WorldWideScience

Sample records for models environmental impact

  1. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply...

  2. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  3. Modelling land use change and environmental impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A.; Verburg, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Land use change models are tools for understanding and explaining the causes and consequences of land use dynamics. Recently, new models, combining knowledge and tools from biophysical and socio-economic sciences, have become available. This has resulted in spatially explicit models focussed on patt

  4. Modeling Of Construction Noise For Environmental Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Hamoda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the noise levels generated at different construction sites in reference to the stage of construction and the equipment used, and examined the methods to predict such noise in order to assess the environmental impact of noise. It included 33 construction sites in Kuwait and used artificial neural networks (ANNs for the prediction of noise. A back-propagation neural network (BPNN model was compared with a general regression neural network (GRNN model. The results obtained indicated that the mean equivalent noise level was 78.7 dBA which exceeds the threshold limit. The GRNN model was superior to the BPNN model in its accuracy of predicting construction noise due to its ability to train quickly on sparse data sets. Over 93% of the predictions were within 5% of the observed values. The mean absolute error between the predicted and observed data was only 2 dBA. The ANN modeling proved to be a useful technique for noise predictions required in the assessment of environmental impact of construction activities.

  5. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  6. A Model for Environmental Impact Assessment of Land Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; LI Shu-heng; MAO Liang; YIN Yong; ZHU Da-kui

    2007-01-01

    Land reclamation is a complex marine environmental engineering and has a huge impact on social, economic, and physical environment. Reclamation environmental impact assessment (REIA) is also a complicated project, including the assessment of social economic background, ocean engineering, coastal geomorphology, sediment transportation, marine hydrodynamics and marine ecosystem and so on. Nowadays, a large number of land reclaimed projects have been carried out or in the process of construction along the coastal zone, thus, it is necessary to build up a framework on REIA to evaluate and quantify the environmental changes, to contribute to reclamation program, to reduce marine environmental disasters, and to sustain development of coastal zone. This article focuses on the research of REIA framework theory and puts forward a REIA model on land reclaimed evaluation, at the same time, applies this assessment system in Shenzhen City, which is a highly developed coastal city with an expectation of land reclamation. By use of the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, along with the topographic map and in situ survey in reclamation area, it concludes that the area of 2680 hectares in total has been reclaimed in Shenzhen city by the end of the year 2000. Thus, reclamation is usually applied to meet the needs for infrastructure, such as harbors, industries and highways in Shenzhen City. However, some serious negative impacts have been created to the coastal environment shown clearly in the following aspects. Firstly, it caused the dramatic changes of tidal flat and channels along the western coast, made this area more unstable, which is threatening the function of the harbor in this area. Secondly, Tidal prism has decreased rapidly. During the 20 years of reclamation, the tidal prism has been reduced by 20%~30% along the western coast in the Lingdingyang Estuary, and 15.6% in the Shenzhen Bay. As a result, the velocity of the tidal current

  7. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang, Yize Sun, Yang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8 m/s, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000 W/m2. Root mean square error (RMSE between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  8. An environmental impact causal model for improving the environmental performance of construction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Casals, Alba; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing efforts made by the construction sector to reduce the environmental impact of their processes, construction sites are still a major source of pollution and adverse impacts on the environment. This paper aims to improve the understanding of construction-related environmental impacts by identifying on-site causal factors and associated immediate circumstances during construc- tion processes for residential building projects. Based on the literature and focus g...

  9. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Minho, E-mail: minmin40@hanmail.net [Asset Management Division, Mate Plus Co., Ltd., 9th Fl., Financial News Bldg. 24-5 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-877 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: chnagyoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings.

  10. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  11. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M. (eds.)

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person.

  12. Hearing characteristics of cephalopods: modeling and environmental impact study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Shi, Feng; Song, Jiakun; Zhang, Xugang; Yu, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are some of the most intriguing molluscs, and they represent economically important commercial marine species for fisheries. Previous studies have shown that cephalopods are sensitive to underwater particle motion, especially at low frequencies in the order of 10 Hz. The present paper deals with quantitative modeling of the statocyst system in three cephalopod species: Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis and Loligo vulgaris. The octopus's macula/statolith organ was modeled as a 2nd-order dynamic oscillator using parameter values estimated from scanning electron micrograph images. The modeling results agree reasonably well with experimental data (acceleration threshold) in the three cephalopod species. Insights made from quantitative modeling and simulating the particle motion sensing mechanism of cephalopods elucidated their underwater particle motion detection capabilities. Sensitivity to emerging environmental issues, such as low frequency noise caused by near-shore wind farms and increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the ocean, and sensitivity to sounds produced by impending landslides were investigated in octopus using the model.

  13. Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S. [Agricultural Economics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Rodriguez, A.G. [University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs.

  14. An integrated model for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hao

    2011-01-01

    in the People's Republic of China, this paper proposes an integrated model for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of highway. The model has two main characteristics. Firstly, the whole highway is divided into several sections, and then weight of each section is distributed by its importance. Secondly......In China, environmental issues caused by construction and operation of highway catch more and more attention, and thus environmental impact assessment of highway has become an important part of feasibility study. According to the Specifications for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways......, a novel method is presented to standardize the second-class quantitative indexes. The proposed model is scientific, rational, objective, comprehensive and well operable. Its performance is satisfied in practice....

  15. NUMERICAL MODELS AS ENABLING TOOLS FOR TIDAL-STREAM ENERGY EXTRACTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2016-06-24

    This paper presents a modeling study conducted to evaluate tidal-stream energy extraction and its associated potential environmental impacts using a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model, which was coupled with a water-quality model and a tidal-turbine module.

  16. A new assessment method for urbanization environmental impact: urban environment entropy model and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Tingping; Fu, Shuqing; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Wu, Zhifeng

    2008-11-01

    The thermodynamic law is one of the most widely used scientific principles. The comparability between the environmental impact of urbanization and the thermodynamic entropy was systematically analyzed. Consequently, the concept "Urban Environment Entropy" was brought forward and the "Urban Environment Entropy" model was established for urbanization environmental impact assessment in this study. The model was then utilized in a case study for the assessment of river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone. The results indicated that the assessing results of the model are consistent to that of the equalized synthetic pollution index method. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Urban Environment Entropy model has high reliability and can be applied widely in urbanization environmental assessment research using many different environmental parameters.

  17. An endpoint damage oriented model for life cycle environmental impact assessment of buildings in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU LiJing; LIN BoRong; GU DaoJin; ZHU YingXin

    2008-01-01

    The midpoint impact assessment methodology and several weighting methods that are currently used by most building Life cycle assessment (LCA) researchers in China, still have some shortcomings. In order to make the evaluation results have better temporal and spatial applicability, the endpoint impact assessment methodology was adopted in this paper. Based on the endpoint damage oriented concept, four endpoints of resource exhaustion, energy exhaustion, human health damage and ecosystem damage were selected according to the situation of China and the specialties of the building industry. Subsequently the formula for calculating each endpoint, the background value for normalization and the weighting factors were defined. Following that, an endpoint damage oriented model to evaluate the life cycle environmental impact of buildings in China was established. This model can produce an integrated indicator for environmental impact, and consequently provides references for directing the sustainable building design.

  18. The Impacts of Environmental Tax in China: A Dynamic Recursive Multi-Sector CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Xiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the accumulated environmental problems resulting from excessive usage of fossil fuels have gradually loomed. Thus, an environmental tax, as an important policy tool, has been put on the agenda in China. In this paper, a dynamic recursive multi-sector Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model is applied to explore the impacts of the environmental tax on China’s economy. To comprehensively analyze the impacts, we introduce four kinds of typical contaminants and set two kinds of scenarios: different tax rates and different tax refunds. The results show that the environmental tax is conducive to environmental improvement, but the economic variables are adversely affected, for example, the loss of GDP at the low level tax rate is 0.46%. In order to offset the negative impacts, we presume the government refunds the tax. The results show that this can indeed relieve the negative effects. When the government refunds the production tax and corporate income tax, 0.49% and 0.34% of GDP is relieved by respectively. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the implementation of the environmental tax in China and lays a solid foundation for the introduction of the environmental tax.

  19. Modelling of an industrial NGL-Recovery unit considering environmental and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharratt, P. N.; Hernandez-Enriquez, A.; Flores-Tlacuahuac, A.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, an integrated model is presented that identifies key areas in the operation of a cryogenic NGL-recovery unit. This methodology sets out to provide deep understanding of various interrelationship across multiple plant operating factors including reliability, which could be essential for substantial improvement of process performance. The integrated model has been developed to predict the economic and environmental impacts of a real cryogenic unit (600 MMCUF/D) during normal operation, and has been built in Aspen TM. (Author)

  20. Modeling In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2014-09-30

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While many studies have been conducted to assess and map tidal energy resources, efforts for quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts have been limited. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model and its application for assessing the potential environmental impacts associated with tidal energy extraction. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a tidally dominant estuary. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines installed in an idealized estuary were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes due to tidal energy extraction. Model results indicated that a large number of turbines are required to extract the maximum tidal energy and cause significant reduction of the volume flux. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in a stratified estuary. The tidal turbine model was applied to simulate tidal energy extraction in Puget Sound, a large fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast.

  1. Modeling Future Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Supplies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Brazil’s status as a rapidly developing country is visible in its need for more energy, including electricity. While the current electricity generation mix is primarily hydropower based, high-quality dam sites are diminishing and diversification to other sources is likely. We combined life-cycle data for electricity production with scenarios developed using the IAEA’s MESSAGE model to examine environmental impacts of future electricity generation under a baseline case and four side cases, usi...

  2. Models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    The document describes generic models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities. Except for few models developed in the Safety Commission, the models are based on the 1997 Swiss directive HSK-R-41 and on the 2001 IAEA Safety Report No. 19. The writing style is descriptive, facilitating the practical implementation of the models at CERN. There are four scenarios assumed for airborne releases: (1) short-term releases for release limit calculations, (2) actual short-term releases, (3) short-term releases during incidents/accidents, and (4) chronic long-term releases during the normal operation of a facility. For water releases, two scenarios are considered: (1) a release into a river, and (2) a release into a water treatment plant. The document shall be understood as a reference for specific environmental studies involving radioactive releases and as a recommendation of the Safety Commission.

  3. An integrated model for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hao

    2011-01-01

    In China, environmental issues caused by construction and operation of highway catch more and more attention, and thus environmental impact assessment of highway has become an important part of feasibility study. According to the Specifications for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways...

  4. Modeling Economic Impacts of Environmental Flows in California's Yuba River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, D. E.; Yarnell, S.; Viers, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Managing rivers is becoming more challenging with increasing demand for better environmental flow regimes, just as demand for water for hydropower and water supply are increasing and water supplies are changing due to climate change. Restoration of freshwater ecosystems, such as in the Yuba River in California’s Sierra Nevada, will require flows that mimic the natural flow regime, which native freshwater species are uniquely adapted to. In particular, freshwater ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada were historically adapted to the spring snowmelt flows. To study the potential effects of restoring a natural flow regime to the Yuba River watershed, we developed a multi-reservoir network flow optimization model of the watershed that represents environmental flows more ecologically useful than simple minimum instream flows, which are typically the only environmental requirement in streams. The model uses weekly time steps. The objective function is to maximize benefit, which equals hydropower revenue less penalties for deviations from environmental constraints and spills. Constraints include targets for minimum flows, maximum flows, maximum weekly up-ramp rates and maximum weekly down-ramp rates. We applied the model to the Yuba River watershed surface water inflow data from a rainfall-runoff model recently developed for the Sierra Nevada that considers regional climate warming of +0, 2, 4 and 6 °C. The Yuba watershed has high potential for fish restoration yet is currently managed primarily for hydropower. We assess the economic effects (primarily impacts on hydropower generation and revenues in the adjacent Bear River) and management implications of increasing and reshaping instream flow requirements in several ecologically important, yet regulated, stream reaches within the Yuba watershed. Further, we explore the potential of using regulating reservoirs to adapt to changing hydrologic conditions. Increasing minimum instream flow magnitudes in the South Fork Yuba River

  5. An Optimal Hierarchical Decision Model for a Regional Logistics Network with Environmental Impact Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users’ demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators’ service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level.

  6. An optimal hierarchical decision model for a regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan; Qin, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level.

  7. An Optimal Hierarchical Decision Model for a Regional Logistics Network with Environmental Impact Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level. PMID:24977209

  8. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  9. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    A model capable of quantifying the potential environmental impacts of agricultural application of composted or anaerobically digested source-separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. In addition to the direct impacts, the model accounts for savings by avoiding the production...... MSW showed large influence on the environmental impacts. A range of benefits, mainly related to improved soil quality from long-term application of the processed organic waste, could not be generally quantified with respect to the chosen life cycle assessment impact categories and were therefore...

  10. 3D Global Climate Modelling of the environmental effect of meteoritic impacts on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbet, Martin; Forget, Francois; Gillmann, Cedric; Karatekin, Ozgur; Svetsov, Vladimir; Popova, Olga; Wallemacq, Quentin

    2016-10-01

    There are now robust evidences that liquid water flowed on ancient Mars: dry river beds and lakes, hydrated sedimentary minerals and high erosion rates. Climate models that consider only CO2/H2O as greenhouse gases have been unable yet to produce warm climates suitable for liquid water on Early Mars, given the lower solar luminosity at that time. It has been suggested that the warm conditions required to explain the formation of the 3.8 Gyrs old valley networks could have been transient and produced in response to the meteoritic impacts that occured during the contemporaneous Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). This scenario is appealing because, in a predominately cold climate, the ice tends to accumulate preferentially in the regions where the rivers were sculpted ('Icy Highlands' scenario). This would be a very efficient mechanism of recharge of the valley network water sources between two impact-induced melting events.Using the LMD Global Climate Model (LMD-GCM) designed for flexible (from cold & dry to warm & wet) conditions, we explored the environmental effect of LHB impact events of various sizes on Early Mars. Our main result is that, whatever the initial impact-induced temperatures and water vapor content injected, warm climates cannot be stable and are in fact short-lived (lifetime of ~ 5 martian years/bar of H2O injected). Moreover, we will give preliminar estimates of the amount of rainfall/snowmelt that can be produced after impact events depending on their size, following three different approaches:1) For large impact events (Dimpactor energy conservation.2) For moderate-size events (5km geothermal heat fluxes using the StagYY Mantle Convection Model. These are used as input in the LMD-GCM to estimate the effiency of basal melting.

  11. Modeling Future Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Supplies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Bilec

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s status as a rapidly developing country is visible in its need for more energy, including electricity. While the current electricity generation mix is primarily hydropower based, high-quality dam sites are diminishing and diversification to other sources is likely. We combined life-cycle data for electricity production with scenarios developed using the IAEA’s MESSAGE model to examine environmental impacts of future electricity generation under a baseline case and four side cases, using a Monte-Carlo approach to incorporate uncertainty in power plant performance and LCA impacts. Our results show that, under the cost-optimal base case scenario, Brazil’s GHGs from electricity (excluding hydroelectric reservoir emissions rise 370% by 2040 relative to 2010, with the carbon intensity per MWh rising 100%. This rise would make Brazil’s carbon emissions targets difficult to meet without demand-side programs. Our results show a future electricity mix dominated by environmental tradeoffs in the use of large-scale renewables, questioning the use tropical hydropower and highlighting the need for additional work to assess and include ecosystem and social impacts, where information is currently sparse.

  12. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  13. Fuel Consumption and Vehicle Emission Models for Evaluating Environmental Impacts of the ETC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental outcome of the Electronic Toll Collection (ETC system is an important aspect in evaluating the impacts of the ETC system, which is influenced by various factors including the vehicle type, travel speed, traffic volume, and average queue length of Manual Toll Collection (MTC lanes. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a field data-based practical model for evaluating the effects of ETC system on the fuel efficiency and vehicle emission. First, laboratory experiments of seven types of vehicles under various scenarios for toll collection were conducted based on the Vehicle Emissions Testing System (VETS. The indicator calculation models were then established to estimate the comprehensive benefit of ETC system by comparing the test results of MTC lane and ETC lane. Finally, taking Beijing as a case study, the paper calibrated the model parameters, and estimated the monetization value of environmental benefit of the ETC system in terms of vehicle emissions reduction and fuel consumption decrease. The results shows that the applications of ETC system are expected to save fuel consumption of 4.1 million liters and reduce pollution emissions by 730.89 tons in 2013 in Beijing.

  14. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MACHINERY SECTORS TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher ...

  15. 76 FR 62442 - Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for Upper Truckee River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for Upper Truckee.... ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact... publication of the final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. ADDRESSES: The...

  16. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template” for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff, and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method

  17. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MACHINERY SECTORS TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher than standard environmental cost, and contribute to low real benefit. Electric accumulator & battery, secondary special industrial machinery, motorcycle, bicycle & other carriages, and engines and turbines need to monitor closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than other production sector do and they have high environmental cost. In order to decide the sustainable development strategy of the country, there is a need to use this research to support decision-making.

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  19. Environment and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to incidents because of the disorder of the environment, the consequences of rural exodus, the improper tourism, and which actions to solve this problem have not been enough. With reference to sustainable development, it is waited that everyone can live under environmental, social and economical equilibrium, and also has reasonable habit, being sensible to the conservation of the environmental practice. The article emphasizes the values as a need in the equilibrium of sustainability, and even made reference to the lost of the country in the sustainable development and that Brazil could have more interest by the cause, mainly in the managing in the use of pesticides e fungicides in agriculture. The concern with the globalized economy is a radical change which the developing countries are facing. The cause affects of pollutions resulting in health problems. The danger that humanity faces with its own action, as predatory fishing, causing aquatic disorder and the invasion of commerce in the area of permanent conservation.

  20. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders; Bhander, Gurbakhash S; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-04-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting, anaerobic digestion and combinations hereof are available in the model, but the user can change all key parameters in the biological treatment module so that specific local plants and processes can be modelled. EASEWASTE is one of the newest waste LCA models and the biological treatment module was built partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating the environmental performance of alternative biological treatment technologies in relation to their mass flows, energy consumption, gaseous emissions, biogas recovery and compost/digestate utilization.

  1. High-Resolution Gene Flow Model for Assessing Environmental Impacts of Transgene Escape Based on Biological Parameters and Wind Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Haccou, Patsy; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Environmental impacts caused by transgene flow from genetically engineered (GE) crops to their wild relatives mediated by pollination are longstanding biosafety concerns worldwide. Mathematical modeling provides a useful tool for estimating frequencies of pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) that are critical for assessing such environmental impacts. However, most PMGF models are impractical for this purpose because their parameterization requires actual data from field experiments. In addition, most of these models are usually too general and ignored the important biological characteristics of concerned plant species; and therefore cannot provide accurate prediction for PMGF frequencies. It is necessary to develop more accurate PMGF models based on biological and climatic parameters that can be easily measured in situ. Here, we present a quasi-mechanistic PMGF model that only requires the input of biological and wind speed parameters without actual data from field experiments. Validation of the quasi-mechanistic model based on five sets of published data from field experiments showed significant correlations between the model-simulated and field experimental-generated PMGF frequencies. These results suggest accurate prediction for PMGF frequencies using this model, provided that the necessary biological parameters and wind speed data are available. This model can largely facilitate the assessment and management of environmental impacts caused by transgene flow, such as determining transgene flow frequencies at a particular spatial distance, and establishing spatial isolation between a GE crop and its coexisting non-GE counterparts and wild relatives.

  2. The use of LCA for modelling sustainability and environmental impact of manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culaba, A.; Purvis, M. [Portsmouth Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Most industries rely significantly on natural resources for raw materials and energy requirements. As a consequence of manufacturing activities, various pollutants are generated in the process. While effects on the environment can be detrimental, wastes and emissions account for a high percentage loss in the overall material balance. Unless these unnecessary losses are minimized and recovered, the environment would continue to be disadvantaged and long-term supply of raw materials and energy would likewise be affected. The key to the analysis of such problems concerns generalised procedures for the modelling of the sustainable use of resources in manufacturing processes and the development of associated sustainability criteria. This requires identifying the various aspects of manufacturing from the time the raw materials are extracted until they have been processed into products and then used or consumed and finally disposed of. The use of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology encompasses these analyses and that of the identification of environmental effects associated with every stage of the manufacturing process. The presentation concludes that LCA is a very useful and effective tool in providing planners, legislator and decision-makers with the necessary information on the probable impacts of manufacture on the environment as well as underlying legislation, ecological, health standards and emission limits. (author)

  3. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting......, anaerobic digestion and combinations hereof are available in the model, but the user can change all key parameters in the biological treatment module so that specific local plants and processes can be modelled. EASEWASTE is one of the newest waste LCA models and the biological treatment module was built...... partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating...

  4. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEorganic (ORG), integrated (IN) and mineral (MIN); (b) tillage: conventional (CT), reduced (RT) and no-till (NT); (c) cover cropping: no cover cropping (NCC), winter cover cropping (CC) and winter green manuring (GM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased consistently with increasing use of organic manures (MIN>IN>ORG). NT relative to RT management showed to be

  5. Regional Modelling for Optimal Allocation of Agricultural Crops Considering Environmental Impacts, Housing Value and Leisure Preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Haruvy, Nava; Shalhevet, Sarit

    2006-01-01

    Regional planning should consider the impact of agricultural crops on housing value and leisure, as well as on the local environment. We designed an optimization model for allocating agricultural crops based on farmers profits as well as the impact on these three factors. Each crop creates a different landscape, as well as a different effect on shading and noise reduction. These in turn influence the value of nearby housing and the regional leisure opportunities. Each crop also has a positive...

  6. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  7. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  8. Environmental impact prediction using remote sensing images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pezhman ROUDGARMI; Masoud MONAVARI; Jahangir FEGHHI; Jafar NOURI; Nematollah KHORASANI

    2008-01-01

    Environmental impact prediction is an important step in many environmental studies. Awide variety of methods have been developed in this concern. During this study, remote sensing images were used for environmental impact prediction in Robatkarim area, Iran, during the years of 2005~2007. It was assumed that environmental impact could be predicted using time series satellite imageries. Natural vegetation cover was chosen as a main environmental element and a case study. Environmental impacts of the regional development on natural vegetation of the area were investigated considering the changes occurred on the extent of natural vegetation cover and the amount of biomass. Vegetation data, land use and land cover classes (as activity factors) within several years were prepared using satellite images. The amount ofbiomass was measured by Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) based on satellite images. The resulted biomass estimates were tested by the paired samples t-test method. No significant difference was observed between the average biomass of estimated and control samples at the 5% significance level. Finally, regression models were used for the environmental impacts prediction. All obtained regression models for prediction of impacts on natural vegetation cover show values over 0.9 for both correlation coefficient and R-squared. According to the resulted methodology, the prediction models of projects and plans impacts can also be developed for other environmental elements which may be derived using time series remote sensing images.

  9. Use of hydrodynamic and benthic models for managing environmental impacts of marine aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, A.; Gamito, S.; Karakassis, I.

    2001-01-01

    Regulation to minimize impacts from aquaculture is of key concern in coastal zone management for the sustainability of the industry and the receiving environment. Market and consumer forces are presently driving much of this regulation and its implementation, Mathematical modelling can provide...... the tools for planning and monitoring as well as regulation, and a number of countries have well-developed policies and procedures in place which utilize modelling tools. The main impacts currently modelled are nutrient enhancement, organic waste deposition and the dispersion and deposition of medicines......; be accessible, user-friendly and be used with caution. Current models are considered to be limited in scope but do cover the main hydrodynamic and particulate processes. The regulation and monitoring of finfish aquaculture involving the direct use of models is apparently restricted to relatively few countries...

  10. Global environmental effects of impact-generated aerosols: Results from a general circulation model, revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Curt; Ghan, Steven J.; Walton, John J.; Weissman, Paul R.

    1989-01-01

    Interception of sunlight by the high altitude worldwide dust cloud generated by impact of a large asteroid or comet would lead to substantial land surface cooling, according to our three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). This result is qualitatively similar to conclusions drawn from an earlier study that employed a one-dimensional atmospheric model, but in the GCM simulation the heat capacity of the oceans substantially mitigates land surface cooling, an effect that one-dimensional models cannot quantify. On the other hand, the low heat capacity of the GCM's land surface allows temperatures to drop more rapidly in the initial stage of cooling than in the one-dimensional model study. These two differences between three-dimensional and one-dimensional model simulations were noted previously in studies of nuclear winter; GCM-simulated climatic changes in the Alvarez-inspired scenario of asteroid/comet winter, however, are more severe than in nuclear winter because the assumed aerosol amount is large enough to intercept all sunlight falling on earth. Impacts of smaller objects could also lead to dramatic, though less severe, climatic changes, according to our GCM. Our conclusion is that it is difficult to imagine an asteroid or comet impact leading to anything approaching complete global freezing, but quite reasonable to assume that impacts at the Alvarez level, or even smaller, dramatically alter the climate in at least a patchy sense.

  11. The economic, environmental and public health impacts of new power plants: a sequential inter industry model integrated with GIS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, Andre F.T.; Hewings, Geoffrey J.D.; Guilhoto, Joaquim J.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEA/USP), SE (Brazil). Fac. de Administracao e Contabilidade

    2010-07-01

    The electrical sector is responsible for a considerable amount of greenhouse gases emissions worldwide, but also the one in which modern society depends the most for maintenance of quality of life as well as the functioning of economic and social activities. Invariably, even CO2 emission-free power plants have some indirect environmental impacts due to the economic effects they produce during their life cycle (construction, O and M and decommissioning). Thus, sustainability issues should be always considered in energy planning, by evaluating the balance of positive/negative externalities on different areas of the country. This study aims to introduce a social-environmental economic model, based on a Regional Sequential Inter industry Model (SIM) integrated with geoprocessing data, in order to identify economic, pollution and public health impacts in state level for energy planning analysis. The model is based on the Impact Pathway Approach Methodology, using geoprocessing to locate social-environmental variables for dispersion and health evaluations. The final goal is to provide an auxiliary tool for policy makers to assess energy planning scenarios in Brazil. (author)

  12. Global environmental effects of impact-generated aerosols: Results from a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Curt; Ghan, Steven J.; Walton, John J.; Weissman, Paul R.

    1989-01-01

    Interception of sunlight by the high altitude worldwide dust cloud generated by impact of a large asteroid or comet would lead to substantial land surface cooling, according to the three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). This result is qualitatively similar to conclusions drawn from an earlier study that employed a one-dimensional atmospheric model, but in the GCM simulation the heat capacity of the oceans, not included in the one-dimensional model, substantially mitigates land surface cooling. On the other hand, the low heat capacity of the GCM's land surface allows temperatures to drop more rapidly in the initial stages of cooling than in the one-dimensional model study. GCM-simulated climatic changes in the scenario of asteroid/comet winter are more severe than in nuclear winter because the assumed aerosol amount is large enough to intercept all sunlight falling on earth. Impacts of smaller objects could also lead to dramatic, though of course less severe, climatic changes, according to the GCM. An asteroid or comet impact would not lead to anything approaching complete global freezing, but quite reasonable to assume that impacts would dramatically alter the climate in at least a patchy sense.

  13. Numerical modeling of chemical spills and assessment of their environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical spills in surface water bodies often occur in modern societies, which cause significant impacts on water quality, eco-environment and drinking water safety. In this paper, chemical spill contamination in water resources was studied using a depth-integrated computational model, CCHE2D, for p...

  14. Impacts of bioenergy feedstock production on environmental factors in the Central U.S. using an agroecosystem model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Vanloocke, A. D.; Williams, M.; Bernacchi, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Renewable Fuel Standard in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires annual U.S. production of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, nearly half of this from cellulosic biofuels. We have little guidance as to where to grow bioenergy feedstocks to maximize yield without competing for food resources, and little understanding of the environmental and economic impacts of their production. Furthermore, it is unclear how bioenergy feedstocks might be incorporated into the current landscape to minimize environmental consequences. Numerical models allow us to predict environmental impacts across large spatial domains and long time periods by simulating the response of potential feedstocks to drivers such as soil type and climate. We used the Agro-IBIS (Integrated Biosphere Simulator, agricultural version) model to quantify the impacts on Midwest U.S. water and energy budgets from land use for bioenergy production. We analyzed effects of changes in land cover (e.g., from current crops to perennial grasses) as well as changes in management (e.g., removal of crop residues for fuel). Our analyses indicate that perennial grasses can substantially increase evapotranspiration (water transport to the atmosphere) in locations where fraction cover is greater than 25%. This change in evapotranspiration is lowest in regions where current crops and grasses are highly productive and evapotranspiration is large, and is highest in semi-arid regions where productivity is lower. These results imply that growing bioenergy feedstocks on marginal lands could have substantial effects on water resources.

  15. A Hybrid Fuzzy Inference System Based on Dispersion Model for Quantitative Environmental Health Impact Assessment of Urban Transportation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Tashayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the spatial variation of traffic-related air pollution has been and is a long-standing challenge in quantitative environmental health impact assessment of urban transportation planning. Advanced approaches are required for modeling complex relationships among traffic, air pollution, and adverse health outcomes by considering uncertainties in the available data. A new hybrid fuzzy model is developed and implemented through hierarchical fuzzy inference system (HFIS. This model is integrated with a dispersion model in order to model the effect of transportation system on the PM2.5 concentration. An improved health metric is developed as well based on a HFIS to model the impact of traffic-related PM2.5 on health. Two solutions are applied to improve the performance of both the models: the topologies of HFISs are selected according to the problem and used variables, membership functions, and rule set are determined through learning in a simultaneous manner. The capabilities of this proposed approach is examined by assessing the impacts of three traffic scenarios involved in air pollution in the city of Isfahan, Iran, and the model accuracy compared to the results of available models from literature. The advantages here are modeling the spatial variation of PM2.5 with high resolution, appropriate processing requirements, and considering the interaction between emissions and meteorological processes. These models are capable of using the available qualitative and uncertain data. These models are of appropriate accuracy, and can provide better understanding of the phenomena in addition to assess the impact of each parameter for the planners.

  16. Use of hydrodynamic and benthic models for managing environmental impacts of marine aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, A.; Gamito, S.; Karakassis, I.

    2001-01-01

    technical descriptions use of good and appropriate data; calibration; validation; sensitivity analysis; quality assurance; auditability and consideration of the operational needs of the user, the grower and/or the regulator. Models should have simplicity and clarity; be fit for purpose, be open to scrutiny......Regulation to minimize impacts from aquaculture is of key concern in coastal zone management for the sustainability of the industry and the receiving environment. Market and consumer forces are presently driving much of this regulation and its implementation, Mathematical modelling can provide...

  17. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  18. 78 FR 54906 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement... Coachella Valley Conservation Commission (CVCC), has prepared a joint draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement (draft Supplemental EIR/EIS) under the...

  19. Industry-Cost-Curve Approach for Modeling the Environmental Impact of Introducing New Technologies in Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätelhön, Arne; von der Assen, Niklas; Suh, Sangwon; Jung, Johannes; Bardow, André

    2015-07-07

    The environmental costs and benefits of introducing a new technology depend not only on the technology itself, but also on the responses of the market where substitution or displacement of competing technologies may occur. An internationally accepted method taking both technological and market-mediated effects into account, however, is still lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). For the introduction of a new technology, we here present a new approach for modeling the environmental impacts within the framework of LCA. Our approach is motivated by consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) and aims to contribute to the discussion on how to operationalize consequential thinking in LCA practice. In our approach, we focus on new technologies producing homogeneous products such as chemicals or raw materials. We employ the industry cost-curve (ICC) for modeling market-mediated effects. Thereby, we can determine substitution effects at a level of granularity sufficient to distinguish between competing technologies. In our approach, a new technology alters the ICC potentially replacing the highest-cost producer(s). The technologies that remain competitive after the new technology's introduction determine the new environmental impact profile of the product. We apply our approach in a case study on a new technology for chlor-alkali electrolysis to be introduced in Germany.

  20. Species distribution models and impact factor growth in environmental journals: methodological fashion or the attraction of global change science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    In this work, I evaluate the impact of species distribution models (SDMs) on the current status of environmental and ecological journals by asking the question to which degree development of SDMs in the literature is related to recent changes in the impact factors of ecological journals. The hypothesis evaluated states that research fronts are likely to attract research attention and potentially drive citation patterns, with journals concentrating papers related to the research front receiving more attention and benefiting from faster increases in their impact on the ecological literature. My results indicate a positive relationship between the number of SDM related articles published in a journal and its impact factor (IF) growth during the period 2000-09. However, the percentage of SDM related papers in a journal was strongly and positively associated with the percentage of papers on climate change and statistical issues. The results support the hypothesis that global change science has been critical in the development of SDMs and that interest in climate change research in particular, rather than the usage of SDM per se, appears as an important factor behind journal IF increases in ecology and environmental sciences. Finally, our results on SDM application in global change science support the view that scientific interest rather than methodological fashion appears to be the major driver of research attraction in the scientific literature.

  1. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...

  2. Application of the AERMOD modeling system for environmental impact assessment of NO2 emissions from a cement complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanyanee Seangkiatiyuth; Vanisa Surapipith; Kraichat Tantrakamapa; Anchaleeporn W. Lothongkum

    2011-01-01

    We applied the model of American Meteorological Society-Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) as a tool for the analysis of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from a cement complex as a part of the environmental impact assessment.The dispersion of NO2 from four cement plants within the selected cement complex were investigated both by measurement and AERMOD simulation in dry and wet seasons.Simulated values of NO2 emissions were compared with those obtained during a 7-day continuous measurement campaign at 12 receptors.It was predicted that NO2 concentration peaks were found more within 1 to 5 km, where the measurement and simulation were in good agreement, than at the receptors 5 km further away from the reference point.The QuantileQuantile plots of NO2 concentrations in dry season were mostly fitted to the middle line compared to those in wet season.This can be attributed to high NO2 wet deposition.The results show that for both the measurement and the simulation using the AERMOD, NO2 concentrations do not exceed the NO2 concentration limit set by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of Thailand.This indicates that NO2 emissions from the cement complex have no significant impact on nearby communities.It can be concluded that the AERMOD can provide useful information to identify high pollution impact areas for the EIA guidelines.

  3. 78 FR 14117 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass... Water Resources intend to prepare an environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report (EIS... addressed in the environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report: 1. March 14, 2013, 1:30-3:30...

  4. The Impact of Affective Constraints on Shaping Environmental Literacy: Model Testing Using Mediator and Moderator Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Nilay; Teksöz, Gaye

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were; first to investigate the mediating effects of pre-service teachers' (PTs) attitude toward environment on the relationship between their environmental concern and environmental responsibility, and second, to explore the moderating effect of gender on the relationships between; PTs' environmental concern and…

  5. Environmental Impacts - Coastal Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.P.; Baas, Andreas C.W.; Bartholdy, Jesper; Jones, Laurence; Ruessink, B.G.; Temmerman, Stijn; van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the impacts of climate change on the natural coastal ecosystems in the North Sea region. These comprise sandy shores and dunes and salt marshes in estuaries and along the coast. The chapter starts by describing the characteristic geomorphological features of these systems and t

  6. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Models with Considering the Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.

  7. Closed-loop supply chain models with considering the environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Amir; Fallah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.

  8. Environmental Modeling Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Modeling Center provides the computational tools to perform geostatistical analysis, to model ground water and atmospheric releases for comparison...

  9. Nearshore Berm Discussion Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    straight lines through the sample* *Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater BUILDING STRONG® Definitions • Traditional Placement...drift algae that covers 10 to 100 percent of a substrate* * http://myfwc.com BUILDING STRONG® Definition of Placement Operations Hopper or Split...National Audubon Society, Inc. BUILDING STRONG® Potential Environmental Impacts Nearshore Hardbottom  Support diverse assemblages of algae

  10. Limitations to the Use of Species-Distribution Models for Environmental-Impact Assessments in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ribeiro de A Carneiro

    Full Text Available Species-distribution models (SDM are tools with potential to inform environmental-impact studies (EIA. However, they are not always appropriate and may result in improper and expensive mitigation and compensation if their limitations are not understood by decision makers. Here, we examine the use of SDM for frogs that were used in impact assessment using data obtained from the EIA of a hydroelectric project located in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. The results show that lack of knowledge of species distributions limits the appropriate use of SDM in the Amazon region for most target species. Because most of these targets are newly described and their distributions poorly known, data about their distributions are insufficient to be effectively used in SDM. Surveys that are mandatory for the EIA are often conducted only near the area under assessment, and so models must extrapolate well beyond the sampled area to inform decisions made at much larger spatial scales, such as defining areas to be used to offset the negative effects of the projects. Using distributions of better-known species in simulations, we show that geographical-extrapolations based on limited information of species ranges often lead to spurious results. We conclude that the use of SDM as evidence to support project-licensing decisions in the Amazon requires much greater area sampling for impact studies, or, alternatively, integrated and comparative survey strategies, to improve biodiversity sampling. When more detailed distribution information is unavailable, SDM will produce results that generate uncertain and untestable decisions regarding impact assessment. In many cases, SDM is unlikely to be better than the use of expert opinion.

  11. Limitations to the Use of Species-Distribution Models for Environmental-Impact Assessments in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Lorena Ribeiro de A; Lima, Albertina P; Machado, Ricardo B; Magnusson, William E

    2016-01-01

    Species-distribution models (SDM) are tools with potential to inform environmental-impact studies (EIA). However, they are not always appropriate and may result in improper and expensive mitigation and compensation if their limitations are not understood by decision makers. Here, we examine the use of SDM for frogs that were used in impact assessment using data obtained from the EIA of a hydroelectric project located in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. The results show that lack of knowledge of species distributions limits the appropriate use of SDM in the Amazon region for most target species. Because most of these targets are newly described and their distributions poorly known, data about their distributions are insufficient to be effectively used in SDM. Surveys that are mandatory for the EIA are often conducted only near the area under assessment, and so models must extrapolate well beyond the sampled area to inform decisions made at much larger spatial scales, such as defining areas to be used to offset the negative effects of the projects. Using distributions of better-known species in simulations, we show that geographical-extrapolations based on limited information of species ranges often lead to spurious results. We conclude that the use of SDM as evidence to support project-licensing decisions in the Amazon requires much greater area sampling for impact studies, or, alternatively, integrated and comparative survey strategies, to improve biodiversity sampling. When more detailed distribution information is unavailable, SDM will produce results that generate uncertain and untestable decisions regarding impact assessment. In many cases, SDM is unlikely to be better than the use of expert opinion.

  12. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlson, Mårten, E-mail: mkarlso@kth.se; Mörtberg, Ulla, E-mail: mortberg@kth.se; Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  13. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang K

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaizhi Tang,1 Xiong Liu,1 Stacey L Harper,2 Jeffery A Steevens,3 Roger Xu1 1Intelligent Automation, Inc, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 3US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA Abstract: As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake, and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity. To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI. NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS, Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. Keywords: nanomaterial environmental impact, data integration, data management

  14. Zebrafish: a model animal for analyzing the impact of environmental pollutants on muscle and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Rossignol, R; Brèthes, D

    2013-01-01

    Mercury, anthropogenic release of uranium (U), and nanoparticles constitute hazardous environmental pollutants able to accumulate along the aquatic food chain with severe risk for animal and human health. The impact of such pollutants on living organisms has been up to now approached by classical toxicology in which huge doses of toxic compounds, environmentally irrelevant, are displayed through routes that never occur in the lifespan of organisms (for instance injecting a bolus of mercury to an animal although the main route is through prey and fish eating). We wanted to address the effect of such pollutants on the muscle and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics under realistic conditions, at unprecedented low doses, using an aquatic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio. We developed an original method to measure brain mitochondrial respiration: a single brain was put in 1.5 mL conical tube containing a respiratory buffer. Brains were gently homogenized by 13 strokes with a conical plastic pestle, and the homogenates were immediately used for respiration measurements. Skinned muscle fibers were prepared by saponin permeabilization. Zebrafish were contaminated with food containing 13 μg of methylmercury (MeHg)/g, an environmentally relevant dose. In permeabilized muscle fibers, we observed a strong inhibition of both state 3 mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity after 49 days of MeHg exposure. We measured a dramatic decrease in the rate of ATP release by skinned muscle fibers. Contrarily to muscles, brain mitochondrial respiration was not modified by MeHg exposure although brain accumulated twice as much MeHg than muscles. When zebrafish were exposed to 30 μg/L of waterborne U, the basal mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was decreased in muscles after 28 days of exposure. This was due to an increase of the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability. The impact of a daily ration of food containing gold nanoparticles of two sizes (12 and

  15. Three-dimensional modeling of HCFC-123 in the atmosphere: assessing its potential environmental impacts and rationale for continued use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuebbles, Donald J; Patten, Kenneth O

    2009-05-01

    HCFC-123 (C2HCl2F3) is used in large refrigeration systems and as a fire suppression agent blend. Like other hydrochlorofluorocarbons, production and consumption of HCFC-123 is limited under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The purpose of this study is to update the understanding of the current and projected impacts of HCFC-123 on stratospheric ozone and on climate and to discuss the potential environmental effects from continued use of this chemical for specific applications. For the first time, the Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of a HCFC is determined using a three-dimensional model (MOZART-3) of atmospheric physics and chemistry. All previous studies have relied on results from two-dimensional models. The derived HCFC-123 ODP of 0.0098 is smaller than previous values. Analysis of the projected uses and emissions of HCFC-123, assuming reasonable levels of projected growth and use in centrifugal chiller and fire suppressant applications, suggests an extremely small impact on the environment due to its short atmospheric lifetime, low ODP, low Global Warming Potential (GWP), and the small production and emission of its limited applications. The current contribution of HCFC-123 to stratospheric reactive chlorine is too small to be measurable.

  16. Prediction of the environmental fate and aquatic ecological impact of nitrobenzene in the Songhua River using the modified AQUATOX model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Bingli; HUANG Shengbiao; QIAO Min; LI Tianyun; WANG Zijian

    2008-01-01

    An accidental discharge of nitrobenzene happened in November 2005 in the Songhuajiang River, China. The AQUATOX model was modified and adapted to simulate the time-dependent nitrobenzene distribution in this multimedia aquatic system and its potential ecological impacts. Nitrobenzene concentrations in flowing water, sediment, and biota were predicted. Based on the initial concentrations of nitrobenzene observed on the field during the accidental discharge, that is, 0.167-1.47 mg/L at different river segments, the predicted water concentrations of nitrobenzene would decrease to 0.02 and 0.002 mg/L after twenty days and one month, respectively. Both model prediction and field observation were in good agreement. The predicted nitrobenzene concentrations in sediments and aquatic organisms would be lower than 0.025 and 0.002 mg/kg, respectively, after two months. Among environmental factors affecting nitrobenzene concentrations in water, inflow water dilution, water temperature, and initial concentration were the most important, by sensitivity analysis. Comparing the perturbed simulation and control simulation, the biomass changes for diatoms and mussel were significantly affected, whereas, no influence on other organisms could be predicted. Therefore the results indicated that nitrobenzene pollution in the Songhuajiang River should have a limited impact on the benthos community.

  17. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  18. 78 FR 5837 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report on the Sacramento...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report on the... plans to continue work on a joint environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR... (68 FR 44811). Dated: December 11, 2012. Anastasia T. Leigh, Regional Environmental Officer,...

  19. 77 FR 45652 - Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the San Joaquin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the... prepared a joint Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (Final PEIS/R...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act and the...

  20. Multiscale plume modeling of the Deepwater Horizon oil-well blowout for environmental impact assessment and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolofsky, S. A.; Rezvani, M.

    2010-12-01

    The accidental blowout plume of the Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil well is an unprecedented event that will have far-reaching environmental, economic, and societal impact. The subsurface structure of the blowout plume, including its layered system of intrusions, conforms qualitatively to that predicted in the literature; however, new modeling tools are currently needed to produce highly-resolved predictions of such a complex plume in the stratified and flowing ocean. We present laboratory experiments of multiphase plumes in stratification and crossflow to understand the physical mechanisms that lead to separation among the buoyant dispersed phases (oil and gas) and the entrained and dissolved constituents in the continuous phase. Scale analysis indicates that the DH plume is stratification dominated, and observed locations of hydrocarbon intrusion layers agree well with the experimentally derived empirical scaling laws. New flow visualization measurements in gas plumes in stratification demonstrate that unsteady plume oscillation and detrainment events result from regular shedding of coherent structures on the order of the plume width and are not directly related to the stratification frequency. Similar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in weak crossflows characterize the transport mechanisms in the plume wake. The results of these experiments will be used in the context of a National Science Foundation RAPID grant to validate a nested large eddy simulations (LES) / Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model of the DH plume, and early results from this model demonstrate its feasibility to capture the unsteady and complex structure of the plume evolution.

  1. Linking environmental effects to health impacts: a computer modelling approach for air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Mindell, J; Barrowcliffe, R.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective and Setting: To develop a computer model, using a geographical information system (GIS), to quantify potential health effects of air pollution from a new energy from waste facility on the surrounding urban population.

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources Development: ... the current level of understanding of environmental impact assessment of water ... In the arena of Integrated Water Resources Management, the environment ...

  3. Environmental health and household demographics impacting biosand filter maintenance and diarrhea in Guatemala: an application of structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divelbiss, Daniel William; Boccelli, Dominic Louis; Succop, Paul Allan; Oerther, Daniel Barton

    2013-02-05

    In rural health development practice, engineers and scientists must recognize the complex interactions that influence individuals' contact with disease-causing pathogens and understand how household habits may impact the adoption and long-term sustainability of new technology. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of various environmental health factors and household demographics on the operation and maintenance of the Biosand filter (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, Calgary, Alberta, Canada) and diarrhea health burden in the region. In July and August 2010, randomized household surveys (n = 286) were completed in rural Guatemala detailing water access, sanitation availability, hygiene practice, socio-economic status, education level, filter operation and maintenance, and diarrhea health burden of the home. A hypothesized structural equation model was developed based on a review of published research and tested using the surveyed data. Model-derived parameter estimates indicated that: (a) proper personal hygiene practices significantly promote proper filter operation and maintenance; and (b) higher household education level, proper filter operation and maintenance, and improved water supply significantly reduce diarrhea health burden. Additionally, a high level of unexplained variance in diarrhea indicated the filter, though protective of health, is not the only factor influencing diarrhea.

  4. Environmental Impact Research Program: Selection of Turbulence and Mixing Parameterizations for Estuary Water Quality Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    can be formulated either as an elliptic differential equation (Liggett and Hadjitheodorou 1968) or performed numerically ( Paul 1983). The rigid lid...models are attractive formulations due to less severe time step restrictions ( Paul 1983). Two-dimensional depth-averaged circulation and transport 159...days Elliot et al. (1978) D = 6.7 W/ /-,-f Eckman depth of influence 2. Far-field forcing T = 10-20 days Elliot et al. (1978) (coastal current, storm

  5. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/.

  6. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. PMID:24098076

  7. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  8. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  9. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining Process LCA and Economic Input-Output LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2017-08-10

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far only focused on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one media to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer and human health non-cancer, caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 gCO2-eq /MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 gCO2-eq /MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except the eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and can't be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environment impacts of the biofuels more

  10. 78 FR 32269 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Klamath Facilities Removal AGENCY: Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance... Department of Fish and Wildlife have prepared a final environmental impact statement and environmental...

  11. Environmental Impact of Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Brînzã Georgiana

    2012-01-01

    In this research we create a method to transform the savings/ decrease in CO2 into quality increase in physical distribution. And the method consists in finding the right allocation of environmental impact (in terms of CO2 amount) from the distribution activity to every end product. We need to observe and calculate the amount of CO2 in order to know how much CO2 needs to be allocated to every product. The mechanism consists in offering to end-customers the possibility of selecting the distrib...

  12. 76 FR 80346 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Proposed Berths 302-306 American President Lines (APL) Container... of Los Angeles, has completed a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

  13. Modelling energy and environmental impacts of traditional and improved shea butter production in West Africa for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Colleen C; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2017-01-15

    This study improves the global application of methods and analyses, especially Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), that properly incorporates environmental impacts of firewood and a social sustainability indicator (human energy) as tools for sustainable human development. Specifically shea butter production processes, common throughout sub-Saharan Africa and crucial to food security, environmental sustainability, and women's empowerment, are analyzed. Many economic activities in the world rely on firewood for energy and labor that aren't included in traditional LCAs. Human energy (entirely from women) contributed 25-100% of shea butter production processes (2000-6100kJ/kg of shea butter) and mechanized production processes had reduced human energy without considerably greater total energy. Firewood accounted for 94-100% of total embodied energy (103 and 172MJ/kg of shea butter for improved and traditional shea butter production processes respectively) and global warming potential and 18-100% of human toxicity of the production processes. Implementation of improved cookstoves modeled in this study could reduce: (1) global warming potential by 78% (from 18 to 4.1kg CO2 eq/kg and 11 to 2.4kg CO2 eq/kg of shea butter for the traditional and improved processes respectively), (2) the embodied energy of using firewood by 52% (from 170 to 82MJ/kg and 103 to 49MJ/kg for the traditional and improved processes respectively), and (3) human toxicity by 83% for the non-mechanized traditional and improved processes (from 0.041 to 0.0071 1,4 DB eq/kg and 0.025 to 0.0042 1,4 DB eq/kg respectively). In addition, this is the first study to compare Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and process-based LCA in a developing country and evaluate five traditional and improved shea butter production processes over different impact categories. Overall, this study developed a framework to evaluate and improve processes for achievement of the United Nation's Sustainable Development

  14. Ecological impacts of environmental toxicants and radiation on the microbial ecosystem: a model simulation of computational microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Masahiro; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Fuma, Shoichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, K.; Nakamura, Yuji [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage, Chiba (Japan); Kawabata, Zenichiro [Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto Univ., Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    This study explores a microorganic closed-ecosystem by computer simulation to illustrate symbiosis among populations in the microcosm that consists of heterotroph protozoa, Tetrahymena thermophila B as a consumer, autotroph algae, Euglena gracilis Z as a primary producer and saprotroph Bacteria, Escherichia coli DH5 as decomposer. The simulation program is written as a procedure of StarLogoT1.5.1, which is developed by Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Tufts University. The virtual microcosm is structured and operated by the following rules; (1) Environment is defined as a lattice model, which consists of 10,201 square patches, 300 micron Wide, 300 micron Length and 100 micron Hight. (2) Each patch has its own attributes, Nutrient, Detritus and absolute coordinates, (3) Components of the species, Tetrahymena, Euglena and E-coli are defined as sub-system, and each sub-system has its own attributes as location, heading direction, cell-age, structured biomass, reserves energy and demographic parameters (assimilation rate, breeding threshold, growth rate, etc.). (4) Each component of the species, Tetrahymena, Euglena and E-coli, lives by foraging (Tetrahymena eats E-coli), excreting its metabolic products to the environment (as a substrate of E-coli), breeding and dying according vital condition. (5) Euglena utilizes sunlight energy by photosynthesis process and produces organic compounds. E-coli breaks down the organic compounds of dead protoplasm or metabolic wastes (Detritus) and releases inorganic substances to construct down stream of food cycle. Virtual ecosystem in this study is named SIM-COSM, a parallel computing model for self-sustaining system of complexity. It found that SIM-COSM is a valuable to illustrate symbiosis among populations in the microcosm, where a feedback mechanism acts in response to disturbances and interactions among species and environment. In the simulation, microbes increased demographic and environmental

  15. Environmental impact estimation of mold making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Daeyoung

    Increasing concern of environmental sustainability regarding depletion of natural resources and resulting negative environmental impact has triggered various movements to address these issues. Various regulations about product life cycle have been made and applied to industries. As a result, how to evaluate the environmental impact and how to improve current technologies has become an important issue to product developers. Molds and dies are very generally used manufacturing tools and indispensible parts to the production of many products. However, evaluating environmental impact in mold and die manufacturing is not well understood and not much accepted yet. The objective of this thesis is to provide an effective and straightforward way of environmental analysis for mold and die manufacturing practice. For this, current limitations of existing tools were identified. While conventional life cycle assessment tools provide a lot of life cycle inventories, reliable data is not sufficient for the mold and die manufacturer. Even with comprehensive data input, current LCA tools only provide another comprehensive result which is not directly applicable to problem solving. These issues are critical especially to the mold and die manufacturer with limited resource and time. This thesis addresses the issues based on understanding the needs of mold and die manufacturers. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is the most frequently used software tool and includes most manufacturing information including the process definition and sometimes geometric modeling. Another important usage of CAM software tools is problem identification by process simulation. Under the virtual environment, possible problems are detected and solved. Environmental impact can be handled in the same manner. To manufacture molds and dies with minimizing the associated environmental impact, possible environmental impact sources must be minimized before the execution in the virtual environment. Molds and dies

  16. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  17. Environmental model for a capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eugenia Toca Torres

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From a review of the various options for modeling a sustainable development in its environmental dimension, this research proposes a model of environmental impact for Bogota, using the Vensim PLE software to model the pollution, the pollution load and soil contamination. The model includes a limited number of endogenous variables, as well as a greater number of exogenous variables. This modeling allows us to anticipate the environmental situation in the capital, in order to support public policies for addressing issues such as economic sanctions and moral regulations on emissions, discharges and waste, environmental measures and environmentally friendly practices

  18. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  19. 75 FR 8988 - Environmental Impact Statements; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Environmental Impact Statements; Availability AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability for the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, disposition of Bureau of Mines... 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(C)), the National Park...

  20. 76 FR 21345 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 04/04/2011 Through 04/08/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  1. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through 08/02/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  2. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact. ...

  3. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental impact...

  4. Much damage for little advantage: Field studies and morphodynamic modelling highlight the environmental impact of an apparently minor coastal mismanagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, Roberta; Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Corradi, Nicola; Ferrari, Marco; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2011-09-01

    While coastal management activities have long been known to exert a strong influence on the health of marine ecosystems, neither scientists nor administrators have realized that small interventions may lead to disproportionately larger impacts. This study investigated the broad and long-lasting environmental consequences of the construction of an ill-planned, although small (only 12 m long) jetty for pleasure crafts on the hydrodynamic conditions and on the meadow of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica of an embayed cove in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). There, P. oceanica used to develop on a high (>1.5 m) matte (a lignified terrace causing seafloor elevation) in which the leaves reach the surface and form a compact natural barrier to waves in front of the beach. Such a so-called 'fringing reef' of P. oceanica is today recognized of high ecological value and specific conservation efforts are required. The construction of the jetty implied the cutting of the matte, which directly destroyed part of the fringing reef. In addition, meadow mapping and sedimentological analyses coupled with morphodynamic modelling showed that the ecosystem of the whole cove had been greatly altered by the jetty. We used the geometric planform approach, a proper tool in the study of headland-controlled embayment, both to characterise the present situation of Prelo cove and to simulate the original one, before the jetty was built. In the long term, such a small jetty completely altered the configuration and the hydrodynamic conditions of the whole cove, splitting the original pocket beach into two smaller ones and creating strong rip-currents flowing seaward along the jetty. These rip-currents enhanced erosion of residual shallow portions of the meadow and further modified the sedimentary fluxes in shallow waters. A century after the construction of the jetty, an irreversible environmental damage has occurred, as the slow growing rate of P. oceanica implies that the high matte terrace

  5. 78 FR 68860 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Stateline Solar Farm and Proposed California Desert Conservation... Impact Statement (EIS) and Draft Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the Stateline Solar Farm...

  6. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  7. Designing environmental research for impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C A; Lefroy, E C; Caddy-Retalic, S; Bax, N; Doherty, P J; Douglas, M M; Johnson, D; Possingham, H P; Specht, A; Tarte, D; West, J

    2015-11-15

    Transdisciplinary research, involving close collaboration between researchers and the users of research, has been a feature of environmental problem solving for several decades, often spurred by the need to find negotiated outcomes to intractable problems. In 2005, the Australian government allocated funding to its environment portfolio for public good research, which resulted in consecutive four-year programmes (Commonwealth Environmental Research Facilities, National Environmental Research Program). In April 2014, representatives of the funders, researchers and research users associated with these programmes met to reflect on eight years of experience with these collaborative research models. This structured reflection concluded that successful multi-institutional transdisciplinary research is necessarily a joint enterprise between funding agencies, researchers and the end users of research. The design and governance of research programmes need to explicitly recognise shared accountabilities among the participants, while respecting the different perspectives of each group. Experience shows that traditional incentive systems for academic researchers, current trends in public sector management, and loose organisation of many end users, work against sustained transdisciplinary research on intractable problems, which require continuity and adaptive learning by all three parties. The likelihood of research influencing and improving environmental policy and management is maximised when researchers, funders and research users have shared goals; there is sufficient continuity of personnel to build trust and sustain dialogue throughout the research process from issue scoping to application of findings; and there is sufficient flexibility in the funding, structure and operation of transdisciplinary research initiatives to enable the enterprise to assimilate and respond to new knowledge and situations.

  8. Regional analysis and environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Brocksen, R.W.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a number of techniques that can be used to assess environmental impacts on a regional scale. Regional methodologies have been developed which examine impacts upon aquatic and terrestrial biota in regions through consideration of changes in land use, land cover, air quality, water resource use, and water quality. Techniques used to assess long-range atmospheric transport, water resources, effects on sensitive forest and animal species, and impacts on man are presented in this paper, along with an optimization approach which serves to integrate the analytical techniques in an overall assessment framework. A brief review of the research approach and certain modeling techniques used within one regional studies program is provided. While it is not an all inclusive report on regional analyses, it does present an illustration of the types of analyses that can be performed on a regional scale.

  9. Modeling the environmental growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans and its impact on the white-nose syndrome epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Hannah T; Ingersoll, Tom; Barton, Hazel A

    2015-04-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has had a devastating effect on North American bat populations. The causal agent of WNS is the fungal pathogen, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), which has been shown to persist in caves after the eradication of host populations. As nonpathogenic Pseudogymnoascus spp. display saprophytic growth and are among the most commonly isolated fungi from caves, we examined whether Pd could grow in cave sediments and the contribution such growth could have to WNS disease progression. We inoculated a range of diverse cave sediments and demonstrated the growth of Pd in all sediments tested. These data indicate that environmental growth of Pd could lead to the accumulation of spores above the estimated infection threshold for WNS, allowing environment-to-bat infection. The obtained growth parameters were then used in a susceptible-infected-susceptible mathematic model to determine the possible contribution of environmental Pd growth to WNS disease progression in a colony of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). This model suggests that the environmental growth of Pd would increase WNS infection rates, particularly in colonies experiencing longer hibernation periods or in hibernacula with high levels of organic detritus. The model also suggests that once introduced, environmental Pd growth would allow the persistence of this pathogen within infected hibernacula for decades, greatly compromising the success of bat reintroduction strategies. Together these data suggest that Pd is not reliant on its host for survival and is capable of environmental growth and amplification that could contribute to the rapid progression and long-term persistence of WNS in the hibernacula of threatened North American bats.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental effects of a proposal and provide a basis for the developer and other .... incorporation of environmental considerations in business practice.49. Generally, the ... A scoping report is written based on issues and concerns raised.

  11. 75 FR 47796 - Availability of the Draft Joint Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Availability of the Draft Joint Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the San Clemente Shoreline Feasibility Study in San Clemente, CA AGENCY... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (Draft EIS/EIR) for the San Clemente Shoreline Feasibility Study....

  12. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  13. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    least more open distribution of information about human enterprises in space, too.However, the "public concerned" in space activities may cover the entire humanity, which would most likely direct the possible spatial EIA procedures into the auspices of the UN, with states representing their portion of the "public". Despite the peculiarities in assessing the potential impacts of space activities, Environmental Impact Assessment, modified to answer thes e particular features, would seem as a tool worth considering for the above objectives of enhanced environmental protection and public involvement. This is particularly true, as any adverse environmental impacts of space activities are highly difficult to mitigate, once they have materialized. For the above mentioned reasons, and for the fact that space activities are regulated for a major part on policy level, particularly Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) would seem a viable option. As distinct from the project EIA, the SEA means carrying out EIAs of plans themselves, i.e. it directly addresses the environmental implications of proposed strategies and policies. Formerly, the governmental authorities tended to regard SEA with suspicion because of the public interest groups involvement in policy making that the SEA entails. However, currently the SEA is a highly topical issue in the international arena, particularly because of the ongoing discussions within the United Nations Economic Commision for Europe about adopting a Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment to amend the Espoo Convention, and of the recent EU Directive (2001/42/EC) on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on t he environment. These instruments could also serve as feasible models for SEA in the outer space environment.

  15. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ENERGY FACILITIES IN THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN BY METHOD OF BUILDING COMPOSITE THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mehdizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author represents the method of creating composite 3D-models employing technology of geographical information systems for environmental impact assessment of projected, constructed and operating energy facilities. The paper describes the techniques of applying bundled software ArcView with add-on modules ImageWarp and RASTRProfi for alignment of multiscale bit-mapped and direct-beam three-dimensional models with the object of evaluating ecological risks for diverse territories.The article evaluates the environmental impact of a thermal power plant near the city of Rasht (industrial area Saravan and demonstrates analysis of the territorial distribution of the soil contamination with varied pollutants at different wind structures. The paper demonstrates the method of building composite 3D-models applied for assessment of presumable incidents with radioactivity discharge at the nuclear power plant in Halileh, 20 km from the city of Bushehr. By analyzing the wind diagram in the territory being explored and determining the predominant wind directions in different periods, it is possible by way of employing this method to distinguish the territories and the objects with most unfavorable prognosis. This enables rendering a prompt decision on the measures minimizing unfavorable impact on the population and environment.Altering the point of topographical survey while synchronizing the scales, the researcher can place the designed project within any territory and analyze the necessary parameters for each variant.The author considers the presented in such a manner technique worth productive implementing while analyzing environmental impact of both operating and projected industrial facilities (industrial and agricultural enterprises, thermal and nuclear electric-power plants etc.. 

  17. Integrated Environmental Assessment Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardanz, R.; Gimeno, B. S.; Bermejo, V.; Elvira, S.; Martin, F.; Palacios, M.; Rodriguez, E.; Donaire, I. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the results of the Spanish participation in the project Coupling CORINAIR data to cost-effect emission reduction strategies based on critical threshold. (EU/LIFE97/ENV/FIN/336). The subproject has focused on three tasks. Develop tools to improve knowledge on the spatial and temporal details of emissions of air pollutants in Spain. Exploit existing experimental information on plant response to air pollutants in temperate ecosystem and Integrate these findings in a modelling framework that can asses with more accuracy the impact of air pollutants to temperate ecosystems. The results obtained during the execution of this project have significantly improved the models of the impact of alternative emission control strategies on ecosystems and crops in the Iberian Peninsula. (Author) 375 refs.

  18. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared in...

  19. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  20. Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yavari, Majid Solat; Du, Guangli; Pacoste, Costin

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to integrate environmental impact optimization in the structural design of reinforced concrete slab frame bridges in order to determine the most environmental-friendly design. The case study bridge used in this work was also investigated in a previous paper...... focusing on the optimization of the investment cost, while the present study focuses on environmental impact optimization and comparing the results of both of these studies. Optimization technique based on the pattern search method was implemented. Moreover, a comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA......) methodology of ReCiPe and two monetary weighting systems were used to convert environmental impacts into monetary costs. The analysis showed that both monetary weighting systems led to the same results. Furthermore, optimization based on environmental impact generated models with thinner construction elements...

  1. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  2. Building dynamic spatial environmental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    An environmental model is a representation or imitation of complex natural phenomena that can be discerned by human cognitive processes. This thesis deals with the type of environmental models referred to as dynamic spatial environmental models. The word ‘spatial’ refers to the geographic domain whi

  3. 78 FR 23953 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass.... We published the notice of intent in the Federal Register on March 4, 2013 (78 FR 14117). The public.... Dated: March 29, 2013. Russell W. Grimes, Chief, Environmental Compliance and Conservation Branch,...

  4. 77 FR 46427 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for Proposed Aggregate Terminal Project on Pier D in the... Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), the Port will serve as the Lead Agency for the preparation of an EIR for...

  5. Environmental Impact of Fuel Cell Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, N.T.; Day, M.J. [Rolls-Royce Strategic Research Centre, PO Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Brandon, N.P. [T.H.Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Shemilt, J.E. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Fuel Cells potentially offer environmental benefits when compared to conventional technology but it is important to consider the full environmental impact including the manufacturing and disposal steps. This paper describes a case study that compares the energy requirements for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell fabrication routes. The results show that that, when compared to the benefits during use, the associated environmental impact is relatively small. Therefore the choice of manufacturing routes will have little effect on the overall advantage of implementing Fuel Cell systems. The total environmental impact of fuel cell fabrication will also include the production of materials. This could contribute a large share of the total environmental burden, however it could be minimised by adopting a design that allows the materials to be recycled in an efficient manner. (author)

  6. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  7. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  8. Low-Environmental Impact Tram Vehicle Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides an assessment of the range of low-environmental impact tram vehicles that could be used at National Wildlife Refuges and public lands throughout...

  9. Environmental Impacts from the Operation of Cooling Towers at SRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-06-26

    An assessment has been made of the environmental effects that would occur from the operation of cooling towers at the SRP reactors. A more realistic numerical model of the cooling tower plume has been used to reassess the environmental impacts. The following effects were considered: (1) the occurrence of fog and ice and their impact on nearby structures, (2) drift and salt deposition from the plume, (3) the length and height of the visible plume, and (4) the possible dose from tritium.

  10. Environmental change impacts on the C- and N-cycle of European forests: a model comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cameron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important components of the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about how predicted changes to climate and nitrogen deposition will perturb the carbon and nitrogen cycles of European forests and thereby alter forest growth, carbon sequestration and N2O emission. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon and nitrogen balance, including the exchange of greenhouse gases, of European forests over the period 2010–2030, with a particular emphasis on the spatial variability of change. The analysis was carried out for two tree species: European beech and Scots pine. For this purpose, four different dynamic models were used: BASFOR, DailyDayCent, INTEGRATOR and Landscape-DNDC. These models span a range from semi-empirical to complex mechanistic. Comparison of these models allowed assessment of the extent to which model predictions depended on differences in model inputs and structure. We found a European average carbon sink of 0.160 ± 0.020 kgC m−2 yr−1 (pine and 0.138 ± 0.062 kgC m−2 yr−1 (beech and N2O source of 0.285 ± 0.125 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (pine and 0.575 ± 0.105 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (beech. The European average greenhouse gas potential of the carbon source was 18 (pine and 8 (beech times that of the N2O source. Carbon sequestration was larger in the trees than in the soil. Carbon sequestration and forest growth were largest in central Europe and lowest in northern Sweden and Finland, N. Poland and S. Spain. No single driver was found to dominate change across Europe. Forests were found to be most sensitive to change in environmental drivers where the drivers were limiting growth, where changes were particularly large or where changes acted in concert. The models disagreed as to which environmental changes were most significant for the geographical variation in forest

  11. Environmental change impacts on the C- and N-cycle of European forests: a model comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cameron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important components of the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about how predicted changes to climate and nitrogen deposition will perturb the carbon and nitrogen cycles of European forests and thereby alter forest growth, carbon sequestration and N2O emission. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon and nitrogen balance, including the exchange of greenhouse gases, of European forests over the period 2010–2030, with a particular emphasis on the spatial variability of change. The analysis was carried out for two tree species: European beech and Scots pine. For this purpose, four different dynamic models were used: BASFOR, DailyDayCent, INTEGRATOR and Landscape-DNDC. These models span a range from semi-empirical to complex mechanistic. Comparison of these models allowed assessment of the extent to which model predictions depended on differences in model inputs and structure. We found a European average carbon sink of 0.160 ± 0.020 kgC m−2 yr−1 (pine and 0.138 ± 0.062 kgC m−2 yr−1 (beech and N2O source of 0.285 ± 0.125 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (pine and 0.575 ± 0.105 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (beech. The European average greenhouse gas potential of the carbon sink was 18 (pine and 8 (beech times that of the N2O source. Carbon sequestration was larger in the trees than in the soil. Carbon sequestration and forest growth were largest in central Europe and lowest in northern Sweden and Finland, N. Poland and S. Spain. No single driver was found to dominate change across Europe. Forests were found to be most sensitive to change in environmental drivers where the drivers were limiting growth, where changes were particularly large or where changes acted in concert. The models disagreed as to which environmental changes were most significant for the geographical variation in forest growth and as to which tree species showed the largest rate of carbon sequestration. Pine and beech forests were found to

  12. 78 FR 46677 - Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal... is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... the potential for impacts and issues associated with various socioeconomic and environmental resources...

  13. 78 FR 57447 - Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward Program From.... Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement... Joaquin Regional Rail Commission (SJRRC) will jointly prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and...

  14. 75 FR 52804 - Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Stanislaus County... subsequent environmental documentation for project-specific impacts. Letters describing the proposed action...

  15. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawrence Hart

    1971-05-28

    May 28, 1971 ... Technology. Review. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws ... the relationship between environmental degradation/pollution and project developments. Though, there .... the convention on climate change and a statement of ..... Delta which states “Apart from air pollution from the oil.

  16. Modelling the catchment-scale environmental impacts of wastewater treatment in an urban sewage system for CO₂ emission assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

    2010-01-01

    Water shortages and water pollution are a global problem. Increases in population can have further acute effects on water cycles and on the availability of water resources. Thus, wastewater management plays an important role in mitigating negative impacts on natural ecosystems and human environments and is an important area of research. In this study, we modelled catchment-scale hydrology, including water balances, rainfall, contamination, and urban wastewater treatment. The entire water resource system of a basin, including a forest catchment and an urban city area, was evaluated synthetically from a spatial distribution perspective with respect to water quantity and quality; the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique was applied to optimize wastewater treatment management with the aim of improving water quality and reducing CO₂ emissions. A numerical model was developed to predict the water cycle and contamination in the catchment and city; the effect of a wastewater treatment system on the urban region was evaluated; pollution loads were evaluated quantitatively; and the effects of excluding rainwater from the treatment system during flooding and of urban rainwater control on water quality were examined. Analysis indicated that controlling the amount of rainwater inflow to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in an urban area with a combined sewer system has a large impact on reducing CO₂ emissions because of the load reduction on the urban sewage system.

  17. Dynamic simulation of traffic and its environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissfeldt, N.; Metzler, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). ZAIK; Wagner, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    This paper demonstrates a model-chain that is able to determine environmental impacts of traffic. The dynamic microsimulation models described cover the problems of traffic assignment and calculation of emissions by microscopic vehicle states. Due to their computational efficiency the model-chain promises to be applicable even for large networks with millions of drivers. First results will be presented. (orig.)

  18. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental impact... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a...

  19. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared......This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...

  20. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared......This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...

  1. Modeling and Simulating Environmental Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, Peter S.; Murphree, Tom; Frederickson, Paul A.; Guest, Arlene A.

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 4: Collaborative NWDC/NPS M&S Research; Moderator: Curtis Blais; Modeling and Simulating Environmental Effects; speakers: Peter Guest, Paul Frederickson & Tom Murphree Environmental Effects Group

  2. Quantitative Assessment on the Embodied Environmental Impact of Concrete with or without Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sitang; LI Huiqiang

    2005-01-01

    According to the life cycle assessment and the environmental design method of industry production, a quantitative assessment model for the embodied environmental impact of concrete with or without fly ash was proposed. The environmental burden impact indicator (EBII), the resources depletion impact indicator (RDII), and the environmental impact comprehensive indicator (EICI) are defined. The specific environmental impact values of different grade concretes with or without fly ash were presented. In the embodied process of concrete with or without fly ash, the key potential environmental impact categories are global warming and dust emission, and it is an effective way for reducing the embodied environmental impact of concrete to mix fly ash and lower grade cement. The method presented in this paper makes it possible to quantitatively assess the embodied environmental impact of concrete with or without fly ash. The results calculated in this paper can be used to quantitatively assess the life cycle environmental impact of construction materials and buildings.

  3. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed......One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... adaptation is absent. Also, the results show an emphasis on positive impacts in the reports, and in a few cases discussions of enhancements. Identification and assessment of negative climate change impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  4. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts of...

  5. Impact of sublethal levels of environmental pollutants found in sewage sludge on a novel Caenorhabditis elegans model biosensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie McLaggan

    Full Text Available A transgenic strain of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in which bioluminescence reports on relative, whole-organism ATP levels was used to test an environmentally-relevant mixture of pollutants extracted from processed sewage sludge. Changes in bioluminescence, following exposure to sewage sludge extract, were used to assess relative ATP levels and overall metabolic health. Reproductive function and longevity were also monitored. A short (up to 8 h sublethal exposure of L4 larval stage worms to sewage sludge extract had a concentration-dependent, detrimental effect on energy status, with bioluminescence decreasing to 50-60% of the solvent control (1% DMSO. Following longer exposure (22-24 h, the energy status of the nematodes showed recovery as assessed by bioluminescence. Continuous exposure to sewage sludge extract from the L4 stage resulted in a shorter median lifespan relative to that of solvent or medium control animals, but only in the presence of 400-600 µM 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR, which was incorporated to inhibit reproduction. This indicated that FUdR increased lifespan, and that the effect was counteracted by SSE. Exposure to sewage sludge extract from the L1 stage led to slower growth and a delayed onset of egg laying. When L1 exposed nematodes reached the reproductive stage, no effect on egg laying rate or egg number in the uterus was observed. DMSO itself (1% had a significant inhibitory effect on growth and development of C. elegans exposed from the L1 stage and on reproduction when exposed from the L4 stage. Results demonstrate subtle adverse effects on C. elegans of a complex mixture of environmental pollutants that are present, individually, in very low concentrations and indicate that our biosensor of energy status is a novel, sensitive, rapid, quantitative, whole-organism test system which is suitable for high throughput risk assessment of complex pollutant mixtures.

  6. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  7. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  8. Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

    2011-07-01

    As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

  9. Uncertainty quantification for environmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.; Lu, Dan; Kavetski, Dmitri; Clark, Martyn P.; Ye, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Environmental models are used to evaluate the fate of fertilizers in agricultural settings (including soil denitrification), the degradation of hydrocarbons at spill sites, and water supply for people and ecosystems in small to large basins and cities—to mention but a few applications of these models. They also play a role in understanding and diagnosing potential environmental impacts of global climate change. The models are typically mildly to extremely nonlinear. The persistent demand for enhanced dynamics and resolution to improve model realism [17] means that lengthy individual model execution times will remain common, notwithstanding continued enhancements in computer power. In addition, high-dimensional parameter spaces are often defined, which increases the number of model runs required to quantify uncertainty [2]. Some environmental modeling projects have access to extensive funding and computational resources; many do not. The many recent studies of uncertainty quantification in environmental model predictions have focused on uncertainties related to data error and sparsity of data, expert judgment expressed mathematically through prior information, poorly known parameter values, and model structure (see, for example, [1,7,9,10,13,18]). Approaches for quantifying uncertainty include frequentist (potentially with prior information [7,9]), Bayesian [13,18,19], and likelihood-based. A few of the numerous methods, including some sensitivity and inverse methods with consequences for understanding and quantifying uncertainty, are as follows: Bayesian hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model averaging; single-objective optimization with error-based weighting [7] and multi-objective optimization [3]; methods based on local derivatives [2,7,10]; screening methods like OAT (one at a time) and the method of Morris [14]; FAST (Fourier amplitude sensitivity testing) [14]; the Sobol' method [14]; randomized maximum likelihood [10]; Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) [10

  10. A comparison of Capri and SEAMLESS-IFas Integrated Modelling Systems, Chapter 11 in Environmental and Agricultural Modelling: Integrated Approaches for Policy Impact Assessement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Britz, W.; Perez Dominguez, I.; Heckelei, T.

    2010-01-01

    SEAMLESS-IF and CAPRI are both integrated agricultural modelling systems for policy impact assessment at EU level, linking model components across scales and between the economic and bio-physical domains. However, the overall design, focus and representation of agricultural sub-systems vary between

  11. A model for the release, dispersion and environmental impact of a postulated reactor accident from a submerged commercial nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertch, Timothy Creston

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear power plants are inherently suitable for submerged applications and could provide power to the shore power grid or support future underwater applications. The technology exists today and the construction of a submerged commercial nuclear power plant may become desirable. A submerged reactor is safer to humans because the infinite supply of water for heat removal, particulate retention in the water column, sedimentation to the ocean floor and inherent shielding of the aquatic environment would significantly mitigate the effects of a reactor accident. A better understanding of reactor operation in this new environment is required to quantify the radioecological impact and to determine the suitability of this concept. The impact of release to the environment from a severe reactor accident is a new aspect of the field of marine radioecology. Current efforts have been centered on radioecological impacts of nuclear waste disposal, nuclear weapons testing fallout and shore nuclear plant discharges. This dissertation examines the environmental impact of a severe reactor accident in a submerged commercial nuclear power plant, modeling a postulated site on the Atlantic continental shelf adjacent to the United States. This effort models the effects of geography, decay, particle transport/dispersion, bioaccumulation and elimination with associated dose commitment. The use of a source term equivalent to the release from Chernobyl allows comparison between the impacts of that accident and the postulated submerged commercial reactor plant accident. All input parameters are evaluated using sensitivity analysis. The effect of the release on marine biota is determined. Study of the pathways to humans from gaseous radionuclides, consumption of contaminated marine biota and direct exposure as contaminated water reaches the shoreline is conducted. The model developed by this effort predicts a significant mitigation of the radioecological impact of the reactor accident release

  12. Impact of input data uncertainty on environmental exposure assessment models : A case study for electromagnetic field modelling from mobile phone base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Huss, Anke; Bürgi, Alfred; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increased availability of spatial data and computing power, spatial prediction approaches have become a standard tool for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology. However, such models are largely dependent on accurate input data. Uncertainties in the input data can the

  13. Impact of input data uncertainty on environmental exposure assessment models: A case study for electromagnetic field modelling from mobile phone base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Huss, A.; Burgi, A.; Kromhout, H.; Vermeulen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: With the increased availability of spatial data and computing power, spatial prediction approaches have become a standard tool for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology. However, such models are largely dependent on accurate input data. Uncertainties in the input data can the

  14. Results of an adaptive environmental assessment modeling workshop concerning potential impacts of drilling muds and cuttings on the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auble, Gregor T.; Andrews, Austin K.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Marmorek, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Drilling fluids or "muds" are essential components of modern drilling operations. They provide integrity for the well bore, a medium for removal of formation cuttings, and lubrication and cooling of the drill bit and pipe. The modeling workshop described in this report was conducted September 14-18, 1981 in Gulf Breeze, Florida to consider potential impacts of discharged drilling muds and cuttings on the marine environment. The broad goals of the workshop were synthesis of information on fate and effects, identification of general relationships between drilling fluids and the marine environment, and identification of site-specific variables likely to determine impacts of drilling muds and cuttings in various marine sites. The workshop was structured around construction of a model simulating fate and effects of discharges from a single rig into open water areas of the Gulf of Mexico, and discussion of factors that might produce different fate and effects in enclosed areas such as bays and estuaries. The simulation model was composed of four connected submodels. A Discharge/Fate submodel dealt with the discharge characteristics of the rig and the subsequent fate of discharged material. Three effects submodels then calculated biological responses at distances away from the rig for the water column, soft bottom benthos (assuming the rig was located over a soft bottom environment), and hard bottom benthos (assuming the rig was located over a hard bottom environment). The model focused on direct linkages between the discharge and various organisms rather than on how the marine ecosystem itself is interconnected. Behavior of the simulation model indicated relatively localized effects of drilling muds and cuttings discharged from a single platform into open water areas. Water column fate and effects were dominated by rapid dilution. Effects from deposition of spent mud and cuttings were spatially limited with relatively rapid recovery, especially in soft bottom benthic

  15. Mining Environmental Data from a Coupled Modelling System to Examine the Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on Groundwater and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.; Hayes, B.; Murphy, M. S.; Bash, J. O.

    2014-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) resulting from current agricultural management practices can leach into sources of drinking water as nitrate, increasing human health risks of 'blue baby syndrome', hypertension, and some cancers and birth defects. Nitrogen also enters the atmosphere from land surfaces forming air pollution increasing human health risks of pulmonary and cardio-vascular disease. Characterizing and attributing nitrogen from agricultural management practices is difficult due to the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with the nitrogen cascade. Coupled physical process-based models, however, present new opportunities to investigate relationships among environmental variables on new scales; particularly because they link emission sources with meteorology and the pollutant concentration ultimately found in the environment. In this study, we applied a coupled meteorology (NOAA-WRF), agricultural (USDA-EPIC) and air quality modelling system (EPA-CMAQ) to examine the impact of nitrogen inputs from corn production on ecosystem and human health and wellbeing. The coupled system accounts for the nitrogen flux between the land surface and air, and the soil surface and groundwater, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effect of management practices such as type and timing of fertilization, tilling and irrigation on both groundwater and air quality across the conterminous US. In conducting the study, we first determined expected relationships based on literature searches and then identified model variables as direct or surrogate variables. We performed extensive and methodical multi-variate regression modelling and variable selection to examine associations between agricultural management practices and environmental condition. We then applied the regression model to predict and contrast pollution levels between two corn production scenarios (Figure 1). Finally, we applied published health functions (e.g., spina bifida and cardio

  16. 78 FR 13082 - Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... channel length, and decreasing channel capacity. A key element of this restoration would be the excavation... channel to historical channels in the center of the study area, but no construction would occur in the... short-term project and cumulative construction impacts to sensitive communities (jurisdictional wetlands...

  17. Impact of the modal aerosol scheme GLOMAP-mode on aerosol forcing in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bellouin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM includes two aerosol schemes: the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies in Climate (CLASSIC, and the new Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP-mode. GLOMAP-mode is a modal aerosol microphysics scheme that simulates not only aerosol mass but also aerosol number, represents internally-mixed particles, and includes aerosol microphysical processes such as nucleation. In this study, both schemes provide hindcast simulations of natural and anthropogenic aerosol species for the period 2000–2006. HadGEM simulations using GLOMAP-mode compare better than CLASSIC against a data-assimilated aerosol re-analysis and aerosol ground-based observations. GLOMAP-mode sulphate aerosol residence time is two days longer than CLASSIC sulphate aerosols, whereas black carbon residence time is much shorter. As a result, CLASSIC underestimates aerosol optical depths in continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere and likely overestimates absorption in remote regions. Aerosol direct and first indirect radiative forcings are computed from simulations of aerosols with emissions for the year 1850 and 2000. In 1850, GLOMAP-mode predicts lower aerosol optical depths and higher cloud droplet number concentrations than CLASSIC. Consequently, simulated clouds are much less susceptible to natural and anthropogenic aerosol changes when the microphysical scheme is used. In particular, the response of cloud condensation nuclei to an increase in dimethyl sulphide emissions becomes a factor of four smaller. The combined effect of different 1850 baselines, residence times, and cloud susceptibilities, leads to substantial differences in the aerosol forcings simulated by the two schemes. GLOMAP-mode finds a present-day direct aerosol forcing of −0.49 W m−2 on a global average, 72% stronger than the corresponding forcing from CLASSIC. This difference is compensated by changes in first indirect aerosol

  18. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1314 Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final Environmental...

  19. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.23 Environmental impact statement. An Environmental Impact statement (EIS) is a detailed written statement required...

  20. Environmental impact of Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    The explosion of a supernovae (SN) represents the sudden injection of about 10^51 ergs of thermal and mechanical energy in a small region of space, causing the formation of powerful shock waves that propagate through the interstellar medium at speeds of several thousands of km/s. These waves sweep, compress and heat the interstellar material that they encounter, forming the supernova remnants. Their evolution over thousands of years change forever, irreversibly, not only the physical but also the chemical properties of a vast region of space that can span hundreds of parsecs. This contribution briefly analyzes the impact of these explosions, discussing the relevance of some phenomena usually associated with SNe and their remnants in the light of recent theoretical and observational results.

  1. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts would result in... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent practicable...

  3. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  4. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These include...

  5. 76 FR 3695 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY... Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public of its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact..., Senior Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249, Richmond...

  6. 76 FR 49526 - Environmental Impact Statement; Saint Louis County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Saint Louis County, MN AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared to respond to the terms... INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip Forst, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, 380 Jackson...

  7. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... in projects with inherent positive effects on climate change? This paper reviews practice, and takes up these questions based on a document study of 19 EIA reports of renewable energy projects in Denmark. The results show that climate change mitigation is included in 18 of the EIA reports reviewed, while...... fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed...

  8. A Conceptual Model for Teaching the Relationship of Daily Life and Human Environmental Impact to Ecological Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    In the general activity of daily life, it is easy to miss our dependency on the Earth's ecology. At the same time that people are living apparently separate from the environment, our impact on the Earth is increasing. This study seeks to understand how teachers can bridge this persistent disconnect of daily life from ecology and human impact.…

  9. 76 FR 53423 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Section 408 Permission for the Southport Sacramento River Early... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) under Section...

  10. 77 FR 54904 - Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Ballona Wetlands Restoration Project at Ballona Creek Within the... a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/EIR) for the...

  11. 77 FR 23670 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Encinitas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Los Angeles District intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Encinitas and Solana Beach Shoreline Protection Project, San Diego County,...

  12. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.93 Distribution of final environmental impact...

  13. Testing landscape modeling approaches for environmental impact assessment of mining land use on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the foothills region of west central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbaluk, M.D. [Elk Valley Coal Corp., Hinton, AB (Canada). Cardinal River Operations

    2008-07-01

    The Cheviot open pit coal mine is located on the front range of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirements for the mining project included an assessment of the cumulative effects of past, existing, and immanent activities on a 3040 km{sup 2} study area radiating approximately 25 km around the proposed project area. The grizzly bear was identified as a flagship valued ecosystem component (VEC) for assessing the regional cumulative effects of the proposed Cheviot project. In this portion of the study, a grizzly bear habitat effectiveness model was used to monitor grizzly bear response to mining land use in the study area. An investigation of grizzly bear movement paths prior to and during mine disturbances demonstrated that mining land use does not present significant barriers to grizzly bear activities. The study demonstrated the importance of using inductive modelling tools at appropriate scales, as well as the use of site-specific empirical data. It was concluded that continued monitoring of mining sites is needed to ensure that adaptive management processes are improved. A review of the Cheviot cumulative environmental effects (CEA) process was also provided. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  14. The environmental impact of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Barlow, C. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The first generation of wind turbine (WT) blades are now reaching their end of life, signalling the beginning of a large problem for the future. Currently most waste is sent to landfill, which is not an environmentally desirable solution. Awareness of this issue is rising, but no studies have fully assessed the eco impact of WT blades. The present study aims to provide a macroscopic quantitative assessment of the lifetime environmental impact of WT blades. The first stage has been to analyse global data to calculate the amount of WT blade materials consumed in the past. The life cycle environmental impact of a single WT blade has then been estimated using eco data for raw materials, manufacturing processes, transportation, and operation and maintenance processes. For a typical 45.2 meter 1.5 MW blade this is 795 GJ (CO2 footprint 42.1 tonnes), dominated by manufacturing processes and raw materials (96% of the total. Based on the 2014 installed capacity, the total mass of WTB is 78 kt, their energy consumption is 82 TJ and the carbon dioxide footprint is 4.35 Mt. These figures will provide a basis for suggesting possible solutions to reduce WTB environmental impact.

  15. Environmental impact of scrapping old cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, Bert van; Moll, Henri C.; Dirks, Jessica

    Many countries introduced scrapping programs in the 90s, partly legitimated by environmental impact reductions. However, reducing the age of the current car fleet may result in an increase of life-cycle CO2 emissions. This will probably also be true for cars to be produced in future unless fuel

  16. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  17. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project...

  18. Oceanic Impact: Mechanisms and Environmental Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersonde, Rainer (Editor); Deutsch, Alex (Editor); Ivanov, Boris A. (Editor); Kyte, Frank T. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The contents include the following: Oceanic impacts-a growing field of fundamental geoscience. Shock metamorphism on the ocean floor (numerical simulations). Numerical modeling of impact-induced modifications of the deep-sea floor. Computer modelling of the water resurge at a marine impact: the Lockne crater, Sweden. Experimental investigation of the role of water in impact vaporization chemistry. Calcareous plankton stratigraphy around the Pliocene Eltanin asteroid impact area (SE Pacific): documentation and application for geological and paleoceanographic reconstruction. Composition of impact melt debris from the Eltanin impact strewn field, Bellingshausen Sea. Iridium concentrations and abundances of meteoritic ejecta from the Eltanin impact in sediment cores from Polarstern expedition ANT XII/4. Unmelted meteoritic debris collected from Eltanin ejecta in Polarstern cores from expedition ANT XII/4. Impact tsunami-Eltanin. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America. The Mjolnir marine impact crater porosity anomaly. Kardla (Hiiu-maa Island, Estonia) - the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure. Long-term effect of the Kardla crater (Hiiu-maa, Estonia) on Late Ordovician carbonate sedimentation. The middle Devonian Kaluga impact crater (Russia): new interpretation of marine setting.

  19. Investigating the Trade-Off Between Power Generation and Environmental Impact of Tidal-Turbine Arrays Using Array Layout Optimisation and Habitat Sustainability Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Feu, R. J.; Funke, S. W.; Kramer, S. C.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    The installation of tidal turbines into the ocean will inevitably affect the environment around them. However, due to the relative infancy of this sector the extent and severity of such effects is unknown. The layout of an array of turbines is an important factor in determining not only the array's final yield but also how it will influence regional hydrodynamics. This in turn could affect, for example, sediment transportation or habitat suitability. The two potentially competing objectives of extracting energy from the tidal current, and of limiting any environmental impact consequent to influencing that current, are investigated here. This relationship is posed as a multi-objective optimisation problem. OpenTidalFarm, an array layout optimisation tool, and MaxEnt, habitat sustainability modelling software, are used to evaluate scenarios off the coast of the UK. MaxEnt is used to estimate the likelihood of finding a species in a given location based upon environmental input data and presence data of the species. Environmental features which are known to impact habitat, specifically those affected by the presence of an array, such as bed shear stress, are chosen as inputs. MaxEnt then uses a maximum-entropy modelling approach to estimate population distribution across the modelled area. OpenTidalFarm is used to maximise the power generated by an array, or multiple arrays, through adjusting the position and number of turbines within them. It uses a 2D shallow water model with turbine arrays represented as adjustable friction fields. It has the capability to also optimise for user created functionals that can be expressed mathematically. This work uses two functionals; power extracted by the array, and the suitability of habitat as predicted by MaxEnt. A gradient-based local optimisation is used to adjust the array layout at each iteration. This work presents arrays that are optimised for both yield and the viability of habitat for chosen species. In each scenario

  20. World aquaculture: environmental impacts and troubleshooting alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  1. Addressing the impact of environmental uncertainty in plankton model calibration with a dedicated software system: the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. P. Hemmings

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of different marine plankton system models have been coupled with ocean circulation models, with the aim of understanding and predicting aspects of environmental change. However, an ability to make reliable inferences about real-world processes from the model behaviour demands a quantitative understanding of model error that remains elusive. Assessment of coupled model output is inhibited by relatively limited observing system coverage of biogeochemical components. Any direct assessment of the plankton model is further inhibited by uncertainty in the physical state. Furthermore, comparative evaluation of plankton models on the basis of their design is inhibited by the sensitivity of their dynamics to many adjustable parameters. The Marine Model Optimization Testbed is a new software tool designed for rigorous analysis of plankton models in a multi-site 1-D framework, in particular to address uncertainty issues in model assessment. A flexible user interface ensures its suitability to more general inter-comparison, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, including model comparison at the level of individual processes, and to state estimation for specific locations.

    The principal features of MarMOT are described and its application to model calibration is demonstrated by way of a set of twin experiments, in which synthetic observations are assimilated in an attempt to recover the true parameter values of a known system. The experimental aim is to investigate the effect of different misfit weighting schemes on parameter recovery in the presence of error in the plankton model's environmental input data. Simulated errors are derived from statistical characterizations of the mixed layer depth, the horizontal flux divergences of the biogeochemical tracers and the initial state. Plausible patterns of uncertainty in these data are shown to produce strong temporal and spatial variability in the expected simulation error over an annual

  2. Predictions of models for environmental radiological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Sueli da Silva; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa, E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br, E-mail: dejanira@irg.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Servico de Avaliacao de Impacto Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mahler, Claudio Fernando [Coppe. Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) - Programa de Engenharia Civil, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the field of environmental impact assessment, models are used for estimating source term, environmental dispersion and transfer of radionuclides, exposure pathway, radiation dose and the risk for human beings Although it is recognized that the specific information of local data are important to improve the quality of the dose assessment results, in fact obtaining it can be very difficult and expensive. Sources of uncertainties are numerous, among which we can cite: the subjectivity of modelers, exposure scenarios and pathways, used codes and general parameters. The various models available utilize different mathematical approaches with different complexities that can result in different predictions. Thus, for the same inputs different models can produce very different outputs. This paper presents briefly the main advances in the field of environmental radiological assessment that aim to improve the reliability of the models used in the assessment of environmental radiological impact. The intercomparison exercise of model supplied incompatible results for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, enhancing the need for developing reference methodologies for environmental radiological assessment that allow to confront dose estimations in a common comparison base. The results of the intercomparison exercise are present briefly. (author)

  3. Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Pallavicini

    2001-05-04

    Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation.

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Implicit Environmental Impacts of Construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Xiao-gen; LI Hui-qiang; TANG Li

    2009-01-01

    Assessment system of implicit environmental impacts was established including environmental impact indicator, resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantification of environmental impact indicators is based on the life cycle assessment system of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the evaluation software BEES. Normalization reference values and weights of 12 categories of environmental impacts were identified, and the environmental impact indicators in the phases of raw material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, use and end of life were analyzed. By analyzing the environmental performance of a university refectory as a case study, it is demonstrated that human health, global warming and acidification are the first three environmental impacts in 12 categories. The total implicit environmental impact load per square meter of this project is 18.448×10~(-2) standard human equivalent weight. Moreover, 97.3% of total environmental impacts occur in the phase of raw material extraction.

  5. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action involving...

  6. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the environmental...

  7. 78 FR 8964 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ...-AB03 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), Federal... environmental assessment or an environmental impact statement. DATES: Effective on February 7, 2013. FOR FURTHER... the list of project types that normally result in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement...

  8. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact... CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.63 Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (a) Initial determination. OJP will determine...

  9. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  10. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance with...

  11. 77 FR 15310 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... analysis and documentation associated with an Environmental Assessment or an Environmental Impact Statement... environmental impact statement is required.'' CEQ guidance on establishing CEs, issued in November 2010... through a new paragraph, (i)(4), to encourage the posting of all environmental impact statements (EIS...

  12. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... significant impacts on the environment. When the applicant, after consultation with any project sponsor that...

  13. Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

  14. Environmental Radioactive Impact Associated to Uranium Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One century of uranium mining in Europe and North-America created a legacy of ore mining and milling sites needing rehabilitation for environmental and human safety. In the last decades developments of uranium mining displaced the core of this activity to Australia, Canada and African countries. In the coming years, uranium mining is expected to grow further, in those countries and elsewhere, due to the possible increase of nuclear power production and thus the amount of radioactive and toxic tailing materials will grow. Approach: International radiation protection guidelines and legislation have known recent developments and set the radiation dose limit applied to members of the public at 1 mSv y-1. Taking into account past and present uranium waste management and environmental remediation measures adopted already in some countries, we assessed the implications of enforcing this new dose limit in uranium milling and mining areas. Results: The radioactive impact of uranium mining and milling was illustrated through case studies. Environmental radioactivity monitoring and surveillance carried out in areas impacted by uranium mining and milling industry showed generally that dose limit for members of the public was exceeded. The compliance with this dose limit is nowadays the main goal for environmental remediation programs of legacy sites implemented in European Union countries. Taking into account the new radiation protection regulations, a change is required in mining practices from traditionally reactionary (problem solving to proactive (integrated management and life-cycle approach. Conclusion: A new paradigm in uranium mining should be implemented worldwide to ensure reduced environmental radioactivity impact current and future reduced radiation risk exposure of population.

  15. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... Impact Statements § 51.74 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft...

  16. Innovative energy technologies in energy-economy models: assessing economic, energy and environmental impacts of climate policy and technological change in Germany.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.

    2007-04-18

    Energy technologies and innovation are considered to play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. Yet, the representation of technologies in energy-economy models, which are used extensively to analyze the economic, energy and environmental impacts of alternative energy and climate policies, is rather limited. This dissertation presents advanced techniques of including technological innovations in energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. New methods are explored and applied for improving the realism of energy production and consumption in such top-down models. The dissertation addresses some of the main criticism of general equilibrium models in the field of energy and climate policy analysis: The lack of detailed sectoral and technical disaggregation, the restricted view on innovation and technological change, and the lack of extended greenhouse gas mitigation options. The dissertation reflects on the questions of (1) how to introduce innovation and technological change in a computable general equilibrium model as well as (2) what additional and policy relevant information is gained from using these methodologies. Employing a new hybrid approach of incorporating technology-specific information for electricity generation and iron and steel production in a dynamic multi-sector computable equilibrium model it can be concluded that technology-specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policy, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure. Additionally, the dissertation shows that learning-by-doing in renewable energy takes place in the renewable electricity sector but is equally important in upstream sectors that produce technologies, i.e. machinery and equipment, for renewable electricity generation. The differentiation of learning effects in export sectors, such as renewable energy technologies, matters for the economic assessment of climate policies because of effects on international

  17. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Environmental Impact of Buildings--What Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Niko; Mutel, Christopher L; Steubing, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, York; Wallbaum, Holger; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-08-18

    The goal of this study was to identify drivers of environmental impact and quantify their influence on the environmental performance of wooden and massive residential and office buildings. We performed a life cycle assessment and used thermal simulation to quantify operational energy demand and to account for differences in thermal inertia of building mass. Twenty-eight input parameters, affecting operation, design, material, and exogenic building properties were sampled in a Monte Carlo analysis. To determine sensitivity, we calculated the correlation between each parameter and the resulting life cycle inventory and impact assessment scores. Parameters affecting operational energy demand and energy conversion are the most influential for the building's total environmental performance. For climate change, electricity mix, ventilation rate, heating system, and construction material rank the highest. Thermal inertia results in an average 2-6% difference in heat demand. Nonrenewable cumulative energy demand of wooden buildings is 18% lower, compared to a massive variant. Total cumulative energy demand is comparable. The median climate change impact is 25% lower, including end-of-life material credits and 22% lower, when credits are excluded. The findings are valid for small offices and residential buildings in Switzerland and regions with similar building culture, construction material production, and climate.

  19. 75 FR 26272 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite... Environmental Impact Statement for development of a new environmental education center in Yosemite National Park... practical the NPS will begin to implement development of a new environmental education center at...

  20. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be...

  1. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

  2. Discussion of Environmental Problem and Study of Environmental Impact on Steel Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The environmental conditions in steel industry were discussed in detail. It was also pointed out that it was necessary to reduce the quantity of waste generated and discharged by improving the raw material, energy structure and consumption rate, and reinforcing the waste control and management. At the same time, the relevant mathematical models of environmental impact were set up on the basis of raw material consumption, energy consumption and waste generation and discharge in different technical routes of steelmaking. The result showed that the production route of DR-iron clearly has more environmental advantages over that of BF-hot metal.

  3. Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1986-03-01

    Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

  4. Stakeholder Pressures, Environmental Impact and Managerial Initiatives of SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    impact was available in Denmark. Consequently, a longitudinal research project was initiated to enlighten the situation. This study investigates environmentally related initiatives taken in response to the perception of stakeholder pressures and the perceived corporate environmental impact. The empirical...

  5. 77 FR 46790 - Environmental Impact Statement: Dane County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Dane County, WI AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY:...

  6. Environmental impact assessment of the nuclear reactor at Vinca, based on the data on emission of radioactivity from the literature: A modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gršić Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research activities of Vinca Institite have been based on two heavy water research reactors: 10 MW one, RA and zero power RB. Reactor RA was operational from 1962 to 1982. In 2010, spent fuel have been sent to the country of origin, and reactor now is in decommissioning. During operational phase of the reactor there were no recorded accidental releases into the environment just operational ones. Results of the environmental impact assessment, of the assumed emission of radionuclides, from the ventilation of nuclear reactor "RA" in Vinca, to the atmospheric boundary layer are presented in this paper. Evaluation was done by using the Gaussian straight-line diffusion model and taking into account characteristics of the reactor ventilation system, the assumed emission release of radioactivity (from the literature, site-specific meteorological data for six-year period and local topography around nuclear reactor, and corresponding dose factors for inventory of radionuclides. Based on the described approach, and assuming that the range of appropriate meteorological data for six year period for the application of described mathematical model is enough for this kind of analysis, it can be concluded that the nuclear reactor "RA", in the course of its work from 1962 to 1982, had no influence on the surrounding environment through the air above regulatory limits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45003

  7. Lifetimes of atmospheric species: Integrating environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Michael J.

    2002-11-01

    The environmental damage caused by atmospheric pollutants is proportional to the duration of their effects. The global impacts of greenhouse gases (as measured by global warming potential) and ozone depleting substances (as measured by ozone depletion potential) have traditionally been calculated using the atmospheric lifetime of the source gas as a quantitative measure of the impact's duration, assuming that the gas quickly reaches a steady-state pattern which decays exponentially according to the lifetime. This assumed behavior obviously does not match the true rise and fall of impacts, particularly secondary ones like ozone depletion, that can be seen in numerical integrations or chemical mode decomposition. Here, the modes decomposition is used to prove that: (a) the steady-state pattern of impacts caused by specified emissions, multiplied by (b) the steady-state lifetime of the source gas for that emission pattern, is exactly equal to (c) the integral of all impacts - independent of the number and atmospheric residence times of secondary impacts.

  8. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... with an effective environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and ... and legal instruments and consultation with concerned stakeholders by emphasizing the ...

  9. Hydrological and hydrogeological effects of an open repository in Forsmark. Final MIKE SHE flow modelling results for the Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    This report presents methodology and modelling results concerning a deep-rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark. Specifically, the modelling tools MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 and MOUSE are used to quantify the groundwater inflow to the repository and associated hydrological and hydrogeological effects during the construction and operation phases. The modelling results presented in the report provide input to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that will be part of a permit application according to the Environmental Code. Based on an existing MIKE SHE model for Forsmark, the first step of the modelling process was to implement an updated hydrogeological model of the bedrock and to increase the vertical and horizontal extents of the model domain. Other model updates involve the vegetation classification, and implementation of SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste) and the subsurface drainage system at the nearby nuclear power plant. The updated model was calibrated using measured data on groundwater levels in the Quaternary deposits and the bedrock, water levels in lakes, and stream discharges. The calibrated model was then used for simulation of undisturbed conditions (i.e. without the repository) as a reference for modelling results obtained for disturbed conditions (with the repository). The modelling results for undisturbed conditions that are presented in the report closely resemble those of the final MIKE SHE site descriptive modelling (SDM-Site Forsmark). The repository layout was implemented as pipe links (segments) in the modelling tool MOUSE, and the implemented layout was used for the modelling of disturbed conditions. The study uses an updated and verified MIKE SHE-MOUSE coupling routine that is specifically adapted for calculation of groundwater inflow to grouted rock tunnels. The vertical shafts of the repository are implemented in the form of MIKE SHE grid cells with atmospheric pressure. Modelling results for disturbed

  10. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legislative environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a...

  11. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CSREES official specified in § 3407.4(b) that the changes are pertinent to environmental concerns, a... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.11 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving...

  12. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and final...

  13. 24 CFR 58.37 - Environmental impact statement determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statement... Classification § 58.37 Environmental impact statement determinations. (a) An EIS is required when the project is... and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL...

  14. Philippine Environmental Impact Assessment, Mining and Genuine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ingelson, William Holden & Meriam Bravante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Genuine development reflects sustainability. To promote genuine development in the context of mining, the environmental impact assessment process in the Philippines needs to be changed to respect ecological integrity, mitigate cumulative environmental effects, provide more information on environmental impacts to residents affected by a proposed mine and facilitate meaningful public participation in the impact assessment process.

  15. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement and...

  16. 77 FR 25781 - Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC AGENCY: U.S. Federal Highway... of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). SUMMARY: The U.S. Federal Highway... Washington, DC is issuing this notice to advise agencies and the public that a Draft Environmental Impact...

  17. 77 FR 25782 - Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed transportation... Transportation (IDOT) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a project that involves improved...

  18. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6...

  19. 77 FR 6622 - Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal Highway... public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Caddo... Council of Governments (NLCOG), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposal to...

  20. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13... Exemptions § 503.13 Environmental impact analysis. In order to enable OFE to comply with NEPA, a petitioner..., and land resources; (3) Direct and indirect environmental impacts of the proposed action including...

  1. 76 FR 6461 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 01/24/2011 through 01/28/2011 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In..., Evaluates Environmental Impacts of Stationing Army Combat Aviation Brigade at Fort Carson, CO and Joint Base...

  2. 78 FR 20714 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois AGENCY: Federal... revised notice of intent to advise the public that an environmental impact statement is being prepared for... Transportation, is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve Interstate 290 (I...

  3. 75 FR 10254 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Doc No: 2010-4699] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8988-6] Environmental Impact Statements...-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02... Impacts, Oakland City to Washington, (IN-64 to US 50), Gibson, Pike and Daviess Counties, IN, Wait Period...

  4. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Los Angeles County, California... Environmental Impact Statement on a proposal for the State Route 710 Gap North Closure project in Los Angeles...

  5. 75 FR 69154 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kern County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kern County, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Rescind Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed 24th Street Improvement Project in Kern...

  6. 77 FR 59875 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Part 622 FTA RIN 2132-AB04 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures AGENCY: Federal Highway... repair project that do not typically involve significant environmental impacts. Specifically, the FHWA... damaged facility to address concerns such as safety and environmental impacts. The agencies also seek...

  7. 76 FR 53531 - Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS AGENCY: Federal Highway... this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a proposed... Transportation (MDOT), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed widening and/or...

  8. 78 FR 75919 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/02/2013 through 12/06/2013 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section..., Interstate 66 Corridor Tier 1 Final Environmental Impact Statement and Tier 1 Record of Decision, Contact...

  9. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 775.11 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.11 Environmental impact statements. (a) Determining scope. Before an environmental impact statement is prepared, the following procedures must be followed to determine what issues...

  10. 78 FR 59414 - Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed project to (1) manage congestion and...

  11. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  12. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  13. Environmental impact and management of phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayibi, Hanan; Choura, Mohamed; López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; López-Delgado, Aurora

    2009-06-01

    The production of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock by the wet process gives rise to an industrial by-product called phosphogypsum (PG). About 5 tons of PG are generated per ton of phosphoric acid production, and worldwide PG generation is estimated to be around 100-280 Mt per year. This by-product is mostly disposed of without any treatment, usually by dumping in large stockpiles. These are generally located in coastal areas close to phosphoric acid plants, where they occupy large land areas and cause serious environmental damage. PG is mainly composed of gypsum but also contains a high level of impurities such as phosphates, fluorides and sulphates, naturally occurring radionuclides, heavy metals, and other trace elements. All of this adds up to a negative environmental impact and many restrictions on PG applications. Up to 15% of world PG production is used to make building materials, as a soil amendment and as a set controller in the manufacture of Portland cement; uses that have been banned in most countries. The USEPA has classified PG as a "Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material" (TENORM). This work reviews the different environmental impacts associated with PG storage and disposal. The methods described in the literature to minimise the negative effects of this waste are classified by treatment type, i.e. physical, chemical, thermal, etc., and different suggested applications for PG are detailed.

  14. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  15. Is Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James D; Sutton, Paul C; Werner, Adrian D; Costanza, Robert; Mohr, Steve H; Simmons, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    The argument that human society can decouple economic growth-defined as growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP)-from growth in environmental impacts is appealing. If such decoupling is possible, it means that GDP growth is a sustainable societal goal. Here we show that the decoupling concept can be interpreted using an easily understood model of economic growth and environmental impact. The simple model is compared to historical data and modelled projections to demonstrate that growth in GDP ultimately cannot be decoupled from growth in material and energy use. It is therefore misleading to develop growth-oriented policy around the expectation that decoupling is possible. We also note that GDP is increasingly seen as a poor proxy for societal wellbeing. GDP growth is therefore a questionable societal goal. Society can sustainably improve wellbeing, including the wellbeing of its natural assets, but only by discarding GDP growth as the goal in favor of more comprehensive measures of societal wellbeing.

  16. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiven...

  17. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  18. Modeling interfacial liquid layers on environmental ices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Kuo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interfacial layers on ice significantly influence air-ice chemical interactions. In solute-containing aqueous systems, a liquid brine may form upon freezing due to the exclusion of impurities from the ice crystal lattice coupled with freezing point depression in the concentrated brine. The brine may be segregated to the air-ice interface where it creates a surface layer, in micropockets, or at grain boundaries or triple junctions.

    We present a model for brines and their associated liquid layers in environmental ice systems that is valid over a wide range of temperatures and solute concentrations. The model is derived from fundamental equlibrium thermodynamics and takes into account nonideal solution behavior in the brine, partitioning of the solute into the ice matrix, and equilibration between the brine and the gas phase for volatile solutes. We find that these phenomena are important to consider when modeling brines in environmental ices, especially at low temperatures. We demonstrate its application for environmentally important volatile and nonvolatile solutes including NaCl, HCl, and HNO3. The model is compared to existing models and experimental data from literature where available. We also identify environmentally relevant regimes where brine is not predicted to exist, but the QLL may significantly impact air-ice chemical interactions. This model can be used to improve the representation of air-ice chemical interactions in polar atmospheric chemistry models.

  19. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession......Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era......, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach...

  20. Environmental impact of used motor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R.

    1989-02-01

    The information concerning the effects of used motor oil on the environment is reviewed. The production and fate of used motor oil are analyzed and the effects on soil and aquatic organisms are described. The combustion of waste crankcase oil, with particular reference to environmental impact, is discussed. The mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of used motor oil are described. Information on the biodegradation of lubricating motor oil is also reviewed. The available information shows that used motor oil is a very dangerous polluting product. As a consequence of its chemical composition, world-wide dispersion and effects on the environment, used motor oil must be considered a serious environmental problem. 3 tabs., 114 refs.

  1. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  2. 75 FR 21252 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Department of the Army; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for Phase 3 of Reclamation District No. 17 100-Year Levee Seepage... statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for Phase 3 of Reclamation District No. 17's (RD 17)...

  3. Communication models in environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2013-01-01

    Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATE PROVIDING WITH MANAGERIAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri, A. H. Mahvi, M. Younesian, R. Nabizadeh, I. Hashemi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available At this study, an environmental impact assessment establishment of Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulted from establishment of the industrial estate were investigated, using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the environmental harmful impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done regarding to the amount and kind of predicted pollutions for industrial estate at the construction and operational phases. The environmental impact assessment of the investigated estate was studied at the three terms of immediate, direct and indirect impacts at the short, medium and long term. By expanding of Leopold Matrix to four parted matrix, in addition to amount, importance and extend of the impacts, the remaining duration of impact in the environment were assessed as a separate factor in environmental impact assessment. The results of the study with two alternatives, such as; No (performance of the project with no concern for environmental issue and as yes (performance of the project with application of the environmental harmful impacts were studied in construction and operation phases. The impact assessment of "NO" property resulted (-1065, therefore the execution of project was rejected, but after reducing the harmful impact performance which were resulted (+1095 has been accepted. Therefore, method of reducing harmful environmental impacts along with environmental management programs introduced and accepted in this study.

  5. Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Department of Fish and Game. The Rincon Indian Reservation also commented. Agencies expressed concern for biological, cultural, and water resources...Environmental Impact Statement 49 Figure 12. Vegetative Provinces of the Sonoran Desert. SO U RC E : Shreve & W igg ins, 1964 Needles Yum a San Luis ...County 76,205 106,895 119,650 Major Communities San Luis 1,946 4,212 7,910 Somerton 3,969 5,282 5,970 Wellton 911 1,066 1,075 Yuma 42,481 54,923 60,150

  6. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and...

  7. Modeling Environmental Literacy of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teksoz, Gaye; Sahin, Elvan; Tekkaya-Oztekin, Ceren

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposed an Environmental Literacy Components Model to explain how environmental attitudes, environmental responsibility, environmental concern, and environmental knowledge as well as outdoor activities related to each other. A total of 1,345 university students responded to an environmental literacy survey (Kaplowitz and Levine…

  8. Challenges in Modelling of Environmental Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Athanasiadis, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling environmental semantics is a prerequisite for model and data interoperabilty and reuse, both essential for integrated modelling. This paper previews a landscape where integrated modelling activities are performed in a virtual environmental information space, and identifies challenges impos

  9. Use of environmental impacts in sensor scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Peter J.; Gioioso, Marisa; Snell, Hilary E.

    2010-04-01

    Current surveillance systems operate in a highly dynamic environment in which large numbers of sensors on board multiple platforms must cooperate in order to achieve overall mission success. In an attempt to maximize sensor performance, today's sensors employ rudimentary or, in some cases, inflexible sensor tasking schemes. These approaches are highly tuned to a specific scenario and geometry and are inflexible to changes in the mission, environmental conditions, heterogeneous sensors, and different system architectures. As the complexity of the problem space increases and new sensors become available, it is critical to have a sensor management scheme that is capable of incorporating new environmental knowledge, new sensors and different systems approaches with minimal computational impact on the overall system. Each system should develop an autonomous sensor tasking capability which factors in global concerns within the complete distributed network of platforms and sensors. Moreover, tasking efficiency can be improved by a highly developed understanding of sensor performance at each point in time. This can be achieved by incorporating the impact of problem geometry - sensor location, track object type and view angle - and weather phenomena, such as clouds, aerosols, turbulence and sun glint. This paper describes our approach for simultaneously optimizing sensor resource management, surveillance objectives, and atmospheric transmission of signals while minimizing sensor and environmental noise. Our approach uses a genetic algorithm to evolve a population of sensor tasking assignments through constantly-updating track locations, weather conditions, and lighting conditions. Preliminary studies demonstrate encouraging improvements in sensor management performance. We will present results from our preliminary studies and discuss a path forward for our technology.

  10. Adolescents' perspectives and food choice behaviors in terms of the environmental impacts of food production practices: application of a psychosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, M M; Contento, I R

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate adolescents' perspectives about the environmental impacts of food production practices and whether these perspectives are related to their food choice. Food choice was operationalized as consumption and purchase of organic foods and locally grown foods. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of adolescents and analyzed for descriptive information and relationships among variables. Subjects were 651 ethnically diverse, urban and suburban high school senior students in a major metropolitan area. Variables of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior were measured including beliefs, attitudes, perceived social influences, motivation to comply, perceived behavioral control, self-identity, perceived responsibility, behavioral intention, and behavior. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used. Surveyed adolescents did not have strong or consistent beliefs or attitudes about the environmental impact of food production practices. Cognitive-motivational processes were at work, however, since their perspectives were significantly correlated with behavioral intentions and food choice behaviors. Behavioral intention was best accounted for by attitudes and perceived social influences (and perceived responsibility for organic food), and behavior was best accounted for by behavioral intentions, beliefs, and perceived social influences (and self-identity for local food). There is a need to make salient to adolescents the environmental impact of food production practices through both cognitive and experiential approaches.

  11. Working toward Healthy and Sustainable Diets: The "Double Pyramid Model" Developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to Raise Awareness about the Environmental and Nutritional Impact of Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruini, Luca Fernando; Ciati, Roberto; Pratesi, Carlo Alberto; Marino, Massimo; Principato, Ludovica; Vannuzzi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has produced an updated version of the traditional food pyramid based on the Mediterranean diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid Model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed less frequently are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous) included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian) included animal products (eggs and dairy) but no flesh; and the third (vegan) was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption.

  12. 76 FR 41817 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Alta East Wind Project, and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Kern... comments on issues and alternatives related to the Alta East Wind Project Draft EIS/EIR and CDCA Plan...), which may include an amendment to the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan (1980 as...

  13. Environmental Observatories and Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Duncan, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    During the past several years, the environmental sciences community has been attempting to design large- scale obsevatories that will transform the science. A watershed-based observatory has emerged as an effective landscape unit for a broad range of environmental sciences and engineering. For an effective observatory, modeling is a central requirement because models are precise statements of the hypothesized conceptual organization of watersheds and of the processes believed to be controlling hydrology of the watershed. Furthermore, models can serve to determine the value of existing data and the incremental value of any additional data to be collected. Given limited resources, such valuation is mandatory for an objective design of an observatory. Modeling is one part of a "digital watershed" that must be constructed for any observatory, a concept that has been developed by the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information Systems project. A digital watershed has three functions. First, it permits assembly of time series (such as stream discharge or precipitation measurements), static spatial coverages (such as topography), and dynamic fields (such as precipitation radar and other remotely sensed data). Second, based upon this common data description, a digital observatory permits multiple conceptualizations of the observatory to be created and to be stored. These conceptualizations could range from lumped box-and-arrow watershed models, to semi-distributed topographically based models, to three-dimensional finite element models. Finally, each conceptualization can lead to multiple models--that is, a set of equations that quantitatively describe hydrologic (or biogeochemical or geomorphologic) processes through libraries of tools that can be linked as workflow sequences. The advances in cyberinfrastructure that allow the storage of multiple conceptualizations and multiple model formulations of these conceptualizations promise to accelerate advances in environmental science both

  14. 75 FR 28612 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 05/10/2010 Through 05/14/2010 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  15. 78 FR 78955 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/16/2013 through 12/20/2013 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  16. 78 FR 4586 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK ACTION: Notice of intent... issuing this notice to advise the public that FHWA will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Meetings will be held in the early Spring of 2013 to receive oral and written comments on environmental...

  17. 76 FR 13401 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02/28/2011 Through 03/04/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice: In...

  18. 77 FR 793 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/27/2011 through 12/30/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  19. 76 FR 65775 - Environmental Impact Statement: Harris County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Harris County, Texas AGENCY: Federal... this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared for the... Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). FOR FURTHER...

  20. 78 FR 4143 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/07/2013 Through 01/11/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  1. 76 FR 36613 - Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared for the proposed United... (SAFETEA-LU) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gregory...

  2. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for the 75th Street... comprises several elements of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program...

  3. 77 FR 5513 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/23/2012 Through 01/27/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice Section 309...

  4. 78 FR 2397 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/31/2012 Through 01/04/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  5. 75 FR 38517 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 06/21/2010 through 06/25/210. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  6. 77 FR 74479 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/03/2012 Through 12/07/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  7. 77 FR 2979 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/09/2012 Through 01/13/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  8. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things, the...

  9. 77 FR 62235 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 198 (Friday, October 12, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 62235] [FR Doc No: 2012-25154] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9005-5] Environmental Impacts Statements...-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed...

  10. 78 FR 5439 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/14/2013 Through 01/18/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice Section 309...

  11. 76 FR 17185 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for the Grand Crossing... overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program (CREATE), a joint effort of the...

  12. 75 FR 65320 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/11/2010 Through 10/15/2010 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  13. 78 FR 43200 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/08/2013 Through 07/12/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  14. 75 FR 72823 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements ] Filed 11/15/2010 Through 11/19/2010. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  15. 77 FR 2060 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/03/2012 Through 01/06/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. NOTICE: Section...

  16. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare and...

  17. 78 FR 20632 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 03/25/2013 Through 03/29/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  18. Quantification of environmental impacts of various energy technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfors, A. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses problems related to economic assessment of the environmental impacts and abatement measures in connection with energy projects. Attention is called to the necessity of assessing environmental impacts both in the form of reduced economic welfare and in the form of costs of abatement measures to reduce the impact. In recent years, several methods for valuing environmental impacts have been developed, but the project shows that few empirical studies have been carried out. The final report indicates that some important factors are very difficult to evaluate. In addition environmental impacts of energy development in Norway vary considerably from project to project. This makes it difficult to obtain a good basis for comparing environmental impacts caused by different technologies, for instance hydroelectric power versus gas power or wind versus hydroelectric power. It might be feasible however to carry out more detailed economic assessments of environmental impacts of specific projects. 33 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Environmental risk assessment of registered insecticides in Iran using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moinoddini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, pesticides have been used extensively, in order to control pests and plant diseases, but negative impacts of pesticides caused several environmental problems and put human health in danger. In order to decrease environmental hazards of pesticide, risk of pesticide application should be measured briefly and precisely. In this study environmental impacts of registered insecticides in Iran which applied in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, are considered using environmental impact quotient (EIQ index. Results showed that among considered insecticides, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Tiodicarb, potentially (EIQ were the most hazardous insecticides, respectively. Taking rate of application and active ingredient of insecticide in to account, environmental impact (practical toxicity per cultivated hectare (EIQ Field of each provinces were investigated. In this regard, among different province of Iran, Kerman, Mazandaran and Golestan were in danger more than the others, respectively. Besides, considering the amount of agricultural production in provinces, environmental impact per ton of production were calculated for each provinces which three northern provinces of Mazandaran, Golestan and Guilan, respectively endure the most environmental impact per ton of production. Eventually based on environmental impact quotient, results demonstrated that majority of environmental impacts of insecticide in Iran were due to inadequate knowledge and also overuse of a few number of insecticides. Therefore, by improving knowledge about environmental impact of pesticides and also developing environmental friendly and ecological based methods, negative environmental impacts of insecticides will be reduced significantly.

  20. Streamlining environmental product declarations: a stage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Louis A.; Talbot, Stephane; Le Hen, Gael

    2001-02-01

    General public environmental awareness and education is increasing, therefore stimulating the demand for reliable, objective and comparable information about products' environmental performances. The recently published standard series ISO 14040 and ISO 14025 are normalizing the preparation of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) containing comprehensive information relevant to a product's environmental impact during its life cycle. So far, only a few environmentally leading manufacturing organizations have experimented the preparation of EPDs (mostly from Europe), demonstrating its great potential as a marketing weapon. However the preparation of EPDs is a complex process, requiring collection and analysis of massive amounts of information coming from disparate sources (suppliers, sub-contractors, etc.). In a foreseeable future, the streamlining of the EPD preparation process will require product manufacturers to adapt their information systems (ERP, MES, SCADA) in order to make them capable of gathering, and transmitting the appropriate environmental information. It also requires strong functional integration all along the product supply chain in order to ensure that all the information is made available in a standardized and timely manner. The goal of the present paper is two fold: first to propose a transitional model towards green supply chain management and EPD preparation; second to identify key technologies and methodologies allowing to streamline the EPD process and subsequently the transition toward sustainable product development

  1. Environmental forecasting and turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. C. R.

    This review describes the fundamental assumptions and current methodologies of the two main kinds of environmental forecast; the first is valid for a limited period of time into the future and over a limited space-time ‘target’, and is largely determined by the initial and preceding state of the environment, such as the weather or pollution levels, up to the time when the forecast is issued and by its state at the edges of the region being considered; the second kind provides statistical information over long periods of time and/or over large space-time targets, so that they only depend on the statistical averages of the initial and ‘edge’ conditions. Environmental forecasts depend on the various ways that models are constructed. These range from those based on the ‘reductionist’ methodology (i.e., the combination of separate, scientifically based, models for the relevant processes) to those based on statistical methodologies, using a mixture of data and scientifically based empirical modeling. These are, as a rule, focused on specific quantities required for the forecast. The persistence and predictability of events associated with environmental and turbulent flows and the reasons for variation in the accuracy of their forecasts (of the first and second kinds) are now better understood and better modeled. This has partly resulted from using analogous results of disordered chaotic systems, and using the techniques of calculating ensembles of realizations, ideally involving several different models, so as to incorporate in the probabilistic forecasts a wider range of possible events. The rationale for such an approach needs to be developed. However, other insights have resulted from the recognition of the ordered, though randomly occurring, nature of the persistent motions in these flows, whose scales range from those of synoptic weather patterns (whether storms or ‘blocked’ anticyclones) to small scale vortices. These eigen states can be predicted

  2. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  3. Testing and validating environmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J.W.; Hooper, R.P.; Kendall, C.; Neal, C.; Leavesley, G.

    1996-01-01

    Generally accepted standards for testing and validating ecosystem models would benefit both modellers and model users. Universally applicable test procedures are difficult to prescribe, given the diversity of modelling approaches and the many uses for models. However, the generally accepted scientific principles of documentation and disclosure provide a useful framework for devising general standards for model evaluation. Adequately documenting model tests requires explicit performance criteria, and explicit benchmarks against which model performance is compared. A model's validity, reliability, and accuracy can be most meaningfully judged by explicit comparison against the available alternatives. In contrast, current practice is often characterized by vague, subjective claims that model predictions show 'acceptable' agreement with data; such claims provide little basis for choosing among alternative models. Strict model tests (those that invalid models are unlikely to pass) are the only ones capable of convincing rational skeptics that a model is probably valid. However, 'false positive' rates as low as 10% can substantially erode the power of validation tests, making them insufficiently strict to convince rational skeptics. Validation tests are often undermined by excessive parameter calibration and overuse of ad hoc model features. Tests are often also divorced from the conditions under which a model will be used, particularly when it is designed to forecast beyond the range of historical experience. In such situations, data from laboratory and field manipulation experiments can provide particularly effective tests, because one can create experimental conditions quite different from historical data, and because experimental data can provide a more precisely defined 'target' for the model to hit. We present a simple demonstration showing that the two most common methods for comparing model predictions to environmental time series (plotting model time series

  4. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of

  5. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of de

  6. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...

  7. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on...

  8. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.

  9. Ecological risk assessment as a framework for environmental impact assessments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments in South Africa are usually conducted according to the integrated environmental management (IEM) procedure. The preliminary investigation reported here, indicated that most of the ecological requirements specified...

  10. 77 FR 20690 - Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico AGENCY... the Interstate 25 and Paseo del Norte Interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Heitmann, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, New Mexico...

  11. 75 FR 36386 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Extension, Address Transportation Problems and Deficiencies, Cities of Pasadena, Arcadia, Monrovia, Durate... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal...

  12. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  13. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSchmitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders.

  14. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  15. A mathematical model for environmental risk assessment in manufacturing industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何莉萍; 徐盛明; 陈大川; 党创寅

    2002-01-01

    Environmental conscious manufacturing has become an important issue in industry because of market pressure and environmental regulations. An environmental risk assessment model was developed based on the network analytic method and fuzzy set theory. The "interval analysis method" was applied to deal with the on-site monitoring data as basic information for assessment. In addition, the fuzzy set theory was employed to allow uncertain, interactive and dynamic information to be effectively incorporated into the environmental risk assessment. This model is a simple, practical and effective tool for evaluating the environmental risk of manufacturing industry and for analyzing the relative impacts of emission wastes, which are hazardous to both human and ecosystem health. Furthermore, the model is considered useful for design engineers and decision-maker to design and select processes when the costs, environmental impacts and performances of a product are taken into consideration.

  16. Governance challenges in Tanzania's environmental impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(2), pp. ... include sociological and psychological factors, that influences accountability actions by environmental agencies ... Key words: Accountability, governance, effectiveness awareness, courage. ... only professional ethics for environmental assessments.

  17. Impacts of biological parameterization, initial conditions, and environmental forcing on parameter sensitivity and uncertainty in a marine ecosystem model for the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, G. A.; Spitz, Y. H.

    2011-11-01

    We use a series of Monte Carlo experiments to explore simultaneously the sensitivity of the BEST marine ecosystem model to environmental forcing, initial conditions, and biological parameterizations. Twenty model output variables were examined for sensitivity. The true sensitivity of biological and environmental parameters becomes apparent only when each parameter is allowed to vary within its realistic range. Many biological parameters were important only to their corresponding variable, but several biological parameters, e.g., microzooplankton grazing and small phytoplankton doubling rate, were consistently very important to several output variables. Assuming realistic biological and environmental variability, the standard deviation about simulated mean mesozooplankton biomass ranged from 1 to 14 mg C m - 3 during the year. Annual primary productivity was not strongly correlated with temperature but was positively correlated with initial nitrate and light. Secondary productivity was positively correlated with primary productivity and negatively correlated with spring bloom timing. Mesozooplankton productivity was not correlated with water temperature, but a shift towards a system in which smaller zooplankton undertake a greater proportion of the secondary production as the water temperature increases appears likely. This approach to incorporating environmental variability within a sensitivity analysis could be extended to any ecosystem model to gain confidence in climate-driven ecosystem predictions.

  18. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoryszyn A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method. The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authors indicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  1. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  2. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  3. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  4. Overview of Environmental Impact Assessment of Oil and Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas projects in Nigeria and ... to fully inform communities and other relevant stakeholders of the project; Selection of consultants for the impact assessment on the natural, social and health ...

  5. Visitors' perceptions of environmental impacts of the 2010 FIFA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visitors' perceptions of environmental impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Comparisons ... The visitors comprised both domestic and foreign tourists. ... Many of the negative adverse impacts associated with the events included high levels of ...

  6. Stakeholder Pressures, Environmental Impact and Managerial Initiatives of SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    impact was available in Denmark. Consequently, a longitudinal research project was initiated to enlighten the situation. This study investigates environmentally related initiatives taken in response to the perception of stakeholder pressures and the perceived corporate environmental impact. The empirical......Environmental sustainability has become an issue of uttermost importance for business organisations. Therefore, the implementation of corporate environmental initiatives has been vigorously embraced by industry. Two decades ago, no clear picture of industry initiatives to reduce their environmental...... popularity of self-regulation, voluntary initiatives do not tend to be widely adopted by SMEs, stressing a need for a continuing regulation of industry’s behaviour in relation to environmental issues....

  7. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Otto Schwake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water.

  8. Environmental information system for visualizing environmental impact assessment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserny, Angelika; Kovács, Zsófia; Domokos, Endre; Rédey, Akos

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Engineering at the University of Pannonia has undertaken the challenge to develop an online environmental information system. This system is able to receive and process the collected environmental data via Internet. The authors have attached importance to the presentation of the data and have included other comprehensible information for laymen as well in order to work out visualisation techniques that are expressive and attract attention for environmental questions through the developed information system. The ways of visualizing physical and chemical parameters of surface water and the effects of motorway construction were examined.

  9. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  10. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  11. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  12. Notification: National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    October 29, 2012. The EPA's OIG plans to begin preliminary research on EPA’s reviews of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental impact statements (EIS) as submitted to EPA under Section 309 of the Clean Air Act.

  13. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  14. Environmental sustainability modeling with exergy methodology for building life cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘猛; 姚润明

    2009-01-01

    As an important human activity,the building industry has created comfortable space for living and work,and at the same time brought considerable pollution and huge consumption of energy and recourses. From 1990s after the first building environmental assessment model-BREEAM was released in the UK,a number of assessment models were formulated as analytical and practical in methodology respectively. This paper aims to introduce a generic model of exergy assessment on environmental impact of building life cycle,taking into consideration of previous models and focusing on natural environment as well as building life cycle,and three environmental impacts will be analyzed,namely energy embodied exergy,resource chemical exergy and abatement exergy on energy consumption,resource consumption and pollutant discharge respectively. The model of exergy assessment on environmental impact of building life cycle thus formulated contains two sub-models,one from the aspect of building energy utilization,and the other from building materials use. Combining theories by ecologists such as Odum,building environmental sustainability modeling with exergy methodology is put forward with the index of exergy footprint of building environmental impacts.

  15. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  16. Traffic Infrastructure, Environmental Impact and Urban Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilabild Premzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the twentieth centwy motor and railway transport has increasedthe accessibility to goods and people through mobility,flexibility and comfort they provide. The result is generally theimprovement of living standards and beller opportunity forcommercial development of towns and regions as a whole. Theincreased number of vehicles in everyday traffic have increasedthe demand for new traffic infrastructures. A lot has alreadybeen built in open spaces as welt as in urban environment withbad impact on urban shape.Planning and construction of traffic infrastructurethroughout the urban structure is neither merely a11 engineeringnor just an aesthetic issue when integrating a new highway, freewayor railway into an urban environment. It is especially, if notprimarily, an issue of urban design. This means joint efforts ofengineering design and both urban and landscape architecturewith focusing sufficient alfention on possible multiple uses ofcommon urban space in good environmental conditions. TheSlovene Long Term Regional Plan, planning and constructionof highways in Slovenia initiated consideration and search foramethodology appropriate for the assessment of suitable layouts,especially in the complex cases of traffic infrastructure passingby or through urban areas. New findings described in this papersupplement the methodological approaches used so far.

  17. Economic and environmental impacts of dietary changes in Iran : an input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahmani, R.; Bakhshoodeh, M.; Zibaei, M.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Eftekhari, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Iran's simple and environmentally extended commodity by commodity input-output (IO) model was used to determine the impacts of dietary changes on the Iranian economy and on the environmental load. The original model is based on the status-quo diet and was modified to include the World Health

  18. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  19. Reduction of the environmental impacts in crystalline silicon module manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review the most important options to reduce environmental impacts of crystalline silicon modules. We investigate which are the main barriers for implementation of the measure. Finally we review which measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction. Reduc

  20. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  1. Alternative electrical transmission systems and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    A general description is provided of electrical transmission systems as an aid in determining their environmental impacts. Alternating current, direct current, overhead systems, underground systems, and water crossings are treated. The cost, performance, reliability, safety, and environmental impact of these systems are compared.

  2. 75 FR 71179 - Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared ] for a proposed highway project in San Diego County... Community Center, 2258 Island Avenue, San Diego, California 92102. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin...

  3. Constructing Environmental Impact Statements. An Organizational Focus for Teaching Analytical Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libes, Susan M.

    1999-12-01

    Preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is the organizational focus for an undergraduate lab course in environmental chemistry. Students work collaboratively through the semester to prepare an EIS following National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) guidelines. This involves several stages of activity including a scoping process, field sampling, and laboratory analyses, modeling of the results to predict impacts, and report writing. To maximize student interest and make sampling practical, the proposed activity for which the EIS is prepared is locally based. Laboratory analyses are performed using the U.S. EPA's standard methods for turbidity, color, coliforms, nutrients, trace metals, alkalinity, petroleum hydrocarbons, and chlorinated pesticides. The completed EIS is defended in a mock public hearing at which students play assigned roles. In addition to requiring a high degree of group work, this approach emphasizes the interdisciplinary nature of environmental chemistry and the difficulty of using scientific data to perform risk assessments. Preparation of an EIS is a federal or state requirement for many construction projects and hence students get a chance to experience a potential career area as well as acquire a marketable skill.

  4. Spatiotemporal Interpolation for Environmental Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Susanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A variation of the reduction-based approach to spatiotemporal interpolation (STI, in which time is treated independently from the spatial dimensions, is proposed in this paper. We reviewed and compared three widely-used spatial interpolation techniques: ordinary kriging, inverse distance weighting and the triangular irregular network. We also proposed a new distribution-based distance weighting (DDW spatial interpolation method. In this study, we utilised one year of Tasmania’s South Esk Hydrology model developed by CSIRO. Root mean squared error statistical methods were performed for performance evaluations. Our results show that the proposed reduction approach is superior to the extension approach to STI. However, the proposed DDW provides little benefit compared to the conventional inverse distance weighting (IDW method. We suggest that the improved IDW technique, with the reduction approach used for the temporal dimension, is the optimal combination for large-scale spatiotemporal interpolation within environmental modelling applications.

  5. Spatiotemporal Interpolation for Environmental Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Ferry; de Souza, Paulo; He, Jing

    2016-08-06

    A variation of the reduction-based approach to spatiotemporal interpolation (STI), in which time is treated independently from the spatial dimensions, is proposed in this paper. We reviewed and compared three widely-used spatial interpolation techniques: ordinary kriging, inverse distance weighting and the triangular irregular network. We also proposed a new distribution-based distance weighting (DDW) spatial interpolation method. In this study, we utilised one year of Tasmania's South Esk Hydrology model developed by CSIRO. Root mean squared error statistical methods were performed for performance evaluations. Our results show that the proposed reduction approach is superior to the extension approach to STI. However, the proposed DDW provides little benefit compared to the conventional inverse distance weighting (IDW) method. We suggest that the improved IDW technique, with the reduction approach used for the temporal dimension, is the optimal combination for large-scale spatiotemporal interpolation within environmental modelling applications.

  6. An environmental impact calculator for greenhouse production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrellas, Marta; Antón, Assumpció; Montero, Juan Ignacio

    2013-03-30

    Multiple web-based calculators have come on the market as tools to support sustainable decision making, but few are available to agriculture. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has proved to be an objective, transparent tool for calculating environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of products and services, but can often be too complex for non-specialists. The objective of this study was therefore to develop an environmental support tool to determine the environmental impacts of protected crops. An effort was made to provide an easy-to-use tool in order to reach a wide audience and help horticulture stakeholders choose efficient options to mitigate the environmental impacts of protected crops. Users can estimate the environmental performance of their crops by entering a limited amount of data and following a few easy steps. A questionnaire must be answered with data on the crop, greenhouse dimensions, substrate, waste management, and the consumption of water, energy, fertilisers and pesticides. The calculator was designed as a simplified LCA, based on two scenarios analysed in detail in previous tasks of the EUPHOROS project and used as reference systems in this study. Two spreadsheets were provided based on these reference scenarios: one for a tomato crop in a multi-tunnel greenhouse under Southern European climate conditions and the other for a tomato crop in a Venlo glass greenhouse under Central European climate conditions. The selected functional unit was one tonne of tomatoes. Default data were given for each reference system for users who did not have complete specific data and to provide results for comparison with users' own results. The results were presented for water use as an inventory indicator and for the impact categories abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, photochemical oxidation and cumulative energy demand. In the multi-tunnel greenhouse, the main contributors based on the default data were the structure, fertilisers

  7. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in respe

  8. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in respe

  9. Green procurement of buildings: estimation of environmental impact and life-cycle cost

    OpenAIRE

    Sterner, Eva

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on environmental impact reduction and life-cycle cost estimations in building procurement. The aim for the work presented in this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of whether costs and environmental impact of a building can be integrated in a, from the users perspective, practical model applied for tender evaluation. The model should also be able to use as a base of evaluating different solutions in the design phase. Specifically this means to: Increase knowledg...

  10. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Michael Leroy [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Xue, Huijie [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Johnson, Teresa R. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME

    2014-02-02

    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  11. Oral exposure to environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene impacts the intestinal epithelium and induces gut microbial shifts in murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribière, Céline; Peyret, Pierre; Parisot, Nicolas; Darcha, Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre J.; Barnich, Nicolas; Peyretaillade, Eric; Boucher, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis are associated with a wide range of human diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases. The physiopathology of these diseases has multifactorial aetiology in which environmental factors, particularly pollution could play a crucial role. Among the different pollutants listed, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are subject to increased monitoring due to their wide distribution and high toxicity on Humans. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the impact of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, most toxic PAH) oral exposure on the faecal and intestinal mucosa-associated bacteria in C57BL/6 mice. Intestinal inflammation was also evaluated by histological observations. BaP oral exposure significantly altered the composition and the abundance of the gut microbiota and led to moderate inflammation in ileal and colonic mucosa. More severe lesions were observed in ileal segment. Shifts in gut microbiota associated with moderate inflammatory signs in intestinal mucosa would suggest the establishment of a pro-inflammatory intestinal environment following BaP oral exposure. Therefore, under conditions of genetic susceptibility and in association with other environmental factors, exposure to this pollutant could trigger and/or accelerate the development of inflammatory pathologies. PMID:27503127

  12. 75 FR 22829 - National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast Guard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) to implement enhanced environmental protection measures, as necessary, for... potential environmental impacts of specific Coast Guard vessel and aircraft operations on MPS and MPAs...

  13. Employing a CGE model in analysing the environmental and economy-wide impacts of CO2 emission abatement policies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahoo, Masoud; Othman, Jamal

    2017-04-15

    The impact of global warming has received much international attention in recent decades. To meet climate-change mitigation targets, environmental policy instruments have been designed to transform the way goods and services are produced as well as alter consumption patterns. The government of Malaysia is strongly committed to reducing CO2 gas emissions as a proportion of GDP by 40% from 2005 levels by the year 2020. This study evaluates the economy-wide impacts of implementing two different types of CO2 emission abatement policies in Malaysia using market-based (imposing a carbon tax) and command-and-control mechanism (sectoral emission standards). The policy simulations conducted involve the removal of the subsidy on petroleum products by the government. A carbon emission tax in conjunction with the revenue neutrality assumption is seen to be more effective than a command-and-control policy as it provides a double dividend. This is apparent as changes in consumption patterns lead to welfare enhancements while contributing to reductions in CO2 emissions. The simulation results show that the production of renewable energies is stepped up when the imposition of carbon tax and removal of the subsidy is augmented by revenue recycling. This study provides an economy-wide assessment that compares two important tools for assisting environment policy makers evaluate carbon emission abatement initiatives in Malaysia.

  14. Genetic and environmental impacts on DNA methylation levels in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yet, Idil; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Castillo-Fernandez, Juan E; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Bell, Jordana T

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics describes the study of cellular modifications that can modify the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is one of the most stable and prevalent epigenetic mechanisms. Twin studies have been a valuable model for unraveling the genetic and epigenetic epidemiology of complex traits, and now offer a potential to dissect the factors that impact DNA methylation variability and its biomedical significance. The twin design specifically allows for the study of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors, and their potential interactions, on epigenetic profiles. Furthermore, genetically identical twins offer a unique opportunity to assess nongenetic impacts on epigenetic profiles. Here, we summarize recent findings from twin studies of DNA methylation profiles across tissues, to define current knowledge regarding the genetic and nongenetic factors that influence epigenetic variation.

  15. Organics in environmental ices: sources, chemistry, and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Voisin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and biological processes involving organics in ice in the environment impact a number of atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles. Organic material in snow or ice may be biological in origin, deposited from aerosols or atmospheric gases, or formed chemically in situ. In this manuscript, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the sources, properties, and chemistry of organic materials in environmental ices. Several outstanding questions remain to be resolved and fundamental data gathered before a comprehensive, accurate model of organic species in the cryosphere will be possible. For example, more information is needed regarding the quantitative impacts of chemical and biological processes, ice morphology, and snow formation on the fate of organic material in cold regions. Interdisciplinary work at the interfaces of chemistry, physics and biology is needed in order to fully characterize the nature and evolution of organics in the cryosphere and predict the effects of climate change on the Earth's carbon cycle.

  16. Environmental impacts of increased hydroelectric development at existing dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Railsback, S. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrich, C. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shaakir-Ali, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watts, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-04-01

    This report describes the environmental impacts of a proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to promote the development of hydropower resources at existing dams. Hydropower development at existing dams has, in general, fewer impacts than development of additional fossil-fueled resources or hydropower at new dams, although potential cumulative impacts of developing multiple hydropower projects have not been explicitly addressed. Environmental review of project impacts and mitigation needs can ensure that additional hydropower development at existing dams can provide a renewable resource with fewer impacts than alternative resources.

  17. Environmental impacts on reproductive health and fertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodruff, T. J

    2010-01-01

    .... Focusing on exposures to environmental contaminants, particularly during critical periods in development and their potential effects on all aspects of future reproductive life-course, this book...

  18. Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality parameters were measured from site to site where alkalinity and ... noise, had insignificant impact (p > 0.05), while water pollution, insecurity as a ... impacts of pollution, erosion and degradation of farm lands and environment.

  19. Environmental impacts assessment of industrial estate providing with managerial process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A.H.; Younesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Hashemi, I. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran)

    2007-07-01

    The existence of balance, coordination and required order among natural elements is one of the key factors in the ecosystem. If this balance is disturbed under certain circumstances, it will damage the structure of living existences and more specifically human beings. Since a half century ago, factors such as important economical and industrial activites, advanced technologies together with growing population and lack of concordance among different couhntries to take optimal advantage of the existing natural resources have distrubed the balance in the ecosystem. As a result, man has caused many problems such as high death tolls and arduous diseases due to the different pollutions in water, air, land, sound, temperature, etc and factors such as erosion, desert, expansion, floods, extinction of plant and animal species, ozone layer destruction, global warming, sea level rise and greenhouse gases increase. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is to recognize and assess systematic consequences of projects and programs on elements like physicochemical, biological, cultural, economical and social phenomena in th environment; in other words it is a way or method to determine the direction of predication and assessment of environmental impacts of activities on the environmental health of the ecosystem affecting human lives. In this study, and environmental impact assessment of the establishment of the Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulting from establishment of the indutrial estate were investigated using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the harmful environmental impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done in regard to the amount and kind of predicted pollution for the

  20. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  1. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  2. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the applicant seek the Administrator's advice as to form and substance of the assessment for the... environmental effects. The environmental assessment and all documents used as a basis for the assessment shall... and prudent alternative to the use of such land; and (ii) The project includes all planning...

  3. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...... on the product system sets the frame for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and the bearings it has on current LCIA methodology are described in this paper together with the newest developments within this discipline....

  4. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced no more than approximately 10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 billion years and 3.5 2.5 billion years, the biggest of which were approximately30-100 times more energetic, comparable to the Orientale impact on the Moon (1x10 (sup 26) joules). To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid

  5. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  6. Quantitative Analysis on the Energy and Environmental Impact of the Korean National Energy R&D Roadmap a Using Bottom-Up Energy System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Choi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Paris Agreement at the 21st Conference of the Parties, 196 member states are obliged to submit their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC for every 5 years. As a member, South Korea has already proposed the reduction target and need to submit the achievement as a result of the policies and endeavors in the near future. In this paper, a Korean bottom-up energy system model to support the low-carbon national energy R&D roadmap will be introduced and through the modeling of various scenarios, the mid-to long-term impact on energy consumptions and CO2 emissions will be analyzed as well. The results of the analysis showed that, assuming R&D investments for the 11 types of technologies, savings of 13.7% with regards to final energy consumptions compared to the baseline scenario would be feasible by 2050. Furthermore, in the field of power generation, the generation proportion of new and renewable energy is expected to increase from 3.0% as of 2011 to 19.4% by 2050. This research also suggested that the analysis on the Energy Technology R&D Roadmap based on the model can be used not only for overall impact analysis and R&D portfolio establishment, but also for the development of detailed R&D strategies.

  7. Environmental and economic impact of alien terrestrial arthropods in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Vaes-Petignat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades abundance and importance of invasive alien species has grown continuously due to the undiminished growth of global trade. In most cases, arthropod introductions were unintended and occurred as hitchhikers or contaminants. Alien arthropods can have significant environmental impacts and can be economically costly. To measure these impacts, we expand the generic impact scoring system initially developed for mammals and birds, and applied it to terrestrial arthropods. The scoring of the 77 most widely distributed arthropod species alien to Europe revealed the mite Varroa destructor as the most harmful species, followed by the Chinese longhorn beetle Anoplophora chinensis and the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. The highest environmental impact is through herbivory, disease transmission, and ecosystem impacts. The highest economic impact is on agriculture and human infrastructure. The generic impact scoring system allows comparing impact scores of vertebrates and arthropods, thus serving as a background for decision making processes of policies and stakeholders.

  8. Assessing Environmental Impact Indicators in Road Construction Projects in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Marzouk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is considered to be one of the main concerns in the construction industry. Environmental pollution has become a major challenge to construction projects due to the huge amount of pollution caused by construction projects. There are different types of environmental impact indicators, such as the greenhouse gas (GHG footprint, eutrophication potential (EP, acidification potential (AP, human health (HH particulate, ozone depletion, and smog. Each of these environmental impact indicators can be linked to different phases of the construction projects. The overall environmental impact indicators can be divided into direct, indirect, and operational emissions. This paper presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-based methodology for the assessment of environmental impacts in road construction projects. The model takes into account the overall life cycle of the road construction project, which is divided into: manufacturing phase, transportation phase, construction phase, maintenance phase, operational phase, recycling phase, and deconstruction phase. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The proposed model solves a major problem for road construction project teams who want to assess the environmental impact indicators associated with their project prior to the start of the execution of their projects.

  9. Environmental problems indicator under environmental modeling toward sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sutthichaimethee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to apply a model to the study and analysis of environmental and natural resource costs created in supply chains of goods and services produced in Thailand, and propose indicators for environmental problem management, caused by goods and services production, based on concepts of sustainable production and consumer behavior. The research showed that the highest environmental cost in terms of Natural Resource Materials was from pipelines and gas distribution, while the lowest was for farming coconuts. The highest environmental cost in terms of Energy and Transportation was for iron and steel. The highest environmental cost in the category of Fertilizer and Pesticides was for oil palm. For Sanitation Services, the highest environmental cost was movie theaters. Overall, the lowest environmental cost for all categories, except Natural Resource Materials, was for petroleum and refineries. Based on the cost index, coconut farming gained the highest Real Benefit to the farm owner, while pipelines and gas distribution had the lowest Real Benefit. If Thailand were to use a similar environmental problem indicator, it could be applied to formulate efficient policy and strategy for the country in three areas, namely social, economic, and environmental development.

  10. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    OpenAIRE

    GRAY, NICHOLAS FREDERICK; Sullivan, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This review examine the action of acid mine drainage (AMD), which is a multifactor pollutant, on surface waters. It affects aquatic ecosystems via a number of direct and indirect pathways. Major impact areas are coastal waters, rivers, lakes and estuaries, with AMD affecting ecosystems in different ways. Ground waters can also be severely impacted. Due to its complexity, the impact of AMD is particularly difficult to quantify and predict in lotic systems. Acid mine drainage pollut...

  11. Environmental Impact of Teleworking and Teleshopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    This paper analyses the impact of two ICT applications on the total demand for transport (telework and teleshopping). These applications are selected as they were expected to be among the applications with the highest potential for savings in transport. The analysis indicates that the total impact...... is limited and might be even negative if rebound effects are included, and that the promotion of ICT applications must be accommodated by other measures before a noticeable positive impact on transport behaviour can be achieved....

  12. Environmental Impact of Teleworking and Teleshopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    This paper analyses the impact of two ICT applications on the total demand for transport (telework and teleshopping). These applications are selected as they were expected to be among the applications with the highest potential for savings in transport. The analysis indicates that the total impact...... is limited and might be even negative if rebound effects are included, and that the promotion of ICT applications must be accommodated by other measures before a noticeable positive impact on transport behaviour can be achieved....

  13. Public participation in Malawi's environmental impact assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the adoption of the Environmental Management Act of 1996, Malawi has ... This study assessed the extent of public participation in Malawi's EIA process. ... of the EIA process in Malawi which puts the human and ecosystem health at risk.

  14. Agri‐environmental Policies to Meet Consumer Preferences in Japan: An Economic‐Biophysical Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Uetake

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting environmentally friendly farming products is crucial to meeting consumer demand. Although governments implement policy measures to improve the environmental performance of the agriculture sector, theirimpacts are difficult to assess. This study analyses the performance of agri‐environmental policies in Japan, by using the OECD’s policy impact model and reference level framework. In particular, it identifies the environmental impacts of three simulated agri‐environmental policies based on farms’ characteristics. The results suggest that a policy mix of regulation and an incentive payment would reduce environmental impacts, suggesting that targeted approaches could improve the cost‐effectiveness of agri‐environmental policies.

  15. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced ~10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 Ga and 3.5 Ga, the biggest of which were ~30-100X more energetic than Chicxulub. To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid under the circumstances). (iv) The surface temperature of dry land is presumed to be the same as the lower atmosphere. A

  16. The innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations on maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Repka, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Maritime transport is facing wide-ranking challenges due to stricter environmental regulations. It has been positioned that these stricter environmental regulations will significantly hamper the competitiveness of the shipping industry and other export/import oriented industries. However......, contrasting views, arguing that environmental regulations will, in fact, enhance firms’ competitiveness by inducing innovation, have also been voiced. Here this issue is examined through a literature review on the innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations (i.e. the Porter Hypothesis......), in general, and the economic impacts of environmental regulations (here Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention) as it applies to shipping in Northern Europe, in particular. According to the review, the literature is still inconclusive and lacks a clear consensus on the economic and innovation inducement impacts...

  17. 78 FR 11593 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ...)). Examples of unusual circumstances include significant environmental impacts, substantial controversy on... is not a term of art that is used in the FTA Emergency Relief Program. The Agencies agree that...

  18. Environmental Impact of the use of natural Resources (EIRES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Tukker, Arnold; Weidema, Bo

    , or material flows induced by these products. Due to the great variation in applied methods and scopes, the results show a complex picture at the detailed level. However, at the more general level the studies reinforce each other in pointing to housing (construction and temperature regulation), transportation...... Deliverable No. 9. Groningen: Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen. The objectives of the present study were to analyse and evaluate this existing body of research with a view to identifying those materials and resources whose use has the greatest environmental impacts...... be required to explore such links. Types of environmental impacts considered Environmental impacts are typically classified in a number of impact categories of which the following are covered by most of the considered studies: * Acidification * Climate change (global warming) * Ecotoxicity * Human toxicity...

  19. Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Sand is a valuable resource for construction and other purposes, however ... Natural resources particularly, land, water quality and quantity, air quality, ...

  20. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  1. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...... is focused on the product system which comprises all the processes which the product and its components meet throughout their lives- from the extraction of raw materials via manufacture, use and waste management to final disposal, or in short from the cradle to the grave (see Figure 1). The focus...

  2. Potential Environmental Impacts of Oil Spills in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report analyses information status and research needs in relation to potential environmental impacts of oil spills (offshore and onshore) in Greenland. The report assesses potential effects and potential mitigation and monitoring measures. Information gaps are identified and a number...

  3. Anticipating the Environmental Impacts and Behavioral Drivers of Deep Decarbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is seeking regular and early career applications proposing research that will contribute to an improved ability to understand and anticipate the public health and environmental impacts and behavioral drivers of significant changes in energy consumption

  4. Potential Environmental Impacts of Oil Spills in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report analyses information status and research needs in relation to potential environmental impacts of oil spills (offshore and onshore) in Greenland. The report assesses potential effects and potential mitigation and monitoring measures. Information gaps are identified and a number...

  5. 75 FR 62627 - Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT AGENCY: Federal Highway... Department of Transportation, Region One Office, 166 West Southwell Street, Ogden, UT 84404-4194,...

  6. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT...

  7. Final Environmental Impact Statement Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This final environmental impact statement identifies the purpose and need for a management plan; outlines the legal foundation for management of the Rocky Mountain...

  8. Modeling Environmental Concern: Theory and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    1993-01-01

    Human concern for the quality and protection of the natural environment forms the basis of successful environmental conservation activities. Considers environmental concern research and proposes a model that incorporates the multiple dimensions of research through which environmental concern may be evaluated. (MDH)

  9. Impact of Environmental Changes and Global Warming on Temperature in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ishtiaq Hassan; Abdul Razzaq Ghumman; Hashim Nisar Hashmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental changes and global warming have direct impact on human life. Estimation of these changes in various parameters of hydrologic cycle is necessary for future planning and development of a country. In this paper the impact of environmental changes and global warming on temperatures of Pakistan has been studied. The temperature changes in Pakistan have been extracted from simulations made using EdGCM model developed at Columbia University. Simulation study to the end o...

  10. Environmental impact of multi-wall carbon nanotubes in a novel model of exposure: systemic distribution, macrophage accumulation, and amyloid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Adriana; Pagani, Arianna; Pulze, Laura; Bruno, Antonino; Principi, Elisa; Congiu, Terenzio; Gini, Elisabetta; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Bassani, Barbara; De Flora, Silvio; de Eguileor, Magda; Noonan, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively investigated and employed for industrial use because of their peculiar physical properties, which make them ideal for many industrial applications. However, rapid growth of CNT employment raises concerns about the potential risks and toxicities for public health, environment, and workers associated with the manufacture and use of these new materials. Here we investigate the main routes of entry following environmental exposure to multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs; currently the most widely used in industry). We developed a novel murine model that could represent a surrogate of a workplace exposure to MWCNTs. We traced the localization of MWCNTs and their possible role in inducing an innate immune response, inflammation, macrophage recruitment, and inflammatory conditions. Following environmental exposure of CD1 mice, we observed that MWCNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidney via the bloodstream. Since recent experimental studies show that CNTs are associated with the aggregation process of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether MWCNTs are able to induce amyloid fibril production and accumulation. Amyloid deposits in spatial association with macrophages and MWCNT aggregates were found in the brain, liver, lungs, and kidneys of exposed animals. Our data suggest that accumulation of MWCNTs in different organs is associated with inflammation and amyloid accumulation. In the brain, where we observed rapid accumulation and amyloid fibril deposition, exposure to MWCNTs might enhance progression of neurodegenerative and other amyloid-related diseases. Our data highlight the conclusion that, in a novel rodent model of exposure, MWCNTs may induce macrophage recruitment, activation, and amyloid deposition, causing potential damage to several organs.

  11. Social Impact, a Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Onyx

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs a theoretical model of social impact as it applies to civil society organisations. It does so by drawing on the recent literature on the topic as well as recently completed empirical studies. First, the relationship between impact and evaluation is examined. This is followed by an exploration of the capitals, notably social, human, and cultural capital and their interrelationships, as a theoretical base for the explication of social impact. A formal model of social impact is then identified together with a set of basic principles that may be said to define social impact. Finally the implications of the model are discussed for social policy and organisational management.

  12. Reliance on Pumped Mother's Milk Has an Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Genevieve; Ryan-Fogarty, Yvonne

    2016-09-10

    Breastfeeding is an environmentally friendly process; however when feeding relies on pumped mother's milk, the environmental picture changes. Waste plastics and heavy metals raise concerns regarding resource efficiency, waste treatment, and detrimental effects on health. Reliance on pumped milk rather than breastfeeding may also effect obesity and family size, which in turn have further environmental impacts. Information on pump equipment rarely includes environmental information and may focus on marketing the product for maximum profit. In order for parents, health workers, and health policy makers to make informed decisions about the reliance on pumped mother's milk, they need information on the broad and far reaching environmental aspects. There was no published research found that examined the environmental impact of using pumped mother's milk. A project is ongoing to examine this issue.

  13. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program... Vaccination Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Yellowstone National Park. This planning...

  14. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National Preserve... to inform preparation of a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  15. 75 FR 13138 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... National Park Service Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National...), the National Park Service is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Ditch...

  16. The impact of the member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the fourth enlargement (with Sweden, Austria and Finland) on the European Union's environmental policy. This is done by comparing the priorities and strategies of the newcomers with those of the former environmental pioneers (Germany, Netherlands and Denmark)....

  17. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, William F.; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such devel

  18. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  19. 78 FR 56621 - Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AJ20 Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental... Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement,'' that forms the regulatory basis for the proposed... Confidence rule). The NRC staff plans to hold 12 public meetings during the public comment period to present...

  20. Small Manufacturing Industries: The Impact of Environmental Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Clare M D'Souza; Roman Peretiatko

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of environmental issues on small Indian enterprises. Due to India's rapid industrialization the environment is now becoming more of a major business concern. This paper compares small with large enterprises to see of there are any differences in the way they approach environmental issues. Small firms in particular, have been encouraged and given due assistance by the Indian government but this policy now conflicts with India's environmental responsibilities as f...

  1. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  2. Amplifying Public Opinion: The Policy Impact of the U.S. Environmental Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnone, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Time-series data from 1960-1998 is used to test hypotheses regarding the impact of protest and public opinion on the passage of U.S. environmental legislation. An amplification model of policy impact is introduced which posits that protest affects legislative action independent of public opinion as suggested by protest event theorists, whereas the…

  3. 76 FR 39436 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) and Notice of Scoping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Trust Assets (if any), air quality/climate change, socioeconomics including impacts to agricultural production, and environmental justice. Special Assistance for Public Meetings If special assistance is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of pesticides used in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production systems in Khorasan provinces

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Bazrgar; Soltani,A.; A. Koocheki; Zeinali,E.; A GHAEMI

    2016-01-01

    Environmental optimizing of pest management strategies and improving theirs trends towards minimum environmental risks programs is a matter of considerable concern of food scientists particularly in developing countries. This study evaluates the environmental impacts of pesticides consumption based on Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) model in different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production systems in Khorasan provinces as the largest producer of this strategic crop in Iran. For this pur...

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I... Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental... human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary. I...

  6. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of consumption...... seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  7. Environmental impacts of products: A detailed review of studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Jansen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects of economic activities are ultimately driven by consumption, via impacts of the production, use, and waste management phases of products and services ultimately consumed. Integrated product policy (IPP) addressing the life-cycle impacts of products forms an innovative new gener

  8. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  9. Environmental impacts of products: A detailed review of studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Jansen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects of economic activities are ultimately driven by consumption, via impacts of the production, use, and waste management phases of products and services ultimately consumed. Integrated product policy (IPP) addressing the life-cycle impacts of products forms an innovative new

  10. Environmental Effects of Large Impacts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Teresa L.; Toon, Owen B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Zahnle, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    The martian valley networks formed near the end of the period of heavy bombardment of the inner solar system, about 3.5 billion years ago. The largest impacts produced global blankets of very hot ejecta, ranging in thickness from meters to hundreds of meters. Our simulations indicated that the ejecta warmed the surface, keeping it above the freezing point of water for periods ranging from decades to millennia, depending on impactor size, and caused shallow subsurface or polar ice to evaporate or melt. Large impacts also injected steam into the atmosphere from the craters or from water innate to the impactors. From all sources, a typical 100-, 200-, or 250-kilometers asteroid injected about 2, 9, or 16 meters, respectively, of precipitable water into the atmosphere, which eventually rained out at a rate of about 2 meters per year. The rains from a large impact formed rivers and contributed to recharging aquifers.

  11. Carbon Capture and Sequestration. Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, P.; Santillo, D. [Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-01

    Over the last few years, understanding of the profound implications of anthropogenically driven climate change has grown. In turn, this has fuelled research into options to mitigate likely impacts. Approaches involving the capture of carbon dioxide and its storage in geological formations, or in marine waters, have generated a raft of proposed solutions. The scale of some of these proposals is such that they will exert impacts of global significance in their own right. Proposals fall into two broad categories: (1) storage of liquid CO2 or products of reacted CO2 into intermediate/deep oceanic waters. and (2) storage of liquid CO2 into sub-seabed or terrestrial geological formations. For the most part, while the technical feasibility of these schemata has been widely explored, the same is not true of their ecological implications. In the case of deep/intermediate oceanic waters, poor baseline understanding of the associated ecosystems is a considerable impediment to any reliable predictive assessment of likely impacts of carbon dioxide storage in these systems. Disruption of marine microbiological processes and degradation of benthic ecosystems, including those with high levels of endemicity, have been identified as potentially serious impacts. Similarly, the physiology, ecology and likely responses of micro-organisms present in targeted geological formations require evaluation prior to any consideration of the use of such formations for storage of CO2. In addition, the impacts of any leakage to surface need also to be considered. Accordingly this paper explores current uncertainties and detailed informational needs related to ocean and geological storage of fossil fuel-derived CO2. Particular emphasis is placed upon the ecological impacts of these proposals in relation to existing and emergent understanding of deep water/soil ecosystems and the indeterminacies attached to this understanding.

  12. (Environmental impact statement on the US Antarctic program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.M.; Railsback, S.F.; McLean, R.B.

    1989-12-22

    Three staff members from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in a site visit to US Antarctic Program (USAP) facilities at McMurdo Station, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, and remote field and support sites. Interviews were conducted with National Science Foundation, Navy, and ITT/Antarctic Services staff responsible for environmental management functions. The ORNL team visited all facilities at McMurdo Station, three remote field camps, a Navy refueling facility, South Pole Station, and Scott Base (a New Zealand installation). In general, the team found that environmental impacts of the USAP are minor for the Antarctic continent as a whole. Improvements for the handling and disposal of solid wastes and the discharge of wastewaters that have been initiated should help minimize environmental impacts of USAP activities. The information collected during the site visit will be used in a draft supplemental environmental impact statement on the USAP to be published for public review in June 1990.

  13. High-Performance, Low Environmental Impact Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, E. T.; Dhooge, P. M.; Glass, S. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Refrigerants used in process and facilities systems in the US include R-12, R-22, R-123, R-134a, R-404A, R-410A, R-500, and R-502. All but R-134a, R-404A, and R-410A contain ozone-depleting substances that will be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Some of the substitutes do not perform as well as the refrigerants they are replacing, require new equipment, and have relatively high global warming potentials (GWPs). New refrigerants are needed that addresses environmental, safety, and performance issues simultaneously. In efforts sponsored by Ikon Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ETEC has developed and tested a new class of refrigerants, the Ikon (registered) refrigerants, based on iodofluorocarbons (IFCs). These refrigerants are nonflammable, have essentially zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), low GWP, high performance (energy efficiency and capacity), and can be dropped into much existing equipment.

  14. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment.

  15. Gulfport Harbor, Mississippi. Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    the finback whale (Balaenoptera physalus), humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae ), sei whale (B. borealis), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas...Environmental Policy Act, as amended, 42 USC 4321, et seq. Rivers and Harbors Act, 33 USC 401 et seq. Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act, 16...USC 1001, et seq. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, as amended, 16 USC 1271, et seq. Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act

  16. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture.

  17. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hayati; M.H. Sayadi

    2012-01-01

    Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban...

  18. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  19. Helicopter noise exposure curves for use in environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickley, E. J.; Bland, T. L.

    1982-11-01

    This report establishes the current (1982) FAA helicopter noise data base for use in environmental impact assessment. The report sets out assumptions, methodologies, and techniques used in arriving at noise-exposure-versus-distance relationships. Noise data are provided for 15 helicopters, including five flight regimes each: takeoff, approach, level flyover, hover in-ground-effect (HIGE) and hover out-of-ground effect (HOGE). When possible, level flyover data are presented for a variety of airspeeds. Sound exposure level (SEL) is provided for all operational modes except hover. In the case of hover operations (both HOGE and HIGE), the maximum A-Weighted Sound Level (LAM) is identified as a function of distance. The report also includes a discussion of helicopter performance characteristics required for full computer modeling of helicopter/heliport noise exposure.

  20. The Environmental Impact of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies: Examples from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Szalavetz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the beneficial impact of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT on firms’ environmental performance. Drawing on interviews conducted with 16 Hungarian manufacturing subsidiaries on their experience with AMT, we find three functional areas, where industry 4.0 solutions can not only enhance operational excellence and cost-efficiency, but they can also improve eco-efficiency, but they can also improve eco-efficiency, namely in the field of quality management (through smart production control, data analytics and predictive modelling solutions; process optimization (through capacity planning and production scheduling solutions; and product and process engineering (through advanced virtual technologies. We also find that AMT adoption facilitated subsidiary upgrading along various dimensions. The main managerial implication is that subsidiaries need to be proactive, and emphasize also the benefits stemming from energy and resource efficiency improvement when lobbying for investment in AMT.

  1. Integration of Environmental Impact Assesment in Healthy Trolley Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indrawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of green customer in the last few periods, indicate that the environmental performance of a product has become the main attributes, not just as a complement attributes to the customers. This condition encourages every industry to assess the environmental impact of the products that being marketed. Healthy trolley is a product innovation of shopping trolley that being developed using reverse engineering methods. This study aims to analyze the environmental impact of Healthy Trolley to provide an alternative product design improvements based on sustainable products concept. The method used is life cycle assessment that consist of several stages i.e., goals and scoping, inventory analysis, impact assessment and improvement analysis. Based on the results, products waste in the end of use gives the biggest negative impact on the environment and humans. The environmental impact of products derived from the constituent materials such as iron (Fe, lead (Pb and sulfuric acid (SO4. So the alternative Healthy Trolley design improvements are replacing the drive system into manual in order to eliminate the environmental impact from waste of material lead (Pb and sulfuric acid (SO4.

  2. Construction site environmental impact in civil engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, José M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their operational stage. The impact of construction sites of smaller projects in urban areas tends to merit less attention, despite their importance for cit...

  3. New technology in everyday life - social processes and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    In the environmental debate it is increasingly acknowledged that our way of life has profound environmental consequences. Therefore, it becomes ever more important to focus on and to understand how everyday life is formed and how it changes over time. Changing technology constitutes an important...... aspect both of changes in everyday life and of the environmental impact of everyday-life activities. Technological change is often seen as an important part of the solutions to environmental problems, however, when technological change is seen from the perspective of everyday life, this image becomes...... more complex. In this paper technological changes are explored from the perspective of consumption and everyday life, and it is argued that environmental impacts arise through the interplay of technology, consumption and everyday life. Firstly, because technological renewals form integral parts...

  4. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  5. A Maintainability Prediction Method Considering Environmental Impacts and Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability prediction is one kind of primary maintainability action. Design deficiency would be found through predicting maintainability parameters under certain conditions. Now a maintainability prediction method that mainly considers maintenance time or maintenance man-hour is a kind of prediction method with a single index. With increasing product complexity and people's environmental consciousness, more attention is paid to environment impacts and maintenance cost or resource consumption in the maintenance process. It is necessary for a maintainability prediction method that can predict maintenance cost and maintenance environmental impacts. A new maintainability prediction method is presented in this paper based on analyzing existing maintainability prediction methods.The method is MABTCE (maintenance activity based timing/costing/environment impact assessment )and can predict maintenance time, maintenance costing and maintenance environmental impacts andthen improve maintainability design with prediction results.

  6. 旅游业对目的地资源环境影响计量模型及实例分析%Case Analysis and Econometric Model of Resource and Environmental Impact of Tourism Industry on Destination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易志斌; 徐虹

    2011-01-01

    The authors try to establish the econometric model of environmental impact of tourism industry on destination from the six facets of tourism based on the theory of environmental economy,and take the accommodation in Beijing as example,estimate the resource and environmental impact of visitors’ accommodation.The resource and environmental cost of visitors accommodation is 5.464×108 Yuan elementarily in 2008.Considering on the water and energy consumption per unit GDP value,the tourism industry belongs to the saving water and energy industry relative to others industries.%运用环境经济学理论分别从行、住、食、游、购、娱6个方面构建了旅游业对目的地资源环境影响计量模型,并以北京市旅游住宿为例,初步评估2008年旅游住宿对北京市资源环境的影响。计算结果表明:北京市2008年接待旅游者的住宿对资源环境影响计量为5.464×108元,占住宿收入的4.322%。从万元GDP水耗和电耗计算结果看,相对于其他产业,旅游业是一个节水和节能型产业,属于环境友好型产业。

  7. 75 FR 5873 - Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From CPV Ashley Wind...) of renewable energy from CPV Ashley Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV), a direct subsidiary of CPV Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV REC). In order to supply this renewable energy, CPV is proposing...

  8. A Bayesian hierarchical model of environmental impact on human mortality and its spatial variation in the United States 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Many environmental factors influence human mortality simultaneously. However, assessing their cumulative effects remains a challenging task. In this study we used the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), developed by the U.S. EPA, as a measure of overall...

  9. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  10. Nai Kun wind farm environmental impact assessment study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, S.; Shum, M.; Embley, E. [Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-05-01

    Uniterre Resources Ltd., ABB New Ventures and ABB Inc. propose the Nai Kun Wind Farm project, and the firm Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants LTD. (PGL) was commissioned to conduct an environmental impact assessment for the project. A description of the studies considered as a requirement for the environmental impacts assessment of the project is included in this draft report. Before proceeding with the detailed studies, it was decided to present this draft report to the stakeholders and regulatory authorities to obtain feedback and a review. Nowadays in electricity markets, wind energy is becoming a differentiated and highly valued product. The Nai Kun Wind Farm project, as proposed, would entail the development, construction and operation of a 700 megawatt (MW) wind generation facility located off the northeast coast of Graham Island (Haida Gwaii) in Hecate Strait in British Columbia. It is expected that the project will generate greenhouse gas emission reduction credits. The information about the site and the project, as was known on May 24, 2002, was used for the preparation of this draft report. The present document includes an introduction in Chapter 1, followed by background information in Chapter 2. The Environmental impact assessment framework was reviewed in Chapter 3, and the public consultation plan was described in Chapter 4. The environmental impact assessment designs are discussed in Chapter 5 and a schedule for environmental studies provided in Chapter 6. The next steps are detailed in Chapter 7 of the document. 10 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  11. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  12. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.; Pulles, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze,

  13. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.; Pulles, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze,

  14. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh.

  15. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts......Bridge infrastructure consumes large amount of energy and raw materials, leading to considerable environmental burdens. The traditional infrastructure construction prioritizes its technical and economic viability. In recent years, the society devotes an ever-increased attention to the environmental...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  16. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports.

  17. Environmental Impact of the use of natural Resources (EIRES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Tukker, Arnold; Weidema, Bo

    products for the federal product and environment policy. Final report. Institut Wallon de développement économique et social et d'aménagement du territoire ASBL and Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) for the Belgian Federal Services of Environment, Department on Product Policy. * Dall O...... in the present study to what extent the results of the studies can be applied in the EU's resources strategy. It turns out that all of the considered studies do contribute to our understanding of what are the environmentally most relevant types of resource use, through identifying relationships between...... be required to explore such links. Types of environmental impacts considered Environmental impacts are typically classified in a number of impact categories of which the following are covered by most of the considered studies: * Acidification * Climate change (global warming) * Ecotoxicity * Human toxicity...

  18. [Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan

    2011-02-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based on Avenue, the secondary developing language of ArcView GIS. The system makes it convenient for planning practitioners exchanging information, and can spatially, visually and quantitatively describe environmental impact and its change. In this study, the urban-rural combination area located between EDE and Veenendaal of The Netherlands was taken as case, and the results indicated that the environment was incorporated well in the planning procedure based on the concepts, and could also demonstrate the effects of planning measures on environment spatially, explicitly, and in real-time, facilitating the participation of planning practitioners and decision-making. Some proposals of how to promote STEEP application in China were suggested.

  19. Game theoretic analysis of environmental impact assessment system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Hongguang; QI Ye; PU Xiao; GONG Li

    2007-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) system has been established in China since 1973.In present EIA cases,there are four participants in general:governments,enterprises,EIA organizations and the public.The public has held responsible for both social costs and social duties.The public supervises social costs produced by enterprises discharging pollutant in EIA.However public participation is mostly deputized by governments,which severely weaken the independence of the public as one participant in EIA.In this paper,EIA refers to the different attitudes of the participants whose optional strategies may be described by a proper game model.According to disfigurements in EIA,three sides (governments,enterprises,and EIA organizations)dynamic iterative game theory of many phases is established referring to iterative game theory,dynamic game theory of incomplete information,and perfect Bayesian equilibrium theory to analyze the reciprocity relation among governments,EIA organizations and enterprises.The results show that in a short period,economic benefit is preponderant over social benefit.Governments and enterprises both do not want to take EIA to reveal social costs.EIA organizations' income comes from enterprises and the collusions are built between them to vindicate economic benefit.In a long run,social benefit loss caused by environmental pollution must be recuperated sooner or later and environmental deterioration will influence the achievements of economic benefit,so both governments and eaterprises are certain to pursue high social benefit and willing to take EIA,helpful to increase private benefit.EIA organizations will make fair assessment when their economic benefit are ensured.At present,the public as silent victims can not take actual part in EIA.The EIA system must be improved to break the present equilibrium of three sides,bringing the public to the equilibrium to exert public supervision.

  20. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators as...

  1. 10 CFR 51.91 - Final environmental impact statement-contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-contents. 51.91... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.91 Final environmental impact statement—contents. (a)(1) The final environmental impact statement will include responses...

  2. 10 CFR 51.81 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.81 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement and...

  3. 10 CFR 51.85 - Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking. 51.85... Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.85 Draft environmental impact... Commission has determined to prepare an environmental impact statement. ...

  4. 10 CFR 51.86 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.86 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement and any...

  5. 10 CFR 51.117 - Draft environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a draft environmental impact statement or any supplement to a draft environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff director...

  6. 10 CFR 51.72 - Supplement to draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. 51.72... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.72 Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. (a) The NRC staff will prepare a supplement to a draft environmental impact statement for which a...

  7. 10 CFR 51.71 - Draft environmental impact statement-contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-contents. 51.71... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.71 Draft environmental impact statement—contents. (a) Scope. The draft environmental impact statement will be prepared in accordance with the scope...

  8. 10 CFR 51.118 - Final environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a final environmental impact statement or any supplement to a final environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff director...

  9. 10 CFR 51.70 - Draft environmental impact statement-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-general. 51.70... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.70 Draft environmental impact statement—general. (a) The NRC staff will prepare a draft environmental impact statement as soon as practicable...

  10. 10 CFR 51.73 - Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Request for comments on draft environmental impact...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.73 Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement. Each draft environmental impact statement and each supplement to a draft...

  11. 10 CFR 51.94 - Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to consider final environmental impact...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.94 Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement. The final environmental impact statement...

  12. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices as...

  13. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev, Artem Vladimirovich; Ryabchikov, Sergey Yakovlevich; Isaev, Evgeniy Dmitrievich; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling t...

  14. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  15. The impact of new member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992.......The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992....

  16. Environmental Impact of ICT on the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption.......This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption....

  17. Environmentally Lean Production: The Development and Incorporation of an Environmental Impact Index into Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Roosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to include environmental waste alongside other lean wastes. Current concepts of environmental waste focus on the total production of waste from a plant. However waste is generated by individual processes within the production. Therefore focused management of waste requires engineers to know what and where waste is being generated. This is often simply not known with any accuracy. This work offer a solution by developing a method to integrate environmental waste into the lean method of Value Stream Mapping (VSM. Specifically it integrate corporate environmental standards with the VSM process, thereby permitting established lean improvement process to be focused at specific environmental improvement actions. Application of the method is demonstrated in a manufacturing setting, representing a variety of environmental impacts. The deployment is capable of being generalised to any number of environmental factors. It is able to represent a customised waste index for a particular industry. Several ways to represent the multidimensional environmental wastes were explored via industry focus group. The resulting method can be used by production staff to quantify environmental impacts at the level of the individual process and aggregated to report wastes for the whole value stream.

  18. Evaluation of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Current awareness of environmental pollution of animal production in Western Europe has triggered research on development of environmental indicators at farm level. Only when the environmental impact of commercial farms can be quantified effectively, important differences in impact can be

  19. 75 FR 25217 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Northwest Aggregates' Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Northwest... (Corps) Seattle District is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze the... Aggregates dock replacement project and potential environmental issues including completed construction...

  20. A Prediction Model of MF Radiation in Environmental Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE-SHAN GE; YAN-FENG HONG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To predict the impact of MF radiation on human health.Methods The vertical distribution of field intensity was estimated by analogism on the basis of measured values from simulation measurement. Results A kind of analogism on the basis of geometric proportion decay pattern is put forward in the essay. It showed that with increasing of height the field intensity increased according to geometric proportion law. Conclusion This geometric proportion prediction model can be used to estimate the impact of MF radiation on inhabited environment, and can act as a reference pattern in predicting the environmental impact level of MF radiation.

  1. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  2. ECOLOGICAL IDEAS IN POLISH ARCHITECTURE - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena SZPYTMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solutions in the field of ecological architecture appear more and more often in Poland. There are two approaches to eco-design: high-tech and low-tech. High-tech focuses on the use of the latest technological solvings. These means are often used in newly designed commercial buildings, such as the first Polish office building which uses passive technology, built in Katowice, in Euro-Centrum Science and Technology Park. It is intended especially for companies focusing on energy observance issues. Low-tech is usually used in small-scale buildings (for example a cottage in Jartypory village, and is focused on the use of inexpensive, traditional technologies and the daily conscious management of natural resources. Thinking about the impact on the environment and principles of sustainable development is also present in urban planning. In Siewierz, near Katowice, Poland’s first eco-village is being built, with full infrastructure, high-quality residential buildings, shops, offices and hotels. The range of applied solutions will allow residents for the economical exploitation of these buildings.

  3. Environmental Impact of Estonian Oil Shale CFB Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosaar, J.; Parve, T.; Konist, A.

    Oil shale based power production has been the basement of Estonia's energetical independency and economy for over 60 years. At the same time oil shale power plants emissions still give the biggest share of Estonian stationary source pollution, having significant impact to the environment. Thanks to the introduction of oil shale large scale CFB firing, reduction of the total environmental impact was achieved in last years.

  4. A Study on Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJing

    2005-01-01

    China's legislature on the environmental impact assessments contains related provisions on public participation as an important element of institutions in this field. So far, however, the stipulation remains at the level of a plain statement of principle both substantially and procedurally. The newly enacted Law on the Assessment of the Environment Impact has seen great progress in provisions for public participation if compared with similar statutes enacted in the past legislation. However, there is a gap in the procedures,

  5. Selecting Materials for Environmental-Friendly Buildings: The Need for Improved Environmental Impact Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachawit T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings of the future need to be more environmental-friendly. Selecting environmentally-benign materials in design stage would partly help achieving such goal. Examination of existing environmental impact data of building materials reveals that the data differ greatly from one source to another. Comparisons of environmental impact values of selected materials are presented. The sources that give rise to data variation are identified and discussed. The applicability of existing data is assessed from the designers’ perspective. Limitations of current practice in data acquisition and presentation are also discussed. It is concluded that existing environmental impact data of building materials are inconsistent and perplexing to designers. An alternative approach to data acquisition and presentation is to break the life cycle of building materials into several phases and to calculate the total impact value as the sum of the impacts of all phases. This would make the determination of the full life cycle value feasible and increase external validity of research results.

  6. Yakima Fisheries Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington.

    1996-01-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council`s (Council`s) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA`s proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities ({open_quotes}adaptive management{close_quotes}); and (3) die construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Examined in addition to No Action are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of reestablishing naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 is the preferred action. A central hatchery would be built for either alternative, as well as three sites with six raceways each for acclimation and release of spring chinook smolts. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery.

  7. Environmental impacts of open loop geothermal system on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Koo-Sang; Park, Youngyun; Yun, Sang Woong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Application of renewable energies such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat has gradually increased to reduce emission of CO2 which is supplied from combustion of fossil fuel. The geothermal energy of various renewable energies has benefit to be used to cooling and heating systems and has good energy efficiency compared with other renewable energies. However, open loop system of geothermal heat pump system has possibility that various environmental problems are induced because the system directly uses groundwater to exchange heat. This study was performed to collect data from many documents such as papers and reports and to summarize environmental impacts for application of open loop system. The environmental impacts are classified into change of hydrogeological factors such as water temperature, redox condition, EC, change of microbial species, well contamination and depletion of groundwater. The change of hydrogeological factors can induce new geological processes such as dissolution and precipitation of some minerals. For examples, increase of water temperature can change pH and Eh. These variations can change saturation index of some minerals. Therefore, dissolution and precipitation of some minerals such as quartz and carbonate species and compounds including Fe and Mn can induce a collapse and a clogging of well. The well contamination and depletion of groundwater can reduce available groundwater resources. These environmental impacts will be different in each region because hydrogeological properties and scale, operation period and kind of the system. Therefore, appropriate responses will be considered for each environmental impact. Also, sufficient study will be conducted to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve geothermal energy efficiency during the period that a open loop system is operated. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning

  8. Alternatives and implication in process of environmental impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauš Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EIA is an interactive, rule-based expert system for the environmental impact assessment. It is designed for a screening level assessment of development projects at a pre-feasibility stage. Typical problems for the evaluation include: resettlement; watershed degradation; encroachment upon precious ecosystems; encroachment on historical/cultural values; watershed erosion; reservoir siltation; impairment of navigation; changes in groundwater hydrology, waterlogging; seepage and evaporation losses; migration of valuable fish species; inundation of mineral resources/forests; other inundation losses and adverse effects. It is important to prevent environmental pollution when carrying out large-scale development projects, such as artificial change of landscapes and building of certain structures that may cause a tremendous impact on the environment. In accordance with Cities Environmental Impact Assessment Departments it is necessary to provide project organisers with a necessary advice and instructions concerning the environmental impact assessment a survey to predict and evaluate environmental impact to be conducted by project organisers. Prior to offering the advice and instructions, cities need to hear the opinions of residents of the areas concerned, mayors of related municipalities and other opinion leaders, including specialists, to reflect their views in the environmental preservation. The first aspect in any quality assessment is to determine the representativeness of data both in terms of physical siting and data collected. It must be recognised the environment is a dynamic fluid; quality therefore varies over space and time. There will be locations in any community that experience poorer quality than recorded at a monitoring station. Likewise other sites will have a better quality. Most communities have only a single monitoring site. Therefore, the air quality monitors are sited to provide a representative estimate of the community exposure

  9. National environmental/economic infrastructure system model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Hardie, R.W.; Loose, V.W.; Booth, S.R.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report for a one-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ultimate goal was to develop a new methodology for macroeconomic modeling applied to national environmental and economic problems. A modeling demonstration and briefings were produced, and significant internal technical support and program interest has been generated. External contacts with DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), US State Department, and the US intelligence community were established. As a result of DOE-EM interest and requests for further development, this research has been redirected to national environmental simulations as a new LDRD project.

  10. Uncertainties in assessing the environmental impact of amine emissions from a CO2 capture plant

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, M.; Castell, N.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; J. Starrfelt; T. Svendby; Walker, S.-E.; Wright, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new model framework that couples the atmospheric chemistry transport model system Weather Research and Forecasting–European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (WRF-EMEP) and the multimedia fugacity level III model was used to assess the environmental impact of in-air amine emissions from post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. The modelling framework was applied to a typical carbon capture plant artificially placed at Mongstad, on the west coast of ...

  11. Improved environmental multimedia modeling and its sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Elektorowicz, Maria; Chen, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of multimedia environmental issues is extremely complex due to the intricacy of the systems with the consideration of many factors. In this study, an improved environmental multimedia modeling is developed and a number of testing problems related to it are examined and compared with each other with standard numerical and analytical methodologies. The results indicate the flux output of new model is lesser in the unsaturated zone and groundwater zone compared with the traditional environmental multimedia model. Furthermore, about 90% of the total benzene flux was distributed to the air zone from the landfill sources and only 10% of the total flux emitted into the unsaturated, groundwater zones in non-uniform conditions. This paper also includes functions of model sensitivity analysis to optimize model parameters such as Peclet number (Pe). The analyses results show that the Pe can be considered as deterministic input variables for transport output. The oscillatory behavior is eliminated with the Pe decreased. In addition, the numerical methods are more accurate than analytical methods with the Pe increased. In conclusion, the improved environmental multimedia model system and its sensitivity analysis can be used to address the complex fate and transport of the pollutants in multimedia environments and then help to manage the environmental impacts.

  12. Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

  13. Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Public participation in environmental impact assessment: why, who and how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glucker, A.N.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Kolhoff, A.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Even a cursory glance at the literature on environmental impact assessment (EIA) reveals that public participation is being considered as an integral part of the assessment procedure. Public participation in EIA is commonly deemed to foster democratic policy-making and to render EIA more effective.

  15. The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria. ... for high incidences of food poisoning and deaths of unsuspecting consumers ... This is particularly common in aquaculture where such chemicals have been used extensively to catch fish. ... Land denudation, aquatic toxicity; leaching, run off and lifetime health ...

  16. The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    A short literature survey is presented on health and environmental issues in relation to the production and use of fibre crops. Next a short introduction to Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is given and the various commonly applied methods for quantifying ecological impacts are discussed in short. The avai

  17. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air q...

  18. Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the geography of conflict, to assess the environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in .... at hindering births or the transfer of children of one group to another, and attacks on the ..... Gender, armed conflicts and political violence. London ...

  19. Review on Chlorobenzoic Acids Biodegradation and Their Environmental Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuWenming; QiYun; ZhaoLin; TanXin

    2005-01-01

    Chlorobenzoic Acids are toxic organic compounds largely distributed in soils and sediments. They can be degraded to various products by microorgans. This paper is a review of the literature on biodegradability of the chlorobenzoic acids. The degradation pathways, degradation genes, role of transposable elements, and construction of strains are discussed. A brief introduction is given on the environmental impacts and the pollution control.

  20. 75 FR 67806 - Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... proposed improvements to United States Highway 181/State Highway 286 (Crosstown Expressway), in Nueces... Nueces County, Texas. The project limits were defined as the limits of the schematic design. The...

  1. 75 FR 63533 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cameron County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cameron County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Rescind Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare an EIS. SUMMARY: FHWA is issuing...

  2. Environmental impacts of Jatropha curcas biodiesel in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations.

  3. Environmental impact assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role in the production of textile products for more than 70 years. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact of man-made cellulose fibres. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for three types of fibres (i.e. Viscose, Modal

  4. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Peacekeeper Rail Garrison Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    advanced culture characterized by an extensive trade network and a series of traits such as ceremonial architecture and maize (corn) agriculture...Statement, Pantex Plant Site, Amarillo , Texas (U.S. Department of Energy 1983), which covers nuclear weapons assembly, stockpile monitoring, maintenance...1983 Final Environmental Impact Statement, Pantex Plant Site, Amarillo ,_ Texas (DOE/EIS-0098). National Technical Information Service, Washington

  5. Business Plan : Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    This document contains the appendices for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Business Plan: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Included are: BPA products and services; Rate design; Methodology and assumptions for numerical analysis; Retail utility operations; Comments and responses to the draft business plan EIS.

  6. 75 FR 63469 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ..., Proposed Changes to the National Forest Transportation System, Implementation, Nevada, Placer, Plumas... Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Analyzing the Environmental Impact of Natural Gas... Center, Supplement 42 to NUREG-1437, near the Town of Palo, Linn County, IA, Wait Period Ends: 11/15/2010...

  7. Environmental impact assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role in the production of textile products for more than 70 years. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact of man-made cellulose fibres. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for three types of fibres (i.e. Viscose, Modal

  8. Reducing the environmental impact of a gas operated cogeneration installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimie Sabin Ioan

    2017-01-01

    The amount of energy saved yearly, the specific fuel consumption and the environmental impact were determined by the comparative study. The diagrams representing the variation of the performance indicators according to the operation period were also created. The usefulness of the paper consists in the creation of the yearly optimum installation operation time chart.

  9. Environmental Impact of ICT on the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption....

  10. The Aswan Dam: A Lesson on Man's Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Burnell

    This curriculum unit was prepared for senior high classroom use to teach geography, history, and environmental issues. The objective of the lesson is to illustrate the historical man/river relationship between Egypt and the Nile River, and the impact of the Aswan dam on the agricultural and economic needs of the country today. The lesson requires…

  11. Schools That Sustain: Lessening the Environmental Impact of New Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peele, Katherine N.; Malone, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Discusses sustainable school design and its benefits to the environment, offering examples of illustrative schools. Provides suggestions on site selection (such as using smaller sites and recycling existing buildings), sharing facilities with the community, and construction elements that improve environmental impact (such as flexibility,…

  12. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  13. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  14. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal..., UT 84118, telephone (801) 963-0182, e-mail Edward.Woolford@dot.gov . The Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) contact is Brandon Weston, Project Manager, 2010 South 2760 West, Salt Lake City, UT...

  15. 78 FR 15925 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction In proposed rule...

  16. 78 FR 20074 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction The correction that...

  17. 75 FR 41163 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Overseas Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as implemented by the Council on Environmental Quality... area does not include the Arctic. This EIS and OEIS is being prepared to renew and combine current... responsibility (except for the Arctic). The AFTT study area covers approximately 2.6 million square...

  18. Interactive modeling of storm impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, A.; Baart, F.; Roelvink, J. A.; Donchyts, G.; Scheel, F.; de Boer, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades the impact of storms on the coastal zone has increasingly drawn the attention of policy makers and coastal planners, engineers and researchers. The mean reason for this interest is the high density of the world's population living near the ocean, in combination with climate change. Due to sea level rise and extremer weather conditions, many of the world's coastlines are becoming more vulnerable to the potential of flooding. Currently it is common practice to predict storm impact using physics-based numerical models. The numerical model utilizes several inputs (e.g. bathymetry, waves, surge) to calculate the impact on the coastline. Traditionally, the numerical modeller takes the following three steps: schematization/model setup, running and post-processing. This process generally has a total feedback time in the order of hours to days, and is suitable for so-called confirmatory modelling.However, often models are applied as an exploratory tool, in which the effect of e.g. different hydraulic conditions, or measures is investigated. The above described traditional work flow is not the most efficient method for exploratory modelling. Interactive modelling lets users adjust a simulation while running. For models typically used for storm impact studies (e.g. XBeach, Delft3D, D-Flow FM), the user can for instance change the storm surge level, wave conditions, or add a measure such as a nourishment or a seawall. The model will take the adjustments into account immediately, and will directly compute the effect. Using this method, tools can be developed in which stakeholders (e.g. coastal planners, policy makers) are in control and together evaluate ideas by interacting with the model. Here we will show initial results for interactive modelling with a storm impact model.

  19. Environmental Assessment: General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Laughlin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    BASED ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS AGENCY: 47th Flying Training Wing (FTW), Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...in their decision-making process. The President’s Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has issued regulations to implement NEPA that include...Order (EO) 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, was issued by the President on

  20. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products:hot spots and environmental policies

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials ...

  1. Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärrman, E; Jönsson, H

    2001-01-01

    In an environmental systems analysis of four wasterwater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to arable land. A conventional wastewater system (A) was compared to irrigation of energy forest with biologically treated wastewater (B), liquid composting of toilet wastewater (C) and a conventional system supplemented with urine separation (D). Analysing the aspects in priority group one, systems B-D improved the management of plant nutrients and decreased the flow of heavy metals to water, while the flow to arable land increased, especially for system B. The suggested method is useful in municipal environmental planning and when choosing a wastewater system.

  2. Environmental Impacts Assessment of Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania

    to potential adverse impacts, especially related to the water-borne emission of pollutants, which need to be avoided. This requires first of all an estimation of their magnitude, and so the goal of this PhD is to provide an assessment of potential environmental impacts related to C&DW utilisation. C...... their ubiquitous environmental presence. Several methods may be used to investigate leaching from granular C&DW, one of which is percolation tests. Compared to down-flow lysimeters with uncrushed C&DW, this study found that the use of standard up-flow columns, with materials below 4mm in particle size, may...... case applies in situations characterised by high infiltration rates, such as unpaved roads, cracked asphalt cover or heavy rain events. By using holistic tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) a general evaluation of the environmental consequences of C&DW utilisation system was provided. Although...

  3. Modelling environmental dynamics. Advances in goematic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paegelow, Martin [Toulouse-2 Univ., 31 (France). GEODE UMR 5602 CNRS; Camacho Olmedo, Maria Teresa (eds.) [Granada Univ (Spain). Dpto. de Analisis Geografico Regional y Geografia Fisica

    2008-07-01

    Modelling environmental dynamics is critical to understanding and predicting the evolution of the environment in response to the large number of influences including urbanisation, climate change and deforestation. Simulation and modelling provide support for decision making in environmental management. The first chapter introduces terminology and provides an overview of methodological modelling approaches which may be applied to environmental and complex dynamics. Based on this introduction this book illustrates various models applied to a large variety of themes: deforestation in tropical regions, fire risk, natural reforestation in European mountains, agriculture, biodiversity, urbanism, climate change and land management for decision support, etc. These case studies, provided by a large international spectrum of researchers and presented in a uniform structure, focus particularly on methods and model validation so that this book is not only aimed at researchers and graduates but also at professionals. (orig.)

  4. Model Fusion Tool - the Open Environmental Modelling Platform Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Giles, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The vision of an Open Environmental Modelling Platform - seamlessly linking geoscience data, concepts and models to aid decision making in times of environmental change. Governments and their executive agencies across the world are facing increasing pressure to make decisions about the management of resources in light of population growth and environmental change. In the UK for example, groundwater is becoming a scarce resource for large parts of its most densely populated areas. At the same time river and groundwater flooding resulting from high rainfall events are increasing in scale and frequency and sea level rise is threatening the defences of coastal cities. There is also a need for affordable housing, improved transport infrastructure and waste disposal as well as sources of renewable energy and sustainable food production. These challenges can only be resolved if solutions are based on sound scientific evidence. Although we have knowledge and understanding of many individual processes in the natural sciences it is clear that a single science discipline is unable to answer the questions and their inter-relationships. Modern science increasingly employs computer models to simulate the natural, economic and human system. Management and planning requires scenario modelling, forecasts and ‘predictions’. Although the outputs are often impressive in terms of apparent accuracy and visualisation, they are inherently not suited to simulate the response to feedbacks from other models of the earth system, such as the impact of human actions. Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) are increasingly employing advances in Information Technology to visualise and improve their understanding of geological systems. Instead of 2 dimensional paper maps and reports many GSOs now produce 3 dimensional geological framework models and groundwater flow models as their standard output. Additionally the British Geological Survey have developed standard routines to link geological

  5. Environmental impacts of phosphogypsum vs. borrow pits in roadfill construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D F; Dooris, P M; Sumpter, D

    2001-01-01

    A comparison was performed of the environmental impacts of using phosphogypsum versus conventional fill materials (e.g., from borrow pits) for road construction. The study compared a hypothetical roadway with an actual roadway in Florida; the two facilities differed only in that phosphogypsum was employed as fill material instead of conventional materials. The effect of the two construction approaches on the plant and animal communities was considered, as was the impact on the surface and ground water. A summary was made of the comparative impacts, and a comparison matrix was constructed using integral numbers to depict impacts ranging from -5 (most impact) to 0 (none) to + 5, showing most benefit of the part of the project on a given resource. Values were subjective, based upon investigators' experience. Four categories (plant and animal communities, water quality, water resources, and air quality) were considered. The cumulative total was +12 for phosphogypsum and -6 for conventional fill material.

  6. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  7. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  8. The integrated environmental control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  9. The environmental impact of micro/nanomachines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Joseph

    2014-04-22

    Environmental sustainability represents a major challenge facing our world. Recent advances in synthetic micro/nanomachines have opened new horizons for addressing environmental problems. This review article highlights the opportunities and challenges in translating the remarkable progresses in nanomotor technology toward practical environmental applications. It covers various environmental areas that would benefit from these developments, including nanomachine-enabled degradation and removal of major contaminants or nanomotor-based water quality monitoring. Future operations of autonomous intelligent multifunctional nanomachines, monitoring and responding to hazardous chemicals (in a "sense and destroy" mode) and using bioinspired chemotactic search strategies to trace chemical plumes to their source, are discussed, along with the challenges of moving these exciting research efforts to larger-scale pilot studies and eventually to field applications. With continuous innovations, we expect that man-made nano/microscale motors will have profound impact upon the environment.

  10. Modelling climate impacts on the aviation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The climate is changing, not just where we live at ground level, but also where we fly at 35,000 feet. We have long known that air travel contributes to climate change through its emissions. However, we have only recently become aware that climate change could have significant consequences for air travel. This presentation will give an overview of the possible impacts of climate change on the aviation sector. The presentation will describe how the impacts are modelled and how their social and economic costs are estimated. The impacts are discussed in the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO's) latest Environmental Report (Puempel and Williams 2016). Some of the possible impacts are as follows. Rising sea levels and storm surges threaten coastal airports, such as La Guardia in New York, which was flooded by the remnants of Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Warmer air at ground level reduces the lift force and makes it more difficult for planes to take-off (Coffel and Horton 2015). More extreme weather may cause flight disruptions and delays. Clear-air turbulence is expected to become up to 40% stronger and twice as common (Williams and Joshi 2013). Transatlantic flights may collectively be airborne for an extra 2,000 hours each year because of changes to the jet stream, burning an extra 7.2 million gallons of jet fuel at a cost of US 22 million, and emitting an extra 70 million kg of carbon dioxide (Williams 2016). These modelled impacts provide further evidence of the two-way interaction between aviation and climate change. References Coffel E and Horton R (2015) Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation. Weather, Climate, and Society, 7, 94-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-14-00026.1 Puempel H and Williams PD (2016) The impacts of climate change on aviation: Scientific challenges and adaptation pathways. ICAO Environmental Report 2016: On Board A Sustainable Future, pp 205-207. http://www.icao.int/environmental

  11. Improving Environmental Model Calibration and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    groundwater model calibration. Adv. Water Resour., 29(4):605–623, 2006. [9] B.E. Skahill, J.S. Baggett, S. Frankenstein , and C.W. Downer. More efficient...of Hydrology, Environmental Modelling & Software, or Water Resources Research). Skahill, B., Baggett, J., Frankenstein , S., and Downer, C.W. (2009

  12. Planning Environmental Impact Assessment Orienting Sustainable Development:Opportunities and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yanjun; Chen Xingeng; Bao Yun; Peng Xiaochun; Gao Changbo

    2005-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment is a frontier subject in the field of Environmental Impact Assessment. In the past two decades, especially in recent years, much more importance has been attached to Strategic Environmental Assessment. The Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the P.R.China which was promulgated provides a great opportunity for the development of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment and brings great challenges for the development of traditional Project Environmental Impact Assessment and Planning Environmental Impact Assessment at the same time.In order to promote the implementation of"The EIA Law", the inherent limitations of Project Environmental Impact Assessment must be identified sufficiendy and the theory research and practice of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment should be strengthened as well. Measures should be taken currendy to enforce the operation system. The authors wish to offer a few references to the progress and implementation of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment in China.

  13. Modeling crop responses to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Potential biophysical responses of crops to climate change are studied focusing on the primary environmental variables which define the limits to agricultural crop growth and production, and the principal methods for predicting climate change impacts on crop geography and production. It is concluded that the principal uncertainties in the prediction of the impacts of climate change on agriculture reside in the contribution of the direct effects of increasing CO2, in potential changes inclimate variability, and the effects of adjustments mechanisms in the context of climatic changes.

  14. Parameter estimation and error analysis in environmental modeling and computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmaz, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the estimation of parameters and error analysis in the development of nonlinear modeling for environmental impact assessment studies is presented. The modular computer program can interactively fit different nonlinear models to the same set of data, dynamically changing the error structure associated with observed values. Parameter estimation techniques and sequential estimation algorithms employed in parameter identification and model selection are first discussed. Then, least-square parameter estimation procedures are formulated, utilizing differential or integrated equations, and are used to define a model for association of error with experimentally observed data.

  15. 24 CFR 58.60 - Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental impact statements. 58.60 Section 58.60 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD... Environmental Impact Statements § 58.60 Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements. (a)...

  16. 24 CFR 58.53 - Use of prior environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of prior environmental impact... RESPONSIBILITIES Environmental Review Process: Environmental Impact Statement Determinations § 58.53 Use of prior environmental impact statements. Where any final EIS has been listed in the Federal Register for a...

  17. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  18. 43 CFR 46.445 - Preparing a legislative environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.445 Preparing a legislative environmental impact statement. When required under 40 CFR 1506.8, the Department must ensure that a legislative environmental impact statement is included as a part of the formal...

  19. 43 CFR 46.420 - Terms used in an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terms used in an environmental impact... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.420 Terms used in an environmental impact statement. The following terms are commonly used to describe concepts...

  20. 36 CFR 220.5 - Environmental impact statement and record of decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) COMPLIANCE § 220.5 Environmental impact statement and record of decision. (a) Classes of actions normally requiring environmental impact statements...