WorldWideScience

Sample records for models female breeders

  1. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  2. Empirical process modeling in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomopoulos, A.; Endou, A.

    1998-01-01

    A non-linear multi-input/single output (MISO) empirical model is introduced for monitoring vital system parameters in a nuclear reactor environment. The proposed methodology employs a scheme of non-parametric smoothing that models the local dynamics of each fitting point individually, as opposed to global modeling techniques--such as multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs)--that attempt to capture the dynamics of the entire design space. The stimulation for employing local models in monitoring rises from one's desire to capture localized idiosyncrasies of the dynamic system utilizing independent estimators. This approach alleviates the effect of negative interference between old and new observations enhancing the model prediction capabilities. Modeling the behavior of any given system comes down to a trade off between variance and bias. The building blocks of the proposed approach are tailored to each data set through two separate, adaptive procedures in order to optimize the bias-variance reconciliation. Hetero-associative schemes of the technique presented exhibit insensitivity to sensor noise and provide the operator with accurate predictions of the actual process signals. A comparison between the local model and MLP prediction capabilities is performed and the results appear in favor of the first method. The data used to demonstrate the potential of local regression have been obtained during two startup periods of the Monju fast breeder reactor (FBR)

  3. Comparison of immunity and resistance to diseases in male and female poultry breeders in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Hamadeh, S K; Hilan, C; Abbas, S S

    1995-05-01

    The immune responses following vaccination and resistance to diseases were compared in male and female meat poultry breeders of the same flock. Female poultry breeders maintained antibody titres to Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus up to the fifty-fifth day following vaccination, whereas those of the males declined significantly over the same period of time (P Gumboro disease (60 to 62 days of age), coccidiosis (68 to 74 days of age) and aortic rupture (99 to 112 days of age) produced significantly higher losses in males. Following vaccination against fowl pox by the wing web method, 96.7% of females had a vaccine reaction (vaccine take) compared to none of the males. Immune injuries, following vaccination, were observed in 85% of the males compared to none of the females. The immune injuries included appearance of facial papules, vesicles, and reddish brown to black scabs.

  4. Progress in tritium retention and release modeling for ceramic breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.; Billone, M.C.; Tanaka, S.

    1994-01-01

    Tritium behavior in ceramic breeder blankets is a key design issue for this class of blanket because of its impact on safety and fuel self-sufficiency. Over the past 10-15 years, substantial theoretical and experimental efforts have been dedicated world-wide to develop a better understanding of tritium transport in ceramic breeders. Models that are available today seem to cover reasonably well all the key physical transport and trapping mechanisms. They have allowed for reasonable interpretation and reproduction of experimental data and have helped in pointing out deficiencies in material property data base, in providing guidance for future experiments, and in analyzing blanket tritium behavior. This paper highlights the progress in tritium modeling over the last decade. Key tritium transport mechanisms are briefly described along with the more recent and sophisticated models developed to help understand them. Recent experimental data are highlighted and model calibration and validation discussed. Finally, example applications to blanket cases are shown as illustration of progress in the prediction of ceramic breeder blanket tritium inventory

  5. Thermohydraulic modeling and simulation of breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Curtis, R.T.; Hetrick, D.L.; Girijashankar, P.V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the modeling and simulation of system-wide transients in LMFBRs. Unprotected events (i.e., the presumption of failure of the plant protection system) leading to core-melt are not considered in this paper. The existing computational capabilities in the area of protected transients in the US are noted. Various physical and numerical approximations that are made in these codes are discussed. Finally, the future direction in the area of model verification and improvements is discussed

  6. Female extrapair mate choice in a cooperative breeder: trading sex for help and increasing offspring heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2007-08-07

    Sexual conflict between males and females over mating is common. Females that copulate with extrapair mates outside the pair-bond may gain (i) direct benefits such as resources or increased paternal care, (ii) indirect genetic benefits for their offspring, or (iii) insurance against infertility in their own social mate. Few studies have been able to demonstrate the different contexts in which females receive varying types of benefits from extrapair mates. Here, I examined sexual conflict, female extrapair mate choice, and patterns of extrapair paternity in the cooperatively breeding superb starling Lamprotornis superbus using microsatellite markers. Although extrapair paternity was lower than many other avian cooperative breeders (14% of offspring and 25% of nests), females exhibited two distinct mating patterns: half of the extrapair fertilizations were with males from inside the group, whereas half were with males from outside the group. Females with few potential helpers copulated with extrapair mates from within their group and thereby gained direct benefits in the form of additional helpers at the nest, whereas females paired to mates that were relatively less heterozygous than themselves copulated with extrapair mates from outside the group and thereby gained indirect genetic benefits in the form of increased offspring heterozygosity. Females did not appear to gain fertility insurance from copulating with extrapair mates. This is the first study to show that individuals from the same population mate with extrapair males and gain both direct and indirect benefits, but that they do so in different contexts.

  7. Reliability modeling of Clinch River breeder reactor electrical shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, R.A.; Duetsch, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    The initial simulation of the probabilistic properties of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) electrical shutdown systems is described. A model of the reliability (and availability) of the systems is presented utilizing Success State and continuous-time, discrete state Markov modeling techniques as significant elements of an overall reliability assessment process capable of demonstrating the achievement of program goals. This model is examined for its sensitivity to safe/unsafe failure rates, sybsystem redundant configurations, test and repair intervals, monitoring by reactor operators; and the control exercised over system reliability by design modifications and the selection of system operating characteristics. (U.S.)

  8. Hematological values and body, heart and liver weights of male and female broiler embryos of young and old breeder eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Morita

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed broiler breeder age (29 or 60 wk-old effects on physical characteristics of eggs (initial mass, mass loss, volume, diameter, surface area and density and of eggshells(weight, volume, thickness, conductance, and porosity , as well as the influence of embryo sex on hematological parameters and body, liver and heart weights during incubation (at days 13, 15, 18 and 21. Physical parameter values were lower in 29-wk-old broiler breeder eggs than those of 60-wk-old breeders, except for relative eggshell weight, which was higher. In both male and female embryos, erythrocytic parameters and the body, liver, and heart weights increased during the incubation. The embryos and their organs were heavier when derived from 60-wk-old breeder eggs as compared to 29-wk-old breeder eggs. At hatching, hematocrit values were higher in males than in females. Thrombocytes were the most frequent leukocytes in the blood. Thrombocyte percentage decreased and lymphocyte percentage increased during the last days of incubation. The results showed maternal age influence only on body, heart and liver weights, focal sex-related influence the hematocrit at hatching, and temporal effect of incubation on body and organ weights, as well as on red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma glucose, and lymphocytes, which increased during the incubation period, while mean corpuscular volume and thrombocyte values decreased.

  9. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR

  10. Modeling delayed neutron monitoring systems for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, W.L.; Tang, E.L.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a general expression relating the count rate of a delayed neutron monitoring system to the introduction rate of fission fragments into the sodium coolant of a fast breeder reactor. Most fast breeder reactors include a system for detecting the presence of breached fuel that permits contact between the sodium coolant and the mixed oxide fuel. These systems monitor for the presence of fission fragments in the sodium that emit delayed neutrons. For operational reasons, the goal is to relate the count rate of the delayed neutron monitor to the condition of the breach in order that appropriate action might be taken

  11. The effects of a reduced balanced protein diet on litter moisture, pododermatitis and feather condition of female broiler breeders over three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Lesuisse, J; Schallier, S; Clímaco, W; Wang, Y; Bautil, A; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2017-11-02

    Protein content reduction in broiler breeder diets has been increasingly investigated. However, broiler breeders reared on low protein diets are characterized by a deterioration of the feather condition. Furthermore, polydipsia induced by controlled feed intake increases litter moisture and as a consequence pododermatitis. This project aimed to study the litter moisture, pododermatitis and feather condition of breeders fed with a 25% reduced balanced protein (RP) diet during the rearing and laying period over three successive generations. The experiment started with two treatments for the F0 generation: control (C) group fed with standard C diets and RP group fed with RP diets. The female F0-progeny of each treatment was divided into the two dietary treatments as well, resulting in four treatments for the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C and RP/RP (breeder feed in F0/F1 generation). The RP diet fed breeders received on average 10% more feed than C diet fed breeders to achieve the same target BW. The female F1-progeny of each treatment were all fed with C diets which resulted in four treatments for the F2 generation: C/C/C, C/RP/C, RP/C/C and RP/RP/C (breeder feed in F0/F1/F2 generation). Litter moisture, footpad and hock dermatitis were recorded at regular intervals throughout the experimental period in all three generations. For the F0 and F1 generation, the pens of breeders receiving C diets had significantly higher litter moisture than the RP diets fed groups (Pdiets had poorer feather condition than those receiving the C diets (Pdiets to broiler breeders improved litter condition and hence reduced FDO whereas impaired feather condition. Furthermore, positive transgenerational effects of the maternal RP diets on the feather condition may be inferred, hence potentially altering the welfare status.

  12. The effect of dietary alterations during rearing on growth, productivity, and behavior in broiler breeder females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, K L H; Widowski, T; Leeson, S; Sandilands, V; Arnone, A; Torrey, S

    2014-02-01

    Parent stocks of meat birds are severely feed restricted to avoid obesity-related health and fertility problems. This restriction often leads to chronic hunger, accompanied by stereotypic behavior. Research based in the United Kingdom has shown that using diets containing fiber and appetite suppressants may relieve some of the symptoms of hunger. However, few data are available regarding North American-sourced ingredients or nondaily feeding regimens. This study investigated the effects of 2 alternative diets, in combination with 2 feeding frequencies on growth, productivity, and behavior in broiler breeders. Six dietary treatments were tested, each with 5 replicate pens of 12 or 13 birds. Control diets consisted of a commercial crumble, fed on a daily or skip-a-day (SAD) basis. Alternative diets included soybean hulls as a fiber source, and calcium propionate as an appetite suppressant of either a feed-grade or purified quality, fed on either a daily or SAD basis. Birds were weighed weekly and egg production was recorded daily. Video cameras were used to record behavior during and following the morning feeding bout every 2 wk from 11 to 28 wk. Data were analyzed with a mixed model ANOVA, with repeated measures. Diet, feeding frequency, time, or an interaction of the 3 had significant effects on all observed behavior during rearing. These differences appeared to diminish during lay, with most stereotypic behavior no longer present. Very little object pecking and aggression was observed during and immediately following feeding bouts; however, daily-fed control birds still displayed this behavior more often, especially during rearing (P = 0.015). During feeding bouts, SAD birds feather pecked (P = 0.003) and rested more (P = 0.0002) than daily-fed birds. Control birds feather pecked most often (P = 0.033) after feeding bouts. Overall, the feed-grade diet appeared most effective at reducing hunger-related behavior, and the control diet appeared the least effective

  13. Application of an LP model to breeder strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the relationships between the capital cost differential (FBR--LWR) allowable for economic breeder introduction and energy demand, resource availability (through price--quantity schedule), and economic environment for a range of future projections. The ALPS linear programming reactor systems analysis code, developed by Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, was used for economic optimizations where they were done, and where they were not it provided a useful tool to compute the discounted total system power cost over the planning horizon for a given set of reactor mix and cost parameters

  14. Econometric modelling of certain nuclear power systems based on thermal and fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, M.; Pioaru, C.; Ursu, I.

    1988-01-01

    Certain known economic analysis models for a LMFBR fast breeder and CANDU thermal solitary reactors are presented, based on the concepts of discounting and levelization. These models are subsequently utilized as a basis for establishing an original model for the econometric analysis of certain thermal reactor systems or/and fast breeder reactors. Case studies are subsequently conducted with the systems: 1-CANDU, 2-LMFBR, 3-CANDU + LMFBR which enables us to draw certain interesting conclusions for a long range nuclear power policy. (author)

  15. A linear model of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.S.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Rajakumar, A.

    1979-02-01

    A linear analysis of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor System, consisting of the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, steam generator and connected piping is presented. The problem of variable boundaries in the steam generator is reduced to a problem of fixed boundaries by dividing the steam generator into six zones. Based upon this, one can obtain the transfer function of any input/output combination. Starting with the time domain non-linear partial differential equations, the problem is reduced to a system of linear equations in complex variables, which can be solved basically by Gaussian elimination process. The results of this work will be useful in determining a suitable control scheme for waterflow in the steam generator and the control parameters. (auth.)

  16. A model for an economically optimal replacement of a breeder flock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A deterministic model is developed to support the tactical and operational replacement decisions at broiler breeder farms. The marginal net revenue approach is applied to determine the optimal replacement age of a flock. The objective function of the model maximizes the annual gross margin over the

  17. Recommendations concerning models and parameters best suited to breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Recommendations are presented concerning the models and parameters best suited for assessing the impact of radionuclide releases to the environment by breeder reactor facilities. These recommendations are based on the model and parameter evaluations performed during this project to date. Seven different areas are covered in separate sections

  18. Recommendations concerning models and parameters best suited to breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Recommendations are presented concerning the models and parameters best suited for assessing the impact of radionuclide releases to the environment by breeder reactor facilities. These recommendations are based on the model and parameter evaluations performed during this project to date. Seven different areas are covered in separate sections.

  19. Optimization of binary breeder reactor. 1. Sodium void reactivity and Doppler effect in a new model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.A. do; Dias, A.F.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the Binary Breeder Reactor (BBR) is examined for the inherent safety characteristics, sodium void reactivity and Doppler effect in the beginning of cycle and a hypothetical end of cycle. In addition to the standard fueling mode of the BBR, two others are considered: U 238 /U 233 -alternate fueling, and U 238 /PU-normal fueling of LMFBRs. (Author) [pt

  20. Risk/benefits of fast breeder reactors societal risks and accident modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.R.

    1979-01-01

    A special feature of the Fast Breeder Reactor is the possibility of fuel vaporisation, hence accidents may have more severe consequences than thermal reactors. This article discusses the process of accident modelling, the identification and assessment of risk, not yet incurred. 10 refs

  1. Effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, Van Rick A.; Kwakkel, René; Krimpen, van Marinus; Hendriks, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females. A 2×3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A total of 2880 Ross 308

  2. Analytical modeling of core hydraulics and flow management in breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Willis, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical model representing the hydraulic behavior of the primary system of fast breeder nuclear reactors is discussed. A computer code capable of detailing the core flow distribution and characterizing the flow and pressure drop in each reactor component is presented. Application of this method to the reactor core thermal-hydraulic design has allowed optimization of the flow management with consequent upgrading in performance, reduction of unnecessary conservatism and very substantial cost savings. Typical quantitative examples are presented

  3. A model for an economically optimal replacement of a breeder flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Hurria; Velthuis, Annet G J; Giesen, Gerard W J; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2012-12-01

    A deterministic model is developed to support the tactical and operational replacement decisions at broiler breeder farms. The marginal net revenue approach is applied to determine the optimal replacement age of a flock. The objective function of the model maximizes the annual gross margin over the flock's production cycle. To calculate the gross margin, future egg production, fertility, or hatchability of the eggs, revenues and variable costs of a flock were estimated. For tactical decisions, the optimal laying length is the age at which the average gross margin of an average flock is maximal. For operational decisions, a flock should be replaced when the marginal gross margin of a replaceable flock is less than the average gross margin of an average flock. To demonstrate the model, a broiler breeder flock from a Dutch breeder farm was used. A sensitivity analysis showed that the optimal replacement decision, for both tactical and operational management, is sensitive to the decrease in the weekly egg production after the peak and the prices of feed and hatching eggs. The effect of the decrease in weekly fertility after the peak on the replacement decision is related to the payment system for hatching eggs.

  4. Review of uncertainty estimates associated with models for assessing the impact of breeder reactor radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.; Little, C.A.

    1982-08-01

    The purpose is to summarize estimates based on currently available data of the uncertainty associated with radiological assessment models. The models being examined herein are those recommended previously for use in breeder reactor assessments. Uncertainty estimates are presented for models of atmospheric and hydrologic transport, terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and internal and external dosimetry. Both long-term and short-term release conditions are discussed. The uncertainty estimates presented in this report indicate that, for many sites, generic models and representative parameter values may be used to calculate doses from annual average radionuclide releases when these calculated doses are on the order of one-tenth or less of a relevant dose limit. For short-term, accidental releases, especially those from breeder reactors located in sites dominated by complex terrain and/or coastal meteorology, the uncertainty in the dose calculations may be much larger than an order of magnitude. As a result, it may be necessary to incorporate site-specific information into the dose calculation under these circumstances to reduce this uncertainty. However, even using site-specific information, natural variability and the uncertainties in the dose conversion factor will likely result in an overall uncertainty of greater than an order of magnitude for predictions of dose or concentration in environmental media following shortterm releases

  5. Evaluation of neutron streaming in fast breeder reactor fuel assembly by double heterogeneous modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, Hironobu; Takeda, Toshikazu

    1988-01-01

    Neutron streaming in a fast breeder reactor fuel assembly caused by the double heterogeneity structure is estimated by double heterogeneous modelling. The conventional pin cell model, a two-region subassembly model and the exact pin cluster model are used to take into account the streaming effect caused by the pin cell structure and the surrounding wrapper tube structure. The heterogeneity of wrapper tube and its surrounding sodium is explicitly considered. The streaming effect is evaluated based on Benoist's diffusion coefficient. The total streaming effect caused by the double heterogeneity structure of a fuel subassembly is found to be -0.2 % dk/kk' for k eff , which is almost twice that obtained from the conventional pin cell model of -0.1 % dk/kk'. (author)

  6. Estimativa do padrão de preferência térmica de matrizes pesadas (frango de corte Thermal preference pattern estimates of female broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P. F. Curto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade de matrizes pesadas (frango de corte está ligada aos princípios de conforto térmico, diretamente relacionados ao microclima da instalação. Neste trabalho objetivou-se o monitoramento do comportamento de matrizes pesadas usando-se a tecnologia de radiofreqüência, identificadores eletrônicos injetáveis e leitores no interior de modelo de galpão de produção em escala reduzida e distorcida. Utilizaram-se no experimento oito aves com identificação eletrônica. Três antenas foram dispostas em três pontos dentro do modelo: no piso do ninho, na passagem entre a parede lateral e o comedouro e sob o bebedouro. Registraram-se continuamente as temperaturas de bulbo seco (TBS, bulbo úmido (TBU e de globo negro (TGN. Os resultados apontam para um padrão de preferência térmica das aves diferenciado frente às situações de ambiente ocorridas no experimento. Três modelos probabilísticos de comportamento foram desenvolvidos a partir dos registros coletados: modelo probabilístico para uso da passagem: FP = 1,10 - 0,244 ln(TBS, modelo probabilístico para uso do bebedouro: FB = 0,398 + 0,00866 tbs, e modelo probabilístico para uso do ninho: FN = 2,22 - 0,272 TBS + 0,011 TBS² - 0,000144 TBS³.Female broiler breeder productivity is based on the principles of thermal comfort that are directly related with the microclimate inside the housing. This research had the objective of monitoring the behavior of female broiler breeders, using the technology of radio-frequency, injectable transponders and readers in different existing microclimates inside a small scale distorted housing model. Eight birds with electronic identification were used. Three readers were used, in three different points inside the model: on the floor of the nest, in the passage besides the lateral wall and below the water facility. Dry bulb (DBT, wet bulb (WBT and black globe (BGT temperature were measured continuously. The results point out a distinct

  7. Acoustic monitoring of sodium boiling in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor from autoregressive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Issa Cherif [Laboratoire d’Automatique, Génie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS UMR CNRS 8219), Université Lille 1, Sciences et technologies, Avenue Paul Langevin, BP 48, 59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq CEDEX (France); Bose, Tanmoy [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Pekpe, Komi Midzodzi, E-mail: midzodzi.pekpe@univ-lille1.fr [Laboratoire d’Automatique, Génie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS UMR CNRS 8219), Université Lille 1, Sciences et technologies, Avenue Paul Langevin, BP 48, 59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq CEDEX (France); Cassar, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire d’Automatique, Génie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS UMR CNRS 8219), Université Lille 1, Sciences et technologies, Avenue Paul Langevin, BP 48, 59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq CEDEX (France); Mohanty, A.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Paumel, Kévin [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The work deals with sodium boiling detection in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. • The authors choose to use acoustic data instead of thermal data. • The method is designed to not to be disturbed by the environment noises. • A real time boiling detection methods are proposed in the paper. - Abstract: This paper deals with acoustic monitoring of sodium boiling in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) based on auto regressive (AR) models which have low computational complexities. Some authors have used AR models for sodium boiling or sodium–water reaction detection. These works are based on the characterization of the difference between fault free condition and current functioning of the system. However, even in absence of faults, it is possible to observe a change in the AR models due to the change of operating mode of the LMFBR. This sets up the delicate problem of how to distinguish a change in operating mode in absence of faults and a change due to presence of faults. In this paper we propose a new approach for boiling detection based on the estimation of AR models on sliding windows. Afterwards, classification of the models into boiling or non-boiling models is made by comparing their coefficients by two statistical methods, multiple linear regression (LR) and support vectors machines (SVM). The proposed approach takes into account operating mode information in order to avoid false alarms. Experimental data include non-boiling background noise data collected from Phenix power plant (France) and provided by the CEA (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives, France) and boiling condition data generated in laboratory. High boiling detection rates as well as low false alarms rates obtained on these experimental data show that the proposed method is efficient for boiling detection. Most importantly, it shows that the boiling phenomenon introduces a disturbance into the AR models that can be clearly detected.

  8. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  9. Alternative breeder reactor technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    The significance of employing breeder reactors to stretch the world resources of nuclear fuels is briefly discussed, and the various types of breeder concepts are described. General descriptions, advantages, and disadvantages of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder, gas cooled fast breeder, molten salt breeder, thermal breeders, and spectral-shift control reactors are presented. Aspects of safeguarding fissile material connected with breeder operation are examined. 31 references

  10. A dynamic model for the steam generator of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.S.; Kothaandaraman, A.L.; Ravi Prasan, G.R.

    1978-11-01

    A computer code for the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of the steam generator of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor Plant has been written. This report describes the physical, mathematical and computational models used. Some results are listed which bring out the usefulness of this code as the prerequisite for the estimation of thermal stresses and determination of safe operating modes. Problems of slip and non-uniform radial distribution are neglected because of the high pressure of operation and low pressure drop. By suitable decoupling of some of the equations of the model, the computational effort is reduced to the solution of a system of linear equations or one non-linear equation. The non-linear equation is solved by the method of false position and the method of binary division. Results are listed for the perturbations in sodium temperature, sodium flow, water flow and steam pressure. The computer code is written in Fortran IV and is operational on IBM 370/155 system. (auth.)

  11. Effects of growth pattern and dietary protein level during rearing on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing and laying period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of growth patterns (GP) and dietary crude protein levels (CP) during rearing (2–22 weeks of age) on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing

  12. Modelled female sale options demonstrate improved profitability in northern beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethe, G E; Holmes, W E

    2008-12-01

    To examine the impact of improving the average value of cows sold, the risk of decreasing the number weaned, and total sales on the profitability of northern Australian cattle breeding properties. Gather, model and interpret breeder herd performances and production parameters on properties from six beef-producing regions in northern Australia. Production parameters, prices, costs and herd structure were entered into a herd simulation model for six northern Australian breeding properties that spay females to enhance their marketing options. After the data were validated by management, alternative management strategies were modelled using current market prices and most likely herd outcomes. The model predicted a close relationship between the average sale value of cows, the total herd sales and the gross margin/adult equivalent. Keeping breeders out of the herd to fatten generally improves their sale value, and this can be cost-effective, despite the lower number of progeny produced and the subsequent reduction in total herd sales. Furthermore, if the price of culled cows exceeds the price of culled heifers, provided there are sufficient replacement pregnant heifers available to maintain the breeder herd nucleus, substantial gains in profitability can be obtained by decreasing the age at which cows are culled from the herd. Generalised recommendations on improving reproductive performance are not necessarily the most cost-effective strategy to improve breeder herd profitability. Judicious use of simulation models is essential to help develop the best turnoff strategies for females and to improve station profitability.

  13. Family relationship of female breeders reduce the systematic inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota of inbred laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2010-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) may influence disease expression in several animal models for inflammatory diseases. It may therefore seem reasonable to pursue reduction in the number of animals used for individual studies by reducing the variation in the GM. Previous studies have shown......-sisters according to their mothers, while such clustering would not be visible if the mothers were sisters. We used 16S rRNA gene (V3 region) polymerase chain reaction-derived amplicon profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to study the GM composition in caecum samples of 33 eight-week-old C57...

  14. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  15. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  16. A fuel freezing model for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor hypothetical core disruptive accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, F.R.; Erdman, C.; Wayne, D.

    1985-01-01

    A proposed fuel freezing mechanism for molten UO2 fuel penetrating a steel channel was investigated in the course of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor hypothetical core disruptiv accident safety studies. The fuel crust deposited on an underlying melting steel wall was analyzed as being subjected to two stresses one due to the pressure difference between the flowing fuel and the stagnant molten steel layer, and the other resulting from the temperature variation through the crust thickness. Analyses based on the proposed freezing mechanism and comparisons with fuel freezing experiments confirmed that fuel freezing occurs in three modes. For initially low steel wall temperatures, the fuel crust was stable and grew to occlude the channel. At high steel wall temperatures (above 1070 K), instantaneous wall melting leading to steel entrainment was calculated to occur with final penetration depending on the refreezing of the entrained steel. Between these two extremes, the stress developed within the crust at the steel melting front exceeds the critical buckling value, the crust ruptures, and steel is injected into the fuel flow. Freezing is dominated by the fuel/steel mixture. The theoretical penetration distances and freezing times were in good agreement with the experimental results with no more than 20% error involved.

  17. Modelling and design of high compression electron guns for EBIS/T charge breeders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087190; Zschornack, G.; Lettry, J.; Wenander, F.

    In this thesis the optimization of the REXEBIS charge breeder at the ISOLDE facility is presented. REXEBIS in its current state provides a current density of 200A/cm² inside the trapping region at 2 T and will be optimized to the physical limit of its design. To overcome this limit a new electron gun, the HEC² gun, was designed in collaboration with the BNL and is in commission at TestEBIS. This electron gun promises a current density of >10 kA/cm², which decreases the charge breeding time significantly. This thesis presents novel simulation techniques supporting the commissioning phase by explaining the sources of occurring loss current and, in addition, evaluate the currently installed collector for compatibility with the HEC2 gun operating at its design limit. The experience gained from the commission of the HEC² gun and the established numerical techniques lead to the development of a smaller high-compression electron gun for medical purposes, the MEDeGUN. This electron gun should provide a high-quali...

  18. Lay-out of the He-cooled solid breeder model B in the European power plant conceptual study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermsmeyer, S. E-mail: stephan.hermsmeyer@iket.fzk.de; Malang, S.; Fischer, U.; Gordeev, S

    2003-09-01

    The European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket concept is the basis for one of two limited-extrapolation plant models that are being elaborated within the European power plant conceptual study (PPCS). In addition to addressing the case for fusion safety and environmental compatibility, following earlier studies like SEAFP or SEAL, this reactor study puts emphasis on plant availability and economic viability, which are closely related to specific plant models and require a detailed lay-out of the fusion power core and a consideration of the overall plant (balance of plant). Within the development of in-vessel components for the plant model, the major tasks to be carried out were: (i) adaptation of the HCPB concept--featuring separate pebble beds of ceramic breeder and Beryllium neutron multiplier and reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER as structural material--to the large module segmentation chosen for reasons of plant availability in part II of the PPCS; (ii) proposal of a concept for a Helium cooled divertor compatible with a maximum of 10 MW/m{sup 2} heat flux to satisfy the requirements of reasonably extrapolated plasma physics; (iii) lay-out of the major plant model components and integration into the in-vessel dimensions found from system code calculations for a power plant of 1500 MW electrical output and iterated data on the plant model performance. The paper defines all major in-vessel components of plant model B, as it is called in the PPCS, namely (i) the unit of FW, blanket and high temperature shield that is to be replaced regularly; (ii) the low temperature shield that is laid out as a lifetime component of the reactor; (iii) the divertor; and (iv) the in-vessel manifolding. Results are presented for the thermal-hydraulic performance of the components and for the thermal-mechanical behaviour of the blanket and the divertor target plate. These results suggest, together with results from the wider exploration of the plant model

  19. Lay-out of the He-cooled solid breeder model B in the European power plant conceptual study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.; Malang, S.; Fischer, U.; Gordeev, S.

    2003-01-01

    The European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket concept is the basis for one of two limited-extrapolation plant models that are being elaborated within the European power plant conceptual study (PPCS). In addition to addressing the case for fusion safety and environmental compatibility, following earlier studies like SEAFP or SEAL, this reactor study puts emphasis on plant availability and economic viability, which are closely related to specific plant models and require a detailed lay-out of the fusion power core and a consideration of the overall plant (balance of plant). Within the development of in-vessel components for the plant model, the major tasks to be carried out were: (i) adaptation of the HCPB concept--featuring separate pebble beds of ceramic breeder and Beryllium neutron multiplier and reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER as structural material--to the large module segmentation chosen for reasons of plant availability in part II of the PPCS; (ii) proposal of a concept for a Helium cooled divertor compatible with a maximum of 10 MW/m 2 heat flux to satisfy the requirements of reasonably extrapolated plasma physics; (iii) lay-out of the major plant model components and integration into the in-vessel dimensions found from system code calculations for a power plant of 1500 MW electrical output and iterated data on the plant model performance. The paper defines all major in-vessel components of plant model B, as it is called in the PPCS, namely (i) the unit of FW, blanket and high temperature shield that is to be replaced regularly; (ii) the low temperature shield that is laid out as a lifetime component of the reactor; (iii) the divertor; and (iv) the in-vessel manifolding. Results are presented for the thermal-hydraulic performance of the components and for the thermal-mechanical behaviour of the blanket and the divertor target plate. These results suggest, together with results from the wider exploration of the plant model within

  20. Accelerator breeder concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Fraser, J.S.; Garvey, P.M.

    1978-10-01

    The principal components and functions of an accelerator breeder are described. The role of the accelerator breeder as a possible long-term fissile production support facility for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) thorium advanced fuel cycles and the Canadian research and development program leading to such a facility are outlined. (author)

  1. Modeling reproductive trajectories of roe deer females: fixed or dynamic heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plard, F; Bonenfant, C; Delormeb, D; Gaillard, J M

    2012-12-01

    The relative role of dynamic and fixed heterogeneity in shaping the individual heterogeneity observed in most life-history traits remains difficult to quantify. In a recent work, Tuljapurkar et al. (2009) suggested modeling individual heterogeneity in lifetime reproductive success by a null model building reproductive trajectories from a first-order Markov chain. According to this model, among-individual differences in reproductive trajectories would be generated by the stochastic transitions among reproductive states (such as breeder and non-breeder) due to dynamic heterogeneity. In this work, we analyze the individual variation in three reproductive metrics (reproductive status, fecundity, and reproductive success) in two populations of roe deer intensively monitored using Tuljapurkar et al. (2009)’s dynamic model. Moreover, we challenge the Tuljapurkar model previously used as a biological null model to test whether the observed distribution of reproductive success over the lifetime was generated by a stochastic process by modifying two steps of the previous model to build a full stochastic model. We show that a distribution generated by the full dynamic model proposed by Tuljapurkar et al. (2009) can be consistently interpreted as only generated from a stochastic biological process provided that the probabilities of transition among reproductive states used are independent of the current reproductive state and that the positive covariation that usually occurs between survival and reproduction among individuals is removed. Only the reproductive status of roe deer females could be restricted to a stochastic process described by the full stochastic model, probably because most females (>90%) were breeders in a given year. The fecundity of roe deer females could not be adequately described by the full dynamic and full stochastic model, and the observed distribution of female reproductive success differed from the one generated by a full dynamic model in which

  2. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  3. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  4. Power excursion models applied to the study of secundary excursion in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messainguiral, Christiane.

    1980-06-01

    An evaluation of the energy that a secondary power excursion could release has been sought throughout the present work. A parametric study was therefore made by means of a power excursion code in fast reactors. The work submitted is therefore made up of the three following parts: Part 1. - (a), the secondary excursion is situated in the generally envisaged programmes and (b) the role of the principal parameters is studied in the calculation effected by the nuclear excursion code that was available at the start of the study. Part 2. - the results obtained for the power excursion calculations made are presented, Part 3. - the insufficient modelling of the reactivity present during the secondary power excursion is deduced from the parametric study just made. A definition is made of the characteristics of a model adapted to the calculation of this hypothetical accident and a new model as worked out within the scope of this work is submitted [fr

  5. Ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 32 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Mathematical modeling of turbulent stratified flows. Application of liquid metal fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villand, M.; Grand, D.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical model of turbulent stratified flow was proposed under the following assumptions: Newtonian fluid; incompressible fluid; coupling between temperature and momentum fields according to Boussinesq approximation; two-dimensional invariance for translation or rotation; coordinates cartesian or curvilinear. Solutions obtained by the proposed method are presented

  7. Development of a transfer model for design of sodium purification systems for Fast Breeder Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatcheressian, N.

    2013-01-01

    Operating a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) in reliable and safe conditions requires to master the quality of the sodium fluid coolant, regarding oxygen and hydrogen impurities contents. A cold trap is a purification unit in SFR, designed for maintaining oxygen and hydrogen contents within acceptable limits. The purification of these impurities is based on crystallization of sodium hydride on cold walls and sodium oxide or hydride on wire mesh packing. Indeed, as oxygen and hydrogen solubilities are nearly nil at temperatures close to the sodium fusion point, i.e. 97.8 C, on line sodium purification can be performed by crystallization of sodium oxide and hydride from liquid sodium flows. However, the management of cold trap performances is necessary to prevent from unforeseen maintenance operations, which could induce shut-down of the reactor. It is thus essential to understand how a cold trap fills up with impurities crystallization in order to optimize the design of this system and to overcome any problems during nominal operation. The objective is to develop a design and simulation tool for cold traps able to predict the location and the amount of the impurities deposited. Crystallization model involve phenomena coupling in a porous medium with hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer, distinguishing nucleation and growth phases for each impurity. It enables to understand how thermo hydraulic conditions and growing impurities interact on each other. This analysis will adapt operating and management conditions in order to optimize purification requirements. (author) [fr

  8. Fast breeder project (PSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Activities performed during the 1st quarter of 1976 at or on behalf of the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe, within the framework of the Fast Breeder Project are given a survey. The following project subdivisions are dealt with: Fuel rod development; materials testing and developments; corrosion studies and coolant analyses; physical experiments; reactor theory; safety of fast breeders; instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring; effects on the environment; sodium technology tests; thermodynamic and fluid flow tests in gas. (HR) [de

  9. Produção e qualidade de ovos em reprodutoras de frangos de corte com horário de arraçoamento diferenciado Performance and egg quality traits of female broiler breeders submitted to different feeding schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Silveira de Avila

    2005-08-01

    (dual; at 11:00 am, and at 3:30 pm. Arbor Acres breeders were randomly assigned to 48 boxes, with 12 replicates of 27 females and three males each. The nutritional levels and management procedures were those recommended for strain. The variables studied were: total egg production, nest, clean and broken egg production, in six collections (6:30 am, 9:00 am, 11:00 am, 1:30 pm, 3:30 pm and 5:30 pm; egg weight and egg specific gravity, grouped in three collections (9:00 am, 1:30 pm and 5:30 pm. Analysis of variance was used. Means were compared using Student t test for traits and collection and polynomial regression analysis for age. The collection and feeding schedule effects were significant for all traits, except for broken eggs, in which feeding schedule was not significant. The maximum egg production was obtained at 9:00 am for feeding schedule at 6:30 am (22.78 ± 0.36% and dual (20.26 ± 0.33%, and at 1:30 pm for feeding schedule at 11:00 am (20.35 ± 0.39% and at 3:30 pm (19.25 ± 0.38%. Female broiler breeders under the dual and at 3:30 pm feeding schedule showed egg weight of 71.0 ± 0.3 g, which was at least equal to the other feeding schedule in any collection. The egg specific gravity for feeding schedule at 11:00 am (1.0788 ± 2 and 3:30 pm (1.0799 ± 2 were higher than the other feeding schedule. Eggs from older female broiler breeders and eggs collected in the first hours of the day were heavier and had thinner eggshell than those from younger females and eggs collected later in the day. The dual feeding schedule could be an alternative to feeding schedule at 6:30.

  10. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Reynolds, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    This book describes the major design features of fast breeder reactors and the methods used for their design and analysis. The foremost objective of this book is to fulfill the need for a textbook on Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) technology at the graduate level or the advanced undergraduate level. It is assumed that the reader has an introductory understanding of reactor theory, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. The book is expected to be used most widely for a one-semester general course on fast breeder reactors, with the extent of material covered to vary according to the interest of the instructor. The book could also be used effectively for a two-quarter or a two-semester course. In addition, the book could serve as a text for a course on fast reactor safety since many topics other than those appearing in the safety chapters relate to FBR safety. Methodology in fast reactor design and analysis, together with physical descriptions of systems, is emphasized in this text more than numerical results. Analytical and design results continue to change with the ongoing evolution of FBR design whereas many design methods have remained fundamentally unchanged for a considerable time

  11. Ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; Kummerer, K.R.; Roth, E.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramic materials are under investigation as potential breeder material in fusion reactors. This paper will review candidate materials with respect to fabrication routes and characterization, properties in as-fabricated and irradiated condition, and experimental results from laboratory and inpile investigations on tritium transport and release. Also discussed are the resources of beryllium, which is being considered as a neutron multiplier. The comparison of ceramic properties that is attempted here aims at the identification of the most-promising material for use in a tritium breeding blanket. 82 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollier, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The first industrial-scale fast breeder reactor (FBR) is the Superphenix I at Crays-Melville. It was designed and built by Novatome, a French company, and Ansaldo, an Italian company. The advantages of FBRs are summarized. The status of Superphenix and the testing schedule is given. The stages in its power escalation in 1986 are given. The article is optimistic about the future for FBRs and expects FBRs to take over from PWRs at the beginning of the 21st Century. To achieve economic viability, European financial cooperation for the research and development programme is advocated. (UK)

  13. The development of a model to study the thermal behaviour of the coolant in the blind elements of a fast sodium-cooled breeder in the case of a severe hypothetical accident during the initial phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, G.

    1981-03-01

    The enthalpy level of the coolant is studied in the interior of gaps and special elements of a fast sodium coded breeder reactor during the initial and the final stages of a hypothetical accident. For this purpose numerical models are presented to calculate the heat transport in the special element on the basis of heat conduction and axial convection. (orig./RW) [de

  14. BREEDER: a microcomputer program for financial analysis of a large-scale prototype breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes a microcomputer-based, single-project financial analysis program: BREEDER. BREEDER is a user-friendly model designed to facilitate frequent and rapid analyses of the financial implications associated with alternative design and financing strategies for electric generating plants and large-scale prototype breeder (LSPB) reactors in particular. The model has proved to be a useful tool in establishing cost goals for LSPB reactors. The program is available on floppy disks for use on an IBM personal computer (or IBM look-a-like) running under PC-DOS or a Kaypro II transportable computer running under CP/M (and many other CP/M machines). The report documents version 1.5 of BREEDER and contains a user's guide. The report also includes a general overview of BREEDER, a summary of hardware requirements, a definition of all required program inputs, a description of all algorithms used in performing the construction-period and operation-period analyses, and a summary of all available reports. The appendixes contain a complete source-code listing, a cross-reference table, a sample interactive session, several sample runs, and additional documentation of the net-equity program option

  15. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments for and against the fast breeder reactor are debated. The case for the fast reactor is that the world energy demand will increase due to increasing population over the next forty years and that the damage to the global environment from burning fossil fuels which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear fission is the only large scale energy source which can achieve a cut in the use of carbon based fuels although energy conservation and renewable sources will also be important. Fast reactors produce more energy from uranium than other types of (thermal) reactors such as AGRs and PWRs. Fast reactors would be important from about 2020 onwards especially as by then many thermal reactors will need to be replaced. Fast reactors are also safer than normal reactors. The arguments against fast reactors are largely economic. The cost, especially the capital cost is very high. The viability of the technology is also questioned. (UK)

  16. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  17. Economic analysis of fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the economic performance of Fission/Fusion Hybrid devices. This work takes fusion breeder cost estimates and applies methodology and cost factors used in the fission reactor programs to compare fusion breeders with Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The results of the analysis indicate that the Hybrid will be in the same competitive range as proposed LMFBRs and have the potential to provide economically competitive power in a future of rising uranium prices. The sensitivity of the results to variations in key parameters is included

  18. Canadian accelerator breeder system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1982-11-01

    A shortage of fissile material at a reasonable price is expected to occur in the early part of the twenty-first century. Converting fertile material to fissile material by electronuclar methods is an option that can extend th world's resources of fissionable material, supplying fuel for nuclear power stations. This paper presents the rationale for electronuclear breeders and describes the Canadian development program for an accelerator breeder facility that could produce 1 Mg of fissile material per year

  19. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This contribution is prepared for the answer to the questionnaire of working group 5, subgroup B. B.1. is the short review of the fast breeder fuel cycles based on the reference large commercial Japanese LMFBR. The LMFBRs are devided into two types. FBR-A is the reactor to be used before 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively low. The reference fuel cycle requirement is calculated based on the FBR-A. FBR-B is the one to be used after 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively high. B.2. is basic FBR fuel reprocessing scheme emphasizing the differences with LWR reprocessing. This scheme is based on the conceptual design and research and development work on the small scale LMFBR reprocessing facility of Japan. The facility adopts a conventional PUREX process except head end portions. The report also describes the effects of technical modifications of conventional reprocessing flow sheets, and the problems to be solved before the adoption of these alternatives

  20. Tritium-assisted fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1983-08-01

    This report undertakes a preliminary assessment of the prospects of tritium-assisted D-D fuel cycle fusion breeders. Two well documented fusion power reactor designs - the STARFIRE (D-T fuel cycle) and the WILDCAT (Cat-D fuel cycle) tokamaks - are converted into fusion breeders by replacing the fusion electric blankets with 233 U producing fission suppressed blankets; changing the Cat-D fuel cycle mode of operation by one of the several tritium-assisted D-D-based modes of operation considered; adjusting the reactor power level; and modifying the resulting plant cost to account for the design changes. Three sources of tritium are considered for assisting the D-D fuel cycle: tritium produced in the blankets from lithium or from 3 He and tritium produced in the client fission reactors. The D-D-based fusion breeders using tritium assistance are found to be the most promising economically, especially the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium mode of operation in which the 3 He exhausted from the plasma is converted, by neutron capture in the blanket, into tritium which is in turn fed back to the plasma. The number of fission reactors of equal thermal power supported by Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium fusion breeders is about 50% higher than that of D-T fusion breeders, and the profitability is found to be slightly lower than that of the D-T fusion breeders

  1. Calculational model used in the analysis of nuclear performance of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.B. (ed.)

    1978-08-01

    The calculational model used in the analysis of LWBR nuclear performance is described. The model was used to analyze the as-built core and predict core nuclear performance prior to core operation. The qualification of the nuclear model using experiments and calculational standards is described. Features of the model include: an automated system of processing manufacturing data; an extensively analyzed nuclear data library; an accurate resonance integral calculation; space-energy corrections to infinite medium cross sections; an explicit three-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculation; a transport calculation for high energy neutrons; explicit accounting for fuel and moderator temperature feedback, clad diameter shrinkage, and fuel pellet growth; and an extensive testing program against experiments and a highly developed analytical standard.

  2. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.; Kratzer, M.B.; Leslie, K.E.; Paige, H.W.; Shantzis, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  3. Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with the first breeder demonstration reactor. A renewed commitment to moving forward with the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) has been made, with startup anticipated near the end of this decade. While plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic research and development programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. This paper updates the status of the reprocessing plans and programs. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990's. Contents of this paper are: (1) evolving plans for breeder reprocessing (demonstration reprocessing plant, reprocessing head-end colocated at an existing facility); (2) relationship to LWR reprocessing; (3) integrated equipment test (IET) facility and related hardware development activities (mechanical considerations in shearing and dissolving, remote operations and maintenance demonstration phase of IET, integrated process demonstration phase of IET, separate component development activities); and (4) supporting process R and D

  4. Implementation of a model reference adaptive control system using neural network to control a fast breeder reactor evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugolini, D.; Yoshikawa, S.; Endou, A.

    1994-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is foreseen as the base for new control systems aimed to replace traditional controllers and to assist and eventually advise plant operators. This paper discusses the development of an indirect model reference adaptive control (MRAC) system, using the artificial neural network (ANN) technique, and its implementation to control the outlet steam temperature of a sodium to water evaporator. The ANN technique is applied in the identification and in the control process of the indirect MRAC system. The emphasis is placed on demonstrating the efficacy of the indirect MRAC system in controlling the outlet steam temperature of the evaporator, and on showing the important function covered by the ANN technique. An important characteristic of this control system is that it relays only on some selected input variables and output variables of the evaporator model. These are the variables that can be actually measured or calculated in a real environment. The results obtained applying the indirect MRAC system to control the evaporator model are quite remarkable. The outlet temperature of the steam is almost perfectly kept close to its desired set point, when the evaporator is forced to depart from steady state conditions, either due to the variation of some input variables or due to the alteration of some of its internal parameters. The results also show the importance of the role played by the ANN technique in the overall control action. The connecting weights of the ANN nodes self adjust to follow the modifications which may occur in the characteristic of the evaporator model during a transient. The efficiency and the accuracy of the control action highly depends on the on-line identification process of the ANN, which is responsible for upgrading the connecting weights of the ANN nodes. (J.P.N.)

  5. The breeder reactor and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, J.

    1979-01-01

    A report is given of a conference on the breeder reactor and Europe held in Lucerne, Switzerland from 14 - 17 October 1979 sponsored by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy and the Association of European Atomic Forums. The underlying theme of the conference was the question that if nuclear power is to play a major role in meeting world energy needs in the long term, thermal reactors must in time be complemented with more advanced reactor systems that conserve uranium resources which are huge but not unlimited. This is not questioned; disagreement begins with discussion of the desirability of the breeder, and how fast and how far the introduction of such reactors should go. Aspects considered at the conference which are especially dealt with in this review are; why breed, commercial aspects, alternatives to the LMFBR, how to build a fast reactor, the breeder programmes in Europe, Britain, the Soviet Union, Japan and the United States. (U.K.)

  6. Female Role Models: Implications for Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Roberta R.

    1995-01-01

    The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)

  7. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-01-01

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83

  8. Human Nonindependent Mate Choice: Is Model Female Attractiveness Everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Vakirtzis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners (‘model females’ into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  9. Tritium dynamics in fusion reactor solid breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, V.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of the NET research progrm, the chemical and diffusive processes involved in solid ceramic breeder materials have been analysed. A mathematical model describing the phenomena has been developed to obtain a quantitative evaluation for a first design approach. The data obtained by means of the above mentioned model are in good agreement with the data obtained by other research groups working in Europe and in United States. The computer codes BLANKET2, MC2, FWBC, have been developed to simulate the phenomena

  10. Dynamics and control of molten-salt breeder reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of the dynamic analysis of a two-fluid molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR system are presented. Based on an earlier work on the preliminary dynamic model of the concept, the model presented here is nonlinear and has been revised to accurately reflect the design exemplified in ORNL-4528. A brief overview of the model followed by results from simulations performed to validate the model is presented. Simulations illustrate stable behavior of the reactor dynamics and temperature feedback effects to reactivity excursions. Stable and smooth changes at various nodal temperatures are also observed. Control strategies for molten-salt reactor operation are discussed, followed by an illustration of the open-loop load-following capability of the molten-salt breeder reactor system. It is observed that the molten-salt breeder reactor system exhibits “self-regulating” behavior, minimizing the need for external controller action for load-following maneuvers.

  11. Breeder reactors over the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    After a short recall on the development of research programs, this paper reviews the fast breeder reactor operating, in construction or in project over the world (USA, France, Italy, RFG, India, Japan and U.K.). Thermal and electrical power output, and operation data are given [fr

  12. Female Leaders: Injurious or Inspiring Role Models for Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L.; Simon, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The impact of female role models on women's leadership aspirations and self-perceptions after a leadership task were assessed across two laboratory studies. These studies tested the prediction that upward social comparisons to high-level female leaders will have a relatively detrimental impact on women's self-perceptions and leadership aspirations…

  13. Stochastic modelling of optimum initial body weight, daily weight gain and effect of genetic changes in ovulation rate and age at sexual maturity on total egg production of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Hocking, P M

    2009-01-01

    1. A model that simulates the total production of eggs (TEP) in broiler breeders was used to predict the optimum initial (20 week) body weight (IBWexp), daily weight gains from 20 to 30 (DWGexp(20-30)) and 31 to 62 weeks of age (DWGexp(31-62)), age at photostimulation (affecting age at first egg, AFEexp), coefficients of variation of initial body weight (CV-IBWexp) and age at first egg (CV-AFEexp), and the effect of genetically increasing the numbers of yellow follicles at the onset of lay. 2. The results suggest that TEP in broiler breeders is very sensitive to changes in body weight gain during the first 10 weeks of the production period and body weight at the start of egg production, whereas changes in body weight gain after peak rate of lay showed only minor effects on TEP. Increasing CV-IBWexp was associated with a linear decrease in the mean and increased variability of TEP. 3. Decreasing AFEexp was negatively associated with TEP, whereas higher CV-AFEexp increased variability of TEP and had a trivial affect on the mean. 4. Results of the simulation suggested that reducing ovarian yellow follicle numbers by means of genetic selection could reduce the degree of feed restriction currently used in broiler breeder commercial stocks while maintaining total egg production. Higher numbers of yellow follicles associated with selection for higher growth rate would not result in lower egg production if the body weight target was maintained at the currently recommended commercial level and the effect on TEP of increasing the target in proportion to potential body weight may be relatively small.

  14. Development of fast-breeder reactors with high conversion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, S.B.; Danilychev, A.V.; Eliseev, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Fast power reactors (breeders) burning oxide fuel have moderate breeding characteristics. The highest conversion ratios can be obtained in breeders using metallic fuel, but unfortunately these are inferior to oxide breeders in such important characteristics as thermal load and burnup. An effective method of building fast reactors with good breeding characteristics is the use of heterogeneous oxide-metal cores. The paper reports on parametric studies of various models of heterogeneous cores. A number of physical aspects of such reactors are analysed: breeding gain, specific doubling time; and safety parameters: sodium vacuum and Doppler effects of reactivity. The paper quotes dependences of these quantities on various parameters which will make it possible to identify the optimum design of an oxide-metal heterogeneous core

  15. Impacts of breeder loss on social structure, reproduction and population growth in a social canid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Bridget L; Brainerd, Scott M; Meier, Thomas J; Prugh, Laura R

    2015-01-01

    The importance of individuals to the dynamics of populations may depend on reproductive status, especially for species with complex social structure. Loss of reproductive individuals in socially complex species could disproportionately affect population dynamics by destabilizing social structure and reducing population growth. Alternatively, compensatory mechanisms such as rapid replacement of breeders may result in little disruption. The impact of breeder loss on the population dynamics of social species remains poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of breeder loss on social stability, recruitment and population growth of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska using a 26-year dataset of 387 radiocollared wolves. Harvest of breeding wolves is a highly contentious conservation and management issue worldwide, with unknown population-level consequences. Breeder loss preceded 77% of cases (n = 53) of pack dissolution from 1986 to 2012. Packs were more likely to dissolve if a female or both breeders were lost and pack size was small. Harvest of breeders increased the probability of pack dissolution, likely because the timing of harvest coincided with the breeding season of wolves. Rates of denning and successful recruitment were uniformly high for packs that did not experience breeder loss; however, packs that lost breeders exhibited lower denning and recruitment rates. Breeder mortality and pack dissolution had no significant effects on immediate or longer term population dynamics. Our results indicate the importance of breeding individuals is context dependent. The impact of breeder loss on social group persistence, reproduction and population growth may be greatest when average group sizes are small and mortality occurs during the breeding season. This study highlights the importance of reproductive individuals in maintaining group cohesion in social species, but at the population level socially complex species may be resilient

  16. Female lifestyle entrepreneurs and their business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    2017-01-01

    , and motives that involve balancing family and work obligations (Harris, 2007), as well as a need for flexibility in everyday life, greater personal freedom or supporting a particular lifestyle (Cederholm and Hultman, 2008), generating a family income without leaving the family (Dawson et al., 2011; Marcketti......, 2000); secondly, even if lifestyle businesses are still found mainly in rural areas, they make avid use of the internet to create reach; and thirdly, some lifestyle businesses have taken on a new twist: even if they originally were oriented towards enhancing their own life quality, they may grow...... with a physical product. This is both anew phenomenon and a new type of business model that is greatly assisted by the spread of the Internet. Thus, when viewing lifestyle entrepreneurship from this perspective it becomes pertinent to look to religious sociology for elucidation of the phenomenon. This chapter...

  17. Status and prospects of thermal breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    The main objective of this cooperative study and of this report is to evaluate the extent to which thermal breeders might complement or serve as an alternative to fast breeders in solving the long-term nuclear fuel supply problem. A secondary objective is to consider in a general way issues such as proliferation, safety, environmental impacts, economics, power plant availability, and fuel cycle versatility to determine whether thermal breeder reactors offer advantages or disadvantages with respect to such issues

  18. Advanced fuels for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, P.E.; Spear, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper we have assessed critically six ternary systems of great significance to the preparation, fabrication and performance of advanced fuels for use in fast breeder nuclear reactors. The systems which have been considered are uranium-carbon-oxygen, plutonium-carbon-oxygen, uranium-carbon-nitrogen, plutonium-carbon-nitrogen, uranium-nitrogen-oxygen and plutonium nitrogen-oxygen. All the systems are characterized by partial or complete solid solutions and a major task of this assessment has been to develop simple models for these solutions which allow consistency between the known thermodynamic and phase equilibria data of the binary systems and the known condensed and gaseous phase equilibria of the ternary systems. Either ideal or regular solution models have been employed to describe the behaviour of the various solutions. (orig.) [de

  19. Investigations of the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis in an experimental footpad infection model in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoefner, Ida; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged

    2016-01-01

    in the central foot pad. Birds underwent full post mortem and bacteriological investigation 3, 7 and 14 days after infection. Inoculation of the S. aureus resulted in systemic lesions (sepsis, endocarditis and arthritis) as well as injection site abscesses. The lesions and bacterial re-isolation in the birds......In broiler breeder flocks an increase in mortality due to septicaemic infections may be observed over time, with sepsis, endocarditis and arthritis as the major manifestations. Additionally footpad integrity is seen to decline throughout the production period with suboptimal litter quality...... and heavy breeds as predisposing factors. Although the pathogenesis of these infections is not fully elucidated, the aetiology is often Gram positive cocci, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. It is hypothesized that footpad lesions serve as port of entry for systemic or localised bacterial...

  20. Avaliação de diferentes programas de restrição alimentar na recria de matrizes avícolas tipo corte Evaluation of different feeding programs for broiler breeder females during the rearing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neventon Santi Vieira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Para matrizes avícolas tipo corte o manejo de alimentação é de extrema importância, principalmente durante a fase de recria, período no qual a ave está desenvolvendo sua estrutura corporal. A resposta em termos de produção destas aves, depende da maneira como foram recriadas. Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes programas de arraçoamento na recria de matrizes avícolas tipo corte, sobre o peso corporal, uniformidade de peso corporal e viabilidade criatória, conduziu-se este experimento no Setor de Avicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, constituído de 3 tratamentos com 4 repetições, tendo cada unidade experimental 67 aves. Na 1ª e 2ª semana de idade as aves foram alimentadas à vontade, na 3ª e 4ª semanas o arraçoamento foi diário controlado. Durante a fase de recria (5ª a 20ª semana de idade, as aves foram submetidas aos tratamentos (programas de arraçoamento: T1: 5ª a 14ª semana = dia sim, dia não ("Skip-a-Day"; 15ª a 17ª = 2 dias sim/1 dia não e da 18ª a 20ª semana, arraçoamento diário controlado; T2: 5ª a 8ª semana = dia sim, dia não ("Skip-a-Day", 9ª a 16ª = método 48-57-63h e da 17ª a 20ª semana = 2 dias sim/1 dia não; T3: 5ª a 20ª semana de idade = 48-57-63h de intervalo entre arraçoamentos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, pode-se recriar matrizes com maior intervalo entre arraçoamentos (48-57-63 horas, sem haver comprometimento dos parâmetros avaliados neste trabalho, e ainda com a vantagem de não ser necessário o arraçoamento nos finais de semana, reduzindo os custos com mão de obra.Feeding management is estremely important for broiler breeders, mainly during the rearing period, when the birds develop their corporal structure. The production performance of the hens depends on the conditions they were grown. An experiment was done at the Poultry Section of the Animal Science Department of the Federal University of

  1. Animal Models for the Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Lesley; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Costantini, Raffaele; Czakanski, Peter; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Significant progress has been made in elucidating the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of female sexual function through preclinical animal research. The continued development of animal models is vital for the understanding and treatment of the many diverse disorders that occur in women. Aim To provide an updated review of the experimental models evaluating female sexual function that may be useful for clinical translation. Methods Review of English written, peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 to 2012, that described studies on female sexual behavior related to motivation, arousal, physiological monitoring of genital function and urogenital pain. Main Outcomes Measures Analysis of supporting evidence for the suitability of the animal model to provide measurable indices related to desire, arousal, reward, orgasm, and pelvic pain. Results The development of female animal models has provided important insights in the peripheral and central processes regulating sexual function. Behavioral models of sexual desire, motivation, and reward are well developed. Central arousal and orgasmic responses are less well understood, compared with the physiological changes associated with genital arousal. Models of nociception are useful for replicating symptoms and identifying the neurobiological pathways involved. While in some cases translation to women correlates with the findings in animals, the requirement of circulating hormones for sexual receptivity in rodents and the multifactorial nature of women’s sexual function requires better designed studies and careful analysis. The current models have studied sexual dysfunction or pelvic pain in isolation; combining these aspects would help to elucidate interactions of the pathophysiology of pain and sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Basic research in animals has been vital for understanding the anatomy, neurobiology, and physiological mechanisms underlying sexual function and urogenital pain

  2. in meat production III. Feeder - breeder dimorphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeder- breeder dimorphism is advantageous when large offspring for slaughter is obtained from small breeding animals. The effect of feeder- breeder dimorphism on herd efficiency is evaluated for terminal crossbreeding and growth modification by biotechnological or dietary means. Selection criteria for breeds or lines in ...

  3. In search for animal models of female sexual dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, E.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) is a disorder that affects around 40% of the population. Low sexual arousal and low sexual desire are the most common problems. The mechanisms underlying the disorder are still unclear. The aims of this thesis were 1) the search for animal models of FSD, 2) the

  4. Predictive models reduce talent development costs in female gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan; Hohmann, Andreas; Liu, Tianbiao; Lenoir, Matthieu; Segers, Veerle

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective study focuses on the comparison of different predictive models based on the results of a talent identification test battery for female gymnasts. We studied to what extent these models have the potential to optimise selection procedures, and at the same time reduce talent development costs in female artistic gymnastics. The dropout rate of 243 female elite gymnasts was investigated, 5 years past talent selection, using linear (discriminant analysis) and non-linear predictive models (Kohonen feature maps and multilayer perceptron). The coaches classified 51.9% of the participants correct. Discriminant analysis improved the correct classification to 71.6% while the non-linear technique of Kohonen feature maps reached 73.7% correctness. Application of the multilayer perceptron even classified 79.8% of the gymnasts correctly. The combination of different predictive models for talent selection can avoid deselection of high-potential female gymnasts. The selection procedure based upon the different statistical analyses results in decrease of 33.3% of cost because the pool of selected athletes can be reduced to 92 instead of 138 gymnasts (as selected by the coaches). Reduction of the costs allows the limited resources to be fully invested in the high-potential athletes.

  5. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  6. U.S. and foreign breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    The running battle between Congress and the Administration over the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) Project has provoked an increased interest in domestic and foreign breeder reactor programs. Perhaps an understanding of the history of breeders here and abroad will serve to place the CRBRP in perspective and allow some analysis of how the U.S. appears on the global canvas. Breeder reactor technology has, for the most part, settled down to concentration on the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). This is the result of 32 years of experience with reactors employing a fast neutron flux and even longer experience with liquid metal coolants. However, a number of U.S. utilities are sponsoring a gas cooled fast reactor program as an alternative technology to the LMFBR. This development program is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy

  7. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  8. Multigenerational effects of a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period of broiler breeders. 1. Performance of the F1 breeder generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Li, C; Schallier, S; Clímaco, W L S; Bautil, A; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2018-05-01

    Studies on mammals and poultry showed that maternal dietary treatments can alter the offspring performance. However, in contrast to rodent studies, little is known about multigenerational dietary manipulations in broiler breeders. The presented research aimed to investigate the effects of a reduction of 25% in the dietary crude protein (CP) level in the F0 generation on the body composition and reproductive performance of F1 broiler breeders. In the F0 generation, breeders were fed either a control (C) or reduced balanced protein (RP) diet, 25% reduction in crude protein and amino acids. Female F0-progeny of each treatment were fed a C or RP diet, resulting in 4 treatments in the F1 breeder generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C, and RP/RP. The reproductive performance of breeders fed RP diets was negatively influenced by the dietary CP reduction in the F1 generation (P diets in the F0 generation showed a significantly reduced reproductive capacity compared to their control fed counterparts (P diets in the F1 generation were characterized by higher plasma T3 concentrations (P diets in the F0 generation needed lower feed allocations in the laying phase to maintain a similar body weight. Egg weight was reduced for the C/RP and RP/RP breeders. At 34 wk of age, eggs from C/RP and RP/RP breeders showed a reduced proportional albumen weight, whereas no effects on egg composition were found at 42 wk of age. It was concluded that prenatal protein undernutrition triggered hens to relocate more energy towards growth and maintenance and less towards reproductive capacity.

  9. Preliminary design of a Binary Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, E. Y.; Francois, J. L.; Lopez S, R. C.

    2014-10-01

    A binary breeder reactor (BBR) is a reactor that by means of the transmutation and fission process can operates through the depleted uranium burning with a small quantity of fissile material. The advantages of a BBR with relation to other nuclear reactor types are numerous, taking into account their capacity to operate for a long time without requiring fuel reload or re-arrangement. In this work four different simulations are shown carried out with the MCNPX code with libraries Jeff-3.1 to 1200 K. The objective of this study is to compare two different models of BBR: a spherical reactor and a cylindrical one, using two fuel cycles for each one of them (U-Pu and Th-U) and different reflectors for the two different geometries. For all the models a super-criticality state was obtained at least 10.9 years without carrying out some fuel re-arrangement or reload. The plutonium-239 production was achieved in the models where natural uranium was used in the breeding area, while the production of uranium-233 was observed in the cases where thorium was used in the fertile area. Finally, a behavior of stationary wave reactor was observed inside the models of spherical reactor when contemplating the power uniform increment in the breeding area, while inside the cylindrical models was observed the behavior of a traveling wave reactor when registering the displacement of the burnt wave along the cylindrical model. (Author)

  10. Major welfare issues in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Guemene, D.

    2011-01-01

    Under current practices, broiler parent stock (broiler breeders) encounter several welfare problems, such as feed restriction and injury during mating. Intensive selection for production traits, especially growth rate, is associated with increased nutritious requirement and thus feed consumption,

  11. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Mitchell, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel sub-assemblies for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are described which each incorporate a fluid flow control valve for regulating the rate of flow through the sub-assembly. These small electro-magnetic valves seek to maintain the outlet coolant temperature of at least some of the breeder sub-assemblies substantially constant throughout the life of the fuel assembly without severely pressurising the sub-assembly. (U.K.)

  12. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  13. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications

  14. Optimization of binary breeder reactor VI - An acceptable project of binary breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Dias, A.F.

    1986-05-01

    A binary breeder reactor that achieves desired characteristics reasonably well has been developed. Its design and characteristics are reported. Previous models showed several complications that result from introduction of 233 U/Th fuel in the core of a LMFBR, compared to purely Pu/U fueled ones. In this new model, the core is made larger to achieve higher breeding ratios and longer refueling intervals, the number of fuel assemblies is increased to accomodate a larger number of control rod assemblies required to compensate for reactivity losses and to control oscillations of the power densities, and, consequently, the fuel inventories are higher. High fuel burnups are achieved without too much complications in the refueling schedule and the power densities can be maintained reasonably constant over an operational cycle. Low sodium void reactivity reduce the potential for severe accidents and a reasonably efficient utilization of thorium can be realized. (Author) [pt

  15. Role of the breeder in long-term energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.F.; Daly, T.A.; Chang, Y.I.

    1982-01-01

    Private and public decisions affecting the use of nuclear and other energy technologies over a long-run time horizon were studied using the ETA-MACRO model which provides for economic- and energy-sector interactions. The impact on the use of competing energy technologies of a public decision to apply benefit-cost analysis to the production of carbon dioxide that enters the atmosphere is considered. Assuming the public choice is to impose an appropriate penalty tax on those technologies which generate CO 2 and to allow decentralized private decisions to choose the optimal mix of energy technologies that maximize a nonlinear objective function subject to constraints, the study showed that breeder technology provides a much-larger share of domestically consumed energy. Having the breeder technology available as a substitute permits control of CO 2 without significant reductions in consumption or gross national product growth paths

  16. Breeding nuclear fuels with accelerators: replacement for breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.

    1984-01-01

    One application of high energy particle accelerators has been, and still is, the production of nuclear fuel for the nuclear energy industry; tantalizing because it would create a whole new industry. This approach to producing fissile from fertile material was first considered in the early 1950's in the context of the nuclear weapons program. A considerable development effort was expended before discovery of uranium ore in New Mexico put an end to the project. Later, US commitment to the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) killed any further interest in pursuing accelerator breeder technology. Interest in the application of accelerators to breed nuclear fuels, and possibly burn nuclear wastes, revived in the late 1970's, when the LMFBR came under attack during the Carter administration. This period gave the opportunity to revisit the concept in view of the present state of the technology. This evaluation and the extensive calculational modeling of target designs that have been carried out are promising. In fact, a nuclear fuel cycle of Light Water Reactors and Accelerator Breeders is competitive to that of the LMFBR. At this time, however, the relative abundance of uranium reserves vs electricity demand and projected growth rate render this study purely academic. It will be for the next generation of accelerator builders to demonstate the competitiveness of this technology versus that of other nuclear fuel cycles, such as LMFBR's or Fusion Hybrid systems. 22 references, 1 figure, 5 tables

  17. Prospects of ceramic tritium breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Roux, N.; Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine the prospects of the main ceramics proposed as breeder materials for fusion reactors, i.e. Li-2O, Li-2ZrO-3, LiAlO-2, Li-4SiO-4. To do so they review terms of reference of contemplated blankets for NET, ITER and DEMO, and the proposed blanket concepts and materials. Issues respective to the use of each breeder material are examined, and from this review it is concluded that ceramics are the most favorable breeder materials whose use can be contemplated as well for a driver blanket for NET or ITER and for a DEMO blanket. Ceramics are then compared between themselves and it is seen that, subject to the confirmation of recent experimental results, lithium zirconate could be used with advantage in any of the present blanket concepts, except in those employing lithium at its natural isotopic abundance, in which case only Li-2O can be used. However in specific cases, or in parts of a blanket, other ceramics may be profitably employed. As a general conclusion suggestions are made to further improve ceramic breeder performances, and it is recommended to intensify also work on problems that have to be solved in order to operate ceramic breeder blankets e.g. tritium extraction and recovery systems and conditions of beryllium use. (author). 37 refs.; 12 tabs

  18. Recent female mouse models displaying advanced reproductive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovich, Natalia; Ram Sairam, M

    2006-02-01

    Reproductive senescence occurs in all female mammals with resultant changes in numerous body functional systems and several important features may be species-specific. Those features that appear to parallel human menopause and aging include general similarity of hormone profiles across the menopausal transition, progression to cycle termination through irregular cycles, declining fertility with age, disturbances in thermogenesis, age-related gains in body weight, fat distribution and disposition towards metabolic syndrome. Structural and hormonal changes in the brain and ovary play a critical role in determining the onset of reproductive senescence. The short life span of rodents such as mice (compared to humans) and the ability to generate specific and timed gene deletions, provide powerful experimental paradigms to understand the molecular and functional changes that precede and follow the loss of reproductive capacity. In theory, any manipulation that compromises ovarian function either partly or totally would impact reproductive events at various levels followed by other dysfunctions. In this article, we provide an overview of three mouse models for the study of female reproductive aging. They are derived from different strategies and their age related phenotypes have been characterized to varying degrees. The follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse, in its null and haploinsufficient state as well as the dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knockout mouse, serve as two examples of single gene deletions. A third model, using administration of a chemical toxicant such as 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) in the adult state, produces ovarian deficiencies accompanied by aging changes. These will serve as useful alternatives to previously used radical ovariectomy in young adults. It is anticipated that these new models and more that will be forthcoming will extend opportunities to understand reproductive aging and resolve controversies that abound on issues

  19. [Central female hypogonadism as a model of premature aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovayskaya, I A; Lazebnik, L B; Kulikov, A V

    Central (hypogonadotropic) hypogonadism in women could also be a cause of persistent amenorrhea and hypoestrogenemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate symptoms of premature aging in women of young age with central hypogonadism. 88 young women (25 [21; 30] y.o.) with central hypogonadism (with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism n=42, and associated with the other types of pituitary insufficiencies n=46), 53 healthy young women (24 [23; 28] y.o.) and 50 healthy postmenopausal women (56 [53; 58] y.o.) were examined. In young women with central hypogonadism frequency of psychoemotional, neurovegetative and urogenital disorders, peripheral sex steroid concentrations, lipid and mineral homeostasis parameters differed significantly from the healthy young women of similar age and were comparable with postmenopausal women of middle/older age. Thus, according to clinical, hormonal and biochemical abnormalities biological age of female patients with central hypogonadism advanced significantly chronological young age and corresponded to middle/older age. The central female hypogonadism is a model of premature aging.

  20. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; Thatcher, G.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor in which the fuel assembly has an inner zone comprised mainly of fissile material and a surrounding outer zone comprised mainly of breeder material. According to the invention the sub-assemblies in the outer zone include electro-magnetic braking devices (magnets, pole pieces and armature) for regulating the flow of coolant through the sub-assemblies. The magnetic fields of the electro-magnetic breaking devices are temperature sensitive so that as the power output of the breeder sub-assemblies increases the electro-magnetic resistance to coolant flow is reduced thereby maintaining the temperature of the coolant outlets from the sub-assemblies substantially constant. (UK)

  1. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  2. Proceedings of the eleventh international workshop on ceramic breeder blanket interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enoeda, Mikio

    2004-07-01

    This report is the Proceedings of 'the Eleventh International Workshop on Ceramic Breeder Blanket Interactions' which was held as a workshop on ceramic breeders Under the IEA Implementing Agreement on the Nuclear Technology of Fusion Reactors, and the Japan-US Fusion Collaboration Framework. This workshop was held in Tokyo, Japan on December 15-17, 2003. About thirty experts from China, EU, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Russia and USA attended the workshop. The scope of the workshop included 1) evolutions in ceramic breeder blanket design, 2) progress in ceramic breeder material development, 3) irradiation testing, 4) breeder material properties, 5) out-of-pile pebble bed experiment, 6) modeling of the thermal, mechanical and tritium transfer behavior of pebble beds and 7) interfacing issues of solid breeder blanket. In the workshop, information exchange was performed for designs of solid breeder blankets and test blankets in EU, Russia and Japan, recent results of irradiation tests, HICU, EXOTIC-8 and the irradiation tests by IVV-2M, modeling study on tritium release behavior of Li 2 TiO 3 and so on, fabrication technology developments and characterization of the Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles, research on measurements and modeling of thermo-mechanical behaviors of Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles, and interfacing issues, such as, fabrication technology for blanket box structure, neutronics experiments of blanket mockups by fusion neutron source and tritium recovery system. The 26 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. A review of fusion breeder blanket technology, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.; Selander, W.N.; Townes, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of fusion breeder blanket technology. It reviews the role of the breeder blanket, the current understanding of the scientific and engineering bases of liquid metal and solid breeder blankets and the programs now underway internationally to resolve the uncertainities in current knowledge. In view of existing national expertise and experience, a solid breeder R and D program for Canada is recommended

  4. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, G D; Behura, N C; Sardar, K K; Mishra, P K

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. The overall regression was significant (pvariables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (pvariables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling these variables in adverse weathers may increase production.

  5. Career Persistence Model for Female Engineers in the Indonesian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Dahlia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extant studies about female engineers have suggested their career persistency in the engineering career is influenced by the workplace, which is characterized by male dominated culture making them feel marginalized. In Indonesia, similar studies for reference are limited. This paper is based on an exploratory quantitative study using a questionnaire developed based on the Career Persistence Model. This paper is based on an empirical exploratory quantitative study by adopting Buse’s et al. Career Persistence Model (2013. The intention is to contribute to the literature in the context of Indonesia. It explores the Indonesian cultural dimensions and investigates their relationship to the roles of women in family, society and the workplace, and how women manage to navigate barriers to avoid taking alternative career paths. Contrary to extant studies, findings show women feel equally treated to men in the workplace, however some work demands may hinder. The strong acknowledgement of one’s roles in this collective society outdoes the opinions that the Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh has marginalized empowerment of women, resulting in gender-based injustices and discrimination. Future studies should look into social supports at the workplace in an attempt to retain and increase the share of women in the engineering career in Indonesia.

  6. Trend of development of fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, S. (Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Atomic Energy Bureau)

    1982-01-01

    The development of nuclear power is indispensable as the core of the substitute energy for petroleum. It is the urgent subject for world advanced countries to develop fast breeder reactors which can utilize uranium resources efficiently, to breed nuclear fuel resources, and to secure the stable supply of energy for long term in future. In Japan, the development of fast breeder reactors has been advanced independently and efficiently as a national project mainly by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. The experimental reactor ''Joyo'' attained the criticality in April, 1977, and has been operated at the thermal output of 75,000 kW. As for the prototype reactor ''Monju'', the application for the permission to install it was submitted in December, 1980, and now, the safety examination is in progress. The present state of the development of fast breeder reactors in USA, Great Britain, France, West Germany, USSR and Japan is explained. In order to advance fast breeder reactors to the stage of full-scale practical use, a number of the reactors of 1 million kW class including the demonstration reactor will be constructed and operated to demonstrate and learn the technology of power generation plants in practical scale, to improve the performance, and to establish the economical efficiency. The schedule of development, the organization and the sharing of roles, the research and development in the demonstration stage are described.

  7. Advanced liquid metal fast breeder reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayles, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fast Breeder reactor power plants in the 1000-1200 MW(e) range are being built overseas and are being designed in this country. While these reactors have many characteristics in common, a variety of different approaches have been adopted for some of the major features. Some of those alternatives are discussed

  8. Status of the solid breeder materials database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1995-01-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li 2 O, Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , and LiAlO 2 ) and beryllium multiplier material were critically reviewed and evaluated as part of the ITER/CDA design effort (1988-1990). The results have been documented in a detailed technical report. Emphasis was placed on the physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium retention/release, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Materials properties correlations were selected for use in design analysis, and ranges for input parameters (e.g., temperature, porosity, etc.) were established. Also, areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology were highlighted and prioritized. For Li 2 O, the most significant increase in the database has come in the area of tritium retention as a function of operating temperature and purge flow composition. The database for postirradiation inventory from purged in-reactor samples has increased from four points to 20 points. These new data have allowed an improvement in understanding and modeling, as well as better interpretation of the results of laboratory annealing studies on unirradiated and irradiated material. In the case of Li 2 ZrO 3 , relatively little data were available on the sensitivity of the mechanical properties of this ternary ceramic to microstructure and moisture content. The increase in the database for this material has allowed not only better characterization of its properties, but also optimization of fabrication parameters to improve its performance. Some additional data are also available for the other two ternary ceramics to aid in the characterization of their performance. In particular, the thermal performance of these materials, as well as beryllium, in packed-bed form has been measured and characterized

  9. Incorporating adolescent females' perceptions of their partners' attitudes toward condoms into a model of female adolescent condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Liddon, Nicole; Pierce, Antonya; Sawyer, Mary; Papp, John R; Black, Carolyn M; Koumans, Emilia H

    2006-11-01

    The highest rates of sexually transmitted infections in the U.S. occur among adolescent females. One prevention strategy promoted for sexually active adolescents is condom use: therefore, influences on correct and consistent condom use are worth examining. Because interventions and observational research into predicting and increasing condom use have yielded mixed results, we hypothesized that a theoretically driven model incorporating female adolescents' perceptions about partner sentiments along with their own perceptions, intentions, and behaviours would improve condom use predictions. We also measured condom use errors and consistency for a more precise estimate of effective use than is common in the literature. In three structural equation models tested on a sample of 519 female adolescents, we found that intentions were associated with both correct and consistent condom use; that females' expectancy beliefs about condom use were associated with intentions; and that females' expectancy beliefs about partners' sentiments reduced the impact of their expectancy beliefs about condom use. The implications of these relations upon condom use correctness and consistency are discussed with respect to informing interventions, among other future research.

  10. Tritium transport and release from lithium ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; Kopasz, J.P.; Tam, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    In an operating fusion reactor,, the tritium breeding blanket will reach a condition in which the tritium release rate equals the production rate. The tritium release rate must be fast enough that the tritium inventory in the blanket does not become excessive. Slow tritium release will result in a large tritium inventory, which is unacceptable from both economic and safety viewpoints As a consequence, considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the tritium release mechanism from ceramic breeders and beryllium neutron multipliers through theoretical, laboratory, and in-reactor studies. This information is being applied to the development of models for predicting tritium release for various blanket operating conditions

  11. Elements for evaluation of fast breeder reactor's potential in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gho, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) main features are presented in a general form, including their physical principles, the history of their evolution, their relevant technological aspects and the basis for their comparison to other energy sources. This is completed with descriptions of typical reactors and a model of FBR penetration in the Argentine electrical network. It is recommended to form a multidisciplinary board to study which position should be taken with respect to this type of reactors. In the author's opinion a Research activity should be started and gradually increased for passing to Development activities after a short while. (Author) [es

  12. Spatial modelling and mapping of female genital mutilation in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is still prevalent in several communities in Kenya and other areas in Africa, as well as being practiced by some migrants from African countries living in other parts of the world. This study aimed at detecting clustering of FGM/C in Kenya, and identifying those areas within the country where women still intend to continue the practice. A broader goal of the study was to identify geographical areas where the practice continues unabated and where broad intervention strategies need to be introduced. Methods The prevalence of FGM/C was investigated using the 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. The 2008 KDHS used a multistage stratified random sampling plan to select women of reproductive age (15–49 years) and asked questions concerning their FGM/C status and their support for the continuation of FGM/C. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using SaTScan™ to test for statistically significant clustering of the practice of FGM/C in the country. The risk of FGM/C was also modelled and mapped using a hierarchical spatial model under the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation approach using the INLA library in R. Results The prevalence of FGM/C stood at 28.2% and an estimated 10.3% of the women interviewed indicated that they supported the continuation of FGM. On the basis of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), hierarchical spatial models with spatially structured random effects were found to best fit the data for both response variables considered. Age, region, rural–urban classification, education, marital status, religion, socioeconomic status and media exposure were found to be significantly associated with FGM/C. The current FGM/C status of a woman was also a significant predictor of support for the continuation of FGM/C. Spatial scan statistics confirm FGM clusters in the North-Eastern and South-Western regions of Kenya (p < 0.001). Conclusion This suggests that the

  13. Potato breeding in the Netherlands: successful collaboration between farmers and commercial breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Mertens, L.; Loon, van Jan; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch potato breeding model, which involves a partnership between farmers and commercial breeding companies in a modern, Western context, is unique. While there are other examples of collaborative relationships between farmers and breeders in Europe, the Dutch potato breeding model stands out in

  14. Safeguards challenges of Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    Although the safeguards system of Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) seems similar to that of Light Water Reactor (LWR), it was raised safeguards challenges of SFR that resulted from the visual opacity of liquid sodium, chemical reactivity of sodium and other characteristics of fast reactor. As it is the basic concept stage of the safeguards of SFR in Korea, this study tried to analyze the latest similar study of safeguards issues of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) at Joyo and Monju in Japan. For this reason, this study is to introduce some potential safeguards challenges of Fast Breeder Reactor. With this analysis, future study could be to address the safeguards challenges of SFR in Korea

  15. The "Decorative" Female Model: Sexual Stimuli and the Recognition of Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChance, Charles C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the impact of the decorative or functionless female models in print advertising and indicates that models facilitate recognition of model/related information but do little to increase the recognition of brand names.

  16. The fast breeder reactor Rapsodie (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrey, L.; Zaleski, C.P.

    1962-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe the Rapsodie project, the French fast breeder reactor, as it stands at construction actual start-up. The paper provides informations about: the principal neutronic and thermal characteristics, the reactor and its cooling circuits, the main handling devices of radioactive or contaminated assemblies, the principles and means governing reactor operation, the purposes and locations of miscellaneous buildings. Rapsodie is expected to be critical by 1964. (authors) [fr

  17. FOWL CHOLERA IN A BREEDER FLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Parveen, A. A. Nasir, K.Tasneem and A. Shah

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During January, 2003 Pasteurella multocida the causative agent of fowl cholera was isolated from a breeder flock in Lahore District. The age of the flock was 245 days. Increased mortality, swollen wattles and lameness were the clinical findings present in almost all the affected birds, while gross lesions were typical of fowl cholera. To prove the virulence of the organism, mice and six-week old cockerals were infected and P. multocida was reisolated.

  18. History and evolution of the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the breeder reactor is almost as old as the idea of the nuclear reactor itself. From the very first years following the discovery of nuclear fission, scientists and technicians tried to turn mankind's eternal dream into reality; that is, enjoy an abundant source of energy without using up our raw material reserves. Nuclear energy offered several solutions to realize this dream. One of them, fusion, seemed out of our grasp in the near future. But fission of 235 U was possible, and the Manhattan Project soon furnished ample proof of this theory. However, everyone working in this field was conscious of the fact that thermal neutron reactors make very inefficient use of the energy potential contained in natural uranium. The solution was to use in a core sufficiently rich in fissile matter, the excess neutrons to convert the 238 U, so poorly used by other types of reactors, into fissile 239 Pu. Regeneration, or 'breeding' of fuel, can multiply the energy drawn from a ton of uranium by a factor of 50 to 100. This would enable us to ward off the specter of an energy shortage and the rapid depletion of uranium mines. As early as 1945 in Los Alamos, Enrico Fermi stated: 'The country which first develops a breeder reactor will have a great competitive edge in atomic energy.' The development of the breeder reactor in the USA and around the world is discussed

  19. Analysis of fuel sodium interaction in a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sasanuma, K.; Nagasima, K.; Kawaguchi, O.

    A code ''SUGAR'' has been developed to evaluate molten Fuel Sodium Interaction (FSI) in a fast breeder reactor. This code computes thermohydrodynamic behavior by heat transfer from fuel to sodium and dynamic deformation of reactor structures simultaneously. It was applied to evaluate FSI in local fuel melting accident in a fuel assembly and in core disassembly accident for the 300MWe fast breeder reactor under development in Japan. The analytical methods of the SUGAR code are mainly shown in the following: 1) the thermal and dynamic model of FSI is mainly based on Cho-Wright's model; 2) the axial and radial expansions of surroundings of FSI region are calculated with one-dimensional and compressive hydrodynamics equation; 3) the structure response is calculated with one-dimensional and dynamic stress equation. Our studies show that mass of fuel interacted with sodium, ratio of fuel mass to sodium mass, fuel particle size, heat transfer coefficient from fuel to sodium, and structure's force have great effect on pressure amplitude and deformation of reactor structures

  20. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  1. Fast breeder reactors insertion in a D2O - natural U nuclear power plants park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gho, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the evolution of Argentine's installed nuclear power for the next 40 years is presented. The consequences of fast breeder reactors' introduction are studied in both autarchic Pu cycle and a limited reprocessing system. The passage of a reactor park like the national, of natural U - heavy water to one of fast breeder reactors, can only be obtained in a very long term due, fundamentally, to the need of Pu produced for those to feed the last ones. (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Proceedings of the sixth international workshop on ceramic breeder blanket interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kenji [ed.

    1998-03-01

    This report is the Proceedings of `the Sixth International Workshop on Ceramic Breeder Blanket Interactions` which was held as a workshop on ceramic breeders under Annex II of IEA Implementing Agreement on a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials, and Japan-US Workshop 97FT4-01. This workshop was held in Mito city, Japan on October 22-24, 1997. About forty experts from EU, Japan, USA, and Chile attended the workshop. The scope of the workshop included the following: (1) fabrication and characterization of ceramic breeders, (2) properties data for ceramic breeders, (3) tritium release characteristics, (4) modeling of tritium behavior, (5) irradiation effects on performance behavior, (6) blanket design and R and D requirements, (7) hydrogen behavior in materials, and (8) blanket system technology and structural materials. In the workshop, information exchange was performed for fabrication technology of ceramic breeder pebbles in EU and Japan, data of various properties of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, tritium release behavior of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} including tritium diffusion, modeling of tritium release from Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in ITER condition, helium release behavior from Li{sub 2}O, results of tritium release irradiation tests of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles in EXOTIC-7, R and D issues for ceramic breeders for ITER and DEMO blankets, etc. The 23 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Correlations between breeder age, egg cholesterol content, blood cholesterol level and hatchability of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, B Yilmaz; Sahan, U

    2007-02-01

    1. The research was carried out to investigate correlations between breeder age, egg cholesterol content, blood cholesterol level and hatchability of broiler breeders. 2. Egg cholesterol content increased with increased breeder age. The mean yolk cholesterol contents (mg per g yolk) were 10.47+/-0.28, 15.34+/-0.65 and 15.64+/-0.71 mg/g at 28, 45 and 65 weeks of age, respectively. 3. There were positive correlations between yolk weight and yolk cholesterol content (mg/g yolk) (r=01.941; Pegg cholesterol content (mg/egg) (r=0.980; Pegg yolk cholesterol content and hatchability of fertile eggs (r=-0.345; Peggs (r=-0.574; Pcholesterol levels were 165.1+/-11.04, 166.5+/-11.97 and 179.5+/-11.33 mg/dl at 28, 45 and 65 weeks of age, respectively.

  4. Models in the construction of female identity in Nigerian postcolonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gendered identity in Africa has for centuries been a hotbed of ideological and narrative contestations. While colonial constructions of the African female were generally essentialist and negative in character, early postcolonial African literature also ironically deployed essentialisms and rigid gender binaries to portray African ...

  5. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  6. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  7. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    2001-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  8. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  9. Binary breeder reactor with annular core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Characteristics of a 1200 MWe binary breeder reactor with annular core fueled with metallic 233 U- 238 U-Zr, Pu- 238 U-Zr and Th in the blankets have been analyzed. The Doppler effect is small as expected in a metal fueled fast reactor. The sodium void reactivity is, in general, smaller than in homogeneous fast reactors fueled with metallic fuel and with 1 m core height. The worths of available control is high and there is a large shutdown margin throughout the operational cycle. There are flexibility in blankets fueling in the two cycles, uranium and thorium, with doubling times of about 20 years. (author) [pt

  10. Advanced breeder cycle uses metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists from Argonne National Laboratory have been developing a concept called the Integral fast Reactor (IFR). This fast breeder reactor could effectively increase Uranium resources a hundred fold making nuclear power essentially an inexhaustible energy source. The IFR is outlined. In the IFR, the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling are combined with a new metallic fuel which is allowed to swell and gives an improved burnup level and a radically different refining process to allow breakthroughs in passive safety, fuel cycle economics and waste management. (author)

  11. Burnup characteristics of binary breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Burnup calculations of a binary breeder reactor have been done for two cases of fueling. In one case the U 233 /TH fueled inner core and the Pu/U-fueled outer core have the same number of fuel assemblies. In the other case two outermost rings in the inner core are Pu/U-fueled. The second case is considered for an initial phase of thorim cycle introduction when the supply of U 233 could be limited. Results show an efficient breeding on the thorium cycle in both cases. (Author) [pt

  12. The development of breeder reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the framework of a global analysis of the various available sources of energy, Japan has reserved a prominent place to the nuclear energy and, in the long-term view, to the breeder reactor which will be due for commercial deployment in 20)10. To achieve these objectives, three stages are envisaged, one of the experimental reactor Joyo (in service), one of the demonstration reactor Monju (its construction has been decided), and one of the pre-commercial reactor (due to be taken in hand at the beginning of the Nineties). Efforts will be made in parallel concerning the fuel cycle [fr

  13. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dienst, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Material- und Festkoerperforschung; Flament, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Commissariat A L`Energie Atomique; Lorenzetto, P. [NET Team, Garching (Germany); Noda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takai, Ibaraki, (Japan); Roux, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes et de Recherches Les Materiaux (France). Commissariat a L`Energie Atomique

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  14. Neutronics design for a fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chenglun; Xie Zhongyou

    1987-01-01

    As a fusion breeder, one of the most important figure is support ratio which reflects the economic and fuel production performance of the system to a great extent. In this paper, the support ratio is calculated by using one dimension transport program ANISN and optimized by adjusting 6 Li enrichment and blanket arrangement. The radial distribution of producted U-233 is also taken into account. Measures are taken for better blanket design, and satisfactory results are obtained. Tritium breeding ratio T reaches 1.11 and the support ratio is enhanced from 11 to 14. The engineering, safety and environment performance are improved

  15. Safety design of prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chetal, S.C.; Singh, Om Pal

    2004-01-01

    The basic design and safety design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is presented. Design aspects covered include safety classification, seismic categorization, design basis conditions, design safety limits, core physics, core monitoring, shutdown system, decay heat removal system, protection against sodium leaks and tube leaks in steam generator, plant layout, radiation protection, event analysis, beyond design basis accidents, integrity of primary containment, reactor containment building and design pressure resulting from core disruptive accident. The measures provided in the design represent a robust case of the safety of the reactor. (authors)

  16. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li 2 ,O, Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 ZrO 3 and LiAlO 2 ) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized

  17. Tritium behaviour in ceramic breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tritium release from the candidate ceramic materials, Li 2 O, LiA10 2 , Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 ZrO 3 , is being investigated in many blanket programs. Factors that affect tritium release from the ceramic into the helium sweep gas stream include operating temperature, ceramic microstructure, tritium transport and solubility in the solid. A review is presented of the material properties studied and of the irradiation programs and the results are summarized. The ceramic breeder blanket concept is briefly reviewed

  18. Fluid-structure interaction in fast breeder reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A. A.; Manik, D. N.; Chellapandi, P. A.

    2004-05-01

    A finite element model for the seismic analysis of a scaled down model of Fast breeder reactor (FBR) main vessel is proposed to be established. The reactor vessel, which is a large shell structure with a relatively thin wall, contains a large volume of sodium coolant. Therefore, the fluid structure interaction effects must be taken into account in the seismic design. As part of studying fluid-structure interaction, the fundamental frequency of vibration of a circular cylindrical shell partially filled with a liquid has been estimated using Rayleigh's method. The bulging and sloshing frequencies of the first four modes of the aforementioned system have been estimated using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The finite element formulation of the axisymmetric fluid element with Fourier option (required due to seismic loading) is also presented.

  19. Fast Breeder Project status report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    A compilation of the papers read at the Status Report of the Fast Breeder Project at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center on March 26, 1974 is presented. The first papers present a general survey of the present state of research and development work performed by the German, Belgian, and Netherlands research centers on the SNR 300 Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (Kalkar Nuclear Power Station), on the SNR follow-on program, alternative fuels and coolants and basic problems, on work performed by industry with respect to the licensing procedure and construction of the SNR 300, and on commissioning and the planned conversion of KNK, the Compact Sodium Cooled Nuclear Reactor. The detailed papers deal with results elaborated at the institutes of GfK Karlsruhe, SCK/CEN Mol, RCN Petten, and TNO Apeldoorn. Most of these efforts have been concentrated upon fuel pin and materials development and on the physics and safety of fast reactors. The status report concludes with a reference to the future program under the Project. (U.S.)

  20. Prototype fast breeder reactor main options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chellapandi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Fast reactor programme gets importance in the Indian energy market because of continuous growing demand of electricity and resources limited to only coal and FBR. India started its fast reactor programme with the construction of 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). The reactor attained its first criticality in October 1985. The reactor power will be raised to 40 MWt in near future. As a logical follow-up of FBTR, it was decided to build a prototype fast breeder reactor, PFBR. Considering significant effects of capital cost and construction period on economy, systematic efforts are made to reduce the same. The number of primary and secondary sodium loops and components have been reduced. Sodium coolant, pool type concept, oxide fuel, 20% CW D9, SS 316 LN and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (T91) materials have been selected for PFBR. Based on the operating experience, the integrity of the high temperature components including fuel and cost optimization aspects, the plant temperatures are recommended. Steam temperature of 763 K at 16.6 MPa and a single TG of 500 MWe gross output have been decided. PFBR will be located at Kalpakkam site on the coast of Bay of Bengal. The plant life is designed for 30 y and 75% load factor. In this paper the justifications for the main options chosen are given in brief. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Chemical surveillance of commercial fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.; Stade, K.Ch.

    1988-01-01

    After BN-600 (USSR) and SUPERPHENIX (France) were started succesfully, the international development of LMFBRs is standing at the doorstep of commercial use. For commercial use of LMFBRs cost reductions for construction and operation are highly desirable and necessary. Several nations developing breeder reactors have joined in a common effort in order to reach this aim by standardization and harmonization. On the base of more than 20 years of operation experience of experimental reactors (EBR-II, FFTF, RAPSODIE, DFR, BR-5/BR-10, BOR-60, JOYO, KNK-II) and demonstration plants (PHENIX, PFR, BN-350), possibilities for standardization in chemical surveillance of commercial breeder reactors without any loss of availability, reliability and reactor safety will be discussed in the following chapters. Loop-type reactors will be considered as well as pool-type reactors, although all commercial plants under consideration so far (SUPERPHENIX II, BN-800, BN-1600, CFBR, SNR-2, EFR) include pool-type reactors only. Table 1 gives a comparison of the Na inventories of test reactors, prototype plants and commercial LMFBRs

  2. Reprocessing of spent fuel, Dounreay and fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingjaerde, R.

    1986-11-01

    In the light of the public interest in Norway in the breeder reactor fuel reprocessing plant projected in Dounreay, Scotland, the report gives a description of the research center in Dounreay and the planned joint European demonstration facility (EDRP). Certain aspects of the fast breeder reactor are also explained

  3. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... (1988) analysed the relative changes in rate of lay and egg weight and showed that rate of lay is influenced to a greater extent by a decrease in protein intake than is egg weight. This has important implications for broiler breeders where the marginal revenue for breeder eggs is considerably higher than is ...

  4. Seismic design criteria for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, A.; Bitner, J.L.; Sigal, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    The general criteria for seismic resistant design for structures, systems and components of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are presented and discussed. Site dependency of the maximum ground accelerations for the Operating Basis Earthquake and the Safe Shutdown Earthquake is described from the viewpoint of historical records and geological and seismological studies for the CRBRP site. The respective ground response spectra are derived by normalization of the latest AEC Regulatory standard shapes to these maximum ground accelerations. Modeling and analytical techniques and requirements are given. In addition, loading conditions and categories, loading combinations, earthquake direction effects and allowable damping values are defined. A discussion of the testing criteria which considers both single and multiple frequency test motions, and basic test procedures for single frequency sine beat testing is presented. (U.S.)

  5. Ferritic steels for the first generation of breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    Materials development in nuclear fusion for in-vessel components, i.e. for breeder blankets and divertors, has a history of more than two decades. It is the specific in-service and loading conditions and the consequentially required properties in combination with safety standards and social-economic demands that create a unique set of specifications. Objectives of Fusion for Energy (F4E) include: 1) To provide Europe's contribution to the ITER international fusion energy project; 2) To implement the Broader Approach agreement between Euratom and Japan; 3) To prepare for the construction and demonstration of fusion reactors (DEMO). Consequently, activities in F4E focus on structural materials for the first generations of breeder blankets, i.e. ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and DEMO, whereas a Fusion Materials Topical Group implemented under EFDA coordinates R and D on physically based modelling of irradiation effects and R and D in the longer term (new and /or higher risk materials). The paper focuses on martensitic-ferritic steels and (i) reviews briefly the challenges and the rationales for the decisions taken in the past, (ii) analyses the status of the main activities of development and qualification, (iii) indicates unresolved issues, and (iv) outlines future strategies and needs and their implications. Due to the exposure to intense high energy neutron flux, the main issue for breeder materials is high radiation resistance. The First Wall of a breeder blanket should survive 3-5 full power years or, respectively in terms of irradiation damage, typically 50-70 dpa for DEMO and double figures for a power plant. Even though the objective is to have the materials and key fabrication technologies needed for DEMO fully developed and qualified within the next two decades, a major part of the task has to be completed much earlier. Tritium breeding test blanket modules will be installed in ITER with the objective to test DEMO relevant technologies in fusion

  6. A model of sexual selection and female use of refuge in a coercive mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokides, Dessa; Lou, Yuan; Hamilton, Ian M

    2012-08-22

    In many non-monogamous systems, males invest less in progeny than do females. This leaves males with higher potential rates of reproduction, and a likelihood of sexual conflict, including, in some systems, coercive matings. If coercive matings are costly, the best female strategy may be to avoid male interaction. We present a model that demonstrates female movement in response to male harassment as a mechanism to lower the costs associated with male coercion, and the effect that female movement has on selection in males for male harassment. We found that, when females can move from a habitat patch to a refuge to which males do not have access, there may be a selection for either high, or low harassment male phenotype, or both, depending on the relationship between the harassment level of male types in the population and a threshold level of male harassment. This threshold harassment level depends on the relative number of males and females in the population, and the relative resource values of the habitat; the threshold increases as the sex ratio favours females, and decreases with the value of the refuge patch or total population. Our model predicts that selection will favour the harassment level that lies closest to this threshold level of harassment, and differing harassment levels will coexist within the population only if they lie on the opposite sides of the threshold harassment. Our model is consistent with empirical results suggesting that an intermediate harassment level provides maximum reproductive fitness to males when females are mobile.

  7. Additive effects of dietary glycotoxins and androgen excess on the kidney of a female rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Palimeri

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The above mentioned data suggest that dietary glycotoxins, in combination with increased androgen exposure, exert a more profound negative impact on the kidney of an androgenized female rat model that mimics the metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  8. Modelling female fertility traits in beef cattle using linear and non-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, H; Peñagaricano, F; Urioste, J I

    2017-06-01

    Female fertility traits are key components of the profitability of beef cattle production. However, these traits are difficult and expensive to measure, particularly under extensive pastoral conditions, and consequently, fertility records are in general scarce and somehow incomplete. Moreover, fertility traits are usually dominated by the effects of herd-year environment, and it is generally assumed that relatively small margins are kept for genetic improvement. New ways of modelling genetic variation in these traits are needed. Inspired in the methodological developments made by Prof. Daniel Gianola and co-workers, we assayed linear (Gaussian), Poisson, probit (threshold), censored Poisson and censored Gaussian models to three different kinds of endpoints, namely calving success (CS), number of days from first calving (CD) and number of failed oestrus (FE). For models involving FE and CS, non-linear models overperformed their linear counterparts. For models derived from CD, linear versions displayed better adjustment than the non-linear counterparts. Non-linear models showed consistently higher estimates of heritability and repeatability in all cases (h 2  linear models; h 2  > 0.23 and r > 0.24, for non-linear models). While additive and permanent environment effects showed highly favourable correlations between all models (>0.789), consistency in selecting the 10% best sires showed important differences, mainly amongst the considered endpoints (FE, CS and CD). In consequence, endpoints should be considered as modelling different underlying genetic effects, with linear models more appropriate to describe CD and non-linear models better for FE and CS. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. When celibacy matters: incorporating non-breeders improves demographic parameter estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Pardo

    Full Text Available In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans. In this species, the breeding cycle lasts almost a year and birds that succeed a given year tend to skip the next breeding occasion while birds that fail tend to breed again the following year. Most non-breeders remain unobservable at sea, but still a substantial number of observable non-breeders (ONB was identified on breeding sites. Using multi-state capture-mark-recapture analyses, we used several measures to compare the performance of demographic estimates between models incorporating or ignoring ONB: bias (difference in mean, precision (difference is standard deviation and accuracy (both differences in mean and standard deviation. Our results highlight that ignoring ONB leads to bias and loss of accuracy on breeding probability and survival estimates. These effects are even stronger when studied in an age-dependent framework. Biases on breeding probabilities and survival increased with age leading to overestimation of survival at old age and thus actuarial senescence and underestimation of reproductive senescence. We believe our study sheds new light on the difficulties of estimating demographic parameters in species/taxa where a significant part of the population does not breed every year. Taking into account ONB appeared important to improve demographic parameter estimates, models of population dynamics and evolutionary conclusions regarding senescence within and across taxa.

  10. A novel system dynamics model of female obesity and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabounchi, Nasim S; Hovmand, Peter S; Osgood, Nathaniel D; Dyck, Roland F; Jungheim, Emily S

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to create a system dynamics model specific to weight gain and obesity in women of reproductive age that could inform future health policies and have the potential for use in preconception interventions targeting obese women. We used our system dynamics model of obesity in women to test various strategies for family building, including ovulation induction versus weight loss to improve ovulation. Outcomes included relative fecundability, postpartum body mass index, and mortality. Our system dynamics model demonstrated that obese women who become pregnant exhibit increasing obesity levels over time with elevated morbidity and mortality. Alternatively, obese women who lose weight prior to pregnancy have improved reproductive outcomes but may risk an age-related decline in fertility, which can affect overall family size. Our model highlights important public health issues regarding obesity in women of reproductive age. The model may be useful in preconception counseling of obese women who are attempting to balance the competing risks associated with age-related declines in fertility and clinically meaningful weight loss.

  11. Scenario for commercialization of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaoka, Yoshio; Sato, Morihiko

    1989-01-01

    To realize the commercialization of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is essential to reduce construction costs to the same level as those for the current light water reactors. For this target to be attained, a highly important factor is to reduce to the lowest-levels possible the quantities of materials and volume of the buildings required for the primary and secondary sodium loops of the FBR. In this direction, an innovative compact FBR plant concept which holds promise for commercialization has been developed by introducing the pooltype reactor concept with the shortest possible secondary sodium loops, realized by coupling electromagnetic pumps with the steam generators. In comparison with the French Super Phenix reactor, for example, the construction of this 1,300-MWe FBR plant could be achieved with half the material quantities and plant volume required by the former type. (author)

  12. Thermal baffle for fast-breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylatt, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor includes a bridge structure for separating hot outlet coolant from relatively cool inlet coolant consisting of an annular stainless steel baffle plate extending between the core barrel surrounding the core and the thermal liner associated with the reactor vessel and resting on ledges thereon, there being inner and outer circumferential webs on the lower surface of the baffle plate and radial webs extending between the circumferential webs, a stainless steel insulating plate completely covering the upper surface of the baffle plate and flex seals between the baffle plate and the ledges on which the baffle plate rests to prevent coolant from washing through the gaps therebetween. The baffle plate is keyed to the core barrel for movement therewith and floating with respect to the thermal liner and reactor vessel. 3 claims, 2 figures

  13. Neutronic studies of a 233U breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    Neutronic calculations have been carried out to design a laser fusion driven hybrid blanket which maximizes 233 U production per unit of thermal energy (>1 kg/MW/sub T/-year) with acceptable fusion energy multiplication (M/sub F/ approx. 4). Two hybrid blankets, a thorium and a uranium--thorium blanket, are discussed in detail and their performance is evaluated by incorporating them into an existing hybrid design (the LLL/Bechtel design). The performance of these two blankets is discussed in terms of their energy multiplication, tritium breeding and fissile fuel production. The neutronic calculations have been done for two neutron libraries, the ENDF/B-IV and the ENDL with differences no larger than 10% in the results. An estimate is given of the number of equivalent thermal power fission reactors (LWR, HWR, SSCR, and HTGR) that these fusion breeders can fuel

  14. Fast breeder reactor safety : a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Taking into consideration India's limited reserves of natural and vast reserves of thorium, the fast reactor route holds a great promise for India's energy supply in future. The fast reactor fueled with 239 Pu/ 238 U (unused or depleted) produces (breeds) more fissionable fuel material 239 Pu than it consumes. Calculations show that a fast breeder reactor (FBR) increases energy potential of natural uranium by about 60 times. As the fast reactor can also convert 232 Th into 233 U which is a fissionable material, it can make India's thorium reserves a source of almost inexhaustible energy supply for a long time to come. Significant advantage of FBR plants cooled by sodium and their world-wide operating experience are reviewed. There are two main safety issues of FBR, one nuclear and the other non-nuclear. The nuclear issue concerns core disruptive accident and the non-nuclear one concerns the high chemical energy potential of sodium. These two issues are analysed and it is pointed that they are manageable by current design, construction and operational practices. Main findings of safety research during the last six to eight years in West European Countries and United States of America (US) are summarised. Three stage engineered safety provision incorporated into the design of the sodium cooled Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) commissioned at Kalpakkam are explained. The important design safety features of FBTR such as primary system containment, emergency core cooling, plant protection system, inherent safety features achieved through reactivity coefficients, and natural convection cooling are discussed. Theoretical analysis and experimental research in fast reactor safety carried out at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research during the past some years are reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  15. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into h...

  16. Efficacy of female rat models in translational cardiovascular aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, K M; Fannin, J C; Gillette, C; Blough, E R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging.

  17. Neutronics Analysis of Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Jia; Liu, Songlin

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear response to the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket models for CFETR, a detailed 3D neutronics model with 22.5° torus sector was developed based on the integrated geometry of CFETR, including heterogeneous WCCB blanket models, shield, divertor, vacuum vessel, toroidal and poloidal magnets, and ports. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code MCNP5 and IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL2.1, the neutronics analyses were performed. The neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, neutron-induced atomic displacement damage, and gas production were determined. The results indicate that the global TBR of no less than 1.2 will be a big challenge for the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  18. Performance of layer or broiler breeder hens varies in response to different probiotic preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah U. Çatlı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three probiotic dietary supplements on the laying and reproductive performance of layer hens and broiler breeder hens was investigated. A total of four hundred and eighty, 22-week-old layer hens were given diets containing one of three probiotics (1 g/kg diet for each probiotics from weeks 22 to 49. Seven hundred and twenty female and sixty-four male broiler breeders were also subjected to the same additive feeding procedure between 21 and 50 weeks of age. The layer hen and breeder trials were initiated simultaneously and performed in pens located in the same area. Either egg production rate or egg weight was affected by the microbial cultures administered. Body weight and mortality were not affected. Egg production rate, egg weight and egg mass benefited from some of the probiotics, while, overall, the probiotics led to significant improvements in the feed conversion rate of layer hens. All of the probiotic preparations decreased the cracked-to-broken egg ratio, compared to the untreated control group. One of the three probiotic supplements significantly improved the egg production rate and increased the settable egg and chick yield per hen in broiler breeders, whereas, overall, probiotics tended to decrease settable egg weight. Probiotics enhanced hatchability, but no beneficial effects were observed on fertility. Based on these findings, it can be said that the microbial cultures in the probiotic preparations exhibited host-specific and strain-specific differences in their activities as performance-enhancer feed additives, with improvements in some selected performance parameters.

  19. Uranium utilization of light water cooled reactors and fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojadinovic, Timm

    1991-08-01

    The better uranium utilization of fast breeder reactors as compared with water cooled reactors is one argument in favour of the breeder introduction. This report tries to quantify this difference. It gives a generally valid formalism for the uranium utilization as a function of the fuel burnup, the conversion rate, fuel cycle losses and the fuel enrichment. On the basis of realistic assumptions, the ratio between the utilizations of breeder reactors to that of light water cooled reactors (LWR) amounts to 180 for the open LWR cycle and 100 in case of plutonium recycling in LWRs

  20. 3rd quarterly report 1976 of the Fast Breeder Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The report describes activities which were performed within the framework of the Fast Breeder Project at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH Karlsruhe (GfK) or on behalf of the GfK during the third quarter. It contains contributions on the following subjects: Fuel rod development, material studies and development, corrosion tests and coolant analyses, physical experiments, reactor theory, safety of fast breeders, instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring, environmental impacts, sodium technology tests, thermo- and fluid-dynamic tests in gas, tests concerning gas-cooled breeders. (HR) [de

  1. Carter's breeder policy has failed, claims Westinghouse manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear nations developing liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) technology have not been dissuaded by President Carter's efforts to stop the breeder program as a way to control the proliferation of nuclear weapons. There is no evidence that Carter's policy of moral persuasion has had any impact on their efforts. A review of the eight leading countries cites their extensive progress in the areas of breeder technology and fuel reprocessing, while the US has made only slight gains. The Fast Flux Test Facility at Hanford is near completion, but the Clinch River project has been slowed to a minimum

  2. Modeling of pheromone communication system of forest Lepidopterous insects. II. Model of female searching by male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an agent­based simulation model search. This model allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of different males­females pheromone search strategies for Lepidoptera. In the model, we consider the simplest case of the search, when the pheromone has only one chemical component. It is assumed that the insects are able to detect the pheromone molecules and the sensory cells generate action potentials in contact with the pheromone for some time. Thereafter pheromone molecule is inactivated. This behavior can be regarded as a memory of individual. Proportion of individuals who have reached the source is selected as an integral indicator of the search efficiency. To evaluate the effectiveness, numeric experiments were performed in different conditions: random walk, search algorithm without memory, and algorithm with memory and return mechanism. The resulting effectiveness of source localization by insects for flight in turbulent flows is ~ 70 %, which corresponds to experiments with live specimens in literature. In this case, proposed pheromone search algorithm is quite simple, which makes it biologically correct. Conducted modeling calculations can be the starting point for planning of field observations and pest monitoring systems using pheromone traps.

  3. The effectiveness of education using the health belief model in preventing osteoporosis among female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaeinasab, H; Tavakoli, R; Karimizarchi, A; Amini, Z Haji; Farokhian, A; Najarkolaei, F Rahmati

    2014-01-09

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of education using the Health Belief Model on preventing osteoporosis among female students. This interventional study (quasi-experimental) was performed on 45 female students aged 15-16 years old who resided in a town near Tehran. The females participated in a threeweek educational programme based on the Health Belief Model. The data collection instrument was a validated and reliable questionnaire in five sections: demographics, knowledge, Health Belief Model constructs, physical activity and consumption of foods containing calcium. The mean scores of students' knowledge were significantly different before and after the educational intervention (P Health Belief Model structures changed significantly after the intervention (P health beliefs and may positively impact physical activity-related behaviour.

  4. MANOVA vs nonlinear mixed effects modeling: The comparison of growth patterns of female and male quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcan, Eser Kemal

    2017-04-01

    The most commonly used methods for analyzing time-dependent data are multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and nonlinear regression models. The aim of this study was to compare some MANOVA techniques and nonlinear mixed modeling approach for investigation of growth differentiation in female and male Japanese quail. Weekly individual body weight data of 352 male and 335 female quail from hatch to 8 weeks of age were used to perform analyses. It is possible to say that when all the analyses are evaluated, the nonlinear mixed modeling is superior to the other techniques because it also reveals the individual variation. In addition, the profile analysis also provides important information.

  5. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  6. Structural and performance costs of reproduction in a pure capital breeder, the Children's python Antaresia childreni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdais, Olivier; Lorioux, Sophie; DeNardo, Dale F

    2013-01-01

    Females often manage the high energy demands associated with reproduction by accumulating and storing energy in the form of fat before initiating their reproductive effort. However, fat stores cannot satisfy all reproductive resource demands, which include considerable investment of amino acids (e.g., for the production of yolk proteins or gluconeogenesis). Because capital breeders generally do not eat during reproduction, these amino acids must come from internal resources, typically muscle proteins. Although the energetic costs of reproduction have been fairly well studied, there are limited data on structural and performance costs associated with the muscle degradation required to meet amino acid demands. Thus, we examined structural changes (epaxial muscle width) and performance costs (constriction and strength) over the course of reproduction in a pure capital breeder, the children's python (Antaresia childreni). We found that both egg production (i.e., direct resource allocation) and maternal care (egg brooding) induce muscle catabolism and affect performance of the female. Although epaxial muscle loss was minimal in nonreproductive females, it reached up to 22% (in females after oviposition) and 34% (in females after brooding) of initial muscle width. Interestingly, we found that individuals with higher initial muscular condition allocated more of their muscle into reproduction. The amount of muscle loss was significantly linked to clutch mass, underscoring the role of structural protein in egg production. Egg brooding significantly increased proteolysis and epaxial loss despite no direct allocation to the offspring. Muscle loss was linked to a significant reduction in performance in postreproductive females. Overall, these results demonstrate that capital-breeding females experience dramatic costs that consume structural resources and jeopardize performance.

  7. Internal fluid flow management analysis for Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.M.; Zury, H.L.; Cook, M.E.; Fair, C.E.

    1978-12-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) sodium pumps are currently being designed and the prototype unit is being fabricated. In the design of these large-scale pumps for elevated temperature Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) service, one major design consideration is the response of the critical parts to severe thermal transients. A detailed internal fluid flow distribution analysis has been performed using a computer code HAFMAT, which solves a network of fluid flow paths. The results of the analytical approach are then compared to the test data obtained on a half-scale pump model which was tested in water. The details are presented of pump internal hydraulic analysis, and test and evaluation of the half-scale model test results

  8. Research and development status of ceramic breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was also recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated areas in the properties data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on issues such as tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests are underway, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials. 36 refs.

  9. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Jong, Ingrid de; van de Werd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types...... of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements...... and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broiler breeders often has the purpose of satisfying the behavioral motivations for feeding and foraging, resting, and/or encouraging normal sexual behavior. Potentially successful enrichments for broiler breeders are elevated resting places...

  10. Staphylococcus agnetis, a potential pathogen in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thøfner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    In this study, four broiler parent flocks have been followed from the onset of the production period (week 20) until slaughter (week 60). Every week, approximately ten dead broiler breeders, randomly selected among birds dead on their own, were collected and subjected to a full post mortem analysis...... including bacteriological examination. In total 997 breeders were investigated and for the first time Staphylococcus agnetis was isolated in pure culture from cases of endocarditis and septicemia from 16 broiler breeders. In addition, the cloacal flora from newly hatched chickens originating from the same...... from both broiler breeders and broilers. Three isolates were whole genome sequenced to obtain knowledge on virulence genes. The isolates harbored a number of genes encoding different fibrinogen binding proteins and toxins which might be important for virulence. The present findings demonstrate that S...

  11. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Kondo, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Roux, N. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Tanaka, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Vollath, D. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Preliminary RAMI analysis of WCLL blanket and breeder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyo, Jose Manuel; Brown, Richard; Harman, Jon; Rosa, Elena; Ibarra, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Preliminary RAMI model for WCLL has been developed. • Critical parts and parameters influencing WCLL availability have been focused. • Necessary developments of tools/models to represent system performance have been identified. - Abstract: DEMO will be a prototype fusion reactor designed to prove the capability to produce electrical power in a commercially acceptable way. One of the key factors in that endeavor is the achievement of certain level of plant availability. Therefore, RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability) will be a key element in the engineering development of DEMO. Some studies have been started so as to develop the tools and models to assess different design alternatives from RAMI point of view. The main objective of these studies is to be able to evaluate the influence of different parameters on DEMO availability and to focus the critical parts that should be further researched and improved in order to develop a high-availability oriented DEMO design. A preliminary RAMI analysis of the Water Cooled Lithium-Lead (WCLL) blanket and breeder concept for DEMO has been developed. The amounts of single elements that may fail (e.g. more than 180,000 C-shaped tubes) and the mean down time associated to failures inside the vacuum vessel (around 3 months) have been highlighted as the critical parameters influencing the system availability. On the other hand, the necessary developments of tools/models to better represent the system performance have been identified and proposed for future work.

  13. Preliminary RAMI analysis of WCLL blanket and breeder systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, Jose Manuel, E-mail: josemanuel.arroyo@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Brown, Richard [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Harman, Jon [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Rosa, Elena; Ibarra, Angel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Preliminary RAMI model for WCLL has been developed. • Critical parts and parameters influencing WCLL availability have been focused. • Necessary developments of tools/models to represent system performance have been identified. - Abstract: DEMO will be a prototype fusion reactor designed to prove the capability to produce electrical power in a commercially acceptable way. One of the key factors in that endeavor is the achievement of certain level of plant availability. Therefore, RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability) will be a key element in the engineering development of DEMO. Some studies have been started so as to develop the tools and models to assess different design alternatives from RAMI point of view. The main objective of these studies is to be able to evaluate the influence of different parameters on DEMO availability and to focus the critical parts that should be further researched and improved in order to develop a high-availability oriented DEMO design. A preliminary RAMI analysis of the Water Cooled Lithium-Lead (WCLL) blanket and breeder concept for DEMO has been developed. The amounts of single elements that may fail (e.g. more than 180,000 C-shaped tubes) and the mean down time associated to failures inside the vacuum vessel (around 3 months) have been highlighted as the critical parameters influencing the system availability. On the other hand, the necessary developments of tools/models to better represent the system performance have been identified and proposed for future work.

  14. Support for traditional female roles across 32 countries : Female labour market participation, policy models and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, S.C.H.; Gesthuizen, M.; Schepers, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this research we study support for traditional female roles. We test individual and contextual explanations for differences in support for traditional female roles within and across 32 countries. Higher educated, employed people and those who do not adhere to a religion are least supportive. The

  15. Growth rates of breeder reactor fuel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    During the contract period, a consistent formalism for the definition of the growth rates (and thus the doubling time) of breeder reactor fuel has been developed. This formalism was then extended to symbiotic operation of breeder and converter reactors. Further, an estimation prescription for the growth rate has been developed which is based upon the breeding worth factors. The characteristics of this definition have been investigated, which led to an additional integral concept, the breeding bonus

  16. Exploding the myths about the fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the facts and figures about the effects of conservation policies, the benefits of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor demonstration plant, the feasibility of nuclear weapons manufacture from reactor-grade plutonium, diversion of plutonium from nuclear plants, radioactive waste disposal, and the toxicity of plutonium. The paper concludes that the U.S. is not proceeding with a high confidence strategy for breeder development because of a variety of false assumptions.

  17. Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T → n(14.1 MeV) + α(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device

  18. Liquid metal tribology in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.; Mack, K.J.; Gegenheimer, M.

    1984-11-01

    Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) require mechanisms operating in various sodium liquid and sodium vapor environments for extended periods of time up to temperatures of 900 K under different chemical properties of the fluid. The design of tribological systems in those reactors cannot be based on data and past experience of so-called conventional tribology. Although basic tribological phenomena and their scientific interpretation apply in this field, operating conditions specific to nuclear reactors and prevailing especially in the nuclear part of such facilities pose special problems. Therefore, in the framework of the R and D-program accompanying the construction phase of SNR 300 experiments were carried out to provide data and knowledge necessary for the lay-out of friction systems between mating surfaces of contacting components. Initially, screening tests isolated material pairs with good slipping properties and maximum wear resistance. Those materials were subjected to comprehensive parameter investigations. A multitude of laboratory scale tests have been performed under largely reactor specific conditions. Unusual superimpositions of parameters were analyzed and separated to find their individual influence on the friction process. The results of these experiments were made available to the reactor industry as well as to factories producing special tribo-materials. (orig.) [de

  19. Breeder reactor program in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.

    1978-01-01

    In the United States, commercial fuel reprocessing and demonstration test of plutonium breeder reactors were now postponed. LMFBR project and schedule of FFTF and afterwards await the results of INFCE. However, this is not discarding the development of LMFBRs. With the existing energy resources, the United States can have the opportunity to make careful and thorough study. Emphasis is placed on the research and development on new alternative types of fuel. FFTF going to be operated soon should provide effective means for the developments of FBR fuel and materials. High priority is to be retained for the test and development of sodium system hardwares. The nuclear proliferation problem is not related to heat transfer and secondary systems; it is associated with the selection of fuel and fuel cycle. The whole program is centered around LMFBR design and development. The target output will be 600 x 10 3 -- 700 x 10 3 MW. In the United States, now is the time to develop excellent products and to study the nuclear proliferation problem more carefully. (Mori, K.)

  20. The future of the Fast Breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) can produce more fissile nuclei than they consume whilst, at the same time, generating energy using fast neutrons. By conversion of uranium isotope 238 into a fissionable fuel, FBRs provide over 60 times more energy than can be extracted from the uranium reserves by thermal reactors. Their development is therefore an essential objective in the next century, particularly for those industrialised countries that have little or no energy resources of their own. The European countries which have been engaged in the development of FBRs for more than 25 years have decided to collaborate in an advanced design, the European Fast Reactor (EFR) which uses the best of previous national projects and draws on extensive operating experience from FBR plants in Europe. The naturally safe characteristics and technological features of sodium-cooled Fast Reactors will be fully utilised in an EFR design which meets the same safety level as the Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Owing to technical progress and series construction effect, the EFR is expected to achieve competitiveness with contemporary LWRs with the higher capital cost of the Fast Reactor offset by its markedly lower fuel cycle cost. (author)

  1. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caceres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106 IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors.

  2. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja B. Riber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements in biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals (e.g., environmental hygiene, or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broiler breeders often has the purpose of satisfying the behavioral motivations for feeding and foraging, resting, and/or encouraging normal sexual behavior. Potentially successful enrichments for broiler breeders are elevated resting places, cover panels, and substrate (for broiler breeders housed in cage systems. However, most of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broiler breeders need to be further developed and studied with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and welfare, and the interaction with genotype and production system. In addition, information on practical use and the economics of the production system is often lacking although it is important for application in practice.

  3. Differentiation between females of ostrich breeding trios based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hatchability between the females. These results suggest a preference of certain males for specific females. This study shows that the process of differentiating between females and their eggs based on the egg weight is feasible and could contribute to better data structures for ostrich breeders during genetic evaluation.

  4. A Qualitative Examination of the Importance of Female Role Models in Investment Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Sealy, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    A number of practitioner surveys across a range of industries have cited the lack of senior female role models as a barrier to career progression. There is very little academic literature to explain this at a senior organizational level. An initial review of the extant role model literature led to the inclusion of two further related areas – organizational demographics, as a contextual factor affecting the availability of role models, and work identity development as a link bet...

  5. Indeterminate laying and flexible clutch size in a capital breeder, the common eider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, Peter; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Andersson, Malte

    2011-03-01

    Clutch size control in capital breeders such as large waterfowl has been much debated. Some studies have concluded that clutch size in ducks is determined before the start of laying and does not change in response to egg additions or removals. The response, however, may depend on the timing of tests, and experiments may have been too late for females to alter the number of eggs. We here study clutch size responses to predation of first and second eggs in the common eider, using protein fingerprinting of egg albumen to verify that the same female continues laying in the nest after predation. Sixty of 79 females with early egg predation (one or both of the two first eggs) deserted the nest. Among the 19 females that stayed and continued laying, the mean number of eggs produced was 4.4, significantly higher than the 3.7 in non-predated nests. The staying females had similar egg size and clutch initiation date as females that deserted, and their body mass and clutch initiation date was similar to that of females whose clutches were not predated. Even capital-breeding common eiders may therefore be indeterminate layers, as many females in which early eggs are removed lay more eggs than others. A previous study has shown that they can reduce their laying if eggs are added. Our results add to increasing evidence that ducks have more flexible egg production than previously thought.

  6. Impact of 6 different intestinal bacteria on broiler breeder sperm motility in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, M D; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D; Kiess, A S

    2013-08-01

    Male fertility is often evaluated by measuring sperm parameters, including concentration, viability, and motility. This is important because after copulation occurs, sperm must overcome many barriers in the female reproductive tract to fertilize the ovum. In mammalian species, sperm have been shown to have reduced motility when bacteria are present. In male broiler breeders, bacteria have been associated with spermatozoa, but their effect on motility has not been investigated. The sperm quality index is a modern rapid method of evaluating avian sperm motility. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the sperm quality index to determine if broiler breeder sperm motility is reduced when semen is exposed to various bacteria. In this experiment, semen was collected from 20 broiler breeders to obtain a pooled neat semen sample. Six different intestinal bacteria, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium bifermentans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis were cultured overnight. For each bacterium, 50 µL of semen was diluted in 450 µL of saline, sterile broth, or the overnight culture, creating 3 treatments. The experiment was repeated twice. In each treatment, 3 replicates were evaluated at 0 and 10 min postinoculation, creating a completely randomized design with a split plot over time. Also, the pH was measured for each treatment at 0 and 10 min. The results indicated that all broths containing bacteria immediately reduced broiler breeder sperm motility when compared with the controls (P < 0.0001), but broths containing Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus virtually made sperm immotile. Although broth containing Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Bifidobacterium immediately reduced sperm motility, the reduction did not change over time. Broths containing E. coli, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus reduced sperm motility immediately, but over time motility continued to decrease. However, pH was increased when semen was

  7. Effects of nanotoxicity on female reproductivity and fetal development in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianling; Zhang, Qiu; Wang, Zhiping; Yan, Bing

    2013-04-29

    The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  8. Effects of Nanotoxicity on Female Reproductivity and Fetal Development in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  9. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDA DE MELLO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a and relative growth rate to maturity (k were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g, which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day than females (9.34 g / day, however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001.

  10. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Fernanda; Oliveira, Carlos A L; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Resende, Emiko K; Povh, Jayme A; Fornari, Darci C; Barreto, Rogério V; McManus, Concepta; Streit, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a) and relative growth rate to maturity (k) were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g), which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day) than females (9.34 g / day), however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001).

  11. Possible role of fast breeder reactor for global warming mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Hatano, Mamoru; Tashimo, Masanori; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Our optimization model forecasts that Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) could be introduced as early as 2030 when nuclear power generation becomes price-competitive in the energy market. If such a scenario realizes in the future, nuclear power will be able to supply as much as 30% of total primary energy in 2100. The model also forecasts that nuclear power will contribute to reduce 6 GtC of CO 2 emission, if it completely replaces coal of the same energy. If the option of FBR is abandoned, we expect that carbon tax almost doubles in 2100 from 280 $/tC to 540 $/tC. High-burnup of LWR decreases the initial capacity of FBR plants because FBR and its fuel cycle need about seven tons of plutonium per GWe. Thus, the high-burnup of Light Water Reactor (LWR) would decrease the production of plutonium per watt-hour of electricity generation and reduce the capacity of FBR plants in the near future. However, the introduction of high breeding FBR can solve the above deficiency problem of plutonium. In other words, high breeding FBR can not only work as a catalyst for increasing the FBR plants with improved nuclear energy technology, but also contribute to reduce the greenhouse gas emission since renewable energy may be not enough in Japan. (author)

  12. Flow induced vibrations in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations are well known phenomena in industry. Engineers have to estimate their destructive effects on structures. In the nuclear industry, flow induced vibrations are assessed early in the design process, and the results are incorporated in the design procedures. In many cases, model testing is used to supplement the design process to ensure that detrimental behaviour due to flow induced vibrations will not occur in the component in question. While these procedures attempt to minimize the probability of adverse performance of the various components, there is a problem in the extrapolation of analytical design techniques and/or model testing to actual plant operation. Therefore, sodium tests or vibrational measurements of components in the reactor system are used to provide additional assurance. This report is a general survey of experimental and calculational methods in this area of structural mechanics. The report is addressed to specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. 92 refs, 90 figs, 8 tabs

  13. Particle flow of ceramic breeder pebble beds in bi-axial compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pebble beds of Tritium breeding ceramic material are investigated within the framework of developing solid breeder blankets for future nuclear fusion power plants. For the thermo-mechanical characterisation of such pebble beds, bed compression experiments are the standard tools. New bi-axial compression experiments on 20 and 30 mm high pebble beds show pebble flow effects much more pronounced than in previous 10 mm beds. Owing to the greater bed height, conditions are reached where the bed fails in cross direction and unhindered flow of the pebbles occurs. The paper presents measurements for the orthosilicate and metatitanate breeder materials that are envisaged to be used in a solid breeder blanket. The data are compared with calculations made with a Drucker-Prager soil model within the finite-element code ABAQUS, calibrated with data from other experiments. It is investigated empirically whether internal bed friction angles can be determined from pebble beds of the considered heights, which would simplify, and broaden the data base for, the calibration of the Drucker-Prager pebble bed models

  14. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor wherein the core, intermediate heat exchangers and liquid metal pumps are immersed in a pool of coolant such as Na, the intermediate heat exchangers are suspended from the roof, and ducting is provided in the form of a core tank or shroud interconnected with 'pods' housing the intermediate exchangers for directing coolant from the core over the heat exchanger tubes and thence back to the main pool of liquid metal. Seals are provided between the intermediate heat exchanger shells and the walls of their 'pods' to prevent liquid metal flow by-passing the heat exchanger tube bundles. As the heat exchangers must be withdrawable for servicing, and because linear differential thermal expansion of the heat exchanger and its 'pod' must be accommodated the seals hitherto have been of the sliding kind, generally known as 'piston ring type seals'. These present several disadvantages; for example sealing is not absolute, and the metal to metal seal gives rise to wear and fretting by rubbing and vibration. This could lead to seizure or jamming by the deposition of impurities in the coolant. Another difficulty arises in the need to accommodate lateral thermal expansion of the ducting, including the core tank and 'pods'. Hitherto some expansion has been allowed for by the use of expansible bellow pairs in the interconnections, or alternatively by allowing local deformations of the core tank 'pods'. Such bellows must be very flexible and hence constitute a weak section of the ducting, and local deformations give rise to high stress levels that could lead to premature failure. The arrangement described seeks to overcome these difficulties by use of a gas pocket trapping means to effect a seal against vertical liquid flow between the heat exchanger shell and the wall of the heat exchanger housing. Full details of the arrangement are described. (U.K.)

  15. Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring

  16. Using Flipped Learning Model in Teaching English Language among Female English Majors in Majmaah University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelshaheed, Bothina S. M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of using Flipped Learning Model in teaching English language among female English majors in Majmaah University on their achievement in two different English courses and identifying their feelings and satisfaction about flipping their classes. The study used a pre-post test design and included two…

  17. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  18. Feeding broiler breeders a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period impairs reproductive performance but enhances broiler offspring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Li, C; Schallier, S; Leblois, J; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian studies have shown that nutritional constraints during the perinatal period are able to program the progeny (metabolism, performance). The presented research aimed to investigate if broiler breeders and their offspring performance could be influenced by reducing the dietary crude protein (CP) level with 25%. A total of 160 day-old pure line A breeder females were randomly divided over 2 dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial diets, whereas the reduced balanced protein (RP) breeders received an isoenergetic diet that was decreased with 25% in dietary CP and amino acid during their entire lifespan. The RP birds required an increased feed allowance, varying between 3 and 15%, to meet the same BW goals as their control fed counterparts. The difference in feed allocations and reduction of the dietary CP level resulted in a net protein reduction varying between 14 and 23%. At wk 27 and 40, the body composition of the breeders was changed as a result of the dietary treatment. At both ages, the proportional abdominal fat pad weight of the RP breeders was increased (P < 0.001), whereas the proportional breast muscle weight was only higher at wk 27 in the control group compared to the RP group (P < 0.001). Egg weight (P < 0.001) and egg production (P < 0.001) was decreased for the RP fed birds. The lower dietary CP level reduced the proportional albumen weight of the RP eggs (P = 0.006). Male offspring from RP breeders were characterized by an increase in BW from 28 d until 35 d of age (P = 0.015). Moreover, female progeny of RP breeders showed a reduced FCR (P = 0.025), whereas male progeny showed a tendency (P = 0.052) towards a lower FCR at 5 wk of age. In conclusion, lowering dietary CP levels in rearing and laying phase of breeders had a negative effect on breeder performance but enhanced live performance of the offspring. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Decay heat removal for the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemanick, P.P.; Brown, N.W.

    1975-01-01

    The functional and reliability requirements of the decay heat removal systems are described. The reliability requirement and its rationale as adequate assurance that public health and safety are safeguarded are presented. The means by which the reliability of the decay heat removal systems are established to meet their requirement are identified. The heat removal systems and their operating characteristics are described. The discussion includes the overflow heat removal service and its role in decay heat removal if needed. The details of the systems are described to demonstrate the elements of redundancy and diversity in the systems design. The quantitative reliability assessment is presented, including the reliability model, the most important assumptions on which the analysis is based, sources of failure data, and the preliminary numerical results. Finally, the qualitative analyses and administrative controls will be discussed which ensure reliability attainment in design, fabrication, and operation, including minimization of common mode failures. A component test program is planned to provide reliability data on selected critical heat removal system equipment. This test plan is described including a definition of the test parameters of greatest interest and the motivation for the test article selection. A long range plan is also in place to collect plant operational data and the broad outlines of this plan are described. A statement of the high reliability of the Clinch River Breeder reactor Plant decay heat removal systems and a summary of the supporting arguments is presented. (U.S.)

  20. Comparison of inventory of tritium in various ceramic breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, M.; Beloglazov, S.; Nakashima, N.; Hashimoto, K.; Enoeda, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been pointed out by the present authors that it is essential to understand such mass transfer steps as diffusion of tritium in the grain of breeder material, absorption of water vapor into bulk of the grain, and adsorption of water on surface of the grain, together with the isotope exchange reaction between hydrogen in purge gas and tritium on surface of breeder material and the isotope exchange reaction between water vapor in purge gas and tritium on surface, for estimation of the tritium inventory in a uniform ceramic breeder blanket under the steady-state condition. It has been also pointed out by the present authors that the water formation reaction on the surface of ceramic breeder materials at introduction of hydrogen can give effect on behavior of bred tritium and lithium transfer in blanket. The tritium inventory for various ceramic breeder blankets are compared in this study basing on adsorption capacity, absorption capacity, isotope exchange capacity, and isotope exchange reactions on the Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 TiO 3 surface experimentally obtained by the present authors. Effect of each mass transfer steps on the shape of release curve of bred tritium at change of the operational conditions is also discussed from the observation at out pile experiment in KUR. (orig.)

  1. Metabolic effects of sleeve gastrectomy in female rat model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, Tatiana Z; Bondada, Sandhya; Lewis, Catherine E; French, Samuel W; DeUgarte, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Although women disproportionately undergo bariatric surgery, the rodent models investigating the mechanisms of bariatric surgery have been limited to males. Female rodent models can also potentially allow us to understand the effects of surgical intervention on future generations of offspring. Sleeve gastrectomy is an attractive weight loss procedure for reproductive-age female patients because it avoids the malabsorption associated with intestinal bypass. We sought to evaluate the effect of sleeve gastrectomy on young female rats with diet-induced obesity at the University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed a 60% high-fat diet. At 12 weeks of age, the rats underwent either sleeve gastrectomy or sham surgery. The rats were killed 4 weeks after surgery. A chemistry panel was performed, and the serum adipokines and gut hormones were assayed. The homeostasis model assessment score was calculated. The liver histologic findings were graded for steatosis. The 2-sample t test was used to compare the results between the 2 groups. Sleeve gastrectomy was associated with significant weight loss (5% ± 6% versus -4% ± 6%; P resistance or steatohepatitis after 11 weeks of high-fat diet. Despite these limitations, additional gender-specific studies are warranted given that most bariatric surgeries are performed in women. Sleeve gastrectomy appears to result in weight loss and improvements in adiponectin and leptin by way of mechanisms independent of ghrelin levels in a female model of diet-induced obesity. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors of the 'pool' kind. In this type of reactor the irradiated fuel is lowered into a transfer rotor for removal to storage facilities, this rotor normally having provision for the temporary storage of 20 irradiated fuel assemblies, each within a stainless steel bucket. For insertion or withdrawal of a fuel assembly the rotor is rotated to bring the fuel assembly to a loading or discharging station. The irradiated fuel assembly is withdrawn from the rotor within its bucket and the total weight is approximately 1000 kg, which is lifted about 27 m. In the event of malfunction the combination falls back into the rotor with considerable force. In order to prevent damage to the rotor fracture pins are provided, and to prevent damage to the reactor vessel and other parts of the reactor structure deformable energy absorbing devices are provided. After a malfunction the fractured pins and the energy absorbing devices must be replaced by remote control means operated from outside the reactor vault - a complex operation. The object of the arrangement described is to provide improved energy absorbing means for fuel assemblies falling into a fuel transfer rotor. The fuel assemblies are supported in the rotor by elastic means during transfer to storage and a hydraulic dash pot is provided in at least one position below the rotor for absorbing the energy of a falling fuel assembly. It is preferable to provide dash pots immediately below a receiving station for irradiated fuel assemblies and immediately below a discharge station. Each bucket is carried in a container that is elastically supported in the transfer rotor on a helical coil compression spring, so that, in the event of a malfunction the container and bucket are returned to their normal operating position after the force of the falling load has been absorbed by the dash pot. The transfer rotor may also be provided with recoil springs to absorb the recoil energy

  3. Unusual occurrences in fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R.P.; Srinivasan, G.; Ellappan, T.R.; Ramalingam, P.V.; Vasudevan, A.T.; Iyer, M.A.K.; Lee, S.M.; Bhoje, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt/13.2 MWe sodium cooled mixed carbide fuelled reactor. Its main aim is to generate experience in the design, construction and operation of fast reactors including sodium systems and to serve as an irradiation facility for the development of fuel and structural materials for future fast reactors. It achieved first criticality in Oct 85 with Mark I core (70% PuC - 30% UC). Steam generator was put in service in Jan 93 and power was raised to 10.5 MWt in Dec 93. Turbine generator was synchronised to the grid in Jul 97. The indigenously developed mixed carbide fuel has achieved a burnup of 44,000 MW-d/t max at a linear heat rating of 320 W/cm max without any fuel clad failure. The commissioning and operation of sodium systems and components have been smooth and performance of major components, viz., sodium pumps, intermediate heat exchangers and once through sodium heated steam generators (SG) have been excellent. There have been three minor incidents of Na/NaK leaks during the past 14 years, which are described in the paper. There have been no incident of a tube leak in SG. However, three incidents of water leaks from water / steam headers have been detailed. The plant has encountered some unusual occurrences, which were critically analysed and remedial measures, in terms of system and procedural modifications, incorporated to prevent recurrence. This paper describes unusual occurrences of fuel handling incident of May 1987, main boiler feed pump seizure in Apr 1992, reactivity transients in Nov 1994 and Apr 1995, and malfunctioning of the core cover plate mechanism in Jul 1995. These incidents have resulted in long plant shutdowns. During the course of investigation, various theoretical and experimental studies were carried out for better understanding of the phenomena and several inspection techniques and tools were developed resulting in enriching the technology of sodium cooled reactors. FBTR has 36 neutronic and process

  4. Numerical and experimental studies on thermal deformation of ceramic breeder pebble bed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhiyong

    The goal of this work is to develop modeling capabilities for understanding and predicting thermo-mechanical behavior of ceramic breeder pebble bed systems at elevated temperatures (600-800°C). The thermo-mechanical behavior of solid breeder pebble beds is a critical issue for the solid breeder blanket designs and is different from the behaviors of solid materials. The issue includes potential breakage of pebble materials and change in heat transfer characteristics across the breeder materials and cladding interface. Furthermore, at elevated temperatures, thermal creep deformation plays an uncertain role related to the contact stresses in the pebble beds. To understand these effects, the following efforts have been undertaken: First, experiments of a typical breeder blanket design have been conducted to study the thermal creep behaviors of the pebble bed system. Other than providing data for benchmarking numerical simulation, the experimental results show that the thermal deformation behaviors of typical pebble materials, such as Li2O and Li4SiO4 lithium ceramics, are nonlinear with respect to time and temperature. Under fixed temperatures (higher than 600°C), stresses generated from differential thermal expansion begin to decrease as a result of creep deformation. Second, a new numerical program, based on discrete element method (DEM), has been developed to simulate the fundamental mechanical behaviors of the packed pebble bed system. Considering the effects in a high temperature situation, inelastic contact models have been derived to predict thermal creep deformation. Our DEM program is mainly used to derive the effective mechanical constitutive equations for a pebble bed system. Besides that, it can provide the stress distribution inside the pebble bed and the force evolution related to the changes of boundary loadings. Last, a numerical program based on the finite element analysis (FEA) has been utilized to simulate the stress magnitude and deformation

  5. Chemical form of release tritium from solid breeder materials under the various purge gas conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomohiro Kinjyo; Masabumi Nishikawa; Naoya Yamashita; Takanori Koyama; Takaaki Tanifuji; Mikio Enoeda

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of the release behavior of bred tritium from solid breeder materials is necessary to design tritium recovery system from blanket of a fusion reactor because permeation loss of bred tritium in the piping system or type of tritium recovery system depends on the tritium release behavior. Chemical form of released tritium from Li 4 SiO 4 (from FzK), LiAlO 2 (from JAERI), Li 2 TiO 3 (from CEA) and Li 2 ZrO 3 (from MAPI) under various purge gas condition is discussed in this study by using the data obtained from the out-pile tritium release experiment in JAEA. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a little portion of bred tritium is release as the chemical form of HTO even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. It is also confirmed that desorption of surface water together with liberation of water vapor formed by water formation reaction from contact of hydrogen with solid breeder materials at high temperature gives rather high partial pressure of water vapor in the blanket purge gas. Tritium liberation model to represent the release behavior of bred tritium from solid breeder materials has been developed by the present authors considering tritium migration in bulk of grain, tritium transfer from bulk to surface and surface reactions on grain. Then, competition of such surface reactions as adsorption/desorption, isotope exchange reaction with hydrogen in purge gas and isotope exchange reaction with water vapor in purge gas decides the portion of HTO and HT. Using the tritium release model obtained so far, the portion of HTO or HT released from solid breeder materials is estimated and compared with observed values under various conditions in this study. The tritium release behavior and chemical form of tritium in the test blanket module with solid breeder under the ITER condition is also discussed based on the estimation obtained using the tritium release model formed by the present authors. (author)

  6. Dosimetry in Japanese male and female models for a low-frequency electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    The present study quantified induced current in anatomically based Japanese male and female models for exposure to low-frequency electric fields. A quasi-static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. For our computational results, the difference of the induced current density averaged over an area of 1 cm 2 between Japanese male and female models was less than 30% for each nerve tissue. The difference of induced current density between the present study and earlier works was less than 50% for the same conductivities, despite the different morphology. Particularly, maximum current density in central nerve tissues appeared in the retina of Japanese models, the same as in the earlier works. (note)

  7. Modeling Diet-Induced Obesity with Obesity-Prone Rats: Implications for Studies in Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D Giles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the comorbidities associated with obesity are numerous. Over the last two decades, we and others have employed an outbred rat model to study the development and persistence of obesity, as well as the metabolic complications that accompany excess weight. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. We also discuss how the approach has been adapted over time for studies in females and female-specific physiological conditions, such as menopause and breast cancer. As excess weight and the accompanying metabolic complications have become common place in our society, we expect that this model will continue to provide a valuable translational tool to establish physiological relevant connections to the basic science studies of obesity and body weight regulation.

  8. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Mohamadian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesPhysical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.MethodsThis cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.ResultsThe final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001, perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001, social support (β=0.24, p<0.001, perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001, and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001.ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.

  9. Voxel models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult: a dosimetric tool for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zankl, M.; Schlattl, H.; Becker, J.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Hoeschen, C.

    2008-03-01

    For optimisation in diagnostic medical imaging it is important to consider the relation between diagnostic image quality and patient dose. In the past, schematic representations of the human body were commonly used for dosimetric simulations together with Monte Carlo codes. During the last two decades, voxel models were introduced as an improvement to these body models. Studies performed by various research groups have shown that the more realistic organ topology of voxel models constructed from medical image data of real persons has an impact on calculated doses for external as well as internal exposures. As a consequence of these findings, the ICRP decided to use voxel models for the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients. These voxel models should be representative of an average population, i.e. they should resemble the ICRP reference anatomical data with respect to their external dimensions and their organ masses. To meet the ICRP requirements, our group at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (formerly known as GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health) constructed voxel models of a male and female adult, based on the voxel models of two individuals whose body height and weight resembled those of the male and female ICRP reference adult. The organ masses of both models were adjusted to the ICRP reference anatomical data, without spoiling their realistic anatomy. The paper describes the method used for this process and the resulting voxel models.

  10. Reactivity to addictive drugs in the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model of schizophrenia in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Babinska, Zuzana; Amchova, Petra; Stark, Tibor; Drago, Filippo; Sulcova, Alexandra; Micale, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often suffer comorbid substance abuse regardless of gender. However, the vast majority of studies are only conducted in male subjects. Therefore, the aim of these experiments is to assess addictive behaviors of both sexes in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia induced by prenatal methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate exposure. MAM (22 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally on gestational day 17. Two studies were performed in the offspring: (1) an alcohol-drinking procedure to assess daily intake of 20% alcohol and relapse-like behavior after a period of forced abstinence; (2) Methamphetamine (METH) intravenous self administration (IVSA) followed by forced abstinence and reinstatement phases. MAM exposure during the prenatal period did not change alcohol drinking regardless of sex. However, MAM females showed higher alcohol consumption in comparison to MAM males. The METH IVSA study revealed only a modest increase of drug consumption in MAM males, while there was no difference between the female groups. Reinstatement data showed no effect of the MAM model in either sex, but suggested increased responding in female rats. This study suggests that female sex and schizophrenia-like phenotype may work synergistically to enhance alcohol consumption. However, future research is needed to establish paradigms in which these findings would be readily assessed to test anti-addiction treatments.

  11. Feeding broiler breeders to improve their welfare whilst maintaining productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    In the present experiment different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity whilst limiting the growth of broiler breeders to industry recommended levels. Using scatter feeding, three diets (CON, commercial control diet; INF, high insoluble fibre content......; and SOF, high soluble fibre content) were each fed to 10 groups of 12 broiler breeder chickens (age: 2 to 15 weeks). Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food (e.g. food allocation in week 14: approx. 80, 100, and 130 g/d for CON, INF, and SOF, respectively) with all birds...... of their litter may have affected their thermoregulation. This experiment indicates that high fibre diets can alleviate the feeling of hunger currently experienced by broiler breeders, and a high ratio of insoluble fibre can reduce stereotypies and may improve the well-being of the birds....

  12. R + D work on gas-cooled breeder development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Jacobs, G.; Meyer, L.; Rehme, K.; Schumacher, G.; Wilhelm, D.

    1978-01-01

    The development work for the gas-cooled breeder in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center may be assigned to two different groups: a) Investigations on fuel elements. b) Studies concerning the safety of gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. To the first group there belongs the work related to the: - heat transfer between fuel elements and coolant gas, - influence of increased content of water vapor in helium or the fuel rods. The second group concerns: - establishing a computer code for transient calculations in the primary and secondary circuit of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor, - steam reactivity coefficients, - the core destruction phase of hypothetical accidents, - the core-catcher using borax. (orig./RW) [de

  13. Breeder fuel pellet fabrication from gel-sphere conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, D.R.; Bennett, D.W.; Hart, P.E.; Norman, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The development of automated nuclear fuel fabrication methods is the goal of the United States breeder reactor program and will form the technological basis for the future breeder reactor fuel supply. A major factor in achieving this goal is the development of remotely operated fuel fabrication equipment. The program schedule is to demonstrate the feasibility of automated pellet fuel fabrication and remote maintenance techniques by the mid-1980's. Development of major ceramic unit operations and the required computer control system is currently in the engineering testing stage. This report describes the planned program activities for evaluating the gel-sphere conversion process and demonstrating the fabrication of breeder fuel pellets from these gel-derived spheres

  14. On the history of the Fast Breeder Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1981-07-01

    The evolution of the Fast Breeder Project from its beginning at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center to the present cooperation of various organisations especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France is described in its historical context. Where as the emphasis was on physical studies of fast neutron cores in the early phase, technological and safety problems gained importance in the subsequent development. The increasing collaboration with industry and the support by government funds resulted in the design and start of construction of the prototype SNR 300. The objectives and the reasoning underlying important intermediate decisions are described. In the meantime, licensing and funding problems have become decisive for the project schedule. The present report also gives an account of the international and national political aspects which influence the breeder reactor development. In the annex all fast breeder publications of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center are listed. (orig.) [de

  15. Light water breeder reactor using a uranium-plutonium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radkowsky, A.; Chen, R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a light water receptor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: a prebreeder section having plutonium fuel containing a Pu-241 component, the prebreeder section being operable to produce enriched plutonium having an increased Pu-241 component; and a breeder section for receiving the enriched plutonium from the prebreeder section, the breeder section being operable for breeding fissile material from the enriched plutonium fuel. This patent describes a method of operating a light water nuclear reactor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: operating the prebreeder to produce enriched plutonium fuel having an increased Pu-241 component; fueling a breeder section with the enriched plutonium fuel to breed the fissile material

  16. Modeling of Forest Insect Pheromone Communication System. Female as a Source of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Soukhovolsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of pheromone communication in insects-phyllophagous was considered in terms of its effectiveness as a communication system. A selected lepidopterous insect (Lepidoptera was chosen for analysis of pheromone communication system. We analyzed data on 250 species of insects from three families – Lasiocampidae, Geometridae, Lymantriidae. Specificity of the chemical composition of the complex pheromones and pheromone component count was assessed for all of these females. Characteristics of complexes of insect pheromones and possible female strategies of behavior were modeled using the methods of information theory, utility theory and game theory. We estimated complementarity for various types of chemical compounds in pheromone composition. The uniqueness of the pheromone signal of separate species of Lepidoptera is achieved by using a multi-component pheromone. There are no hard links between existence or absence of individual components in multi-component pheromones. The model was proposed for explanation of regularities of pheromone composition. Nonmonotonic of relative frequency of insect species curve with different number of components can be explained in terms of a trade-off between increasing the efficiency of males seeking females of the same species with an increasing number of individual components and the complexity of the synthesis of pheromones multi-component pheromones. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the validity of the model description. Possible mechanisms of pheromone signal amplification studied were associated with the aggregation of a large number of individuals in a limited area. If females in the process of attracting individuals of the opposite sex are aggregated, then the source of pheromones is not a private individual, but a group of females, and the intensity of the flow of the group of molecules is defined as the intensity of pheromone release pheromones individual animals and the number of

  17. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  18. The effect of n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios on broiler breeder performance, hatchability, fatty acid profile and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibjoo, A; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Zaghari, M

    2018-04-20

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary omega6 (n-6) to omega3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratios on performance and reproduction of broiler breeders. In experiment 1, 400 females and 40 males (30 week age) of Ross 308 broiler breeder (20 females and two males in each pen) were randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). As a measure of hatchability, fertility of eggs and general incubation traits, 1,200 eggs (60 eggs from each pen) were collected and incubated for 21 days and embryo liver and brain fatty acid profile in 14 and 21 days were determined. In experiment 2, 48 males (three males in each pen) randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). Semen was collected twice weekly, and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and motility and alive and dead spermatozoa were estimated. Egg production and egg mass were decreased by n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4:1 and 6:1 (p n-3 of egg yolk, semen, testis and liver and brain of embryo and day-old chicken were increased while concentration of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosatetraenoic acid of mentioned tissues were decreased by increasing n-6/n-3 FA ratios (p > .05). In conclusion, absolute amount of n-3 and n-6 FAs in broiler breeder diet may be more important than n-6/n-3 FA ratios and to consider reproductive and performance traits of breeders, it is necessary to supply higher levels of n-3 and n-6 FA with respect to n-6/n-3 FA ratios. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. A model of CAM use by women with female-specific cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschiti, Valerie S

    2008-12-01

    In this cross-sectional, retrospective, explanatory secondary analysis of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, complementary and alternative modality (CAM) use by women with female-specific cancers is described. The effect of personal factors on the odds of CAM use was measured using the researcher's model, based on Pender's Health Promotion Model, as a framework. Women age 40 and older, with high levels of edu cation, presence of pain, and presence of depression/anxiety were more likely to use CAM. Because women with female-specific cancers who report depression/anxiety are more likely to use CAM, they need to be targeted by mental health nurses for education regarding safe CAM use.

  20. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment. © 2013.

  1. Simulation and design of an electron beam ion source charge breeder for the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Dickerson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An electron beam ion source (EBIS will be constructed and used to charge breed ions from the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade (CARIBU for postacceleration into the Argonne tandem linear accelerator system (ATLAS. Simulations of the EBIS charge breeder performance and the related ion transport systems are reported. Propagation of the electron beam through the EBIS was verified, and the anticipated incident power density within the electron collector was identified. The full normalized acceptance of the charge breeder with a 2 A electron beam, 0.024π  mm mrad for nominal operating parameters, was determined by simulating ion injection into the EBIS. The optics of the ion transport lines were carefully optimized to achieve well-matched ion injection, to minimize emittance growth of the injected and extracted ion beams, and to enable adequate testing of the charge bred ions prior to installation in ATLAS.

  2. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc William Schmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods (omics now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis. Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes.

  3. Status and prospects of thermal breeders and their effect on fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The report evaluates the extent to which thermal breeders and near-breeders might complement fast breeders or serve as an alternative in solving the long-term nuclear fuel supply problem. It considers in a general way issues such as proliferation, safety, environmental impacts, economics, power plant availability and fuel cycle versatility in order to determine whether thermal breeder reactors offer advantages or disadvantages with respect to such issues

  4. Correlations among behavior, performance and environment in broiler breeders using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Pereira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare issues have received much attention not only to supply farmed animal requirements, but also to ethical and cultural public concerns. Daily collected information, as well as the systematic follow-up of production stages, produces important statistical data for production assessment and control, as well as for improvement possibilities. In this scenario, this research study analyzed behavioral, production, and environmental data using Main Component Multivariable Analysis, which correlated observed behaviors, recorded using video cameras and electronic identification, with performance parameters of female broiler breeders. The aim was to start building a system to support decision-making in broiler breeder housing, based on bird behavioral parameters. Birds were housed in an environmental chamber, with three pens with different controlled environments. Bird sensitivity to environmental conditions were indicated by their behaviors, stressing the importance of behavioral observations for modern poultry management. A strong association between performance parameters and the behavior "at the nest", suggesting that this behavior may be used to predict productivity. The behaviors of "ruffling feathers", "opening wings", "preening", and "at the drinker" were negatively correlated with environmental temperature, suggesting that the increase of in the frequency of these behaviors indicate improvement of thermal welfare.

  5. Morphological divergence of breeders and helpers in wild Damaraland mole-rat societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew J; Bennett, Nigel C

    2010-11-01

    The specialization of body shape to an individual's role within society represents a pinnacle of social evolution. Although commonplace among social insects, divergence in the body shapes of breeders and helpers has to date been documented in just one social vertebrate, the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber; an extraordinary species in which large colony size and frequent inbreeding may have favored the evolution of such specialization. Here, we present new evidence of morphological divergence between breeders and helpers in the Damaraland mole-rat, Fukomys damarensis; a much less socially extreme species that reflects an independent evolutionary origin of sociality. Using longitudinal data from wild populations, we show that dominant female Damaraland mole-rats, like many social insect queens, have a significantly more elongate body shape than subordinates. This difference arises not from a pre-existing difference in the body shapes of subordinates that do, and those that do not, become dominant, but from a modification to the growth trajectory of subordinates on dominance acquisition. Our findings reveal a wider role for morphological divergence within vertebrate societies and, as Damaraland mole-rats neither live in unusually large groups nor inbreed, suggest that circumstances favoring the evolution of such specializations may be more widespread among vertebrates than previously supposed. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Evaluation of Transtheoretical Model-Based Family Education Among Females of Zahedan (Southeast of Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalikhah, Tahereh; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Gholian Avval, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    It cannot be denied that many improvements in female and child health have been achieved worldwide through international family planning programs. More than half of the females (57%) with unintended pregnancy admitted that they had not used birth control the month before conception. The aim of this study was to promote family planning practice among females of Zahedan (southeast of Iran) through the transtheoretical model (TTM). The current quasi-experimental study was conducted on 96 eligible females, who were allocated either to the case or the control group and were selected from homes in the border of Zahedan city (southeast of Iran) during 2010. Convenience sampling by door-to-door visits was used for finding eligible cases. A TTM-based self-administrated family planning questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants in the intervention group received education in two groups, based on their stage of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and all groups were followed for three months. The result of the chi-square test did not show any significant difference in the stage of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance before education between the control and intervention groups (P = 0.55). After education, subjects in the intervention group moved forward through stage of change and got at least one step closer to the family planning behavior., with this change being significant (P education based on TTM. According to this study, the educational plan based on TTM was effective in changing knowledge, attitude, and practice and directing females towards taking action. Moreover, self-efficacy, perceived barriers and benefits are factors that affect the use of family planning methods.

  7. DeBeNe Test Facilities for Fast Breeder Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storz, R.

    1980-10-01

    This report gives an overview and a short description of the test facilities constructed and operated within the collaboration for fast breeder development in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. The facilities are grouped into Sodium Loops (Large Facilities and Laboratory Loops), Special Equipment including Hot Cells and Reprocessing, Test Facilities without Sodium, Zero Power Facilities and In-pile Loops including Irradiation Facilities

  8. Semen bacterial flora of Rhode Island Breeder cocks in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The semen used in this study was collected from 77 Rhode Island Breeder cocks reared in battery cages under intensive management from a private farm in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria using the back massage procedure, 27 of the 77 semen samples (35.1%) contained bacterial isolates. None of the samples grew fungi.

  9. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the response of broiler breeder hens to feeds supplemented with synthetic lysine and methionine when fed once or twice daily during peak production. Replacing intact protein with increasing amounts of free lysine and methionine, up to 2.3 g/kg feed, had no effect on feed intake, ...

  10. Overview of pool hydraulic design of Indian prototype fast breeder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) plays a critical role in the design of pool type reactors and becomes an increasingly popular tool, thanks to the advancements in computing technology. In this paper, thermal hydraulic characteristics of a fast breeder reactor, design limits and challenging thermal hydraulic investigations ...

  11. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, Anja B.; Jong, de Ingrid; Weerd, van de Heleen A.; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of

  12. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two basal feeds (118 and 175 g protein/kg) with similar balanced amino acid mixtures were appropriately blended to produce six experimental diets differing in protein. These were fed for six weeks to 180 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) housed in individual cages from 26 w of age. A 13 h photoperiod was applied. Half the ...

  13. Conceptual design study for a mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinhua; Deng Boquan; Li Guiqing

    1986-01-01

    A mirror fusion breeder, CHD, has been designed for providing plenty of nuclear fuel for light water reactors to meet the needs for rapid development of nuclear power in the first half of next century. The breeder is able to support the nuclear fuel needs for more than 10 LWRs of equal scale in power with fuel enriched directly in CHD without reprocessing. Measures are taken to flatten the power density distribution in the blanket so that fission is suppressed in the region close to the plasma, and by this way fuel production is enhanced for this direct enriched fusion breeder. In order to reduce the MHD pressure drop, LiPb flows in the blanket axially. Though the tritium inventory in the reactor is very low, special material and design have to be developed to reduce the permeation of tritium through the coolant pipes. The cost of electricity from the system, consisting of 11 LWR plants and one fusion breeder is predicted to be 1.05 times of that from a traditional LWR plant. This figure is insensitive both to the cost of CHD and its support ratio

  14. Design of the fast breeder reactor single wall inner vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terny, P.; Blaix, J.C.; Del Beccaro, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a fast breeder reactor single wall inner vessel. It describes first the studies that led to the optimization of the structure geometry with respect to stability behavior, and subsequently the analyses required to justify the equipment with respect to risks of fatigue, creep and progressive deformation. (orig.)

  15. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry

  16. Thermal analysis of biological shield of fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, D.; Sarda, V.

    1976-01-01

    A design optimisation of the biological shield of fast breeder test reactor was carried out using computer code HEATING. The effect of different heat sources, variation of coolant tube pitch circle radius, coolant temperature, angular pitch of coolant tubes and thermal conductivity of concrete on the temperature distribution within the shield has been studied. (author)

  17. Vaccination Strategies in Breeder and Commercial Farms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreaks have persisted despite routine vaccination. In a quest to determine some of the causes of the vaccination failures, the type of vaccines, vaccination schedules and seromonitoring for antibodies in breeder and commercial farms were investigated using structured ...

  18. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, T. [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, JAEA, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura (Japan); Ochiai, K. [Fusion Neutronics Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, JAEA, Tokai-mura (Japan); Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y. [Tritium Technology Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, JAEA, Tokai-mura (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  19. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the FBR closed fuel cycle, possibility of multi-recycle has been recognized. In the present study, Pu-239 equivalence approach is used to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving near constant input inventory of Pu and near stable Pu isotopic composition after a few recycles of the same fuel of the prototype fast breeder ...

  20. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a 233 U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed

  1. Development of fuels and structural materials for fast breeder reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fast breeder reactors (FBRs) are destined to play a crucial role inthe Indian nuclear power programme in the foreseeable future. FBR technology involves a multi-disciplinary approach to solve the various challenges in the areas of fuel and materials development. Fuels for FBRs have significantly higher concentration of ...

  2. Symposium on key questions about the fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Except for several introductions on various aspects of the fast breeder reactor development this paper contains the full texts of the discussions held in the sub-groups panels on resp. technical matters, environment and health, society, politics and economics. The main issues of each discussion are summarized

  3. Abrupt or gradual increases in photoperiod for broiler breeders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dunni

    age at sexual maturity, total egg production, egg mass output, mean egg weight to or body weight at 60 weeks. However, the birds given a single abrupt increment had a higher peak rate of lay whilst those given a gradual increase in daylength had better egg production at the end of the laying cycle. Broiler breeders.

  4. Development of fuels and structural materials for fast breeder reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    technology for the energy security of India in the 21st century. Keywords. Fast breeder reactor .... The design of the nuclear fuel is an important aspect which has to be optimised for efficient, economic and safe ..... Recycling of plutonium present in the irradiated fuel with minimum delay is important to ensure rapid growth of ...

  5. Core catcher cooling for a gas-cooled fast breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Schretzmann, K.

    1976-01-01

    Water, molten salts, and liquid metals are under discussion as coolants for the core catcher of a gas-cooled fast breeder. The authors state that there is still no technically mature method of cooling a core melt. However, the investigations carried out so far suggest that there is a solution to this problem. (RW/AK) [de

  6. Response of Japanese Breeder Quails to Varying Dietary Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three months feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of feeding varying levels of dietary protein on productive performance, egg quality characteristics and hatchability using 930 six weeks breeders quails. The birds were randomly divided into five dietary treatment groups of 186 birds, and were further replicated ...

  7. How Confident Can We Be in Modelling Female Swimming Performance in Adolescence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilo J. Dormehl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the expected progression of adolescent female swimming performances using a longitudinal approach. The performances of 514 female swimmers (12–19 year olds who participated in one or more FINA-regulated annual international schools’ swimming championships over an eight-year period were analysed. Quadratic functions for each of the seven individual events (50, 100, 200 m freestyle, 100 m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, 200 m individual medley were determined using mixed linear models. The predicted threshold of peak performance ranged from 16.8 ± 0.2 (200 m individual medley to 20.6 ± 0.1 (100 m butterfly years of age, preceded by gradual rates of improvement (mean rate of 1.6% per year. However, following cross validation, only three events (100 m backstroke, 200 m individual medley and 200 m freestyle produced reliable models. Identifying the factors that contribute to the progression of female performance in this transitory period of life remains challenging, not least since the onset of puberty is likely to have occurred prior to reaching 12 years of age, the minimum competition age for this championship.

  8. An evaluation of high-risk behaviors among female drug users based on Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilika, F; Jamshidimanesh, M; Hoseini, M; Saffari, M; Peyravi, H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Because of the physiological nature of the female reproductive system, women are susceptible to infectious diseases, especially STD and AIDS. Addiction and high-risk behaviors also grow danger of these diseases. The reason of this paper was to examine high-risk behaviors among female drug users based on the Health Belief Model. Methods. Participants of this study were 106 female drug users aged 18 years and older; by the undermost level of literacy skills and been involved in sexual relationships. They came to Drop-In-Centers (DIC) in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Data study was controlled by using a logistic reflux investigation and Pearson correlation analysis. Results. The conclusion showed that women's overall awareness was moderate. There were a considerable relationship among awareness and years old (p=0.006), awareness and education (p> 0.0001), and awareness and conjugal situation (p=0.062). Perceived sensitivity and severity were clearly compared by education level (p=0.007) and (p=0.014), respectively. Mean scores of perceived benefits and perceived severity of high-risk behaviors were estimated to be superior to other components. Conclusion. Awareness and perceived susceptibility must be raised regarding the educational schedule, which is according to the health belief model in the addiction field, to reduce perceived barriers to risky behavior prevention of women who use drugs.

  9. Application of a social cognitive model in explaining physical activity in Iranian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymoori, P; Rhodes, R E; Berry, T R

    2010-04-01

    Adolescent Iranian girls are at high risk for physical inactivity due to cultural barriers such as restrictions regarding exercising in public and research is needed to explore ethnic and gender-related factors associated with physical activity (PA) participation. Using social cognitive theory as the guiding model, the purpose of this study was to test the fit and strength of barriers self-efficacy, outcome expectations, self-regulation and social support in explaining PA in female Iranian adolescents (n = 558). Using path analysis, social support was modeled as an antecedent of self-efficacy and outcome expectations, while self-efficacy was modeled as an antecedent of outcome expectations, self-regulatory planning and PA. Outcome expectations and self-regulatory planning were subsequently modeled as additional antecedents of PA. The model explained 52% of the variance in PA. The two significant (P < 0.05) direct effects were from self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Social support from mothers, fathers and friends had significant indirect effects on PA through self-efficacy. These results will allow for future research and interventions not only for female Iranian adolescents but also for similar cultural and immigrant groups that have been neglected to date in the PA literature.

  10. European in-pile investigations on fast breeder reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, J.; Penet, F.; Teague, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the difficulties faced by the various organisations responsible for the design and safety analysis of fast reactors, in the conception and execution of perfectly representative experiments corresponding to the various hypothetical accidents considered, the European experts in this field have chosen to adopt a more fundamental approach. By the coordination of the efforts in the different countries and pooling the results, it appears that sufficient data can be assembled to permit them to: isolate the influence of the principle parameters on the course of an accident and to have an appreciation of the possibilities for detection and propagation; and validate calculational models of the essential phenomena, and determine the values of the adjustable parameters used in accident codes. The present paper does not propose to give an exhaustive description of the European experimental programmes, nor of the possibilities for exploiting the results in safety analysis. The aim is simply to show with the aid of results already obtained or expected from the immediate programme, that it should be possible to answer certain fundamental questions concerning those accidents at present considered most important. Particular consideration is given to local blockages (SCARABEE, DFR and MOL 7C programmes), unprotected loss of pumps leading to cooling failure, and inlet blockage (SCARABEE and CABRI), and reactivity excursions (CABRI and VIPER). In addition it is planned to study, as part of the SCARABEE programme, the long-term post-accident behaviour of fuel in some simple configurations. It is shown that these various results should lead to a great improvement in our understanding of the progress of the hypothetical accidents taken into account in the design of fast breeder reactors [fr

  11. Evaluating social defeat as a model for psychopathology in adult female rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Matia B

    2017-01-02

    Social conflict is a predominant stressor in humans and is associated with increased risk for developing psychological illnesses including depression and anxiety. Overwhelmingly, more women suffer from these disorders, which may be due to increased stress sensitivity. Like humans, rodents experience a myriad of physiological and behavioral sequelae due to prolonged stress exposure. Although the motivation for social conflict may differ between humans and rodents, female rodents may provide an opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms by which stress confers risk for psychopathology in women. Because most female rodents do not express spontaneous aggression, the majority of basic research examines the physiological and behavioral outcomes of social conflict in male rodents. However, there are instances where female rodents exhibit territorial (California mice and Syrian hamsters) and maternal aggression (rats, mice, and hamsters) creating a venue to examine sex differences in physiology and behavior in response to stress. While many studies rely upon nonsocial behavioral assays (e.g., elevated plus maze, forced swim test) to assess the impact of stress on emotionality, here we primarily focus on behavioral outcomes in social-based assays in rodents. This is critically important given that disruptions in social relationships can be a cause and consequence of neuropsychiatric diseases. Next, we briefly discuss how sex differences in the recruitment of neural circuitry and/or neurochemistry in response to stress may underlie sex differences in neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses. Finally, the translational value of females in rodent stress models and considerations regarding behavioral interpretations of these models are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [3D modeling of the female pelvis by Computer-Assisted Anatomical Dissection: Applications and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaya, V; Uhl, J-F; Lanore, A; Salachas, C; Samoyeau, T; Ngo, C; Bensaid, C; Cornou, C; Rossi, L; Douard, R; Bats, A-S; Lecuru, F; Delmas, V

    2016-05-01

    To achieve a 3D vectorial model of a female pelvis by Computer-Assisted Anatomical Dissection and to assess educationnal and surgical applications. From the database of "visible female" of Visible Human Project(®) (VHP) of the "national library of medicine" NLM (United States), we used 739 transverse anatomical slices of 0.33mm thickness going from L4 to the trochanters. The manual segmentation of each anatomical structures was done with Winsurf(®) software version 4.3. Each anatomical element was built as a separate vectorial object. The whole colored-rendered vectorial model with realistic textures was exported in 3Dpdf format to allow a real time interactive manipulation with Acrobat(®) pro version 11 software. Each element can be handled separately at any transparency, which allows an anatomical learning by systems: skeleton, pelvic organs, urogenital system, arterial and venous vascularization. This 3D anatomical model can be used as data bank to teach of the fundamental anatomy. This 3D vectorial model, realistic and interactive constitutes an efficient educational tool for the teaching of the anatomy of the pelvis. 3D printing of the pelvis is possible with the new printers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Fusion-fission hybrid as an alternative to the fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.; Hardie, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    This report compares the fusion-fission hybrid on the plutonium cycle with the classical fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle as a long-term nuclear energy source. For the purpose of comparison, the current light-water reactor once-through (LWR-OT) cycle was also analyzed. The methods and models used in this study were developed for use in a comparative analysis of conventional nuclear fuel cycles. Assessment areas considered in this study include economics, energy balance, proliferation resistance, technological status, public safety, and commercial viability. In every case the characteristics of all fuel cycle facilities were accounted for, rather than just those of the reactor

  14. The nuclear question at the start of the '80s: the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, R.; Svensson, B.

    1980-01-01

    The four newspaper articles and the letter cover the following matters: general introduction about breeder reactors and the situation in Swedish politics; visit to Dounreay to discuss breeder reactors (breeding, safety, plutonium production, radiation protection); PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed fuel; description of breeder reactors; efficiency in use of U-235; DFR and PFR; breeder reactors in Swedish politics (arguments for and against nuclear power in general, breeder reactors in particular); discussion of the future of nuclear power in Sweden. (U.K.)

  15. A Model of Female Sexual Desire: Internalized Working Models of Parent-Child Relationships and Sexual Body Self-Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasskaya, Eugenia; Rosario, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    The etiology of low female sexual desire, the most prevalent sexual complaint in women, is multi-determined, implicating biological and psychological factors, including women's early parent-child relationships and bodily self-representations. The current study evaluated a model that hypothesized that sexual body self-representations (sexual subjectivity, self-objectification, genital self-image) explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment, separation-individuation, parental identification) and sexual desire in heterosexual women. We recruited 614 young, heterosexual women (M = 25.5 years, SD = 4.63) through social media. The women completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used. The hypotheses were supported in that the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment and separation-individuation) and sexual desire was mediated by sexual body self-representations (sexual body esteem, self-objectification, genital self-image). However, parental identification was not related significantly to sexual body self-representations or sexual desire in the model. Current findings demonstrated that understanding female sexual desire necessitates considering women's internalized working models of early parent-child relationships and their experiences of their bodies in a sexual context. Treatment of low or absent desire in women would benefit from modalities that emphasize early parent-child relationships as well as interventions that foster mind-body integration.

  16. Bioenergetics model for estimating food requirements of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, S.R.; Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens use sea ice as a platform for resting, nursing, and accessing extensive benthic foraging grounds. The extent of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea has decreased substantially in recent decades, causing walruses to alter habitat use and activity patterns which could affect their energy requirements. We developed a bioenergetics model to estimate caloric demand of female walruses, accounting for maintenance, growth, activity (active in-water and hauled-out resting), molt, and reproductive costs. Estimates for non-reproductive females 0–12 yr old (65−810 kg) ranged from 16359 to 68960 kcal d−1 (74−257 kcal d−1 kg−1) for years with readily available sea ice for which we assumed animals spent 83% of their time in water. This translated into the energy content of 3200–5960 clams per day, equivalent to 7–8% and 14–9% of body mass per day for 5–12 and 2–4 yr olds, respectively. Estimated consumption rates of 12 yr old females were minimally affected by pregnancy, but lactation had a large impact, increasing consumption rates to 15% of body mass per day. Increasing the proportion of time in water to 93%, as might happen if walruses were required to spend more time foraging during ice-free periods, increased daily caloric demand by 6–7% for non-lactating females. We provide the first bioenergetics-based estimates of energy requirements for walruses and a first step towards establishing bioenergetic linkages between demography and prey requirements that can ultimately be used in predicting this population’s response to environmental change.

  17. Persistent Unresolved Inflammation in the Mecp2-308 Female Mutated Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder usually caused by mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. Several Mecp2 mutant mouse lines have been developed recapitulating part of the clinical features. In particular, Mecp2-308 female heterozygous mice, bearing a truncating mutation, are a validated model of the disease. While recent data suggest a role for inflammation in RTT, little information on the inflammatory status in murine models of the disease is available. Here, we investigated the inflammatory status by proteomic 2-DE/MALDI-ToF/ToF analyses in symptomatic Mecp2-308 female mice. Ten differentially expressed proteins were evidenced in the Mecp2-308 mutated plasma proteome. In particular, 5 positive acute-phase response (APR proteins increased (i.e., kininogen-1, alpha-fetoprotein, mannose-binding protein C, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and alpha-2-macroglobulin, and 3 negative APR reactants were decreased (i.e., serotransferrin, albumin, and apolipoprotein A1. CD5 antigen-like and vitamin D-binding protein, two proteins strictly related to inflammation, were also changed. These results indicate for the first time a persistent unresolved inflammation of unknown origin in the Mecp2-308 mouse model.

  18. Observations on Arthritis in Broiler Breeder Chickens Experimentally Infected with Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qin Gu§, Xue-Ying Hu§, Chang-Qing Xie1, Wan-Po Zhang, De-Hai Wang, Quan Zhou and Guo-Fu Cheng1*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of bacterial arthritis in broiler breeder chickens. In this study, we established a model of broiler breeder chicken arthritis inoculated with Staph. aureus isolated from a spontaneously occurring bacterial arthritis in chickens. We evaluated the model by bacteriology, serology, pathology, and immunology. The results showed that 2.5 × 109 cfu Staph. aureus injected into the right joint cavity can successfully induce a chicken arthritis model. The majority of the infected chickens suffered lameness and joint swelling at 3 days post-inoculation (DPI. The death peak time was on 7 DPI and the mortality rate was 51.1%. Staph. aureus can be continuously isolated from the blood and left joint synovial fluid of the infected chickens. Lesions found on the infected chickens consisted of swollen joints full of caseous exudates, cartilage injury, and synovial membrane thickening with infiltration of inflammatory cells. The center of the lesion contained many round bacterial cocci. With joint injury aggravation, intra-articular hyaluronic acid gradually decreased, and serum interleukin-6 became significantly higher compared with the control (P<0.01 from 3 DPI. The results indicated that the chicken models of Staph. aureus-mediated arthritis were successful, and can be used to gain a better understanding of the host-bacterium relationship.

  19. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nayak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. Result: The overall regression was significant (p<0.01 in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R2 value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on 5th week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH was significant (p<0.05 for 5th week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05 for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05 on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. Conclusion: The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling

  20. Under sodium ultrasonic viewing for Fast Breeder Reactors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpara, Eaglekumar G.; Patankar, V.H.; Vijayan Varier, N.

    2016-09-01

    Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR/FBR) are of two types: Loop type and Pool type. Many countries like USA, Japan, UK, Russia, China, France, Lithuania, Belgium, Korea, and India have worked extensively on these types of FBRs. FBRs are capable of breeding more fissionable fuel than it consumes like breeding of Plutonium-239 from non-fissionable Uranium-238. In FBR, heat is released by fission process and it must be captured and transferred to the electric generator by the liquid metal coolant (i.e. Sodium). Due to continuous operation and for safety and licensing reasons, periodic inspection and maintenance is required for reactor fuel assemblies which carry nuclear fuels. For this reason, under sodium ultrasonic imaging technique is adopted as in-service inspection activity for viewing of core of FBRs. Since liquid sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic technique is the only method which can be employed for imaging in liquid sodium. In harsh conditions like high temperature and high radiation, there is a restriction on the development of possible ultrasonic visualization systems and selection of the transducer materials which can operate in the core region of reactor at around 200 °C during shutdown of reactor. This report provides a review of works related to ultrasonic imaging in sodium, different materials used in high temperature transducer assemblies and their different coupling/bonding techniques to achieve maximum transmission efficiency in high temperature sodium environment. The report also provides the overview of different architectures and imaging methods of transducer array elements which were used in LMFBRs for inspection and visualization of the reactor core sub-assemblies. The report is focused on a review of some possible beam forming techniques which may be used for nuclear applications for high temperature environment. Published information of the different simulation models are also reviewed which can be adopted to simulate the

  1. Reactivity control system of a passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wols, F.J., E-mail: f.j.wols@tudelft.nl; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A worth of over 15,000 pcm ensures achieving long-term cold shutdown in thorium PBR. • Control rod worth in side reflector is insufficient due to low-power breeder zone. • 20 control rods, just outside the driver zone, can achieve long-term cold shutdown. • BF{sub 3} gas can be inserted for reactor shutdown, but only in case of emergency. • Perturbation theory accurately predicts absorber gas worth for many concentrations. - Abstract: This work investigates the neutronic design of the reactivity control system for a 100 MW{sub th} passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor (PBR), a conceptual design introduced previously by the authors. The thorium PBR consists of a central driver zone of 100 cm radius, surrounded by a breeder zone with 300 cm outer radius. The fissile content of the breeder zone is low, leading to low fluxes in the radial reflector region. Therefore, a significant decrease of the control rod worth at this position is anticipated. The reactivity worth of control rods in the side reflector and at alternative in-core positions is calculated using different techniques, being 2D neutron diffusion, perturbation theory and more accurate 3D Monte Carlo models. Sensitivity coefficients from perturbation theory provide a first indication of effective control rod positions, while the 2D diffusion models provide an upper limit on the reactivity worth achievable at a certain radial position due to the homogeneous spreading of the absorber material over the azimuthal domain. Three dimensional forward calculations, e.g. in KENO, are needed for an accurate calculation of the total control rod worth. The two dimensional homogeneous calculations indicate that the reactivity worth in the radial reflector is by far insufficient to achieve cold reactor shutdown, which requires a control rod worth of over 15 000 pcm. Three dimensional heterogeneous KENO calculations show that placing 20 control rods just outside the driver channel

  2. IAMBUS, a computer code for the design and performance prediction of fast breeder fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toebbe, H.

    1990-05-01

    IAMBUS is a computer code for the thermal and mechanical design, in-pile performance prediction and post-irradiation analysis of fast breeder fuel rods. The code deals with steady, non-steady and transient operating conditions and enables to predict in-pile behavior of fuel rods in power reactors as well as in experimental rigs. Great effort went into the development of a realistic account of non-steady fuel rod operating conditions. The main emphasis is placed on characterizing the mechanical interaction taking place between the cladding tube and the fuel as a result of contact pressure and friction forces, with due consideration of axial and radial crack configuration within the fuel as well as the gradual transition at the elastic/plastic interface in respect to fuel behavior. IAMBUS can be readily adapted to various fuel and cladding materials. The specific models and material correlations of the reference version deal with the actual in-pile behavior and physical properties of the KNK II and SNR 300 related fuel rod design, confirmed by comparison of the fuel performance model with post-irradiation data. The comparison comprises steady, non-steady and transient irradiation experiments within the German/Belgian fuel rod irradiation program. The code is further validated by comparison of model predictions with post-irradiation data of standard fuel and breeder rods of Phenix and PFR as well as selected LWR fuel rods in non-steady operating conditions

  3. Nutritional Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis in Female Students: Applying Health Belief Model (HBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOsteoporosis is one of the most important health problems and it is of great importance to prevent this disease. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis using health belief model in female students in Qom city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade female students in Qom city. The subjects were selected via multistage sampling method. To collect data, we used a standard questionnaire based on health belief model. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and ANOVA. ResultsKnowledge and perceived self-efficacy had a positive and significant relationship with nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis (P=0.04, r=0.12 and P=0.004, r=0.18, respectively. However, perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers had a negative and significant relationship with nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis (P=0.02, r=-0.14 and P

  4. Predictors of Oral Health Behaviors in Female Students: An Application of the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Rahnama, Parvin; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Behnood, Vahid

    2016-11-01

    Oral and dental health diseases can affect the general health of students. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of oral and dental health behavior using the health belief model (HBM) in female students in Teheran, Iran. This was a cross-sectional study framed by the HBM, including 400 female students living in district 5 of Tehran, Iran. The sampling technique used in this study was multi-stage stratified random sampling. The data on the HBM constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy) and demographic characteristics were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and linear regression were performed to analyze the data, using the SPSS software, version 18. The results showed that there were relationships between the knowledge, perceived barriers, cues to action, and mother's education with oral health behaviors. A multivariate hierarchical regression analysis was conducted with the barrier entered at step one, knowledge at step two, and cues to action at step three. Finally, the three variables accounted for 17% of the total variance in the oral and dental health behavior. The current study provided evidence for the utility of the belief-based model in the prediction of oral health behaviors. It could be suggested that oral health behavior can be promoted by reducing the perceived barriers and enhancing the students' knowledge of oral and dental hygiene.

  5. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for methylmercury in female American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.W.; Bennett, R.S.; Rossmann, R.; French, J.B.; Sappington, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury (CH 3Hg) in female American kestrels. The model consists of six tissue compartments corresponding to the brain, liver, kidney, gut, red blood cells, and remaining carcass. Additional compartments describe the elimination of CH3Hg to eggs and growing feathers. Dietary uptake of CH 3Hg was modeled as a diffusion-limited process, and the distribution of CH3Hg among compartments was assumed to be mediated by the flow of blood plasma. To the extent possible, model parameters were developed using information from American kestrels. Additional parameters were based on measured values for closely related species and allometric relationships for birds. The model was calibrated using data from dietary dosing studies with American kestrels. Good agreement between model simulations and measured CH3Hg concentrations in blood and tissues during the loading phase of these studies was obtained by fitting model parameters that control dietary uptake of CH 3Hg and possible hepatic demethylation. Modeled results tended to underestimate the observed effect of egg production on circulating levels of CH3Hg. In general, however, simulations were consistent with observed patterns of CH3Hg uptake and elimination in birds, including the dominant role of feather molt. This model could be used to extrapolate CH 3Hg kinetics from American kestrels to other bird species by appropriate reassignment of parameter values. Alternatively, when combined with a bioenergetics-based description, the model could be used to simulate CH 3Hg kinetics in a long-term environmental exposure. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  7. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor - Rev. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Gail Lynn; Mc Cardell, Richard Keith; Illum, Douglas Brent

    2002-09-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was developed by Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of a water-cooled, thorium oxide fuel cycle breeder reactor. The LWBR core operated from 1977-82 without major incident. The fuel and fuel components suffered minimal damage during operation, and the reactor testing was deemed successful. Extensive destructive and nondestructive postirradiation examinations confirmed that the fuel was in good condition with minimal amounts of cladding deformities and fuel pellet cracks. Fuel was placed in wet storage upon arrival at the Expended Core Facility, then dried and sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center for underground dry storage. It is likely that the fuel remains in good condition at its current underground dry storage location at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Reports show no indication of damage to the core associated with shipping, loading, or storage.

  8. TOR: reprocessing of fuel from fast-breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    There have been three stages in the development of the fast-breeder and three stages in fuel reprocessing development. An experimental stage where the cycle was closed with Rapsodie and the fast-breeder fuel processing workshop a La Hague. A demonstration stage -operation TOR- which made it possible to close the Phenix cycle. An industrial prototype stage on an industrial scale which will be achieved with the coming onstream of the Rapid Reprocessing Plant (PURR) (Usine de Retraitement Rapide). The research and construction were carried out in such a way that the move from one stage to another was achieved with the maximum amount of continuity with the benefit of all the experience achieved previously [fr

  9. Consideration on risk reduction of future breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossebrecker, H.

    1990-09-01

    An overall concept of risk minimization of future sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors is presented in this report. Since shutdown reliability is of vital importance for the breeder safety, a so-called third shutdown level is proposed in addition to the two independent fast shutdown systems. It is basically a group of passive and active measures, which are capable to bring the reactor to safe conditions in all conceivable accident-initiating events and in case of total failure of the two actual shutdown systems. Core disruptions as a result of shutdown failure are therefore beyond the scope of technical imagination. Measures are also foreseen to combat other conceivable causes of core disruption, in particular to achieve residual heat removal with essentially passive systems by making use of the good natural circulation capacity of sodium. On top of that, since absolute safety can never be claimed, damage-limiting containment measures are discussed

  10. Test reactor: basic to U.S. breeder reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.J.; Harness, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Long-range energy planning in the U. S. includes development of a national commercial breeder reactor program. U. S. development of the LMFBR is following a conservative sequence of extensive technology development through use of test reactors and demonstration plants prior to construction of commercial plants. Because materials and fuel technology development is considered the first vital step in this sequence, initial U. S. efforts have been directed to the design and construction of a unique test reactor. The Fast Flux Test Facility, FFTF, is a 400 MW(t) reactor with driver fuel locations, open test locations, and closed loops for higher risk experiments. The FFTF will provide a prototypic LMFBR core environment with sufficient instrumentation for detailed core environmental characterization and a testing capability substituted for breeder capability. The unique comprehensive fuel and materials testing capability of the FFTF will be key to achieving long-range objectives of increased power density, improved breeding gain and shorter doubling times. (auth)

  11. Fast breeder reactors: Experience and trends. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The IAEA Symposium on ''Fast Breeder Reactors: Experience and Future Trends'' was held, at the invitation of the Government of France, in Lyons, France, on 22-26 July 1985. It was hosted by the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique and Electricite de France. The purpose of the Symposium was to review the experience gained so far in the field of LMFBRs, taking into account the constructional, operational, technological, economic and fuel cycle aspects, and to consider the developmental trends as well as the international co-operation in fast breeder reactor design and utilization. The Symposium was attended by almost 400 participants (340 participants, 35 observers and 20 journalists) from 25 countries and five international organizations. More than 80 papers were presented and discussed during six regular sessions and four poster sessions. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  12. Project of a binary breeder reactor and its inherent safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.A. do; Dias, A.F.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A core layout for the binary breeder reactor (BBR) is developed based on the results of preliminary burnup calculations. The apparent breeding ratio, in the U 233 /Th fueled inner core, is low due to the accumulation of Pa-233 in the first few months of operation. The loss of reactivity during this time is around 3%. The BBR requires more reactivity control than Pu/U-fueled LMFBRs and the core layout developed has 19 control rod assemblies in the inner core. Three aspects related to the inherent safety of the Binary Breeder Reactor have been studied: the radial distribution of the sodium-void reactivity zone-wise Doppler reactivity and the fractions of delayed neutrons. The results show excellent characteristics for the BRB safety. (Author) [pt

  13. Feasibility study on the thorium fueled boiling water breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PetrusTakaki, N.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of (Th,U)O 2 fueled, boiling water breeder reactor based on conventional BWR technology has been studied. In order to determine the potential use of water cooled thorium reactor as a competitive breeder, this study evaluated criticality, breeding and void reactivity coefficient in response to changes made in MFR and fissile enrichments. The result of the study shows that while using light water as moderator, low moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR=0.5), it was possible to breed fissile fuel in negative void reactivity condition. However the burnup value was lower than the value of the current LWR. On the other hand, heavy water cooled reactor shows relatively wider feasible breeding region, which lead into possibility of designing a core having better neutronic and economic performance than light water with negative void reactivity coefficient. (authors)

  14. Filbe molten salt research for tritium breeder applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Petti, D.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Flibe (2Lif·BeF 2 ) molten salt research activities conducted at the INEEL as part of the Japan-US JUPITER-II joint research program. The research focuses on tritium/chemistry issues for self-cooled Flibe tritium breeder applications and includes the following activities: (1) Flibe preparation, purification, characterization and handling, (2) development and testing of REDOX strategies for containment material corrosion control, (3) tritium behavior and management in Flibe breeder systems, and (4) safety testing (e.g., mobilization of Flibe during accident scenarios). This paper describes the laboratory systems developed to support these research activities and summarizes key results of this work to date. (author)

  15. Conceptual Model of Weight Management in Overweight and Obese African-American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Suzanne M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Nemeth, Lynne S; Jenkins, Carolyn M

    2017-04-01

    Weight management of overweight and obese (OWO) African-American females (AAFs) is a poorly defined concept, leading to ineffective treatment of overweight and obesity, prevention of health sequelae, and risk reduction. A conceptual model of the phenomenon of weight management in OWO AAFs was developed through dimensional analysis of the literature. Constructs were identified and sorted into the dimensions of perspective, context, conditions, process, and consequences and integrated into an explanatory matrix. Through dimensional analysis, weight management in OWO AAFs was characterized as a multidimensional concept, defined from the perspective of weight loss in community-dwelling AAFs. Behaviors associated with weight management are strongly influenced by intrinsic factors and extrinsic conditions, which influence engagement in the processes and consequences of weight management. The resulting conceptual model of weight management in OWO AAFs provides a framework for research interventions applicable in a variety of settings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alejandro Bonaterra

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS, we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice.Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4 °C/room temperature [22 °C]; mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen-cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy.In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA, which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%-, MuRF+ (14.7%-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm(2 of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice.The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or delayed. The sex-specificity of

  17. The influence of female social models in corporate STEM initiatives on girls' math and science attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task

  18. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The twenty-second Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors took place in Vienna, 18-21 April 1989. Nineteen representatives from twelve Member States and International Organizations attended the Meeting. This publication is a collection of presentations in which the participants reported the status of their national programmes on fast breeder reactors. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the twelve papers from this collections. Refs, figs, tabs and 1 graph

  19. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The present document contains information on the status of fast breeder reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1990 as reported at the 24th meeting of the IWGFR in Tsuruga, Japan, 15-18 April 1991. The publication is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFBR development in IAEA Member States and CEC. Figs and tabs

  20. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The present document contains information on the status of fast breeder reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1989 as reported at the 23rd meeting of the IWGFR in Vienna, April 1990. The publication is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFBR development in IAEA Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 11 papers presented by the participants of this meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Remote fabrication of pellet fuels for United States breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, R.E.; Nyman, D.H.; Yatabe, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Goal of the program is to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating breeder fuel in a remotely operated and maintained mode by 1985. Development for pellet fuel fabrication is in the engineering stage with much of the equipment for ceramic unit operations in final design or currently under testing. Results to date confirm that remote fabrication of pellet fuels is feasible. Several of the processes and equipment items are described in this report

  2. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Gunther, E.

    1987-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and ''Li 6 SiO 5 '' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented

  3. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Guenther, E.

    1986-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and 'Li 6 SiO 5 ' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented. (author)

  4. Fast breeder reactors: can we learn from experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1981-01-01

    An economic analysis of FBRs, in particular the long-term benefits to be expected, with reference to the experience of the West German fast breeder reactor programme suggests ways of bringing more realism into governmental decisions on the development of new reactor types. It is suggested that if reactor manufacturers and utilities financed commercial-size demonstration plants from their own funds, then the government would get more realistic advice. (U.K.)

  5. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions.

  6. Philosophy of safety evaluation on fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is the report submitted from the special subcommittee on reactor safety standard to the Nuclear Safety Commission on October 14, 1980, and it was decided to temporarily apply this concept to the safety examination on fast breeder reactors. The examination and discussion of this report were performed by taking the prototype reactor ''Monju'' into consideration, which is to be the present target, referring to the philosophy of the safety evaluation on fast breeder reactors in foreign countries and based on the experiences in the fast experimental reactor ''Joyo''. The items applicable to the safety evaluation for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) as they are among the existing safety examination guidelines are applied. In addition to the existing guidelines, the report describes the matters to be considered specifically for core, fuel, sodium, sodium void, reactor shut-down system, reactor coolant boundary, cover gas boundary and others, intermediate cooling system, removal of decay heat, containment vessels, high temperature structures, and aseismatic property in the safety design of LMFBR's. For the safety evaluation for LMFBR's, the abnormal transient changes in operation and the phenomena to be evaluated as accidents are enumerated. In order to judge the propriety of the criteria of locating LMFBR facilities, the serious and hypothetical accidents are decided to be evaluated in accordance with the guideline for reactor location investigation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Present status of the Liquid Breeder Validation Module for IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, Natalia, E-mail: natalia.casal@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mas, Avelino; Mota, Fernando; García, Ángela; Rapisarda, David [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nomen, Oriol [Institut de Recerca en Energia de Catalunya (IREC), Barcelona (Spain); Centre de Disseny d’Equips Industrials (CDEI), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Arroyo, Jose Manuel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abal, Javier [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The LBVM will be used to perform irradiation experiments on functional materials for fusion reactors. • It houses 16 experimental rigs, each one containing a EUROFER capsule partially filled with lithium lead, at 300–550 °C. • A helium purge gas will sweep the tritium permeated through the capsule walls to a tritium measuring station. • A helium cooling system will keep tritium diffusion within safe margins and guarantee its mechanical integrity. • Thermal hydraulic and mechanical calculations, the module instrumentation and aspects as safety or RAMI are presented. -- Abstract: One of the objectives of IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), as stated in its specifications, is the validation of breeder blanket concepts for DEMO design. The so-called Liquid Breeder Validation Module (LBVM) will be used in IFMIF to perform experiments under irradiation on functional materials related to liquid breeder concepts for future fusion reactors. This module, not considered in previous IFMIF design phases, is currently under design by CIEMAT in the framework of the IFMIF/EVEDA project. In this paper, the present status of the design of the LBVM is presented.

  8. THE MODEL CHARACTERISTICS OF JUMP ACTIONS STRUCTURE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stech M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop generalized and individual models of the jump actions of skilled female volleyball players. The main prerequisite for the development of the jump actions models were the results of our earlier studies of factor structure of jump actions of 10 sportswomen of the Polish volleyball team "Gedania" (Premier League in the preparatory and competitive periods of the annual cycle of preparation. The athletes age was 22.0 +- 2.9 years, the sports experience - 8.1 +- 3.1 years, body height - 181.9 +- 8.4 years and body weight - 72.8 +- 10.8 kg. Mathematical and statistical processing of the data (the definition of M ± SD and significant differences between the samples was performed using a standard computer program "STATISTICA 7,0". Based on the analysis of the factor structure of 20 jump actions of skilled women volleyball players determined to within 5 of the most informative indexes and their tentative values recommended for the formation of a generalized model of this structure. Comparison of individual models of jump actions of skilled women volleyball players with their generalized models in different periods of preparation can be used for the rational choice of means and methods for the increasing of the training process efficiency.

  9. Environmental and Individual Determinants of Female Entrepreneurship in Algeria: Applying the Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrezzak BENHABIB

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the seminal work of Fishbein and Ajzen (1975, we try  to clarify  how  individual  and  environment  factors  influence  the students’  attitudes towards Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Intention. After a short review of literature, we present the results of an empirical study conducted among a sample of 290 final year students by using a structural  equation  modeling  validated  through  the  use  of  a  two-stage  analysis  of Anderson  and  Gerbing  (1988  and  a  factorial  confirmatory  analysis  and  a measurement adjustment (Hair et al.1998. Attitude driven from individual variables is negative while that derived from environmental  variables  is  positive.  Our  results  show  furthermore,  that  the  role  of media and institutions is still Limited and needs redeployment. Woman is now recognized as one of the  sources of  economic  growth  (Arasti  2008.  Although  female  entrepreneurship  is  attracting more and more researchers, it is still considered as an understudied field of research (De Bruin et al.2006, 2007; Brush, De Bruin, & Welter, 2009. Research  on  female  entrepreneurship  has  intensified since  the  early  80s,  but  few  have  explored  the  influence  of  environmental  and individual factors related to female entrepreneurship.

  10. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinsu; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Utilizing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle shows considerable potential for the possibility of MSR. The concept of MSBR should be revised because of molten salt reactor's advantage such as outstanding neutron economy, possibility of continuous online reprocessing and refueling, a high level of inherent safety, and economic benefit by keeping off the fuel fabrication process. For the development of MSR research, this paper provides the MSBR single-cell, two-cell and whole core model for computer code input, and several calculation results including depletion calculation of each models. The calculations are carried out by using MCNP6, a Monte Carlo computer code, which has CINDER90 for depletion calculation using ENDF-VII nuclear data. From the calculation results of various reactor design parameters, the temperature coefficients are all negative at the initial state and MTC becomes positive at the equilibrium state. From the results of core rod worth, the graphite control rod alone cannot makes the core subcritical at initial state. But the equilibrium state, the core can be made subcritical state only by graphite control rods. Through the comparison of the results of each models, the two-cell method can represent the MSBR core model more accurately with a little more computational resources than the single-cell method. Many of the thermal spectrum MSR have adopted a multi-region single-fluid strategy.

  11. Sex ratio at birth and age-reversed dominance among female Varecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Frances J

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 283 offspring born at the Duke University Primate Center show that young female ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, produce significantly more daughters, whereas old mothers produce more sons than expected. Data are compared to 3 hypotheses for sex ratio bias: the Trivers-Willard hypothesis which predicts that dominant females produce more males, the local resource competition (LRC) hypothesis which predicts that subordinate females produce more males, and the local resource enhancement (LRE) extension of the LRC hypothesis that females produce the sex that provides later cooperative benefits. In the case of Varecia, this may include alloparenting or cooperative breeding. The results are more consistent with the LRC model. However, observations of 8 mother-daughter relationships show that female dominance rank in free-ranging Varecia groups is age reversed, with daughters aggressively outranking their mothers. Daughters born into the group were not beneficial as future supporters in within-group intermatriline competition as assumed by the LRE model, or as subordinate alloparents, cooperative breeders or aids in territorial defense. Both sex ratio and ranking observations are consistent, however, with the hypothesis that mothers produce daughters when they are young and able to invade elsewhere and sons as they age and are less able to do so. This is supported by a single observation of a mother dispersing which resulted in her daughter inheriting the natal territory. These data are supportive of the LRE model with female alliances and cooperative breeding among dispersed females. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A Developmental-Contextual Model of Depressive Symptoms in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.

    2011-01-01

    The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564

  13. Modelling of Soft Connective Tissues to Investigate Female Pelvic Floor Dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroj Bhattarai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After menopause, decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone remodel the collagen of the soft tissues thereby reducing their stiffness. Stress urinary incontinence is associated with involuntary urine leakage due to pathological movement of the pelvic organs resulting from lax suspension system, fasciae, and ligaments. This study compares the changes in the orientation and position of the female pelvic organs due to weakened fasciae, ligaments, and their combined laxity. A mixture theory weighted by respective volume fraction of elastin-collagen fibre compound (5%, adipose tissue (85%, and smooth muscle (5% is adopted to characterize the mechanical behaviour of the fascia. The load carrying response (other than the functional response to the pelvic organs of each fascia component, pelvic organs, muscles, and ligaments are assumed to be isotropic, hyperelastic, and incompressible. Finite element simulations are conducted during Valsalva manoeuvre with weakened tissues modelled by reduced tissue stiffness. A significant dislocation of the urethrovesical junction is observed due to weakness of the fascia (13.89 mm compared to the ligaments (5.47 mm. The dynamics of the pelvic floor observed in this study during Valsalva manoeuvre is associated with urethral-bladder hypermobility, greater levator plate angulation, and positive Q-tip test which are observed in incontinent females.

  14. Deficient Purposeful Use of Forepaws in Female Mice Modelling Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca De Filippis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioural and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2 cause more than 95% of classic cases. Motor abnormalities represent a significant part of the spectrum of RTT symptoms. In the present study we investigated motor coordination and fine motor skill domains in MeCP2-308 female mice, a validated RTT model. This was complemented by the in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS analysis of metabolic profile in behaviourally relevant brain areas. MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice (Het, 10-12 months of age were impaired in tasks validated for the assessment of purposeful and coordinated forepaw use (Morag test and Capellini handling task. A fine-grain analysis of spontaneous behaviour in the home-cage also revealed an abnormal handling pattern when interacting with the nesting material, reduced motivation to explore the environment, and increased time devoted to feeding in Het mice. The brain MRS evaluation highlighted decreased levels of bioenergetic metabolites in the striatal area in Het mice compared to controls. Present results confirm behavioural and brain alterations previously reported in MeCP2-308 males and identify novel endpoints on which the efficacy of innovative therapeutic strategies for RTT may be tested.

  15. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R; Clark, J; Levand, A; Palchan, T; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for (23)Na(7+), 17.9% for (39)K(10+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 12.4% for (133)Cs(27+). For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times-the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  17. Safety of fluralaner oral solution, a novel systemic poultry red mite treatment, for chicken breeders' reproductive performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Bruno; Le Traon, Gaelle; Flochlay-Sigognault, Annie

    2017-10-31

    Poultry mites are the most significant pest affecting production systems in the chicken egg-laying industry, altering the health condition of the birds, and causing stress, mortality and decline of egg quality impacting economic performance. Fluralaner is a novel systemic parasiticide that is effective against poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in chickens after oral administration. The evaluation of the safety of this new product in breeder chickens is particularly relevant because poultry mite infestation affects long cycle production systems, such as layers and breeders farms, for which the productivity heavily depends on the health of the reproductive function. This study was designed to investigate the safety for reproductive performances of fluralaner in male and female chickens at 3 times the recommended dose (1.5 instead of 0.5 mg/kg body weight) and 2 times the recommended duration (4 administrations instead of 2 administrations, with a 7 day interval between administrations). This randomized, parallel-group, blinded study included 432 Bovans brown parent stock chickens (48 males and 384 females, 17-week old). Birds were randomly assigned to 16 pens (three males and 24 females per pen), and then each pen assigned to one of the two treatment groups (8 pens, i.e. 216 birds per group). Fluralaner was administered via drinking water on a total of four occasions 7 days apart, at daily doses of 1.5 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 3 times the recommended dose of fluralaner per administration and 2 times the recommended number of administrations. Birds supplied with non-medicated drinking water served as controls. The treatments were given at time of peak egg production in the bird's life: i.e. at 30 to 34 week of age. During that period, all adult chickens were clinically observed. The reproductive performances were carefully monitored including the number of eggs laid, egg weight, fertility and hatchability

  18. Inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the diet of broiler breeders on performance and incubation parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Duarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on the production and reproductive performances of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aged 53 to 61 weeks. The study included 36,000 Cobb 500 female and 3,600 male broiler breeders aging 51 weeks. The birds were housed in three poultry houses divided into four plots, totaling 12 experimental units each containing 3,000 females and 300 males. The birds received the following treatments: control diet (without the studied additives or the control diet with the addition of 60mg kg-1feed of 25-(OH-D3 and canthaxanthin feed (6mg of canthaxanthin and 2,760,000IU of 25-(OH-D3 per kg of feed per the supplier's recommendations. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design with two treatments and six replicates. The results were subjected to analysis of variance followed by the F-test. The treatments had no effect on egg production, usability of eggs and number of incubatable eggs per bird housed. The inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-(OH-D3 in the diet reduced embryonic mortality while increasing egg yolk pigmentation, hatching percentage, and number of viable chicks produced per bird. Therefore, the use of 60mg kg-1of 25-(OH-D3 plus canthaxanthin is recommended in the diet of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aging 53 to 61 weeks to improve important reproductive traits that have great economic impacts on poultry farms

  19. Violence, stigma and mental health among female sex workers in China: A structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Xu, Jinping; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China, and it is significantly associated with mental health problems among FSWs. However, limited studies have explored the mechanisms/process by which violence affects mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among partner violence, internalized stigma, and mental health problems among FSWs. Data were collected using a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered to 1,022 FSWs in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), China during 2008-2009. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that violence perpetrated by either stable sexual partners or clients was directly and positively associated with mental health problems. Violence also had an indirect relation to mental health problems through stigma. Results highlight the need for interventions on counseling and care for FSWs who have experienced violence and for interventions to increase FSWs' coping skills and empowerment strategies.

  20. Global dynamics of a PDE model for aedes aegypti mosquitoe incorporating female sexual preference

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, Rana

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the long time dynamics of a reaction diffusion system, describing the spread of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are the primary cause of dengue infection. The system incorporates a control attempt via the sterile insect technique. The model incorporates female mosquitoes sexual preference for wild males over sterile males. We show global existence of strong solution for the system. We then derive uniform estimates to prove the existence of a global attractor in L-2(Omega), for the system. The attractor is shown to be L-infinity(Omega) regular and posess state of extinction, if the injection of sterile males is large enough. We also provide upper bounds on the Hausdorff and fractal dimensions of the attractor.

  1. Training experience at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.; McCormick, R.P.; McCreery, H.I.

    1978-01-01

    The EBR-II Training Group develops, maintains,and oversees training programs and activities associated with the EBR-II Project. The group originally spent all its time on EBR-II plant-operations training, but has gradually spread its work into other areas. These other areas of training now include mechanical maintenance, fuel manufacturing facility, instrumentation and control, fissile fuel handling, and emergency activities. This report describes each of the programs and gives a statistical breakdown of the time spent by the Training Group for each program. The major training programs for the EBR-II Project are presented by multimedia methods at a pace controlled by the student. The Training Group has much experience in the use of audio-visual techniques and equipment, including video-tapes, 35 mm slides, Super 8 and 16 mm film, models, and filmstrips. The effectiveness of these techniques is evaluated in this report

  2. Fission gas pressure build-up and fast-breeder economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, P.

    1962-01-01

    Fuel-cycle costs and doubling time of fast-breeder reactors are strongly affected by the fuel-burn-up obtainable. Use of oxide or carbide fuel offers the possibility of reaching a burn-up of 100 000 MWd/t. In fuel-clad elements, a limiting factor is the fission-gas-pressure build-up. At the high burn-up considered, an appreciable fraction of the fission gases gets into the pores and thus contributes to the pressure on the can. Starting from the known fission-product yields and decay chains, gas production and pressure build-up have been calculated. Three physical models have been employed in calculating the pressure acting upon the can : the gas is contained either in interconnected pores, in separate pores, or in a central hole. The pressure-dependence upon free volume (fuel density) and temperature will be discussed. Cans made of high-strength materials as Ineonel-X and molybdenum could stand the fission-gas pressure at operating temperatures. Unfortunately, these materials have higher absorption cross-sections than stainless steel. Results of a multi-group calculation are given, showing the effect of using these can materials and of decreasing the fuel density on critical mass and breeding ratio in small and medium-size breeders. (author) [fr

  3. Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response (SCAR): A Model of Sexual Trauma that Disrupts Maternal Learning and Plasticity in the Female Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J; Tobόn, Krishna; DiFeo, Gina; Durham, Demetrius M; Chang, Han Yan M

    2016-01-25

    Sexual aggression can disrupt processes related to learning as females emerge from puberty into young adulthood. To model these experiences in laboratory studies, we developed SCAR, which stands for Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response. During puberty, a rodent female is paired daily for 30-min with a sexually-experienced adult male. During the SCAR experience, the male tracks the anogenital region of the female as she escapes from pins. Concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone were significantly elevated during and after the experience. Moreover, females that were exposed to the adult male throughout puberty did not perform well during training with an associative learning task nor did they learn well to express maternal behaviors during maternal sensitization. Most females that were exposed to the adult male did not learn to care for offspring over the course of 17 days. Finally, females that did not express maternal behaviors retained fewer newly-generated cells in their hippocampus whereas those that did express maternal behaviors retained more cells, most of which would differentiate into neurons within weeks. Together these data support SCAR as a useful laboratory model for studying the potential consequences of sexual aggression and trauma for the female brain during puberty and young adulthood.

  4. Multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Dunn, James E.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1993-01-01

    Simple univariate statistical techniques may not adequately assess the multidimensional nature of habitats used by wildlife. Thus, we developed a multivariate method to model habitat-use potential using a set of female black bear (Ursus americanus) radio locations and habitat data consisting of forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to roads, distance to streams, and forest cover type diversity score in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. The model is based on the Mahalanobis distance statistic coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. That statistic is a measure of dissimilarity and represents a standardized squared distance between a set of sample variates and an ideal based on the mean of variates associated with animal observations. Calculations were made with the GIS to produce a map containing Mahalanobis distance values within each cell on a 60- × 60-m grid. The model identified areas of high habitat use potential that could not otherwise be identified by independent perusal of any single map layer. This technique avoids many pitfalls that commonly affect typical multivariate analyses of habitat use and is a useful tool for habitat manipulation or mitigation to favor terrestrial vertebrates that use habitats on a landscape scale.

  5. The reasoned/reactive model: A new approach to examining eating decisions among female college dieters and nondieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Holly; Holub, Shayla C; Dolan, Elaine A

    2016-12-01

    Female college students are prone to unhealthy eating patterns that can impact long-term health. This study examined female students' healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors with three decision-making models. Specifically, the theory of reasoned action, prototype/willingness model, and new reasoned/reactive model were compared to determine how reasoned (logical) and reactive (impulsive) factors relate to dietary decisions. Females (N=583, M age =20.89years) completed measures on reasoned cognitions about foods (attitudes, subjective norms, nutrition knowledge, intentions to eat foods), reactive cognitions about foods (prototypes, affect, willingness to eat foods), dieting, and food consumption. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed the new reasoned/reactive model to be the preeminent model for examining eating behaviors. This model showed that attitudes were related to intentions and willingness to eat healthy and unhealthy foods. Affect was related to willingness to eat healthy and unhealthy foods, whereas nutrition knowledge was related to intentions and willingness to eat healthy foods only. Intentions and willingness were related to healthy and unhealthy food consumption. Dieting status played a moderating role in the model and revealed mean-level differences between dieters and nondieters. This study highlights the importance of specific factors in relation to female students' eating decisions and unveils a comprehensive model for examining health behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Breakfast consumption determinants among female high school students of Yazd Province based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabbeik, Akram; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Khosravi, Hassan Mozaffari; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim Despite the importance of breakfast, especially for students, unfortunately, this meal is usually ignored in daily routine. The aim of this study was to identify determinants among female high school students of Yazd province based on the Pender Health Promotion Model. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted to examine 200 female high school students of Yazd, selected by cluster sampling method in 2016. A researcher-made questionnaire, based on Pender’s Health Pr...

  7. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Czerwinski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76% reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams

  8. Feeding practices of dog breeders in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kevin M; Heinze, Cailin R; Freeman, Lisa M

    2014-09-15

    To determine the proportion of dog breeders who fed diets meeting the Association of American Feed Control Officials regulations for nutritional adequacy for reproduction and growth and to investigate factors that influenced feeding practices of breeders. Web-based cross-sectional survey. 2,067 dog breeders from the United States and Canada. A self-administered, anonymous, Web-based questionnaire was used to collect information on breeder demographics and feeding practices during 3 life stages of dogs: adult maintenance for nonpregnant dogs, gestation-lactation, and puppy growth. Appropriateness of commercial diets for each life stage was determined by respondent-reported nutritional adequacy statements on product labels. Data were also collected regarding breeder criteria for diet selection and sources of nutrition information. A substantial number of breeders reported feeding commercial diets not intended for that life stage during gestation-lactation (126/746 [16.9%]) and puppy growth (57/652 [8.7%]). Additionally, approximately one-seventh of breeders reported feeding home-prepared diets for ≥ 1 life stage. Unsubstantiated health and marketing information influenced diet selection of many breeders. Veterinarians, although generally viewed as a trusted source of nutrition information, were consulted by only 823 of 1,669 (49.3%) breeders and were viewed less favorably by breeders feeding home-prepared diets, compared with the opinion of breeders feeding commercial diets. Veterinarians should consider taking a more proactive role in directing dog breeders and other pet owners toward scientifically substantiated sources of diet information and in explaining the importance of current nutritional standards for reproduction and early development of dogs.

  9. Anthropometric specifications, development, and evaluation of EvaRID--a 50th percentile female rear impact finite element dummy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anna; Chang, Fred; Lemmen, Paul; Kullgren, Anders; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Linder, Astrid; Svensson, Mats Y

    2014-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WADs), or whiplash injuries, due to low-severity vehicle crashes are of great concern in motorized countries and it is well established that the risk of such injuries is higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. Recent protective systems have been shown to be more beneficial for males than for females. Hence, there is a need for improved tools to address female WAD prevention when developing and evaluating the performance of whiplash protection systems. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a finite element model of a 50th percentile female rear impact crash test dummy. The anthropometry of the 50th percentile female was specified based on literature data. The model, called EvaRID (female rear impact dummy), was based on the same design concept as the existing 50th percentile male rear impact dummy, the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to female volunteer data from rear impact sled tests. The EvaRID V1.0 model and the volunteer tests compared well until ∼250 ms of the head and T1 forward accelerations and rearward linear displacements and of the head rearward angular displacement. Markedly less T1 rearward angular displacement was found for the EvaRID model compared to the female volunteers. Similar results were received for the BioRID II model when comparing simulated responses with experimental data under volunteer loading conditions. The results indicate that the biofidelity of the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II FE models have limitations, predominantly in the T1 rearward angular displacement, at low velocity changes (7 km/h). The BioRID II model was validated against dummy test results in a loading range close to consumer test conditions (EuroNCAP) and lower severity levels of volunteer testing were not considered. The EvaRID dummy model demonstrated the potential of becoming a valuable tool

  10. Dynamic simulation of the air-cooled decay heat removal system of the German KNK-II experimental breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, B.K.

    1984-07-01

    A Dump Heat Exchanger and associated feedback control system models for decay heat removal in the German KNK-II experimental fast breeder reactor are presented. The purpose of the controller is to minimize temperature variations in the circuits and, hence, to prevent thermal shocks in the structures. The basic models for the DHX include the sodium-air thermodynamics and hydraulics, as well as a control system. Valve control models for the primary and intermediate sodium flow regulation during post shutdown conditions are also presented. These models have been interfaced with the SSC-L code. Typical results of sample transients are discussed

  11. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  12. Experiences with fast breeder reactor education in laboratory and short course settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    The breeder reactor industry throughout the world has grown impressively over the last two decades. Despite the uncertainties in some national programs, breeder reactor technology is well established on a global scale. Given the magnitude of this technological undertaking, there has been surprisingly little emphasis on general breeder reactor education - either at the university or laboratory level. Many universities assume the topic too specialized for including appropriate courses in their curriculum - thus leaving students entering the breeder reactor industry to learn almost exclusively from on-the-job experience. The evaluation of four course presentations utilizing visual aids is presented

  13. Development of an innovative plate-type SG for fast breeder reactor. Proposal of the concept and the evaluation of the fabricating method by the test fabrication of the partial model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Izumi

    2006-01-01

    The concept of an innovative plate type SG for the fast reactor fabricated by using the HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) method was proposed. The heat transfer plate, which is assembled with rectangular tubes and is fabricated by HIP method, is surrounded by leakage detection spaces. It is possible to apply it to both the pool-type and the loop-type LMFR. In this report, the fabrication technique was studied about the concept for the loop-type LMFR, and the following results were obtained. Hip tests, tensile tests, and structure observation were performed to clarify the suitable HIP condition for the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. As a result, the optimum condition of 1150 deg C x 1200 kgf/cm 2 x 3 hr was found. Nickel-type solder (BNi-5) and gold-type solder (BAu-4) were selected as a joining material to laminate the heat transfer tube plates. Through the comparison of tensile tests, BAu-4 that showed a more excellent joining performance was selected on the assumption of the margin of 5 mm from the welding line. After buckling load had been clarified, the BAu-4 brazing of the heat transfer tube plates was performed using a hot pressing method. Problems were not observed in the welding of simulated header, and in the fabricating of the partial model of SG. (author)

  14. A perspective on research and development in austenitic stainless steels for fast breeder reactor technology at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Jayakumar, T.; Shankar, P.

    2010-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor with closed fuel cycle is an inevitable technology option to provide energy security for India. Innovations in materials technology have enabled the realization of unique and advanced features in the Indian fast breeder reactors and their associated fuel cycles. Materials development and materials technologies, particularly the widely used austenitic stainless steels discussed in this paper, have a deterministic influence on the advancement, safety, reliability, cost effectiveness and thus success of the fast breeder programme. Rigorous research and development for alloy development complemented with detailed structure-property evaluation of relevant mechanical and corrosion behaviour data have been possible with the state of art facilities housed at IGCAR. These data provide useful inputs for design engineers to ensure reliable and safe operation of the components. Advanced concepts in alloy design and grain boundary engineering are utilized to enhance the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of various structural materials. Advanced NDE techniques for the assessment of manufactured components and in-service inspection have been developed, enhancing the confidence in the performance of the plant components and systems. The technology demonstration of critical stainless steel components using advanced forming and welding technologies with support from modelling for optimization of the fabrication processes enhanced the confidence in the development of the complex fast breeder reactor and associated fuel cycle technologies, with active support from national academic and research institutes and industry. This chapter presents a comprehensive overview on the advances in stainless steel technology as well as the challenges ahead for aspiring young minds in the field of fast reactor technology. (author)

  15. The Effect of Leonuri Herba alkaloids on Senile BPH (male and female hormone induced model rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsan Miao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the pharmacological effects of Leonuri Herba alkaloids (LHA on prostate hyperplasia in older rats and the effect mechanism. Methods: Remove bilateral testes from BPH model rats, and conduct subcutaneous injection of testosterone and estradiol. At the same time, feed corresponding drugs to the rats by gastric perfusion for 30d. In the first 27d, conduct bladder fistula surgery. Three days after feeding, carry out the detection of the urine flow dynamics. Eyeball blood taking, determination of serum E2 levels, and quickly remove the prostate, thymus gland, spleen, kidney, lung, and bladder. 1/3 prostate homogenate, determine the level of PACP, T, DHT. 1/3 prostate was determined by mRNA expression in bFGF. The remaining 1/3 prostate was observed by light microscopy. Results: LHA could significantly decrease the animal prostate index, level of DHT, T, PACP, and elevate levels of E2 in the serum. It could also significantly reduce the maximum voiding pressure, intercontraction interval, and bladder resting pressure. Conclusion: LHA has good therapeutic effect on prostatic hyperplasia model rats induced by male and female hormone.

  16. Ochratoxicosis in White Leghorn breeder hens: Production and breeding performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ul Hassan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed1, Umer Sadique2 and Aisha Khatoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ochratoxin A (OTA upon production and breeding parameters in White Leghorn (WL breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 WL breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. The hens in these groups were maintained on feed contaminated with OTA @ 0.0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg, respectively for 21 days. These hens were artificially inseminated with semen obtained from healthy roosters kept on OTA free feed. Egg production and their quality parameters were recorded. Fertile eggs obtained from each group were set for incubation on weekly basis. At the end of the experiment, hens in each group were killed to determined gross and microscopic lesions in different organs. OTA residue concentrations were determined in extracts of liver, kidneys and breast muscles by immunoaffinity column elution and HPLC-Fluorescent detection techniques. Feeing OTA contaminated diet resulted in a significant decrease in egg mass and egg quality parameters. Liver and kidneys showed characteristic lesions of ochratoxicosis. Residue concentration (ng/g of OTA in the hens fed 10 mg/kg OTA, was the highest in liver (26.336±1.16 followed by kidney (8.223±0.85 and were least in breast muscles (1.235±0.21. Embryonic mortalites were higher, while hatachabilites of the chicks were lower in the groups fed higher doses of OTA. Feeding OTA contaminated diets to breeder hen resulted in residues accumulation in their tissues along with significantly reduced production and breeding performance.

  17. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Clinch River Breeder Reactor secondary control rod system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeehan, E.R.; Sim, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The shutdown system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) includes two independent systems--a primary and a secondary system. The Secondary Control Rod System (SCRS) is a new design which is being developed by General Electric to be independent from the primary system in order to improve overall shutdown reliability by eliminating potential common-mode failures. The paper describes the status of the SCRS design and fabrication and testing activities. Design verification testing on the component level is largely complete. These component tests are covered with emphasis on design impact results. A prototype unit has been manufactured and system level tests in sodium have been initiated

  19. Production behavior of irradiation defects in solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The irradiation effects in solid breeder materials are important for the performance assessment of fusion reactor blanket systems. For a clearer understanding of such effects, we have studied the production behavior of irradiation defects in some lithium ceramics by an in-situ luminescence measurement technique under ion beam irradiation. The luminescence spectra were measured at different temperatures, and the temperature-transient behaviors of luminescence intensity were also measured. The production mechanisms of irradiation defects were discussed on the basis of the observations. (author)

  20. Corrosion susceptibility of EUROFER97 in lithium ceramics breeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.hernandez@ciemat.es; Fernández, Pilar; Vila, Rafael

    2014-03-15

    EUROFER97 specimens were exposed in vacuum to lithium silicate pebbles at 550 °C for up to 2880 h, to evaluate its corrosion susceptibility in a simulated breeder blanket environment. The specimens and pebble bed were then analyzed and characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, and HR-TEM. The results revealed the formation of a double chromium/iron oxide corrosion layer. HR-TEM also showed that the inner layer was amorphous, while the outer was crystalline. The amorphous layer was brittle, broke easily, and became detached from the steel.

  1. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I ampersand C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I ampersand C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants

  2. Analysis of a sustainable gas cooled fast breeder reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Akansha; Chirayath, Sunil S.; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A Thorium-GFBR breeder for actinide recycling ability, and thorium fuel feasibility. • A mixture of 232 Th and 233 U is used as fuel and LWR used fuel is used. • Detailed neutronics, fuel cycle, and thermal-hydraulics analysis has been presented. • Run this TGFBR for 20 years with breeding of 239 Pu and 233 U. • Neutronics analysis using MCNP and Brayton cycle for energy conversion are used. - Abstract: Analysis of a thorium fuelled gas cooled fast breeder reactor (TGFBR) concept has been done to demonstrate the self-sustainability, breeding capability, actinide recycling ability, and thorium fuel feasibility. Simultaneous use of 232 Th and used fuel from light water reactor in the core has been considered. Results obtained confirm the core neutron spectrum dominates in an intermediate energy range (peak at 100 keV) similar to that seen in a fast breeder reactor. The conceptual design achieves a breeding ratio of 1.034 and an average fuel burnup of 74.5 (GWd)/(MTHM) . TGFBR concept is to address the eventual shortage of 235 U and nuclear waste management issues. A mixture of thorium and uranium ( 232 Th + 233 U) is used as fuel and light water reactor used fuel is utilized as blanket, for the breeding of 239 Pu. Initial feed of 233 U has to be obtained from thorium based reactors; even though there are no thorium breeders to breed 233 U a theoretical evaluation has been used to derive the data for the source of 233 U. Reactor calculations have been performed with Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP/MCNPX. It is determined that this reactor has to be fuelled once every 5 years assuming the design thermal power output as 445 MW. Detailed analysis of control rod worth has been performed and different reactivity coefficients have been evaluated as part of the safety analysis. The TGFBR concept demonstrates the sustainability of thorium, viability of 233 U as an alternate to 235 U and an alternate use for light water reactor used fuel as a

  3. Experience with EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor] driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Porter, D.L.; Walters, L.C.; Hofman, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The exceptional performance of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) metallic driver fuel has been demonstrated by the irradiation of a large number of elements under steady-state, transient overpower, and loss-of-flow conditions. High burnup with high reliability has been achieved by a close coupling of element design and materials selection. Quantification of reliability has allowed full utilization of element lifetime. Improved design and duct materials currently under test are expected to increase the burnup from 8 to 14 at.%

  4. Human factors engineering in Clinch River Breeder plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, H.P. Jr.; Kaushal, N.N.; Snider, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) Project formed a Control Room Task Force to ensure that lessons learned from the Three Mile Island accident are incorporated into the design. The charter for the Control Room Task Force was to review plant operations from the control room. The focus was on the man-machine interface to ensure that the systems' designs and operator actions meshed to properly support plant operation during normal and off-normal conditions. Specific items included for review are described. This paper describes the methodology utilized to accomplish the Task Forces' objectives and the results of the review

  5. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor plant maintenance and equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of maintenance equipment considerations and actual plant handling experiences from operation of a sodium-cooled reactor, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Equipment areas relating to design, repair techniques, in-cell handling, logistics and facility services are discussed. Plant design must make provisions for handling and replacement of components within containment or allow for transport to an ex-containment area for repair. The modular cask assemblies and transporter systems developed for FFTF can service major plant components as well as smaller units. The plant and equipment designs for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) plant have been patterned after successful FFTF equipment

  6. Optimization of binary breeder reactor V - Binary breeder reactors with two and four zones and a conventional LMFBR - (Pu/U) of two zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1986-04-01

    Comparative analyses of a commercial-size Pu/U-fueled liquid metal fast breeder reactor and two binary breeder reactors with different numbers of enrichment zones have been done. Principal parameters of comparison are safety and breeding characteristics and reactivity losses during an operational cycle. The comparison shows that in a binary breeder reactor, good breeding characteristics in both cycles, Pu/U and U/Th, in addition to a possibility of an efficient utilization of thorium, and superior inherent safety than current LMFBRs can be achieved. (Author) [pt

  7. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the 252Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R; Kondrashev, S; Pardo, R; Scott, R; Zinkann, G P

    2010-02-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci (252)Cf source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into (85)Rb(17+) and 2.9% into (133)Cs(20+).

  8. A Novel Letrozole Model Recapitulates Both the Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Female Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Alexander S.; Thackray, Varykina G.; Ryan, Genevieve E.; Tolson, Kristen P.; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine A.; Semaan, Sheila J.; Poling, Matthew C.; Iwata, Nahoko; Breen, Kellie M.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Webster, Nicholas J.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathophysiology is poorly understood, due partly to lack of PCOS animal models fully recapitulating this complex disorder. Recently, a PCOS rat model using letrozole (LET), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, mimicked multiple PCOS phenotypes, including metabolic features absent in other models. Given the advantages of using genetic and transgenic mouse models, we investigated whether LET produces a similar PCOS phenotype in mice. Pubertal female C57BL/6N mice were treated for 5 wk with LET, which resulted in increased serum testosterone and normal diestrus levels of estradiol, similar to the hyperandrogenemia and follicular phase estrogen levels of PCOS women. As in PCOS, ovaries from LET mice were larger, polycystic, and lacked corpora lutea versus controls. Most LET females were acyclic, and all were infertile. LET females displayed elevated serum LH levels and higher Lhb mRNA in the pituitary. In contrast, serum FSH and Fshb were significantly reduced in LET females, demonstrating differential effects on gonadotropins, as in PCOS. Within the ovary, LET females had higher Cyp17, Cyp19, and Fsh receptor mRNA expression. In the hypothalamus, LET females had higher kisspeptin receptor mRNA expression but lower progesterone receptor mRNA levels. LET females also gained more weight than controls, had increased abdominal adiposity and adipocyte size, elevated adipose inflammatory mRNA levels, and impaired glucose tolerance, mirroring the metabolic phenotype in PCOS women. This is the first report of a LET paradigm in mice that recapitulates both reproductive and metabolic PCOS phenotypes and will be useful to genetically probe the PCOS condition. PMID:26203175

  9. Implementation of multivariable control techniques with application to Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkan, R.C.

    1990-06-01

    After several successful applications to aerospace industry, the modern control theory methods have recently attracted many control engineers from other engineering disciplines. For advanced nuclear reactors, the modern control theory may provide major advantages in safety, availability, and economic aspects. This report is intended to illustrate the feasibility of applying the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) compensator in nuclear reactor applications. The LQG design is compared with the existing classical control schemes. Both approaches are tested using the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) as the system. The experiments are performed using a mathematical model of the EBR-2 plant. Despite the fact that the controller and plant models do not include all known physical constraints, the results are encouraging. This preliminary study provides an informative, introductory picture for future considerations of using modern control theory methods in nuclear industry. 10 refs., 25 figs

  10. Identification and adoptive multivariable control method. Application to fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Van Mien, H.; Irving, E.; Rousseau, I.

    1982-01-01

    Motivated by the limitations inherent in the standard approach, a new model reference multivariable adaptive control method is described. This latter control method utilizes as a design tool a simple vector difference equation of the controlled system. The adaptive control method is of the series-parallel direct reference model type and the adjustment algorithm is the standard least squares estimation technics with hyperstability conditions, controlled convergence speed forgetting, regularization and threshold operations. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the interest of the latter approach. The precise problem which has been tackled is the control of the steam generator of the second fast breeder French nuclear reactor called Super-Phenix. After a short description of the plant and its responses at different loads, the principles and the performances of the standard technique control scheme which has been adopted are discussed [fr

  11. Steam condenser optimization using Real-parameter Genetic Algorithm for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayalal, M.L.; Kumar, L. Satish; Jehadeesan, R.; Rajeswari, S.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Balasubramaniyan, V.; Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We model design optimization of a vital reactor component using Genetic Algorithm. → Real-parameter Genetic Algorithm is used for steam condenser optimization study. → Comparison analysis done with various Genetic Algorithm related mechanisms. → The results obtained are validated with the reference study results. - Abstract: This work explores the use of Real-parameter Genetic Algorithm and analyses its performance in the steam condenser (or Circulating Water System) optimization study of a 500 MW fast breeder nuclear reactor. Choice of optimum design parameters for condenser for a power plant from among a large number of technically viable combination is a complex task. This is primarily due to the conflicting nature of the economic implications of the different system parameters for maximizing the capitalized profit. In order to find the optimum design parameters a Real-parameter Genetic Algorithm model is developed and applied. The results obtained are validated with the reference study results.

  12. Uncertainty estimates for predictions of the impact of breeder-reactor radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Little, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes estimates, compiled in a larger report, of the uncertainty associated with models and parameters used to assess the impact on man radionuclide releases to the environment by breeder reactor facilities. These estimates indicate that, for many sites, generic models and representative parameter values may reasonably be used to calculate doses from annual average radionuclide releases when these calculated doses are on the order of one-tenth or less of a relevant dose limit. For short-term, accidental releases, the uncertainty in the dose calculations may be much larger than an order of magnitude. As a result, it may be necessary to incorporate site-specific information into the dose calculation under such circumstances. However, even using site-specific information, inherent natural variability within human receptors, and the uncertainties in the dose conversion factor will likely result in an overall uncertainty of greater than an order of magnitude for predictions of dose following short-term releases

  13. VHP-Female full-body human CAD model for cross-platform FEM simulations: recent development and validations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankaria, Harshal; Jackson, Xavier J; Borwankar, Raunak; Srichandhru, Goutham N K; Le Tran, Anh; Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Noetscher, Gregory M; Nazarian, Ara; Louie, Sara; Makarov, Sergey N

    2016-08-01

    Simulation of the electromagnetic response of the human body relies heavily upon efficient computational models or phantoms. The first objective of this paper is to present an improved platform-independent full-body electromagnetic computational model (computational phantom), the Visible Human Project® (VHP)-Female v. 3.1 and to describe its distinct features and enhancements compared to VHP-Female v. 2.0. The second objective is to report phantom simulation for electric stimulation studies using the commercial FEM electromagnetic solver ANSYS MAXWELL.

  14. Female role models in medicine: a medical student’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIYA KAPILA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of role models in medical education cannot be understated. They allow for professional development, aid in career motivation and inspire and educate through example. Unfortunately, I cannot admit knowing more than three female role models throughout my time at medical school, and now as a final year student, I am more disappointed than ever for this deficit. My admiration and respect for doctors remains sky high, but from the age of 15, I remember being put off and discouraged from a career in medicine. My first work experience placement was met with disgruntled medical students and doctors warning me to ‘steer clear’ of this career choice. Notably, female doctors would state their reservations about whether they could adequately bring up a stable family together with the demands of this profession. This was an extremely frustrating resolution for me to see as a young, inspired medic- who passionately felt I would work hard to do both. I sought to find out more about the challenges for women in medicine. There lies no dispute that having a stable family life and successful career is no easy feat for women. Yet, the mere choice between a family and/or career is far more intricate than it may seem; it is really a question exploring personal life priorities, resolute character traits and, most importantly, equal gender opportunities and the necessity for greater support for women with families (1. Gender equity and empowerment are inextricably linked to a woman’s entitlement and contribution to the workplace. Evidently, the endless unpaid hours of bringing up a family need greater recognition- arguably a full time job in itself; some people still don’t deem the demanding work of a mother as a career- illustrated by Catherine Deveny’s Guardian article (2. Women are often invited to defend their life choices, or fulfil gender expectations. Maybe, as women we need to alter our own insight into what it means to be a successful

  15. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the

  16. Breeder reactors: a technique at the service of humanity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trelin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A genuine energy policy is not conceived purely for a short term. It must on the contrary take into consideration many national and international facts in order to arrive at a balance which takes into account both the interests of the country where it is to be applied and the future interests of humanity. Growth and energy consumption make a pair. Considering the forecasts of future consumption, a rational utilization of the energy sources is a priority. The rational utilization of the energy potentialities of uranium takes a prominent place in this priority. In the fission energy of the atoms, the breeder reactors are the only types which can give their full meanings to the words economy, ecology, rationality etc. In calling for innovation, the breeder reactors are the prime movers for an advanced industry and a guarantee for the future penetration of electricity in many fields. They are thus important elements for the creation of employment. This paper also deals with questions of international cooperation, non-proliferation and the necessity for disarmament [fr

  17. Alternative fuels for the French fast breeder reactors programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, H.; Bernard, H.; Mansard, B.

    1989-01-01

    French fast breeder reactors use mixed oxide as reference fuel. A great deal of experience has been gained in the behaviour and manufacture of oxide fuel, which has proved to be the most suitable fuel for future commercial breeder reactors. However, France is maintaining long-term alternative fuels programme, in order to be in a position to satisfy eventually new future reactor design and operational requirements. Initially, the CEA in France developed a carbide-based, sodium-bonded fuel designed for a high specific power. The new objective of the alternative fuels programme is to define a fuel which could replace the oxide without requiring any significant changes to the operating conditions, fuel cycle processes or facilities. The current program concentrates on a nitride-based, helium-bonded fuel, bearing in mind the carbide solution. The paper describes the main characteristics required, the manufacturing process as developed, the inspection methods, and the results obtained. Present indications are that the industrial manufacture of mixed nitride is feasible and that production costs for nitride and oxide fuels would be not significantly different. (author) 8 refs., 2 figs

  18. Interim Report on Fluid-Fuel Thermal Breeder Reactors (Revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, H. G.; Alexander, L. G.; Carter, W. L.; Chapman, R. H.; Kinyon, B. W.; Miller, J. W.

    1960-01-01

    The merits of aqueous-homogeneous ), graphite-moderated molten salt (MSBR) , and graphite-moderated liquid-bismuth (LBBR) breeder reactors operated at nearly comparable fuel-cycle costs (~1.5 mills/kwhr) were evaluated. The net electrical plant capability was assumed to be 1000 MwE, and the fuel and fertile streams were processed continuously on-site. The specific powers based on fuel were 1.2, 1.2, and 0.5 MwE/kg respectively, and 5.9, 3.7, and 5.3 MwE/tonne based on thorium. Net breeding ratios were 1.10, 1.07, and 1.07, giving doubling times of 5-1/2, 11, and 25 full power years . The fuel-cycle costs at the design points selected were 1.4, 1.3, and 1.6 mills/kwhr . The AHBR has an advantage in breeding ratio and doubling time because D 2 O is superior to graphite as a moderator in breeder reactors. MSBR has an advantage in fuel-cycle costs and in inventory of uranium in the fertile stream as a result of using a solution blanket.

  19. Mechanical design of a light water breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, Jr., William L.; Jones, Daniel S.; Kolsun, George J.; Erbes, John G.; Brennan, John J.; Weissburg, James A.; Sharbaugh, John E.

    1976-01-01

    In a light water reactor system using the thorium-232 -- uranium-233 fuel system in a seed-blanket modular core configuration having the modules arranged in a symmetrical array surrounded by a reflector blanket region, the seed regions are disposed for a longitudinal movement between the fixed or stationary blanket region which surrounds each seed region. Control of the reactor is obtained by moving the inner seed region thus changing the geometry of the reactor, and thereby changing the leakage of neutrons from the relatively small seed region into the blanket region. The mechanical design of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core includes means for axially positioning of movable fuel assemblies to achieve the neutron economy required of a breeder reactor, a structure necessary to adequately support the fuel modules without imposing penalties on the breeding capability, a structure necessary to support fuel rods in a closely packed array and a structure necessary to direct and control the flow of coolant to regions in the core in accordance with the heat transfer requirements.

  20. Fabrication of metallic fuel for fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, M.T.; Jha, S.K.; Abdulla, K.K.; Kumar, Arbind; Mittal, R.K.; Prasad, R.S.; Mahule, N.; Kumar, Arun; Prasad, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural uranium oxide fuelled PHWRs comprises of first stage of Indian nuclear power programme. Liquid metal fast breeder reactors fuelled by Pu (from PHWR's) form the second stage. A shorter reactor doubling time is essential in order to accelerate the nuclear power growth in India. Metallic fuels are known to provide shorter doubling times, necessitating to be used as driver fuel for fast breeder reactors. One of the fabrication routes for metallic fuels having random grain orientation, is injection casting technique. The technique finds its basis in an elementary physical concept - the possibility of supporting a liquid column within a tube, by the application of a pressure difference across the liquid interface inside and outside the tube. At AFD, BARC a facility has been set-up for injection casting of uranium rods in quartz tube moulds, demoulding of cast rods, end-shearing of rods and an automated inspection system for inspection of fuel rods with respect to mass, length, diameter and diameter variation along the length and internal and external porosities/voids. All the above facilities have been set-up in glove boxes and have successfully been used for fabrication of uranium bearing fuel rods. The facility has been designed for fabrication and inspection of Pu-bearing metallic fuels also, if required

  1. Dairy Foods Intake among Female Iranian Students: A Nutrition Education Intervention Using a Health Promotion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdari, Tahereh; Yekehfallah, Fereshteh; Rahimzadeh, Mitra; Aryaeian, Naheed; Rahimi, Tahereh

    2016-10-01

    This aim of this study was to increase dairy consumption in students following an education intervention based on Pender's Health Promotion Model (Pender's HPM) variables. The study was done during September 2014-April 2015 in Savojbolagh, Alborz, Iran. The study sample included 142 middle-school female students who were allocated to either the intervention (n=71) or the comparison group (n=71). Pender's HPM variables and the daily servings of dairy foods consumed were measured in both groups by a self-administered questionnaire and a 3 d record before the intervention and 4 weeks later. The 4-week intervention was conducted for the intervention group. The data was analyzed through analysis of covariance and paired t tests. Compared to the comparison group, there were significant differences in Pender's HPM variables (except for the negative feelings, perceived barriers and competing demands), the daily servings of dairy foods consumed, and intakes of Calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin A in the intervention participants following the conducted intervention program. Developing theory-driven nutrition education programs may increase student's dairy foods intake.

  2. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Extract in an Experimental Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study evaluated the effect of Hypericum perforatum dry extract in an experimental model of binge eating (BE. Methods. BE for highly palatable food (HPF was evoked in female rats by three 8-day cycles of food restriction/re-feeding and acute stress on the test day (day 25. Stress was induced by preventing access to HPF for 15 min, while rats were able to see and smell it. Hypericum perforatum dry extract was given by gavage. Results. Only rats exposed to both food restrictions and stress exhibited BE. The doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum extract significantly reduced the BE episode, while 125 mg/kg was ineffective. The same doses did not affect HPF intake in the absence of BE. The dose of 250 mg/kg did not significantly modify stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels, suggesting that the effect on BE is not due to suppression of the stress response The combined administration of 125 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum together with Salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea, produced a synergic effect on BE. Conclusions. The present results indicate for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extracts may have therapeutic properties in bingeing-related eating disorders.

  3. Mathematical modeling of a fast-breeder-reactor generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, V.E.; Golovach, E.A.; Senkin, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamics equations are given for a reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, steam generator, and turbogenerator. The dynamic characteristics of the generating unit are described when perturbations occur in grid frequency, turbine valves, and feedwater consumption

  4. Egg fertility and hatchability in Avians broiler-breeder hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of temperature and humidity in different month of lay was evaluated on fertility and hatchability in broiler breeder hens reared in Sapele, Nigeria. Six million, six hundred and nineteen thousand, seven hundred and forty six eggs from flocks of Avians broiler-breeder hens reared between 2005 and 2006 in a farm ...

  5. Effects of breeder age and pre-incubation storage of eggs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S..

    the effects of breeder age and pre-incubation storage time on egg traits, hatching traits and the growth of some selected organs in ... weight, chick weight and percentage yolk weight were significantly higher in eggs obtained from breeders at. 40 weeks of age than from those ..... chemical composition of egg white. Poult. Sci.

  6. Body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders: impact of feeding strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    Key words: broiler breeder, feeding strategies, body composition, reproduction, behavior

    Nowadays, welfare issues in broiler breeders associated with nutrition and reproductive characteristics, are becoming increasingly challenging. Due to genetic selection

  7. Hatching distribution and embryo mortality of eggs laid by broiler breeders of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hatching distribution of eggs from broiler breeders of different ages in distinct periods of incubation. Eggs were incubated in a single-stage experimental incubator. A number of 3.510 eggs were distributed into 3 treatments with 13 replicates of 90 eggs each. Treatments corresponded to breeder age: young (34 weeks, intermediate-age (44 weeks and old (72 weeks breeders. Eggs were transferred to the hatcher at 432 incubation hours, hatching was first checked at 449 hours, after which the number of hatched chicks was counted every 6 hours up to 515 incubation hours. After each count, hatched chicks were removed from the hatcher. Data were submitted to analysis of variance using measures repeated. A significant interaction between breeder age and incubation time was found. The total period required to hatch all incubated fertile eggs was not influenced by breeder age, which, however, affected hatching distribution. Eggs from old breeders hatched later as compared to young and intermediate-age breeders. More than 71% of the eggs had already hatched at 485 incubation hours, and 94% at 491 hours. Eggs laid by old breeders presented higher infertility and total embryo mortality, resulting in lower hatching percentage.

  8. DEM-CFD simulation of purge gas flow in a solid breeder pebble bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Zhenghong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Guo, Haibing [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ye, Minyou [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Hongwen, E-mail: inpclane@sina.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Solid tritium breeding blanket applying pebble bed concept is promising for fusion reactors. Tritium bred in the pebble bed is purged out by inert gas. The flow characteristics of the purge gas are important for the tritium transport from the solid breeder materials. In this study, a randomly packed pebble bed was generated by Discrete Element Method (DEM) and verified by radial porosity distribution. The flow parameters of the purge gas in channels were solved by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The results show that the normalized velocity magnitudes have the same damped oscillating patterns with radial porosity distribution. Besides, the bypass flow near the wall cannot be ignored in this model, and it has a slight increase with inlet velocity. Furthermore, higher purging efficiency becomes with higher inlet velocity and especially higher in near wall region.

  9. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of multiple enclosures in prototype fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velusamy, K.; Balaubramanian, V.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1995-09-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a 500 MWe sodium cooled reactor under design. The main vessel of the reactor serves as the primary boundary. It is surrounded by a safety vessel which in turn is surrounded by biological shield. The gaps between them are filled with nitrogen. Knowledge of temperature distribution prevailing under various operating conditions is essential for the assessment of structural integrity. Due to the presence of cover gas over sodium free level within the main vessel, there are sharp gradients in temperatures. Also cover gas height reduces during station blackout conditions due to sodium level rise in main vessel caused by temperature rise. This paper describes the model used to analyse the natural convection in nitrogen, conduction in structures and radiation interaction among them. Results obtained from parametric studies for PFBR are also presented.

  10. Scram reliability under seismic conditions at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roglans, J.; Hill, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A level 1 probabilistic risk assessment of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II has recently been completed. Seismic events are among the external initiating events included in the assessment. The analysis indicated that the reactor shutdown system had a high reliability of operation in response to internally initiated events. One of the major tasks within the seismic assessment concentrated on the ability to shut down the reactor under seismic conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the shutdown system, including the development of a finite element model of the reactor control rod drive system, has been used to estimate the system response when subjected to input seismic accelerations. The results indicate the control rod driven system has a high seismic capacity and that the overall reactor shutdown system is capable of maintaining its high reliability under seismic conditions. The estimated seismic fragility for the overall reactor shutdown system is dominated by the primary tank failure. (orig.)

  11. Study on ceramic breeder and related materials by means of work function measurement under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, G.N.; Terai, T.; Yamawaki, M.; Yamaguchi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic breeder materials, Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 and Li 4 SiO 4 , under irradiation have been studied using a Kelvin probe that measures work function changes of materials. Surface charging was observed to influence greatly the probe output, which can be explained qualitatively employing a model concerning induction electric field due to external field and free charges on ceramic surface. It is found that the insulating ceramics could not be studied properly with the Kelvin probe. A probable solution is to heat the ceramics, so as to raise their electric conductivities high enough to root out the surface charging. Also briefly discussed is the application of the probe to metals under ion irradiation. (orig.)

  12. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.

  13. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  14. Energy Metabolism in Cold-Stressed Females: Implications for Predictive Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Ira

    1997-01-01

    ... stress, and to evaluate the potential implications for survival time in the cold. Specifically, this study was designed to clarify the quantity and quality of energy substrate utilization in shivering female subjects during cold water immersion...

  15. Five-Factor Model Personality Profiles: The Differences between Alcohol and Opiate Addiction among Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raketic, Diana; Barisic, Jasmina V; Svetozarevic, Snezana M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Milovanovic, Srdjan D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of female alcohol and substance abusers has markedly increased. The main objective of this research was to explore personality profiles among females who had alcohol and opiate dependence. The aim of the study is to analyse if there is differences in personality profiles of females addicted to alcohol and opiates. We hypothesized that there might be significant differences in personality profiles among subgroups of women who present with alcohol and opiate use disorders. Of 157 consecutive women with diagnosis of alcohol/opiate addiction, 62 fulfilled following inclusion criteria: age 19-45 years, abstinence from alcohol and opiates for at least 10 days prior to enrollment. Alcohol-dependent group consisted of 30 females, while opiate-dependent group consisted of 32 females. The control group involved 30 age-matched randomly chosen healthy women. The data were collected using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The multiple stepwise discriminant analysis was used to determine relations between personality traits and the probability of belonging to one of the study groups. Significant differences in the NEO-PI-R scores were observed between groups for all main personality traits except for Openness to Experience. Compared with controls, substance-dependent women scored significantly higher on Neuroticism and lower on Conscientiousness. Opiate-dependent females scored the highest on Neuroticism and on Extraversion and lowest on Agreeableness and on Conscientiousness. Alcohol-dependent females scored higher on Conscientiousness and lower on Neuroticism compared to opiate-dependent women. The results of our study confirmed significant characteristics in personality profiles among females with alcohol and opiate dependence, as well as the difference between these two groups of substance abusers and their healthy controls. The distinct personality characteristics among different groups of substance addicted women should be taken into account

  16. In-situ electric field and current density in Japanese male and female models for uniform magnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, A.; Wake, K.; Watanabe, S.; Taki, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study quantified the in situ electric field and induced current density in anatomically based numeric Japanese male and female models for exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. A quasi-static FDTD method was applied to analyse this problem. The computational results obtained herein reveal that the 99. percentile value of the in situ electric field in the nerve tissue and the current density averaged over an area of 1 cm 2 of the nerve tissue (excluding non-nerve tissues in the averaging region) in the female models were less than 35 and 25%, respectively. These induced quantities in the Japanese models were smaller than those for European models reported in a previous study, which is mainly due to the difference in cross-sectional area of the body. (authors)

  17. Effects of dietary protein level and age at photo stimulation on reproduction traits of broiler breeders and progeny performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emous, R A; de la Cruz, C E; Naranjo, V D

    2018-03-05

    A study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary crude protein levels, high (CPh) or low (CPl), supplemented with free amino acids (AA), and 2 ages at photo stimulation (PS)-early (21 wk; PSe) or late (23 wk; PSl)-on reproduction traits of broiler breeders and progeny performance. Diets were isocaloric, and calculated CP content of the CPl diets was 15 g/kg lower than the CPh diets during all phases. A total of 480 female and 64 male Ross 308 breeders of 20 wk of age were used. Total egg production was similar between CPl and CPh birds during phase 1 and 2 but was reduced by 2.8 eggs for CPl birds during phase 3. For the overall laying period, CPl birds tended (P = 0.075) to produce 4.7 fewer total eggs. Hatchability of set eggs was similar between CPl and CPh birds during phases 1 and 2 but tended (P = 0.064) to be lower for CPl birds in phase 3. PSe birds showed an advanced age at sexual maturity and age at peak production of 4.6 and 5.3 d, respectively, resulting in 2.5 more total eggs during phase 1. During phase 1, PSe birds showed an almost 5% increased fertility. Chick production in phase 1 was higher for PSe birds resulting in a tendency (P = 0.071) to higher overall chick production of almost 8 chicks. Progeny from early PS breeders showed an overall significant lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). It was concluded that egg and chick production during phases 1 and 2 were not affected by dietary CP level, but egg and chick production was reduced for CPl birds during phase 3. On the other hand, PSe birds showed an increased number of chicks. It is possible to decrease CP level of breeder diets with comparable reproduction from 22 to 46 wk; however, this is questionable for phase 3. For maximal chick production, early PS is recommended.

  18. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%

  19. Nuclear instrumentation systems in prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumaran, P.M.; Nagaraj, C.P.; Paramasivan-Pillai, C.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Sivaramakrishna, M.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear instrumentation systems of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) primarily comprise of global Neutron Flux Monitoring, Failed Fuel Detection and Location, Radiation Monitoring and Post-Accident Monitoring. High temperature fission chambers are provided at in-vessel locations for monitoring neutron flux. Failed fuel detection and location is by monitoring the cover gas for fission gases and primary sodium for delayed neutrons. Signals of the core monitoring detectors are used to initiate SCRAM (safety action) to protect the reactor from various postulated initiating events. Radiation levels in all potentially radioactive areas are monitored to act as an early warning system to keep the release of radioactivity to the environment and exposure to personnel well below the permissible limits. Fission Chambers and Gamma Ionisation Chambers are located in the reactor vault concrete for monitoring the neutron flux and gamma radiation levels during and after an accident. (authors)

  20. Fast breeder reactor primary pump discharge sphere support device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terny, P.; Blaix, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    In their lower part, the fast breeder reactor primary pump are connected to a sphere-shaped discharge capacity from which the diagrid feedpipes emerge. This discharge capacity is rigidly set on the strongback by means of a device that bears the forces resulting from the bottom effect. This last being generated by the pressure of the sodium discharged from primary pump. When the reactor operating conditions undergo some rapid changes combined to temperature changes, the structures differential expansions result in high stresses in the sphere support as well as in the feedpipes. This paper aims at describing a sphere support which is provided with flexibility under horizontal forces and a higher stiffness under vertical forces for a better adaptation to the various loading conditions. (orig.)

  1. Design study of an upgraded charge breeder for ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, A; Wenander, F; Pikin, A

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present our progress in the design study of a new Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) to be installed as a charge breeder for reacceleration of rare ions at ISOLDE. The work is triggered by the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade {[}1] and the planned TSR@ISOLDE project {[}2]. To fulfill the requests of the user community the new EBIS should reach an electron beam density of 10(4) A/cm(2) at electron energies up to 150 key and, provide UHV environment and ion cooling in the breeding region to ensure confinement of the ions long enough to reach the requested charge states. We report on the established design parameters and first prototyping steps towards production and testing of suitable equipment. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. EBR-2 [Experimental Breeder Reactor-2] test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Lehto, W.K.; Lindsay, R.W.; Planchon, H.P.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Hill, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) is a sodium cooled power reactor supplying about 20 MWe to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) grid and, in addition, is the key component in the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). EBR-2's testing capability is extensive and has seen four major phases: (1) demonstration of LMFBR power plant feasibility, (2) irradiation testing for fuel and material development, (3) testing the off-normal performance of fuel and plant systems and (4) operation as the IFR prototype, developing and demonstrating the IFR technology associated with fuel and plant design. Specific programs being carried out in support of the IFR include advanced fuels and materials development, advanced control system development, plant diagnostics development and component testing. This paper discusses EBR-2 as the IFR prototype and the associated testing programs. 29 refs

  3. Project of a binary breeder reactor and its inherent safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.A. do; Dias, A.F.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A core layout for the binary breeder reactor (BBR) is developed based on the results of preliminary burnup calculations. In the U 233 /TH fueled inner core, the apparent breeding ratio is low due to the accumulation of Pa-233 in the first few months of operation. The loss of reactivity during this time is approximatelly 3%. The BBR requires more reactivity control than Pu/U-fueled LMFBRs and the core layout developed has 19 control rod assemblies in the inner core. Three aspects related to the inherent safety of the BBR have been studied: radial distribution of the sodium-void reactivity, zone-wise Doppler reactivity, and the delayed neutron fractions. Results show excellent safety characteristics of the BBR. (Author) [pt

  4. Tritium adsorption/release behaviour of advanced EU breeder pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Matthias H. H.; Rolli, Rolf; Knitter, Regina

    2017-06-01

    The tritium loading of current grades of advanced ceramic breeder pebbles with three different lithium orthosilicate (LOS)/lithium metatitanate (LMT) compositions (20-30 mol% LMT in LOS) and pebbles of EU reference material, was performed in a consistent way. The temperature dependent release of the introduced tritium was subsequently investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments to gain insight into the desorption characteristics. The obtained TPD data was decomposed into individual release mechanisms according to well-established desorption kinetics. The analysis showed that the pebble composition of the tested samples does not severely change the release behaviour. Yet, an increased content of lithium metatitanate leads to additional desorption peaks at medium temperatures. The majority of tritium is released by high temperature release mechanisms of chemisorbed tritium, while the release of physisorbed tritium is marginal in comparison. The results allow valuable projections for the tritium release behaviour in a fusion blanket.

  5. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, J.H.; Clement, J.D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a 233 UF 6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li 7 F, BeF 2 , ThF 4 ) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. A maximum breeding ratio of 1.22 was found. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. Optimization of a Rankine cycle for a gas core breeder reactor employing an intermediate heat exchanger gave a maximum efficiency of 37 percent. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. The advantages of the GCBR are as follows: (1) high efficiency, (2) simplified on-line reprocessing, (3) inherent safety considerations, (4) high breeding ratio, (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides, and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion

  6. Designing a SCADA system simulator for fast breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, E.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hakim, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system simulator is a Human Machine Interface-based software that is able to visualize the process of a plant. This study describes the results of the process of designing a SCADA system simulator that aims to facilitate the operator in monitoring, controlling, handling the alarm, accessing historical data and historical trend in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) type Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). This research used simulation to simulate NPP type FBR Kalpakkam in India. This simulator was developed using Wonderware Intouch software 10 and is equipped with main menu, plant overview, area graphics, control display, set point display, alarm system, real-time trending, historical trending and security system. This simulator can properly simulate the principle of energy flow and energy conversion process on NPP type FBR. This SCADA system simulator can be used as training media for NPP type FBR prospective operators.

  7. Tritium system design studies of fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Baiquan; Huang Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the tritium system design studies for the engineering outline design of a fusion experimental breeder (FEB-E) is presented. This paper is divided into three sections. In first section, the geometry, loading features and tritium concentrations in liquid lithium of tritium breeding zones of blanket are described. The tritium flow chart corresponding to the tritium fuel cycle system has been constructed, and the inventories in ten subsystems are calculated using SWITRIM code in section 2. Results show that the necessary initial tritium storage to start up FEB-E with fusion power of 143 MW is about 319 g. In final section, the tritium leakage issues under different operation circumstances have been analyzed. It was found that the potential danger of tritium leakage could be resulted from the exhausted gas of the diverter system. It is important to elevate the tritium burnup fraction and reduce the tritium throughput. (authors)

  8. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illum, D.B.; Olson, G.L.; McCardell, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was a small water cooled, U-233/Th-232 cycle breeder reactor developed by the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors to improve utilization of the nation's nuclear fuel resources in light water reactors. The LWBR was operated at Shippingport Atomic Power Station (APS), which was a Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly Atomic Energy Commission)-owned reactor plant. Shippingport APS was the first large-scale, central-station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. The Shippingport LWBR was operated successfully from 1977 to 1982 at the APS. During the five years of operation, the LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy. After final shutdown, the 39 core modules of the LWBR were shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). At ECF, 12 of the 39 modules were dismantled and about 1000 of more than 17,000 rods were removed from the modules of proof-of-breeding and fuel performance testing. Some of the removed rods were kept at ECF, some were sent to Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho and some to ANL-East in Chicago for a variety of physical, chemical and radiological examinations. All rods and rod sections remaining after the experiments were shipped back to ECF, where modules and loose rods were repackaged in liners for dry storage. In a series of shipments, the liners were transported from ECF to Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The 47 liners containing the fully-rodded and partially-derodded core modules, the loose rods, and the rod scraps, are now stored in underground dry wells at CPP-749.

  9. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illum, D.B.; Olson, G.L.; McCardell, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was a small water cooled, U-233/Th-232 cycle breeder reactor developed by the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors to improve utilization of the nation's nuclear fuel resources in light water reactors. The LWBR was operated at Shippingport Atomic Power Station (APS), which was a Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly Atomic Energy Commission)-owned reactor plant. Shippingport APS was the first large-scale, central-station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. The Shippingport LWBR was operated successfully from 1977 to 1982 at the APS. During the five years of operation, the LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy. After final shutdown, the 39 core modules of the LWBR were shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). At ECF, 12 of the 39 modules were dismantled and about 1000 of more than 17,000 rods were removed from the modules of proof-of-breeding and fuel performance testing. Some of the removed rods were kept at ECF, some were sent to Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho and some to ANL-East in Chicago for a variety of physical, chemical and radiological examinations. All rods and rod sections remaining after the experiments were shipped back to ECF, where modules and loose rods were repackaged in liners for dry storage. In a series of shipments, the liners were transported from ECF to Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The 47 liners containing the fully-rodded and partially-derodded core modules, the loose rods, and the rod scraps, are now stored in underground dry wells at CPP-749

  10. Challenges for Plant Breeders from the View of Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Flachowsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of how to feed the growing world population is very old, but because of the increase of population and possible climate change, currently it has an explosive impact. Plant breeding can be considered as the starting point for the whole human food chain. Therefore, high, stable and highly digestible yields of phytogenic biomass with low external inputs of non-renewable resources, such as water, fuel, arable land, fertilizers, etc.; low emissions of gases with greenhouse potential during cultivation; and high resistance against biotic and abiotic stressors, including adaptation to potential climate change, and a low concentration of undesirable substances in the plants are real challenges for plant breeders in the future. Virtually unlimited resources such as sunlight, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the air as well as the genetic pool of microbes, plants and animals can be used to breed/develop optimal plants/crops. Biofortification of plants may also be an objective of plants breeders, but it is more important for human nutrition to avoid micronutrient deficiencies. A lower concentration of undesirable substances in the plants can be considered as more important than higher concentrations of micronutrients in plants/feeds. Animal nutritionists have various possibilities for feed additive supplementation to meet animal nutrient requirements. Examples to reduce undesirable substances in feed plants are discussed and shown in the paper. In summary, plant breeding has a large and strategic potential for global feed and food security. All breeding technologies may contribute to solving important global challenges, such as sustainable use of limited global resources, improved use of unlimited resources, adaption to climate change and lowering global greenhouse gas emission. More publically supported research seems to be necessary in this field. All methods of plant breeding that contribute to a more resource-efficient production of high

  11. Design optimization of backup seal for sodium cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, N.K.; Ghosh, P.; Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Raj, Baldev; Chetal, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Design arrived from fourteen geometric options by finite element analysis. ► Seal geometry, size, compression, contact pressure, stress and compression load optimized. ► Effects of reduced fluoroelastomer strength at 110 °C, strain rate and stress-softening incorporated. ► Ageing, friction, tolerances, batch-to-batch/production variations in fluoroelastomer considered. ► Procedure applicable to other elastomeric seals of Fast Breeder Reactors. -- Abstract: Design optimization of static, fluoroelastomer backup seals for the 500 MWe, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is depicted. 14 geometric variations of a solid trapezoidal cross-section were studied by finite element analysis (FEA) to arrive at a design with hollowness and double o-ring contours on the sealing face. The seal design with squeeze of 5 mm assures failsafe operation for at least 10 years under a differential pressure of 25 kPa and ageing influences of fluid (air), temperature (110 °C) and γ radiation (23 mGy/h) in reactor. Hybrid elements of 1 mm length, regular integration, Mooney–Rivlin material model and Poisson’s ratio of 0.493 were used in axisymmetric analysis scheme. Possible effects of reduced fluoroelastomer strength at 110 °C, ageing, friction, tolerances in reactor scale, testing conditions during FEA data generation and batch-to-batch/production variations in seal material were considered to ensure adequate safety margin at the end of design life. The safety margin and numerical prediction accuracy could be improved further by using properties of specimens extracted from seal. The approach is applicable to other low pressure, moderate temperature elastomeric sealing applications of PFBR, mostly operating under maximum strain of 50%.

  12. Updated neutronics analyses of a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket for the CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaokang, ZHANG; Songlin, LIU; Xia, LI; Qingjun, ZHU; Jia, LI

    2017-11-01

    The water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket employing pressurized water as a coolant is one of the breeding blanket candidates for the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). Some updating of neutronics analyses was needed, because there were changes in the neutronics performance of the blanket as several significant modifications and improvements have been adopted for the WCCB blanket, including the optimization of radial build-up and customized structure for each blanket module. A 22.5 degree toroidal symmetrical torus sector 3D neutronics model containing the updated design of the WCCB blanket modules was developed for the neutronics analyses. The tritium breeding capability, nuclear heating power, radiation damage, and decay heat were calculated by the MCNP and FISPACT code. The results show that the packing factor and 6Li enrichment of the breeder should both be no less than 0.8 to ensure tritium self-sufficiency. The nuclear heating power of the blanket under 200 MW fusion power reaches 201.23 MW. The displacement per atom per full power year (FPY) of the plasma-facing component and first wall reach 0.90 and 2.60, respectively. The peak H production rate reaches 150.79 appm/FPY and the peak He production reaches 29.09 appm/FPY in blanket module #3. The total decay heat of the blanket modules is 2.64 MW at 1 s after shutdown and the average decay heat density can reach 11.09 kW m-3 at that time. The decay heat density of the blanket modules slowly decreases to lower than 10 W m-3 in more than ten years.

  13. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camlin, Nicole J. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, Eileen A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holt, Janet E. [School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  14. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function

  15. Neuropsychiatric Symptom Modeling in Male and Female C57BL/6J Mice after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Laura B.; Burke, John F.; Fu, Amanda H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and depression are frequent and persistent complaints following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Modeling these symptoms in animal models of TBI affords the opportunity to determine mechanisms underlying behavioral pathologies and to test potential therapeutic agents. However, testing these symptoms in animal models of TBI has yielded inconsistent results. The goal of the current study was to employ a battery of tests to measure multiple anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms following TBI in C57BL/6J mice, and to determine if male and female mice are differentially affected by the injury. Following controlled cortical impact (CCI) at a parietal location, neither male nor female mice showed depressive-like symptoms as measured by the Porsolt forced-swim test and sucrose preference test. Conclusions regarding anxiety-like behaviors were dependent upon the assay employed; CCI-induced thigmotaxis in the open field suggested an anxiogenic effect of the injury; however, results from the elevated zero maze, light-dark box, and marble-burying tests indicated that CCI reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Fewer anxiety-like behaviors were also associated with the female sex. Increased levels of activity were also measured in female mice and injured mice in these tests, and conclusions regarding anxiety should be taken with caution when experimental manipulations induce changes in baseline activity. These results underscore the irreconcilability of results from studies attempting to model TBI-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms. Changes in injury models or better attempts to replicate the clinical syndrome may improve the translational applicability of rodent models of TBI-induced anxiety and depression. PMID:27149139

  16. Systemic Administration of Proteoglycan Protects BALB/c Retired Breeder Mice from Experimental Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the prophylactic potential of proteoglycan (PG administration in experimental arthritis. Female BALB/c retired breeder mice received two (2xPG50 and 2xPG100 groups or three (3xPG50 group intraperitoneal doses of bovine PG (50 μg or 100 μg every three days. A week later the animals were submitted to arthritis induction by immunization with three i.p. doses of bovine PG associated with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide adjuvant at intervals of 21 days. Disease severity was daily assessed after the third dose by score evaluation. The 3xPG50 group showed significant reduction in prevalence and clinical scores. This protective effect was associated with lower production of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increased production of IL-5 and IL-10 by spleen cells restimulated in vitro with PG. Even though previous PG administration restrained dendritic cells maturation this procedure did not alter the frequency of regulatory Foxp3+ T cells. Lower TNF-α and IL-6 levels and higher expression of ROR-γ and GATA-3 were detected in the paws of protected animals. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction confirmed specific tolerance induction. Taken together, these results indicate that previous PG inoculation determines a specific tolerogenic effect that is able to decrease severity of subsequently induced arthritis.

  17. Profile of Serum Metabolites and Proteins of Broiler Breeders in Rearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Rezende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The excellence of modern broiler production is based on the genetic improvement of broiler strains for high growth rate and high egg production, associated with technological developments in nutrition, management, and health. Over the last decades, the clinical biochemistry of broilers has been studied to determine serum biochemical component values; however, there are still many knowledge gaps on factors that determine changes in these values. In this study, the serum lipid and protein profiles of 4-week-old male and female Cobb broiler breeders were evaluated. Blood samples were collected on a commercial farm located in the city of Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. The following parameters were evaluated: total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin to globulin ratio (A/V, uric acid, urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels using an automatic analyzer. The results showed sex-specific biochemical patterns for most blood parameters evaluated. Moreover, the obtained values were different from those obtained in many published studies with broilers and commercial layers, stressing the need to develop further studies with chickens of different ages.

  18. Can testosterone and corticosterone predict the rate of display of male sexual behaviour, development of secondary sexual characters and fertility potential in primary broiler breeders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGary Brougher, S; Estevez, I; Ottinger, M A

    2005-10-01

    1. Genetic selection for growth to enhance production may be associated with stress and with modified physiological and behavioural phenotypes which depress male primary broiler breeder fertility. 2. We hypothesised that male serum testosterone (T) and corticosterone (C) concentrations might correlate with fertility, sexual behaviour, and testicular, comb and wattle size. 3. Cockerels from two genetic strains (A and B) of primary broiler breeder were penned individually with an average of 10 females across 5 age periods (30 to 51 weeks) to evaluate male fertility, behaviour, serum T and C, and comb, wattle and testicular dimensions. 4. Strain A males had higher T at age periods 2, 4 and 5 than Strain B. Both strains had basal concentrations of C, apart from an elevated concentration for Strain B in period 5. 5. Strain B had a weak but significant, positive correlation between sexual behaviour and T and C, while Strain A males with higher C had larger combs and wattles. 6. Neither T nor C correlated with fertility. We conclude that evaluation of these endocrine factors (quantifiable measurements with the potential to correlate with fertility) alone seems insufficient to predict male fertility potential in these strains of primary broiler breeder.

  19. Development of bone in chick embryos from Cobb 500 breeder hens fed diets supplemented with zinc, manganese, and copper from inorganic and amino acid-complexed sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, A; Vieira, S L; Angel, C R; Bos-Mikich, A; Lothhammer, N; Taschetto, D; Cruz, R F A; Ward, T L

    2013-02-01

    Sources of Zn, Mn, and Cu (IZMC) as sulfates or as amino acid complexes (OZMC) were used to supplement Cobb 500 breeder hen diets. Experimental treatments consisted of diets supplemented with 1) 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC (control); 2) 60, 60, and 3 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from OZMC (ISO); and 3) a diet with 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC as in control plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of supplemental Zn, Mn, and Cu from OZMC (on top). Ten replications of 20 females and 2 males were used per treatment. Eggs from breeders at 30, 40, 50 and 60 wk of age were incubated, and 5 embryos per replicate were collected at 10 (E10), 14 (E14), and 18 (E18) d of incubation. Midshaft width and calcification were measured for left tibia and femur stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. At hatch, the left tibia of 5 chicks per replicate was sampled for histological evaluation of the diaphysis and distal epiphysis. Feeding the ISO treatment compared with the control diet increased the Zn (P Broiler breeder hens consuming OZMC associated with IZMC produced embryos and hatching chicks with improvements in selected bone mineralization parameters.

  20. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the United States of America - April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Breeder Technology program continues to produce viable information on fuel performance, nuclear systems technology, and power conversion technology. The unique testing capabilities design into the FFTF have resulted in well-validated materials and fuels irradiation information that has confirmed and extended previous data bases. Current directions for the research and development program are to improve the technology for power conversion systems, components, instrumentation, and materials technology to the point where cost reduction and reliability potentials are realized. Operation of the breeder test facility complex at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) continues to provide the experience base and test capability for the breeder R and D effort. International cooperation will be even more important in the future than in the past for several reasons. Significant new investments still have to be made in breeder R and D to improve designs, achieve economic competitiveness and to develop practical breeder fuel cycle capabilities. Progress can be accelerated, redundancies avoided, and economics achieved if nations coordinate their programs, and where possible, divide up the work. In addition, there is clear mutual benefit in encouraging the countries involved in breeder development to harmonize standards and regulations related to safety. It is also important that the advanced nations work together closely in assuring that adequate international safeguards, export controls, and national physical security measures keep pace with breeder reactor and fuel cycle developments

  1. Thermomechanical analysis of solid breeders in sphere-pac, plate, and pellet configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, J.P.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    The first configuration studied is called sphere-pac. It features small breeder spheres of three different diameters, thus allowing efficient packing and minimal void fraction. The concept originated as an attempt to minimize thermal stresses in the breeder and improve the predictability of the breeder-structure interface heat conduction. In general the breeder is made as thin as possible, to maximize the breeding ratio, so the cladding's integrity will likely be the life-limiting issue of this concept. The third breeder configuration is in the form of pellets cladded by steel tubes. The major thermomechanical issue of the pin-type designs is cracking, which would impair the thermal performance of the blanket. Fortunately, the pins can be sized to prevent cracking under normal operation. In this report we have treated each blanket generically, dealing with basic issues rather than design specifics. Our basic philosophy is to avoid cracking of the breeder if at all possible. It can be argued that cracking could be allowed, but this would sacrifice predictability of the blanket thermal performance and tritium release characteristics. Proper design can and should minimize breeder cracking

  2. Three-dimensional calculation of the flow in the cold plenum of the Fast Breeder Reactor 1500 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabard, J.P.; Daubert, O.; Gregoire, J.P.; Hemmerich, P.

    1987-01-01

    To solve thermalhydraulics problems which are rising for example on the various parts of nuclear reactors, several departments of the Direction des Etudes et Recherches are developing the N3S code, three-dimensional code using the finite element method. First, this paper presents the basic equations (Navies-Stokes with turbulence modelling and coupled with the thermal equation) and well suited algorithms to solve them. The industrial adequacy of the code is clearly demonstrated through the application to the computation of the flow in the cold plenum of the Fast Breeder Reactor 1500 MW on a mesh of about 20000 velocity nodes [fr

  3. Non-linear model analysis of categorical traits related to female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    components for categorical reproductive traits in beef cattle was investigated. Three traits, retention (RET), stayability (STAY) and calf tempo (CT) were defined. The data set consisted of 36 880 Afrikaner beef cattle measurements recorded over a period of 10 years. After editing, the records of 7 746 females from 473 sires.

  4. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development. PMID:26148093

  5. Effects of fenfluramine on body weight, feed intake, and reproductive activities of broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenboim, I; Kapkowska, E; Robinzon, B; Uni, Z

    1999-12-01

    Inherited overfeeding and fattiness reduce laying performance in broiler breeder pullets. Although feed restriction is used to compensate for overeating and weight gain, this management practice leads to increases in BW variation, labor cost, and bird stress. Dietary supplementation of anorectic agents, such as fenfluramine, may be an alternative. Anak female prebreeder hens (19 wk of age; n = 10 per group) were treated as follows: daily oral administration of 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg DL-fenfluramine/kg BW or saline with food provided for ad libitum intake or administration of saline and feed restriction. Daily feed intake (FI), laying rate, egg composition, and BW were measured. At 40 wk of age, adipose tissue and ovary weights were measured. Fenfluramine depressed (P < 0.05) BW and FI in a dose-dependent manner, but was less effective in reducing BW than feed restriction. Suppression of FI occurred in two phases: a dynamic phase, coinciding with the rapid growth phase, during which FI declined progressively and a static phase during which FI reached a plateau at a significantly low level until the end of the experimental period. Egg production peaked first in saline-treated hens fed for ad libitum intake, but soon after started to decline. In all fenfluramine-treated and feed-restricted hens, egg production peaked 3 to 4 wk later and remained high until the end of the experiment. There were no differences in egg and egg component weights among the experimental groups. Abdominal adipose tissue weight was reduced by fenfluramine in a dose-related manner, and its weight in the group treated with the highest dose was similar to that of feed-restricted hens. In these two groups, ovarian weight was significantly higher than in the saline-treated hens fed for ad libitum intake, and a small, nonsignificant increase in ovary size was observed in groups treated with the two median doses of fenfluramine. The effect of fenfluramine on egg production was similar to that of feed

  6. Health Belief Model and HIV/AIDS among high school female students in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2010-01-01

    ="font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";"> containing HIV. (1-4   It is such a strange and frightening disease that sometimes people stopped thinking about it as a disease and start to wrap it in different layers of mystery.(5 According to the latest figures published in the UNAIDS/WHO 2006 AIDS Epidemic Update, an estimated 39.5 million people are living with HIV. (6 An important factor in the spread of HIV/AIDS is believed to be poor knowledge about how it is spread and can be prevented. The utility of the Health Belief Model continues to be suggested in identifying preventive behaviors. This study is a cross- sectional study that 180 female students from three high schools in Yazd, Iran, completed a specially designed questionnaire, based on Health Belief Model in spring 2009. Our data showed that the mean score of perceived susceptibility was 21.19 (out of 32 and perceived severity was 12.47 (out of 24. Also the mean score of perceived benefits and barriers were 9.05 and 9.45 (out of 12 and out of 16 respectively. The respondents acquired 46.61% of total knowledge score, 66.21% of perceived susceptibility, 51.95% of perceived severity, 75.41% of perceived benefits and 59.06% of perceived barriers. A positive association found

  7. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future

  8. Association of Trans-theoretical Model (TTM based Exercise Behavior Change with Body Image Evaluation among Female Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Rostami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBody image is a determinant of individual attractiveness and physical activity among the young people. This study was aimed to assess the association of Trans-theoretical model based exercise behavior change with body image evaluation among the female Iranian students.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Sanandaj city, Iran in 2016. Using multistage sampling method, a total of 816 high school female students were included in the study. They completed a three-section questionnaire, including demographic information, Trans-theoretical model constructs and body image evaluation. The obtained data were fed into SPSS version 21.0.  ResultsThe results showed more than 60% of participants were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages of exercise behavior. The means of perceived self-efficacy, barriers and benefits were found to have a statistically significant difference during the stages of exercise behavior change (P

  9. Female preference and predation risk models can explain the maintenance of a fallow deer (Dama dama lek and its 'handy' location.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Apollonio

    Full Text Available We tested the predictions of three models (female preference; hotspot; predator avoidance on lek formation in the fallow deer population of San Rossore, Tuscany. We collected behavioural observations in two leks and radiotracking data on 67 deer over 7 years. Two deer sub-populations were present in the northern and southern sides of the area, respectively, the two sectors being delimited by a river and including one lek each. Predictions were tested for one lek (SG, located in the south-side where we set up our 7-year radiotracking program. Data from a second lek (FO, north-side were used to test those predictions which imply the occurrence of multiple leks in the same population. We showed that the majority of females made one single visit to one lek, only during the rut. The lek was located outside areas of higher female traffic and home range overlap, and females increased home range sizes during the rut to reach it. Twilight routes of females never crossed the lek; instead, females walked atypical routes and at a faster pace to reach the lek and mate. The distance between the two leks was higher than the average diameter of female home ranges, and only one lek was present within female home ranges. Males reached the lek one month before the arrival of females, corroborating that lekking is a female-initiated process (females moving towards large clumped male aggregations rather than a male-initiated process (males moving towards female hotspots. Our results supported the female preference model, and rejected the predictions of the hotspot model. Also, leks were located far from areas with higher predation risk, supporting the predator avoidance model. The position of lek SG resulted 'handy' at the sub-population level because of the optimal trade-off between travel costs for females to reach it and avoidance of human predators.

  10. Female Preference and Predation Risk Models Can Explain the Maintenance of a Fallow Deer (Dama dama) Lek and Its ‘Handy’ Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Marco; De Cena, Fabio; Bongi, Paolo; Ciuti, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We tested the predictions of three models (female preference; hotspot; predator avoidance) on lek formation in the fallow deer population of San Rossore, Tuscany. We collected behavioural observations in two leks and radiotracking data on 67 deer over 7 years. Two deer sub-populations were present in the northern and southern sides of the area, respectively, the two sectors being delimited by a river and including one lek each. Predictions were tested for one lek (SG), located in the south-side where we set up our 7-year radiotracking program. Data from a second lek (FO, north-side) were used to test those predictions which imply the occurrence of multiple leks in the same population. We showed that the majority of females made one single visit to one lek, only during the rut. The lek was located outside areas of higher female traffic and home range overlap, and females increased home range sizes during the rut to reach it. Twilight routes of females never crossed the lek; instead, females walked atypical routes and at a faster pace to reach the lek and mate. The distance between the two leks was higher than the average diameter of female home ranges, and only one lek was present within female home ranges. Males reached the lek one month before the arrival of females, corroborating that lekking is a female-initiated process (females moving towards large clumped male aggregations) rather than a male-initiated process (males moving towards female hotspots). Our results supported the female preference model, and rejected the predictions of the hotspot model. Also, leks were located far from areas with higher predation risk, supporting the predator avoidance model. The position of lek SG resulted ‘handy’ at the sub-population level because of the optimal trade-off between travel costs for females to reach it and avoidance of human predators. PMID:24599036

  11. The Effects of Education on Preventive Behaviors toward Osteoporosis Based on Behavior Intention Model (BIM on Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mahamed

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent diseases which leave noticeable effects on the health. Life style plays an important role in determining the level of the disease. According to the statistics, two women out of three over 50 years of age and one man out of two of the same age suffer from osteoporosis or have low bone compression. The present study was conducted on female students of Health School of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 1386 (2007 and aimed to view the effects of education on preventive behaviors from osteoporosis based ( BIM. Materials & Methods: This is a semi- experimental study and the population were all of the female students of the health school who attended in Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 1384 (2005. Eighty two respondents randomly placed in two groups of case & control (42 in case group and 40 in control group. Questionnaires were designed based on BIM. The samples were studied by educating program according to BIM and implemented in the form of lecture and group discussion over 3 months and 4 meetings in each month. Each meeting took an hour and half. The questionnaires were completed by both groups and analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: Based on the results, according to behavior intention model the average score of students above osteoporosis was 65.48 prior to intervention and it reached 90.24 after intervention which showed significant improvements. Conclusion: With regard to the results of the current study, special education based on behavior intention model is effective in improving the attitude and behavior intention of female students. Therefore it is highly recommended that BIM education be used for familiarizing osteoporosis to female students. Keywords: Behavior intention, Osteoporosis, Female students

  12. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes in an animal model of depression for males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Rappeneau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression (MD. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm. Territorial aggression was used for males and maternal aggression was used for females to induce depressive-like deficits for intruders. The depressive-like phenotype was assessed with intake for saccharin solution, weight gain, estrous cycle, and corticosterone (CORT. Behaviors displayed by the intruders during daily encounters with residents were characterized. Rats with daily handling were used as controls for each sex. Ten days after the last encounter, both the intruders and controls were subjected to a no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis to assess glutamate accumulation and extracellular glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc. The contralateral hemispheres were used for determining changes in astrocytic markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1. Results: Both male and female intruders reduced saccharin intake over the course of CSDS, compared to their pre-stress period and to their respective controls. Male intruders exhibited submissive/defensive behaviors to territorial aggression by receiving sideways threats and bites. These males showed reductions in striatal GLT-1 and spontaneous glutamine in the NAc, compared to controls. Female intruders exhibited isolated behaviors to maternal aggression, including immobility, rearing, and self-grooming. Their non-reproductive days were extended. Also, they showed reductions in prefrontal and accumbal GFAP+ cells and prefrontal GLT

  13. [Prevalence of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in cattle breeders from the province of Reggio Emilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F; Ruggieri, Maria Paola; Guidetti, G; Azzarone, G; Giammartini, Pasquina; Capanni, S; Mantovani, P; Bertani, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Several new cases of Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis or Farmer's Lung (FL) in farm workers were reported to Occupational Health Services in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy). This prompted the Public Health Department to study the prevalence of the disease among milk-cow breeders involved in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production: who are the biggest hay users. A suitable questionnaire was sent to 1875 farmers in three of the six districts of the province. Half of them (935: 841 males, 94 females) answered; further contacts and medical history research revealed 33 case of "likely FL". Twenty-three (2 females) (10 "missing"), underwent pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, precipitins tests against Saccharopolyspora Rectivirgula and other fungal antigens and (22 farmers) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). According to the "Società Italiana di Medicina del Lavoro e di Igiene Industriale" diagnostic standards, we found 20 subjects suffering from FL among farmers collecting hay in large cylindrical (round) bales, dried on field (2.6%) and among others still using small (traditional), prismatic bales (0.5%). The prevalence on the whole exposed population (6000-9000 people) was estimated between 1.5% and 3.0% (90-270 people); no difference was found in FL prevalence between flat and hilly or mountain areas; the method of collecting hay in big "round" bales, dried on field, seems to produce higher frequencies of FL cases if compared with the traditional ones (more frequent in mountain areas). The new hay packing methods, using forced air driers, are suggested as a possible solution.

  14. We are not a female band, we are a band!”: Female performance as a model of gender transgression in Serbian popular music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenić Iva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental performance, leadership, and authorship by women in music has historically been subjected to various repressive regimes, while many of the prejudices and restrictions regarding female musicking can still be discerned in contemporary popular music practices in Serbia. These mechanisms have been transferred into contemporary music with different ideological and stylistic inclination, such as indie music cohorts and folk- or tradition-based genres and scenes. The structural preconditions that articulate the subject position of female instrumentalists, regardless of genre or the scene they belong to are the lack of history of female playing and the requirement that they reach the supposedly higher standards of male musicians. This article starts with a brief genealogy of female instrumental music performance from late socialism to the diversity of contemporary popular music in its present neo-liberal context. Against that background it interprets the disciplining mechanisms restricting female musical creativity and performance, addressing the issues of identity and power through female agency in music.

  15. Reproductive performance and pre-weaning mortality: Preliminary analysis of 27,221 purebred female dogs and 204,537 puppies in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Guillemot, C; Feugier, A; Mariani, C; Grellet, A; Mila, H

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe efficiency of reproduction of purebred dogs in field breeding conditions, from mating to weaning in France. Data were collected between 2010 and 2014 in 5,667 French breeding kennels via a reproduction management software (Breeding Management System, Royal Canin, Aimargues, France). Effect of breed size (Mini: adult body weight 40 kg), age of dam and male on pregnancy rate, abortion rate and litter size were evaluated by multivariable models. Data on 45,913 heats (all with mating), from 27,221 bitches from 248 breeds, were analysed. At mating, mean age (±SD) was 3.1 ± 1.8 years for bitches and 3.3 ± 2.0 for males. Males originated from the same kennel as the females in 88.5% of the matings. Based on breeder's evaluation of the pregnancy status, pregnancy rate (number of pregnant females based on breeders declaration/number of heats) was 87.8% and abortion rate was 6.8%. Finally, 81.9% of the mated females gave birth to a litter. On 37,946 litters (204,537 puppies), mean litter size was 5.4 ± 2.8 puppies (range 1-24), which was influenced by breed size and dam age (p reproductive performance in dogs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Japan Women's University Multi-Career Path Support Model for Female Researchers (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Yoshikazu; Kodate, Kashiko

    2009-04-01

    The overall goal of this project, funded by MEXT-Japan (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Technology), is to implement prototypical programs to foster and proactively engage female researchers. The project aims to provide comprehensive support for female researchers who wish to raise a family and pursue an academic career, and increase opportunities for female researchers to play more active roles. To achieve these objectives, three core actions are taken. First, with out-of-office/out-of-lab research support (ubiquitous research support), an assistant researcher is provided to help perform experiments while the ubiquitous researcher is out of the laboratory. A communication network is introduced to connect the laboratory with home to facilitate in-home research. Second, with human resources support, researchers' career paths, abilities, and experiences are accumulated in e-portfolios. This enables researchers coming from different fields of employment to pursue other career paths. Third, a follow-up survey and project planning are conducted. We believe through science education, science can be demystified, and made more accessible and fascinating for children. This would bode well for future generations. Alumni questionnaires show that 80% of respondents were very satisfied to have graduated with a science background.

  17. Ultraviolet light and mating behaviour in domestic broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E K; Prescott, N B; Cook, P; White, R P; Wathes, C M

    2001-03-01

    1. The perception of UVA light (320 commercial house lighting. One function may be the mediation of sexually related signalling or communication. 2. In experiment 1, two groups of 41 adult broiler breeders (four cockerels, 37 hens) were kept under conventional fluorescent light, with or without fluorescent UVA supplementation amounting to 16.9% of the total spectral power output of the luminaires. Each light environment was approximately iso-illuminant as perceived by the birds. The two groups were exposed to the light environments alternately for five 2-day periods in a cross-over design. Mating behaviour, production measures and time budgets were recorded on the second day of each period. 3. A UVA-enriched environment increased the number of attempted matings (1.27 vs 0.99 matings/cockerel.h) and locomotion (5.3 vs 3.7 min/bird.hour). 4. In a second experiment, 10 hens were allowed to choose between four cockerels lit under different power levels of UVA (1.6%, 14.6%, 43.5%, 57.5% of the total spectral power output of the luminaires) in a four-armed maze. Again, each light environment was approximately iso-illuminant as perceived by the birds. Each hen was allowed to make one choice per day over four days, with the position of the cockerels and the UVA levels interchanged each day. This schedule was repeated with the same hens for two other groups of four cockerels. 5. At a distance of no less than 60 cm from the cockerel, the hens spent most time inspecting whichever cockerel was lit by 1.6% or 14.6% UVA (1.33 vs 1.37 vs 1.22 vs 1.16 log seconds/hen.choice, respectively for increasing UVA level). Similarly, when allowed to approach closer to the cockerels, the hens spent most time in the arm which contained a cockerel lit by 14.6% UVA light, (1.62 vs 1.88 vs 1.69 vs 1.51 log s/hen.choice, respectively for increasing UVA level). 6. UVA is clearly implicated in the transmission of sexual signals or communication which may have implications for the welfare and

  18. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: heavier females are more likely to breed solitarily than communally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-11-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are discrete reproductive phenotypes governed by decision rules called strategies. ARTs are fixed for life in species with alternative strategies, while tactic expression is plastic in species with a single strategy. ARTs have been investigated in males of many species, but few studies have tested whether the same theoretical framework applies in females. Female striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a nest shared with female kin and a breeding male and show allo-parental care; returners give birth away from the shared nest and later return to it; and solitary breeders give birth away from the shared nest and do not return to the group. Here, studying free-living female striped mice over six breeding seasons, we tested whether ARTs arise from alternative strategies or a single strategy. We also asked to what extent stochastic extrinsic factors explain whether individuals become solitary rather than group living. Females switched tactics, consistent with a single strategy, so we tested whether this represented a mixed or conditional single strategy. Only the latter predicts differences between ARTs in traits indicating competitive ability, such as body mass or age, before individuals adopt a tactic. We weighed females at conception when they were still group living to eliminate potential confounding effects of gestation and subsequent social tactic (solitary versus group living) on body mass. Females that went on to use a solitary ART were heavier than those that became communal breeders and returners, in support of a conditional strategy. Solitary breeders also arose through extrinsic factors (mortality of all adult female group members). They weighed less than females that became solitary while relatives were alive, but did not differ in body mass from communal breeders and returners. We conclude that ART theory applies to both sexes, with female striped mice following a

  19. Innovatieve huisvesting voor vleeskuikenouderdieren: "Quality Time" stal = Innovative broiler breeder housing system: 'Quality Time' house

    OpenAIRE

    Emous, van, R.A.; Gunnink, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study results are presented of the research of implementing the innovative housing system "Quality Time" concept in a practical poultry house for broiler breeders. The "Quality Time" concept can improve the sexual behaviour and fertility of the eggs.

  20. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: a building block in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in breeder reactors dates from the Manhatten Project to the present effort to build the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) demonstration plant. Seven breeder-type reactors which were built during this time are described and their technological progress assessed. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) has been designed to demonstrate that it can be licensed, can operate on a large power grid, and can provide industry with important experience. As the next logical step in LMFBR development, the project has suffered repeated cancellation efforts with only minor modifications to its schedule. Controversies have developed over the timing of a large-scale demonstration plant, the risks of proliferation, economics, and other problems. Among the innovative developments adopted for the CRBRP is a higher thermal efficiency potential, the type of development which Senator McCormack feels justifies continuing the project. He argues that the nuclear power program can and should be revitalized by continuing the CRBRP

  1. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: a building block in nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in breeder reactors dates from the Manhatten Project to the present effort to build the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) demonstration plant. Seven breeder-type reactors which were built during this time are described and their technological progress assessed. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) has been designed to demonstrate that it can be licensed, can operate on a large power grid, and can provide industry with important experience. As the next logical step in LMFBR development, the project has suffered repeated cancellation efforts with only minor modifications to its schedule. Controversies have developed over the timing of a large-scale demonstration plant, the risks of proliferation, economics, and other problems. Among the innovative developments adopted for the CRBRP is a higher thermal efficiency potential, the type of development which Senator McCormack feels justifies continuing the project. He argues that the nuclear power program can and should be revitalized by continuing the CRBRP.

  2. Final Technical Report: Improved ECR Charge Breeder for Rare Ion Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Wayne D

    2011-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop a charge-breeder system not only for producing the highly charged ion species needed for nuclear physics experiments, but one that could be used as a test bed for testing and developing additional techniques and technologies. The charge-breeder ion source developed under this grant was designed as a charge-breeder from the beginning and has none of the limitations inherent of converted primary ECR sources. Additionally, the major source components are designed to be easily replaced. This document describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the Scientific Solutions charge-breeder ion source. This source was delivered to Texas A&M University in October 2007 for further testing.

  3. Economic impact of fuel subassembly design and management in breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehmann, U.K.; Pilate, S.

    1988-01-01

    The fuel cycle costs of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors are strongly influenced by the design of fuel subassemblies and their use during reactor operation. The optimization of these two aspects is therefore an important task of the core design. The impact of maximum burnup as a design limit, fuel element management, and fuel element design on fuel cycle costs and plant availability of fast breeder reactors is illustrated for the reactor SNR 2. (orig.) [de

  4. Be-Breeder - an application for analysis of genomic data in plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Matias,Filipe Inácio; Granato,Italo Stefanine Correa; Dequigiovanni,Gabriel; Fritsche-Neto,Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Be-Breeder is an application directed toward genetic breeding of plants, developed through the Shiny package of the R software, which allows different phenotype and molecular (marker) analysis to be undertaken. The section for analysis of molecular data of the Be-Breeder application makes it possible to achieve quality control of genotyping data, to obtain genomic kinship matrices, and to analyze genome selection, genome association, and genetic diversity in a simple manner on line. ...

  5. Design of a helium-cooled molten salt fusion breeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, R. W.; Lee, J. D.; Fulton, F. J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W. S., Jr.; Sherwood, A. E.; Berwald, D. H.; Whitley, R. H.; Wong, C. P. C.; Devan, J. H.

    1985-02-01

    A new conceptual blanket design for a fusion reactor is discussed which produces fissile material for fission power plants. Fission is suppressed by using beryllium, rather than uranium, to multiply neutrons and also by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding media (LiF + BeF2 + TghF4) is circulated through the blanket and on to the online processing system where (233)U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket including the steel pipes containing the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion rate by molten salt. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and the blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 time an LWR of the same power. The estimated present value cost of the (233)U produced is $40/g if utility financed or $16/g if government financed.

  6. Risk-assessment methodology for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1976-04-01

    The methods applied or proposed for risk assessment of nuclear reactors are reviewed, particularly with respect to their applicability for risk assessment of future commercial fast breeder reactors. All methods are based on the calculation of accident consequences for relatively few accident scenarios. The role and general impact of uncertainties in fast-reactor accident analysis are discussed. The discussion shows the need for improvement of the methodology. A generalized and improved risk-assessment methodology is outlined and proposed (accident-spectra-progression approach). The generalization consists primarily of an explicit treatment of uncertainties throughout the accident progression. The results of this method are obtained in form of consequence distributions. The width and shape of the distributions depend in part on the superposition of the uncertainties. The first moment of the consequence distribution gives an improved prediction of the ''average'' consequence. The higher-consequence moments can be used for consideration of risk aversion. The assessment of the risk of one or a certain number of nuclear reactors can only provide an ''isolated'' risk assessment. The general problem of safety risk assessment and its relation to public acceptance of certain modes of power production is a much broader problem area, which is also discussed

  7. Development of high performance core for large fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kotaro; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Watari, Yoshio.

    1982-01-01

    Subsequently to the fast breeder prototype reactor ''Monju'', the construction of a demonstration reactor with 1000 MWe output is planned. This research aims at the establishment of the concept of a large core with excellent fuel breeding property and safety for a demonstration and commercial reactors. For the purpose, the optimum specification of fuel design as a large core was clarified, and the new construction of a core was examined, in which a disk-shaped blanket with thin peripheral edge is introduced at the center of a core. As the result, such prospect was obtained that the time for fuel doubling would be 1/2, and the energy generated in a core collapse accident would be about 1/5 as compared with a large core using the same fuel as ''Monju''. Generally, as a core is enlarged, the rate of breeding lowers. If a worst core collapse accident occurs, the scale of accident will be very large in the case of a ''Monju'' type large core. In an unhomogeneous core, an internal blanket is provided in the core for the purpose of improving the breeding property and safety. Hitachi Ltd. developed the concept of a large core unhomogeneous in axial direction and proposed it. The research on the fuel design for a large core, an unhomogeneous core and its core collapse accident is reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Fast breeder cladding tubes provided with helical fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertner, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Miller, H.; Jacobi, O.; Bojarski, E.; Freund, D.; Reiser, H.

    1977-04-01

    Development of fast breeder tubes with helical fins started around 1966. The development was initiated mainly by the search for a more favorable alternative to the conventional spacers such as grids and spiral wires. First of all the possibility was investigated of fabricating them on an industrial scale. The first thermohydraulic and fluiddynamic tests were made in parallel by AEG, GfK and Interatom. Besides the possibility of industrial fabrication the problems of non-destructive testing for geometry and material defects had to be treated with priority. In this report the different stages of development are shown and, finally, two rather large projects are described. These projects are the study ready for the licensing procedure concerning the irradiation of finned tube oxide fuel elements in KNK II and the already completed 19-rod fuel element bundle irradiation experiment Mol 7D of GfK performed in the 500 kW sodium loop of the Belgian BR2 reactor. In this BR2 experiment the maximum target burnup of 85,000 MWd/t of oxide was attained without trouble. (orig.) [de

  9. Status of fast breeder reactor development in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueber, R.; Kathol, W.; Kempken, M.

    1991-01-01

    The KNK, the sodium cooled compact reactor is an experimental nuclear power plant of 20 MW electric power. Since 1977, it has been operated with fast reactor cores as KNK II. The KNK II/3 core was designed. The core fabrication has been largely completed. In 1990, the KNK II plant achieved a time availability of 56%. On January 8, 1991 KNK II was shut down for inspection. Since pre-nuclear commissioning was completed the Kalkar Nuclear Power Station SNR 300 has been operated in a mode similar to that of a power station. In March 1991 the financing partners decided not to prolong the standby phase because they do not think that the last construction permit and the operation permit will be issued within a definite period of time. The partners were convinced that the lack of progress in the licensing procedure was not caused by basic safety deficiencies of the project but by the way the licensing procedure was executed. The German fast breeder programme is now concentrated on contributions to the European Fast Reactor. (author)

  10. Feasibility study of a fission-suppressed tokamak fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.

    1984-12-01

    The preliminary conceptual design of a tokamak fissile fuel producer is described. The blanket technology is based on the fission suppressed breeding concept where neutron multiplication occurs in a bed of 2 cm diameter beryllium pebbles which are cooled by helium at 50 atmospheres pressure. Uranium-233 is bred in thorium metal fuel elements which are in the form of snap rings attached to each beryllium pebble. Tritium is bred in lithium bearing material contained in tubes immersed in the pebble bed and is recovered by a purge flow of helium. The neutron wall load is 3 MW/m 2 and the blanket material is ferritic steel. The net fissile breeding ratio is 0.54 +- 30% per fusion reaction. This results in the production of 4900 kg of 233 U per year from 3000 MW of fusion power. This quantity of fuel will provide makeup fuel for about 12 LWRs of equal thermal power or about 18 1 GW/sub e/ LWRs. The calculated cost of the produced uranium-233 is between $23/g and $53/g or equivalent to $10/kg to $90/kg of U 3 O 8 depending on government financing or utility financing assumptions. Additional topics discussed in the report include the tokamak operating mode (both steady state and long pulse considered), the design and breeding implications of using a poloidal divertor for impurity control, reactor safety, the choice of a tritium breeder, and fuel management

  11. Thermodynamics of ceramic breeder materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzmann, O.

    1989-05-01

    Based on known or deduced phase relationships in ternary lithium oxygen systems such as Li-Al-O, Li-Si-O and Li-Zr-O, the unknown free enthalpy of formation values of ternary compounds are calculated starting from the known data of the compounds of the binary border systems. Criterion for the data assessment is interconsistency of the data of all the compounds within a given multi-component system. With the help of these data the development of partial pressures during the breeding process can be calculated for all the compounds of interest. In order to facilitate a compatibility assessment the quaternary systems Cr-Li-Si-O, Fe-Li-Si-O and Be-Li-Si-O were also investigated and thermodynamic data of pertinent ternary and quaternary compounds determined. Both the partial pressure development and the compatibility behaviour of a lithium containing compound are criteria for its qualification as a breeder material for a fusion reactor. (orig.) [de

  12. Fast breeder reactor-block antiseismic design and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, A.; Forni, M.

    1988-02-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Fast Breeder Reactor-Block Antiseismic Design and Verification'' was organized by the ENEA Fast Reactor Department in co-operation with the International Working Group (IWGFR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the recommendations of the 19th IAEA/IWGFR Meeting. It was held in Bologna, at the Headquarters of the ENEA Fast Reactor Department, on October 12-15, 1987, in the framework of the Celebrations for the Ninth Centenary of the Bologna University. The proceedings of the meeting consists of three parts. Part 1 contains the introduction and general comments, the agenda of the meeting, session summaries, conclusions and recommendations and the list of participants. Part 2 contains 8 status reports of Member States participating in the Working Group. Contributed papers were published in Part 3 and were further subdivided into 5 sessions as follows: whole reactor-block analysis (4 papers); whole reactor-block analysis (sloshing and buckling, seismic isolation effects) (8 papers); detailed core analysis (6 papers); shutdown systems and core structural and functional verifications (6 papers); component and piping analysis (7 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 8 status reports and 31 contributed papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Alloys for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowcliffe, Arthur F.; Bleiberg, Melvin L.; Diamond, Sidney; Bajaj, Ram

    1979-01-01

    An essentially gamma-prime precipitation-hardened iron-chromium-nickel alloy has been designed with emphasis on minimum nickel and chromium contents to reduce the swelling tendencies of these alloys when used in liquid metal fast breeder reactors. The precipitation-hardening components have been designed for phase stability and such residual elements as silicon and boron, also have been selected to minimize swelling. Using the properties of these alloys in one design would result in an increased breeding ratio over 20% cold worked stainless steel, a reference material, of 1.239 to 1.310 and a reduced doubling time from 15.8 to 11.4 years. The gross stoichiometry of the alloying composition comprises from about 0.04% to about 0.06% carbon, from about 0.05% to about 1.0% silicon, up to about 0.1% zirconium, up to about 0.5% vanadium, from about 24% to about 31% nickel, from 8% to about 11% chromium, from about 1.7% to about 3.5% titanium, from about 1.0% to about 1.8% aluminum, from about 0.9% to about 3.7% molybdenum, from about 0.04% to about 0.8% boron, and the balance iron with incidental impurities.

  14. Postvaccinal reovirus infection with high mortality in breeder chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénier, Sonia; Boulianne, Martine; Gagnon, Carl A

    2014-12-01

    A broiler breeder flock was subcutaneously vaccinated at the hatchery with a live avian orthoreovirus (ARV) vaccine against viral arthritis. Chicks began to die at 3 days of age and postmortem examination revealed massive subcutaneous hemorrhages and edema on the dorsal aspect of the neck at the site of vaccination, a severe necrotic hepatitis, and pulmonary edema. Microscopically, the main lesion was a multifocal vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of randomly distributed small groups of hepatocytes with presence of apoptotic and multinucleated syncytial cells. Necrotic foci were also found in the lungs as well as a hemorrhagic, granulomatous, and heterophilic cellulitis and myositis of the neck and a generalized depletion and lymphocytolysis of lymphoid organs. At 8 days of age, birds also began to show hock swelling histologically characterized by a fibrinoleucocytic inflammation of the articulation and tendon sheaths, with hyperplasia of the synovial membrane, and lymphoplasmocytic infiltration. PCR and viral culture of livers were positive for ARV. Partial sequencing of the S1 gene from the virus isolate showed 99.2% to 99.8% homology with three vaccinal strains (ARV S1133, 1733, and 2408). Viral particles compatible with reovirus virions were observed at transmission electron microscopy. Investigation at the hatchery revealed that chicks were inadvertently administered an S1133 reovirus vaccine labeled for water administration in 10- to 17-week-old chickens. This human error is most likely the reason for this unusually severe viremic reovirus infection that affected this flock at such an early age.

  15. Digestible Threonine Levels in the Starter Diet of Broilers Derived from Breeders of Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CBGS Tanure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.

  16. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis and intrauterine infections in repeat breeder cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Prunner, I; Wagener, K; Jaureguiberry, M; de la Sota, R L; Erber, R; Aurich, C; Ehling-Schulz, M; Drillich, M

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and the presence of common uterine pathogens in repeat breeder cows. A total of 121 cows with three or more consecutive artificial inseminations without conception and no clinical signs of disease were defined as repeat breeder cows and were enrolled in this trial. Intrauterine samples were collected with the cytobrush technique to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and bacteriologic infections. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma to assess ovarian activity. Furthermore, breed, parity, history of calving and postpartum uterine infection, clinical findings of transrectal palpation, and backfat thickness were analyzed as potential factors for the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows was 12.7%; but common uterine pathogens, Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, were found in only one and three cows, respectively. Ovarian activity was determined in 95.0% of all cows. Recorded variables had no effect on the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. In conclusion, subclinical endometritis and uterine infections linked to common pathogens were playing a minor role as a cause for repeat breeder cows in this study. Alternative reasons for failure to conceive in these cows are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Incubator Type and Broiler Breeder Age on Hatchability and Chick Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICS Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of broiler breeder age and incubator type on hatching parameters, hatch window, embryo diagnosis results, and hatchling physical quality. The treatments consisted of a combination of three broiler breeder ages (29, 35 and 59 weeks of age and two incubator types (single stage, SS; or and multiple stage, MS. A completely randomized design in a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied. In Experiment I, 1,896 eggs were used and 360 eggs in Experiment II. There was an interaction between breeder age and incubator type only for hatchling physical quality score. Independently of incubator type, hatchability rate, late embryo mortality, and egg contamination were higher in the eggs laid by older breeders (59-wk-old. Early mortality (0-4 days was higher in the embryos from young breeders (29-wk-old. A shorter hatch window birth was obtained in the SS incubator, resulting in higher hatchling body weight relative to egg weight, and better hatchling physical quality score. Both types of incubators provide good conditions for embryo development; however, the physical quality of chicks derived from eggs from intermediate-aged breeders (35-wk-old is better when eggs are incubated in SS incubators.

  18. Mixing requirements for the limiting fuel-coolant interactions in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Jr, W F

    1976-11-01

    An estimation of the mixing requirements for the limiting fuel-coolant interactions in two specific liquid metal cooled fast reactors, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR), has been undertaken. The mixing requirements were represented in terms of the limiting mixing time constants. These constants were determined with the Argonne parametric FCI Computer Model for a range of core involvements. Specifically, fuel masses used ranged from as low as one-seventh of the core to a full core involvement. In general, conservative values for additional FCI input parameters were assumed such that the results would be conservative. With the results in hand, several mechanisms were investigated to determine what limiting effects they could have on the mixing rates of the fuel and coolant during an FCI. The energy requirements for mixing were investigated. The results, however, provided no limiting effects. A solidification limited fragmentation model was also investigated. Although this model provided no absolute limiting effects, it did show that fuel particle sizes of a certain size could indeed limit the fuel-coolant mixing rates. Additionally, the limiting effects were found to be much less significant for UC fuel. The third mechanism that was investigated concerned the limiting effects of the finite fuel release rates as a result of TOP accidents in the FFTF. Equivalent mixing time constants based on the fuel release rates were shown to be greater than the limiting values. Thus, this mechanism was shown to be limiting for the particular accident sequence investigated.

  19. Selective breeding of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses in Algeria: perceptions, objectives and practices of owners-breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia Tennah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This survey, conducted with 461 racehorse owners-breeders in Algeria between 2009 and 2011, investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a full-time professional activity for a third of interviewees. The holdings are small-sized with 77% owning one or two mares. The regular practice of mating is here used to categorize breeders according to their degree of professionalization (38.4% professional vs. 61.6% occasional breeders. Experience in the sector was also used to classify breeders, considering as "junior" the breeders under 10 years experience (38.8% and as "senior" those above 10 years (61.2%. More than professionalization, experience shows a significant impact on practices and objectives. Thus, experience influences breed choice (junior breeders tend to specialize while senior own both Arabian and Thoroughbreds, age at first foaling (sooner among senior breeders, information sources considered for selecting stallions (senior use more diversified sources, the importance granted to the price of mating (greater for junior breeders, the importance granted to the ranking compared to earnings (the ranking being more important to junior breeders, and the priority given to breeding (junior breeders give higher priority to a buy-race-resell activity. Finally, racehorse breeding is poorly professionalized, the only financial goal being cost coverage. Despite inappropriate practices, an interest for selection is noticed.

  20. Morphological model of female members of the Communal Police of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Raša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communal Police of Belgrade was founded in 2010. The specific tasks of communal police officers define their professional and work profile, health status, relevant personality traits, the appropriate level of general and special physical fitness, and morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to define the current state of basic morphological characteristics of female uniformed structure of Communal Police of Belgrade. The sample consisted of 40 female communal police officers aged 29.7 ± 6.2 years. All measurements were made during 2011 at the Motor Research Laboratory (MRL, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade. Measurements were carried out by a standardized procedure using the newest generation analyser of body structure: InBody 720. The obtained values of all variables were processed using basic descriptive statistics. The results showed that the average body weight (BW of the subjects was 63.61±9.81 kg, body height (BH 166.9±5.7 cm, body mass index (BMI 22.97±3.73 kg/m2 and the average structure of body composition as follows: 21.14±2.08 L of intracellular fluid (ICW, 13.01±1.30 L of extracellular fluid (ECW, 9.13±0.91 kg of proteins, 3.20±0.35 kg of minerals, 2.67±0.26 kg of bones mass, 17.10±6.43 kg of body fat mass (BFM, 26.24±5.99 % of percent body fat (PBF, area of internal organs affected by fatty deposits (visceral fat was 57.07±25.67 cm2, fitness score index was 75.80±3.81 points, 30.27±3.09 kg of living cells mass in the body, while the level of the basal metabolism was 1372.0±100.0 kcal. The results lead us to conclude that the current morphological status of female communal police officers belongs to the category of the population with normal anthropomorphological status of citizens of the Republic of Serbia.

  1. Maternal Smoke Exposure Impairs the Long-Term Fertility of Female Offspring in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camlin, Nicole J; Sobinoff, Alexander P; Sutherland, Jessie M; Beckett, Emma L; Jarnicki, Andrew G; Vanders, Rebecca L; Hansbro, Philip M; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Holt, Janet E

    2016-02-01

    The theory of fetal origins of adult disease was first proposed in 1989, and in the decades since, a wide range of other diseases from obesity to asthma have been found to originate in early development. Because mammalian oocyte development begins in fetal life it has been suggested that environmental and lifestyle factors of the mother could directly impact the fertility of subsequent generations. Cigarette smoke is a known ovotoxicant in active smokers, yet disturbingly 13% of Australian and 12% of US women continue to smoke throughout pregnancy. The focus of our investigation was to characterize the adverse effects of smoking on ovary and oocyte quality in female offspring exposed in utero. Pregnant mice were nasally exposed to cigarette smoke for 12 wk throughout pregnancy/lactation, and ovary and oocyte quality of the F1 (maternal smoke exposed) generation was examined. Neonatal ovaries displayed abnormal somatic cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, leading to a reduction in follicle numbers. Further investigation found that altered somatic cell proliferation and reduced follicle number continued into adulthood; however, apoptosis did not. This reduction in follicles resulted in decreased oocyte numbers, with these oocytes found to have elevated levels of oxidative stress, altered metaphase II spindle, and reduced sperm-egg interaction. These ovarian and oocyte changes ultimately lead to subfertility, with maternal smoke-exposed animals having smaller litters and also taking longer to conceive. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that in utero and lactational exposure to cigarette smoke can have long-lasting effects on the fertility of the next generation of females. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  2. Internal dosimetry with the Monte Carlo code GATE: validation using the ICRP/ICRU female reference computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoing, Daphnée; Marcatili, Sara; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bardiès, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to validate GATE-based clinical scale absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine dosimetry. GATE (version 6.2) and MCNPX (version 2.7.a) were used to derive dosimetric parameters (absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values) for the reference female computational model proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP report 110. Monoenergetic photons and electrons (from 50 keV to 2 MeV) and four isotopes currently used in nuclear medicine (fluorine-18, lutetium-177, iodine-131 and yttrium-90) were investigated. Absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values were generated with GATE and MCNPX for 12 regions of interest in the ICRP 110 female computational model, thereby leading to 144 source/target pair configurations. Relative differences between GATE and MCNPX obtained in specific configurations (self-irradiation or cross-irradiation) are presented. Relative differences in absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions or S-values are below 10%, and in most cases less than 5%. Dosimetric results generated with GATE for the 12 volumes of interest are available as supplemental data. GATE can be safely used for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry at the clinical scale. This makes GATE a viable option for Monte Carlo modelling of both imaging and absorbed dose in nuclear medicine.

  3. Similar response in male and female B10.RIII mice in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Barrios, Ysamar; Arnau, Maria-Rosa

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several reports have been published on the gender differences associated with allergies in mice. GOAL: In the present study we investigate the influence of gender on allergy response using a strain of mice, B10.RIII, which is commonly used in the collagen-induced arthritis murine model....... METHODS: Both male and female B10.RIII young mice were immunized with OVA and challenged four times with OVA intranasally. Samples were taken 24 h after the last challenge, and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and parenchyma, Th-2 cytokines in BAL, total and antigen-specific IgE in sera...

  4. Status of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This document represents a compilation of the information on the status of fast breeder reactor development. It is intended to provide complete and authoritative information for academic, energy, industrial and planning organizations in the IAEA Member States. The Report also provides extended reference and bibliography lists. A summarized overview of the national programmes of LMFBR development is given in Chapter II. Chapter III on LMFBR experience provides a brief description and purpose of all fast reactors - experimental, demonstration and commercial size - that have been or are planned for construction and operation. Fast reactor physics is dealt with in Chapter IV. Besides the basic facts and definitions of neutronics and the compilation and measurement of nuclear data, a broad range of the calculation methods, codes, and the state of the art is described. In Chapter V, fuels and materials are described. The emphasis is on the design and development experience gained with mixed oxide fuel pins and subassemblies. Structural materials, blanket elements and absorber materials are also discussed. Chaper VI presents a broad overview of the technical and engineering aspects of LMFBR power plants. LMFBR core design is described in detail, followed by the components of the main heat transport system, the refuelling equipment, and auxiliary systems. Chapter VII on safety is a compilation of the current safety design concepts of LMFBRs and new trends in safety criteria and safety goals. The chapter concludes with risk analyses of LMFBR technology. In Chapter VIII, the systems approach has been emphasized in the consideration of the whole LMFBR fuel cycle. Special emphasis is placed on safeguards aspects and the environmental impact of the LMFBR fuel cycle. Chapter IX describes deployment considerations of LMFBRs. Special emphasis is placed on economic aspects of the LMFBR power plant and its related fuel cycle. Finally, Chapter X provides an overall summary and a

  5. Decommissioning of experimental breeder reactor - II. Complex, post sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S. P.; Knight, C.J.; Sherman, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors. (author)

  6. Stressful Life Events and the Tripartite Model: Relations to Anxiety and Depression in Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…

  7. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  8. Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massimino, R.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core

  9. Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimino, R.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core.

  10. Psychometric Factors Affecting Female Employees Physical Activity Status: Applying Trans-Theoretical Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafieinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sedentary women are at risk for problems such as obesity, diabetes, depression and cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, due to long working hours and excessive travel time from home to work and vice versa the employees have minimal physical activity .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective psychometric factors on physical activity of female employees, according to the Trans-theoretical Model and theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 95 female staff of Tehran University was selected through a call. In order to collect data, a questionnaire with acceptable, reliability and validity, including demographic data, and constructs of planned behavior theory as well as Trans-theoretical Model was used. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 statisti-cal tests; correlation and stepwise regression were also performed. Results: In this study, 72% of the population was in the inactive stages (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation and only 28% of patients had regular physical activity. There was a significant positive correlation between the behavioral intention and attitude scores (P = 0.02, perceived behavioral control (P = 0.000, self-efficacy (P = 0.000 and stage of change (P = 0.000, but subjective norms score (P = 0.605 was irrelevant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that self-efficacy and perceived behavioral con-trol can affect female employees’ intention and physical activity behaviors. So, the authori-ties should seriously consider these factors in educational planning for this stratum of society, remove barriers for the participation of more employees in sporting activities, and offer fa-cilitators at the community level. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:350-359

  11. Individual quality and age but not environmental or social conditions modulate costs of reproduction in a capital breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeffe, Lucie; Poissant, Jocelyn; McLoughlin, Philip D

    2017-08-01

    Costs associated with reproduction are widely known to play a role in the evolution of reproductive tactics with consequences to population and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Evaluating these costs as they pertain to species in the wild remains an important goal of evolutionary ecology. Individual heterogeneity, including differences in individual quality (i.e., among-individual differences in traits associated with survival and reproduction) or state, and variation in environmental and social conditions can modulate the costs of reproduction; however, few studies have considered effects of these factors simultaneously. Taking advantage of a detailed, long-term dataset for a population of feral horses (Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada), we address the question of how intrinsic (quality, age), environmental (winter severity, location), and social conditions (group size, composition, sex ratio, density) influence the costs of reproduction on subsequent reproduction. Individual quality was measured using a multivariate analysis on a combination of four static and dynamic traits expected to depict heterogeneity in individual performance. Female quality and age interacted with reproductive status of the previous year to determine current reproductive effort, while no effect of social or environmental covariates was found. High-quality females showed higher probabilities of giving birth and weaning their foal regardless of their reproductive status the previous year, while those of lower quality showed lower probabilities of producing foals in successive years. Middle-aged (prime) females had the highest probability of giving birth when they had not reproduced the year before, but no such relationship with age was found among females that had reproduced the previous year, indicating that prime-aged females bear higher costs of reproduction. We show that individual quality and age were key factors modulating the costs of reproduction in a capital breeder but that

  12. Model characteristics of competitive activity of different skilled female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Y. Shchepotina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine and compare the model characteristics of competitive activity and an integrated assessment of highly qualified and skilled volleyball players. Material : the study involved 49 highly qualified and 53 qualified volleyball players. Results : identified indicators of competitive activity (intensity factors, mobility, aggressiveness, efficiency and effectiveness ratio of attack-block and the integral evaluation of volleyball players of various skill levels. Developed a scale evaluation. Built model. Also, a comparison of model characteristics of competitive activity volleyball. Conclusions : the significant differences are fixed model characteristics of competitive activity in athletes of high qualification of different roles. Qualified volleyball, these differences are not so pronounced. This demonstrates the universality of minor league players.

  13. Heterogeneity in Returns to Work Experience: A Dynamic Model of Female Labor Force Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Yamada

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides structural estimates of heterogeneous returns to work experience for Japanese married women. A dynamic model of labor force participation is used to account for dynamic self-selection into employment. Heterogeneity is incorporated into the model in a way that allows for the multidimensional skill heterogeneity in employment and home production and for the individual-specific slope and curvature of experience effect on earnings. The structural estimates and their comparison...

  14. An experimental model for studying claw lesions in growing female pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Anne-Charlotte; Svendsen, Jörgen; Botermans, Jos; Bergsten, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Problems with claw lesions leading to lameness are a growing concern in pig production. However, the causes and development of claw lesions are poorly understood and studies on prevention of claw lesion problems in gifts and sows are limited.This study tested a new experimental model which facilitates evaluation of the impact of different risk factors on pig feet lesions.The model consisted of using young gilts with a well-known background and promoting traumatic claw lesions for study purpos...

  15. Breakfast consumption determinants among female high school students of Yazd Province based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabbeik, Akram; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Khosravi, Hassan Mozaffari; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim Despite the importance of breakfast, especially for students, unfortunately, this meal is usually ignored in daily routine. The aim of this study was to identify determinants among female high school students of Yazd province based on the Pender Health Promotion Model. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted to examine 200 female high school students of Yazd, selected by cluster sampling method in 2016. A researcher-made questionnaire, based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model, was used as a data collection tool. A panel of experts and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were used to confirm the questionnaire validity and reliability. In order to analyze descriptive data, SPSS version 22 was used. AMOS software (v.23) was employed for path analysis. Results Direct impact of activity –related affect (0.300), interpersonal influences (0.276), and perceived barriers to eating breakfast (−0.223) were approved at significance level p<0.000. By influencing perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy and previous related behavior indirectly affected breakfast consumption. These components determined 33% of breakfast consumption. Conclusion By planning to create a positive feeling in students to have breakfast, to involve family and friends to encourage students to eat breakfast, to reduce barriers to have breakfast by increasing students’ self-efficacy, the behavior of having breakfast among students can be improved. PMID:28979742

  16. Breakfast consumption determinants among female high school students of Yazd Province based on Pender's Health Promotion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabbeik, Akram; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Khosravi, Hassan Mozaffari; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Despite the importance of breakfast, especially for students, unfortunately, this meal is usually ignored in daily routine. The aim of this study was to identify determinants among female high school students of Yazd province based on the Pender Health Promotion Model. This was a cross-sectional study conducted to examine 200 female high school students of Yazd, selected by cluster sampling method in 2016. A researcher-made questionnaire, based on Pender's Health Promotion Model, was used as a data collection tool. A panel of experts and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were used to confirm the questionnaire validity and reliability. In order to analyze descriptive data, SPSS version 22 was used. AMOS software (v.23) was employed for path analysis. Direct impact of activity -related affect (0.300), interpersonal influences (0.276), and perceived barriers to eating breakfast (-0.223) were approved at significance level p<0.000. By influencing perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy and previous related behavior indirectly affected breakfast consumption. These components determined 33% of breakfast consumption. By planning to create a positive feeling in students to have breakfast, to involve family and friends to encourage students to eat breakfast, to reduce barriers to have breakfast by increasing students' self-efficacy, the behavior of having breakfast among students can be improved.

  17. Estimating the magnitude of female genital mutilation/cutting in Norway: an extrapolation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyada, Mai M; Norberg-Schulz, Marthe; Johansen, R Elise B

    2016-02-02

    With emphasis on policy implications, the main objective of this study was to estimate the numbers of two main groups affected by FGM/C in Norway: 1) those already subjected to FGM/C and therefore potentially in need for health care and 2) those at risk of FGM/C and consequently the target of preventive and protective measures. Special attention has been paid to type III as it is associated with more severe complications. Register data from Statistics Norway (SSB) was combined with population-based survey data on FGM/C in the women/girls' countries of origin. As of January 1(st) 2013, there were 44,467 first and second-generation female immigrants residing in Norway whose country of origin is one of the 29 countries where FGM/C is well documented. About 40 pct. of these women and girls are estimated to have already been subjected to FGM/C prior to immigration to Norway. Type III is estimated in around 50 pct. of those already subjected to FGM/C. Further, a total of 15,500 girls are identified as potentially at risk, out of which an approximate number of girls ranging between 3000 and 7900 are estimated to be at risk of FGM/C. Reliable estimates on FGM/C are important for evidence-based policies. The study findings indicate that about 17,300 women and girls in Norway can be in need of health care, in particular the 9100 who are estimated to have type III. Preventive and protective measures are also needed to protect girls at risk (3000 to 7900) from being subjected to FGM/C. Nevertheless, as there are no appropriate tools at the moment that can single these girls out of all who are potentially at risk, all girls in the potentially at risk group (15,500) should be targeted with preventive measures.

  18. Explorable three-dimensional digital model of the female pelvis, pelvic contents, and perineum for anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergovich, Aimée; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using cryosection images obtained from the Visible Human Project, in conjunction with a general-purpose three-dimensional segmentation and surface-rendering program. Anatomical areas of interest were identified and labeled on consecutive images. Each 2D slice was reassembled, forming a three-dimensional model. The model includes the pelvic girdle, organs of the pelvic cavity, surrounding musculature, the perineum, neurovascular structures, and the peritoneum. Each structure can be controlled separately (e.g. added, subtracted, made transparent) to reveal organization and/or relationships between structures. The model can be manipulated and/or projected stereoscopically to visualize structures and relationships from different angles with excellent spatial perception. Because of its ease of use and versatility, we expect this model may provide a powerful teaching tool for learning in the classroom or in the laboratory. (c) 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. R and D activities of the liquid breeder blanket in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won, E-mail: dwlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MARS and GAMMA were developed for He coolant and liquid breeder analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FMS/FMS and Be/FMS joining methods were developed and verified with high heat flux test. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperature and pressure nitrogen and He loops were constructed for heat transfer experiment for developed codes validation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A PbLi breeder loop was constructed for components, MHD, and corrosion tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A chamber for tritium extraction with a gas-liquid contact method was constructed. - Abstract: A liquid breeder blanket has been developed in parallel with the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Test Blanket Module (TBM) program in Korea. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed the common fields of a solid TBM such as design tools, structural material, fabrication methods, and He cooling technology to support this concept for the ITER. Also, other fields such as a liquid breeder technology and tritium extraction have been developed from the designed liquid TBM. For design tools, system codes for safety analysis such as Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) and GAs Multi-component Mixture Analysis (GAMMA) were developed for He coolant and liquid breeder. For the fabrication methods, Ferritic Martensitic Steel (FMS) to FMS and Be to FMS joinings with a Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) were developed and verified with a high heat flux test of up to 0.5-1.0 MW/m{sup 2}. Moreover, three mockups were successfully fabricated and a 10-channel prototype is being fabricated to make a rectangular channel FW. For the integrity of the joining, two high heat flux test facilities were constructed, and one using an electron beam has been constructed. With the 6 MPa nitrogen loop, a basic heat transfer experiment for code validation was performed. From the verification of the components such as preheater and

  20. Methods of preventing fast breeder reactor shield plug from adhesion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Koh; Hara, Johji; Nei, Hiromichi; Daiku, Motoichi; Wagatsuma, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    The shield plug, which is located at the upper part of a reactor vessel of a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, is composed of a rotating and a stationary plug. Fuel exchange is performed easily by the rotation of the rotating plug. The vapor or mist of sodium evaporated from liquid sodium deposits on the gap surfaces of the rotating and stationary plugs and is solidified or changed into a solid reactant. If such condition continues for a long period, harmful effects are exerted on the fuel exchange operation. In order to develop methods of preventing the sodium deposition, investigation was made on the phenomenon of sodium deposition. By the use of the testing equipment simulating the shield plug, deposition tests and specimen measurements were made for different gap width test section size and condition. On the basis of the effects of these parameters clarified by experiments, the effectiveness of three kinds of mechanism for preventing sodium deposition were investigated experimentally. In addition, by using a thermo-siphon analogical model, analysis was performed to deduce experimental equations for sodium deposition. (author)

  1. Tritium permeation and recovery for the helium-cooled molten salt fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    Design concepts are presented to control tritium permeation from a molten salt/helium fusion breeder reactor. This study assumes tritium to be a gas dissolved in molten salt, with TF formation suppressed. Tritium permeates readily through the hot steel tubes of the reactor and steam generator and will leak into the steam system at the rate of about one gram per day in the absence of special permeation barriers, assuming that 1% of the helium coolant flow rate is processed for tritium recovery at 90% efficiency per pass. The proposed permeation barrier for the reactor tubes is a 10 μm layer of tungsten which, in principle, will reduce tritium blanket permeation by a factor of about 300 below the bare-steel rate. A research and development effort is needed to prove feasibility or to develop alternative barriers. A 1 mm aluminum sleeve is proposed to suppress permeation through the steam generator tubes. This gives a calculated reduction factor of more than 500 relative to bare steel, including a factor of 30 due to an assumed oxide layer. The permeation equations are developed in detail for a multi-layer tube wall including a frozen salt layer and with two fluid boundary-layer resistances. Conditions are discussed for which Sievert's or Henry's Law materials become flux limiters. An analytical model is developed to establish the tritium split between wall permeation and reactor-tube flow

  2. Estimated recurrence frequencies for initiating accident categories associated with the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copus, E R

    1982-04-01

    Estimated recurrence frequencies for each of twenty-five generic LMFBR initiating accident categories were quantified using the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design. These estimates were obtained using simplified systems fault trees and functional event tree models from the Accident Delineation Study Phase I Final Report coupled with order-of-magnitude estimates for the initiator-dependent failure probabilities of the individual CRBRP engineered safety systems. Twelve distinct protected accident categories where SCRAM is assumed to be successful are estimated to occur at a combined rate of 10/sup -3/ times per year while thirteen unprotected accident categories in which SCRAM fails are estimated to occur at a combined rate on the order of 10/sup -5/ times per year. These estimates are thought to be representative despite the fact that human performance factors, maintenance and repair, as well as input common cause uncertainties, were not treated explicitly. The overall results indicate that for the CRBRP design no single accident category appears to be dominant, nor can any be totally eliminated from further investigation in the areas of accident phenomenology for in-core events and post-accident phenomenology for containment.

  3. The DSNP simulation language and its application to liquid-metal fast breeder reactor transient analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphier, D.; Madell, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    A new, special purpose block-oriented simulation language, the Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power Plants (DSNP), was used to perform a dynamic analysis of several conceptual design studies of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. The DSNP being a high level language enables the user to transform a power plant flow chart directly into a simulation program using a small number of DSNP statements. In addition to the language statements, the DSNP system has its own precompiler and an extensive library containing models of power plant components, algorithms of physical processes, material property functions, and various auxiliary functions. The comparative analysis covered oxide-fueled versus metal-fueled core designs and loop- versus pool-type reactors. The question of interest was the rate of change of the temperatures in the components in the upper plenum and the primary loop, in particular the reactor outlet nozzle and the intermediate heat exchanger inlet nozzle during different types of transients. From the simulations performed it can be concluded that metal-fueled cores will have much faster temperature transients than oxide-fueled cores due mainly to the much higher thermal diffusivity of the metal fuel. The transients in the pool-type design (either with oxide fuel or metal fuel) will be much slower than in the loop-type design due to the large heat capacity of the sodium pool. The DSNP language was demonstrated to be well suited to perform many types of transient analysis in nuclear power plants

  4. Tridimensional ultrasonic images analysis for the in service inspection of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancre, M.

    1999-11-01

    Tridimensional image analysis provides a set of methods for the intelligent extraction of information in order to visualize, recognize or inspect objects in volumetric images. In this field of research, we are interested in algorithmic and methodological aspects to extract surface visual information embedded in volume ultrasonic images. The aim is to help a non-acoustician operator, possibly the system itself, to inspect surfaces of vessel and internals in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). Those surfaces are immersed in liquid metal, what justifies the ultrasonic technology choice. We expose firstly a state of the art on the visualization of volume ultrasonic images, the methods of noise analysis, the geometrical modelling for surface analysis and finally curves and surfaces matching. These four points are then inserted in a global analysis strategy that relies on an acoustical analysis (echoes recognition), an object analysis (object recognition and reconstruction) and a surface analysis (surface defects detection). Few literature can be found on ultrasonic echoes recognition through image analysis. We suggest an original method that can be generalized to all images with structured and non-structured noise. From a technical point of view, this methodology applied to echoes recognition turns out to be a cooperative approach between morphological mathematics and snakes (active contours). An entropy maximization technique is required for volumetric data binarization. (author)

  5. Advanced automation concepts applied to Experimental Breeder Reactor-II startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkan, R.C.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Bywater, R.L.

    1991-08-01

    The major objective of this work is to demonstrate through simulations that advanced liquid-metal reactor plants can be operated from low power by computer control. Development of an automatic control system with this objective will help resolve specific issues and provide proof through demonstration that automatic control for plant startup is feasible. This paper presents an advanced control system design for startup of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) located at Idaho Falls, Idaho. The design incorporates recent methods in nonlinear control with advanced diagnostics techniques such as neural networks to form an integrated architecture. The preliminary evaluations are obtained in a simulated environment by a low-order, valid nonlinear model. Within the framework of phase 1 research, the design includes an inverse dynamics controller, a fuzzy controller, and an artificial neural network controller. These three nonlinear control modules are designed to follow the EBR-2 startup trajectories in a multi-input/output regime. They are coordinated by a supervisory routine to yield a fault-tolerant, parallel operation. The control system operates in three modes: manual, semiautomatic, and fully automatic control. The simulation results of the EBR-2 startup transients proved the effectiveness of the advanced concepts. The work presented in this paper is a preliminary feasibility analysis and does not constitute a final design of an automated startup control system for EBR-2. 14 refs., 43 figs

  6. Formation of the research competence of future breeder-geneticists during the practical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Павлівна Антіпова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article were analyzed content, structure and special features of the practical training of the future breeder-geneticists. There was specified that for bachelor breeder-geneticists of the 6.090101 “Agronomy” training direction are provided the following practices: botany, tractors and cars, soil science, agricultural machines, fruit growing, vegetable growing, agriculture, agrochemistry, plant growing, entomology, phytopathology, technology of retreatment and preservation of plant growing production, selection and seed growing of agricultural crops; work practice on agronomy.In the article was grounded the structural-logic scheme of organization of practices of the future breeder-geneticists for forming their professional research competences. There were analyzed functions and methods of scientific-cognitive activity, forms, means and methods of the practical education. According to the types of practices there were elucidated and grounded the structure of practical training of the future breeder-geneticists – natural-technical and special-professional – educational and work practices.The natural-technical, special-professional and production-technological practices form in bachelor agronomists breeder-geneticists professional scientific-research competences: theoretical-analytical ones – geosphere, bio-geo-physical-chemical, meteorological-climatological, informative, fundamental and applied ecological, fundamental-scientific agrosphere; professional competences of professionally oriented and special practical training – agricultural, branch, techno-service, technological, selective, special-genetic-engineering ones; managerial ones

  7. Study on advanced structural design for commercialized fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Aoto, Kazumi; Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai

    2003-05-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the structural design technology. The research scope was identified as (1) FDS (FBR Design Standard), (2) Standardization of new material, and (3) System Based Code for Integrity, and the results of this year's studies are summarized as follows. (1) FDS (FBR Design Standard). R and D policy of Phase II study considering to the newest needs demanded for structural design were clarified, and R and D items were settled concretely. As for failure criteria, preliminary ratcheting-fatigue tests were conducted with rational methods, and Negligible Creep curves that settle creep designing region rationally were expanded their applying condition. R and D policy and items of guideline for inelastic analysis were clarified, and analyzing methodologies were studied. Summering up exemplification of thermal load prediction methodologies were progressed. To predict thermal striping loads, advanced frequency response function of thermal stress, and fatigue evaluation methodology were studied. (2) Standardization of new material. As for candidate 12-chromium stainless steel (added tungsten, non-added tungsten), that is expected to improve strength of components of commercialized FR, short and medium-term material tests, and creep-fatigue tests at small strain range were conducted. As for above candidate steel, TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding method was recommended. Requirements to standardize new materials and index to select new materials were studied

  8. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition. The

  9. Heavy liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor. Results in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takatsugu; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Umetsu, Youichirou; Ichimiya, Masakazu

    2000-07-01

    Based on the medium and long-term program of JNC, the feasibility study for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) including related nuclear fuel cycles has been started from the 1999 fiscal year. Various options of FBR plant systems have been studied and a concept of Heavy Liquid Metal cooled FBRs is one of these options. The purpose of this paper is to research and evaluate Heavy Liquid Metal cooled FBRs on the basis of literatures. First, we selected four types of plant concepts listed below. Concept 1: Large-scale pond type reactor with Pb cooled. Concept 2: Large-scale loop type reactor with Pb cooled. Concept 3: Medium-scale module tank type reactor with Pb cooled. Concept 4: Small-scale module tank type reactor with Pb-Bi cooled. Concept 1 and 2 are selected to seek for scale merit on economical aspect. In Concept 3 and 4, we tried to reduce the inventory of HLMC and to ease the load conditions on structures and seek for competitiveness with module effect such as mass production and learning effect. Through a preliminary design study, we identified some technical features of each concept and roughly evaluated economical competitiveness based on total weight of the NSSSs. From this study, we concluded. In general, the large-scale type concepts have little economical advantage because of its huge amount of material needed for its severe load conditions. (Concept 1 and 2). Even for the large-scale pond type reactor, the conclusion seems to be the same. Total amount of the thermal shielding material became huge. Aseismatic structure makes the amount of material increase under the Japanese seismic condition. (Concept 1) For the large-scale loop type reactor, we selected side entry and dual walled piping concept with slide-joint inner wall to cope with thermal expansion of piping system. However, there seemed to be difficulty with compatibility between slide-joint and oxide film corrosion prevention measures. (Concept 2) The medium and small modular type seemed to be

  10. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su’ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of < 0.2% dk/k, and negative coolant reactivity coefficient. One of the nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The

  11. Effect of an intervention based on socio-ecological model in promoting physical activity of female employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amineh Sahranavard Gargari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although active life style is one of the main determining factors of health, the level of regular physical activities in women is less than in men and even this level decreases with aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an intervention based on the social ecological model on promotion of physical activity among female employees. In this study, 160 women employed at Shabestar universities were selected, and randomly divided into two groups of control (n=80 and intervention (n=80. The intervention group received an instructional program according to the model, including one session for general instruction and four sessions for group discussion along with daily walking for 30 minutes within 8 weeks. In order to objectively measure the physical activity, the pedometer was used and to measure the perceived physical activity, the long form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. The variables related to the components of socio-ecological model were measured using the socio-ecological model questionnaire. A significant difference was found between two groups after the intervention in terms of That is, the average number of steps in walking in the intervention group increased significantly (from 4204 to 7882 steps per day, while it did not significantly increase in the control group. Thus, it can be argued that designing and implementing the interventional programs based on the socio-ecological model can promote physical activity behavior among employed women

  12. A comparison of foetal SAR in three sets of pregnant female models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimbylow, Peter J; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Xu, X George

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the foetal SAR in the HPA hybrid mathematical phantoms with the 26-week foetal model developed at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, and the set of 13-, 26- and 38-week boundary representation models produced at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. FDTD calculations are performed at a resolution of 2 mm for a plane wave with a vertically aligned electric field incident upon the body from the front, back and two sides from 20 MHz to 3 GHz under isolated conditions. The external electric field values required to produce the ICNIRP public exposure localized restriction of 2 W kg -1 when averaged over 10 g of the foetus are compared with the ICNIRP reference levels.

  13. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hasenauer, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L.; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2007-07-01

    Anthropomorphic computational phantoms are computer models of the human body for use in the evaluation of dose distributions resulting from either internal or external radiation sources. Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed and widely utilized for organ dose assessment: (1) stylized phantoms and (2) voxel phantoms which describe the human anatomy via mathematical surface equations or 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Although stylized phantoms based on mathematical equations can be very flexible in regard to making changes in organ position and geometrical shape, they are limited in their ability to fully capture the anatomic complexities of human internal anatomy. In turn, voxel phantoms have been developed through image-based segmentation and correspondingly provide much better anatomical realism in comparison to simpler stylized phantoms. However, they themselves are limited in defining organs presented in low contrast within either magnetic resonance or computed tomography images—the two major sources in voxel phantom construction. By definition, voxel phantoms are typically constructed via segmentation of transaxial images, and thus while fine anatomic features are seen in this viewing plane, slice-to-slice discontinuities become apparent in viewing the anatomy of voxel phantoms in the sagittal or coronal planes. This study introduces the concept of a hybrid computational newborn phantom that takes full advantage of the best features of both its stylized and voxel counterparts: flexibility in phantom alterations and anatomic realism. Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces, a mathematical modeling tool traditionally applied to graphical animation studies, was adopted to replace the limited mathematical surface equations of stylized phantoms. A previously developed whole-body voxel phantom of the newborn female was utilized as a realistic anatomical framework for hybrid phantom construction. The construction of a hybrid

  14. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hasenauer, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E

    2007-01-01

    Anthropomorphic computational phantoms are computer models of the human body for use in the evaluation of dose distributions resulting from either internal or external radiation sources. Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed and widely utilized for organ dose assessment: (1) stylized phantoms and (2) voxel phantoms which describe the human anatomy via mathematical surface equations or 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Although stylized phantoms based on mathematical equations can be very flexible in regard to making changes in organ position and geometrical shape, they are limited in their ability to fully capture the anatomic complexities of human internal anatomy. In turn, voxel phantoms have been developed through image-based segmentation and correspondingly provide much better anatomical realism in comparison to simpler stylized phantoms. However, they themselves are limited in defining organs presented in low contrast within either magnetic resonance or computed tomography images-the two major sources in voxel phantom construction. By definition, voxel phantoms are typically constructed via segmentation of transaxial images, and thus while fine anatomic features are seen in this viewing plane, slice-to-slice discontinuities become apparent in viewing the anatomy of voxel phantoms in the sagittal or coronal planes. This study introduces the concept of a hybrid computational newborn phantom that takes full advantage of the best features of both its stylized and voxel counterparts: flexibility in phantom alterations and anatomic realism. Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces, a mathematical modeling tool traditionally applied to graphical animation studies, was adopted to replace the limited mathematical surface equations of stylized phantoms. A previously developed whole-body voxel phantom of the newborn female was utilized as a realistic anatomical framework for hybrid phantom construction. The construction of a hybrid

  15. Bone mineral density of tibae and femura of broiler breeders: growth, development and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICL Almeida Paz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow-up the physiological variations in the development of the bone tissue, associating them with the egg production curve. This study was carried out in the facilities of the Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia of the UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil. Twenty-three families of Ross broiler breeders were used, each family consisting of 13 females and 1 male, distributed in 23 pens of 5.0m² each. The management was that recommended by the genetic company manual (Agroceres Ross, 2003, with daily feeding until 6th week of age; and birds were fed according to a 5:2 schedule (5 days fed, 2 days of fasting between 7 and 17 weeks of age, returning to daily feeding starting at 18 weeks of age. Birds did not receive afternoon calcium supplementation. On the fourth week of rearing, 84 females were removed for bone analyses of the right tibia and femur, using optical densitometry in radiographic images technique. These analyses were sequentially carried out in 4, 8, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30, 35, 42, 47, and 52 week-old birds. The egg production curve of the birds was followed-up and associated to bone mineral density results. For bone mineral density evaluation (BMD birds were divided by weight categories as light, intermediate, or heavy within each data age. BMD values of the tibias were not influenced by weight range, but by the age at collection. On the other hand, interactions were found among femur BMD values and weight and age categories. There was no correlation between eggshell quality and femur BMD. A negative correlation (-0.15 was observed between tibia BMD and eggshell percentage. It was possible to conclude that the egg production has little influence on bone mineral density of the birds probably because there was no need of bone mineral mobilization during the production period, since the observed egg production was below that observed under commercial conditions.

  16. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the nonlinear structural dynamics of Fast Breeder Reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebe, R.

    1978-04-01

    This study describes theoretical and experimental investigations of the dynamic deformation behavior of single and clustered fuel elements under local fault conditions in a Fast Breeder Reactor core. In particular an energetic molten-fuel-coolant-interaction (FCI) is assumed in one subassembly with corresponding pressure pulses, which may rupture the wrapper and load the adjacent fuel elements impulsively. Associated coherent structural deformation may exceed tolerable and damage the control rods. To attack the outlined coupled fluid-structure-interaction problem it is assumed, that the loading at the structures is known in space and time, and that there is no feedback from the deformation response. Then current FCI-knowledge and experience from underwater core model explosion tests is utilized to estimate upper limits of relevant pulse characteristics. As a first step the static carrying capacity of the rigid-plastic hexagonal wrapper tube is calculated using the methods of limit analysis. Then for a general dynamic simulation of the complete elastoplastic subassembly response the concept of a discrete nonlinear hinge is introduced. A corresponding physical lumped parameter hinge model is presented, and general equations of motion are derived using D'Alembert's principle. Application to the static and dynamic analysis of a single complete fuel element includes the semiempirical modelling of the fuel-pin bundle by a homogeneous compressible medium. Most important conclusions are concerning the capability of the theoretical models, the failure modes and threshold load levels of single as well as clustered SNR-300 fuel elements and the safety relevant finding, that only limited deformations are found in the first row around the incident element. This shows in agreement with explosion test results that the structured and closely spaced fuel elements constitute an effective, inherent barrier against extreme dynamic loadings. (orig.) [de

  17. Women who sexually offend display three main offense styles: a reexamination of the descriptive model of female sexual offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A; Waugh, Greg; Taylor, Kelly; Blanchette, Kelly; O'Connor, Alisha; Blake, Emily; Ciardha, Caoilte Ó

    2014-06-01

    This study examined a theory constructed to describe the offense process of women who sexually offend-the Descriptive Model of Female Sexual Offending (DMFSO). In particular, this report sets out to establish whether the original three pathways (or offending styles) identified within United Kingdom convicted female sexual offenders and described within the DMFSO (i.e., Explicit-Approach, Directed-Avoidant, Implicit-Disorganized) were applicable to a small sample (N = 36) of North American women convicted of sexual offending. Two independent raters examined the offense narratives of the sample and-using the DMFSO-coded each script according to whether it fitted one of the three original pathways. Results suggested that the three existing pathways of the DMFSO represented a reasonable description of offense pathways for a sample of North American women convicted of sexual offending. No new pathways were identified. A new "Offense Pathway Checklist" devised to aid raters' decision making is described and future research and treatment implications explored.

  18. Exploring neighborhood inequality in female breast cancer incidence in Tehran using Bayesian spatial models and a spatial scan statistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Ayubi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to explore the spatial pattern of female breast cancer (BC incidence at the neighborhood level in Tehran, Iran. METHODS The present study included all registered incident cases of female BC from March 2008 to March 2011. The raw standardized incidence ratio (SIR of BC for each neighborhood was estimated by comparing observed cases relative to expected cases. The estimated raw SIRs were smoothed by a Besag, York, and Mollie spatial model and the spatial empirical Bayesian method. The purely spatial scan statistic was used to identify spatial clusters. RESULTS There were 4,175 incident BC cases in the study area from 2008 to 2011, of which 3,080 were successfully geocoded to the neighborhood level. Higher than expected rates of BC were found in neighborhoods located in northern and central Tehran, whereas lower rates appeared in southern areas. The most likely cluster of higher than expected BC incidence involved neighborhoods in districts 3 and 6, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 3.92 (p<0.001, whereas the most likely cluster of lower than expected rates involved neighborhoods in districts 17, 18, and 19, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 0.05 (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS Neighborhood-level inequality in the incidence of BC exists in Tehran. These findings can serve as a basis for resource allocation and preventive strategies in at-risk areas.

  19. The present status of the fast breeder reactor industrialization in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dievoet, J.P. van

    1987-01-01

    The development of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor in Europe started in the mid-fifties, after the successful operation of EBR-1 at ARCO, Idaho, in 1951. A more and more integrated development among the countries of the European Community culminated in 1986 with the beginning to power of the 1200 MWe SUPERPHENIX plant at Creys-Malville, France. The road is now open towards the full industrialization of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor at the moment, in 2005, when the first European thermal neutron power reactor station will have to be decommissioned and replaced. The European programme aims at providing the utilities at that time with a clear choice between thermal neutron reactors and fast breeder reactors, both economical but very different in their use of the limited natural resource that uranium is. (author)

  20. Role of the consolidated fuel reprocessing program in the United States Breeder Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, W.W.; Burch, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    While present US policy precludes the commercial reprocessing of LWR fuels and the recycle of plutonium, the policy does encompass the need to continue a program to develop the technology for reprocessing breeder fuels. Some questions have again risen this year as to the pace of the entire breeder program, including recycle, and the answers are evolving. This paper and the other companion papers which describe several aspects of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program take a longer-range perspective on the total program. Whether the program is implemented in the general time frame described is dependent on future government actions dedicated to carrying out a systematic program that would permit breeders to be commercialized early in the next century

  1. Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket for fusion experimental reactors in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, T.; Takatsu, H.; Sato, S.; Nakahira, M.; Furuya, K.; Hashimoto, T.; Kawamura, H.; Kuroda, T.; Tsunematsu, T.; Seki, M.

    1995-01-01

    Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion experimental reactor have been progressed in JAERI. A layered pebble bed type ceramic breeder blanket with water cooling is a prime candidate concept. Design activities have been concentrated on improvement of the design by conducting detailed analyses and also by fabrication procedure consideration based on the current technologies. A wide variety of R and Ds have also been conducted in accordance with the design activities. Development of fabrication technology of the blanket box structure and its mechanical testing, elementary testing on thermal performances of the pebble bed, and engineering-oriented material tests of breeder and beryllium pebbles are the main achievements during the last two years. (orig.)

  2. The evolution of female sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.; Enquist, M.

    2001-01-01

    Females in monogamous species tend to be more sexually active than females in species with other mating systems. In this paper we consider the possibility that female sexuality has evolved because more sexually active females have received more male assistance. We develop a model in which there is

  3. The Effect of Education Based on the Health Belief Model on Osteoporosis Prevention Behaviors in Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousaviasl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone diseases and is the silent epidemic of this era. Objectives This study evaluates the effect of education that is based on the health belief model on promoting osteoporosis prevention behaviors among female high school students. Methods In this two-group interventional study, 172 students age 11 to 14 years (experimental group = 86 subjects; control group = 86 subjects were randomly selected from Khorramshahr high schools using multistage sampling. Data were collected before the intervention and two months after its completion using a researcher-made questionnaire with four parts: demographic questions, knowledge questions, questions related to the health belief model constructs, and questions regarding preventive behaviors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 22 software and by applying the Mann-Whitney test, the analysis of covariance procedure, and the Wilcoxon statistical test. Results After the intervention, significant statistical differences were seen between the experimental and control groups in mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and preventive behaviors. Conclusions The education based on health belief model plays an important role in increasing knowledge and improving osteoporosis prevention behaviors in students.

  4. Effects of long-term fasting on female hormone levels: Ramadan model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlayan, E K; Göçmen, A Y; Delibas, N

    2014-01-01

    Ramadan fasting is a special model of hunger and particularly affects metabolic processes, including carbohydrate and lipid levels. Endocrine changes induced by Ramadan fasting are not well known. The aim of this article was to evaluate the changes in hormone levels in women before and after the special Muslim fasting period of Ramadan. This study was performed in 30 healthy women in Obstetrics and Gynecology department during the Ramadan month of2011. Patients during and after the first menstrual period had menstrual cycles fasting blood samples taken on the same days. Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), testosterone, and prolactin (PRL) levels were determined. Before and during fasting LH, FSH, E2, testosterone and PRL levels were not statistically different. Despite the limited available studies on these subjects in women, effect of Ramadan fasting on hormone levels were found to be within the normal limits.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of female human papillomavirus vaccination in 179 countries: a PRIME modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Brisson, Marc; Portnoy, Allison; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2014-07-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in settings with the highest burden of HPV is not universal, partly because of the absence of quantitative estimates of country-specific effects on health and economic costs. We aimed to develop and validate a simple generic model of such effects that could be used and understood in a range of settings with little external support. We developed the Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modelling and Economics (PRIME) model to assess cost-effectiveness and health effects of vaccination of girls against HPV before sexual debut in terms of burden of cervical cancer and mortality. PRIME models incidence according to proposed vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18, vaccine coverage, cervical cancer incidence and mortality, and HPV type distribution. It assumes lifelong vaccine protection and no changes to other screening programmes or vaccine uptake. We validated PRIME against existing reports of HPV vaccination cost-effectiveness, projected outcomes for 179 countries (assuming full vaccination of 12-year-old girls), and outcomes for 71 phase 2 GAVI-eligible countries (using vaccine uptake data from the GAVI Alliance). We assessed differences between countries in terms of cost-effectiveness and health effects. In validation, PRIME reproduced cost-effectiveness conclusions for 24 of 26 countries from 17 published studies, and for all 72 countries in a published study of GAVI-eligible countries. Vaccination of a cohort of 58 million 12-year-old girls in 179 countries prevented 690,000 cases of cervical cancer and 420,000 deaths during their lifetime (mostly in low-income or middle-income countries), at a net cost of US$4 billion. HPV vaccination was very cost effective (with every disability-adjusted life-year averted costing less than the gross domestic product per head) in 156 (87%) of 179 countries. Introduction of the vaccine in countries without national HPV vaccination at present would prevent substantially more cases

  6. Role of Prolactin in the Regulation of Bicarbonates Biodynamics in Female Rat Model of Cholestasis of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaeva, O A; Abramicheva, P A; Balakina, T A; Smirnova, O V

    2017-03-01

    We studied possible involvement of prolactin in the regulation of bicarbonate biodynamics using female rat model of cholestasis of pregnancy induced by transplantation of the donor pituitary under the renal capsule of a recipient (hyperprolactinemia) and bile duct ligation (cholestasis). The concentration of bicarbonates in the bile and blood, their excretion, clearance, and reabsorption, as well as glomerular filtration rate and excretion of sodium ions were assessed. It was found that the main effect of prolactin was directed to the kidney-regulated pool of bicarbonates and consisted in stimulation of their clearance and inhibition of reabsorption, which led to a decrease in bicarbonate blood concentration. Parallel influence of prolactin on the clearance of bicarbonates and sodium ions was observed.

  7. Current status of feasibility studies on commercialized fuel cycle system for Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, Hisao; Nagaoki, Yoshihiro

    2000-01-01

    A 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System' is underway at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The study will select the promising concepts with their R and D tasks in order to commercialize the fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle system. The feasibility studies (F/S) have to present surveyed and screened various relevant technologies, and defined the design requirement of the commercialized fuel cycle system for FBR. The promising technical options are being evaluated and conceptual designs are being examined. At the end of JFY2000, several candidate concepts of the commercialized FBR cycle system will be proposed. (author)

  8. Development of a self-actuated shutdown system for a liquid-metal breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Tupper, R.B.; Bernard, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive development program for a Self-Actuated Shutdown System for a Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor has been completed. The development program included component tests of a temperature sensitive electromagnet, prototype test including the absorber in a sodium loop, accelerated life tests of the high temperature electric coils, and an irradiation test of a miniaturized coil and magnetic circuit materials. The results of these tests have demonstrated that the self-actuated shutdown system is sufficiently developed for application in the next generation Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. (author)

  9. Some safety considerations of liquid lithium as a fusion breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Test results and conclusions are presented for the reaction of steam with a high temperature lithium pool and for the reaction of high temperature lithium spray with a nitrogen atmosphere. The reactions are characterized and evaluated in regard to the potential for mobilization of radioactive species associated with the liquid breeder under postulated fusion reactor accident conditions. These evaluations include measured lithium temperature responses, atmosphere temperature and pressure responses, gas consumption and generation, aerosol quantities and particle size characterization, and potentially radioactive species releases. Conclusions are made as to the consequences of these safety considerations for the use of lithium as a fusion reactor breeder material

  10. Overview of design and R and D of solid breeder TBM in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Pan, C.H.; Zhang, G.S.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Liu, H.B.; Li, Z.Q.; Hu, G.; Wang, X.Y.; Ye, X.F.; Luo, D.L.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhou, Z.W.; Gao, C.M.; Chen, Y.J.; Wang, P.H.; Cao, Q.X.; Wang, Q.J.

    2008-01-01

    Testing of breeding blanket module (TBM) is one of ITER's important objectives. China is performing design and technology development of ITER TBMs based on the development strategy of fusion DEMO in China. Solid breeder with helium-cooled test blanket module concept for test in ITER should be the basic option in China. The progress and status of China helium-cooled solid breeder (CH HCSB) TBM since 2004 are introduced briefly. Concept designs of HCSB TBM and ancillary systems, test strategy for their tests in ITER, key R and D issues are summarized in this paper. An international collaboration in R and D, development and testing of TBMs are proposed

  11. Be-Breeder – an application for analysis of genomic data in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Inácio Matias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Be-Breeder is an application directed toward genetic breeding of plants, developed through the Shiny package of the R software, which allows different phenotype and molecular (marker analysis to be undertaken. The section for analysis of molecular data of the Be-Breeder application makes it possible to achieve quality control of genotyping data, to obtain genomic kinship matrices, and to analyze genomic selection, genome association, and genetic diversity in a simple manner on line. This application is available for use in a network through the site of the Allogamous Plant Breeding Laboratory of ESALQ-USP (http://www.genetica.esalq.usp.br/alogamas/R.html.

  12. Progress report on fast breeder reactor development at PNC, Japan, October - December, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    Following the completion of building construction and equipment installation for the experimental fast breeder reactor ''Joyo'' at PNC's Oarai Engineering Center, hydrostatic pressure and leak tests were conducted on the reactor vessel. For the prototype fast breeder reactor ''Monju'', specification was finalized after the design adjustment. For the period from October to December, 1974, the following matters are described: construction of the Joyo, design of the Monju, reactor physics, components and equipments, instruments and control, sodium technology, fuel and material research and development, safety research and development, and steam generator. (Mori, K.)

  13. A model of female freedom: Maria Occhipinti’s «Una donna libera»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagro Martín Clavijo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maria Occhipinti (1921-1996 has been recorded in Sicilian history as emblem of Sicilian women’s protest in the mid-forties, events she narrates in Una donna di Ragusa. In her posthumous work Una donna libera Maria sums up her life from those years just to the time before her death: it is the autobiography of a self-taught woman that was, despite everything and everyone, a free woman slave to nothing – nor political ideas, nor a comfortable and bourgeois life – or anyone – family or love –, always coherent with her ideals and ready to fight for the fundamental human rights. Una donna libera tells us the story of a pilgrim in the world, a rebel, a rather difficult woman, uncomfortable for institutions and people, including intellectuals. Maria Occhipinti will become only in the XXI century a model to be followed by other women. Received: 27/05/2013 / Accepted: 20/06/2013 How to reference this article Martín Clavijo, M. (2014. Un modelo de libertad femenino: «Una donna libera» de Maria Occhipinti. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 1(1, pp. 115-132. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2014.001.001.005

  14. Effect of scattered feeding and feeding twice a day during rearing on indicators of hunger and frustration in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Broiler breeders are routinely fed restricted during rearing which has a major negative effect on their welfare. They suffer from hunger and frustration from thwarting of feeding. The aim of this experiment was therefore to study if broiler breeder welfare can be improved by changes in the feeding

  15. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors. Eighteenth annual meeting, Vienna, Austria, 16-19 April 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Meeting on the Status of National Programmes in Member States of the IAEA on Fast Breeder Reactors had been held in April 1985. The representatives of the Member States and international organizations reported status and activities in the field of fast breeder reactors development and operation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 12 presentations of the meeting

  16. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Meijerhof, R.; Ruangpanit, Y.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and

  17. Reproductive skew and selection on female ornamentation in social species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Dustin R; Lovette, Irby J

    2009-12-10

    Male animals are typically more elaborately ornamented than females. Classic sexual selection theory notes that because sperm are cheaper to produce than eggs, and because males generally compete more intensely for reproductive opportunities and invest less in parental care than females, males can obtain greater fitness benefits from mating multiply. Therefore, sexual selection typically results in male-biased sex differences in secondary sexual characters. This generality has recently been questioned, because in cooperatively breeding vertebrates, the strength of selection on traits used in intrasexual competition for access to mates (sexual selection) or other resources linked to reproduction (social selection) is similar in males and females. Because selection is acting with comparable intensity in both sexes in cooperatively breeding species, the degree of sexual dimorphism in traits used in intrasexual competition should be reduced in cooperative breeders. Here we use the socially diverse African starlings (Sturnidae) to demonstrate that the degree of sexual dimorphism in plumage and body size is reduced in cooperatively breeding species as a result of increased selection on females for traits that increase access to reproductive opportunities, other resources, or higher social status. In cooperative breeders such as these, where there is unequal sharing of reproduction (reproductive skew) among females, and where female dominance rank influences access to mates and other resources, intrasexual competition among females may be intense and ultimately select for female trait elaboration. Selection is thereby acting with different intensities on males and females in cooperatively versus non-cooperatively breeding species, and female-female interactions in group-living vertebrates will have important consequences for the evolution of female morphological, physiological and behavioural traits.

  18. Carbon transport in a bimetallic sodium loop simulating the intermediate heat transport system of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Spalaris, C.N.; Roy, P.

    1980-04-01

    Carbon transport data from a bimetallic sodium loop simulating the intermediate heat transport system of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor are discussed. The results of bulk carbon analyses after 15,000 hours' exposure indicate a pattern of carburization of Type 304 stainless steel foils which is independent of loop sodium temperature. A model based on carbon activity gradients accounting for this behavior is proposed. Data also indicate that carburization of Type 304 stainless steel is a diffusion-controlled process; however, decarburization of the ferritic 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel is not. It is proposed that the decarburization of the ferritic steel is controlled by the dissolution of carbides in the steel matrix. The differences in the sodium decarburization behavior of electroslag remelted and vacuum-arc remelted 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel are also highlighted

  19. Experimental studies of U-Pu-Zr fast reactor fuel pins in the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Hofman, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept has been under demonstration in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) since February 1985. Irradiation tests of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr fuel pins to >15 at. pct burnup have demonstrated their viability as driver fuel prototypes in innovative design liquid metal reactors. A number of technically challenging irradiation effects have been observed and are now under study. Microstructural changes in the fuel are dominated early in exposure by grain boundary cavitation and fission gas bubble growth, producing large amounts of swelling. Irradiation creep and swelling of the austenitic (D9) and martensitic (HT-9) candidate cladding alloys have been measured and correlate well with property modeling efforts. Chemical interaction between the fuel and cladding alloys has been characterized to assess the magnitude of cladding wastage during steady-state irradiation. Significant interdiffusion of the uranium and zirconium occurs producing metallurgically distinct zones in the fuel

  20. Thermal Hydraulic Design and Analysis of a Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket with Superheated Steam for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoman; Ma, Xuebin; Jiang, Kecheng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kai; Liu, Songlin

    2015-09-01

    The water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) is one of the blanket candidates for China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). In order to improve power generation efficiency and tritium breeding ratio, WCCB with superheated steam is under development. The thermal-hydraulic design is the key to achieve the purpose of safe heat removal and efficient power generation under normal and partial loading operation conditions. In this paper, the coolant flow scheme was designed and one self-developed analytical program was developed, based on a theoretical heat transfer model and empirical correlations. Employing this program, the design and analysis of related thermal-hydraulic parameters were performed under different fusion power conditions. The results indicated that the superheated steam water-cooled blanket is feasible. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000 and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  1. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Mattas, R.

    1994-06-01

    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety, and required R ampersand D program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeders and coolant. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between liquid metal and duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and radiation induced electrical degradation are not yet demonstrated. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns

  2. Software development methodology for computer based I&C systems of prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manimaran, M.; Shanmugam, A.; Parimalam, P.; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Software development methodology adopted for computer based I&C systems of PFBR is detailed. • Constraints imposed as part of software requirements and coding phase are elaborated. • Compliance to safety and security requirements are described. • Usage of CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools during software design, analysis and testing phase are explained. - Abstract: Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is sodium cooled reactor which is in the advanced stage of construction in Kalpakkam, India. Versa Module Europa bus based Real Time Computer (RTC) systems are deployed for Instrumentation & Control of PFBR. RTC systems have to perform safety functions within the stipulated time which calls for highly dependable software. Hence, well defined software development methodology is adopted for RTC systems starting from the requirement capture phase till the final validation of the software product. V-model is used for software development. IEC 60880 standard and AERB SG D-25 guideline are followed at each phase of software development. Requirements documents and design documents are prepared as per IEEE standards. Defensive programming strategies are followed for software development using C language. Verification and validation (V&V) of documents and software are carried out at each phase by independent V&V committee. Computer aided software engineering tools are used for software modelling, checking for MISRA C compliance and to carry out static and dynamic analysis. Various software metrics such as cyclomatic complexity, nesting depth and comment to code are checked. Test cases are generated using equivalence class partitioning, boundary value analysis and cause and effect graphing techniques. System integration testing is carried out wherein functional and performance requirements of the system are monitored

  3. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  4. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Female founders are scarce, certainly those employing personnel. Do (female) founders affect the likelihood of (female) joiners to become founders too? Recent research demonstrates that joiners are more sensitive to contextual influences than founders. Joining a startup could provide a context to...... a multiplier effect in reducing gender gaps in entrepreneurship rates.......-founder (gender) homophily affects the likelihood of female and male joiners to become founders themselves. We find a relatively large and robust positive effect among female joiners that can be attributed to the role modeling function of female founders. Female entrepreneurs hiring personnel may thus have...

  5. Multigenerational effects of a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period of broiler breeders. 2. Zootechnical performance of the F1 broiler offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Schallier, S; Li, C; Bautil, A; Li, B; Leblois, J; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2018-05-01

    Several studies in mammals focused on the maternal programming of the metabolism by epigenetic mechanisms, while currently, the consequences of a maternal dietary treatment on the offspring performance of farm animals are of particular interest for commercial purpose. In the present study, we investigated if the zootechnical performance of the progeny was altered by a maternal dietary treatment, being a lower dietary crude protein (CP) of the grandparent and/or parent generation. The multigenerational effects of a reduced maternal CP content were investigated by reducing the dietary CP level by 25% in rearing and laying diets of pure line A breeders. The F0 generation breeders were fed either control (C) or reduced balanced protein (RP) diets. The F1 breeder generation was constructed by dividing the F0 female progeny again over a C or RP diet, resulting in 4 dietary treatments in the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C, and RP/RP (letters indicating the diets in, respectively, F0 and F1 generations). The offspring performance was evaluated by a zootechnical and nitrogen retention trial on C and low-protein (LP) broiler diets. For the C broiler diet, the C/RP and RP/RP offspring were characterized by a higher BW from d 35 until d 42 compared to the C/C progeny, whereas the RP/C offspring had an intermediate BW that did not differ from the other groups. A tendency (P = 0.067) towards a better nitrogen retention was observed for the offspring of breeders that received the RP diets in F0 and/or F1 generation compared to the C/C progeny. For the LP broiler diet, the C/RP (P = 0.021) and RP/C (P = 0.001) offspring had a higher BW compared to the C/C progeny during the entire grow-out period. In addition, the C/RP offspring were characterized by a lower FCR from d 28 onwards (P = 0.021). In conclusion, dietary treatments imposed on mother hens can have direct effects on the next generation, as well as indirect effects on multiple generations.

  6. Development of computational pregnant female and fetus models and assessment of radiation dose from positron-emitting tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); Zaidi, Habib [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva University, Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Southern Denmark, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark)

    2016-12-15

    Molecular imaging using PET and hybrid (PET/CT and PET/MR) modalities nowadays plays a pivotal role in the clinical setting for diagnosis and staging, treatment response monitoring, and radiation therapy treatment planning of a wide range of oncologic malignancies. The developing embryo/fetus presents a high sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Therefore, estimation of the radiation dose delivered to the embryo/fetus and pregnant patients from PET examinations to assess potential radiation risks is highly praised. We constructed eight embryo/fetus models at various gestation periods with 25 identified tissues according to reference data recommended by the ICRP publication 89 representing the anatomy of the developing embryo/fetus. The developed embryo/fetus models were integrated into realistic anthropomorphic computational phantoms of the pregnant female and used for estimating, using Monte Carlo calculations, S-values of common positron-emitting radionuclides, organ absorbed dose, and effective dose of a number of positron-emitting labeled radiotracers. The absorbed dose is nonuniformly distributed in the fetus. The absorbed dose of the kidney and liver of the 8-week-old fetus are about 47.45 % and 44.76 % higher than the average absorbed dose of the fetal total body for all investigated radiotracers. For {sup 18}F-FDG, the fetal effective doses are 2.90E-02, 3.09E-02, 1.79E-02, 1.59E-02, 1.47E-02, 1.40E-02, 1.37E-02, and 1.27E-02 mSv/MBq at the 8th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 35th, and 38th weeks of gestation, respectively. The developed pregnant female/fetus models matching the ICRP reference data can be exploited by dedicated software packages for internal and external dose calculations. The generated S-values will be useful to produce new standardized dose estimates to pregnant patients and embryo/fetus from a variety of positron-emitting labeled radiotracers. (orig.)

  7. Organ dose conversion coefficients for voxel models of the reference male and female from idealized photon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlattl, H; Zankl, M; Petoussi-Henss, N

    2007-01-01

    A new series of organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients for whole body external photon exposure is presented for a standardized couple of human voxel models, called Rex and Regina. Irradiations from broad parallel beams in antero-posterior, postero-anterior, left- and right-side lateral directions as well as from a 360 deg. rotational source have been performed numerically by the Monte Carlo transport code EGSnrc. Dose conversion coefficients from an isotropically distributed source were computed, too. The voxel models Rex and Regina originating from real patient CT data comply in body and organ dimensions with the currently valid reference values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the average Caucasian man and woman, respectively. While the equivalent dose conversion coefficients of many organs are in quite good agreement with the reference values of ICRP Publication 74, for some organs and certain geometries the discrepancies amount to 30% or more. Differences between the sexes are of the same order with mostly higher dose conversion coefficients in the smaller female model. However, much smaller deviations from the ICRP values are observed for the resulting effective dose conversion coefficients. With the still valid definition for the effective dose (ICRP Publication 60), the greatest change appears in lateral exposures with a decrease in the new models of at most 9%. However, when the modified definition of the effective dose as suggested by an ICRP draft is applied, the largest deviation from the current reference values is obtained in postero-anterior geometry with a reduction of the effective dose conversion coefficient by at most 12%

  8. Corrosion-resistant fuel cladding allow for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Jr., William F.; Colburn, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    An aluminide coating for a fuel cladding tube for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors) such as those using liquid sodium as a heat transfer agent. The coating comprises a mixture of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases and presents good corrosion resistance to liquid sodium at temperatures up to 700.degree. C. while additionally presenting a barrier to outward diffusion of .sup.54 Mn.

  9. Studies on serum macro and micro minerals status in repeat breeder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on serum macro and micro minerals status in repeat breeder and normal cyclic Nili-Ravi buffaloes and their treatment strategies. Muhammad Saleem Akhtar, Abdul AsimFarooq, Laeeq AkbarLodhi, SayyedAun Muhammad, M MazharAyaz, Mushtaq Hussain Lashari, Saeed Murtaza, Irtaza Hussain, Muhammad ...

  10. The effect of age at photostimulation of male broiler breeders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male broiler breeders were photostimulated at different ages (56, 77, 98, 119, 147 and 161 d) during the period of growth prior to achieving sexual maturity to observe their response to photoperiod stimulation. Birds were sampled at regular intervals to measure the average testis weight - these values responding ...

  11. To what extent can the age at sexual maturity of broiler breeders be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of growth manipulation and early photostimulation on age at sexual maturity and, in one trial, subsequent laying performance, in broiler breeders. In the first trial, the possibility of reducing the age at sexual maturity, using early photostimulation and increasing the growth ...

  12. Effects of breeder age and pre-incubation storage of eggs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of breeder age and pre-incubation storage of eggs on hatchability, time of hatch and relative organ weight of quail chicks at hatch. ... There were significant storage period x hen age interactions for water loss in chicks, early embryonic death, late embryonic death, deaths during internal and external pipping, and ...

  13. Status and prospects of thermal breeding. Preliminary report by Thermal Breeder Consultants Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal breeders like the liquid-fuel reactors, the seed-and-blanket reactor or the CANDU thorium reactor have been reviewed by an IAEA Consultants Group to evaluate in how far large-scale nuclear energy production for mankind is possible in the future. 'Large scale' is defined as 60% of the total energy consumption in 2050. A future average consumption rate for mankind of 5kW/capita and a population growth according to UN estimates results in an energy growth rate for mankind of still a factor of 8. The paper shows that only with liquid-fuel thermal breeders - either aqueous suspensions or molten salts - and under certain conditions also with fast breeder reactors (very fast reprocessing) is it possible to supply 60% of this energy requirement by nuclear means in 2050. Other breeder systems cannot meet the requirements because they demand too large a fissile inventory. Finally, it is shown that a combination of both systems, thermal liquid-fuel and fast reactors, is always better than one system separately. (author)

  14. Compilation of data and descriptions for United States and foreign liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, E.R.

    1975-08-01

    This document is a compilation of design and engineering information pertaining to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors which have operated, are operating, or are currently under construction, in the United States and abroad. All data has been taken from publicly available documents, journals, and books

  15. Sodium tests on an integrated purification prototype for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, R.

    1984-04-01

    This paper describes sodium tests performed on the integrated primary sodium purification prototype of the Creys Malville Super Phenix 1 fast breeder reactor. These tests comprised: - hydrostatic test, - thermal tests, - handling tests. They enabled a number of new technological arrangements to be qualified and provided the necessary information for the design and construction of the Super Phenix 1 purification units

  16. Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Mélanie

    2008-02-01

    We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of (61)Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of (61)Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given.

  17. French experience and prospects in the reprocessing of fast breeder reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.

    1983-06-01

    Experience acquired in France in the field of reprocessing spent fuels from fast breeder reactors is recalled. Emphasis is put on characteristics and quantities of spent fuels reprocessed in La Hague and Marcoule facilities. Then reprocessing developments with the realisation of the new pilot plant TOR at Marcoule, new equipments and study of industrial reprocessing units are reviewed [fr

  18. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor in a closed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fast breeder reactors; closed fuel cycle; fuel production and depletion; Pu239 equivalence; multiple recycling; fuel reactivity effects ... With these modifications and also with PHWR Pu as external feed, the study on PFBR fuel recycling is repeated. It is observed that the core-1 initial Pu inventory increases by 3.5% ...

  19. On the development of fast breeder reactors and the use of thorium in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.

    1986-10-01

    This work presents a discussion on the possibility of construction of fast breeder reactors in Brazil. It is specially concerned with the use of thorium which is abundant in our country. The main advantages of this projects are: develop fuel and reactor technology in Brazil, increase thorium research, demonstrate the safety of LMFBR and promote its public acceptance. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. Engineering review of the core support structure of the Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The review of the core support structure of the gas cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) covered such areas as the design criteria, the design and analysis of the concepts, the development plan, and the projected manufacturing costs. Recommendations are provided to establish a basis for future work on the GCFR core support structure