is still controversial. According to geological records, there is conflicting evidence regarding the timings of establishment of the monsoon climates in South Asia, East Asia, and northern Australia. Additionally, different explanations for the monsoon origins have been derived from various numerical simulations. To further investigate the origin and evolution of the Asian and Australian monsoons, we designed a series of numerical experiments using a coupled atmospheric-oceanic general circulation model. Since the Indian-Australian plate has shifted its position significantly during the Cenozoic, together with the large-scale uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in these experiments we considered the configurations of ocean-land masses and large topographic features based on geological evidence of plate motion and TP uplift in 5 typical Cenozoic geological periods: mid-Paleocene ( 60Ma), late-Eocene ( 40Ma), late-Oligocene ( 25Ma), late-Miocene ( 10Ma), and present day. These experiments allowed us to examine the combined effects of the changes in the land-ocean configuration due to plate movement and TP uplift, they also provided insight into the effects of the high CO2 levels during the Eocene. The simulations revealed that during the Paleocene, the Indian Subcontinent was still positioned in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and, therefore, its climate behaved as the SH tropical monsoon. By the late Eocene, it moved into the tropical Northern Hemisphere, which allowed the establishment of the South Asian monsoon. In contrast, the East Asian and Australian monsoon did not exist in the late Oligocene. These monsoon systems were established in the Miocene and then enhanced thereafter. Establishments of the low-latitude monsoons in South Asia and Australia were entirely determined by the position of the Indian-Australian plate and not related to the TP uplift

  11. Modeling Cervical Cancer Prevention in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane J.; Brisson, Marc; Edmunds, W. John; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Cytology-based screening has reduced cervical cancer mortality in countries able to implement, sustain and financially support organized programs that achieve broad coverage. These ongoing secondary prevention efforts considerably complicate the question of whether vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types -16 and 18 should be introduced. Policy questions focus primarily on the target ages of vaccination, appropriate ages for a temporary “catch-up” program, possible revisions in screening policies to optimize synergies with vaccination, including the increased used of HPV DNA testing, and the inclusion of boys in the vaccination program. Decision-analytic models are increasingly being developed to simulate disease burden and interventions in different settings in order to evaluate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of primary and secondary interventions for informed decision-making. This article is a focused review on existing mathematical models that have been used to evaluate HPV vaccination in the context of developed countries with existing screening programs. Despite variations in model assumptions and uncertainty in existing data, pre-adolescent vaccination of girls is consistently found to be attractive in the context of current screening practices, provided there is complete and lifelong vaccine protection and widespread vaccination coverage. Questions related to catch-up vaccination programs, potential benefits of other non-cervical cancer outcomes and inclusion of boys are subject to far more uncertainty, and results from these analyses have reached conflicting conclusions. Most analyses find that some catch-up vaccination is warranted but becomes increasingly unattractive as the catch-up age is extended, and vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost-effective if reasonable levels of coverage are achieved in girls or coverage among girls can be improved. The objective of the review is to highlight points of consensus and qualitative

  12. The magmatic model for the origin of Archean Au-quartz vein ore systems: an assessment of the evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, E.T.C.

    1991-01-01

    The magmatic model for the origin of Archean Au-quartz vein ore systems suggests that Au was derived by partition between silicate (± sulphide) melts of certain compositions and H 2 O-CO 2 -NaCl magmatic fluids. Supporting evidence includes partial/structural geological relationships, timing relationships, H and C isotope geochemistry, probable primary Au enrichment in the Lamaque stocks, and fluid inclusion volatile geochemistry. Evidence is currently negative with respect to various within- and sub-greenstone belt metamorphic/deep crustal fluid models for primary Au mineralization; however a U-Pb age for vein stage 3 sphene from the Camflo deposit, Quebec which is ∼ 55-60 Ma younger than the host stock at 2685-2680 Ma indicates dissolution/reprecipitation of Au by late, (?) upper crustal saline fluids. Evidence is accumulating that epithermal-meso thermal Au-Ag mineralization in island arc and cordilleran settings may also have been magmatically derived ± high level fluid mixing from calc-alkaline, shoshonitic and other igneous compositions. (author)

  13. High Turbidity Solis Clear Sky Model: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ineichen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Solis clear sky model is a spectral scheme based on radiative transfer calculations and the Lambert–Beer relation. Its broadband version is a simplified fast analytical version; it is limited to broadband aerosol optical depths lower than 0.45, which is a weakness when applied in countries with very high turbidity such as China or India. In order to extend the use of the original simplified version of the model for high turbidity values, we developed a new version of the broadband Solis model based on radiative transfer calculations, valid for turbidity values up to 7, for the three components, global, beam, and diffuse, and for the four aerosol types defined by Shettle and Fenn. A validation of low turbidity data acquired in Geneva shows slightly better results than the previous version. On data acquired at sites presenting higher turbidity data, the bias stays within ±4% for the beam and the global irradiances, and the standard deviation around 5% for clean and stable condition data and around 12% for questionable data and variable sky conditions.

  14. Developing and Extending a Cyberinfrastructure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Rosio

    2007-11-13

    Increasingly, research and education institutions are realizing the strategic value and challenge of deploying and supporting institutional cyberinfrastructure (CI). Cyberinfrastructure is composed of high performance computing systems, massive storage systems, visualization systems, and advanced networks to interconnect the components within and across institutions and research communities. CI also includes the professionals with expertise in scientific application and algorithm development and parallel systems operation. Unlike ?regular? IT infrastructure, the manner in which the components are configured and skills to do so are highly specific and specialized. Planning and coordinating these assets is a fundamental step toward enhancing an institution?s research competitiveness and return on personnel, technology, and facilities investments. Coordinated deployment of CI assets has implications across the institution. Consider the VC for Research whose new faculty in the Life Sciences are now asking for simulation systems rather than wet labs, or the Provost who lost another faculty candidate to a peer institution that offered computational support for research, or the VC for Administration who has seen a spike in power and cooling demands from many of the labs and office spaces being converted to house systems. These are just some of the issues that research institutions are wrestling with as research becomes increasingly computational, data-intensive and interdisciplinary. This bulletin will discuss these issues and will present an approach for developing a cyberinfrastructure model that was successfully developed at one institution and then deployed across institutions.

  15. Origin of inflation in CFT driven cosmology. R2-gravity and non-minimally coupled inflaton models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Kamenshchik, A.Yu.; Nesterov, D.V.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed derivation of the recently suggested new type of hill-top inflation [arXiv:1509.07270] originating from the microcanonical density matrix initial conditions in cosmology driven by conformal field theory (CFT). The cosmological instantons of topology S 1 x S 3 , which set up these initial conditions, have the shape of a garland with multiple periodic oscillations of the scale factor of the spatial S 3 -section. They describe underbarrier oscillations of the inflaton and scale factor in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum, which gives a sufficient amount of inflation required by the known CMB data. We build the approximation of two coupled harmonic oscillators for these garland instantons and show that they can generate inflation consistent with the parameters of the CMB primordial power spectrum in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and in R 2 gravity. In particular, the instanton solutions provide smallness of inflationary slow-roll parameters ε and η < 0 and their relation ε ∝ η 2 characteristic of these two models. We present the mechanism of formation of hill-like inflaton potentials, which is based on logarithmic loop corrections to the asymptotically shift-invariant tree-level potentials of these models in the Einstein frame. We also discuss the role of R 2 -gravity as an indispensable finite renormalization tool in the CFT driven cosmology, which guarantees the nondynamical (ghost free) nature of its scale factor and special properties of its cosmological garland-type instantons. Finally, as a solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale we discuss the concept of a hidden sector of conformal higher spin fields. (orig.)

  16. Origin of inflation in CFT driven cosmology: R{sup 2}-gravity and non-minimally coupled inflaton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barvinsky, A. O., E-mail: barvin@td.lpi.ru [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Lenin Ave. 36, 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pacific Institute for Theoretical Physics, UBC, 6224 Agricultural Road, V6T1Z1, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kamenshchik, A. Yu., E-mail: kamenshchik@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126, Bologna (Italy); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 119334, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nesterov, D. V., E-mail: nesterov@td.lpi.it [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-11

    We present a detailed derivation of the recently suggested new type of hill-top inflation originating from the microcanonical density matrix initial conditions in cosmology driven by conformal field theory (CFT). The cosmological instantons of topology S{sup 1}×S{sup 3}, which set up these initial conditions, have the shape of a garland with multiple periodic oscillations of the scale factor of the spatial S{sup 3}-section. They describe underbarrier oscillations of the inflaton and scale factor in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum, which gives a sufficient amount of inflation required by the known CMB data. We build the approximation of two coupled harmonic oscillators for these garland instantons and show that they can generate inflation consistent with the parameters of the CMB primordial power spectrum in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and in R{sup 2} gravity. In particular, the instanton solutions provide smallness of inflationary slow-roll parameters ϵ and η<0 and their relation ϵ∼η{sup 2} characteristic of these two models. We present the mechanism of formation of hill-like inflaton potentials, which is based on logarithmic loop corrections to the asymptotically shift-invariant tree-level potentials of these models in the Einstein frame. We also discuss the role of R{sup 2}-gravity as an indispensable finite renormalization tool in the CFT driven cosmology, which guarantees the non-dynamical (ghost free) nature of its scale factor and special properties of its cosmological garland-type instantons. Finally, as a solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale we discuss the concept of a hidden sector of conformal higher spin fields.

  17. An Extended Model for the Evolution of Prebiotic Homochirality: A Bottom-Up Approach to the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari

    2008-08-01

    A generalized autocatalytic model for chiral polymerization is investigated in detail. Apart from enantiomeric cross-inhibition, the model allows for the autogenic (non-catalytic) formation of left and right-handed monomers from a substrate with reaction rates ɛ L and ɛ R , respectively. The spatiotemporal evolution of the net chiral asymmetry is studied for models with several values of the maximum polymer length, N. For N = 2, we study the validity of the adiabatic approximation often cited in the literature. We show that the approximation obtains the correct equilibrium values of the net chirality, but fails to reproduce the short time behavior. We show also that the autogenic term in the full N = 2 model behaves as a control parameter in a chiral symmetry-breaking phase transition leading to full homochirality from racemic initial conditions. We study the dynamics of the N→ ∞ model with symmetric ( ɛ L = ɛ R ) autogenic formation, showing that it only achieves homochirality for ɛ > ɛ c , where ɛ c is an N-dependent critical value. For ɛ ≤ ɛ c we investigate the behavior of models with several values of N, showing that the net chiral asymmetry grows as tanh( N). We show that for a given symmetric autogenic reaction rate, the net chirality and the concentrations of chirally pure polymers increase with the maximum polymer length in the model. We briefly discuss the consequences of our results for the development of homochirality in prebiotic Earth and possible experimental verification of our findings.

  18. Overview of recent developments in attenuation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Attenuation equations predict features of the seismic motion, such as the horizontal and vertical peak ground accelerations (PGA), the peak ground velocities (PGV) and the 5% damped spectral acceleration response (SA), in terms of the earthquake magnitude and distance from source to site. Occasionally other factors, like the type of faulting, are considered in the attenuation expressions. An overview of recent developments in this field is presented in the paper, including a discussion of the applicability of various models for short source to site distances. In such a case, i.e. in the neighbourhood of the epicentral region, which is of utmost importance in Nuclear Power Plant applications, the use of two parameters to define the earthquake size is suggested, instead of the single parameter, a magnitude scale. Recent evidence of the importance in such situations of so-called directivity effects, which require a more complete description of the focal mechanism, completes the paper. (author)

  19. ER@CEBAF: Modeling code developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-13

    A proposal for a multiple-pass, high-energy, energy-recovery experiment using CEBAF is under preparation in the frame of a JLab-BNL collaboration. In view of beam dynamics investigations regarding this project, in addition to the existing model in use in Elegant a version of CEBAF is developed in the stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi, Beyond the ER experiment, it is also planned to use the latter for the study of polarization transport in the presence of synchrotron radiation, down to Hall D line where a 12 GeV polarized beam can be delivered. This Note briefly reports on the preliminary steps, and preliminary outcomes, based on an Elegant to Zgoubi translation.

  20. Developing Automatic Student Motivation Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destarianto, P.; Etikasari, B.; Agustianto, K.

    2018-01-01

    Achievement motivation is one of the internal factors in encouraging a person to perform the best activity in achieving its goals. The importance of achievement motivation must be possessed as an incentive to compete so that the person will always strive to achieve success and avoid failure. Based on this, the system is developed to determine the achievement motivation of students, so that students can do self-reflection in improving achievement motivation. The test results of the system using Naïve Bayes Classifier showed an average rate of accuracy of 91,667% in assessing student achievement motivation. By modeling the students ‘motivation generated by the system, students’ achievement motivation level can be known. This class of motivation will be used to determine appropriate counseling decisions, and ultimately is expected to improve student achievement motivation.

  1. Developing a Forensic Continuous Audit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover S. Kearns

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased attention to internal controls and risk assessment, traditional audit approaches do not seem to be highly effective in uncovering the majority of frauds. Less than 20 percent of all occupational frauds are uncovered by auditors. Forensic accounting has recognized the need for automated approaches to fraud analysis yet research has not examined the benefits of forensic continuous auditing as a method to detect and deter corporate fraud. The purpose of this paper is to show how such an approach is possible. A model is presented that supports the acceptance of forensic continuous auditing by auditors and management as an effective tool to support the audit function, meet management’s regulatory objectives, and to combat fraud. An approach to developing such a system is presented.

  2. DEVELOPING A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE PROCESS OF SEDIMENTARY TANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Victoria IOVANOV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The model is reformulated by means of stochastic differential equations, and the parametersare estimated by a maximum likelihood method.VESILIND (1968; 1979 proposed a sludge settling velocity model of exponential form. During recent years,several refinements to the original model have been proposed, see e.g. GRIJSPEERDT et al. (1995; DUPONTand DAHL (1995 EKAMA et al. (1997. In the proposed models several layers in the settling tank areincorporated to permit the calculation of SS profiles over the tank depth and predict the SS concentrations in thereturn sludge and in the effluent from the clarifier.Here, the original VESILIND model combined with a simple suction depth model is used to enable predictionof the SS concentration in the effluent from the tank. In order to make the model applicable for real time controlpurposes, only two layers of variable height in the tank are considered

  3. Origin and Development of El Bajío Basin in the Central Sector of Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, P. A.; Alaniz Álvarez, S. A.; Nieto Samaniego, Á. F.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Levresse, G.; Xu, S.; Ortega Obregón, C.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanism of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt has been placed on pre-existing tectonic basins; one of them is El Bajío Basin. We present the origin and evolution of this basin through the study of its deformation events occurring mainly on the El Bajío fault, at the boundary between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Mesa Central. Detailed stratigraphy, and structural analysis suggest 4 deformation events in the northwest of the Sierra de Guanajuato. The first event (D1) with E-W shortening is characterized by the development of axial plane foliation (S1) with N-S direction, this event occurred between the Tithonian and Aptian age. In the second event (D2), occurred between the Albian and the early Eocene, foliations NW-SE (S2) were generated with a NE-SW shortening trend dated between the Albian and early Eocene, this deformation is related to the Laramide Orogeny. The Granito Comanja was emplaced during the third event (D3) and generated foliation (S3) in sediments of the complejo vulcanosedimentario Sierra de Guanajuato that circumscribes the Granito Comanja in response to its intrusion. After its emplacement, NW-SE normal faults were generated along the S-SE contact of the Granito Comanja, at that time El Bajío fault began. The fourth event (D4) has three phases that affected the sedimentary and volcanic Cenozoic rocks. D4F1 is marked by continental conglomerates deposition with variable thickness along of the main trace of the El Bajío fault. D4F2 affected the Oligocene volcanic rocks showing an important fault activity at that time, as evidenced the tilting above 45o in the Oligocene rocks, temporarily coincides with the triaxial extension to the Mesa Central. The direction of elongation of D4F3 is ESE-WNW, El Bajío fault had little movement. Since the Miocene the deformation was concentrated along the southern central sector of the Trans-mexican Volcanic Belt and there were few deformation in the Mesa central. During the three phases of deformation

  4. Development of a Model Foamy Viscous Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vial C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to develop a model viscous foamy fluid, i.e. below the very wet limit, the rheological and stability properties of which can be tuned. First, the method used for the preparation of foamy fluids is detailed, including process and formulation. Then, experimental results highlight that stable foamy fluids with a monomodal bubble size distribution can be prepared with a void fraction between 25% and 50% (v/v. Their viscoelastic properties under flow and low-strain oscillatory conditions are shown to result from the interplay between the formulation of the continuous phase, void fraction and bubble size. Their apparent viscosity can be described using the Cross equation and zero-shear Newtonian viscosity may be predicted by a Mooney equation up to a void fraction about 40%. The Cox-Merz and the Laun’s rules apply when the capillary number Ca is lower than 0.1. The upper limit of the zero-shear plateau region decreases when void fraction increases or bubble size decreases. In the shear-thinning region, shear stress varies with Ca1/2, as in wet foams with immobile surfaces. Finally, foamy fluids can be sheared up to Ca about 0.1 without impairing their microstructure. Their stability at rest achieves several hours and increases with void fraction due to compact packing constraints. These constitute, therefore, versatile model fluids to investigate the behaviour of foamy fluids below the very wet limit in process conditions.

  5. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-11

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development” and “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at beam power levels between 6 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was recorded. The previous report2 described the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis performed on the as-built solution vessel geometry. The CFD simulations in the current analysis were performed using Ansys Fluent, Ver. 17.2. The same power profiles determined from MCNP calculations in earlier work were used for the 12 and 15 kW simulations. The primary goal of the current work is to calculate the temperature profiles for the 12 and 15 kW cases using reasonable estimates for the gas generation rate, based on images of the bubbles recorded during the irradiations. Temperature profiles resulting from the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  6. Development of Software to Model AXAF-I Image Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees; Hawkins, Lamar

    1996-01-01

    This draft final report describes the work performed under the delivery order number 145 from May 1995 through August 1996. The scope of work included a number of software development tasks for the performance modeling of AXAF-I. A number of new capabilities and functions have been added to the GT software, which is the command mode version of the GRAZTRACE software, originally developed by MSFC. A structural data interface has been developed for the EAL (old SPAR) finite element analysis FEA program, which is being used by MSFC Structural Analysis group for the analysis of AXAF-I. This interface utility can read the structural deformation file from the EAL and other finite element analysis programs such as NASTRAN and COSMOS/M, and convert the data to a suitable format that can be used for the deformation ray-tracing to predict the image quality for a distorted mirror. There is a provision in this utility to expand the data from finite element models assuming 180 degrees symmetry. This utility has been used to predict image characteristics for the AXAF-I HRMA, when subjected to gravity effects in the horizontal x-ray ground test configuration. The development of the metrology data processing interface software has also been completed. It can read the HDOS FITS format surface map files, manipulate and filter the metrology data, and produce a deformation file, which can be used by GT for ray tracing for the mirror surface figure errors. This utility has been used to determine the optimum alignment (axial spacing and clocking) for the four pairs of AXAF-I mirrors. Based on this optimized alignment, the geometric images and effective focal lengths for the as built mirrors were predicted to cross check the results obtained by Kodak.

  7. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper; Fraser, Elsje Sophia

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques, s......, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance...

  8. Development and validation of an SPE HG-AAS method for determination of inorganic arsenic in samples of marine origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a novel method for the quantitative determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in food and feed of marine origin. The samples were subjected to microwave-assisted extraction using diluted hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide, which solubilised the analytes and oxidised...

  9. Height, weight, body mass index and pubertal development reference values for children of Turkish origin in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, A.M.; Buuren, S. van; Jeurissen, S.E.R.; Dekker, F.W.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide growth and sexual maturation reference data for Turkish children living in The Netherlands. We also compared these references with the reference data of children of Dutch origin and with Turkish reference data collected in Turkey and elsewhere in Europe.

  10. Development of a taqman-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid and specific detection of novel duck- origin goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Wang, Jinfeng; Cui, Yuan; Nan, Huizhu; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-08-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed for specific detection of novel duck-origin goose parvovirus (N-GPV), the etiological agent of duck beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS). The detection limit of the assay was 10 2 copies. The assay was useful in the prevention and control of BADS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parametric Cost and Schedule Modeling for Early Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Research NoteNational Security Rep rt PARAMETRIC MODELING FOR EARLY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT COST AND SCHEDULE Chuck...Alexander NSR_11x17_Cover_CostModeling_v8.indd 1 11/20/17 3:15 PM PARAMETRIC COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Chuck...COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT iii Contents Figures

  12. GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.T.; Simoes, F.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    GSTARS is a series of computer models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for alluvial river and reservoir sedimentation studies while the authors were employed by that agency. The first version of GSTARS was released in 1986 using Fortran IV for mainframe computers. GSTARS 2.0 was released in 1998 for personal computer application with most of the code in the original GSTARS revised, improved, and expanded using Fortran IV/77. GSTARS 2.1 is an improved and revised GSTARS 2.0 with graphical user interface. The unique features of all GSTARS models are the conjunctive use of the stream tube concept and of the minimum stream power theory. The application of minimum stream power theory allows the determination of optimum channel geometry with variable channel width and cross-sectional shape. The use of the stream tube concept enables the simulation of river hydraulics using one-dimensional numerical solutions to obtain a semi-two- dimensional presentation of the hydraulic conditions along and across an alluvial channel. According to the stream tube concept, no water or sediment particles can cross the walls of stream tubes, which is valid for many natural rivers. At and near sharp bends, however, sediment particles may cross the boundaries of stream tubes. GSTARS3, based on FORTRAN 90/95, addresses this phenomenon and further expands the capabilities of GSTARS 2.1 for cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transport in rivers and reservoirs. This paper presents the concepts, methods, and techniques used to develop the GSTARS series of computer models, especially GSTARS3. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  13. Are Parenting Practices Associated with the Development of Narcissism? Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Mexican-origin Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Eunike; Robins, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism is an important and consequential aspect of personality, yet we know little about its developmental origins. Using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin families, we examined cross-lagged relations between parenting behaviors (warmth, hostility, monitoring) and narcissism (superiority, exploitativeness). Parental hostility at age 12 was associated with higher levels of exploitativeness at age 14, whereas parental monitoring at age 12 was associated with lower levels of exploitativeness at age 14. These effects replicated across three different parenting measures: child reports, spouse reports, and behavioral coding of parent-child interactions. None of the parenting dimensions was related to superiority, suggesting that parenting practices are more strongly related to the maladaptive than the adaptive component of narcissism. PMID:28042186

  14. Development of a Vaccine Incorporating Killed Virus of Canine Origin for the Prevention of Canine Parvovirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Povey, C.

    1982-01-01

    A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted fo...

  15. Country-of-origin Effects on Consumer Brand Perception of Familiar vs. Unfamiliar Brands of Technological Complex Products in a Developed Market Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne; Iacob, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge of the effect of brand familiarity on how Country of Origin influences brand perception in a developed country. We used a 2x2 factorial experimental design to test the effects of COO with two levels of sourcing location – Czech Republic...... usable questionnaires. We used ANOVA to test our hypotheses. The findings suggest that country of origin has a significant positive impact on the consumers’ perception of the Czech manufactured Skoda Fabia, representing the familiar brand, and a significant negative impact on the consumers’ perception...

  16. Organizing intelligence: development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P

    2009-01-01

    Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered.

  17. Electronic structure of the amorphous oxide semiconductor a-InGaZnO4-x: Tauc-Lorentz optical model and origins of subgap states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Toshio; Nomura, Kenji; Hosono, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an optical model and subgap electronic states for a representative amorphous oxide semiconductor, InGaZnO 4 (a-IGZO). Parameterized optical models were developed based on the Tauc-Lorentz model combined with a Lorentz-type oscillator. The measured optical absorption spectra exhibit nearly linear dependences on photon energy (E) between 3 eV 0,TL ) being around 4 eV. The optimized parameters for the fixed E 0,TL of 3.7 eV are provided for four different a-IGZO films with root-mean-square errors less than 1%. Formation energies of crystalline IGZO, stoichiometric a-IGZO, oxygen deficient a-IGZO and their constituent oxides were calculated by the density functional theory using the local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation with PBE96 functionals (PBE). PBE gives larger unit cell volumes at the ground states and better agreement in the formation energies than LDA does. The formation energies of an oxygen deficiency in a-IGZO were calculated to be 3.2-3.5 eV. The calculated electronic structures of stoichiometric a-IGZO models exhibit somewhat large dispersions for conduction bands (CB), which are not largely affected by the disordered structure in a-IGZO, while the dispersions of the valence bands (VBs) are very small, unlike the crystalline IGZO, showing that a-IGZO have strongly localized states at the VB maximums (VBMs). Oxygen-deficient a-IGZO models showed that oxygen deficiencies form both a deep localized state at 0.4-1 eV above VBM and a shallow donor state depending on local atomic configurations. An oxygen deficiency that forms a deep state breaks the dispersion of the CB, which could be an origin of the subgap states observed near CB. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Art form as an object of cognitive modeling (towards development of Vygotsky`s semiotic model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, V. [Oklahoma State Univ. (United States); Perlovsky, L.I.

    1996-12-31

    We suggest a further development of Vygotsky`s esthetic-semiotic model. First, we discuss Vygotsky`s model originally developed for the analysis of Ivan Bunin`s story {open_quotes}Light Breath{close_quotes}. Vygotsky analyzes formal methods used by Bunin to achieve a specific esthetic effect of {open_quote}lightness{close_quotes} while describing {open_quotes}dirty{close_quotes} events of everyday life. According to Vygotsky, this effect is achieved by ordering of events in a non-linear fashion. Vygotsky creams an airy pattern of smooth lines connecting events of story that he first orders linearly in time. And, he insists that this airy pattern creates an impression of airy lightness. In the language of semiotics, the esthetic effect is created by a specific structural organization of signs. Second, we present our critique of Vygotsky`s model. Although, we do not agree with Vygotsky`s sometimes moralistic judgements, and we consider the dynamics between inner personal values and received moral values to be more complicated than implied in his judgements, our critique in this paper is limited to the structure of his semiotic model. We emphasize that Vygotsky`s model does not explicitly account for a hierarchy of multiple levels of semiotic analysis. His analysis regularly slips from one level to another: (1) a lever of cognitive perception by a regular reader is confused with a level of creative genius of a writer; (2) {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} time of real world is mixed up with {open_quote}closed{close_quote} time of the story; (3) events are not organized by the hierarchy of their importance, nor in real world, nor in the inner model of the personages, nor in the story.

  19. Growth models and analysis of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, G

    1979-10-01

    This paper deals with remnants of neoclassical elements in Keynesian and post-Keynesian thought, and attempts to demonstrate that the elimination of these elements from our modes of thinking would not impoverish economic analysis as a means of solving real problems. In the Keynesian analysis the causation from investment to savings is exhibited in terms of income determination. When put in terms of a capital-theory model, the vector of savings is represented in two ways: real savings and counterpart real savings. The former coincides with the investment vector and the latter with the vector of consumption goods foregone for diverting resources towards equipment making. Thus the Keynesian causation in capital theory terms makes the concept of national savings as an independent variable redudant. The Robinsonian causation in a golden age with full employment and its reversal of direction in a steady state with non-employment are then considered. But in each of these, variables like rate of savings and output/capital ratio are found to be dormant variables. They are termed as null variables which, being of no account in both full-employment and unemployment situations, could, without loss, be deleted from the repertory of analytical tools. The Harrod formula of warranted rate of growth, when put in causal form, thus becomes a redundant portion of economics of growth. The real determinants of the growth rate and real wage rate on which the analysis of growth or of development should be based, are also depicted.

  20. Developing Fast and Reliable Flood Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Cecilie; Toke, Jens; Borup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    . A surrogate model is set up for a case study area in Aarhus, Denmark, to replace a MIKE FLOOD model. The drainage surrogates are able to reproduce the MIKE URBAN results for a set of rain inputs. The coupled drainage-surface surrogate model lacks details in the surface description which reduces its overall...... accuracy. The model shows no instability, hence larger time steps can be applied, which reduces the computational time by more than a factor 1400. In conclusion, surrogate models show great potential for usage in urban water modelling....

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Illnesses of Herod the Great. Francois P Retief, Johan F G Cilliers. Herod the Great, ldumean by birth, was king ofthe Jews from 40 to 4 BC. An able statesman, builder and warrior, he ruthlessly stamped out all perceived opposition to his rule. His last decade was characterised by vicious strife within ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF. INTERNS TO BLOOD IN AN AREA. OF HIGH HIV SEROPREVALENCE. A S Karstaedt, L Pantanowitz. Objective. To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Design. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire ...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. McCarthy D, Amos A, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997; 14: suppl 5, Sl-585. 2. Zgibor JC, Songer TJ, Kelsey SF, et al. The association of diabetes specialist care with health care practices ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in. South Africa. Sydney Rosen, Mpefe Ketlhapile, Ian Sanne, Mary Bachman DeSilva. Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES could be chosen to link to action policy decisions. In the. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) programme, such a screening test would also remind the health provider to prescribe an iron tonic and to emphasise the importance of a balanced diet. A potential disadvantage of copper ...

  6. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the concerns among mothers for delivery is labor pain. There are various ... Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2017) 6(2): 11-16. © UDS Publishers ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE ..... effective than a placebo during the first stage of.

  8. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pezhman Kharazm

    treatment in 32 patients who were admitted in Shohada-E-Tajrish hospital with final diagnosis of AMI from March 1996 to March 2002. ... of the patient and diagnostic studies and early surgical or non surgical intervention is the most ... operative diagnosis of etiology was based on presence of pulse at the origin of mesenteric.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  10. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A facility based comparative cross-sectional study ... Health care delivery should consider the desire for children by men and .... Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the .... For substitution, children are an important part of marriage, current child needs sibling, original desires .... does not, the only way to avoid the risk of.

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alternatives to conventional care (homoeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, etc.), and also recognise the groundswell of interest in and support for inclusion of benefits for services provided by traditional healers. The transition from the original, relatively restricted approach which was concerned with established, mainstream.

  12. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  13. Original Copies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... shown that, about 80.0% of women contracted HPV infection before ... 2010), age of initial sexual contact, and lack of symp- toms for ...

  15. Instructional Technology Professional Development Evaluation: Developing a High Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan, Jorge A.; McEwen, Beryl C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The literature contains very few studies that focused on evaluating the impact of professional development activities on student learning. And, many of these studies failed to determine whether the professional development activities met their primary goal--to improve the learning process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use…

  16. Development and evaluation of global radon transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, H.; Nagano, K.

    2003-01-01

    The radioactive noble gas Radon-222 ( 222 Rn) is chemically inert and is removed only by radioactive decay (T1/2=3.8 d). Its primary source is uniformly distributed over the continents and the ocean represents a secondary source of atmospheric 222 Rn. The strong contrast in source strength between continents and the ocean makes 222 Rn an ideal marker of continental air masses. Because of its simple properties, the temporal and spatial distribution of 222 Rn in the troposphere is straightforward to simulate by means of atmospheric transport models. The simulation provides an intuitive visualization of the complex transport characteristics and more definite proof of phenomenon. In this paper, we present the results of an exploratory study, in which we investigated the performance of a three-dimensional transport model of the global troposphere in simulating the long range transport of 222 Rn. The transport equation has been solved by a numerical procedure based on some boundary conditions. The model structure which we have originally developed, has a horizontal resolution of 2.5deg in latitude and 2.5deg in longitude, and 10 layers in the vertical dimension. The basic computational time step used in the model runs was set to 5 min. The simulations described in this article were performed by means of a transport model driven by global objective analytical data of a time resolution of 6 h, supplied by the Japan Meteorological Agency. We focus on the west of North Pacific Ocean, were the influence of air pollution from an Asian Continent and the Japan Islands was received. For simulation experiments, radon data from some shipboard measurements on the North Pacific Ocean have been used in the present study. Figure shows time series of model prediction with different latitude distributions of radon exhalation rate and measured radon data. We find that our model consistently produce the observation. We will discuss the characteristics of the temporal and special

  17. Architecture design in global and model-centric software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, Werner

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation describes a series of empirical investigations into representation, dissemination and coordination of software architecture design in the context of global software development. A particular focus is placed on model-centric and model-driven software development.

  18. Development of the preoptic area: time and site of origin, migratory routes, and settling patterns of its neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, S.A.; Altman, J.

    1987-01-01

    Neurogenesis and morphogenesis in the rat preoptic area were examined with [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. For neurogenesis, the experimental animals were the offspring of pregnant females given an injection of [ 3 H]thymidine on two consecutive gestational days. Nine groups were exposed to [ 3 H]thymidine on embryonic days E13-E14, E14-E15, E21-E22, respectively. On postnatal day P5, the percentage of labeled cells and the proportion of cells originating during 24-hr periods were quantified at four anteroposterior levels in the preoptic area. Throughout most of the preoptic area there is a lateral to medial neurogenetic gradient. Neurons originate between E12-E15 in the lateral preoptic area, between E13-E16 in the medial preoptic area, between E14-E17 in the medial preoptic nucleus, and between E15-E18 in the periventricular nucleus. These structures also have intrinsic dorsal to ventral neurogenetic gradients. There are two atypical structures: (1) the sexually dimorphic nucleus originates exceptionally late (E15-E19) and is located more lateral to the ventricle than older neurons; (2) in the median preoptic nucleus, where older neurons (E13-E14) are located closer to the third ventricle than younger neurons (E14-E17). For an autoradiographic study of morphogenesis, pregnant females were given a single injection of [ 3 H]thymidine during gestation, and their embryos were removed either two hrs later (short survival) or in successive 24-hr periods (sequential survival). Short-survival autoradiography was used to locate the putative neuroepithelial sources of preoptic nuclei, and sequential survival autoradiography was used to trace the migratory waves of young neurons and their final settling locations. The preoptic neuroepithelium is located anterior to and in the front wall of the optic recess

  19. How Qualitative Methods Can be Used to Inform Model Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Samantha; Jowett, Susan; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Decision-analytic models play a key role in informing healthcare resource allocation decisions. However, there are ongoing concerns with the credibility of models. Modelling methods guidance can encourage good practice within model development, but its value is dependent on its ability to address the areas that modellers find most challenging. Further, it is important that modelling methods and related guidance are continually updated in light of any new approaches that could potentially enhance model credibility. The objective of this article was to highlight the ways in which qualitative methods have been used and recommended to inform decision-analytic model development and enhance modelling practices. With reference to the literature, the article discusses two key ways in which qualitative methods can be, and have been, applied. The first approach involves using qualitative methods to understand and inform general and future processes of model development, and the second, using qualitative techniques to directly inform the development of individual models. The literature suggests that qualitative methods can improve the validity and credibility of modelling processes by providing a means to understand existing modelling approaches that identifies where problems are occurring and further guidance is needed. It can also be applied within model development to facilitate the input of experts to structural development. We recommend that current and future model development would benefit from the greater integration of qualitative methods, specifically by studying 'real' modelling processes, and by developing recommendations around how qualitative methods can be adopted within everyday modelling practice.

  20. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.