WorldWideScience

Sample records for models environmental impact

  1. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcas, Adrian [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Paul M. [Lighthouse Field Station, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Merchant, Nathan D., E-mail: nathan.merchant@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  2. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply...

  3. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  4. A model for assessing the environmental impact of transport

    OpenAIRE

    Malgorzata Latuszynska; Roma Strulak-Wojcikiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Environmental effects of transport, with a particular focus on the natural environment have been discussed. The authors present methods for assessing the influence of investments in transport infrastructure on the environment, as well as the concept of a simulation model which integrates various methods and approaches used to assess the impact of such investments on the environment. (original abstract)

  5. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent study carried out for the European Commission, the scope and application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation and current EIA practice in European Union Member States and applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe was investigated, specifically in relation to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This paper reports the study's investigations into a model approach to EIA in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment in the overall decision processes and public involvement. (author)

  6. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  7. Environmental impact assessment of decommissioning treatment about radioactive model plant waste ore storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at decommissioning treatment project of radioactive model plant waste ore storage site, based on the detailed investigations of source terms and project description, systematic environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts both during decommissioning treatment, radioactive waste transportation and after treatment are assessed. Some specific environmental protection measures are proposed so as to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. (author)

  8. Concepts, methods and models to assess environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    individual sites, is also planned in Canada. A somewhat conceptually different approach is that of an attempt to develop a hierarchical system for environmental protection based on a narrowly defined set of Reference Fauna and Flora analogous to that of Reference Man - consisting of defined dose models, data sets to estimate exposures, and data on biological effects, to provide a set of 'derived consideration levels' of dose-effect relationships for individual fauna and flora that could be used to help decision making (along with other relevant biological information) in different circumstances. Research work is also underway to produce systematic frameworks - also using a 'reference fauna and flora approach' - for assessing environmental impact in specific geographic areas, such as European and Arctic ecosystems. (author)

  9. Environmental Impacts of Large Scale Biochar Application Through Spatial Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, I.; Archontoulis, S.

    2017-12-01

    In an effort to study the environmental (emissions, soil quality) and production (yield) impacts of biochar application at regional scales we coupled the APSIM-Biochar model with the pSIMS parallel platform. So far the majority of biochar research has been concentrated on lab to field studies to advance scientific knowledge. Regional scale assessments are highly needed to assist decision making. The overall objective of this simulation study was to identify areas in the USA that have the most gain environmentally from biochar's application, as well as areas which our model predicts a notable yield increase due to the addition of biochar. We present the modifications in both APSIM biochar and pSIMS components that were necessary to facilitate these large scale model runs across several regions in the United States at a resolution of 5 arcminutes. This study uses the AgMERRA global climate data set (1980-2010) and the Global Soil Dataset for Earth Systems modeling as a basis for creating its simulations, as well as local management operations for maize and soybean cropping systems and different biochar application rates. The regional scale simulation analysis is in progress. Preliminary results showed that the model predicts that high quality soils (particularly those common to Iowa cropping systems) do not receive much, if any, production benefit from biochar. However, soils with low soil organic matter ( 0.5%) do get a noteworthy yield increase of around 5-10% in the best cases. We also found N2O emissions to be spatial and temporal specific; increase in some areas and decrease in some other areas due to biochar application. In contrast, we found increases in soil organic carbon and plant available water in all soils (top 30 cm) due to biochar application. The magnitude of these increases (% change from the control) were larger in soil with low organic matter (below 1.5%) and smaller in soils with high organic matter (above 3%) and also dependent on biochar

  10. A model of the environmental impacts of hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemppainen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, I.

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to create a model of the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects in Finland. To illustrate the effects of hydropower projects a checklist in the form of matrice was constructed. In this matrice all issues that could be significant in future hydropower projects were collected. Stable physical environmental changes are the starting-point for this matrice. The temporary change of hydropower constructions have also been under consideration. These are mainly environmental changes during construction. In chapter two the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects physical environmental changes were examined. In chapter three the matrice was applied to some example cases. The cases were chosen to represent future hydropower projects. In addition these example cases represent urban areas, rural areas and uninhabited areas. The example cases were the extension of Tainionkoski hydropower plant at Vuoksi river, the modernization of Aeetsae power plant at Kokemaeenjoki river, the modernization of Stadsfors power plant at Lapuanjoki river in the centre of Uusikaarlepyy town and the construction of Kaitfors power plant at Perhonjoki river. Conclusions from usability of the model can be drawn on the ground of the example cases. The purpose of the model is to produce a checklist of estimated environmental effects in hydropower project of various kinds. Examination of issues within the model depends on local circumstances. Endangered animal and plant species, for example, can be studied and estimated only if endangered animal and plant species exist in the area of hydropower plant. Furthermore, the direction and extent of environmental effects depend on the local circumstances. The model is mainly a checklist of environmental effects caused by hydropower plant projects

  11. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  12. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Minho, E-mail: minmin40@hanmail.net [Asset Management Division, Mate Plus Co., Ltd., 9th Fl., Financial News Bldg. 24-5 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-877 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: chnagyoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings.

  13. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Minho; Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C 6 H 6 eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C 6 H 6 eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings

  14. An environmental impact causal model for improving the environmental performance of construction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Casals, Alba; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing efforts made by the construction sector to reduce the environmental impact of their processes, construction sites are still a major source of pollution and adverse impacts on the environment. This paper aims to improve the understanding of construction-related environmental impacts by identifying on-site causal factors and associated immediate circumstances during construc- tion processes for residential building projects. Based on the literature and focus g...

  15. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M.

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person

  16. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M. (eds.)

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person.

  17. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  18. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An integrated model for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hao

    2011-01-01

    In China, environmental issues caused by construction and operation of highway catch more and more attention, and thus environmental impact assessment of highway has become an important part of feasibility study. According to the Specifications for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways...... in the People's Republic of China, this paper proposes an integrated model for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of highway. The model has two main characteristics. Firstly, the whole highway is divided into several sections, and then weight of each section is distributed by its importance. Secondly...

  20. Hearing characteristics of cephalopods: modeling and environmental impact study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Shi, Feng; Song, Jiakun; Zhang, Xugang; Yu, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are some of the most intriguing molluscs, and they represent economically important commercial marine species for fisheries. Previous studies have shown that cephalopods are sensitive to underwater particle motion, especially at low frequencies in the order of 10 Hz. The present paper deals with quantitative modeling of the statocyst system in three cephalopod species: Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis and Loligo vulgaris. The octopus's macula/statolith organ was modeled as a 2nd-order dynamic oscillator using parameter values estimated from scanning electron micrograph images. The modeling results agree reasonably well with experimental data (acceleration threshold) in the three cephalopod species. Insights made from quantitative modeling and simulating the particle motion sensing mechanism of cephalopods elucidated their underwater particle motion detection capabilities. Sensitivity to emerging environmental issues, such as low frequency noise caused by near-shore wind farms and increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the ocean, and sensitivity to sounds produced by impending landslides were investigated in octopus using the model. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Development of an environmental impact model for the steel industry in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghinin, Mansur Salem

    The global demand for steel is rising due to the infrastructural development of emergent economies in countries such as India, China, Thailand and Libya. Consequently, global steel production has increased dramatically and is expected to grow further in the future. Processing iron and steel is associated with a number of sustainable development challenges, including various economic, environmental and social issues. The increasing prominence of environmental issues in international and national political discourse, including the developing countries, means that stakeholders demand that manufacturers minimise the negative impacts of their operations.The steel industry must be able to measure and assess its environmental impacts and demonstrate continuous improvements. This requires an environmental management strategy to manage and minimise impacts on the environment. This study focuses on developing an environmental impacts model in steel industry to investigate the most important environmental parameters and their importance in order to mitigate environmental impacts.Based on the literature review and the elements that are considered as waste (derived from the waste survey in Libyan iron and steel industry), the potential environmental impacts of the steel industry are identified as criteria and sub-criteria. Then, a model is built using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) software based on the identified criteria and sub-criteria.The model also illustrates the overall goal which is creating environmental impacts model for steel industry, in addition, criteria and sub-criteria are listed to clarify the situation and make the analysis clearer and understandable. Pair wise comparisons are used to derive accurate ratio scale priorities.The results are analysed and presented as prioritised list of environmental impacts. Moreover, a series of sensitivity analyses are conducted to investigate the impact of changing the priority of the criteria on the alternatives

  2. Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.A.F.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a model (MIKADO) to analyse options to reduce the environmental impact of aluminium die casting. This model will take a company perspective, so that it can be used as a decision-support tool for the environmental management of a plant. MIKADO can be used to perform scenario

  3. Multi-objective optimization model of CNC machining to minimize processing time and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Aulia; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Minimizing processing time in a production system can increase the efficiency of a manufacturing company. Processing time are influenced by application of modern technology and machining parameter. Application of modern technology can be apply by use of CNC machining, one of the machining process can be done with a CNC machining is turning. However, the machining parameters not only affect the processing time but also affect the environmental impact. Hence, optimization model is needed to optimize the machining parameters to minimize the processing time and environmental impact. This research developed a multi-objective optimization to minimize the processing time and environmental impact in CNC turning process which will result in optimal decision variables of cutting speed and feed rate. Environmental impact is converted from environmental burden through the use of eco-indicator 99. The model were solved by using OptQuest optimization software from Oracle Crystal Ball.

  4. Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S. [Agricultural Economics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Rodriguez, A.G. [University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs.

  5. Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S.; Rodriguez, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs

  6. Environmental impacts of aviation business models in the context of Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ervasti, Jani

    2014-01-01

    Aviation is a part of the global transportation business, transporting more than 3 billion people in the year 2013. Growth pressure in the field is strong, but environmental factors are coming increasingly important. This combination of rising demand and increasing environmental concern acted as the initial motivation for this study. The aim of the thesis is to study the extent of environmental impacts between the two main civil aviation business models: low cost carriers (LCCs) and ...

  7. A new assessment method for urbanization environmental impact: urban environment entropy model and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Tingping; Fu, Shuqing; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Wu, Zhifeng

    2008-11-01

    The thermodynamic law is one of the most widely used scientific principles. The comparability between the environmental impact of urbanization and the thermodynamic entropy was systematically analyzed. Consequently, the concept "Urban Environment Entropy" was brought forward and the "Urban Environment Entropy" model was established for urbanization environmental impact assessment in this study. The model was then utilized in a case study for the assessment of river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone. The results indicated that the assessing results of the model are consistent to that of the equalized synthetic pollution index method. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Urban Environment Entropy model has high reliability and can be applied widely in urbanization environmental assessment research using many different environmental parameters.

  8. Discussions on the dose models for environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxing; Liu Senlin; Liu Xinhe

    1993-01-01

    A discussion was made about the relationship between the individual dose limits in the system of radiological protection and the doses estimated in the assessment of radiological impact on the environment. Based on this discussion and the discussions about the basic concepts of the methodology for environment impact assessment, a suggestion was set forth to utilize dose commitment or truncated dose commitment from one year of practice to represent the ultimate level of annual dose from a steadily continued source. The related formulae were presented in this paper

  9. Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  10. Cumulative Risk and Impact Modeling on Environmental Chemical and Social Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Wang, Aolin; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Lam, Juleen; Sirota, Marina; Padula, Amy; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2018-02-13

    The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health? There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem. The majority of studies we identified used regression models to evaluate combined effects of multiple environmental and social stressors. With proper study design and appropriate modeling assumptions, additional data mining methods may be useful to examine combined effects of environmental and social stressors.

  11. Environmental Modeling and Bayesian Analysis for Assessing Human Health Impacts from Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, T.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Catlett, K.

    2004-12-01

    Bayesian decision analysis provides a unified framework for coherent decision-making. Two key components of Bayesian decision analysis are probability distributions and utility functions. Calculating posterior distributions and performing decision analysis can be computationally challenging, especially for complex environmental models. In addition, probability distributions and utility functions for environmental models must be specified through expert elicitation, stakeholder consensus, or data collection, all of which have their own set of technical and political challenges. Nevertheless, a grand appeal of the Bayesian approach for environmental decision- making is the explicit treatment of uncertainty, including expert judgment. The impact of expert judgment on the environmental decision process, though integral, goes largely unassessed. Regulations and orders of the Environmental Protection Agency, Department Of Energy, and Nuclear Regulatory Agency orders require assessing the impact on human health of radioactive waste contamination over periods of up to ten thousand years. Towards this end complex environmental simulation models are used to assess "risk" to human and ecological health from migration of radioactive waste. As the computational burden of environmental modeling is continually reduced probabilistic process modeling using Monte Carlo simulation is becoming routinely used to propagate uncertainty from model inputs through model predictions. The utility of a Bayesian approach to environmental decision-making is discussed within the context of a buried radioactive waste example. This example highlights the desirability and difficulties of merging the cost of monitoring, the cost of the decision analysis, the cost and viability of clean up, and the probability of human health impacts within a rigorous decision framework.

  12. The Impacts of Environmental Tax in China: A Dynamic Recursive Multi-Sector CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Xiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the accumulated environmental problems resulting from excessive usage of fossil fuels have gradually loomed. Thus, an environmental tax, as an important policy tool, has been put on the agenda in China. In this paper, a dynamic recursive multi-sector Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model is applied to explore the impacts of the environmental tax on China’s economy. To comprehensively analyze the impacts, we introduce four kinds of typical contaminants and set two kinds of scenarios: different tax rates and different tax refunds. The results show that the environmental tax is conducive to environmental improvement, but the economic variables are adversely affected, for example, the loss of GDP at the low level tax rate is 0.46%. In order to offset the negative impacts, we presume the government refunds the tax. The results show that this can indeed relieve the negative effects. When the government refunds the production tax and corporate income tax, 0.49% and 0.34% of GDP is relieved by respectively. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the implementation of the environmental tax in China and lays a solid foundation for the introduction of the environmental tax.

  13. Analysis of the environmental impact of China based on STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shoufu; Zhao Dingtao; Marinova, Dora

    2009-01-01

    Assuming that energy consumption is the main source of GHG emissions in China, this paper analyses the effect of population, urbanisation level, GDP per capita, industrialisation level and energy intensity on the country's environmental impact using the STIRPAT model with data for 1978-2006. The analysis shows that population has the largest potential effect on environmental impact, followed by urbanisation level, industrialisation level, GDP per capita and energy intensity. Hence, China's One Child Policy, which restrains rapid population growth, has been an effective way of reducing the country's environmental impact. However, due to the difference in growth rates, GDP per capita had a higher effect on the environmental impact, contributing to 38% of its increase (while population's contribution was at 32%). The rapid decrease in energy intensity was the main factor restraining the increase in China's environmental impact but recently it has also been rising. Against this background, the future of the country looks bleak unless a change in human behaviour towards more ecologically sensitive economic choices occurs.

  14. Multi objective optimization model for minimizing production cost and environmental impact in CNC turning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2018-02-01

    Minimizing production cost in a manufacturing company will increase the profit of the company. The cutting parameters will affect total processing time which then will affect the production cost of machining process. Besides affecting the production cost and processing time, the cutting parameters will also affect the environment. An optimization model is needed to determine the optimum cutting parameters. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to minimize the production cost and the environmental impact in CNC turning process. The model is used a multi objective optimization. Cutting speed and feed rate are served as the decision variables. Constraints considered are cutting speed, feed rate, cutting force, output power, and surface roughness. The environmental impact is converted from the environmental burden by using eco-indicator 99. Numerical example is given to show the implementation of the model and solved using OptQuest of Oracle Crystal Ball software. The results of optimization indicate that the model can be used to optimize the cutting parameters to minimize the production cost and the environmental impact.

  15. Environmental Impact Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Section is concerned with preparation of environmental statements and assessments and development of assessment methodologies for energy technologies. During 1976, activities involved nuclear, fossil, and geothermal energy; this work was supported by the U.S.Army, HUD, US ERDA, and US NRC. Two special studies--one on the effects of power plant intake structures on fish impingement and another on multiple uses of cooling lakes--were completed and should serve as references for future analyses. Two research projects sponsored by NRC--the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) to Power Plant Assessment and the Environmental Monitoring Data Evaluation Study--were continued. The purpose of the UA program is to develop fast-transient, one- and two-dimensional transport models for estimating thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological impacts in complicated water bodies. The impact of public use of various products that contain radioactive isotope is being evaluated. The Environmental Impact Sections assistance to NRC expanded to include assessments of fuel-fabrication facilities being considered for relicensing and two uranium in-situ solution mining facility proposals. The work for HUD comprises an assessment of the first application of MIUS in a new town development. A generic environmental statement was prepared and an environmental monitoring program for the facility was designed

  16. Modelling of an industrial NGL-Recovery unit considering environmental and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharratt, P. N.; Hernandez-Enriquez, A.; Flores-Tlacuahuac, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an integrated model is presented that identifies key areas in the operation of a cryogenic NGL-recovery unit. This methodology sets out to provide deep understanding of various interrelationship across multiple plant operating factors including reliability, which could be essential for substantial improvement of process performance. The integrated model has been developed to predict the economic and environmental impacts of a real cryogenic unit (600 MMCUF/D) during normal operation, and has been built in Aspen TM. (Author)

  17. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  18. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion

  19. Environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewing, C.

    1986-01-01

    The adoption of US-type environmental impact statements is considered to be approaching. Environmental impact statements are defined as comprehensive analyses of the future effects of measures on environmental conditions with the aim of avoiding ecological disadvantages. The recommendation ratified by the European Communities on June 27, 1985 requires the environmental impact statement to be implemented as a mandatory procedure. The implementation is difficult to realize. Particular problems consist in the alignment of the environmental impact statement with existing administrative procedures and in the operationable formulation of the aims and results of the statement. Paragraph 72 of the administrative procedures law (VwVfG) shows that planning procedures and environmental impact statement are to be treated as two parallel regulations. The structural order of environmental impact statements must therefore be integrated into the regulations of planning procedures. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Concerted action on assessment of health and environmental impacts. Modeller and experimentalists' forum: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.

    2000-07-01

    The behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and the associated risks have to be determined through a combination of experimental and modelling studies. Modelling systems, such as those developed collaboratively in the European Union, are required: (a) to determine the potential consequences of accidental releases, (b) to help in emergency planning, (c) to determine the radiological impact of proposed routine radionuclide releases. Various experimental and environmental monitoring data are used as an input to such systems both directly through the choice of parameter values and indirectly through validation of the models. It is important to establish good contacts between the modelling and experimental communities to contribute towards the harmonisation of environmental modelling and to contribute to the maintenance of the European Commission modelling systems as state of the art. Such contacts are also beneficial in directing future experimental research and modelling programmes. The aspects of environmental transfer considered in this project are terrestrial food chains, external irradiation, resuspension, atmospheric dispersion, and aquatic transfer. To fulfil the objectives of the project, NRPB took the lead, with assistance from the other partners, in organising and hosting regular meetings of researchers in the experimental and modelling communities, setting key issues for discussion at each meeting, and drawing together the conclusions of each meeting. The emphasis of the meetings was on the adequacy of the three principal EC-sponsored computing systems, COSYMA and PC-COSYMA (probabilistic risk assessment systems), PC-CREAM (system for assessing the consequences of routine releases) and RODOS (the EC decision aiding system for emergency response). The meetings considered whether these systems make adequate use of the available experimental data and findings on environmental contamination and transfer. This aim of this study was to consider the models

  1. Models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    The document describes generic models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities. Except for few models developed in the Safety Commission, the models are based on the 1997 Swiss directive HSK-R-41 and on the 2001 IAEA Safety Report No. 19. The writing style is descriptive, facilitating the practical implementation of the models at CERN. There are four scenarios assumed for airborne releases: (1) short-term releases for release limit calculations, (2) actual short-term releases, (3) short-term releases during incidents/accidents, and (4) chronic long-term releases during the normal operation of a facility. For water releases, two scenarios are considered: (1) a release into a river, and (2) a release into a water treatment plant. The document shall be understood as a reference for specific environmental studies involving radioactive releases and as a recommendation of the Safety Commission.

  2. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    A model capable of quantifying the potential environmental impacts of agricultural application of composted or anaerobically digested source-separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. In addition to the direct impacts, the model accounts for savings by avoiding the production...... and use of commercial fertilizers. The model is part of a larger model, Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technology (EASEWASTE), developed as a decisionsupport model, focusing on assessment of alternative waste management options. The environmental impacts of the land application...... MSW showed large influence on the environmental impacts. A range of benefits, mainly related to improved soil quality from long-term application of the processed organic waste, could not be generally quantified with respect to the chosen life cycle assessment impact categories and were therefore...

  3. Analysis of lethal and sublethal impacts of environmental disasters on sperm whales using stochastic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleh, Azmy S; Chiquet, Ross A; Ma, Baoling; Tang, Tingting; Caswell, Hal; Veprauskas, Amy; Sidorovskaia, Natalia

    2017-08-01

    Mathematical models are essential for combining data from multiple sources to quantify population endpoints. This is especially true for species, such as marine mammals, for which data on vital rates are difficult to obtain. Since the effects of an environmental disaster are not fixed, we develop time-varying (nonautonomous) matrix population models that account for the eventual recovery of the environment to the pre-disaster state. We use these models to investigate how lethal and sublethal impacts (in the form of reductions in the survival and fecundity, respectively) affect the population's recovery process. We explore two scenarios of the environmental recovery process and include the effect of demographic stochasticity. Our results provide insights into the relationship between the magnitude of the disaster, the duration of the disaster, and the probability that the population recovers to pre-disaster levels or a biologically relevant threshold level. To illustrate this modeling methodology, we provide an application to a sperm whale population. This application was motivated by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico that has impacted a wide variety of species populations including oysters, fish, corals, and whales.

  4. An Optimal Hierarchical Decision Model for a Regional Logistics Network with Environmental Impact Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users’ demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators’ service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level.

  5. An optimal hierarchical decision model for a regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan; Qin, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level.

  6. The Environmental Effect of Meteoritic Impacts on Early Mars with a Versatile 3-D Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbet, M.; Forget, F.; Svetsov, V.; Tran, H.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Karatekin, O.; Gillmann, C.; Popova, O.; Head, J.

    2017-10-01

    We simulated the environmental effect of meteoritic impacts with a 3-D Global Climate Model to explore if they could trigger the warm conditions and the precipitation rates required to explain the formation of the Martian valley networks.

  7. A simulation model of building intervention impacts on indoor environmental quality, pediatric asthma, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Stout, Natasha Kay; Sandel, Megan; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2014-01-01

    Although indoor environmental conditions can affect pediatric asthmatic patients, few studies have characterized the effect of building interventions on asthma-related outcomes. Simulation models can evaluate such complex systems but have not been applied in this context. We sought to evaluate the impact of building interventions on indoor environmental quality and pediatric asthma health care use, and to conduct cost comparisons between intervention and health care costs and energy savings. We applied our previously developed discrete event simulation model (DEM) to simulate the effect of environmental factors, medication compliance, seasonality, and medical history on (1) pollutant concentrations indoors and (2) asthma outcomes in low-income multifamily housing. We estimated health care use and costs at baseline and subsequent to interventions, and then compared health care costs with energy savings and intervention costs. Interventions, such as integrated pest management and repairing kitchen exhaust fans, led to 7% to 12% reductions in serious asthma events with 1- to 3-year payback periods. Weatherization efforts targeted solely toward tightening a building envelope led to 20% more serious asthma events, but bundling with repairing kitchen exhaust fans and eliminating indoor sources (eg, gas stoves or smokers) mitigated this effect. Our pediatric asthma model provides a tool to prioritize individual and bundled building interventions based on their effects on health and costs, highlighting the tradeoffs between weatherization, indoor air quality, and health. Our work bridges the gap between clinical and environmental health sciences by increasing physicians' understanding of the effect that home environmental changes can have on their patients' asthma. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of hydrodynamic and benthic models for managing environmental impacts of marine aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, A.; Gamito, S.; Karakassis, I.

    2001-01-01

    Regulation to minimize impacts from aquaculture is of key concern in coastal zone management for the sustainability of the industry and the receiving environment. Market and consumer forces are presently driving much of this regulation and its implementation, Mathematical modelling can provide th...... on the transport of in-feed medicines is required. Keys to future developments across Europe include accessibility, setting of Environmental Quality Standards or targets, training and support for users, resources and structured research.......Regulation to minimize impacts from aquaculture is of key concern in coastal zone management for the sustainability of the industry and the receiving environment. Market and consumer forces are presently driving much of this regulation and its implementation, Mathematical modelling can provide...... the tools for planning and monitoring as well as regulation, and a number of countries have well-developed policies and procedures in place which utilize modelling tools. The main impacts currently modelled are nutrient enhancement, organic waste deposition and the dispersion and deposition of medicines...

  9. Use of hydrodynamic and benthic models for managing environmental impacts of marine aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, A.; Gamito, S.; Karakassis, I.

    2001-01-01

    Regulation to minimize impacts from aquaculture is of key concern in coastal zone management for the sustainability of the industry and the receiving environment. Market and consumer forces are presently driving much of this regulation and its implementation, Mathematical modelling can provide...... and chemicals. The release of these wastes is influenced by species- and site- specific characteristics, as well as culture and husbandry techniques. The modelling process requires consideration of definitions and limitations; standards for model development including clear objectives and justification; good...... on the transport of in-feed medicines is required. Keys to future developments across Europe include accessibility, setting of Environmental Quality Standards or targets, training and support for users, resources and structured research....

  10. Methodologies, models and parameters for environmental, impact assessment of hazardous and radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero, A.; Cancio, D.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Romero, L.; Pinedo, P.; Robles, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Simon, I.; Suanez, A.

    2003-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology to assess the impact arising from contaminants present in hazardous and radioactive wastes has been developed. Taking into account of the background information on legislation, waste categories and contaminants inventory, and disposal, recycling and waste treatment options, an Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology (MEIA) is proposed. This is applicable to (i) several types of solid wastes (hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes; (ii) several management options (recycling and temporal and final storage (in shallow and deep disposal)), (iii) several levels of data availability. Conceptual and mathematical models and software tools needed for the application of the MEIA have been developed. Bearing in mind that this is a complex process, both the models and tools have to be developed following an iterative approaches, involving refinement of the models and go as to better correspond the described system. The selection of suitable parameters for the models is based on information derived from field and laboratory measurements and experiments, nd then applying a data elicitation protocol.. It is shown an application performed for a hypothetical shallow radioactive waste disposal facility (test case), with all the steps of the MEIA applied sequentially. In addition, the methodology is applied to an actual cases of waste management for hazardous wastes from the coal fuel cycle, demonstrating several possibilities for application of the MEIA from a practical perspective. The experience obtained in the development of the work shows that the use of the MEIA for the assessment of management options for hazardous and radioactive wastes gives important advantages, simplifying the execution of the assessment, its tracability and the dissemination of methodology assessment results to to other interested parties. (Author)

  11. Modeling Future Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Supplies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Bilec

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s status as a rapidly developing country is visible in its need for more energy, including electricity. While the current electricity generation mix is primarily hydropower based, high-quality dam sites are diminishing and diversification to other sources is likely. We combined life-cycle data for electricity production with scenarios developed using the IAEA’s MESSAGE model to examine environmental impacts of future electricity generation under a baseline case and four side cases, using a Monte-Carlo approach to incorporate uncertainty in power plant performance and LCA impacts. Our results show that, under the cost-optimal base case scenario, Brazil’s GHGs from electricity (excluding hydroelectric reservoir emissions rise 370% by 2040 relative to 2010, with the carbon intensity per MWh rising 100%. This rise would make Brazil’s carbon emissions targets difficult to meet without demand-side programs. Our results show a future electricity mix dominated by environmental tradeoffs in the use of large-scale renewables, questioning the use tropical hydropower and highlighting the need for additional work to assess and include ecosystem and social impacts, where information is currently sparse.

  12. 3D Global Climate Modelling of the environmental effect of meteoritic impacts on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbet, Martin; Forget, Francois; Gillmann, Cedric; Karatekin, Ozgur; Svetsov, Vladimir; Popova, Olga; Wallemacq, Quentin

    2016-10-01

    There are now robust evidences that liquid water flowed on ancient Mars: dry river beds and lakes, hydrated sedimentary minerals and high erosion rates. Climate models that consider only CO2/H2O as greenhouse gases have been unable yet to produce warm climates suitable for liquid water on Early Mars, given the lower solar luminosity at that time. It has been suggested that the warm conditions required to explain the formation of the 3.8 Gyrs old valley networks could have been transient and produced in response to the meteoritic impacts that occured during the contemporaneous Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). This scenario is appealing because, in a predominately cold climate, the ice tends to accumulate preferentially in the regions where the rivers were sculpted ('Icy Highlands' scenario). This would be a very efficient mechanism of recharge of the valley network water sources between two impact-induced melting events.Using the LMD Global Climate Model (LMD-GCM) designed for flexible (from cold & dry to warm & wet) conditions, we explored the environmental effect of LHB impact events of various sizes on Early Mars. Our main result is that, whatever the initial impact-induced temperatures and water vapor content injected, warm climates cannot be stable and are in fact short-lived (lifetime of ~ 5 martian years/bar of H2O injected). Moreover, we will give preliminar estimates of the amount of rainfall/snowmelt that can be produced after impact events depending on their size, following three different approaches:1) For large impact events (Dimpactor warm/moist conditions prescribed with simple scaling laws and assuming energy conservation.2) For moderate-size events (5km < Dimpactor < 50km, N ~ 3x103) we use the SOVA hydrocode for short-term modelling of impact cratering. It provides us with post-impact temperature fields, injection of volatiles, ejecta and dust distribution that serve as input for the LMD-GCM.3) Simultaneously, we derive the cumulated long-term effect

  13. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  14. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  15. Environmental Impacts of a Multi-Borehole Geothermal System: Model Sensitivity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M.; Daemi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Problems associated with fossil fuel consumption has increased worldwide interest in discovering and developing sustainable energy systems. One such system is geothermal heating, which uses the constant temperature of the ground to heat or cool buildings. Since geothermal heating offers low maintenance, high heating/cooling comfort, and a low carbon footprint, compared to conventional systems, there has been an increasing trend in equipping large buildings with geothermal heating. However, little is known on the potential environmental impact geothermal heating can have on the subsurface, such as the creation of subsurface thermal plumes or changes in groundwater flow dynamics. In the present study, the environmental impacts of a closed-loop, ground source heat pump (GSHP) system was examined with respect to different system parameters. To do this a three-dimensional model, developed using FEFLOW, was used to examine the thermal plumes resulting from ten years of operation of a vertical closed-loop GSHP system with multiple boreholes. A required thermal load typical of an office building located in Canada was calculated and groundwater flow and heat transport in the geological formation was simulated. Consequently, the resulting thermal plumes were studied and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effect of different parameters like groundwater flow and soil type on the development and movement of thermal plumes. Since thermal plumes can affect the efficiency of a GSHP system, this study provides insight into important system parameters.

  16. The Impact of Environmental Policy on Foreign Trade: Tobey revisited with a Bilateral Flow Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, van Cees; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Whereas theoretical analyses of trade and environment indicate thatrelatively strict environmental policies can have a strong impact on foreign trade, empirical studies present mixed results. This study presents new empirical results that tie together two previous empirical studies employing a

  17. Challenges of electricity production scenarios modelling for life cycle assessment of environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This communication presents a first attempt at making a life cycle assessment of prospective electricity production scenarios which were designed in the EnerGEO project. We start by a basic review of system (in this case, scenario) modelling expectations in today's LCA study. We then review some of the challenges of implementation due to the lack of detailed description of present and future electricity production systems. The importance of a detailed description is then shown with an evaluation of uncertainty of life cycle impact assessment results for three scenarios of German electricity production in 2030. The significant uncertainties we found, prevent us from detecting a relevant trend or making any comparison between the three chosen scenarios. We finally come to the conclusion that the LCA methodology will become relevant for the environmental assessment of electricity production scenarios when many more detailed information are accounted to describe future technologies, structures and sources of energy. (orig.)

  18. Modelling The Environmental Impact of Controlling Saline Intrusion In The Mekong River Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Gowing, J.; Payton, R.

    The delta at the mouth of the Mekong River extends over 50,000 km2 in Vietnam and Cambodia. It is a highly productive environment both for rice and fish, but conflicts arise between their water quality demands. In this paper we focus on an investigation of this conflict in the Ca Mau peninsula, which lies entirely within Vietnam at the southern tip of the delta. The study area is a highly modified environment in which the natural mangrove veg- etation has been removed and a complex network of natural and man-made channels has been created. In an attempt to manage salinity intrusion into this environment, a number of tidal sluices have been constructed in recent years leading to progressive expansion of the area suitable for intensification of rice production. However, this has also led to negative impact on fish and shrimp production due to the change from brackish to fresh water conditions. The impact of this change is further exacerbated by the existence throughout a large part of the Ca Mau peninsula of acid sulphate soils. These are old marine sediments which are sulphur rich and have the potential to release sulphuric acid once they be- come oxidised. This has serious implications for productivity of rice fields and also for severe impacts on the aquatic environment. This paper reports an interdisciplinary investigation of the environmental impact of these changes. We identify the sources of acidity, which include rice fields, shrimp ponds and excavated channel sediments. We add different water quality modules to an existing hydraulic and transport model to allow simulation of temporal and spatial variation of water quality within the study area. We show a special interest on the water exchange between the fields and the canals as the area suffers from floods and dry spells.

  19. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template” for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff, and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method

  20. Modeling of yield and environmental impact categories in tea processing units based on artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanali, Majid; Mobli, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa

    2017-12-01

    In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for predicting the yield and life cycle environmental impacts based on energy inputs required in processing of black tea, green tea, and oolong tea in Guilan province of Iran. A life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to investigate the environmental impact categories of processed tea based on the cradle to gate approach, i.e., from production of input materials using raw materials to the gate of tea processing units, i.e., packaged tea. Thus, all the tea processing operations such as withering, rolling, fermentation, drying, and packaging were considered in the analysis. The initial data were obtained from tea processing units while the required data about the background system was extracted from the EcoInvent 2.2 database. LCA results indicated that diesel fuel and corrugated paper box used in drying and packaging operations, respectively, were the main hotspots. Black tea processing unit caused the highest pollution among the three processing units. Three feed-forward back-propagation ANN models based on Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm with two hidden layers accompanied by sigmoid activation functions and a linear transfer function in output layer, were applied for three types of processed tea. The neural networks were developed based on energy equivalents of eight different input parameters (energy equivalents of fresh tea leaves, human labor, diesel fuel, electricity, adhesive, carton, corrugated paper box, and transportation) and 11 output parameters (yield, global warming, abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and photochemical oxidation). The results showed that the developed ANN models with R 2 values in the range of 0.878 to 0.990 had excellent performance in predicting all the output variables based on inputs. Energy consumption for

  1. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MACHINERY SECTORS TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher than standard environmental cost, and contribute to low real benefit. Electric accumulator & battery, secondary special industrial machinery, motorcycle, bicycle & other carriages, and engines and turbines need to monitor closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than other production sector do and they have high environmental cost. In order to decide the sustainable development strategy of the country, there is a need to use this research to support decision-making.

  2. Geothermal environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armannsson, H.; Kristmannsdottir, H.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal utilization can cause surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal noise, thermal effects and emission of chemicals as well as affect the communities concerned socially and economically. The environmental impact can be minimized by multiple use of the energy source and the reinjection of spent fluids. The emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuels as an industrial energy source wherever possible

  3. Atmospheric Dispersion Models for the Calculation of Environmental Impact: A Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Marcelo; Gimenez, Marcelo; Felicelli, Sergio; Schlamp, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    In this paper some new comparisons are presented between the codes AERMOD, HPDM and HYSPLIT.The first two are Gaussian stationary plume codes and they were developed to calculate environmental impact produced by chemical contaminants.HYSPLIT is a hybrid code because it uses a Lagrangian reference system to describe the transport of a puff center of mass and uses an Eulerian system to describe the dispersion within the puff.The meteorological and topographic data used in the present work were obtained from runs of the prognostic code RAMS, provided by NOAA. The emission was fixed in 0.3 g/s , 284 K and 0 m/s .The surface rough was fixed in 0.1m and flat terrain was considered.In order to analyze separate effects and to go deeper in the comparison, the meteorological data was split into two, depending on the atmospheric stability class (F to B), and the wind direction was fixed to neglect its contribution to the contaminant dispersion.The main contribution of this work is to provide recommendations about the validity range of each code depending on the model used.In the case of Gaussian models the validity range is fixed by the distance in which the atmospheric condition can be consider homogeneous.In the other hand the validity range of HYSPLIT's model is determined by the spatial extension of the meteorological data.The results obtained with the three codes are comparable if the emission is in equilibrium with the environment.This means that the gases were emitted at the same temperature of the medium with zero velocity.There was an important difference between the dispersion parameters used by the Gaussian codes

  4. The use of LCA for modelling sustainability and environmental impact of manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culaba, A.; Purvis, M. [Portsmouth Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Most industries rely significantly on natural resources for raw materials and energy requirements. As a consequence of manufacturing activities, various pollutants are generated in the process. While effects on the environment can be detrimental, wastes and emissions account for a high percentage loss in the overall material balance. Unless these unnecessary losses are minimized and recovered, the environment would continue to be disadvantaged and long-term supply of raw materials and energy would likewise be affected. The key to the analysis of such problems concerns generalised procedures for the modelling of the sustainable use of resources in manufacturing processes and the development of associated sustainability criteria. This requires identifying the various aspects of manufacturing from the time the raw materials are extracted until they have been processed into products and then used or consumed and finally disposed of. The use of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology encompasses these analyses and that of the identification of environmental effects associated with every stage of the manufacturing process. The presentation concludes that LCA is a very useful and effective tool in providing planners, legislator and decision-makers with the necessary information on the probable impacts of manufacture on the environment as well as underlying legislation, ecological, health standards and emission limits. (author)

  5. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting, anaero...... the environmental performance of alternative biological treatment technologies in relation to their mass flows, energy consumption, gaseous emissions, biogas recovery and compost/digestate utilization....

  6. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 11: Smoke Impact Spreadsheet (SIS) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent Wickman; Ann Acheson

    2005-01-01

    The Smoke Impact Spreadsheet (SIS) is a simple-to-use planning model for calculating particulate matter (PM) emissions and concentrations downwind of wildland fires. This fact sheet identifies the intended users and uses, required inputs, what the model does and does not do, and tells the user how to obtain the model.

  7. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyong Ju; Yun, Won Gun; Cho, Namho; Ha, Jikwang

    2017-01-01

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR model

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  9. Building consensus in environmental impact assessment through multicriteria modeling and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A; Sánchez-Colon, Salvadur; Florez, Arturo

    2005-09-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) increasingly is being applied in environmental impact assessment (EIA). In this article, two MCDA techniques, stochastic analytic hierarchy process and compromise programming, are combined to ascertain the environmental impacts of and to rank two alternative sites for Mexico City's new airport. Extensive sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the probability of changes in rank ordering given uncertainty in the hierarchy structure, decision criteria weights, and decision criteria performances. Results demonstrate that sensitivity analysis is fundamental for attaining consensus among members of interdisciplinary teams and for settling debates in controversial projects. It was concluded that sensitivity analysis is critical for achieving a transparent and technically defensible MCDA implementation in controversial EIA.

  10. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEstatistical analyses, the systems were grouped into the following categories: (a) farming system: organic (ORG), integrated (IN) and mineral (MIN); (b) tillage: conventional (CT), reduced (RT) and no-till (NT); (c) cover cropping: no cover cropping (NCC), winter cover cropping (CC) and winter green manuring (GM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased

  11. Effects of Population and Land Urbanization on China’s Environmental Impact: Empirical Analysis Based on the Extended STIRPAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoufu Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available China has been undergoing a very rapid but unbalanced urbanization, characterized by under-urbanization of its population and faster urbanization of the land. In such a situation, the urbanization of the population and the land may produce different effects on the natural environment. In addition, due to substantial inter-regional differences, the influence of urbanization on the environment is likely to vary across regions at different stages of economic and social development. This article expands the basic STIRPAT–Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology, model by adding industrialization level, foreign trade degree, population urbanization level and land urbanization level. Based on panel data from 2006 to 2014 and using this extended STIRPAT model, the article analyses the effects of the driving forces, especially population urbanization and land urbanization, on the environmental impact for the whole of China as well as on its eastern, middle and western regions. The results indicate that for the whole of China, population urbanization produces a significant negative effect on the environmental impact, while land urbanization has a small, but not statistically significant, positive effect. The effects of population urbanization and land urbanization vary across the eastern, middle and western regions, which are at different stages of economic and social development. Population urbanization and land urbanization have no significant influences on environmental impact in the eastern and middle regions, while in the western region population urbanization has a significant negative influence on environmental impact. The main driving factors of environmental impact remain population, affluence and energy intensity. This study also quantitatively calculates the actual contribution rate of each driving force for the 2006–2014 period. It contributes to understanding the characteristics and key driving forces in

  12. Draft environmental impact statement : corporate average fuel economy standards, passenger cars and light trucks, model years 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has prepared this Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to disclose and analyze the potential environmental impacts of the proposed new Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards a...

  13. Adolescents’ associations between travel behaviour and environmental impact: A qualitative study based on the Norm-Activation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja; Bohlbro, Marie S.

    2018-01-01

    The negative environmental impact of car-dependent daily transport is well known. Young people of today are the potential drivers of the future and their mode choice will influence the environment for many years. This study explores the associations drawn between daily transport and environmental...... impact among 15-year-old Danish adolescents. We conducted 50 in-depth interviews and analysed them using a data-driven inductive thematic approach. We interpret differences in pro-environmental awareness and engagement on the background of the Norm-Activation Model (Schwartz, 1977). Based...... transport as a relevant issue in relation to sustainability. Such measures should include tangible feedback in a daily context while taking different coping strategies with regard to climate change into account....

  14. Empirical model of impingement impact. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1289

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Christensen, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    A simple model, derived from Ricker's (1975) theory of fisheries dynamics, that can be used to estimate the impact of impingement of juvenile fish by power plants on year-class abundance in vulnerable species is described. The only data required are estimates of the initial number of impingeable juveniles, the number impinged, and the rate of total mortality during the period of vulnerability. The impact of impingement is expressed in the model as the conditional mortality rate, rather than the more commonly used exploitation rate. The conditional mortality rate is superior as a measure of impact for two reasons: it accounts for the differential impact of impinging fish of different ages, and it is numerically equivalent to the fractional reduction in year-class abundance due to impingement. We present an application of the model using the 1974 year-class of the Hudson River striped bass population as an example. We then show how the model can be modified to account for seasonal fluctuations in the rate of impingement, discuss the effect of these fluctuations on the calculated impact, and discuss the influence on model output of errors in the measurement of abundance, impingement, and total mortality. It is evident from this analysis that estimates of impingement impact are as sensitive to errors in estimates of population size and mortality as to estimates of the number of fish impinged. Thus, it is not possible to reliably estimate the impact of impingement on a vulnerable fish species unless a substantial effort is devoted to population studies

  15. Use of hydrodynamic and benthic models for managing environmental impacts of marine aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, A.; Gamito, S.; Karakassis, I.; Pederson, P.; Smaal, A.

    2001-01-01

    Regulation to minimize impacts from aquaculture is of key concern in coastal zone management for the sustainability of the industry and the receiving environment. Market and consumer forces are presently driving much of this regulation and its implementation. Mathematical modelling can provide the

  16. The economic, environmental and public health impacts of new power plants: a sequential inter industry model integrated with GIS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, Andre F.T.; Hewings, Geoffrey J.D.; Guilhoto, Joaquim J.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEA/USP), SE (Brazil). Fac. de Administracao e Contabilidade

    2010-07-01

    The electrical sector is responsible for a considerable amount of greenhouse gases emissions worldwide, but also the one in which modern society depends the most for maintenance of quality of life as well as the functioning of economic and social activities. Invariably, even CO2 emission-free power plants have some indirect environmental impacts due to the economic effects they produce during their life cycle (construction, O and M and decommissioning). Thus, sustainability issues should be always considered in energy planning, by evaluating the balance of positive/negative externalities on different areas of the country. This study aims to introduce a social-environmental economic model, based on a Regional Sequential Inter industry Model (SIM) integrated with geoprocessing data, in order to identify economic, pollution and public health impacts in state level for energy planning analysis. The model is based on the Impact Pathway Approach Methodology, using geoprocessing to locate social-environmental variables for dispersion and health evaluations. The final goal is to provide an auxiliary tool for policy makers to assess energy planning scenarios in Brazil. (author)

  17. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  18. Environmental conditions impacting juvenile Chinook salmon growth off central California: An ecosystem model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, J.; Huff, D. D.; Martin, B. T.; Jackson, D. W.; Edwards, C. A.; Rose, K. A.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K. S.; Lindley, S. T.; Wells, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    A fully coupled ecosystem model is used to identify the effects of environmental conditions and upwelling variability on growth of juvenile Chinook salmon in central California coastal waters. The ecosystem model framework consists of an ocean circulation submodel, a biogeochemical submodel, and an individual-based submodel for salmon. Simulation results indicate that years favorable for juvenile salmon growth off central California are characterized by particularly intense early season upwelling (i.e., March through May), leading to enhanced krill concentrations during summer near the location of ocean entry (i.e., Gulf of the Farallones). Seasonally averaged growth rates in the model are generally consistent with observed values and suggest that juvenile salmon emigrating later in the season (i.e., late May and June) achieve higher weight gains during their first 90 days of ocean residency.

  19. Modeling the impacts of multiple environmental stress factors on estuarine copepod populations

    OpenAIRE

    Korsman, J.C.; Schipper, A.M.; Hoop, L. de; Miaet, B.; Maris, T.; Tackx, M.L.M.; Hendriks, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have focused on natural stress factors that shape the spatial and temporal distribution of calanoid copepods, but bioassays have shown that copepods are also sensitive to a broad range of contaminants. Although both anthropogenic and natural stress factors are obviously at play in natural copepod communities, most studies consider only one or the other. In the present investigation, we modeled the combined impact of both anthropogenic and natural stress factors on copepod populat...

  20. Optimization model of energy mix taking into account the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, O.; Oprea, D.

    2012-01-01

    At present, the energy system in the Czech Republic needs to decide some important issues regarding limited fossil resources, greater efficiency in producing of electrical energy and reducing emission levels of pollutants. These problems can be decided only by formulating and implementing an energy mix that will meet these conditions: rational, reliable, sustainable and competitive. The aim of this article is to find a new way of determining an optimal mix for the energy system in the Czech Republic. To achieve the aim, the linear optimization model comprising several economics, environmental and technical aspects will be applied. (Authors)

  1. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  2. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  3. A Hybrid Fuzzy Inference System Based on Dispersion Model for Quantitative Environmental Health Impact Assessment of Urban Transportation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Tashayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the spatial variation of traffic-related air pollution has been and is a long-standing challenge in quantitative environmental health impact assessment of urban transportation planning. Advanced approaches are required for modeling complex relationships among traffic, air pollution, and adverse health outcomes by considering uncertainties in the available data. A new hybrid fuzzy model is developed and implemented through hierarchical fuzzy inference system (HFIS. This model is integrated with a dispersion model in order to model the effect of transportation system on the PM2.5 concentration. An improved health metric is developed as well based on a HFIS to model the impact of traffic-related PM2.5 on health. Two solutions are applied to improve the performance of both the models: the topologies of HFISs are selected according to the problem and used variables, membership functions, and rule set are determined through learning in a simultaneous manner. The capabilities of this proposed approach is examined by assessing the impacts of three traffic scenarios involved in air pollution in the city of Isfahan, Iran, and the model accuracy compared to the results of available models from literature. The advantages here are modeling the spatial variation of PM2.5 with high resolution, appropriate processing requirements, and considering the interaction between emissions and meteorological processes. These models are capable of using the available qualitative and uncertain data. These models are of appropriate accuracy, and can provide better understanding of the phenomena in addition to assess the impact of each parameter for the planners.

  4. Cumulative Impact Assessment: Approaching Environmental Capacity in Development Area Using Environmental Impact Assessment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N.; Lee, M. J.; Maeng, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental impact assessment estimates the impact of development as a business unit and establishes mitigation plan. If the development is done, its economic effects can spread to the nearby areas. So that various developments can be distributed at different time intervals. The impact of the new developments can be combined with existing environmental impacts and can have a larger impact. That is, Cumulative impact assessment is needed to consider the environmental capacity of the Nearby area. Cumulative impact assessments require policy tools such as environmental impact assessment information and cumulative impact estimation models. In Korea, environmental information (water quality, air quality, etc.) of the development site is measured for environmental impact assessment and monitored for a certain period (generally 5 years) after the project. In addition, by constructing the environmental information as a spatial database, it is possible to express the environmental impact on a regional basis spatially and to intuitively use it for development site selection. Utilizing a composite model of environmental impact assessment information and Remote Sensing data for cumulative impact estimation, That can be used as a policy decision support tool that provides quantitative information for development area management, such as time series effect and sprawl phenomenon.

  5. Modeling the impacts of multiple environmental stress factors on estuarine copepod populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; De Hoop, Lisette; Mialet, Benoit; Maris, Tom; Tackx, Micky L M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-05-20

    Many studies have focused on natural stress factors that shape the spatial and temporal distribution of calanoid copepods, but bioassays have shown that copepods are also sensitive to a broad range of contaminants. Although both anthropogenic and natural stress factors are obviously at play in natural copepod communities, most studies consider only one or the other. In the present investigation, we modeled the combined impact of both anthropogenic and natural stress factors on copepod populations. The model was applied to estimate Eurytemora affinis densities in the contaminated Scheldt estuary and the relatively uncontaminated Darß-Zingst estuary in relation to temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, and sediment concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc. The results indicated that temperature was largely responsible for seasonal fluctuations of E. affinis densities. Our model results further suggested that exposure to zinc and copper was largely responsible for the reduced population densities in the contaminated estuary. The model provides a consistent framework for integrating and quantifying the impacts of multiple anthropogenic and natural stress factors on copepod populations. It facilitates the extrapolation of laboratory experiments to ecologically relevant end points pertaining to population viability.

  6. Industry-Cost-Curve Approach for Modeling the Environmental Impact of Introducing New Technologies in Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätelhön, Arne; von der Assen, Niklas; Suh, Sangwon; Jung, Johannes; Bardow, André

    2015-07-07

    The environmental costs and benefits of introducing a new technology depend not only on the technology itself, but also on the responses of the market where substitution or displacement of competing technologies may occur. An internationally accepted method taking both technological and market-mediated effects into account, however, is still lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). For the introduction of a new technology, we here present a new approach for modeling the environmental impacts within the framework of LCA. Our approach is motivated by consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) and aims to contribute to the discussion on how to operationalize consequential thinking in LCA practice. In our approach, we focus on new technologies producing homogeneous products such as chemicals or raw materials. We employ the industry cost-curve (ICC) for modeling market-mediated effects. Thereby, we can determine substitution effects at a level of granularity sufficient to distinguish between competing technologies. In our approach, a new technology alters the ICC potentially replacing the highest-cost producer(s). The technologies that remain competitive after the new technology's introduction determine the new environmental impact profile of the product. We apply our approach in a case study on a new technology for chlor-alkali electrolysis to be introduced in Germany.

  7. Environmental Modeling Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Modeling Center provides the computational tools to perform geostatistical analysis, to model ground water and atmospheric releases for comparison...

  8. Species distribution models and impact factor growth in environmental journals: methodological fashion or the attraction of global change science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Brotons

    Full Text Available In this work, I evaluate the impact of species distribution models (SDMs on the current status of environmental and ecological journals by asking the question to which degree development of SDMs in the literature is related to recent changes in the impact factors of ecological journals. The hypothesis evaluated states that research fronts are likely to attract research attention and potentially drive citation patterns, with journals concentrating papers related to the research front receiving more attention and benefiting from faster increases in their impact on the ecological literature. My results indicate a positive relationship between the number of SDM related articles published in a journal and its impact factor (IF growth during the period 2000-09. However, the percentage of SDM related papers in a journal was strongly and positively associated with the percentage of papers on climate change and statistical issues. The results support the hypothesis that global change science has been critical in the development of SDMs and that interest in climate change research in particular, rather than the usage of SDM per se, appears as an important factor behind journal IF increases in ecology and environmental sciences. Finally, our results on SDM application in global change science support the view that scientific interest rather than methodological fashion appears to be the major driver of research attraction in the scientific literature.

  9. Modelling the health impact of environmentally sustainable dietary scenarios in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, P; Allender, S; Clarke, D; Wickramasinghe, K; Rayner, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Food is responsible for around one-fifth of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from products consumed in the UK, the largest contributor of which is meat and dairy. The Committee on Climate Change have modelled the impact on GHG emissions of three dietary scenarios for food consumption in the UK. This paper models the impact of the three scenarios on mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A previously published model (DIETRON) was used. The three scenarios were parameterised by fruit and vegetables, fibre, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol and salt using the 2008 Family Food Survey. A Monte Carlo simulation generated 95% credible intervals. RESULTS: Scenario 1 (50% reduction in meat and dairy replaced by fruit, vegetables and cereals: 19% reduction in GHG emissions) resulted in 36 910 (30 192 to 43 592) deaths delayed or averted per year. Scenario 2 (75% reduction in cow and sheep meat replaced by pigs and poultry: 9% reduction in GHG emissions) resulted in 1999 (1739 to 2389) deaths delayed or averted. Scenario 3 (50% reduction in pigs and poultry replaced with fruit, vegetables and cereals: 3% reduction in GHG emissions) resulted in 9297 (7288 to 11 301) deaths delayed or averted. CONCLUSION: Modelled results suggest that public health and climate change dietary goals are in broad alignment with the largest results in both domains occurring when consumption of all meat and dairy products are reduced. Further work in real-life settings is needed to confirm these results. PMID:22491494

  10. Assessment of environmental impact models in natural occurring radionuclides solid wastes disposal from the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May Braga Dulley

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of wastes with naturally occurring radionuclides as generated by the mineral industry and their final disposal in landfills. An integrated methodology is used to predict the performance of an industrial landfill for disposal of wastes containing NORM/TENORM, and to define acceptable amounts that can be disposed at the landfill using long-term environmental assessment. The governing equations for radionuclide transport are solved analytically using the generalized integral transform technique. Results obtained for each compartment of the biogeosphere are validated with experimental results or compared to other classes of solutions. An impact analysis is performed in order to define the potential consequences of a landfill to the environment, considering not only the engineering characteristics of the waste deposit but also the exposure pathways and plausible scenarios in which the contaminants could migrate and reach the environment and the human population. The present work permits the development of a safety approach that can be used to derive quantitative waste acceptance criteria for the disposal of NORM/TENORM waste in landfills. (author)

  11. Stochastic, goal-oriented rapid impact modeling of uncertainty and environmental impacts in poorly-sampled sites using ex-situ priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Li, Yandong; Chang, Ching-Fu; Tan, Benjamin; Chen, Ziyang; Sege, Jon; Wang, Changhong; Rubin, Yoram

    2018-01-01

    Modeling of uncertainty associated with subsurface dynamics has long been a major research topic. Its significance is widely recognized for real-life applications. Despite the huge effort invested in the area, major obstacles still remain on the way from theory and applications. Particularly problematic here is the confusion between modeling uncertainty and modeling spatial variability, which translates into a (mis)conception, in fact an inconsistency, in that it suggests that modeling of uncertainty and modeling of spatial variability are equivalent, and as such, requiring a lot of data. This paper investigates this challenge against the backdrop of a 7 km, deep underground tunnel in China, where environmental impacts are of major concern. We approach the data challenge by pursuing a new concept for Rapid Impact Modeling (RIM), which bypasses altogether the need to estimate posterior distributions of model parameters, focusing instead on detailed stochastic modeling of impacts, conditional to all information available, including prior, ex-situ information and in-situ measurements as well. A foundational element of RIM is the construction of informative priors for target parameters using ex-situ data, relying on ensembles of well-documented sites, pre-screened for geological and hydrological similarity to the target site. The ensembles are built around two sets of similarity criteria: a physically-based set of criteria and an additional set covering epistemic criteria. In another variation to common Bayesian practice, we update the priors to obtain conditional distributions of the target (environmental impact) dependent variables and not the hydrological variables. This recognizes that goal-oriented site characterization is in many cases more useful in applications compared to parameter-oriented characterization.

  12. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Models with Considering the Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated. PMID:25309960

  13. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Models with Considering the Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.

  14. Closed-loop supply chain models with considering the environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Amir; Fallah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.

  15. Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS{reg_sign}): Exposure pathway and human health impact assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Chamberlain, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) provides physics-based models for human health risk assessment for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. MEPAS analyzes pollutant behavior in various media (air, soil, groundwater and surface water) and estimates transport through and between media and exposure and impacts to the environment, to the maximum individual, and to populations. MEPAS includes 25 exposure pathway models, a database with information on more than 650 contaminants, and a sensitivity module that allows for uncertainty analysis. Four major transport pathways are considered in MEPAS: groundwater, overland, surface water, and atmospheric. This report describes the exposure pathway and health impact assessment component of MEPAS, which provides an estimate of health impacts to selected individuals and populations from exposure to pollutants. The exposure pathway analysis starts with pollutant concentration in a transport medium and estimates the average daily dose to exposed individuals from contact with the transport medium or a secondary medium contaminated by the transport medium. The average daily dose is then used to estimate a measure of health impact appropriate to the type of pollutant considered. Discussions of the exposure pathway models include the assumptions and equations used to convert the transport medium concentrations to exposure medium concentrations. The discussion for a given exposure pathway defines the transport pathways leading to the exposure, the special processes considered in determining the pollutant concentration in the exposure medium, and the exposure model used to estimate the average daily dose. Models for the exposure pathway and health impact assessments require definition of several parameters. A summary of the notation used for these parameters is provided.

  16. EPIC Forest LAI Dataset: LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC) model (a widely used, field-scale, biogeochemical model) on four forest complexes spanning three physiographic provinces in VA and NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data depicts calculated and validated LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC) model (a widely used, field-scale,...

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment Of Tourism And Environment Sensitive Sustainable Tourism Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gündüz, Fuat

    1999-01-01

    The basis of sustainable development is formed by sustaining environmental resources and values without losing their characteristics. In addition to production processes, tourism activity is the phenomenon that spoils ecological balances. The factors that form tourism sector are natural resources and socio-cultural and historical accumulations. The sustainability of tourism sector and development depends on the protection of all types of environmental values. In order to protect environmental...

  18. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2009 Chemical Society of Ethiopia. ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: abrishgk@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SHEBA TANNERY (ETHIOPIA) EFFLUENTS ON. THE SURROUNDING WATER BODIES. Abraha Gebrekidan*, Gebrekidan Gebresellasie and Afework Mulugeta.

  20. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied....

  1. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  2. Studying the Impacts of Environmental Factors and Agricultural Management on Methane Emissions from Rice Paddies Using a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. S.; Gahlot, S.; Shu, S.; Jain, A. K.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Continued growth in population is projected to drive increased future demand for rice and the methane emissions associated with its production. However, observational studies of methane emissions from rice have reported seemingly conflicting results and do not all support this projection. In this study we couple an ecophysiological process-based rice paddy module and a methane emission module with a land surface model, Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), to study the impacts of various environmental factors and agricultural management practices on rice production and methane emissions from rice fields. This coupled modeling framework accounts for dynamic rice growth processes with adaptation of photosynthesis, rice-specific phenology, biomass accumulation, leaf area development and structures responses to water, temperature, light and nutrient stresses. The coupled model is calibrated and validated with observations from various rice cultivation fields. We find that the differing results of observational studies can be caused by the interactions of environmental factors, including climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and agricultural management practices, such as irrigation and N fertilizer applications, with rice production at spatial and temporal scales.

  3. pollution sources and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The second conference on analytical nuclear and conventional technics and their applications which took place in Meknes (Morocco) under the theme ''pollution sources and environmental impacts'' from 27 to 29 Novenber 2008 discussed the various aspects of the use of analytical techniques applied to issues of environmental pollution [fr

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    of common source of contamination. The meat quality was found to be impaired by high levels of Zn, Cu and Cd and indicates widespread contamination of the environment by these trace metals. KEY WORDS. KEY WORDS: Heavy metals, Goat muscles, Edible offal's, Environmental impact. INTRODUCTION. Environmental ...

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Roura, R.; Bastmeijer, K.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    This publication focuses on the instrument of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that has been developed within the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) as one of the tools to promote environmental protection. The states involved in the ATS already recognized the importance of this instrument in 1975

  6. Environmental regulation impacts on international trade: aggregate and sectoral analyses with a bilateral trade flow model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, C.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    An important barrier to the implementation of strict environmental regulations is that they are perceived to negatively affect a country's competitiveness, visible through changes in international trade. Whereas theoretical analyses of trade and the environment indicate that relatively strict

  7. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  8. Helping farmers to reduce herbicide environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bellec, F.; Vélu, A.; Fournier, P.; Le Squin, S.; Michels, S.; Tendero, D.; Bockstaller, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While pesticides help to effectively control crop pests,their collateral effects often harm the environment. On the French island of Reunion in the Indian Ocean, over 75% of the pesticides used are herbicides and they are regularly detected in water. Agri-environmental models and pesticide risk indicators can be used to predict and to help pesticide users to reduce environmental impacts. However, while the complexity of models often limits their use to the field of research, pesti...

  9. Modelling and Evaluation of Environmental Impact due to Continuous Emissions of the Severonickel Plant (Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, A.; Gonzalez-Aparicio, I.; Nuterman, R.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, evaluation of potential impact - through concentration, deposition and loadings patterns - on population and environment due to continuous anthropogenic emissions (on example of sulfates) of the Cu-Ni smelters of the Russian North is given. To estimate impact, the Danish Emergency Response Model for Atmosphere (DERMA) was employed to perform long-term simulations of air concentration, time integrated air concentration (TIAC), dry (DD) and wet (WD) deposition patterns resulting from continuous emissions of the Severonickel smelters located on the Kola Peninsula (Murmansk region, Russia). To perform such simulations the 3D meteorological fields (from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF) for the year 2000 were used as input. For simplicity, it has been assumed that normalized releases of sulfates from smelters location occurred at a constant rate every day. For each daily release the atmospheric transport, dispersion, dry and wet deposition due to removal processes were estimated during 10 day interval. Output from these long-term simulations is an essential input for evaluation of impact, doses, risks, and short- and long-term consequences, etc. Detailed analyses of simulated concentration and deposition fields allowed evaluating the spatial and temporal variability of resulted patterns on different scales. Temporal variability of both wet and dry deposition as well as their contribution into total deposition have been estimated. On an annual scale, the concentration and deposition patterns were estimated for the most populated cities of the North-West Russia. The modeled annual fields were also integrated into GIS environment as well as layers with population density (from the Center for International Earth Science Information Network, CIESIN) and standard administrative division of the North-West Russia and bordering countries. Furthermore, the estimation of deposited amounts (loadings) of sulfates for selected regions of

  10. Limitations to the Use of Species-Distribution Models for Environmental-Impact Assessments in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ribeiro de A Carneiro

    Full Text Available Species-distribution models (SDM are tools with potential to inform environmental-impact studies (EIA. However, they are not always appropriate and may result in improper and expensive mitigation and compensation if their limitations are not understood by decision makers. Here, we examine the use of SDM for frogs that were used in impact assessment using data obtained from the EIA of a hydroelectric project located in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. The results show that lack of knowledge of species distributions limits the appropriate use of SDM in the Amazon region for most target species. Because most of these targets are newly described and their distributions poorly known, data about their distributions are insufficient to be effectively used in SDM. Surveys that are mandatory for the EIA are often conducted only near the area under assessment, and so models must extrapolate well beyond the sampled area to inform decisions made at much larger spatial scales, such as defining areas to be used to offset the negative effects of the projects. Using distributions of better-known species in simulations, we show that geographical-extrapolations based on limited information of species ranges often lead to spurious results. We conclude that the use of SDM as evidence to support project-licensing decisions in the Amazon requires much greater area sampling for impact studies, or, alternatively, integrated and comparative survey strategies, to improve biodiversity sampling. When more detailed distribution information is unavailable, SDM will produce results that generate uncertain and untestable decisions regarding impact assessment. In many cases, SDM is unlikely to be better than the use of expert opinion.

  11. Zebrafish: a model animal for analyzing the impact of environmental pollutants on muscle and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Rossignol, R; Brèthes, D

    2013-01-01

    Mercury, anthropogenic release of uranium (U), and nanoparticles constitute hazardous environmental pollutants able to accumulate along the aquatic food chain with severe risk for animal and human health. The impact of such pollutants on living organisms has been up to now approached by classical toxicology in which huge doses of toxic compounds, environmentally irrelevant, are displayed through routes that never occur in the lifespan of organisms (for instance injecting a bolus of mercury to an animal although the main route is through prey and fish eating). We wanted to address the effect of such pollutants on the muscle and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics under realistic conditions, at unprecedented low doses, using an aquatic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio. We developed an original method to measure brain mitochondrial respiration: a single brain was put in 1.5 mL conical tube containing a respiratory buffer. Brains were gently homogenized by 13 strokes with a conical plastic pestle, and the homogenates were immediately used for respiration measurements. Skinned muscle fibers were prepared by saponin permeabilization. Zebrafish were contaminated with food containing 13 μg of methylmercury (MeHg)/g, an environmentally relevant dose. In permeabilized muscle fibers, we observed a strong inhibition of both state 3 mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity after 49 days of MeHg exposure. We measured a dramatic decrease in the rate of ATP release by skinned muscle fibers. Contrarily to muscles, brain mitochondrial respiration was not modified by MeHg exposure although brain accumulated twice as much MeHg than muscles. When zebrafish were exposed to 30 μg/L of waterborne U, the basal mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was decreased in muscles after 28 days of exposure. This was due to an increase of the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability. The impact of a daily ration of food containing gold nanoparticles of two sizes (12 and

  12. Three-dimensional modeling of HCFC-123 in the atmosphere: assessing its potential environmental impacts and rationale for continued use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuebbles, Donald J; Patten, Kenneth O

    2009-05-01

    HCFC-123 (C2HCl2F3) is used in large refrigeration systems and as a fire suppression agent blend. Like other hydrochlorofluorocarbons, production and consumption of HCFC-123 is limited under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The purpose of this study is to update the understanding of the current and projected impacts of HCFC-123 on stratospheric ozone and on climate and to discuss the potential environmental effects from continued use of this chemical for specific applications. For the first time, the Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of a HCFC is determined using a three-dimensional model (MOZART-3) of atmospheric physics and chemistry. All previous studies have relied on results from two-dimensional models. The derived HCFC-123 ODP of 0.0098 is smaller than previous values. Analysis of the projected uses and emissions of HCFC-123, assuming reasonable levels of projected growth and use in centrifugal chiller and fire suppressant applications, suggests an extremely small impact on the environment due to its short atmospheric lifetime, low ODP, low Global Warming Potential (GWP), and the small production and emission of its limited applications. The current contribution of HCFC-123 to stratospheric reactive chlorine is too small to be measurable.

  13. Modeling environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; McDonald, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The eight book chapters demonstrate the link between the physical models of the environment and the policy analysis in support of policy making. Each chapter addresses an environmental policy issue using a quantitative modeling approach. The volume addresses three general areas of environmental policy - non-point source pollution in the agricultural sector, pollution generated in the extractive industries, and transboundary pollutants from burning fossil fuels. The book concludes by discussing the modeling efforts and the use of mathematical models in general. Chapters are entitled: modeling environmental policy: an introduction; modeling nonpoint source pollution in an integrated system (agri-ecological); modeling environmental and trade policy linkages: the case of EU and US agriculture; modeling ecosystem constraints in the Clean Water Act: a case study in Clearwater National Forest (subject to discharge from metal mining waste); costs and benefits of coke oven emission controls; modeling equilibria and risk under global environmental constraints (discussing energy and environmental interrelations); relative contribution of the enhanced greenhouse effect on the coastal changes in Louisiana; and the use of mathematical models in policy evaluations: comments. The paper on coke area emission controls has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM

  14. Modelling of harmful effect of the combined environmental impacts of physical and chemical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskalev, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Bio-physico-chemical mechanisms leading to pathological state of human organism caused by several simultaneously introduced harmful factors are discussed. A scheme of combined effect of two factors is proposed. An important element in determining the resulting effect is the conjuction of the development of biological effect and recovery process. An equation describing the change in biological system state is given taking into account the duration of impact, time interval, function of recovery and number of repetition of impacts. Two kind of investigations are considered for establishing the degree of harmful impacts: experimental and epidemiological. The results are given of author's experiments on rats with phosalon pesticide (chemical factor) and internal irradiation from the beta emitters 89 Sr and 144 Ce (physical factors), introduced separately and in combination. The change in the serum cholinesterase and amylase have been used as criteria for harmful impacts. Data from epidemiological studies in Bulgaria are also presented showing an increase in morbidity of the population connected with the combined influence of various radiation and non radiation factors. 3 tabs., 6 figs., 8 refs

  15. Annual theme report (October 2007 to September 2008) for the environmental impact (SWAT modeling) component of "Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production in Southeast Asian Watersheds" project

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of the Environmental Impact (SWAT Modeling) component of this SANREM CRSP project in year 3 was highlighted by further work on SWAT model development in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam. In all three countries, additional input data have been collected over the past year for SWAT modeling purposes. Data Elevation Models (DEMs), land use maps and soil maps have also been prepared in all three countries. In the Philippines, SWAT model has been developed for assessing the hy...

  16. MODELKEY. Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosystems and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Werner; Bakker, Joop; de Deckere, Eric; Deerenberg, Charlotte; van Gils, Jos; Hein, Michaela; Jurajda, Pavel; Kooijman, Bas; Lamoree, Marja; Lek, Sovan; López de Alda, Maria Jose; Marcomini, Antonio; Muñoz, Isabel; Rattei, Silke; Segner, Helmut; Thomas, Kevin; von der Ohe, Peter Carsten; Westrich, Bernhard; de Zwart, Dick; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2005-09-01

    Triggered by the requirement of Water Framework Directive for a good ecological status for European river systems till 2015 and by still existing lacks in tools for cause identification of insufficient ecological status MODELKEY (http:// www.modelkey.org), an Integrated Project with 26 partners from 14 European countries, was started in 2005. MODELKEY is the acronym for 'Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosystems and biodiversity'. The project is funded by the European Commission within the Sixth Framework Programme. MODELKEY comprises a multidisciplinary approach aiming at developing interlinked tools for an enhanced understanding of cause-effect-relationships between insufficient ecological status and environmental pollution as causative factor and for the assessment and forecasting of the risks of key pollutants on fresh water and marine ecosystems at a river basin and adjacent marine environment scale. New modelling tools for risk assessment including generic exposure assessment models, mechanistic models of toxic effects in simplified food chains, integrated diagnostic effect models based on community patterns, predictive component effect models applying artificial neural networks and GIS-based analysis of integrated risk indexes will be developed and linked to a user-friendly decision support system for the prioritisation of risks, contamination sources and contaminated sites. Modelling will be closely interlinked with extensive laboratory and field investigations. Early warning strategies on the basis of sub-lethal effects in vitro and in vivo are provided and combined with fractionation and analytical tools for effect-directed analysis of key toxicants. Integrated assessment of exposure and effects on biofilms, invertebrate and fish communities linking chemical analysis in water, sediment and biota with in vitro, in vivo and community level effect analysis is designed to provide data

  17. Development of dynamic wheat crop model in ISAM and estimation of impacts of environmental factors on wheat production in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlot, S.; Lin, T. S.; Jain, A. K.; Baidya Roy, S.; Sehgal, V. K.; Dhakar, R.

    2017-12-01

    With changing environmental conditions, such as climate and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, questions about food security can be answered by modeling crops based on our understanding of the dynamic crop growth processes and interactions between the crops and their environment in the form of carbon, water and energy fluxes. These interactions and their effect on cropland ecosystems are non-linear because of the feedback mechanisms. Hence, process-based modelling approach can be used to conduct numerical experiments to derive insights into these processes and interactive feedbacks. In this study we have implemented dynamic crop growth processes for wheat into a data-modeling framework, Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), to estimate the impacts of different factors like CO2 fertilization, irrigation, nitrogen limitation and climate change on wheat in India. In specific, we have implemented wheat-specific phenology, C3 photosynthesis mechanism and phenology-specific carbon allocation schemes for assimilated carbon to leaf, stem, root and grain pools. Crop growth limiting stress factors like nutrients, temperature and light have been included. The impact of high temperatures on leaf senescence, anthesis and grain filling has been modeled and found to be causing significant reduction in yield in the recent years. Field data from an experimental wheat site located at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, India has been collected for aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) for two growing seasons 2014-15 and 2015-16. This data has been used to study the phenology, growing season length, thermal requirements and growth stages of wheat. Using the field data, the dynamic model for wheat has been evaluated for the site level seasonal variability in leaf area index (LAI) and aboveground biomass. The variations in carbon, water and energy fluxes, plant height and rooting depth have been analyzed on the site level. Model experiments

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production activities in any industry may “harm the environment through their damaging effects on air, water, soil and biodiversity.”1. To protect the environment, it is imperative to conduct environmental impact assessment (“EIA”) of investment projects in order to identify their potential harms. Appropriate measures should be ...

  19. How environmental costs impact DSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of environmental costs of electricity generation into utility planning of demand side management (DSM) programs. The topics include approach and assumptions, overview of spreadsheet approach, results of the analyses, and the application of this approach to other areas of utility management such as new generation projects, sales of new generation capacity, and utility liability and management prudency

  20. Environmental impact of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of articles offers answers to questions on the environmental consequences and impact on man of the power generation industry. Subjects discussed in detail include: (i) acid rain and climate change and how the generators of electricity have been expected to play a role disproportionate to their deleterious contributions in improving the situation; (ii) recently adopted air quality management approaches with regard to airborne emissions from power stations and motor vehicles; (iii) the evolution of the UK power industry towards sustainability through considerations for the environment and use of resources in a liberalised market; (iv) the Best Practicable Environmental Option approach to the design and siting of power stations; (v) the environmental impact of nuclear power generation and (vi) electromagnetic fields and the possible effects on man of transmitting electricity in overhead power lines

  1. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Maritime Nuclear, a joint undertaking of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, proposes to construct a second CANDU 600 MW nuclear-powered generating unit at the site of the existing Point Lepreau Generating Station, in New Brunswick. A feasibility study is now underway and guidelines issued by the Lepreau 2 Environmental Assessment Panel identified six priority issues and concerns. These are: impacts on the biological environment, impacts of radiation on humans, impacts on the socio-economic environment, monitoring, emergency planning, and decommissioning. These factors as well as a description of the site and proposed facility are described in this report

  2. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlson, Mårten; Mörtberg, Ulla; Balfors, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  3. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment model combining process life cycle assessment and economic input-output life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far focused only on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and have included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one medium to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer, and human health noncancer caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 g CO 2 eq/MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 g CO 2 eq/MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and cannot be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environmental impacts of the biofuels

  4. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  5. Environmental model for a capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eugenia Toca Torres

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From a review of the various options for modeling a sustainable development in its environmental dimension, this research proposes a model of environmental impact for Bogota, using the Vensim PLE software to model the pollution, the pollution load and soil contamination. The model includes a limited number of endogenous variables, as well as a greater number of exogenous variables. This modeling allows us to anticipate the environmental situation in the capital, in order to support public policies for addressing issues such as economic sanctions and moral regulations on emissions, discharges and waste, environmental measures and environmentally friendly practices

  6. Evaluation of environmental impact predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, P.A.; Adams, S.M.; Kumar, K.D.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation of the ecological monitoring program at the Surry Nuclear Power Plant showed that predictions of potential environmental impact made in the Final Environmental Statement (FES), which were based on generally accepted ecological principles, were not completely substantiated by environmental monitoring data. The Surry Nuclear Power Plant (Units 1 and 2) was chosen for study because of the facility's relatively continuous operating history and the availability of environmental data adequate for analysis. Preoperational and operational fish monitoring data were used to assess the validity of the FES prediction that fish would congregate in the thermal plume during winter months and would avoid the plume during summer months. Analysis of monitoring data showed that fish catch per unit effort (CPE) was generally high in the thermal plume during winter months; however, the highest fish catches occurred in the plume during the summer. Possible explanations for differences between the FES prediction and results observed in analysis of monitoring data are discussed, and general recommendations are outlined for improving impact assessment predictions

  7. Ecological impacts of environmental toxicants and radiation on the microbial ecosystem: a model simulation of computational microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Masahiro; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Fuma, Shoichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, K.; Nakamura, Yuji; Kawabata, Zenichiro

    2000-01-01

    This study explores a microorganic closed-ecosystem by computer simulation to illustrate symbiosis among populations in the microcosm that consists of heterotroph protozoa, Tetrahymena thermophila B as a consumer, autotroph algae, Euglena gracilis Z as a primary producer and saprotroph Bacteria, Escherichia coli DH5 as decomposer. The simulation program is written as a procedure of StarLogoT1.5.1, which is developed by Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Tufts University. The virtual microcosm is structured and operated by the following rules; 1) Environment is defined as a lattice model, which consists of 10,201 square patches, 300 micron Wide, 300 micron Length and 100 micron Hight. 2) Each patch has its own attributes, Nutrient, Detritus and absolute coordinates, 3) Components of the species, Tetrahymena, Euglena and E-coli are defined as sub-system, and each sub-system has its own attributes as location, heading direction, cell-age, structured biomass, reserves energy and demographic parameters (assimilation rate, breeding threshold, growth rate, etc.). 4) Each component of the species, Tetrahymena, Euglena and E-coli, lives by foraging (Tetrahymena eats E-coli), excreting its metabolic products to the environment (as a substrate of E-coli), breeding and dying according vital condition. 5) Euglena utilizes sunlight energy by photosynthesis process and produces organic compounds. E-coli breaks down the organic compounds of dead protoplasm or metabolic wastes (Detritus) and releases inorganic substances to construct down stream of food cycle. Virtual ecosystem in this study is named SIM-COSM, a parallel computing model for self-sustaining system of complexity. It found that SIM-COSM is a valuable to illustrate symbiosis among populations in the microcosm, where a feedback mechanism acts in response to disturbances and interactions among species and environment. In the simulation, microbes increased demographic and environmental

  8. Modelling energy and environmental impacts of traditional and improved shea butter production in West Africa for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Colleen C; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2017-01-15

    This study improves the global application of methods and analyses, especially Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), that properly incorporates environmental impacts of firewood and a social sustainability indicator (human energy) as tools for sustainable human development. Specifically shea butter production processes, common throughout sub-Saharan Africa and crucial to food security, environmental sustainability, and women's empowerment, are analyzed. Many economic activities in the world rely on firewood for energy and labor that aren't included in traditional LCAs. Human energy (entirely from women) contributed 25-100% of shea butter production processes (2000-6100kJ/kg of shea butter) and mechanized production processes had reduced human energy without considerably greater total energy. Firewood accounted for 94-100% of total embodied energy (103 and 172MJ/kg of shea butter for improved and traditional shea butter production processes respectively) and global warming potential and 18-100% of human toxicity of the production processes. Implementation of improved cookstoves modeled in this study could reduce: (1) global warming potential by 78% (from 18 to 4.1kg CO 2 eq/kg and 11 to 2.4kg CO 2 eq/kg of shea butter for the traditional and improved processes respectively), (2) the embodied energy of using firewood by 52% (from 170 to 82MJ/kg and 103 to 49MJ/kg for the traditional and improved processes respectively), and (3) human toxicity by 83% for the non-mechanized traditional and improved processes (from 0.041 to 0.0071 1,4 DB eq/kg and 0.025 to 0.0042 1,4 DB eq/kg respectively). In addition, this is the first study to compare Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and process-based LCA in a developing country and evaluate five traditional and improved shea butter production processes over different impact categories. Overall, this study developed a framework to evaluate and improve processes for achievement of the United Nation's Sustainable

  9. A regression model using sediment chemistry for the evaluation of marine environmental impacts associated with salmon aquaculture cage wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.L.; Haya, K.; Paon, L.A.; Moffatt, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop an approach for modelling changes of sediment chemistry related to the accumulation of aquaculture waste. Metal composition of sediment Al, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, and Zn; organic carbon and 2 =0.945 compared to R 2 =0.653 for the regression model using unadjusted EMP for assessing the environmental conditions

  10. Transparency of Environmental Computer Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de M.G.; Top, J.L.; van Hage, W.R.; Schreiber, A.Th.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental computer models are considered essential tools in supporting environmental decision making, but their main value is that they allow a better understanding of our complex environment. Despite numerous attempts to promote good modelling practice, transparency of current environmental

  11. Modeling and Optimization of Energy Harvesting Systems with Regard to Availability of Power Supply and Minimization of Environmental Impacts: Abstract

    OpenAIRE

    Benecke, S.; Middendorf, A.; Wüst, F.; Bochow-Neß, O.; Nissen, N.F.

    2010-01-01

    Self-sufficient energy-supply through implementation of energy harvesting technologies in microsystems presents a key-feature for innovative wireless long-term applications. As previously conducted studies have shown, each harvesting technology bears potentially critical materials. However, use of energy harvesting technologies can lead to a significant reduction of environmental impacts in comparison to conventional battery-based solutions in case reasonable system dimensions can be achieved...

  12. 75 FR 8988 - Environmental Impact Statements; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Environmental Impact Statements; Availability AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability for the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact...) for the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the disposition of the Bureau of Mines property...

  13. Much damage for little advantage: Field studies and morphodynamic modelling highlight the environmental impact of an apparently minor coastal mismanagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, Roberta; Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Corradi, Nicola; Ferrari, Marco; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2011-09-01

    While coastal management activities have long been known to exert a strong influence on the health of marine ecosystems, neither scientists nor administrators have realized that small interventions may lead to disproportionately larger impacts. This study investigated the broad and long-lasting environmental consequences of the construction of an ill-planned, although small (only 12 m long) jetty for pleasure crafts on the hydrodynamic conditions and on the meadow of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica of an embayed cove in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). There, P. oceanica used to develop on a high (>1.5 m) matte (a lignified terrace causing seafloor elevation) in which the leaves reach the surface and form a compact natural barrier to waves in front of the beach. Such a so-called 'fringing reef' of P. oceanica is today recognized of high ecological value and specific conservation efforts are required. The construction of the jetty implied the cutting of the matte, which directly destroyed part of the fringing reef. In addition, meadow mapping and sedimentological analyses coupled with morphodynamic modelling showed that the ecosystem of the whole cove had been greatly altered by the jetty. We used the geometric planform approach, a proper tool in the study of headland-controlled embayment, both to characterise the present situation of Prelo cove and to simulate the original one, before the jetty was built. In the long term, such a small jetty completely altered the configuration and the hydrodynamic conditions of the whole cove, splitting the original pocket beach into two smaller ones and creating strong rip-currents flowing seaward along the jetty. These rip-currents enhanced erosion of residual shallow portions of the meadow and further modified the sedimentary fluxes in shallow waters. A century after the construction of the jetty, an irreversible environmental damage has occurred, as the slow growing rate of P. oceanica implies that the high matte terrace

  14. Potential environmental impact of tidal energy extraction in the Pentland Firth at large spatial scales: results of a biogeochemical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, J.; Ruardij, P.; Greenwood, N.

    2016-01-01

    A model study was carried out of the potentiallarge-scale (> 100 km) effects of marine renewabletidal energy generation in the Pentland Firth, using the 3-D hydrodynamics–biogeochemistry model GETM-ERSEMBFM.A realistic 800MW scenario and a high-impact scenariowith massive expansion of tidal energy

  15. Environmental impact estimation of mold making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Daeyoung

    Increasing concern of environmental sustainability regarding depletion of natural resources and resulting negative environmental impact has triggered various movements to address these issues. Various regulations about product life cycle have been made and applied to industries. As a result, how to evaluate the environmental impact and how to improve current technologies has become an important issue to product developers. Molds and dies are very generally used manufacturing tools and indispensible parts to the production of many products. However, evaluating environmental impact in mold and die manufacturing is not well understood and not much accepted yet. The objective of this thesis is to provide an effective and straightforward way of environmental analysis for mold and die manufacturing practice. For this, current limitations of existing tools were identified. While conventional life cycle assessment tools provide a lot of life cycle inventories, reliable data is not sufficient for the mold and die manufacturer. Even with comprehensive data input, current LCA tools only provide another comprehensive result which is not directly applicable to problem solving. These issues are critical especially to the mold and die manufacturer with limited resource and time. This thesis addresses the issues based on understanding the needs of mold and die manufacturers. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is the most frequently used software tool and includes most manufacturing information including the process definition and sometimes geometric modeling. Another important usage of CAM software tools is problem identification by process simulation. Under the virtual environment, possible problems are detected and solved. Environmental impact can be handled in the same manner. To manufacture molds and dies with minimizing the associated environmental impact, possible environmental impact sources must be minimized before the execution in the virtual environment. Molds and dies

  16. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  17. Environmental impact analysis for typical office facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotroni, M.; Robinson-Gayle, S.; Tanno, S.; Cripps, A.

    2004-02-01

    The design of a building facade influences internal thermal and lighting conditions and use associated with the provision of these conditions. Key decisions about the building are usually taken during the concept design stage of a building, while decisions about method of providing the environmental conditions are often made later in the design. This dilemma is addressed by the development of a concept design tool that allows the team to investigate the effect of facade design on the resulting internal environmental conditions, energy use and environmental impact. The concept design tool was developed performing detailed thermal, lighting and environmental modelling for a number of office building facade designs and a range of parameters that affect directly the environmental performance of an office building. The results are presented in a user-friendly interface as a minimum number of inputs. Key parameter outputs (such as temperature, lighting, heating/cooling energy demand, embodied energy and eco-points) can then be viewed, more detailed analysis can also be created for specified facade designs. A parametric analysis of the summary result outputs for selected facade parameters indicates that natural ventilation and cooling can reduce the environmental impact of offices by up to 16%, although the energy demand could increase significantly. Improving the construction standard and reducing the internal heat loads can reduce the environmental impact by up to 2 this tool at early design stages will benefit the design team through an improved understanding of the dynamics between facade design and building services and assist with a more integrated approach. (author)

  18. Modeling the environmental growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans and its impact on the white-nose syndrome epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Hannah T; Ingersoll, Tom; Barton, Hazel A

    2015-04-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has had a devastating effect on North American bat populations. The causal agent of WNS is the fungal pathogen, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), which has been shown to persist in caves after the eradication of host populations. As nonpathogenic Pseudogymnoascus spp. display saprophytic growth and are among the most commonly isolated fungi from caves, we examined whether Pd could grow in cave sediments and the contribution such growth could have to WNS disease progression. We inoculated a range of diverse cave sediments and demonstrated the growth of Pd in all sediments tested. These data indicate that environmental growth of Pd could lead to the accumulation of spores above the estimated infection threshold for WNS, allowing environment-to-bat infection. The obtained growth parameters were then used in a susceptible-infected-susceptible mathematic model to determine the possible contribution of environmental Pd growth to WNS disease progression in a colony of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). This model suggests that the environmental growth of Pd would increase WNS infection rates, particularly in colonies experiencing longer hibernation periods or in hibernacula with high levels of organic detritus. The model also suggests that once introduced, environmental Pd growth would allow the persistence of this pathogen within infected hibernacula for decades, greatly compromising the success of bat reintroduction strategies. Together these data suggest that Pd is not reliant on its host for survival and is capable of environmental growth and amplification that could contribute to the rapid progression and long-term persistence of WNS in the hibernacula of threatened North American bats.

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement Resource Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    BPA's preferred alternative is the Emphasize Conservation Alternative. System and environmental costs are low. Environmental impacts from conservation are minimal. This alternative is cost-effective and environmentally responsible; only the High Conservation Alternative has lower costs and fewer environmental impacts. However, there is some concern about the cost-effectiveness, reliability, and commercial availability of the high conservation resources. If the supply of the additional conservation potential was confirmed and it became cost-effective, the High Conservation Alternative would be preferred. The Draft Resource Programs EIS was released for public review during the summer of 1992. Comments received by letter or in the public hearing held June 16, 1992, were used to revise and update data and analyses of the EIS (public comments and BPA's responses are contained in Volume III of the Final EIS). In addition, a number of revisions were made in the Chapter 3 material describing each resource type, and in Chapter 4 and the Summary, to assure consistency with the modeling and analysis in Chapter 5. Additional information about the capacity aspects of each resource type and alternative has been added, and the material on conservation and its impacts has been reorganized

  20. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  1. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section 266.19... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.19 Environmental impact. (a) General. The Administrator has determined that providing... improvement assistance—(1) Environmental assessment. (i) When an applicant requests substitute service...

  2. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9010-5] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through...

  3. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use of various materials in laptop enclosures (excluding mounting hardware, internal components, and insulation) using screening-level life cycle assessment. The baseline material, is a fossil plastic blend of polycarbonate-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Alternative materials include polylactic acid, bamboo, aluminum, and various combinations of these materials known to be currently used or being considered for use in laptops. The flame retardants considered in this study are bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide, and borax-boric acid-phosphorous acid. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts v2.1 was used for the assessment of impacts related to climate change, human and ecological health, and resource use. The assessment demonstrates that plastics, relative to the other materials, are currently some of the better performing materials in terms of having the lowest potential environmental impact for a greater number of impact categories based on product life cycle models developed in this study. For fossil plastics, the material performance increases with increasing post-con

  4. Atmospheric Modelling of Tritium forms transport: review of capabilities and R and D needs for the assessment of fusion facilities environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Velarde, M.; Ardao, J.; Perlado, J. M.; Sedano, L.

    2012-01-01

    The work model in detail the tritium forms dispersion and dosimetric impact of selected environmental patterns both inland and in-sea using real topography and forecast meteo data (ECMWF/FLEXPART). We explore specific values of this ratio in different levels and we examine the influence of meteorological conditions in the HTO behavior for 24 hours. For this purpose we have used a tool which consists on a coupled Lagrangian.

  5. Combination of equilibrium models and hybrid life cycle-input–output analysis to predict the environmental impacts of energy policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, Elorri; Rugani, Benedetto; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico; Drouet, Laurent; Zachary, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental impacts of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg are assessed. • Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and Partial Equilibrium (PE) models are used. • Results from coupling of CGE and PE are integrated in hybrid Life Cycle Assessment. • Impacts due to energy related production and imports are likely to grow over time. • Carbon mitigation policies seem to not substantially decrease the impacts’ trend. - Abstract: Nowadays, many countries adopt an active agenda to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions by moving towards less polluting energy generation technologies. The environmental costs, directly or indirectly generated to achieve such a challenging objective, remain however largely underexplored. Until now, research has focused either on pure economic approaches such as Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and partial equilibrium (PE) models, or on (physical) energy supply scenarios. These latter could be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of various energy saving or cleaner technologies via Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These modelling efforts have, however, been pursued in isolation, without exploring the possible complementarities and synergies. In this study, we have undertaken a practical combination of these approaches into a common framework: on the one hand, by coupling a CGE with a PE model, and, on the other hand, by linking the outcomes from the coupling with a hybrid input–output−process based life cycle inventory. The methodological framework aimed at assessing the environmental consequences of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg between 2010 and 2025. The study highlights the potential of coupling CGE and PE models but also the related methodological difficulties (e.g. small number of available technologies in Luxembourg, intrinsic limitations of the two approaches, etc.). The assessment shows both environmental synergies and trade-offs due to the implementation of

  6. Integrated Environmental Assessment Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardanz, R.; Gimeno, B. S.; Bermejo, V.; Elvira, S.; Martin, F.; Palacios, M.; Rodriguez, E.; Donaire, I. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the results of the Spanish participation in the project Coupling CORINAIR data to cost-effect emission reduction strategies based on critical threshold. (EU/LIFE97/ENV/FIN/336). The subproject has focused on three tasks. Develop tools to improve knowledge on the spatial and temporal details of emissions of air pollutants in Spain. Exploit existing experimental information on plant response to air pollutants in temperate ecosystem and Integrate these findings in a modelling framework that can asses with more accuracy the impact of air pollutants to temperate ecosystems. The results obtained during the execution of this project have significantly improved the models of the impact of alternative emission control strategies on ecosystems and crops in the Iberian Peninsula. (Author) 375 refs.

  7. Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact assessments were taken to determine the causes of environmental threats to farm lands and the environment in the selected areas. Of significance of impact assessment were activities like air, traffic, noise, had insignificant impact (p > 0.05), while water pollution, insecurity as a result of land exposure ...

  8. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed...

  9. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact. ...

  10. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects offers an analysis of the environmental benefits and drawbacks of wind energy, along with an evaluation guide to aid decision-making about projects...

  11. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  12. Environmental impacts assessment: Instruments for environmental policy making and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavelli, C.M.; Sartori, S.

    1993-06-01

    This review of evaluation criteria for environmental impacts assessments in Italy covers the following aspects: the efficacy of current Italian normatives governing assessment methods, the current approach of regional public administrations, the necessity for the creation of a national regulating board, environmental impacts assessment for complex environmental systems, the application of impacts assessment recommendations to resource development modelling in the planning of integrated environmental-economic systems, the involvement of the general public in decision making, techniques to determine the monetary worth of environmental resources, the use of multi-criteria analysis techniques

  13. Use of dispersion modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment of biological air pollution from composting: Progress, problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P; Hayes, E T; Williams, W B; Tyrrel, S F; Kinnersley, R P; Walsh, K; O'Driscoll, M; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Drew, G H

    2017-12-01

    With the increase in composting asa sustainable waste management option, biological air pollution (bioaerosols) from composting facilities have become a cause of increasing concern due to their potential health impacts. Estimating community exposure to bioaerosols is problematic due to limitations in current monitoring methods. Atmospheric dispersion modelling can be used to estimate exposure concentrations, however several issues arise from the lack of appropriate bioaerosol data to use as inputs into models, and the complexity of the emission sources at composting facilities. This paper analyses current progress in using dispersion models for bioaerosols, examines the remaining problems and provides recommendations for future prospects in this area. A key finding is the urgent need for guidance for model users to ensure consistent bioaerosol modelling practices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environmental impact report: an outline of the input--output model and the impact projections methodology. Technical document, socioeconomic portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    A static model in the form of a regional input-output model was constructed for Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico. Besides the WIPP project, the model was also used for several other projects to determine the economic impact of proposed new facilities and developments. Both private and public sectors are covered. Sub-sectors for WIPP below-ground construction, above-ground construction, and operation and transport are included

  15. Using the model release ARTM associated with resources for simulation geoprocessing radiological environmental impact of atmospheric emissions from a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Simone Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the dispersion of radionuclides emissions into the atmosphere arising from a nuclear reactor, in normal operation, is an important step in the process of the nuclear and environmental assessment study. These processes require an assessment study of the radiological environmental impact. However, to estimate this impact a simulation of the transport mechanisms and deposition of pollutants released into the atmosphere is required. The present study aimed at the application of the dispersion model ARTM (Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model), together with the powerful tools of the GIS (Geographic Information System) for the environmental impact assessment of a radiological nuclear reactor under typically routine and conditions. Therefore some important information from the national project for a research reactor known as Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) was considered. The information of the atmospheric emissions of the reactor, needed for the simulation of this project, was based on data of the Open Pool Australian Light Water (OPAL).Other important data that had to be collected and analyzed were the source term, the topography, the meteorology and the environmental data. The radionuclides analyzed as pollutants were 41 Ar; 140 Ba; 51 Cr; 137 Cs; 131 I; 133 I; 85m Kr; 87 Kr; 88 Kr; 140 La; 133 Xe; 135 Xe; 3 H; 90 Sr. The model was run for two chronological scenarios according to their meteorological data for the years 2009 and 2010, respectively. The adoption of GIS techniques was relevant in planning, data preprocessing and in the post-processing of results as well. After pre-processing, the input data were processed by the ARTM dispersion model. Maps, charts, and tables were then produced and evaluated. According to the simulated and evaluated scenarios it could be concluded that exposure pathways that mostly contributed to the dose for individual public were 41 Ar, for immersion in the plume, and 133 I, for inhalation. Nevertheless, even

  16. A statistical proposal for environmental impact assessment of development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas C, Julian A; De J Lema T, Alvaro; Leon P, Juan Diego

    2009-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment of development projects is a fundamental process, which main goal is to avoid that their construction and functioning, lead to serious and negative consequences on the environment. Some of the most important limitations of the models employed to assess environmental impacts, are the subjectivity of its parameters and weights, and the multicolineality among the variables, which represent high quantities of similar information. This work presents a multivariate statistical-based method that tries to diminish such limitations. For this purpose, environmental impact assessment, is valuated through different environmental impact attributes and environmental elements, synthesized in an environmental quality index (ICA in Spanish). ICA can be applied at different levels, such as at a project level, or applied only at a partial level on one or some environmental components.

  17. Progress in reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flemming, D; Candler, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:Over the past several years, great progress has been made in understanding and reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes. Our understanding of sea floor impacts has been helped along by new environmental assessment tools such us computer modeling of sea floor deposition of drilling discharges, sediment profile imaging, and in situ sediment toxicity bioassays. To further reduce environmental impacts, new pollution prevention technologies have been developed that can shrink the environmental footprint of offshore drilling. These technologies reduce the total amount of drilling wastes discharged and include cuttings dryers and centrifuges that can reduce the drilling fluid content of drill cuttings to below 10 percent. In conclusion, the oil and gas industry is adopting more environmentally compatible drilling fluids, new environmental assessment tools and pollution prevention technologies that dramatically reduce the amount of drilling wastes discharged. Together, all of these elements have the potential to reduce environmental impacts of offshore drilling

  18. Environmental impacts of energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Indian society today is concerned about the health and environmental risks of technologies. The major environmental issues of concern for technologies available for electricity generation are air emissions, management of wastes generated and land requirements. The production of electricity in India is primarily composed of a mix of thermal and hydroelectric power plants with nuclear energy currently contributing to an extent of slightly above 2.0%. For maintaining a decent living standard the present electricity generation has to be increased manifold and with the existing commercially available technologies this can lead to a greater impact on the environment in the immediate vicinity of plant unless a judicious mix is chosen. India which hardly contributed 1 of the global pollution in the year 1950 contributes about 20% now and with the growth in electricity generation its contribution will also be slightly increasing and hence environment will have to be one of the guiding factors in future choice of technologies for the growth of electric power generation. Indian coal has a very high ash content (30 - 50 %) and hence the fly ash problem in India can be severe. During the year 1993-94 approximately 33 million tonnes of fly ash was generated in India from the coal fired thermal power stations. The land requirement for disposal of this ash is continuously increasing. The disposal of fly ash near water bodies will also create difficulties as in addition to radionuclides, toxic trace elements may also get washed out. Pollution from the use of coal will have a definite effect on the environment in addition to depletion of the energy source

  19. Energy generation x environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thalles Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This work aims: to analyze the various sources of energy giving a general idea of the good and bad points for each power generation model, and its impact in the environment, with the purpose of considering the best available options; research on alternative sources of energy production as well as Brazil's resources in a particular source of energy and point out their strengths and weaknesses; report the best options to take advantage of the available resources for energy production in Triangulo Mineiro, a region within Minas Gerais state

  20. Regional analysis and environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Brocksen, R.W.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a number of techniques that can be used to assess environmental impacts on a regional scale. Regional methodologies have been developed which examine impacts upon aquatic and terrestrial biota in regions through consideration of changes in land use, land cover, air quality, water resource use, and water quality. Techniques used to assess long-range atmospheric transport, water resources, effects on sensitive forest and animal species, and impacts on man are presented in this paper, along with an optimization approach which serves to integrate the analytical techniques in an overall assessment framework. A brief review of the research approach and certain modeling techniques used within one regional studies program is provided. While it is not an all inclusive report on regional analyses, it does present an illustration of the types of analyses that can be performed on a regional scale

  1. Methodological proposal for environmental impact evaluation since different specific methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego; Lopera Arango Gabriel Jaime

    1999-01-01

    Some conceptual and practical elements related to environmental impact evaluation are described and related to the preparation of technical reports (environmental impact studies and environmental management plans) to be presented to environmental authorities for obtaining the environmental permits for development projects. In the first part of the document a summary of the main aspects of normative type is made that support the studies of environmental impact in Colombia. We propose a diagram for boarding and elaboration of the evaluation of environmental impact, which begins with the description of the project and of the environmental conditions in the area of the same. Passing then to identify the impacts through a method matricial and continuing with the quantitative evaluation of the same. For which we propose the use of the method developed by Arboleda (1994). Also we propose to qualify the activities of the project and the components of the environment in their relative importance, by means of a method here denominated agglomerate evaluation. Which allows finding those activities more impacting and the mostly impacted components. Lastly it is presented some models for the elaboration and presentation of the environmental management plans. The pursuit programs and those of environmental supervision

  2. Environmental impacts of land use and land cover change in the Zhujiang Delta, China: An analysis using an integrated GIS, remote sensing, and spatial modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qihao

    This dissertation attempts to apply an integrated approach of remote sensing, GIS, and spatial modeling for environmental studies. The feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of this integrated approach are investigated through land use and land cover change modeling, environmental impact analysis, and stochastic analysis. By applying this approach to the Zhujiang Delta, this dissertation also attempts to examine the environmental implications of China's economic reform policies. This study finds that the integration among remote sensing, GIS, and spatial modeling is necessary and effective for solving many environmental problems. Integration by exchanging data files among these three elements is feasible in spite of its time-consuming and error-prone nature. Satellite remote sensing collects multispectral, multiresolution, and multitemporal data, and turns them into information valuable for environmental studies. GIS technology provides a flexible environment for entering, analyzing, and displaying digital data from various sources, and can incorporate socioeconomic data necessary for environmental problem solving. However, GIS needs to be further integrated with various spatial modeling techniques, because the current generation of GIS lacks the necessary predictive and analytical capabilities. The case study in the Zhujiang Delta examines its land use and land cover changes and environmental impacts between 1989 and 1997. Results show, first, that urban/built-up areas and horticulture farms have increased, while cropland has decreased. These changes are related to industrial and agricultural development as well as population growth during the period. The spatial process of urban expansion shows an intimate relationship with the distance from major roads and from the geometric center of a city. Second, urban land development tends to bring down greenness, raise surface radiant temperatures, and increase surface runoff. In contrast, horticulture farms promote

  3. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ENERGY FACILITIES IN THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN BY METHOD OF BUILDING COMPOSITE THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mehdizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author represents the method of creating composite 3D-models employing technology of geographical information systems for environmental impact assessment of projected, constructed and operating energy facilities. The paper describes the techniques of applying bundled software ArcView with add-on modules ImageWarp and RASTRProfi for alignment of multiscale bit-mapped and direct-beam three-dimensional models with the object of evaluating ecological risks for diverse territories.The article evaluates the environmental impact of a thermal power plant near the city of Rasht (industrial area Saravan and demonstrates analysis of the territorial distribution of the soil contamination with varied pollutants at different wind structures. The paper demonstrates the method of building composite 3D-models applied for assessment of presumable incidents with radioactivity discharge at the nuclear power plant in Halileh, 20 km from the city of Bushehr. By analyzing the wind diagram in the territory being explored and determining the predominant wind directions in different periods, it is possible by way of employing this method to distinguish the territories and the objects with most unfavorable prognosis. This enables rendering a prompt decision on the measures minimizing unfavorable impact on the population and environment.Altering the point of topographical survey while synchronizing the scales, the researcher can place the designed project within any territory and analyze the necessary parameters for each variant.The author considers the presented in such a manner technique worth productive implementing while analyzing environmental impact of both operating and projected industrial facilities (industrial and agricultural enterprises, thermal and nuclear electric-power plants etc.. 

  4. Environmental Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  5. Public participation in Malawi's environmental impact assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the adoption of the Environmental Management Act of 1996, Malawi has been using environmental impact assessment (EIA) as a tool for predicting and assessing the impact of development projects on the environment. This study assessed the extent of public participation in Malawi's EIA process. Desktop study of ...

  6. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impacts Assessment has been developed as a critically substantial approach to determine, predict and interpret the ecological impact on the environment, public hygiene and healthy ecosystems. This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important ...

  7. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Palsson, S.E.; Poroddsson, P.

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  8. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén; Martín-Aranda, Rosa M.; Santos, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship between climate change adaptation and environmental impact assessment, and the degree to which environmental impacts are included in climate change adaptation theory and practice. Our literature review showed that technical, social and economic perspectives on climate change adaptation receive much more attention than the environmental perspective. The scarce interest on the environmental impacts of adaptation may be attributed to (1) an excessive sectoral approach, with dominance of non-environmental perspectives, (2) greater interest in mitigation and direct climate change impacts rather than in adaptation impacts, (3) a tendency to consider adaptation as inherently good, and (4) subjective/preconceived notions on which measures are good or bad, without a comprehensive assessment. Environmental Assessment (EA) has a long established history as an effective tool to include environment into decision-making, although it does not yet guarantee a proper assessment of adaptation, because it is still possible to postpone or even circumvent the processes of assessing the impacts of climate adaptation. Our results suggest that there is a need to address adaptation proactively by including it in EA, to update current policy frameworks, and to demand robust and reliable evaluation of alternatives. Only through the full EA of adaptation measures can we improve our understanding of the primary and secondary impacts of adaptation to global environmental change. - Highlights: • Climate change adaptation may have undesirable environmental impacts. • The impacts of adaptation are yet poorly analysed in the literature. • There is an excessive sectoral approach to adaptation, mainly

  9. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  10. 76 FR 84 - Notice of Environmental Impact Statement; Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act... that significant impacts to the environment would be highly unlikely, and therefore an Environmental... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Environmental Impact Statement; Withdrawal...

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    least more open distribution of information about human enterprises in space, too.However, the "public concerned" in space activities may cover the entire humanity, which would most likely direct the possible spatial EIA procedures into the auspices of the UN, with states representing their portion of the "public". Despite the peculiarities in assessing the potential impacts of space activities, Environmental Impact Assessment, modified to answer thes e particular features, would seem as a tool worth considering for the above objectives of enhanced environmental protection and public involvement. This is particularly true, as any adverse environmental impacts of space activities are highly difficult to mitigate, once they have materialized. For the above mentioned reasons, and for the fact that space activities are regulated for a major part on policy level, particularly Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) would seem a viable option. As distinct from the project EIA, the SEA means carrying out EIAs of plans themselves, i.e. it directly addresses the environmental implications of proposed strategies and policies. Formerly, the governmental authorities tended to regard SEA with suspicion because of the public interest groups involvement in policy making that the SEA entails. However, currently the SEA is a highly topical issue in the international arena, particularly because of the ongoing discussions within the United Nations Economic Commision for Europe about adopting a Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment to amend the Espoo Convention, and of the recent EU Directive (2001/42/EC) on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on t he environment. These instruments could also serve as feasible models for SEA in the outer space environment.

  12. Environmental impact assessment: Process and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the procedures and issues regarding the preparation of an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as promulgated by the US Congress in 1969 are discussed. NEPA procedures and requirements are covered in general, while particular attention is given to the preparation of the environmental impact assessment. Also included is a discussion of the social impact assessment. The aim of the social impact assessment is to address the social issues involved in enhancing public understanding of the hazardous risks, thereby mitigating any conflicts that may arise in the NEPA process. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Uncertainty quantification for environmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.; Lu, Dan; Kavetski, Dmitri; Clark, Martyn P.; Ye, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Environmental models are used to evaluate the fate of fertilizers in agricultural settings (including soil denitrification), the degradation of hydrocarbons at spill sites, and water supply for people and ecosystems in small to large basins and cities—to mention but a few applications of these models. They also play a role in understanding and diagnosing potential environmental impacts of global climate change. The models are typically mildly to extremely nonlinear. The persistent demand for enhanced dynamics and resolution to improve model realism [17] means that lengthy individual model execution times will remain common, notwithstanding continued enhancements in computer power. In addition, high-dimensional parameter spaces are often defined, which increases the number of model runs required to quantify uncertainty [2]. Some environmental modeling projects have access to extensive funding and computational resources; many do not. The many recent studies of uncertainty quantification in environmental model predictions have focused on uncertainties related to data error and sparsity of data, expert judgment expressed mathematically through prior information, poorly known parameter values, and model structure (see, for example, [1,7,9,10,13,18]). Approaches for quantifying uncertainty include frequentist (potentially with prior information [7,9]), Bayesian [13,18,19], and likelihood-based. A few of the numerous methods, including some sensitivity and inverse methods with consequences for understanding and quantifying uncertainty, are as follows: Bayesian hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model averaging; single-objective optimization with error-based weighting [7] and multi-objective optimization [3]; methods based on local derivatives [2,7,10]; screening methods like OAT (one at a time) and the method of Morris [14]; FAST (Fourier amplitude sensitivity testing) [14]; the Sobol' method [14]; randomized maximum likelihood [10]; Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) [10

  14. Evaluation Tools of nanomaterials environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, Grazia; Scalbi, Simona; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Righi, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology show an increasing spread thanks to the special properties of nanomaterials (NM). Knowledge of the NM behavior and interactions with the environment and human health is still insufficient to assess the impact of the NM. A multidisciplinary, multidimensional and systemic such as that of the life cycle (Life Cycle Thinking - LCT), applied through the tool Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is essential in environmental sustainability assessment of technologies, with some limitations that can be overcome through integration with other instruments such as, for example, non-linear models, analysis of flows of material, Risk Assessment (RA). This article offers a detailed analysis of the state and the main problems related to the application of LCA and RA to NM both separately and in combined use; They will then discuss the strategies and integrations needed to overcome the limitations of both methods and obtain robust assessments of the impacts on health and the environment [it

  15. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  16. Environmental impact on workplace performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Derrick P.; Orfield, Steven J.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-05-01

    Since 1998, Orfield Laboratories has led research efforts into the effects of the office environment on worker performance through the Open Plan Working Group. This collaboration of researchers, designers, and facility managers works with OPWG in gathering environmental data (including noise, lighting, and thermal measurements) and subjective occupant ranking data. The OPWG then employs statistical analysis to correlate the environmental measurements, occupant performance, and occupant preference measurements. Through efficient measurement stations and Web-based surveys, Orfield Laboratories has helped many companies to begin to view their employees as their greatest operational profit center. This presentation will discuss the effect that noise as well as other environmental factors has on work performance.

  17. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  18. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  19. A comparison of Capri and SEAMLESS-IFas Integrated Modelling Systems, Chapter 11 in Environmental and Agricultural Modelling: Integrated Approaches for Policy Impact Assessement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Britz, W.; Perez Dominguez, I.; Heckelei, T.

    2010-01-01

    SEAMLESS-IF and CAPRI are both integrated agricultural modelling systems for policy impact assessment at EU level, linking model components across scales and between the economic and bio-physical domains. However, the overall design, focus and representation of agricultural sub-systems vary between

  20. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartan Ayfer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS. The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartan, Ayfer; Kucukali, Serhat; Ar, Irfan

    2017-11-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS). The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  2. Methodologies, models and parameters for environmental, impact assessment of hazardous and radioactive contaminants; Metodologias, modelos y parametros para evaluacion del impacto ambiental de contaminantes peligrosos y radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguero, A.; Cancio, D.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Romero, L.; Pinedo, P.; Robles, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Simon, I.; Suanez, A.

    2003-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology to assess the impact arising from contaminants present in hazardous and radioactive wastes has been developed. Taking into account of the background information on legislation, waste categories and contaminants inventory, and disposal, recycling and waste treatment options, an Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology (MEIA) is proposed. This is applicable to (i) several types of solid wastes (hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes; (ii) several management options (recycling and temporal and final storage (in shallow and deep disposal)), (iii) several levels of data availability. Conceptual and mathematical models and software tools needed for the application of the MEIA have been developed. Bearing in mind that this is a complex process, both the models and tools have to be developed following an iterative approaches, involving refinement of the models and go as to better correspond the described system. The selection of suitable parameters for the models is based on information derived from field and laboratory measurements and experiments, nd then applying a data elicitation protocol.. It is shown an application performed for a hypothetical shallow radioactive waste disposal facility (test case), with all the steps of the MEIA applied sequentially. In addition, the methodology is applied to an actual cases of waste management for hazardous wastes from the coal fuel cycle, demonstrating several possibilities for application of the MEIA from a practical perspective. The experience obtained in the development of the work shows that the use of the MEIA for the assessment of management options for hazardous and radioactive wastes gives important advantages, simplifying the execution of the assessment, its tracability and the dissemination of methodology assessment results to to other interested parties. (Author)

  3. Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yavari, Majid Solat; Du, Guangli; Pacoste, Costin

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to integrate environmental impact optimization in the structural design of reinforced concrete slab frame bridges in order to determine the most environmental-friendly design. The case study bridge used in this work was also investigated in a previous paper...... focusing on the optimization of the investment cost, while the present study focuses on environmental impact optimization and comparing the results of both of these studies. Optimization technique based on the pattern search method was implemented. Moreover, a comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA......) methodology of ReCiPe and two monetary weighting systems were used to convert environmental impacts into monetary costs. The analysis showed that both monetary weighting systems led to the same results. Furthermore, optimization based on environmental impact generated models with thinner construction elements...

  4. Digital Terrain Modeling and Distributed Soil Erosion Simulation/Measurement for Minimizing Environmental Impacts of Military Training (CS-752)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, S

    2000-01-01

    In recognition of the negative repercussions that soil erosion and sediment deposition can have on military preparedness and the environment, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP...

  5. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared in...

  6. Assigment of environmental aspect and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzelová Marcela

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management system (EMS is a part of the management system that includes the organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy. The EMS provides the order and consistency for organizations to adress environmental cocerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibilities, and the ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. The ISO 14001 requires the implementation of the EMS in accordance with defined, internationally recognized standards. The ISO standard specifies requirements for establishing an environmental policy, determining environmental aspects & impacts of products (activities services, planning environmental objectives and measurable targets, implementation & operation of programs to meet objectives and targets, checking &corrective action, and management review. The Environmental aspect is an element of organization’s activities, product or services that can interact with the environment. A significant environmental aspect is that with a significant environmental impact. The environmental impact is any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial wholly or partially resulting from an oranization’s activities, products or services.

  7. Characterising performance of environmental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, N.D.; Croke, B.F.W.; Guariso, G.; Guillaume, J.H.A.; Hamilton, S.H.; Jakeman, A.J.; Marsili-Libelli, S.; Newham, L.T.H.; Norton, J.; Perrin, C.; Pierce, S.; Robson, B.; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.; Fath, B.D.; Andreassian, V.

    2013-01-01

    In order to use environmental models effectively for management and decision-making, it is vital to establish an appropriate level of confidence in their performance. This paper reviews techniques available across various fields for characterising the performance of environmental models with focus

  8. 76 FR 34066 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Legislative Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for Renewal of the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake Public Land Withdrawal.... SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 102(2)(c) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 as...

  9. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National...

  10. Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility impact gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    The Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility (AFETF) impact gun is a unique tool for impact testing 238 PuO 2 -fueled heat sources of up to 178-mm dia at velocities to 300 m/s. An environmentally-sealed vacuum chamber at the muzzle of the gun allows preheating of the projectile to 1,000 0 C. Immediately prior to impact, the heat source projectile is completely sealed in a vacuum-tight catching container to prevent escape of its radioactive contents should rupture occur. The impact velocity delivered by this gas-powered gun can be regulated to within +-2%

  11. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  12. landscape incorporation in the environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez G, Luz Angela

    2000-01-01

    A general overview on landscape analysis showing the two principal approaches to their study, the article emphasize on the need of taking landscape in consideration on the making of the environmental impact study of any project of development

  13. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  14. Environmental impact of radioactive releases. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Symposium was aimed at reviewing recent developments and studies environmental impact of radioactive released, as well as new information on the environmental transfer of radionuclides, and also to provide forum for technical information exchange. It was also intended to provide an occasion for presenting the main results of two major IAEA programmes: The Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP) and International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP). Refs, figs and tabs

  15. A model for the release, dispersion and environmental impact of a postulated reactor accident from a submerged commercial nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertch, Timothy Creston

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear power plants are inherently suitable for submerged applications and could provide power to the shore power grid or support future underwater applications. The technology exists today and the construction of a submerged commercial nuclear power plant may become desirable. A submerged reactor is safer to humans because the infinite supply of water for heat removal, particulate retention in the water column, sedimentation to the ocean floor and inherent shielding of the aquatic environment would significantly mitigate the effects of a reactor accident. A better understanding of reactor operation in this new environment is required to quantify the radioecological impact and to determine the suitability of this concept. The impact of release to the environment from a severe reactor accident is a new aspect of the field of marine radioecology. Current efforts have been centered on radioecological impacts of nuclear waste disposal, nuclear weapons testing fallout and shore nuclear plant discharges. This dissertation examines the environmental impact of a severe reactor accident in a submerged commercial nuclear power plant, modeling a postulated site on the Atlantic continental shelf adjacent to the United States. This effort models the effects of geography, decay, particle transport/dispersion, bioaccumulation and elimination with associated dose commitment. The use of a source term equivalent to the release from Chernobyl allows comparison between the impacts of that accident and the postulated submerged commercial reactor plant accident. All input parameters are evaluated using sensitivity analysis. The effect of the release on marine biota is determined. Study of the pathways to humans from gaseous radionuclides, consumption of contaminated marine biota and direct exposure as contaminated water reaches the shoreline is conducted. The model developed by this effort predicts a significant mitigation of the radioecological impact of the reactor accident release

  16. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  17. Environmental impact of energy systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauscas, V.; Mishkins, V.

    1994-04-01

    Environmental impact of energy systems and an improvement of environmental situation in Lithuania are discussed. The number of polluting plants exceeds 40 thousand, the most harmful are power plants and boilers. The non-homogenous distribution of power and industrial plants cause very different contamination in Lithuania. fig

  18. Assessing Environmental Impact on Aquatic Macrophyte Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental variables on distribution and composition of aquatic macrophyte community in a tropical river was assessed for one year (March 2009 to February 2010). Hypothesis tested was that the spatial variation in environmental variables on the river's longitudinal gradient affects macrophyte species ...

  19. Standard formaldehyde source for chamber testing of material emissions: model development, experimental evaluation, and impacts of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Persily, Andrew; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-07-16

    Formaldehyde, which is recognized as a harmful indoor air pollutant for human health, is emitted mainly from urea-formaldehyde resin in wood products. Chamber tests are used to evaluate formaldehyde emission rates from these products. However, there is no available formaldehyde standard reference emission source to assess the performance of chamber testing systems. In this work, a LIFE (liquid-inner tube diffusion-film-emission) formaldehyde reference is described. The formaldehyde source consists of a polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) tube that holds a formaldehyde-water solution with a concentration of 16 g formaldehyde per 100 mL water, with a thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film cover. Formaldehyde emission parameters for the PDMS film (diffusion coefficient and partition coefficient) were determined experimentally, thereby enabling the prediction of the formaldehyde emissions from the source for use as a reference value in a chamber. Chamber tests were conducted in a 51 L stainless steel ventilated chamber. The impacts of temperature and relative humidity on the emissions were investigated. Results show the LIFE's chamber test results match those predicted by a mass transfer model. As a result, this formaldehyde source may be used to generate a reference concentration in product emission testing chambers, thereby providing a powerful tool to evaluate the performance of the chamber testing systems.

  20. Environmental impact assessment - a selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography of literature relevant to the environmental impact assessment process is essentially a list of material dealing with the environmental impact assessment process held by Griffith University Library. The list is however well supplemented with citations of material not held in the Griffith University Library. Some economic and social impact assessment citations have been included in the bibliography, as the the environmental impact assessment concept has been interpreted very broadly. The citations are arranged according to broad subject areas, such as methodology, critical reviews, social impacts etc. Citations in each of these subject areas, which are listed in the table of contents, are identified by prefixes which are given in parentheses before the subjects headings. Within each subject area the citations are arragend in alphabetic author sequence

  1. Assessment of environmental impact of solid waste dumpsites using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of environmental impact of solid waste dumpsites using remote sensing. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... Vegetation Index ( SAVI )) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) geospatial data to assess the impact of dumpsites on the environment in Benin City, Nigeria.

  2. 75 FR 52804 - Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement... to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed... CONTACT: Gail Miller, Senior Environmental Planner, Central Sierra Environmental Analysis Branch...

  3. 77 FR 25781 - Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement... Columbia, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact... agencies and the public that a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) will be prepared to assess the...

  4. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Alvaro; Diaz Sierra, R.; Martin-Aranda, Rosa; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship

  5. Environmental impact of seasonal integrated aquaculture ponds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact of fingerponds, particularly on hydrology and biodiversity, was low, although land-use changes at the immediate site where the ponds were dug had direct impacts. Whereas this study was based on short-term monitoring of experimental fingerponds, scaling up of these systems may increase their ...

  6. Electricity production and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankovic, B.

    2005-01-01

    An impact is considered of different energy resources on the environment, with special reference to acid rains, NOx emission and greenhouse gases, land use, and biological diversity. Power generation and consumption ratio was compared for different sources. An overview is given of electricity sources in specific conditions of Croatia being a party to the Kyoto protocol.(author)

  7. A Conceptual Model for Teaching the Relationship of Daily Life and Human Environmental Impact to Ecological Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    In the general activity of daily life, it is easy to miss our dependency on the Earth's ecology. At the same time that people are living apparently separate from the environment, our impact on the Earth is increasing. This study seeks to understand how teachers can bridge this persistent disconnect of daily life from ecology and human impact.…

  8. Model-based analysis of the environmental impacts of grazing management on Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaldach, Rüdiger; Wimmer, Florian; Koch, Jennifer; Volland, Jan; Geissler, Katja; Köchy, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems are prone to desertification when under grazing pressure. Therefore, management of grazing intensity plays a crucial role to avoid or to diminish land degradation and to sustain both livelihoods and ecosystem functioning. The dynamic land-use model LandSHIFT was applied to a case study on the country level for Jordan. The impacts of different stocking densities on the environment were assessed through a set of simulation experiments for various combinations of climate input and assumptions about the development of livestock numbers. Indicators used for the analysis include a set of landscape metrics to account for habitat fragmentation and the "Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production" (HANPP), i.e., the difference between the amount of net primary production (NPP) that would be available in a natural ecosystem and the amount of NPP that remains under human management. Additionally, the potential of the economic valuation of ecosystem services, including landscape and grazing services, as an analysis concept was explored. We found that lower management intensities had a positive effect on HANPP but at the same time resulted in a strong increase of grazing area. This effect was even more pronounced under climate change due to a predominantly negative effect on the biomass productivity of grazing land. Also Landscape metrics tend to indicate decreasing habitat fragmentation as a consequence of lower grazing pressure. The valuation of ecosystem services revealed that low grazing intensity can lead to a comparatively higher economic value on the country level average. The results from our study underline the importance of considering grazing management as an important factor to manage dry-land ecosystems in a sustainable manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Toro Calderón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in Colombia constitutes the primary tool for making decisions with respect to projects, works and activities (PWA with potential for significant environmental impacts. In the case of the infrastructure of the PWA, the EIA is mandatory and determines the environmental license (EL for construction and operation. This paper analyzes the methods used to assess the environmental impact of the PWA that have applied for licenses with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. It was found that the method most frequently used is the qualitative proposal by Conesa, with modifications that reduce the effectiveness of the EIA and favor the subjectivity and bias of the evaluator. Finally a series of recom­mendations to improve the process in the country are proposed.

  10. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental impact... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a...

  11. Environmental impact of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgate, David

    1992-01-01

    Care of the environment is set to be one of the growth industries of the 1990s. Unfortunately, information as to the effect current life styles are having on the environment and, therefore, what remedial action is necessary, varies from the full to the non-existent and, worst of all, from the misleading to the incorrect. For various reasons, some aspects of technology have received greater attention from the media and environmental pressure groups than others. Energy production and conversion technologies, of course, are very much in this category. Indeed, the problem in these areas is not lack of information but a positive surfeit. (author)

  12. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  13. Evaluation of the environmental impact in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, O.

    2004-01-01

    The present work, shows the origin and development of the evaluation of the environmental impact in Mexico, like juridical-environmental instrument, it is the environmental politics' s instrument that is relatively new, with the time it has suffered modifications of technical, administrative, law and conceptual nature. It has changed in substantial form, its importance inside the general outline of protection of the natural resources of Mexico, which is reflected in the structure of the organisms that are responsible for applying it. The objectives of the work embrace describing the antecedents of the evaluation of the environmental impact, to provide a reference mark, and to observe the evolution of this juridical instrument, as well as to summarize more outstanding aspects of the evaluation of the environmental impact; making emphasis in the form like it has been related with the environmental politics' s instruments; and to point out the changes that the procedure of evaluation of the environmental impact has fomented in the development outlines, in the technology and even in the human thought. The results of the evaluation and dictamination of the projects that entered to the procedure of environmental impact in the period 1995-2000 are observed that of the 6,100 entered projects, 5,533 were resolved, which means that answer was given to 91% of the total of projects that entered; of the work it can be concluded that this juridical-environmental instrument, it has evolved with the step of the time and it has left adapting according to the juridical, administrative procedures, technicians and of sustainable development of Mexico

  14. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Chakraborty, K.

    1994-01-01

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  15. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement. Supplemental information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report contains supplemental information to the Environmental Impact Statement that was issued on the proposed second nuclear generating station Point Lepreau-2 in New Brunswick, Canada. Some issues dealt with here are the terrestrial and aquatic impacts of radioactive and thermal releases to the environment, radiation safety for the human population, socio-economic impacts on the region in regards to housing, social services and employment, and monitoring programs for all aspects of the development, construction and operation of the plant

  16. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, J.; Poles, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Executive Order 12898, open-quote Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,close-quote directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies' incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping

  17. Predictions of models for environmental radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Sueli da Silva; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Mahler, Claudio Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In the field of environmental impact assessment, models are used for estimating source term, environmental dispersion and transfer of radionuclides, exposure pathway, radiation dose and the risk for human beings Although it is recognized that the specific information of local data are important to improve the quality of the dose assessment results, in fact obtaining it can be very difficult and expensive. Sources of uncertainties are numerous, among which we can cite: the subjectivity of modelers, exposure scenarios and pathways, used codes and general parameters. The various models available utilize different mathematical approaches with different complexities that can result in different predictions. Thus, for the same inputs different models can produce very different outputs. This paper presents briefly the main advances in the field of environmental radiological assessment that aim to improve the reliability of the models used in the assessment of environmental radiological impact. The intercomparison exercise of model supplied incompatible results for 137 Cs and 60 Co, enhancing the need for developing reference methodologies for environmental radiological assessment that allow to confront dose estimations in a common comparison base. The results of the intercomparison exercise are present briefly. (author)

  18. Environmental impact of hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malai, Marius

    1996-01-01

    The installed hydropower potential of Romania is evaluated to 15,700 MW and 42 billion MWh/year power generation. Only 39% of this potential are currently being utilized. In this note, the impact of Somes-Tarnita and Mariselu-Cluj hydropower systems on the environment is presented. Also, the socio-economic effects on the local communities are considered. These two hydropower systems supply a total electric power of 470 GWh/year

  19. Energetic technologies and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This monograph is a collective work by scientist from CIEMAT (Spanish centre for research on energy, environment and technology). By reviewing the central topics of their own work, the authors present a world-wide update of the state of the arts of the different technologies involved in energy production. The chapters fo through the more promising technologies related to the diverse energy sources, from the nuclear to the renewable and chemical a large gamut of energy supply ways is revised. The analysis of the production technologies is accompanied by considerations of the environmental implications, an aspect to wich a whole part of the volume is devoted. The book begins with a foreword by Dr. Felix Yndurain, former General Director of CIEMAT and follows with a general introduction to the main topics, that are presented in three parts, with specific introductions. There is also a closing fourth part that includes some additional activities where more basic and technical developments are included. The first part is devoted to energy of nuclear origin. In two separate sections, fission and fusion technologies are covered. The fission section points towards the present day problems of nuclear plants (ageing, accidents, risk analysis, etc.), reprocessing of the nuclear fuel, radioactive wastes and environmental radioactivity. The fusion section contains a critical account of the present and expected developments of the fusion reactors together with an exposition of the related plasma physics problems. The second part comprises two sections devoted to energy generation of renewable and chemical origin, respectively. Tehcnologies for solar, wind and biomass energies are thoroughly exposed along the renewable energy section whereas the chemical energy section is devoted to the modern technologies of clean fossil fuel combustion and gasification, as well as to the new appealing subject of direct electric generation with fuel cells. The main environmental and social

  20. Environmental impact of population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Rosamond; Matson, Pamela

    Earth's population currently numbers 5.4 billion; even given optimistic assumptions for reduction in growth rates, the number will double by the middle of the next century with most of the increase in the developing countries. Rapid population growth in the developing world raises the fundamental dilemma of how to alleviate chronic hunger and poverty in the short run while preserving the atmosphere and ecosystem services required for long-term human and biospheric sustenance. This dilemma, and the compromises required to solve it, were discussed by twenty-five researchers from five countries at the Aspen Global Change Institute 1992 Summer Science Session III, Food, Conservation, and Global Environmental Change: Is Compromise Possible?, held from August 16 to 28, in Aspen, Colo.

  1. Environmentally-induced malignancies: An in vivo model to evaluate the health impact of chemicals in mixed waste. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallavicini, M.

    1997-01-01

    'Occupational or environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls is linked to increased risk of developing leukemia, a blood cancer. The long term health effects of exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals and radionuclides are of particular concern because their biologic effects may synergize to increase risk of malignancy. Increased understanding of steps in the progression pathway of a normal cell to a cancer cell is important for biomonitoring, risk assessment and intervention in exposed individuals. Leukemias are characterized by multiple genetic aberrations. Accumulation of multiple genomic changes may reflect genomic instability in the affected ceils. Thus agents that induce DNA damage or genomic instability may increase accumulation of genomic alterations, thereby predisposing cells to transformation. However, not all DNA damaging agents predispose to transformation. Other factors such as genetic susceptibility, cell and tissue response to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, DNA repair, etc. will impact malignant progression. The author proposed a progression model (Figure 1) of environmentally-induced leukemia that can be evaluated using mouse models.'

  2. Environmental impact of ongoing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.C.

    1980-07-01

    Present technology in the management of uranium mine and mill wastes, coupled with appropriate site selection, quality construction and good operating procedures, can ensure that impacts on health, safety and the environment will be acceptably low over the period of operation. The methods of chemical and physical stabilization of the tailings and retention structures are also compatible with close-out procedures and will ensure that any releases to the environment will continue to be within the requirements, assuming the continued availability of surveillance

  3. Environmental impacts of products in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Suh, Sangwon

    2011-05-01

    As the Chinese economy has become an integral part of the global supply chain, quantifying the environmental impacts by Chinese industry is indispensible to understanding the environmental performance of products in general. Comprehensive and consistent environmental data infrastructure, however, is lacking in China, hindering such an understanding. In this paper, we demonstrate a simplified method for assembling and harmonizing various data sources to develop a sectoral environmental database for input-output life cycle assessment (IO-LCA). We first identified key substances by analyzing previous normalization studies and other countries' sectoral environmental databases. Data for priority substances were compiled and then adjusted and validated. The database created from this process was then used to analyze the direct and indirect environmental impacts generated by Chinese rural and urban consumptions. Expenditures on food and other basic household needs like heating and cooking were found to play a dominant role in generating environmental impacts in China, while previous studies of industrialized countries also highlighted the importance of transportation. This database provides background information for LCA through, for example, the hybrid approach, and is also conducive to ongoing efforts to develop generic life cycle inventory databases in China.

  4. Environmental impact analysis with the airspace concept evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; DiFelici, John; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Miraflor, Raymond M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center has developed the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), which is a fast-time simulation tool for evaluating Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. This paper describes linking a capability to ACES which can analyze the environmental impact of proposed future ATM systems. This provides the ability to quickly evaluate metrics associated with environmental impacts of aviation for inclusion in multi-dimensional cost-benefit analysis of concepts for evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS) over the next several decades. The methodology used here may be summarized as follows: 1) Standard Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise and emissions-inventory models, the Noise Impact Routing System (NIRS) and the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), respectively, are linked to ACES simulation outputs; 2) appropriate modifications are made to ACES outputs to incorporate all information needed by the environmental models (e.g., specific airframe and engine data); 3) noise and emissions calculations are performed for all traffic and airports in the study area for each of several scenarios, as simulated by ACES; and 4) impacts of future scenarios are compared to the current NAS baseline scenario. This paper also provides the results of initial end-to-end, proof-of-concept runs of the integrated ACES and environmental-modeling capability. These preliminary results demonstrate that if no growth is likely to be impeded by significant environmental impacts that could negatively affect communities throughout the nation.

  5. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  6. Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Pallavicini

    2001-05-04

    Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation.

  7. Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Pallavicini

    2001-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation

  8. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level

  9. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  10. MODELKEY - Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosystems and biodiversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brack, W.; Bakker, J.; de Deckere, E.; Deerenberg, C.; van Gils, J.; Hein, M.; Jurajda, Pavel; Kooijman, B.; Lamoree, M.; Lek, S.; de Alda, M. J. L.; Marcomini, A.; Munoz, I.; Rattei, S.; Segner, H.; Thomas, K.; von der Ohe, P. C.; Westrich, B.; de Zwart, D.; Schmitt-Jansen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2005), s. 252-256 ISSN 0944-1344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : biodiversity * EU-Projects * fish communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2005

  11. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: II. Environmental impact assessment of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Sukkel, W.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure management contributes to adverse environmental impacts through losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and carbon (C). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of newly designed strategies for integrated manure management (IS) to reduce environmental impact. An important aspect of the

  12. 77 FR 17091 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAD08000. L51010000. ER0000. LVRWB09B2660 CACA-49138] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Draft Environmental Impact Report and the Draft California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment for the Calnev Pipe Line...

  13. 76 FR 65746 - Notice of Availability of Joint Final Environmental Impact Statement/Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 49698, CACA 51204, LLCAD07000, L51010000.FX0000, LVRWB10B3810, LVRWB10B3800] Notice of Availability of Joint Final Environmental Impact Statement/Final Environmental Impact Report for the Tule Wind Project, California, and Notice of Intent To...

  14. 77 FR 14416 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA-051552, LLCAD0700 L51010000 FX0000 LVRWB10B3980] Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Final Environmental Impact Report for the Pattern Energy Group's Ocotillo Express Wind Energy Project and Proposed California Desert...

  15. The value of environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohocki, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The environment and the economy are inextricably linked. Today the environmental, economic, and social associated with project and program decisions are at times of such a magnitude and duration that they exceed our ability to understand, let alone mitigate them. Energy production, distribution, pricing, policies, end uses, and externalities demonstrate the need for wise planning and informed decision making. International cooperation, based upon mutually shared respect, responsibility, and innovative solutions is an essential component of addressing contemporary issues, impacts, and opportunities. Both egypt and the united states have laws requiring environmental impact assessments. Just as egypt can learn from our successes and failures in the environmental impact assessment field over the past 36 years, the united states and other nations can learn as egypt develops and innovates its own approaches and solutions

  16. Assessment of Environmental Impact of Thai Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Tikul, Nachawit; Srichandr, Panya

    2011-01-01

    Building and construction has consumed a lot of various resources and emitted pollution.  These cause environmental problems, especially global warming.  The buildings and constructions in various regions and different styles will lead to different environmental problems and levels of seriousness.   The objective of this research is to assess the global warming impact from the use of construction materials in residential buildings since this type of buildin...

  17. An environmental impact measure for nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2004-01-01

    Review of the models and measures for repository performance assessment has revealed that dedicated measures for environmental impacts need to be developed for the purpose of nuclear-fuel-cycle evaluation from the viewpoint of environmental impact minimization. The present study proposes the total toxicity index of released radionuclides that have accumulated in the region exterior to the repository as an environmental impact measure. The measure is quantitatively evaluated by a radionuclide transport model that incorporates the effects of canister-array configuration and the initial mass loading in the waste canister. With the measure, it is demonstrated that the environmental impact of the repository can be effectively reduced by reduction of the initial mass loading and change in the canister-array configuration in the repository. Environmental impacts of the mill tailings and the depleted uranium are as important as those from the high-level radioactive wastes repository. For a fair comparison of various fuel cycles, the sum of these impacts should be compared. (author)

  18. Environmental impact assessment of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear desalination is gaining interest among the IAEA Member States, as indicated by the planned projects, and it is expected that the number of nuclear desalination plants will increase in the near future. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that disseminate information regarding the technical and economic feasibility of nuclear desalination. With the rising environmental awareness, in the scope of IAEA's activities on seawater desalination using nuclear power, a need was identified for a report that would provide a generic assessment of the environmental issues in nuclear desalination. In order to offer an overview of specific environmental impacts which are to be expected, their probable magnitude, and recommended mitigation measures, this publication encompasses information provided by the IAEA Member States as well as other specialized sources. It is intended for decision makers and experts dealing with environmental, desalination and water management issues, offering insight into the environmental aspects that are essential in planning and developing nuclear desalination

  19. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1314 Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final Environmental...

  20. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-08-01

    The author introduces the subject with an overview of the regulatory requirments and philosophy applied to uranium mines and mills. The special attention given to tailings management is highlighted, and a discussion of the basic environmental concerns is concluded with an itemizing of the main tasks facing the AECB. The extent of the environmental impact of uranium mining, milling and waste management is illustrated with specific details pertaining to mines in the Elliot Lake area. The author concludes that the impact on the ground and surface water system is not alarming, and the impact on air quality is not significant beyond a few hundred metres from the mining facilities. The publicly perceived impact is discussed, followed by a rationale for the continued licensing of new uranium mining operations complete with tailings management facilities

  1. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  2. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These include...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent practicable...

  4. Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    government and missionary activities, by intertribal and interracial marriage , and by proximity to Yuma, AZ, which has grown rapidly in the past several...associated with the direct, indirect and cumulative effects of mission diversification and changes to land use for Yuma Proving Ground. Subject Terms...Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement presents the impacts associated with the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of mission diversification

  5. The Environmental Impacts Of The Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtsev, Sergey; Efimov, Viktor; Korchagina, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    The article analyzes the main indicators of the Russian coal industry's impact on the environment: the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere for the year 2016 compared with 2015. It also identifies actual values of the environmental safety targets of the coal industry and the main investments in the nature protection. For prevention, restriction and minimization the negative impact on the environment, the coal industry has proposed the packages of managerial and technical measures.

  6. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... FHWA is issuing this Notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... project comprises several elements of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation...

  7. Environmental Gradient Analysis, Ordination, and Classification in Environmental Impact Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    associations. The proposed methodology can also be applied to land-use management, maintenance and monitoring programs, and to environmental impact...analysis. Analytical results were then examined and the advantages and disadvantages of each stastistical analysis method used were noted. Mode of Technology...and S. Wearden, Statistics for Research (John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1983). 20a. Draper, N. R., and H. Smith, Applied Regression Analysis, 2nd

  8. Risk and environmental impact assessment: nuclear and environmental licensing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Eduardo M.; Monteiro, Iara A.

    1997-01-01

    The main aims of this paper are the identification and discussion of interfaces and application of common concepts in the existing nuclear and environmental licensing procedures. Risk and impact assessment of nuclear electricity generation are two of these concepts which are discussed detail. The risk concept, which had initially focused on engineering projects, has been extended to many other areas of human activity. Risk resulting from the use of ionization radiation has been associated to the dose for the critical members of the public. Therefore, radiation protection applies basic dose limits which are established in national and international recommendations. These recommendations are increasing the emphasis to keep all the exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonable achievable, economical and social factors being taken into account. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment has been used as a tool in planning and decision-making processes, thus including environmental concern in the discussion of social and economical development strategies. This paper aims to discuss the association of these two concepts by presenting the procedures of control of radiological impact during normal operation of a nuclear power plant and the various forms of risk communication to the public in the case of events occurrence. (author). 13 refs

  9. Innovative energy technologies in energy-economy models: assessing economic, energy and environmental impacts of climate policy and technological change in Germany.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.

    2007-04-18

    Energy technologies and innovation are considered to play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. Yet, the representation of technologies in energy-economy models, which are used extensively to analyze the economic, energy and environmental impacts of alternative energy and climate policies, is rather limited. This dissertation presents advanced techniques of including technological innovations in energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. New methods are explored and applied for improving the realism of energy production and consumption in such top-down models. The dissertation addresses some of the main criticism of general equilibrium models in the field of energy and climate policy analysis: The lack of detailed sectoral and technical disaggregation, the restricted view on innovation and technological change, and the lack of extended greenhouse gas mitigation options. The dissertation reflects on the questions of (1) how to introduce innovation and technological change in a computable general equilibrium model as well as (2) what additional and policy relevant information is gained from using these methodologies. Employing a new hybrid approach of incorporating technology-specific information for electricity generation and iron and steel production in a dynamic multi-sector computable equilibrium model it can be concluded that technology-specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policy, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure. Additionally, the dissertation shows that learning-by-doing in renewable energy takes place in the renewable electricity sector but is equally important in upstream sectors that produce technologies, i.e. machinery and equipment, for renewable electricity generation. The differentiation of learning effects in export sectors, such as renewable energy technologies, matters for the economic assessment of climate policies because of effects on international

  10. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  11. Procedures for Environmental Impact Analysis and Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Novak, E., and R. Riggins, Computer-Aided Environmental Impact AnLysis : MIS- sion Change, O&M, and Training: User Manual, Technical Report E-85...there is mixed sentiment has a better chance of establishing a positive relationship with the audience. (8) Avoid using technical jargon or words that

  12. Potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, these effects would most likely be expressed as a shoreline effect, with the loss in area spread out over the shoreline and periphery of islands and would not be restricted to a single specific area. This anticipated loss in inundated area is unlikely to have measurable impacts on environmental components. Overall ...

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sustainable development of water resources is a multi-dimensional way of thinking about the connections or interdependencies among natural, social, and economic systems in the use of water. The purpose of environmental impact assessment is to guarantee a sustainable development that is in harmony with human ...

  14. Environmental impact of scrapping old cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, Bert van; Moll, Henri C.; Dirks, Jessica

    Many countries introduced scrapping programs in the 90s, partly legitimated by environmental impact reductions. However, reducing the age of the current car fleet may result in an increase of life-cycle CO2 emissions. This will probably also be true for cars to be produced in future unless fuel

  15. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives. 345. 2011;17(5). South Afr J Anaesth Analg. Introduction. In recent times there has been a surge in interest in our contribution to climate change. Human activity results in increased atmospheric levels of a variety of gaseous chemicals that are able to ...

  16. GEOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    GEOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND BENEFIT OF. GRANITIC ROCKS OF MINNA AREA, NORTHWESTERN NIGERIA. Alabi, A. A.. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v4i4.5. Received November 23rd 2011; accepted December 5th 2011. Abstract. Nigeria basement complex has shown that the ...

  17. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project...

  18. Environmental impact assessments for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevblad, Gun; Skaerby, Lena

    2000-06-01

    The report is the final report from a jointly financed project within lVL studying methodology for environmental impact assessments (EIAs). The aim has been to show possibilities and problems with EIAs for air pollution emissions from energy production plants in environments where critical loads and levels are exceeded. The project has mainly dealt with plants emitting air pollutants with environmental effects on the regional scale, including sulphur and nitrogen compounds, volatile organic compounds and particles, and effects such as acidification, eutrophication and ozone formation. Conclusions from the work are that project managers, environmental auditors, together with regional and local authorities could have use for better and more detailed guidelines, in the form of more detailed emission data from different types of alternative plants; Guidelines for the elaborating and assessing of relevant zero alternatives; Regional environmental goals and guidelines for the acceptable contribution to these by different activities; Criteria for the definition of the areas of 'environmental influence'. Furthermore, quantitative relationships between exposure and effects may contribute to better and more detailed descriptions of environmental impact and the need of decreasing the load for the recovery of polluted ecosystems

  19. Beverley project: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Beverley deposit is located on the northern Lake Frome Plains, South Australia, 520km north of Adelaide. It is proposed to mine the deposit by in-situ leaching and to process the solution on the surface to produce an estimated 11,600t of yellowcake from about 6 million tonnes of 0.27% ore over approximately 23 years. The draft environmental impact statement is intended to cover all stages of the development from the pilot plant to final rehabilitation. Sections include the existing environment (geology, climate and meteorology, soils, hydrology, ecology, radionuclide base levels, land use, population and sites of Aboriginal and archaeological significance), the proposed development (solution mining, waste management, water management and mining and processing options), rehabilitation, environmental impact and environmental management and monitoring

  20. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    . It is suggested that passive and semi-active fishing methods such as Danish seine, purse seine, gillnet and long line represent a significant improvement potential compared to trawl. And it is shown that the energy consumption can be reduced with a factor 15 by substituting beam trawl with Danish seine......This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...... current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared...

  1. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Maritime Nuclear, a joint undertaking of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, proposes to construct a second CANDU 600 MW nuclear-powered generating unit at the site of the existing Point Lepreau Generating Station, in New Brunswick. A feasibility study is now underway and guidelines issued by the Lepreau 2 Environmental Assessment Panel identified six priority issues and concerns. These are: impacts on the biological environment, impacts of radiation on humans, impacts on the socio-economic environment, monitoring, emergency planning, and decommissioning. These factors as well as a description of the proposed facility are described in this report

  2. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Sungwoo Lee; Sungho Tae; Seungjun Roh; Taehyung Kim

    2015-01-01

    The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM) for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome thes...

  3. Post-construction environmental and social impact analysis (ESIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harcourt – Eungu highway in Southeastern Nigeria. The impact study focused on the Environmental and Social Impact Analysis (ESIA) because of the social and environmental impacts of road projects. The basic tool used in this analysis is ...

  4. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  5. A stepwise approach for introducing numerical modeling in Environmental Engineering MSc unit: The impact of clear assessment criteria and detailed feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosolem, R.; Pritchard, J.

    2017-12-01

    An important aspect for the new generation of hydrologists and water resources managers is the understanding of hydrological processes through the application of numerical environmental models. Despite its importance, teaching numerical modeling subjects to young students in our MSc Water and Environment Management programme has been difficult, for instance, due to the wide range of student background and lack or poor contact with numerical modeling tools in the past. In previous years, this numerical skills concept has been introduced as a project assignment in our Terrestrial Hydrometeorology unit. However, previous efforts have shown non-optimal engagement by students with often signs of lack of interest or anxiety. Given our initial experience with this unit, we decided to make substantial changes to the coursework format with the aim to introduce a more efficient learning environment to the students. The proposed changes include: (1) a clear presentation and discussion of the assessment criteria at the beginning of the unit, (2) a stepwise approach in which students use our learning environment to acquire knowledge for individual components of the model step-by-step, and (3) access to timely and detailed feedback allowing for particular steps to be retraced or retested. In order to understand the overall impact on assessment and feedback, we carried out two surveys at the beginning and end of the module. Our results indicate a positive impact to student learning experience, as the students have clearly benefited from the early discussion on assignment criteria and appeared to have correctly identified the skills and knowledge required to carry out the assignment. In addition, we have observed a substantial increase in the quality of the reports. Our results results support that student engagement has increased since changes to the format of the coursework were introduced. Interestingly, we also observed a positive impact on the assignment to the final exam

  6. Communication models in environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2013-01-01

    Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action.

  7. Environmental impact statement requirements for CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciurciolo, Melisa N.; Mender, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the legal framework on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regarding the activities of the National Atomic Energy Commission (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), and particularly, the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements of CNEA (PN-PR-027). According to the distribution of powers stated in article 41 of the National Constitution, the environmental legal framework is constituted by National minimum standards for environmental protection and complementary provincial and municipal regulations. As a result, the EIA legal framework is not uniform across the Nation, and therefore, it differs according to the jurisdiction in which the activity subject to EIA is developed. Notwithstanding, the General Statute of the Environment (25.675) requires EIA for any project or activity developed in the National territory, which may cause a significant degradation to the environment, any of its components, or affect the populations' quality of life in a significant way. Since CNEA develops activities along the National territory, it is not possible to determine a uniform legal EIA framework for the entire Institution. Consequently, the binding requirements for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of CNEA activities differ among the activities developed in the different locations and atomic centers. In order to achieve a uniform environmental performance in CNEA, it has been considered necessary to uniform, in the internal sphere, the binding requirements for EIS, by means of a procedure written within the framework of the Environmental Management System of the Institution. The purpose of the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements is to determine the requirements to be complied by the atomic centers, locations and enterprises associated with CNEA, regarding EIS Management. This Procedure shall apply to those projects and activities subjected to EIA, according to a

  8. Modeling interfacial liquid layers on environmental ices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Kuo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interfacial layers on ice significantly influence air-ice chemical interactions. In solute-containing aqueous systems, a liquid brine may form upon freezing due to the exclusion of impurities from the ice crystal lattice coupled with freezing point depression in the concentrated brine. The brine may be segregated to the air-ice interface where it creates a surface layer, in micropockets, or at grain boundaries or triple junctions.

    We present a model for brines and their associated liquid layers in environmental ice systems that is valid over a wide range of temperatures and solute concentrations. The model is derived from fundamental equlibrium thermodynamics and takes into account nonideal solution behavior in the brine, partitioning of the solute into the ice matrix, and equilibration between the brine and the gas phase for volatile solutes. We find that these phenomena are important to consider when modeling brines in environmental ices, especially at low temperatures. We demonstrate its application for environmentally important volatile and nonvolatile solutes including NaCl, HCl, and HNO3. The model is compared to existing models and experimental data from literature where available. We also identify environmentally relevant regimes where brine is not predicted to exist, but the QLL may significantly impact air-ice chemical interactions. This model can be used to improve the representation of air-ice chemical interactions in polar atmospheric chemistry models.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of the nuclear reactor at Vinca, based on the data on emission of radioactivity from the literature: A modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gršić Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research activities of Vinca Institite have been based on two heavy water research reactors: 10 MW one, RA and zero power RB. Reactor RA was operational from 1962 to 1982. In 2010, spent fuel have been sent to the country of origin, and reactor now is in decommissioning. During operational phase of the reactor there were no recorded accidental releases into the environment just operational ones. Results of the environmental impact assessment, of the assumed emission of radionuclides, from the ventilation of nuclear reactor "RA" in Vinca, to the atmospheric boundary layer are presented in this paper. Evaluation was done by using the Gaussian straight-line diffusion model and taking into account characteristics of the reactor ventilation system, the assumed emission release of radioactivity (from the literature, site-specific meteorological data for six-year period and local topography around nuclear reactor, and corresponding dose factors for inventory of radionuclides. Based on the described approach, and assuming that the range of appropriate meteorological data for six year period for the application of described mathematical model is enough for this kind of analysis, it can be concluded that the nuclear reactor "RA", in the course of its work from 1962 to 1982, had no influence on the surrounding environment through the air above regulatory limits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45003

  10. Hydrological and hydrogeological effects of an open repository in Forsmark. Final MIKE SHE flow modelling results for the Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    This report presents methodology and modelling results concerning a deep-rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark. Specifically, the modelling tools MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 and MOUSE are used to quantify the groundwater inflow to the repository and associated hydrological and hydrogeological effects during the construction and operation phases. The modelling results presented in the report provide input to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that will be part of a permit application according to the Environmental Code. Based on an existing MIKE SHE model for Forsmark, the first step of the modelling process was to implement an updated hydrogeological model of the bedrock and to increase the vertical and horizontal extents of the model domain. Other model updates involve the vegetation classification, and implementation of SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste) and the subsurface drainage system at the nearby nuclear power plant. The updated model was calibrated using measured data on groundwater levels in the Quaternary deposits and the bedrock, water levels in lakes, and stream discharges. The calibrated model was then used for simulation of undisturbed conditions (i.e. without the repository) as a reference for modelling results obtained for disturbed conditions (with the repository). The modelling results for undisturbed conditions that are presented in the report closely resemble those of the final MIKE SHE site descriptive modelling (SDM-Site Forsmark). The repository layout was implemented as pipe links (segments) in the modelling tool MOUSE, and the implemented layout was used for the modelling of disturbed conditions. The study uses an updated and verified MIKE SHE-MOUSE coupling routine that is specifically adapted for calculation of groundwater inflow to grouted rock tunnels. The vertical shafts of the repository are implemented in the form of MIKE SHE grid cells with atmospheric pressure. Modelling results for disturbed

  11. Resource Programs: Final Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Every two years, BA prepares a Resource Program, which identifies the resource actions BA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Programs Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document that will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to this EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. The alternatives represent the range of actions BA could take to meet its load obligations. Each of the alternatives allows BA to meet the almost 5,000 average megawatt load increase that could occur with high load growth, or an equivalent need for resources caused by a combination of load growth and any future loss of resources

  12. Environmental policy implications of working from home: Modelling the impacts of land-use, infrastructure and socio-demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Miao; Andrew Kelly, J.; Peter Clinch, J.; King, Fearghal

    2012-01-01

    Working from home is generally perceived as an effective means of reducing energy use and associated pollution from commuter transport. In order to consider the merits of mechanisms and policies to support a change in behaviour that results in greater take-up of home working, this paper applies energy consumption per commute calculations and a logit model using a case study of Ireland. In marked contrast with larger countries, the energy consumption per commute is relatively low in Ireland. Nonetheless, the analysis indicates that, on average, at least an average net saving of 9.33 kW h per day can be achieved where an individual converts to working from home, after deducting the home energy consumption associated with home working. We find that land use patterns, public transport networks, internet infrastructure, commute distances and socio-demographic characteristics can serve to influence rates of home working. Encouraging the higher and lower professional categories and those in the service sectors to work from home should be the highest priority in terms of energy and emissions reductions. Increased coverage of internet services and railway coverage will support higher rates of home working. Increased dispersion of residential, commercial and industrial areas serves to encourage greater home working. - Highlights: ► An average net energy saving of 9.33 kW h per day can be achieved by an individual changing to working from home. ► Land use patterns, public transport and internet infrastructure influence rates of home working. ► Commute distances and socio-demographic characteristics influence the take-up of home working. ► Encouraging home-working by higher and lower professionals and the service sectors is the priority.

  13. Environmental and Social Impact Study: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    The tsetse control project (commonly known as tsetse flies) is an initiative of the Directorate of Livestock (project coordinating institution) and the ISRA (Senegalese Agricultural Research Institute) Accompaniment and diagnosis of the project. It is part of the cooperation between Senegal and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).The method of control that will be applied is the technique of sterile males.This technique of sterile males, however, is coupled with the use of deltamethrin (D6), a neurotoxic chemical (in adult insects) that is fast and fairly rapidly biodegradable in the environment.This study is carried out with the aim of taking good account of the environmental impacts of the various activities envisaged by the project. Its objective is to assess the biophysical, social and economic impacts of the project and to propose measures to mitigate or compensate for negative impacts and to reinforce positive impacts within the framework of an Environmental Management Plan and (ESMP). It also presents an environmental and social monitoring and monitoring plan to assess the effectiveness of the proposed mitigation measures.

  14. Uranium mining: Environmental and health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is important not only to the producers and consumers of the product, but also to society at large. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity in the coming decades - particularly in the developing world - enhancing awareness of leading practice in uranium mining is important. This was the objective of a recent NEA report entitled Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining, providing a non-technical overview of the significant evolution of uranium mining practices from the time that it was first mined for military purposes until today. (author)

  15. Environmental impact of high voltage substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geambasu, C.; Popadiuc, S.; Drobota, C.; Marza, F.

    2004-01-01

    The first Romanian methodology for simultaneous environmental and human risk evaluation in case of HV installations within substations pertaining to nuclear power stations, based on EU regulation is now applicable in Cernavoda substation. High voltage substations are zones where the environmental impact is focused on electromagnetic field that's causes particular effects in living tissues (human being included). That is the reason why is necessary to identify the potential risk sources, the asses including the way to correct them and to dissimulate the results to the staff and the operational personal.(author)

  16. Environmental impact of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, F.

    2008-01-01

    The environment, is radioactive, by reason of reception of rays of sky and earth, atoms on body and normal activities(fossil fuel). Activities on fossil fuel cycle, led to environmental pollutions. Also, the aim of this research is survey of environmental impact of nuclear power plant and determination management and monitoring policies. The result of this research showed that in the fossil fuel cycle (exploration, extraction, mill), produced different level radioactive wastes (low, middle, high), chemical material, heat, oily material and wastewater, that by use of radioactive waste management, destructive effect of pollutant can be decreased

  17. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  18. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action involving...

  19. 40 CFR 6.207 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 6.207... ACTIONS EPA's NEPA Environmental Review Procedures § 6.207 Environmental impact statements. (a) The Responsible Official will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) (see 40 CFR 1508.11) for major...

  20. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the environmental...

  1. 76 FR 6461 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8995-2] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements filed 01/24/2011 through..., PROGRAMMATIC--Growth, Realignment, and Stationing of Army Aviation Assets, Evaluates Environmental Impacts of...

  2. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance with...

  3. Uncertainty analysis of environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper an evaluation of the output uncertainty of an environmental model for assessing the transfer of 137 Cs and 131 I in the human food chain are carried out on the basis of a statistical analysis of data reported by the literature. The uncertainty analysis offers the oppotunity of obtaining some remarkable information about the uncertainty of models predicting the migration of non radioactive substances in the environment mainly in relation to the dry and wet deposition

  4. Environmental impact of high voltage aerial transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.P.; Mouallen, M.C.; Quintella, S.E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The identification of environmental impacts caused by the aerial transmission lines and the measures for reducing these impacts are discussed, considering the impact over the soil in different areas, biological effects caused by delayed exposure and visual impacts due to the line structures. A methodology for the impact evaluation and the aspects of the Environmental Impact Studies and Environmental Impact Report are also studied. (C.G.C.). 2 refs, 1 fig

  5. 75 FR 31834 - Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Adoption of Environmental Impact...), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Adoption and Recirculation of Final Environmental Impact... Impact Statement (EIS) issued by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) in 2004 for the construction of...

  6. Evaluating the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Bosker, Thijs; Rodrigues, João F. D.; de Koning, Arjan; Tukker, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Dietary choices drive both health and environmental outcomes. Information on diets come from many sources, with nationally recommended diets (NRDs) by governmental or similar advisory bodies the most authoritative. Little or no attention is placed on the environmental impacts within NRDs. Here we quantify the impact of nation-specific NRDs, compared with an average diet in 37 nations, representing 64% of global population. We focus on greenhouse gases (GHGs), eutrophication, and land use because these have impacts reaching or exceeding planetary boundaries. We show that compared with average diets, NRDs in high-income nations are associated with reductions in GHG, eutrophication, and land use from 13.0 to 24.8%, 9.8 to 21.3%, and 5.7 to 17.6%, respectively. In upper-middle–income nations, NRDs are associated with slight decrease in impacts of 0.8–12.2%, 7.7–19.4%, and 7.2–18.6%. In poorer middle-income nations, impacts increase by 12.4–17.0%, 24.5–31.9%, and 8.8–14.8%. The reduced environmental impact in high-income countries is driven by reductions in calories (∼54% of effect) and a change in composition (∼46%). The increased environmental impacts of NRDs in low- and middle-income nations are associated with increased intake in animal products. Uniform adoption of NRDs across these nations would result in reductions of 0.19–0.53 Gt CO2 eq⋅a−1, 4.32–10.6 Gt PO43− eq⋅a−1, and 1.5–2.8 million km2, while providing the health cobenefits of adopting an NRD. As a small number of dietary guidelines are beginning to incorporate more general environmental concerns, we anticipate that this work will provide a standardized baseline for future work to optimize recommended diets further. PMID:29203655

  7. Environmental impact of climate change in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Raja, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change results in the increase or decrease in temperature and rainfall. These have significant impact on environment - impinge agricultural crop yields, affect human health, cause changes to forests and other ecosystems, and even impact our energy supply. Climate change is a global phenomenon and its impact can be observed on Pakistan's economy and environment. This paper contains details concerning the climate change and environmental impacts. It takes into account current and projected key vulnerabilities, prospects for adaptation, and the relationships between climate change mitigation and environment. The purpose of the study is to devise national policies and incentive systems combined with national level capacity-building programs to encourage demand-oriented conservation technologies. Recommendations are also made to abate the climate change related issues in country. (author)

  8. Peat 2000. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    of fuel peat amounted to 2.9 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,000,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2000, imports amounted to 195,000 metric tons or 0.7 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 93,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. The peat market in Sweden is divided into the energy market and the cultivation market. Fuel peat is used at district heating power plants. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy sources. Primarily mining companies are specialised in peat mining. Some companies are privately owned, while other are owned by municipalities, which also manage district heating plants and thereby integrate vertically. In the cultivation market, peat is the market leader. Most companies specialise on horticultural peat, but some companies also produce fuel peat. The professional cultivators buy peat directly through the peat producers' selling organisations. For the household sector (leisure time cultivators), peat is distributed via wholesale dealers and retail chains. Prices for fuel peat have decreased somewhat in recent years. The prices for sod peat are approximately SEK 109 per MWh. Around 80-85 per cent of the production price represent costs in the producer stage, the rest in loading, transportation, and terminal costs. Peat for cultivation is sold in many different qualities, with prices ranging from SEK 110 to SEK 300 per cubic meter. In most areas of Sweden, peat production is a complementary industry. Only in Haerjedalen (west Mid-Sweden), is peat of major importance for employment and maintaining the infrastructure. In an international comparison, countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland use peat for energy production to a greater extent than Sweden: Finland especially has served as a model. The environmental

  9. Peat 1999. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    of fuel peat amounted to 2.9 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1 460 000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 1999, imports amounted to 169 000 metric tons or 0.6 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 82 000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. The peat market in Sweden is divided into the energy market and the cultivation market. Fuel peat is used at district heating power plants. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy sources. Primarily mining companies are specialised in peat mining. Some companies are privately owned, while other are owned by municipalities, which also manage district heating plants and thereby integrate vertically. In the cultivation market, peat is the market leader. Most companies specialise on horticultural peat, but some companies also produce fuel peat. The professional cultivators buy peat directly through the peat producers' selling organisations. For the household sector (leisure time cultivators), peat is distributed via wholesale dealers and retail chains. Prices for fuel peat have decreased somewhat in recent years. The prices for sod peat are approximately SEK 110 per MWh. Around 80-85 per cent of the production price represent costs in the producer stage, the rest in loading, transportation, and terminal costs. Peat for cultivation is sold in many different qualities, with prices ranging from SEK 140 to SEK 280 per cubic meter. In most areas of Sweden, peat production is a complementary industry. Only in Haerjedalen (west Mid-Sweden), is peat of major importance for employment and maintaining the infrastructure. In an international comparison, countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland use peat for energy production to a greater extent than Sweden: Finland especially has served as a model. The environmental

  10. Modeling Environmental Literacy of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teksoz, Gaye; Sahin, Elvan; Tekkaya-Oztekin, Ceren

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposed an Environmental Literacy Components Model to explain how environmental attitudes, environmental responsibility, environmental concern, and environmental knowledge as well as outdoor activities related to each other. A total of 1,345 university students responded to an environmental literacy survey (Kaplowitz and Levine…

  11. Outline of environmental impact of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This document presents background information on the environmental impacts from the management and disposal of radioactive waste for seven reference fuel cycles selected by INFCE Working Group 7, but excluding the health and safety impact on man. The main factors considered were: use of natural resources, land, water, energy, labour and materials; effects of chemical and thermal effluents; effects of meteorology, hydrology and natural hazards; and social effects. The environmental impacts are generally largest for the once-through fuel cycles and smallest for the FBR and HWR U/Th cycles, due to the impacts being correlated to uranium requirements. The main impact is the use of land which varies from 0.1 - 1.6 ha/GWa with the FBR strategy requiring the smallest use of land and the LWR once-through strategy the largest. The land use for mill tailings is, except for the FBR and U/Th cycles, dominant compared to the land use for the rest of the fuel cycle

  12. Environmental impacts associated with Project Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.W.; Whicker, F.W.; Hanson, W.C.

    Project Rio Blanco, an experiment involving deep underground detonation of three 30-kton nuclear explosives designed to stimulate natural gas flow in geologic formations of low permeability, was conducted in western Colorado on 17 May 1973. Environmental impacts associated with this experiment were divided into three categories: radiation, ground motion, and conventional physical activities. Radiation and ground motion are unique to this type experiment while conventional activities would be associated with any type of resource development. The objective of observations made at Rio Blanco was to qualitatively and, where possible, quantitatively ascertain environmental impacts associated with the project. Observations indicated that ground motion and conventional activities appeared to cause the greatest impacts. Ground motion impacts were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravine and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Following the detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Animals receiving deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs and burrows. No mortality or injury was observed in any large animals. (U.S.)

  13. Manual: environmental impact statement and intervention regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, K.

    1992-01-01

    In order to be able to fulfil also legally the important tasks of environmental protection and natural preservation in the last ten years numerous legal provisions have been issued. Many of these laws require that the environmental impact of projects and constructional measures is taken into account to a higher degree. Two important instruments in this connection are the impact statement and the intervention regulation of natural preservation. Their importance and consequences for the planning and realization of projects are until now not sufficiently know. This manual is to fill this gap. This booklet shall help builder-owners and investors to realize their building projects in a way which is compatible with the environment. For architects and planners information is given in this manual about the requirements to be fulfilled in the individual planning and licensing procedures. The booklet is structured in a way that builder-owners, consultants and authorities find quickly the information needed. (orig./KW) [de

  14. Environmental condition and impact of inactive uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M. Jr.; Eadie, G.E.; O'Connell, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was required to provide a report to Congress identifying the location, and potential health, safety and environmental hazards of uranium mine wastes together with recommendations, if any, for a program to eliminate the hazards. The approach taken to prepare this report was to develop model active and inactive mines and locate them in a typical mining area to estimate their environmental impact. The inactive mines were separated from the list and sorted into surface and underground categories. A literature search was conducted to obtain and consolidate available information concerning the environmental aspects of uranium mining and short-term field surveys and studies were conducted to augment this information base. Radioactivity emission rates were measured or estimated for each mining category and were entered into computer codes to assess population exposures and subsequent health risks. The general environmental condition of inactive uranium mines was determined by walk-through surveys in several mining areas

  15. Low environmental impact technologies for road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Simone

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The “sustainability” concept relates to the prolonging of human economic systems with as little detrimental impact on ecological systems as possible. Construction that exhibits good environmental stewardship and practices that conserve resources in a manner that allow growth and development to be sustained for the long-term without degrading the environment are indispensable in a developed society.Past, current and future advancements in road construction as an environmentally sustainable paving material are especially important because the quantities of asphalt used annually in Europe as well as in the U.S. and all over the world are large. This research project is aimed to demonstrate the dual value of some new technologies in regards to the environmental and mechanical performance and to suggest a low environmental impact design procedure. In fact, the use of eco-friendly materials is the first phase towards an eco-compatible design but it cannot be the only step. The eco-compatible approach should be extended also to the design method and material characterization because only with these phases is it possible to exploit the maximum potential properties of the used materials.

  16. Hydra, a model system for environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, François; Blaise, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hydra have been extensively used for studying the teratogenic and toxic potential of numerous toxins throughout the years and are more recently growing in popularity to assess the impacts of environmental pollutants. Hydra are an appropriate bioindicator species for use in environmental assessment owing to their easily measurable physical (morphology), biochemical (xenobiotic biotransformation; oxidative stress), behavioural (feeding) and reproductive (sexual and asexual) endpoints. Hydra also possess an unparalleled ability to regenerate, allowing the assessment of teratogenic compounds and the impact of contaminants on stem cells. Importantly, Hydra are ubiquitous throughout freshwater environments and relatively easy to culture making them appropriate for use in small scale bioassay systems. Hydra have been used to assess the environmental impacts of numerous environmental pollutants including metals, organic toxicants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds), nanomaterials and industrial and municipal effluents. They have been found to be among the most sensitive animals tested for metals and certain effluents, comparing favourably with more standardised toxicity tests. Despite their lack of use in formalised monitoring programmes, Hydra have been extensively used and are regarded as a model organism in aquatic toxicology.

  17. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  18. Environmental Impact of Buildings--What Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Niko; Mutel, Christopher L; Steubing, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, York; Wallbaum, Holger; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-08-18

    The goal of this study was to identify drivers of environmental impact and quantify their influence on the environmental performance of wooden and massive residential and office buildings. We performed a life cycle assessment and used thermal simulation to quantify operational energy demand and to account for differences in thermal inertia of building mass. Twenty-eight input parameters, affecting operation, design, material, and exogenic building properties were sampled in a Monte Carlo analysis. To determine sensitivity, we calculated the correlation between each parameter and the resulting life cycle inventory and impact assessment scores. Parameters affecting operational energy demand and energy conversion are the most influential for the building's total environmental performance. For climate change, electricity mix, ventilation rate, heating system, and construction material rank the highest. Thermal inertia results in an average 2-6% difference in heat demand. Nonrenewable cumulative energy demand of wooden buildings is 18% lower, compared to a massive variant. Total cumulative energy demand is comparable. The median climate change impact is 25% lower, including end-of-life material credits and 22% lower, when credits are excluded. The findings are valid for small offices and residential buildings in Switzerland and regions with similar building culture, construction material production, and climate.

  19. Environmental impact of power generation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima-e-Silva, Pedro Paulo de

    1996-01-01

    The increasing worldwide concern about the planet health is reflected in the willing-to-pay behavior in face of environmentally sound products (the case of American unleaded gasoline) and also in the recently approved international standards as ISO-14000. Considering this, a comparison between major energy sources, like Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear electricity, strictly in terms of environmental impact, becomes relevant. this paper intends to trace a critical analysis of the actual environmental impact occurred in the last 20 years, comparing it with the imagined impact that was foreseen 20 years ago, and making some comments about the future. What one sees nowadays is quite a different situation as it was seen by the environmentalists in Brazil at that time (1976). The cost of land around rivers has increased significantly; social problem with flooding land is even critical in several areas; forests are given higher value than ever; the CO 2 yield has become a world concern, as SOx and NOx as well; C H4 released from flooded forests is a powerful greenhouse gas; the safety of Nuclear Power Plants are still questioned, as well whether or not the uranium reserves are going to support an increasing demand for more 20 years; new standards in public acceptance of pollution has been established. A greater dose of rationale should be put into this discussion. (author)

  20. 76 FR 55653 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Impact Statement (EIS)/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement (OEIS) to evaluate the potential... Islands Training and Testing (MITT) EIS/OEIS Study Area. The MITT Study Area includes the existing Mariana... complex in the Study Area. The DoN is preparing this EIS/OEIS to renew current regulatory permits and...

  1. 76 FR 49786 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... holes that upstream migrant fish can pass through and therefore fail to enter into the hatchery ladder... Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project... of Fish and Game (CDFG), the lead State agency, have prepared a joint Final EIS/EIR for the proposed...

  2. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  3. Streamlining environmental product declarations: a stage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Louis A.; Talbot, Stephane; Le Hen, Gael

    2001-02-01

    General public environmental awareness and education is increasing, therefore stimulating the demand for reliable, objective and comparable information about products' environmental performances. The recently published standard series ISO 14040 and ISO 14025 are normalizing the preparation of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) containing comprehensive information relevant to a product's environmental impact during its life cycle. So far, only a few environmentally leading manufacturing organizations have experimented the preparation of EPDs (mostly from Europe), demonstrating its great potential as a marketing weapon. However the preparation of EPDs is a complex process, requiring collection and analysis of massive amounts of information coming from disparate sources (suppliers, sub-contractors, etc.). In a foreseeable future, the streamlining of the EPD preparation process will require product manufacturers to adapt their information systems (ERP, MES, SCADA) in order to make them capable of gathering, and transmitting the appropriate environmental information. It also requires strong functional integration all along the product supply chain in order to ensure that all the information is made available in a standardized and timely manner. The goal of the present paper is two fold: first to propose a transitional model towards green supply chain management and EPD preparation; second to identify key technologies and methodologies allowing to streamline the EPD process and subsequently the transition toward sustainable product development

  4. 77 FR 6622 - Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be...

  5. 77 FR 4617 - Environmental Impact Statement: Pennington County, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Pennington County, SD AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be...

  6. 75 FR 9015 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be...

  7. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    According to information collected by United Nations. Environmental Programme (UNEP), EIA provisions now exist in the framework environmental legislation of 55 developing countries (Hartley and Wood, 2005). Public participation in environmental impact assessment— implementing the Aarhus Convention.

  8. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  9. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  10. Environmental impact of PV cell waste scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, M; Pikoń, K; Landrat, M

    2017-12-01

    Rapid growth of the volume of waste from PV cells is expected in the following years. The problem of its utilization seems to be the most important issue for future waste management systems. The environmental impacts of the PV recycling scenario are presented in the manuscript. The analysis is based on the LCA approach and the average data available in specialized databases for silicon standard PV cell is used. The functional unit includes parameters like: efficiency, composition, surface area. The discussion on the environmental impact change due to the location of the PV production and waste processing plants is presented in the manuscript. Additionally, the discussion on the environmental effect of substituting different energy resources with PV cells is presented in the manuscript. The analysis of the PV cell life cycle scenario presented in the article was performed using the SIMA PRO software and data from Ecoinvent 3.0 database together with additional data obtained from other sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescents' perspectives and food choice behaviors in terms of the environmental impacts of food production practices: application of a psychosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, M M; Contento, I R

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate adolescents' perspectives about the environmental impacts of food production practices and whether these perspectives are related to their food choice. Food choice was operationalized as consumption and purchase of organic foods and locally grown foods. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of adolescents and analyzed for descriptive information and relationships among variables. Subjects were 651 ethnically diverse, urban and suburban high school senior students in a major metropolitan area. Variables of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior were measured including beliefs, attitudes, perceived social influences, motivation to comply, perceived behavioral control, self-identity, perceived responsibility, behavioral intention, and behavior. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used. Surveyed adolescents did not have strong or consistent beliefs or attitudes about the environmental impact of food production practices. Cognitive-motivational processes were at work, however, since their perspectives were significantly correlated with behavioral intentions and food choice behaviors. Behavioral intention was best accounted for by attitudes and perceived social influences (and perceived responsibility for organic food), and behavior was best accounted for by behavioral intentions, beliefs, and perceived social influences (and self-identity for local food). There is a need to make salient to adolescents the environmental impact of food production practices through both cognitive and experiential approaches.

  12. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and final...

  13. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section 771.125 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1...

  14. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental impact statement. An Environmental Impact statement (EIS) is a detailed written statement required by NEPA for major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment (42 U... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section...

  15. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement and...

  16. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 775.11 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.11 Environmental impact statements. (a) Determining scope. Before an environmental impact statement is prepared, the following procedures must be followed to determine what issues...

  17. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13... Exemptions § 503.13 Environmental impact analysis. In order to enable OFE to comply with NEPA, a petitioner..., and land resources; (3) Direct and indirect environmental impacts of the proposed action including...

  18. 75 FR 69154 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kern County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kern... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The FHWA, on behalf of the California Department of... on April 23, 2008, to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed 24th Street...

  19. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6...

  20. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los... to advise the public that a Draft Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed... prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposal for the State Route 710 Gap North Closure...

  1. 76 FR 53531 - Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ...)] Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Department Of... that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Hancock... an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed widening and/or realignment of State Route...

  2. The environmental impacts of wind and water power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twidell, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    The success of a typical renewable energy project depends about 40% on technology and about 60% on institutional factors. The latter include regulations, financing and environmental impact, with many of the regulations and some financial factors themselves relating to environmental impact. This paper attempts to define and categorize aspects of environmental impact, especially regarding wind and hydro power projects. (author)

  3. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NRC staff will prepare a supplement to the final environmental impact statement on the construction... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-Production and Utilization Facilities § 51.95...

  4. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Renzio, M.; Ciocca, B.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  5. Citizens' actions and environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelde, T.

    1975-01-01

    Above all, two kinds of citizens' participation in environmental decisions are to be considered: on the one hand the suit for damages and compensation for the purpose of internalization of external effects, and on the other hand the actions with the aim to influence character and content of public final decision cases. This is where cooperation and contributions towards state activities with more concern for the environment come into it. This sphere is investigated. Combined are the possibility of judicially arranged citizens' participation and a modern instrument of public decision: environmental impact statements. At the moment these appear to become exclusively an instrument for internal administration management. However, it is possible - this can be confirmed in comparative law - to couple this for the purpose of administration created instrument of technology assessment with citizens' actions. Therefore, the article aims to point to a solution how modern administration management through judicial mediation can orientate itself according to citizens' interests. (orig./LN) [de

  6. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  7. Environmental impact: an ethical awakening of interest for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi PUIG I BAGUER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the unwholesome human behaviour on nature has evinced an environmental and anthropological crisis, largely rooted in erroneous and inherited understandings of modernity. The causes that have estranged human beings from their environment are complex and varied, but they necessarily need to be addressed by education. The detailed analysis of some of the causes of unsustainability and its effects (either visible or non-visible may contribute to foster environmental literacy, which is essential to achieve the urgent adoption of a sustainable development model, both socially and environmentally fair.In this paper, some possible causes of the breach between human beings and nature are analysed. It is shown also how the environmental impact evidence may be an excellent resource to teach about these causes, thus contributing to the education on sustainable development.

  8. Environmental impact assessment applied to planning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vismara, R.

    1994-01-01

    Object of EEC (European Economic Community) directive and italian law are certain public and private projects. However, more recent tendency are moving to an application on planning action too. There is no doubt that EIA (Environmental Impact Analysis) on project is very different than EIA on plans. Obviously EIA on a sectorial plan is not an addition of singular EIA on project. The new main objectives shall be: identification of critical areas; identification of interaction between different projects and between different factors; identification of critical project. A methodology to quantify these objectives in matricial form is presented

  9. 76 FR 63911 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... waters of the United States and the potential impacts to the natural and human environment. Therefore, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Corps is requiring the preparation of an... Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for a Permit Application...

  10. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  11. Hanford defense waste environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, J.B.; Nelson, I.C.; White, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The environmental impacts of three alternative methods for disposal of Hanford defense wastes were analyzed in an environmental impact statement (EIS), DOE/EIS-0013. A fourth alternative, no disposal action, was included to satisfy CEQ regulations. Hanford defense waste differ dramatically from commercial nuclear wastes. The fuel elements are irradiated to very low burnups (by commercial standards), the fuel has all been processed (in some cases several times) to extract uranium and plutonium, much of the strontium and cesium has been removed and concentrated in capsules, and the remaining wastes have been highly diluted by processing and by neutralizing salts. The activity per unit volume is ∼ 1/1000 that of commercial spent fuel. Hanford waste is currently stored in a variety of forms and locations. It was categorized into six classes for analysis. The major radionuclides by waste class are shown. Numerous alternatives were considered for treating Hanford defense wastes. Of those studied, four were considered to be reasonable for detailed analysis. A highly abbreviated description of their salient features is presented: (1) geologic disposal; (2) in-place stabilization and disposal; (3) reference (combination disposal); and (4) no disposal action

  12. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph B; Jackson, David; Gammie, Alistair; Badrick, Tony

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare is a significant contributor to environmental impact but this has received little attention. The typical laboratory uses far more energy and water per unit area than the typical office building. There is a need to sensitise laboratories to the importance of adopting good environmental practices. Since this comes at an initial cost, it is vital to obtain senior management support. Convincing management of the various tangible and intangible benefits that can accrue in the long run should help achieve this support. Many good environmental practices do not have a cost but will require a change in the culture and mind-set of the organisation. Continuing education and training are important keys to successful implementation of good practices. There is a need to undertake a rigorous cost-benefit analysis of every change that is introduced in going green. The adoption of good practices can eventually lead to ISO certification if this is desired. This paper provides suggestions that will allow a laboratory to start going green. It will allow the industry to enhance its corporate citizenship whilst improving its competitive advantage for long-term.

  13. Southpoint power plant final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document is the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for a proposed lease of acreage on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Mohave County, Arizona for development of a natural gas fired 500 megawatt combined cycle power plant. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) serves as the federal lead agency and the Fort Mojave Indian Tribe (FMIT) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) are cooperating agencies for the EIS process. The purpose of this document is to provide information to the public and to interested public agencies regarding the environmental consequences of the approval of a long-term lease for the construction and operation of the proposed Southpoint power plant. The FEIS, prepared by Hallock/Gross, Inc. under the direction of the BIA and in cooperation with the FMIT and WAPA, addresses the comparative analysis of alternatives and evaluates the environmental consequences of such alternatives on various resources and addresses public comments. A number of technical reports were used in the preparation of the Draft EIS and FEIS and are available for review as Appendices to this document under separate cover that can be reviewed at the BIA offices which are listed

  14. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and...

  15. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    . It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has never been more pressing. Conceptual models can facilitate this by providing theoretical frameworks and supporting stakeholder......, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach...... a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems...

  16. A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, C.H.; Brumburgh, G.P.; Edmunds, T.A.; Kay, D.

    1996-03-01

    President Clinton's Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations

  17. Environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-09-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations, particularly those operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc, which include uranium conversion, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, irradiated fuel transport and storage, reprocessing, uranium recycle and waste treatment and disposal. Quantitative assessments have been made of the impact of the liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment from all stages in the fuel cycle. An upper limit to the possible health effects is readily obtained using the codified recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This contrasts with the lack of knowledge concerning the health effects of many other pollutants, including those resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. Most of the liquid and gaseous discharges result at the reprocessing stage and although their impact on the environment and on human health is small, they have given rise to much public concern. Reductions in discharges at Sellafield over the last few years have been quite dramatic, which shows what can be done provided the necessary very large investment is undertaken. The cost-effectiveness of this investment must be considered. Some of it has gone beyond the point of justification in terms of health benefit, having been undertaken in response to public and political pressure, some of it on an international scale. The potential for significant off-site impact from accidents in the fuel cycle has been quantitatively assessed and shown to be very limited. Waste disposal will also have an insignificant impact in terms of risk. It is also shown that it is insignificant in relation to terrestrial radioactivity and therefore in relation to the human environment. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Environmental impact assessment of NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the following potential impacts of decommissioning of NPP are discussed: - Impacts on population; Impacts on natural environment; Land impacts; Impacts on urban complex and land utilisation; Possible impacts on area as a result of failure.

  19. Towards policy relevant environmental modeling: contextual validity and pragmatic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott B.

    2000-01-01

    "What makes for a good model?" In various forms, this question is a question that, undoubtedly, many people, businesses, and institutions ponder with regards to their particular domain of modeling. One particular domain that is wrestling with this question is the multidisciplinary field of environmental modeling. Examples of environmental models range from models of contaminated ground water flow to the economic impact of natural disasters, such as earthquakes. One of the distinguishing claims of the field is the relevancy of environmental modeling to policy and environment-related decision-making in general. A pervasive view by both scientists and decision-makers is that a "good" model is one that is an accurate predictor. Thus, determining whether a model is "accurate" or "correct" is done by comparing model output to empirical observations. The expected outcome of this process, usually referred to as "validation" or "ground truthing," is a stamp on the model in question of "valid" or "not valid" that serves to indicate whether or not the model will be reliable before it is put into service in a decision-making context. In this paper, I begin by elaborating on the prevailing view of model validation and why this view must change. Drawing from concepts coming out of the studies of science and technology, I go on to propose a contextual view of validity that can overcome the problems associated with "ground truthing" models as an indicator of model goodness. The problem of how we talk about and determine model validity has much to do about how we perceive the utility of environmental models. In the remainder of the paper, I argue that we should adopt ideas of pragmatism in judging what makes for a good model and, in turn, developing good models. From such a perspective of model goodness, good environmental models should facilitate communication, convey—not bury or "eliminate"—uncertainties, and, thus, afford the active building of consensus decisions, instead

  20. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  1. Environmental impacts of China's WTO-accession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennemo, Haakon; Aunan, Kristin; Rypdal, Kristin; He, Jianwu; Li, Shantong; Hu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. We analyse the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favour of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO 2 also fall, but emissions of NO x and VOC rise. Since particle and SO 2 -emissions fall we estimate that public health improves. (author)

  2. Environmental Performance and Financing Decisions Impact on Sustainable Financial Development of Chinese Environmental Protection Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Quan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection firms need to improve their ability to access financing while maintaining good economic performance under mounting environmental pressures. After the integration of trade-off and stakeholder theories, we have constructed a number of mathematical models to investigate the relationship among financing decisions, environmental performance (EP, and economic performance. Unbalanced panel data from environmental protection companies listed on Chinese stock exchanges from 2007 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Our results have confirmed that debt financing has a significant impact on short- and long-term economic performance. Firms prefer long-term debt over short-term debt to improve their financial sustainability. Internal financing is positively related to performance because the cost of financing is lower. Environmental performance can cause extra financial burden in the short run, but will improve stakeholder relations and profitability in the long run. Our study suggests that environmental performance affects the relationship between financing decisions and economic performance. When EP initiatives are high, debt financing has a greater negative influence on short-term performance, and the effect on long-term performance is mitigated. High EP also reduces the impact of internal financing on performance.

  3. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ''Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process'' includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions

  4. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-12-31

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.

  5. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, H.J.; Adams, E.E.; Caulfield, J.A.; Auerbach, D.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Energy Lab.

    1997-12-31

    The sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the deep ocean has been proposed as a way to mitigate potential climate change. In order to better understand the environmental impacts associated with such a strategy, a methodology has been developed to quantity mortality suffered by marine zooplankton passing /through a CO{sup 2}-enriched sea water plume. Predicted impact depends on the mode of injection, with scenarios which disperse the CO{sub 2} showing the least impact. Benthic impacts also depend on the injection mode, with localized effects expected for any scenario in which the plume contacts the bottom. Based on available data, modeling suggests that mortality associated with exposure to low pH can be avoided by properly dispersing the CO{sub 2} and keeping the plume off of the seabed.

  6. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement 91.63 Section 91.63 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  7. 78 FR 79658 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... prepare an environmental impact statement to examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0044] Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

  8. 78 FR 56621 - Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...-2012-0246] RIN 3150-AJ20 Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Nuclear... generic environmental impact statement (DGEIS), NUREG-2157, ``Waste Confidence Generic Environmental... licensed life for operation and prior to ultimate disposal (proposed Waste Confidence rule). The NRC staff...

  9. 78 FR 4586 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kake... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a proposed transportation project to improve access to and from the... written comments on environmental concerns that should be addressed in the EIS. The public scoping...

  10. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare and...

  11. 75 FR 28612 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8990-5] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 05/10/2010 Through...

  12. 78 FR 2397 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9007-1] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/31/2012 Through...

  13. 76 FR 17185 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... FHWA is issuing this Notice of Intent to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... project is an element of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program...

  14. 76 FR 13401 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8995-8] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02/28/2011 Through 03...

  15. 78 FR 78955 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9012-7] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/16/2013 through 12...

  16. 77 FR 2060 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9001-1] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly Receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/03/2012 Through...

  17. 75 FR 38517 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8991-2] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 06/21/2010 through...

  18. 77 FR 5513 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9001-4] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/23/2012 Through...

  19. 78 FR 20714 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... Department of Transportation, is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve.... SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing this revised notice of intent to advise the public that an environmental...

  20. 77 FR 793 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9000-9] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/27/2011 through...

  1. 76 FR 5156 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8995-1] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/18/2011 Through...

  2. 77 FR 2979 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9001-2] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/09/2012 Through...

  3. 75 FR 65320 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8993-3] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/11/2010 Through...

  4. 75 FR 72823 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8993-8] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements [[Page 72824

  5. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 4(9), pp. 586-594 ... environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and effects of such impacts, need to be put in place in ... the lowest (3%) is in each of the hotel and tourism development, irrigation and apartment buildings, respectively.

  6. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient system of decision making for sustainable socioeconomic development, with an effective environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and effects of such impacts, need to be put in place in order to implement the government policy of environmental protection and safety at the regional ...

  7. Environmental impact assessment for an OTEC plant in Martinique Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvray, Cedric; Ledoux, Sebastien; Diaz, Berenice; Yvon, Christophe; Pouget-Cuvelier, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy system that uses the temperature difference between the cold deep waters and warm surface waters to produce electricity. DCNS, a world-expert in naval defence and an innovator in energy has conducted technical, juridical and environmental feasibility studies of a plant offshore Martinique under an agreement with the Regional Council. In this context, DCNS realised a preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment in order to prepare public debate to be done further. Due to innovation of such a project, a specific methodology has been done for that. First step was to study bibliography in details, for site assessment of course, but also for impacts of other projects in the world that should present relevant similarities with OTEC (coastal thermal power plants for example). This bibliographic study dealt with thematic synthesis for each topic of physical, biological and human field that could be impacted by the project (total of 28 topics). The aim was to define priorities for specific assessments that have been done further: acoustic impacts, biogeochemical impacts of artificial upwelling, biofouling impacts, etc. Some of these topics are now on course with specific scientific research programs that have been launched at the end of this study. For each new topic, a specific methodology has been used or adapted for OTEC. These methods are made step by step, with a preliminary approach followed by a specific research program when it is necessary. Noise prediction has been done with a specific tool used for ship construction industry and a 3D propagation modelling. Biofouling has been assessed by a bibliographic approach and will be precised further with experimental moorings. Biogeochemical and biological impacts due to artificial and localised upwelling are now being studied in details with a double skill approach (physical modelling and plankton analysis), after preliminary water chemicals

  8. Peat 2003. Production, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. Harvesting concessions must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the increased energy prices. In 2003, about 2,628,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in district heating plants. In 2003, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4,0 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,825,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2003, imports amounted to 382,3000 metric tons or 1.3 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 103,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. The peat market in Sweden is divided into the energy market and the cultivation market. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy

  9. Environmental risk assessment of registered insecticides in Iran using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moinoddini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, pesticides have been used extensively, in order to control pests and plant diseases, but negative impacts of pesticides caused several environmental problems and put human health in danger. In order to decrease environmental hazards of pesticide, risk of pesticide application should be measured briefly and precisely. In this study environmental impacts of registered insecticides in Iran which applied in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, are considered using environmental impact quotient (EIQ index. Results showed that among considered insecticides, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Tiodicarb, potentially (EIQ were the most hazardous insecticides, respectively. Taking rate of application and active ingredient of insecticide in to account, environmental impact (practical toxicity per cultivated hectare (EIQ Field of each provinces were investigated. In this regard, among different province of Iran, Kerman, Mazandaran and Golestan were in danger more than the others, respectively. Besides, considering the amount of agricultural production in provinces, environmental impact per ton of production were calculated for each provinces which three northern provinces of Mazandaran, Golestan and Guilan, respectively endure the most environmental impact per ton of production. Eventually based on environmental impact quotient, results demonstrated that majority of environmental impacts of insecticide in Iran were due to inadequate knowledge and also overuse of a few number of insecticides. Therefore, by improving knowledge about environmental impact of pesticides and also developing environmental friendly and ecological based methods, negative environmental impacts of insecticides will be reduced significantly.

  10. Depleted UF6 programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed a program for long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride, a product of the uranium enrichment process. As part of this effort, DOE is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the depleted UF 6 management program. This report duplicates the information available at the web site (http://www.ead.anl.gov/web/newduf6) set up as a repository for the PEIS. Options for the web site include: reviewing recent additions or changes to the web site; learning more about depleted UF 6 and the PEIS; browsing the PEIS and related documents, or submitting official comments on the PEIS; downloading all or part of the PEIS documents; and adding or deleting one's name from the depleted UF 6 mailing list

  11. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, G.L.; Kirk, D.W.; Graydon, J.W.; Seyfried, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  12. Watershed management program. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Under the Northwest Power Act, BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of fish and wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian tribes, state agencies property owners, private conservation groups, and Federal agencies. Future watershed management actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include in-channel modifications and fish habitat enhancement structures; riparian restoration and other vegetation management techniques; agricultural management techniques for crop irrigation, animal facilities, and grazing; road, forest, urban area, and recreation management techniques; mining reclamation; and similar watershed conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual watershed management projects are planned and carried out with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as over time

  13. Quantification of environmental impacts of various energy technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfors, A. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses problems related to economic assessment of the environmental impacts and abatement measures in connection with energy projects. Attention is called to the necessity of assessing environmental impacts both in the form of reduced economic welfare and in the form of costs of abatement measures to reduce the impact. In recent years, several methods for valuing environmental impacts have been developed, but the project shows that few empirical studies have been carried out. The final report indicates that some important factors are very difficult to evaluate. In addition environmental impacts of energy development in Norway vary considerably from project to project. This makes it difficult to obtain a good basis for comparing environmental impacts caused by different technologies, for instance hydroelectric power versus gas power or wind versus hydroelectric power. It might be feasible however to carry out more detailed economic assessments of environmental impacts of specific projects. 33 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Final environmental impact statement. Marquez uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    As one of many activities TVA has undertaken to ensure an adequate supply of uranium for these plants, TVA has proposed to underground mine, through its operator, the uranium deposits located in the Canon de Marquez in McKinley County, New Mexico. Construction and operation of the underground mine would be expected to have the following environmental effects: (a) a temporary change in land use for 48.5 hectares from wildlife habitat and recreation to mineral extraction; (b) a minor alteration in topography near the proposed pond sites due to reclamation of waste rock piles; (c) minimal impacts on land due to limited vehicular traffic and road construction; (d) temporary depression of ground water levels in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation in the mine vicinity during mine life; (e) short-term project-induced impacts to surface water and shallow ground water quality; (f) a temporary decrease in air quality in the vicinity of the mining operations due to fugitive dust and exhaust emissions from combustion-driven mining and support vehicles and releases of radon and short-lived radon progeny from ventilation shafts and ore piles; (g) a temporary decrease of plant and animal species at the mine site; (h) a minor and temporary effect on aquatic systems downstream from the mine and settling ponds due to sedimentation; and (i) a minor increase of noise levels in the immediate vicinity of mine shafts and vents. The no action alternative and alternatives for securing uranium ore by other methods were considered but were found insufficient to meet TVA objectives. None of the alternatives explored were environmentally preferable. TVA also evaluated site specific alternatives including the following: different shaft and support building siting, mining techniques, and reclamation options. 25 figures, 20 tables

  15. Environmental Impact of Natural Gas Hydrate Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Unmet conventional energy demand is encouraging a number of deep energy importing nations closer to production of their potentially very large Natural Gas Hydrate (NGH) resources. As methane and other natural gases are potent greenhouse gases, concerns exist about the possible environmental risks associated NGH development. Accidental of natural gas would have environmental consequences. However, the special characteristics of NGH and production models indicate a very low environmental risk from the reservoir to the deepwater wellhead that is much lower than for conventional deepwater gas. NGH is naturally stable in its solid form in the reservoir and shutting in the gas can be achieved by stopping NGH conversion and gas production in the reservoir. Rapid shut down results in re-crystallization of gas and stabilization of the reservoir through NGH reformation. In addition, new options for innovative technologies have the potential to allow safe development of NGH at a fraction of the current estimated cost. Gas produced from NGH is about the same as processed conventional gas, although almost certainly more pure. Leakage of gas during transport is not a production issue. Gas transport leakage is a matter for best practices regulation that is rigorously enforced.

  16. 3.4 Environmental impacts: energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The subchapter 3.4 'Environmental impact of the energy industry' of the 7th state of the environment report analyzes the current situation in Austria and briefly describes the following aspects: environmental policy targets, uniform taxation of energy, use of renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy, energy input, electricity supply and input, energy input into space heating and air conditioning systems, and renewable energy. In 2002, the input of final energy was risen by about 5 % in comparison to 1998. During this period, the largest increments in final energy inputs were recorded in the mobility sector with + 9.4 %, and in the private households sector with + 8.3 % . The goods production sector showed a slight decrease of about 1.3 % between 1998 and 2002. The 'goods production', 'mobility' and 'private households' sectors combined require about 87 % of the total final energy input. The final energy input for space heating and hot water in 2001 was 5.7 % above the input in 1998. Energy supply from renewable energy sources rose by about 13.8 % in 2002 compared to 1998. Domestic electricity consumption (excluding consumption for pumped-storage systems) in 2002 was about 10.5 % above consumption in 1998. Physical imports and physical exports in 2002 increased about 32 % and 8.6 % correspondingly compared to 1999. (nevyjel)

  17. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Expressing Cry1 Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosie

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (‘Bt’) that encode lepidopteran-specific protein toxins (Cry1Ab and Cry1F) have been engineered into maize for protection against lepidopteran pests. An extensive body of research data and environmental risk assessments (ERA) has been...... assembled on the potential environmental impact of Cry1 expressing maize. The available literature so far suggests only minor environmental effects. The majority of laboratory studies and all the field studies reviewed did not reveal any unexpected adverse or long-term effectson the environment. Negative...... effects observed in the laboratory do not necessarily translate to field conditions. There are more than 10 years experience of cultivating GM maize worldwide and few long-term effects have been reported. For future research studies, modelling and monitoring are appropriate tools to investigate long...

  18. Environmental indicators and international models for making decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco, Camilo

    2006-01-01

    The last international features proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation Development (OECD) and United Nations (UN) are analyzed in the use of the environmental indicators, in typology, selection criteria, and models, for organizing the information for management, environmental performance, and decision making. The advantages and disadvantages of each model are analyzed, as well as their environmental index characteristics. The analyzed models are Pressure - State - Response (PSR) and its conceptual developments: Driving Force - State Response (DSR), Driving Force - Pressure - State - Impact - Response (DPSIR), Model- Flow-Quality (MFQ), Pressure - State - Impact - Effect - Response (PSIER), and, finally, Pressure-State - Impact - Effect - Response - Management (PSIERM). The use of one or another model will depend on the quality of the available information, as well as on the proposed objectives

  19. Environmental problems indicator under environmental modeling toward sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sutthichaimethee; W. Tanoamchard; P. Sawangwong; P Pachana; N. Witit-Anun

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to apply a model to the study and analysis of environmental and natural resource costs created in supply chains of goods and services produced in Thailand, and propose indicators for environmental problem management, caused by goods and services production, based on concepts of sustainable production and consumer behavior. The research showed that the highest environmental cost in terms of Natural Resource Materials was from pipelines and gas distribution, while the lowest ...

  20. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of

  1. Geospatial Technology In Environmental Impact Assessments – Retrospective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Laxmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessments are studies conducted to give us an insight into the various impacts caused by an upcoming industry or any developmental activity. It should address various social, economic and environmental issues ensuring that negative impacts are mitigated. In this context, geospatial technology has been used widely in recent times.

  2. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...

  3. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on...

  4. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.

  5. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED...

  6. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED...

  7. 76 FR 3695 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Simkins, Senior Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration...

  8. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent--revised... CONTACT: Brian Hasselbach, Right of Way and Environmental Programs Manager, Federal Highway Administration...

  9. 75 FR 53371 - Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY... CONTACT: Ms. Cathy Kendall, AICP, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, 545 John Knox...

  10. 76 FR 21790 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 66 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 66 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... and Environmental Team Leader, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249, Richmond...

  11. Ecological risk assessment as a framework for environmental impact assessments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments in South Africa are usually conducted according to the integrated environmental management (IEM) procedure. The preliminary investigation reported here, indicated that most of the ecological requirements specified...

  12. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  13. Electromagnetic fields and health impact: measurements, monitoring and environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Vetromile, C.; Petraglia, A.; Racioppoli, M.; D'Onofrio, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the last 10 years there has been a remarkable growth of the attention for problems related to the electromagnetic pollution, motivated by the alert connected to potential risk for the health of persons and due to the increasing diffusion of Bats for mobile telecommunication as EMF sources. Many projects are being realized about the environmental and health impact of electromagnetic field and an important social role is played by specific actions to minimize the risk perception of the population. This study aims to find an innovative approach to these problems through the use of a system of continuous time monitoring of the electromagnetic fields and the individuation of appropriate environmental indicators. The proposed system monitors the electromagnetic fields continuously over time, and is already operating in many southern Italian cities. It works in a very efficient way as a mean for: a) Info to the citizens, thanks to diffusion of daily collected data on Internet Web; b) Control for local administrations and Authorities, due to capability of the system itself to alert when measured values exceed the limits reported by the Italian laws; c) Planning, for the implementation of : 1) New procedures agreed among local environmental control agency, local administrations and mobile Companies for network planning and management of alarm situations; 2) New local guidelines documents concerning the installation and operation of telecommunications apparatus. Moreover, starting from the general principles of the Strategic Environmental Evaluation (VAS), the environmental impacts of EMS field is studied. Based on the model DPSIR (Drivers, Pressure, State, Impacts, Responses), 12 environmental indicators have been chosen providing an immediate and understandable tool to obtain very important information on electromagnetic pollution generated by radio-telecommunication systems. The selected environmental indicators have been applied to 11 cities of the

  14. Environmental information system for visualizing environmental impact assessment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserny, Angelika; Kovács, Zsófia; Domokos, Endre; Rédey, Akos

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Engineering at the University of Pannonia has undertaken the challenge to develop an online environmental information system. This system is able to receive and process the collected environmental data via Internet. The authors have attached importance to the presentation of the data and have included other comprehensible information for laymen as well in order to work out visualisation techniques that are expressive and attract attention for environmental questions through the developed information system. The ways of visualizing physical and chemical parameters of surface water and the effects of motorway construction were examined.

  15. Methods and techniques for prediction of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the procedure that helps decision makers understand the environmental implications of their decisions. The prediction of environmental effects or impact is an extremely important part of the EIA procedure and improvements in existing capabilities are needed. Considerable attention is paid within environmental impact assessment and in handbooks on EIA to methods for identifying and evaluating environmental impacts. However, little attention is given to the issue distribution of information on impact prediction methods. The quantitative or qualitative methods for the prediction of environmental impacts appear to be the two basic approaches for incorporating environmental concerns into the decision-making process. Depending on the nature of the proposed activity and the environment likely to be affected, a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods is used. Within environmental impact assessment, the accuracy of methods for the prediction of environmental impacts is of major importance while it provides for sound and well-balanced decision making. Pertinent and effective action to deal with the problems of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources and sustainable development is only possible given objective methods and techniques for the prediction of environmental impact. Therefore, the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems, decided to set up a task force, with the USSR as lead country, on methods and techniques for the prediction of environmental impacts in order to undertake a study to review and analyse existing methodological approaches and to elaborate recommendations to ECE Governments. The work of the task force was completed in 1990 and the resulting report, with all relevant background material, was approved by the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems in 1991. The present report reflects the situation, state of

  16. Model of environmental management system for environmentally sustainable universities training in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas Marin, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable campuses have become one of the main objectives of the Agendas University as a result of the impacts generated by the activities developed there and affect the environment. Given this, there are environmental management systems which are the set of practices, procedures, processes and resources needed to meet environmental regulations on business and are focused on reducing the impacts on the environment and the efficiency of processes. College- level companies still being considered, these systems do not work efficiently, it is necessary and urgent that the adequacy of a model environmental management system and that, through education and research, will help society to achieve the transition to sustainable lifestyles.

  17. Generic environmental impact statement for license renewal of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    Volume 2 of the Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants contains the appendices. These include: (A) General characterisitics and environmental settings of domestic nuclear plants, (B) Definition of impact initiators, (C) Socioeconomics and case studies, (D) Aquatic organisms and human health, (E) Radiation protection considerations, (F) Methodology for assessing impacts to aquatic ecology and water resources, (G) Postulated accidents, and (H) Environmental statutes and regulations affecting license renewal

  18. Integrated Environmental Assessment Modelling. Estimates of Emission and Measurement of Impacts. Final Report of the Spanish Subproject EU/Life Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardans, R.; Gimeno, B.S.; Bermejo, V.; Elvira, S.; Martin, F.; Palacios, M.; Rodriguez, E.; Donaire, I.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of the Spanish participation in the project Coupling CORINAIR data to cost-effective emission reduction strategies based on critical thresholds. (EU/LIFE97/ENV/ FIN/336). The sub project has focused on three tasks: Develop tools to improve knowledge on the spatial and temporal details of emissions of air pollutants in Spain, Exploit existing experimental information on plant response to air pollutants in temperate ecosystems and Integrate these findings in a modelling framework that can asses with more accuracy the impact of air pollutants to temperate ecosystems. The results obtained during the execution of this project have significantly improved the models of the impact of alterative emission control strategies on ecosystems and crops in the Iberian Peninsula. (Author) 375 refs

  19. Development Application - Terra Nova Development - Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This environmental impact statement is one of the five main parts of the application for approval for developing the Terra Nova Field off the coast of Newfoundland. The application was prepared and submitted by Petro-Canada on behalf of and in cooperation with its co-proponents. The Statement provides a description of the project, details of the proposed environmental management of the development, the physical and biological environmental setting, the impact that the development is likely to have on the environment, details of the environmental protection plans, mitigation measures and contingency plans, and the proposed monitoring and reporting plans. There are a number of appendices containing historical statistics on blowouts (App. A), a comparison of the Terra Nova Development and operations in the Gulf of Mexico (App. B), statistics on blowout-related spills and Canadian experiences (App. C), a summary of qualitative effects of accidental events in offshore production and transportation activities (App. D), and a brief description of the S. L. Ross Oil Spill Model (App. E). There is also a glossary of terms and an extensive bibliography of several hundred items

  20. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoryszyn A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method. The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authors indicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  2. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-01-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development

  3. Environmental transformations of silver nanoparticles: impact on stability and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, Clément; Hotze, E Matt; Lowry, Gregory V; Brown, Gordon E

    2012-07-03

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) readily transform in the environment, which modifies their properties and alters their transport, fate, and toxicity. It is essential to consider such transformations when assessing the potential environmental impact of Ag-NPs. This review discusses the major transformation processes of Ag-NPs in various aqueous environments, particularly transformations of the metallic Ag cores caused by reactions with (in)organic ligands, and the effects of such transformations on physical and chemical stability and toxicity. Thermodynamic arguments are used to predict what forms of oxidized silver will predominate in various environmental scenarios. Silver binds strongly to sulfur (both organic and inorganic) in natural systems (fresh and sea waters) as well as in wastewater treatment plants, where most Ag-NPs are expected to be concentrated and then released. Sulfidation of Ag-NPs results in a significant decrease in their toxicity due to the lower solubility of silver sulfide, potentially limiting their short-term environmental impact. This review also discusses some of the major unanswered questions about Ag-NPs, which, when answered, will improve predictions about their potential environmental impacts. Research needed to address these questions includes fundamental molecular-level studies of Ag-NPs and their transformation products, particularly Ag(2)S-NPs, in simplified model systems containing common (in)organic ligands, as well as under more realistic environmental conditions using microcosm/mesocosm-type experiments. Toxicology studies of Ag-NP transformation products, including different states of aggregation and sulfidation, are also required. In addition, there is the need to characterize the surface structures, compositions, and morphologies of Ag-NPs and Ag(2)S-NPs to the extent possible because they control properties such as solubility and reactivity.

  4. Educational Impact on the Relationship of Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefländer, A. K.; Bogner, F. X.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between the environmental attitudes and environmental knowledge of school children within the framework of an environmental intervention. We employed questions from the 2-MEV model to monitor students' environmental attitudes in terms of the model factors Preservation and Utilisation while concurrently…

  5. Selection of suitable alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic noise using a fuzzy multi-criteria decision model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Padillo, Alejandro; Ruiz, Diego P.; Torija, Antonio J.; Ramos-Ridao, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the most significant environmental impacts generated by transport systems. To this regard, the recent implementation of the European Environmental Noise Directive by Public Administrations of the European Union member countries has led to various noise action plans (NAPs) for reducing the noise exposure of EU inhabitants. Every country or administration is responsible for applying criteria based on their own experience or expert knowledge, but there is no regulated process for the prioritization of technical measures within these plans. This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision methodology for the selection of suitable alternatives against traffic noise in each of the road stretches included in the NAPs. The methodology first defines the main criteria and alternatives to be considered. Secondly, it determines the relative weights for the criteria and sub-criteria using the fuzzy extended analytical hierarchy process as applied to the results from an expert panel, thereby allowing expert knowledge to be captured in an automated way. A final step comprises the use of discrete multi-criteria analysis methods such as weighted sum, ELECTRE and TOPSIS, to rank the alternatives by suitability. To illustrate an application of the proposed methodology, this paper describes its implementation in a complex real case study: the selection of optimal technical solutions against traffic noise in the top priority road stretch included in the revision of the NAP of the regional road network in the province of Almeria (Spain).

  6. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  7. Modelling nitrogen in the Yeşilirmak River catchment in Northern Turkey: impacts of future climate and environmental change and implications for nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, Michalis; Whitehead, Paul G; Jin, Li; Futter, Martyn; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Shahgedanova, Maria

    2011-05-15

    Recent research in catchments of rapidly developing countries such as Brazil and China suggests that many catchments of the developing world are already showing signs of nitrogen pollution reminiscent of past experiences in developed countries. This paper looks at both the individual and combined effects of future climate change and other likely environmental changes on in-stream nitrate concentrations in a catchment in Northern Turkey. A model chain comprised of simulated future temperature and precipitation from a Regional Circulation Model (RCM), a conceptual hydrological model (HBV) and a widely tested integrated catchment nitrogen model (INCA-N) is used to model future changes in nitrate concentrations. Two future periods (2021-2050 and 2069-2098) are compared to the 1961-1990 baseline period in order to assess the effectiveness of several possible interventions available to catchment authorities. The simulations show that in the urbanised part of the catchment, the effects of climate change and other environmental changes act in the same direction, leading to peak nitrate concentrations of 7.5 mg N/l for the 2069-2098 period, which corresponds to a doubling of the baseline values. Testing different available policy options reveals that the installation of wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) in all major settlements of the catchment could ensure nitrate levels are kept at near their baseline values for the 2021-2050 period. Nevertheless, a combination of measures including WWTWs, meadow creation, international agreements to reduce atmospheric N concentrations and controls on agricultural practises will be required for 2069-2098. The approach presented in this article could be employed in order to anticipate future pollution problems and to test appropriate solutions, some of which will necessitate international co-operation, in other catchments around the world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental impacts of precision feeding programs applied in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Hauschild, L; Kipper, M; Pires, P G S; Pomar, C

    2017-12-04

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region. Three feeding programs were applied for growing-finishing pigs: conventional phase feeding by group (CON); precision daily feeding by group (PFG) (whole herd fed the same daily adjusted diet); and precision daily feeding by individual (PFI) (diets adjusted daily to match individual nutrient requirements). Raising pigs (1 t pig BW at farm gate) in South Brazil under the CON feeding program using grain cultivated in the same region led to emissions of 1840 kg of CO2-eq, 13.1 kg of PO4-eq and 32.2 kg of SO2-eq. Simulations using grain from the Central-West region showed a greater climate change impact. Compared with the previous scenario, a 17% increase in climate change impact was found when simulating with soybeans produced in Central-West Brazil, whereas a 28% increase was observed when simulating with corn and soybeans from Central-West Brazil. Compared with the CON feeding program, the PFG and PFI programs reduced the potential environmental impact. Applying the PFG program mitigated the potential climate change impact and eutrophication by up to 4%, and acidification impact by up to 3% compared with the CON program. Making a further adjustment by feeding pigs according to their individual nutrient requirements mitigated the potential climate change impact by up to 6% and the potential eutrophication and acidification impact

  9. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  10. Economic and environmental impacts of alternative transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This project has focused on comparing alternative transportation technologies in terms of their : environmental and economic impacts. The research is data-driven and quantitative, and examines the : dynamics of impact. We have developed new theory an...

  11. Shock Testing the SEAWOLF Submarine, Final Environmental Impact Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Most environmental impacts of shock testing would be similar at Mayport or Norfolk. These include minor and/or temporary impacts to the physical and biological environments and existing human uses of the area...

  12. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  13. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  14. Employing a CGE model in analysing the environmental and economy-wide impacts of CO2 emission abatement policies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahoo, Masoud; Othman, Jamal

    2017-04-15

    The impact of global warming has received much international attention in recent decades. To meet climate-change mitigation targets, environmental policy instruments have been designed to transform the way goods and services are produced as well as alter consumption patterns. The government of Malaysia is strongly committed to reducing CO 2 gas emissions as a proportion of GDP by 40% from 2005 levels by the year 2020. This study evaluates the economy-wide impacts of implementing two different types of CO 2 emission abatement policies in Malaysia using market-based (imposing a carbon tax) and command-and-control mechanism (sectoral emission standards). The policy simulations conducted involve the removal of the subsidy on petroleum products by the government. A carbon emission tax in conjunction with the revenue neutrality assumption is seen to be more effective than a command-and-control policy as it provides a double dividend. This is apparent as changes in consumption patterns lead to welfare enhancements while contributing to reductions in CO 2 emissions. The simulation results show that the production of renewable energies is stepped up when the imposition of carbon tax and removal of the subsidy is augmented by revenue recycling. This study provides an economy-wide assessment that compares two important tools for assisting environment policy makers evaluate carbon emission abatement initiatives in Malaysia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quark masses: An environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, Robert L.; Jenkins, Alejandro; Kimchi, Itamar

    2009-01-01

    We investigate worlds that lie on a slice through the parameter space of the standard model over which quark masses vary. We allow as many as three quarks to participate in nuclei, while fixing the mass of the electron and the average mass of the lightest baryon flavor multiplet. We classify as congenial worlds that satisfy the environmental constraint that the quark masses allow for stable nuclei with charge one, six, and eight, making organic chemistry possible. Whether a congenial world actually produces observers capable of measuring those quark masses depends on a multitude of historical contingencies, beginning with primordial nucleosynthesis and including other astrophysical processes, which we do not explore. Such constraints may be independently superimposed on our results. Environmental constraints such as the ones we study may be combined with information about the a priori distribution of quark masses over the landscape of possible universes to determine whether the measured values of the quark masses are determined environmentally, but our analysis is independent of such an anthropic approach. We estimate baryon masses as functions of quark masses via first-order perturbation theory in flavor SU(3) breaking. We estimate nuclear masses as functions of the baryon masses using two separate tools: for a nucleus made of two baryon species, when possible we consider its analog in our world, a nucleus with a similar binding energy, up to Coulomb contributions. For heavy nuclei or nuclei made of more than two baryons, we develop a generalized Weizsaecker semiempirical mass formula, in which strong kinematic flavor symmetry violation is modeled by a degenerate Fermi gas . We check for the stability of nuclei against fission, strong particle emission (analogous to α decay), and weak nucleon emission. For two light quarks with charges 2/3 and -1/3 , we find a band of congeniality roughly 29 MeV wide in their mass difference, with our own world lying comfortably

  16. Peat 2002. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur (1 USD approx. 7.8 SEK). Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 2002, about 2,885,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 2001, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4.1 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,800,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2001, imports amounted to 329,311 metric tons or 1.1 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 91,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. Fuel peat is used at district heating power plants. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy sources. Some companies are privately owned, while others are owned by municipalities, which also manage district heating plants and thereby integrate

  17. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of development on the environment, and proposes timely mitigation of these impacts to the extent possible. Since then, EIA has continued to be established in countries worldwide, with modifications being made to suit re...

  18. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  19. The Impacts of Alternative Institutions on Distributional and Environmental Efficiency in Environmental Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Buller, Virginia; Hudson, Darren

    2006-01-01

    Experimental auctions are used to examine the impacts of alternative constraints on environmental programs. Results show that use of a monetary constraint results in greater environmental efficiency at a lower total cost as compared to an acreage constraint.

  20. Wildlife mitigation program. Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information

  1. Wildlife mitigation program final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and improvement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative, i.e., not to establish program-wide standards. Five standardizing (action) alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information

  2. International symposium and field seminar on karst waters and environmental impacts. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunay, G.; Tezcan, L.; Atilla, A.O.

    1995-01-01

    The international symposium and field seminar on karst waters and environmental impacts was held on 10-20 September 1995 in Beldibi,Antalya, Turkey. The specialists discussed COST Action 65, Environmental Impact sand Legal Aspects, Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, Research Methods, Tracing Techniques, Hydro chemistry, Environmental Isotopes in Karst, Transport Processing, Modeling and Flow Systems, Karst Morphology and Paleoenvironment, Regional Karst Systems, James F. Quinlay Pollution Control and Karst Water Protection Session and Hydrology. Almost 140 papers were presented in the meeting

  3. Economic and environmental impacts of dietary changes in Iran : an input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahmani, R.; Bakhshoodeh, M.; Zibaei, M.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Eftekhari, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Iran's simple and environmentally extended commodity by commodity input-output (IO) model was used to determine the impacts of dietary changes on the Iranian economy and on the environmental load. The original model is based on the status-quo diet and was modified to include the World Health

  4. Policies and procedures for considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-20

    This order updates the FAA agency-wide policies and procedures for compliance with the : National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and implementing regulations issued by the Council : on Environmental Quality (40 CFR parts 1500-1508). The provisions o...

  5. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown

  6. The environmental impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, Z.J.

    1975-01-01

    The major environmental hazards associated with nuclear power stations are outlined. The environmental and biological effects of air pollution, thermal pollution, radioactive effluent from power stations and fuel reprocessing plants, and radioactive waste disposal are dealt with, and the safety of nuclear power stations is discussed. In addition, some comparisons are made of the environmental hazards associated with alternative methods of power generation. (author)

  7. An Environmental Burden Shifting Approach to Re-evaluate the Environmental Impacts of Products

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xi; Nongaillard, Antoine; Sekhari, Aicha; Bouras, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Assessment Approaches; International audience; Life cycle assessment (LCA) can help enterprises evaluate their product’s environmental impacts through the entire product life cycle (PLC). On the basis of the evaluation result, phases which need to take activities to reduce the environmental impacts can be found out. However, the activities taken in a phase may influence the environmental impacts in other phases, so the effect of the activities should be re-evaluated. Under the pressur...

  8. Quantitative Analysis on the Energy and Environmental Impact of the Korean National Energy R&D Roadmap a Using Bottom-Up Energy System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Choi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Paris Agreement at the 21st Conference of the Parties, 196 member states are obliged to submit their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC for every 5 years. As a member, South Korea has already proposed the reduction target and need to submit the achievement as a result of the policies and endeavors in the near future. In this paper, a Korean bottom-up energy system model to support the low-carbon national energy R&D roadmap will be introduced and through the modeling of various scenarios, the mid-to long-term impact on energy consumptions and CO2 emissions will be analyzed as well. The results of the analysis showed that, assuming R&D investments for the 11 types of technologies, savings of 13.7% with regards to final energy consumptions compared to the baseline scenario would be feasible by 2050. Furthermore, in the field of power generation, the generation proportion of new and renewable energy is expected to increase from 3.0% as of 2011 to 19.4% by 2050. This research also suggested that the analysis on the Energy Technology R&D Roadmap based on the model can be used not only for overall impact analysis and R&D portfolio establishment, but also for the development of detailed R&D strategies.

  9. Framework for assessment of environmental impact (Fasset)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall aim of the FASSET project is to develop a framework within which assessment models, relevant to the impact of ionising radiation on the environment, can be applied and results analysed for European ecosystems. Complete documentation on the FASSET project can be found on the FASSET's web-site (www.fasset.org). This paper describes the current state of the project, based on the project's first Annual Report. Seven European ecosystems are considered; four terrestrial (natural forests, semi-natural pastures, agricultural ecosystems and wetlands) and three aquatic (marine, brackish and freshwater). In FASSET Deliverable 1 a list of candidate generic reference organisms has been drawn up on the basis of expert judgement of exposure situations in the selected ecosystems. They serve as a starting points for development of dosimetric models, and for pooling available information on ecological relevance and biological effects. Further analysis of the candidate reference organisms is performed to justify their choice and assess their applicability in different situations, taking into account modelling of radionuclide transfer, estimates of internal and external dose rates, ecological significance and biological effects. Four general 'umbrella' radiation effects on biota are considered that, when manifested in an individual, may have an impact at population level or at higher levels of the organisational hierarchy. The four 'umbrellas' are: morbidity (fitness or well-being), mortality (death directly attributable to radiation), reproductive success (changed number of offspring) and scorable cytogenetic effects (molecular actions, aberrations). A database is being assembled, compiling dose and dose rates data from the literature for a number of organism categories for each of these four umbrella effects. The database also considers the suitability of data to derive the relative biological efficiency (RBE) for different types of radiation. The work from the three

  10. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    slow; pollution control agencies need to address existing emissions with in-use programs, such as exhaust trap retrofits and smoke inspections. Such a program is underway in California. These and other steps that can be continued and improved will allow the use of the diesel engine, with its superior fuel consumption, to continue to benefit society while greatly reducing its negative environmental and health impacts. The next ten years can and must become the "Decade of Clean Diesel."

  11. An environmental impact calculator for greenhouse production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrellas, Marta; Antón, Assumpció; Montero, Juan Ignacio

    2013-03-30

    Multiple web-based calculators have come on the market as tools to support sustainable decision making, but few are available to agriculture. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has proved to be an objective, transparent tool for calculating environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of products and services, but can often be too complex for non-specialists. The objective of this study was therefore to develop an environmental support tool to determine the environmental impacts of protected crops. An effort was made to provide an easy-to-use tool in order to reach a wide audience and help horticulture stakeholders choose efficient options to mitigate the environmental impacts of protected crops. Users can estimate the environmental performance of their crops by entering a limited amount of data and following a few easy steps. A questionnaire must be answered with data on the crop, greenhouse dimensions, substrate, waste management, and the consumption of water, energy, fertilisers and pesticides. The calculator was designed as a simplified LCA, based on two scenarios analysed in detail in previous tasks of the EUPHOROS project and used as reference systems in this study. Two spreadsheets were provided based on these reference scenarios: one for a tomato crop in a multi-tunnel greenhouse under Southern European climate conditions and the other for a tomato crop in a Venlo glass greenhouse under Central European climate conditions. The selected functional unit was one tonne of tomatoes. Default data were given for each reference system for users who did not have complete specific data and to provide results for comparison with users' own results. The results were presented for water use as an inventory indicator and for the impact categories abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, photochemical oxidation and cumulative energy demand. In the multi-tunnel greenhouse, the main contributors based on the default data were the structure, fertilisers

  12. Spatial variation of environmental impacts of regional biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, van der F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Dam, van J.M.C.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Verweij, P.A.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  13. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate environmental studies or, if the Administration deems appropriate, an EA to assess the impacts of... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130 Section 771.130 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND...

  14. 77 FR 1550 - Environmental Impact Statement: Erie County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... improvements and minor construction projects and will not be seeking Federal funding for such work. In light of... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Erie... that FHWA will not be preparing and issuing a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the proposed...

  15. Reduction of the environmental impacts in crystalline silicon module manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review the most important options to reduce environmental impacts of crystalline silicon modules. We investigate which are the main barriers for implementation of the measure. Finally we review which measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction.

  16. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary

    Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments

    Angela N. Mwenda

    Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that

  17. Decreasing the overall environmental impact of the Dutch diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Gerard F.H.; Tyszler, Marcelo; Veer, van 't Pieter; Blonk, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To find diets optimised on nutrition and environmental impact close to the current Dutch diet and to identify the most effective and acceptable options for mitigating environmental impact. Design: Linear programming was used to optimise diets of Dutch men and women aged 9–69 years,

  18. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  19. Alternative electrical transmission systems and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    A general description is provided of electrical transmission systems as an aid in determining their environmental impacts. Alternating current, direct current, overhead systems, underground systems, and water crossings are treated. The cost, performance, reliability, safety, and environmental impact of these systems are compared.

  20. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  1. Environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    2000-01-01

    The mining of uranium at the Ranger and Jabiluka mines in Australia's Northern Territory has been assessed as a case study for the environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia. The level of environmental protection achieved has been very high. However, a number of social indicators reveal that the social impact of development in the region, including the mining of uranium, has been significant. A program is now underway to redress these social issues. Links between social and environmental impact have been identified. In today's world, the standards and practices in environmental protection are as much determined by social attitudes as they are by scientific and technical assessment. (author)

  2. Environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    2002-01-01

    The mining of uranium at the Ranger and Jabiluka mines in Australia's Northern Territory has been assessed as a case study for the environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia. The level of environmental protection achieved has been very high. However, a number of social indicators reveal that the social impact of development in the region, including the mining of uranium, has been significant. A programme is now underway to redress these social issues. Links between social and environmental impact have been identified. In today's world, the standards and practices in environmental protection are as much determined by social attitudes as they are by scientific and technical assessment. (author)

  3. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in

  4. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Michael Leroy [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Xue, Huijie [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Johnson, Teresa R. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME

    2014-02-02

    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  5. E-learning in medical education: the potential environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2018-03-01

    Introduction There is a growing interest in the use of e-learning in medical education. However until recently there has been little interest in the potential environmental benefits of e-learning. This paper models various environmental outcomes that might emerge from the use of an e-learning resource (BMJ Learning) in CPD. Methods We modeled the use of e-learning as a component of CPD and evaluated the potential impact of this use on the learner's carbon footprint. We looked at a number of models - all from the perspective of a General Practitioner (GP). We assumed that all GPs completed 50 h or credits of CPD per year. Results High users of e-learning can reduce their carbon footprint - mainly by reducing their travel to face-to-face events (reducing printing also has a small beneficial effect). A high user of e-learning can reduce the carbon footprint that relates to their CPD by 18.5 kg. Discussion As global warming continues to pose a risk to human and environmental health, we feel that doctors have a duty to consider learning activities (such as e-learning) that are associated with a lower carbon footprint.

  6. Mitigating Dam Impacts Using Environmental Flow Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B. D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most ecologically disruptive impacts of dams is their alteration of natural river flow variability. Opportunities exist for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. This presentation will highlight a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the suggested strategies for dam re-operation are predicated on changes in the end-use of the water, such as reductions in urban or agricultural water use during droughts, a systemic perspective of entire water management systems will be required to attain the fullest possible

  7. Griffith energy project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Arizona. The Project would be a merchant plant which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. The existing environmental resource conditions in the Project area and the potential impacts on the resources by the proposed action and alternatives are described. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management

  8. The Role of Environmental Impact Assessment to Compensatory Measures Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Cristina Pinheiro Lopes; José Claudio Junqueira Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the relationship between Environmental Impact Assessment - EIA, and Countervailing Measures that have been adopted in the environmental licensing. Through methodological critical analysis of legislation and adoption of compensatory measures for environmental licensing, it was identified imperfections, since, often, there is no link between the adopted compensatory measures and impacts verified in the EIA. Besides the compensatory measures arising from legal provis...

  9. Environmental impacts on reproductive health and fertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodruff, T. J

    2010-01-01

    .... Focusing on exposures to environmental contaminants, particularly during critical periods in development and their potential effects on all aspects of future reproductive life-course, this book...

  10. Environmental impacts of stormwater management and pollutant discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    in runoff are one possible source of (local) environmental impacts, the stormwater management system itself is a source of emissions. Raw material extraction, construction, operation, renewal, and disposal all cause environmental impacts at a more regional or even global scale. These impacts can...... be quantified using life cycle assessment, which on the other hand usually neglects the impacts from local emissions, even though these may potentially be significant. By integrating local emissions into the assessment, we are able to quantify the total environmental impacts of stormwater management solutions....... We have tested the approach using a sub-catchment of Copenhagen. The existing stormwater management system has to be adapted to climatic changes to maintain existing flood safety levels. The environmental impacts from both local and global emissions over a period of 100 years have been quantified...

  11. Agri‐environmental Policies to Meet Consumer Preferences in Japan: An Economic‐Biophysical Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Uetake

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting environmentally friendly farming products is crucial to meeting consumer demand. Although governments implement policy measures to improve the environmental performance of the agriculture sector, theirimpacts are difficult to assess. This study analyses the performance of agri‐environmental policies in Japan, by using the OECD’s policy impact model and reference level framework. In particular, it identifies the environmental impacts of three simulated agri‐environmental policies based on farms’ characteristics. The results suggest that a policy mix of regulation and an incentive payment would reduce environmental impacts, suggesting that targeted approaches could improve the cost‐effectiveness of agri‐environmental policies.

  12. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; McKirdy, B.; Askarieh, M.; Bond, A.; Russell, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1985 it has been obligatory that facilities in the European Union designed for the permanent storage or disposal of radioactive waste be assessed to determine their effects on the environment. This assessment must be undertaken in advance of any decision by national authorities to give consent for development work to proceed. Member States are given wide discretion on how the above requirements are implemented in practice, e.g. the relevant European Council Directives call for the results of the environmental assessment to be made available to the public before development consent is granted but the detailed arrangements for dissemination of such information and procedures for public consultation are determined by individual Member States. Although the Directives require an assessment of the direct and indirect effects of a project on human beings and on various elements of the natural environment, they are non-specific as to what particular impacts should be addressed, particularly as regards the effects of a project on human beings. Therefore, for example, each Member State may decide whether or not social, health and economic impacts should be included in the assessment. This paper discusses the above issues. It proposes a model approach to environmental impact assessment in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment on the overall decision processes for repository development, the scope and content of the assessment report, and approaches to public involvement

  13. 76 FR 50324 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    .../ Environmental Impact Statement for the California High-Speed Rail Project Merced to Fresno Section AGENCY...)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) has been prepared for the California High-Speed Train (HST) Project Merced... approximately 65-mile corridor, from Merced, CA, to Fresno, CA that links those cities by delivering predictable...

  14. Governance challenges in Tanzania's environmental impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Cap 191. This Act promotes Environmental Assessment, gives it the legal support and defines the institutional set up for the management of the environment. However, Tanzania still grapples with EIA ineffectiveness in guiding development decisions and environmental management arising from various projects. Numerous ...

  15. ATES: water treatment and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snijders, A.L. [IF Tehnology bv, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    In 1987, eight IEA countries started a new R and D task, Annex 6 to the Implementing Agreement Energy Storage. The objectives of this task were to 1. systematically analyze the chemical, microbiological and environmental aspects of ATES, and subsequently 2. develop reliable, environmentally sound water treatment methods. The principal findings from this R and D task are summarized in this article. (orig.)

  16. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  17. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  18. Impact of Environmental Changes on Migratory Bird Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Stöcker-Segre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model that studies and simulates the interconnection between energetic and ecological aspects of bird migration. By comparing model predictions with experimental data, we show that it can be used to assess the impact of changing environmental conditions in breeding, wintering, and stop-over sites on migratory success. We relate in particular to the European white stork (Ciconia ciconia and its Eastern migration route and discuss questions concerning the timing, stopover, and feeding behavior en route. Opinions concerning the importance of resource availability and resource quality en route are divided. Whereas some studies have shown that storks gain weight in the wintering site, but almost do not feed en route, others stress the importance of the quality of stop-over locations. We address these questions and simulate the development of stork populations for changing environmental conditions. We demonstrate that resource availability and competition for breeding sites are crucial factors determining the timing of spring migration and the length of stop-over periods. Analyzing the robustness of migration strategies with respect to changing environmental conditions, we show that birds will shorten their stay in stop-over places of poor resource availability rather than prolonging it in the attempt to gain time for accumulating fat reserves.

  19. 75 FR 26272 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite National Park, Mariposa County, CA; Notice of Approval of Record of... environmental education center at Henness Ridge, to be operated jointly by NPS and Yosemite Institute. The new...

  20. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. 51.25 Section 51.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY...

  1. Weak Spots in The Environmental Diagnostic of the Environmental Impact Statement- EISs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nascimento de Almeida

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental studies in Brazil are required to obtain a license to perform activities that use environmental resources or have the potential to cause environmental degradation, but the quality and effectiveness of these studies have been widely questioned. It is the licensing body’s duty to define the technical studies required for licensing. However, in the case of enterprises that have the potential to cause significant degradation, Environmental Impact Statement (EIS and Environmental Impact Report (EIR must always be requested. The EIS/EIR is composed of several parts, among them standing out the environmental diagnostic, which it is the major part of the environmental studies and is the part that demands more resources to be carried out; in addition, its information subsidizes the later stages: prediction and assessment of environmental impacts, mitigation measures, compensatory and monitoring plans.The aim of this study was to analyze the problems usually present in the environmental assessment of the environmental impact studies as the perception of IBAMA environmental analyst. Data collection for this research was done through the application of an electronic questionnaire to IBAMA environmental analysts, achieving a sample of 74 questionnaires from a population of 354 analysts. As methodological basis, cluster analysis and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test were applied. The results indicated that the problems related to coordination of EIAs are critical and they seem to last for at least a decade according to the articles identified.

  2. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu Tao; Ma Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu Jian; Zhang Shiqiu

    2007-01-01

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  3. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  4. Environmental impact assessment around TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk; Lee, Young Bok; Cheong, Kyu Hoi; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kim, Kug Chan; You, Byung Sun; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Sang Bok; Han Moon Hee

    1985-01-01

    Population distribution, atmospheric change, X/Q, characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem around Seoul site were surveyed. Environmental radiation and radioactivities such as grossα, grossβ, Cs-137, Sr-90 and H-3 of various environmental samples were analyzed. The values of environmental radiation dose tended to increase gradually in the light of the recent five years' results of environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear power plants from 1980 to 1984, however, the changes were not significant. In addition, continuous assessment of environmental radiation monitoring on the roofs of main building and life science building at KAERI showed that the environmental radiation dose tended to increase a little during the night time. Judging from the above results, it is concluded that environmental contamination level by radioactive materials could be ignored in the case of radioisotope production or experiment using radioisotopes except the release of gaseous radioactive materials such as Ar-41 of short half life by the operation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  5. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; Lazaro, M.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    In its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future management of radioactive and hazardous waste at the facilities of the DOE complex. The alternatives involve facilities to be used for treatment, storage, and disposal of various wastes generated from DOE's environmental restoration activities and waste management operation. Included in the evaluation are six types of waste (five types of radioactive waste plus hazardous waste), 49 sites, and numerous cases associated with each different alternative for waste management. In general, the alternatives are evaluated independently for each type of waste and reflect decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches. Transportation of waste materials is an integral component of the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The estimated impact on human health that is associated with various waste transportation activities is an important element leading to a complete appraisal of the alternatives. The transportation risk assessment performed for the EM PEIS is designed to ensure -- through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions -- that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful and consistent

  7. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced no more than approximately 10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 billion years and 3.5 2.5 billion years, the biggest of which were approximately30-100 times more energetic, comparable to the Orientale impact on the Moon (1x10 (sup 26) joules). To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid

  8. Environmental Impact Analysis Process Chemical Release Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force proposes to conduct an experiment to identify the potential environmental consequences of an inadvertent release of hydrazine rocket propellant in space, during orbital or suborbital operations...

  9. Earth Impact Effects Program: Estimating the Regional Environmental Consequences of Impacts On Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, G. S.; Melosh, H. J.; Marcus, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth Impact Effects Program (www.lpl.arizona.edu/impacteffects) is a popular web-based calculator for estimating the regional environmental consequences of a comet or asteroid impact on Earth. It is widely used, both by inquisitive members of the public as an educational device and by scientists as a simple research tool. It applies a variety of scaling laws, based on theory, nuclear explosion test data, observations from terrestrial and extraterrestrial craters and the results of small-scale impact experiments and numerical modelling, to quantify the principal hazards that might affect the people, buildings and landscape in the vicinity of an impact. The program requires six inputs: impactor diameter, impactor density, impact velocity prior to atmospheric entry, impact angle, and the target type (sedimentary rock, crystalline rock, or a water layer above rock), as well as the distance from the impact at which the environmental effects are to be calculated. The program includes simple algorithms for estimating the fate of the impactor during atmospheric traverse, the thermal radiation emitted by the impact plume (fireball) and the intensity of seismic shaking. The program also approximates various dimensions of the impact crater and ejecta deposit, as well as estimating the severity of the air blast in both crater-forming and airburst impacts. We illustrate the strengths and limitations of the program by comparing its predictions (where possible) against known impacts, such as Carancas, Peru (2007); Tunguska, Siberia (1908); Barringer (Meteor) crater, Arizona (ca 49 ka). These tests demonstrate that, while adequate for large impactors, the simple approximation of atmospheric entry in the original program does not properly account for the disruption and dispersal of small impactors as they traverse Earth's atmosphere. We describe recent improvements to the calculator to better describe atmospheric entry of small meteors; the consequences of oceanic impacts; and

  10. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: a scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Belmira; Kroeze, Carolien; Hordijk, Leen; Costa, Carlos; Pulles, Tinus

    2009-02-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze, C., Hordijk, L., Costa, C., 2008. Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting company and options for control. Environmental Modelling & Software 23 (2) 147-168] we included the model description and explored the model by applying it to a plant in which no reduction options are assumed to be implemented (so-called zero case, reflecting the current practice in the plant). Here, we perform a systematic analysis of reduction options. We analysed seven types of reduction strategies, assuming the simultaneous implementation of different reduction options. These strategies are analysed with respect to their potential to reduce emissions, environmental impact and costs associated with the implementation of options. These strategies were found to differ largely in their potential to reduce the environmental impact of the plant (10-87%), as well as in the costs associated with the implementation of options (-268 to +277keuro/year). We were able to define 11 strategies, reducing the overall environmental impact by more than 50%. Of these, two have net negative costs, indicating that the company may in fact earn money through their implementation.

  11. Environmental impact assessment for the Nova projects (Building 391 complex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment of the Nova projects (Building 391 Complex) describes (1) the proposed actions, (2) the existing environment in and around the Livermore Valley, and (3) the potential environmental impacts from the construction and operation of these facilities. It shows that the proposed action does not conflict with any Federal, State, Regional, or Local Plans and Programs. Possible alternatives to the proposed action are discussed. However, it is concluded that the proposed actions were the most reasonable of the alternatives and would involve relatively minor adverse environmental impacts

  12. Impact of Environmental Quality on Health Status: A Study of 12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper used two panel data models estimated by the random effects and fixed effects approach to establish the impact of environmental quality on health status in 12 SADC countries between 2000 and 2008. Proxies of environmental quality used in the paper are carbon emissions, access of people to improved water ...

  13. Qualitative assessment of environmental impacts through fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peche G, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The vagueness of many concepts usually utilized in environmental impact studies, along with frequent lack of quantitative information, suggests that fuzzy logic can be applied to carry out qualitative assessment of such impacts. This paper proposes a method for valuing environmental impacts caused by projects, based on fuzzy sets theory and methods of approximate reasoning. First, impacts must be described by a set of features. A linguistic variable is assigned to each feature, whose values are fuzzy sets. A fuzzy evaluation of environmental impacts is achieved using rule based fuzzy inference and the estimated fuzzy value of each feature. Generalized modus ponens has been the inference method. Finally, a crisp value of impact is attained by aggregation and defuzzification of all fuzzy results

  14. An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Geraldo Stachetti; Campanhola, Clayton; Kitamura, Paulo Choji

    2003-01-01

    A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation

  15. Modeling adaptive and non-adaptive responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulson, Tim; Kendall, Bruce E; Barthold, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how the natural world will be impacted by environmental change over the coming decades is one of the most pressing challenges facing humanity. Addressing this challenge is difficult because environmental change can generate both population level plastic and evolutionary responses...... construct a number of example models to demonstrate that evolutionary responses to environmental change over the short-term will be considerably slower than plastic responses, and that the rate of adaptive evolution to a new environment depends upon whether plastic responses are adaptive or non...... machinery of the evolutionarily explicit models we develop will be needed to predict responses to environmental change, or whether simpler non-evolutionary models that are now widely constructed may be sufficient....

  16. Environmental impact on the polar regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, D.A.; Leighton, E.; Tumeo, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The remote and frigid polar regions are no longer isolated from the activities, pollutants, and controversies that bedevil their more temperate neighbors, say three researchers at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks. For example, Daniel A. Jaffe, Elizabeth Leighton, and Mark A. Tumeo point to traces of DDT, PCBs, and heavy metals that routinely turn up in arctic marine mammals and to the ozone hole over the Antarctic. While similar in environmental makeup, the arctic and Antarctic are poles apart in their political structure and, thus, in their environmental exposure, the researchers note. The Antarctic is managed under a long-standing international treaty, while the arctic is sovereign territory to eight separate nations. The international treaty sets aside the Antarctic for peaceful scientific research within strict environmental boundaries. It bans both military activity and minerals extraction-the two activities that have caused the most damage in the arctic. The main threats to Antarctica's environment come from the intrusion of major scientific research operations and the growing tourism industry. On the other hand, the arctic suffered from the massive Cold War military buildup by both the United States and the former Soviet Union. The environmental residue from that buildup is only now being revealed, the authors say. Major oil and gas drilling and coal and metal-ore mining also have taken a huge environmental toll, they add

  17. Risk analysis within environmental impact assessment of proposed construction activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment is an important process, prior to approval of the investment plan, providing a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of selected constructions – flood protection structures using risk analysis methods. The application of methodology designed for the process of environmental impact assessment will develop assumptions for further improvements or more effective implementation and performance of this process. The main objective of the paper is to improve the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process. Through the use of risk analysis methods in environmental impact assessment process, the set objective has been achieved. - Highlights: This paper is informed by an effort to develop research with the aim of: • Improving existing qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the impacts • A better understanding of relations between probabilities and consequences • Methodology for the EIA of flood protection constructions based on risk analysis • Creative approaches in the search for environmentally friendly proposed activities.

  18. Modeling nanomaterial environmental fate in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Amy L; Casman, Elizabeth A; Lowry, Gregory V; Lead, Jamie R; Viparelli, Enrica; Baalousha, Mohammed

    2015-03-03

    Mathematical models improve our fundamental understanding of the environmental behavior, fate, and transport of engineered nanomaterials (NMs, chemical substances or materials roughly 1-100 nm in size) and facilitate risk assessment and management activities. Although today's large-scale environmental fate models for NMs are a considerable improvement over early efforts, a gap still remains between the experimental research performed to date on the environmental fate of NMs and its incorporation into models. This article provides an introduction to the current state of the science in modeling the fate and behavior of NMs in aquatic environments. We address the strengths and weaknesses of existing fate models, identify the challenges facing researchers in developing and validating these models, and offer a perspective on how these challenges can be addressed through the combined efforts of modelers and experimentalists.

  19. Footprints in the wind? Environmental impacts of wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoha, P. [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Cayman Islands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-10-01

    This paper reviews the environmental impacts of wind power development and examines noise generated by wind turbines, noise control methods, visual impacts and visibility, and the impact on wildlife and natural habitat. Details are given of other impacts such as electromagnetic interference and the disposal of materials used in the manufacture of parts of wind energy converters. Political issues and social costs of wind energy are considered.

  20. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  1. Models in environmental regulatory decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Models in the Regulatory Decision Process; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Models help EPA explain environmental phenomena in settings where direct observations are limited or unavailable, and anticipate the effects of agency policies on the environment, human health and the economy...

  2. Impact of environmental justice analysis on transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    This report presents the findings of a study sponsored by the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT): Impact of Environmental Justice (EJ) on Transportation Planning. The objectives of the study were to determine the state of the practice of EJ ...

  3. Environmental impacts of coal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, W.B.D. de; Souza, J.A.M. de

    1981-01-01

    The present work analyses the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear power plants. A comparison is made on a common basis considering the various activities involving the complete fuel cycle for both cases. (Author) [pt

  4. 77 FR 66910 - Environmental Impact Statement, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Transportation Engineer/Border Engineer, Federal Highway Administration--California Division, 401 B Street, Suite...[aacute]nchez, Senior Transportation Engineer/Border Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, San Diego... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement, San...

  5. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  6. 78 FR 71606 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 11/18/2013 Through 11... Luiseno Indians' Proposed 534-Acre Trust Acquisition and Casino Project, Review Period Ends: 12/30/2013...

  7. 78 FR 69665 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 11/04/2013 through..., Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe Fee-to- Trust Acquisition and Casino Project, Comment Period Ends: 12/30/2013...

  8. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommereux-Blanc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  9. K Basins environmental impact statement technical input document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.; Bergmann, D.W.; Costley, G.E.; Jansky, M.T.; McCormack, R.L.; Monthey, M.J.; Praga, A.N.; Ullah, J.K.; Willis, W.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document describes the technical input necessary to develop and evaluate the alternatives within the Environmental Impact Statement for the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel From the K Basins at the Hanford Site

  10. Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a Brazilian water reservoir, based in zooplankton communities. Maria Cristina Crispim, Karla Patrícia Ponte Araújo, Hênio do Nascimento Melo Júnior ...

  11. Energy and environmental quality: case histories of impact management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    A discussion of energy source devlopments and environmental protection dealing with impacts, and legal aspects of pollution controls and resource management, and case history studies of major energy projects is presented

  12. The innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations on maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Repka, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Maritime transport is facing wide-ranking challenges due to stricter environmental regulations. It has been positioned that these stricter environmental regulations will significantly hamper the competitiveness of the shipping industry and other export/import oriented industries. However, contras......Maritime transport is facing wide-ranking challenges due to stricter environmental regulations. It has been positioned that these stricter environmental regulations will significantly hamper the competitiveness of the shipping industry and other export/import oriented industries. However......), in general, and the economic impacts of environmental regulations (here Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention) as it applies to shipping in Northern Europe, in particular. According to the review, the literature is still inconclusive and lacks a clear consensus on the economic and innovation inducement impacts...... of environmental regulations on maritime transport. Therefore, the review concludes in suggestions for further studies on the use of marine scrubber systems as an illustrative case study example....

  13. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 1, 2 were inputted to INIS. They deal with models of radionuclide transport in food chains and the use of aerial monitoring in the study of environmental contamination. (Z.S.)

  14. Modeling the Environmental Impacts of Potential Oil Pipeline Leaks in the PÁRAMO Region upon the Water Supply for Quito, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, J.; Sanjinez Guzman, V.; Emerman, S. H.; Tebbs, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Trans-Ecuadorian Pipeline carries crude oil from oilfields in eastern Ecuador to refineries on the Pacific coast, crossing the Páramo region, an alpine tundra ecosystem within the province of Pichincha, which also serves as the water supply for the capital city of Quito. The objective of this study has been to create a model for predicting the likelihood that the effects of a crude oil spill in the Páramo region would impact the water supply of Quito by comparing the residence times of organic compounds in soil with the time required for microbial degradation. A custom MATLAB script included linear partitioning of multiple organic compounds among the water, air, soil and NAPL phases. The three organic compounds considered were anthracene, benzene, and naphthalene. The relevant soil parameters for the Páramo region were obtained from the ISRIC-WISE Harmonized Global Soil Profile Dataset. The soil organic matter content is a critical parameter that was estimated from a very small number of measurements. Residence time half-lives were calculated for depths of penetration of the initial spill ranging from 0.1-5 m. For a depth of penetration of 1 m, residence time half-lives for benzene, naphthalene and anthracene were 1.5, 23.1 and 247.8 years, respectively. Comparing with typical biodegradation half-lives of 10-730 days for benzene, 1-258 days for naphthalene, and 199-252 days for anthracene, it can be seen that penetration to groundwater and transport to the reservoir that supplies water to Quito is unlikely for naphthalene and anthracene, but is a distinct possibility for benzene. Current modeling involves including the effect of volatilization within the soil and improving the estimates of biodegradation rates within an alpine tundra ecosystem. Further results will be reported at the meeting.

  15. the disjuncture between south africa's environmental impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    governing public participation illustrate a disjuncture between the regulatory framework and the idea of sustainable ... role of the environmental law it is necessary to unravel the connection, if any, between the norms of ..... More often than not, corporations and government departments sink a lot of funds into research and ...

  16. Jabiluka project - Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Appendices provide various technical data in support of studies presented in the Main Report, including the guidelines for an EIS at Jabiluka, environmental requirements, waste management plan, water management system criteria, water quality data, transport licensing and security procedures, rehabilitation plus specialist studies into ore characteristics, noise issues and haulage risk assessment. Copyright (1996) Energy Resources of Australia Limited

  17. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawrence Hart

    1971-05-28

    May 28, 1971 ... the relationship between environmental degradation/pollution and project developments. ... part of Nigeria and with the south by the Atlantic Ocean ..... pollution. UNO. 10. Convention for Cooperation in the Petroleum and. Development of the Marine and Coast. Environments of West and Central Africa.

  18. Environmental impact assessment: theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wathern, Peter

    1988-01-01

    ... projects. Enshrined in legislation in the USA, Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, Japan and, latterly, in the European Community, EIA is an integral part of environmental management. The 'science' and 'art' of EIA are inextricably linked, but the distinction between them is useful and is reflected in the organization of the book. An introductory chapter p...

  19. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    OpenAIRE

    Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling mun...

  20. Coal mining in Bangladesh: Options to mitigate environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Angen, Meara Rose

    2008-01-01

    This study examines methods of mitigating the environmental impacts of coal mining in Bangladesh. Coal is expected to aid in providing energy security for the country in the short-term. The coal mining industry is currently in its infancy, and no policy exists. This study examines the government policies of three diverse countries and discovers that there are several instruments commonly used to reduce the environmental impacts of coal mining. These instruments include regulations that set st...