An interatomic potential model for carbonates allowing for polarization effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birse, S.E.A.; Archer, T.D.; Dove, Martin T.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Gale, Julian D.; Redern, Simon A.T.
2003-01-01
An empirical model for investigating the behavior of CaCO 3 polymorphs incorporating a shell model for oxygen has been created. The model was constructed by fitting to: the structure of aragonite and calcite; their elastic, static and high-frequency dielectric constants; phonon frequencies at the wave vectors (1/2 0 2) and (0 0 0) of calcite; and vibrational frequencies of the carbonate deformation modes of calcite. The high-pressure phase transition between calcite I and II is observed. The potentials for the CO 3 group were transferred to other carbonates, by refitting the interaction between CO 3 and the cation to both the experimental structures and their bulk modulus, creating a set of potentials for calculating the properties of a wide range of carbonate materials. Defect energies of substitutional cation defects were analyzed for calcite and aragonite phases. The results were rationalized by studying the structure of calcite and aragonite in greater detail.
Elsworth, Catherine; Li, Barbara T. Y.; Ten, Abilio
2017-01-01
In this letter we present an innovative and cost-effective method of constructing crystal structures using Dual Lock fastening adhesive tape with table tennis (ping pong) balls. The use of these fasteners allows the balls to be easily assembled into layers to model various crystal structures and unit cells and then completely disassembled again.…
Allowing for surface preparation in stress corrosion cracking modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berge, P.; Buisine, D.; Gelpi, A.
1997-01-01
When a 600 alloy component is significantly deformed during installation, by welding, rolling, bending, its stress corrosion cracking in Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor's primary coolant, is significantly changed by the initial surface treatment. Therefore, the crack initiated time may be reduced by several orders of magnitude for certain surfaces preparations. Allowing for cold working of the surface, for which modelling is proposed, depends less on the degree of cold work then on the depths of the hardened layers. Honing hardens the metal over depths of about one micron for vessel head penetrations, for example, and has little influence on subsequent behaviour after the part deforms. On the other hand, coarser turning treatment produces cold worked layers which can reach several tens of microns and can very significantly reduce the initiation time compared to fine honing. So evaluation after depths of hardening is vital on test pieces for interpreting laboratory results as well as on service components for estimating their service life. Suppression by mechanical or chemical treatment of these layers, after deformation, seems to be the most appropriate solution for reducing over-stressing connected with surface treatment carried out before deformation. (author)
Can extra dimensional effects allow wormholes without exotic matter?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kar, Sayan, E-mail: sayan@iitkgp.ac.in [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721 302 (India); Lahiri, Sayantani, E-mail: sayantani.lahiri@gmail.com [Institute for Physics, University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); ZARM, University of Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany); SenGupta, Soumitra, E-mail: tpssg@iacs.res.in [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mallick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)
2015-11-12
We explore the existence of Lorentzian wormholes in the context of an effective on-brane, scalar-tensor theory of gravity. In such theories, the timelike convergence condition, which is always violated for wormholes, has contributions, via the field equations, from on-brane matter as well as from an effective geometric stress energy generated by a bulk-induced radion field. It is shown that, for a class of wormholes, the required on-brane matter, as seen by an on-brane observer in the Jordan frame, is not exotic and does not violate the Weak Energy Condition. The presence of the effective geometric stress energy in addition to on-brane matter is largely responsible for creating this intriguing possibility. Thus, if such wormholes are ever found to exist in the Universe, they would clearly provide pointers towards the existence of a warped extra dimension as proposed in the two-brane model of Randall and Sundrum.
Risk Prediction Models for Oral Clefts Allowing for Phenotypic Heterogeneity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yalu eWen
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Oral clefts are common birth defects that have a major impact on the affected individual, their family and society. World-wide, the incidence of oral clefts is 1/700 live births, making them the most common craniofacial birth defects. The successful prediction of oral clefts may help identify sub-population at high risk, and promote new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Nevertheless, developing a clinically useful oral clefts risk prediction model remains a great challenge. Compelling evidences suggest the etiologies of oral clefts are highly heterogeneous, and the development of a risk prediction model with consideration of phenotypic heterogeneity may potentially improve the accuracy of a risk prediction model. In this study, we applied a previously developed statistical method to investigate the risk prediction on sub-phenotypes of oral clefts. Our results suggested subtypes of cleft lip and palate have similar genetic etiologies (AUC=0.572 with subtypes of cleft lip only (AUC=0.589, while the subtypes of cleft palate only (CPO have heterogeneous underlying mechanisms (AUCs for soft CPO and hard CPO are 0.617 and 0.623, respectively. This highlighted the potential that the hard and soft forms of CPO have their own mechanisms despite sharing some of the genetic risk factors. Comparing with conventional methods for risk prediction modeling, our method considers phenotypic heterogeneity of a disease, which potentially improves the accuracy for predicting each sub-phenotype of oral clefts.
Can extra dimensional effects allow wormholes without exotic matter?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sayan Kar
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We explore the existence of Lorentzian wormholes in the context of an effective on-brane, scalar-tensor theory of gravity. In such theories, the timelike convergence condition, which is always violated for wormholes, has contributions, via the field equations, from on-brane matter as well as from an effective geometric stress energy generated by a bulk-induced radion field. It is shown that, for a class of wormholes, the required on-brane matter, as seen by an on-brane observer in the Jordan frame, is not exotic and does not violate the Weak Energy Condition. The presence of the effective geometric stress energy in addition to on-brane matter is largely responsible for creating this intriguing possibility. Thus, if such wormholes are ever found to exist in the Universe, they would clearly provide pointers towards the existence of a warped extra dimension as proposed in the two-brane model of Randall and Sundrum.
Welfare Stigma Allowing for Psychological and Cultural Effects. An Agent-Based Simulation Study
Dalit Contini; Matteo Richiardi
2007-01-01
We investigate the effects of income support on unemployment and welfare dynamics when stigma is attached to welfare provision. Stigma has been modelled in the literature as a cost of entry into welfare. Allowing for psychological factors, we assume that with stigma welfare provision leads to lower search effectiveness; moreover, we allow for interaction among agents. Carrying out an agent-based simulation study, we find that welfare take-up rates decrease with stigma while welfare spells get...
Allowing for crystalline structure effects in Geant4
Bagli, Enrico; Asai, Makoto; Dotti, Andrea; Pandola, Luciano; Verderi, Marc
2017-07-01
In recent years, the Geant4 toolkit for the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation with matter has seen large growth in its divers user community. A fundamental aspect of a successful physics experiment is the availability of a reliable and precise simulation code. Geant4 currently does not allow for the simulation of particle interactions with anything other than amorphous matter. To overcome this limitation, the GECO (GEant4 Crystal Objects) project developed a general framework for managing solid-state structures in the Geant4 kernel and validate it against experimental data. Accounting for detailed geometrical structures allows, for example, simulation of diffraction from crystal planes or the channeling of charged particle.
Manufacturing Methods for Process Effects on Aluminum Casting Allowables
1985-03-01
at room temperature using a steel ladle coated with refractory Insulkotz R-20. (4) Clean Up After the casting was shaken out of the mold, the gates...ALUMINUM CASTING ALLOWABLES K.J. OSWALT Y. LII NORTHROP CORPORATION AIRCRAFT DIVISION ONE NORTHROP AVENUE HAWTHORNE, CALIFORNIA 90250 MARCH 1985 FINAL...GR. Aluminum Castings , A357, A201, Mechanical Properties 1~~ j’Airframe Structures, Specifications, Manufacturing Methods 1.A TRACT (Continue on rev
A two-period model of emission abatement and allowance banking under uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanson, D.A.
1991-01-01
This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO 2 emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide about twice as many SO 2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase I (1995--1999) than in Phase II. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase I, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase II. Allowance prices may increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments with allowances being banked only by risk averse electric utilities. Speculators are likely to be willing to set allowances in forward markets, which will lower current market prices of allowances relative to a situation with only risk averse utilities in the market. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO 2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions
Spatial effects should be allowed for in primary care and other community-based cluster RCTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kendrick Denise
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Typical advice on the design and analysis of cluster randomized trials (C-RCTs focuses on allowance for the clustering at the level of the unit of allocation. However often C-RCTs are also organised spatially as may occur in the fields of Public Health and Primary Care where populations may even overlap. Methods We allowed for spatial effects on the error variance by a multiple membership model. These are a form of hierarchical model in which each lower level unit is a member of more than one higher level unit. Membership may be determined through adjacency or through Euclidean distance of centroids or in other ways such as the proportion of overlapping population. Such models may be estimated for Normal, binary and Poisson responses in Stata (v10 or above as well as in WinBUGS or MLWin. We used this to analyse a dummy trial and two real, previously published cluster-allocated studies (one allocating general practices within one City and the other allocating general practices within one County to investigate the extent to which ignoring spatial effects affected the estimate of treatment effect, using different methods for defining membership with Akaike's Information Criterion to determine the "best" model. Results The best fitting model included both a fixed North-South gradient and a random cluster effect for the dummy RCT. For one of the real RCTs the best fitting model included both a random practice effect plus a multiple membership spatial term, while for the other RCT the best fitting model ignored the clustering but included a fixed North-South gradient. Alternative models which fitted only slightly less well all included spatial effects in one form or another, with some variation in parameter estimates (greater when less well fitting models were included. Conclusions These particular results are only illustrative. However, we believe when designing C-RCTs in a primary care setting the possibility of spatial effects
Ellrott, Kyle; Guo, Jun-tao; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying
2006-01-01
Integer programming is a combinatorial optimization method that has been successfully applied to the protein threading problem. We seek to expand the model optimized by this technique to allow for a more accurate description of protein threading. We have developed and implemented an expanded model of integer programming that has the capability to model secondary structure element deletion, which was not possible in previous version of integer programming based optimization.
Stochastic Differential Equation Models for the Price of European CO2 Emissions Allowances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wugan Cai
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Understanding the stochastic nature of emissions allowances is crucial for risk management in emissions trading markets. In this study, we discuss the emissions allowances spot price within the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme: Powernext and European Climate Exchange. To compare the fitness of five stochastic differential equations (SDEs to the European Union allowances spot price, we apply regression theory to obtain the point and interval estimations for the parameters of the SDEs. An empirical evaluation demonstrates that the mean reverting square root process (MRSRP has the best fitness of five SDEs to forecast the spot price. To reduce the degree of smog, we develop a new trading scheme in which firms have to hand many more allowances to the government when they emit one unit of air pollution on heavy pollution days, versus one allowance on clean days. Thus, we set up the SDE MRSRP model with Markovian switching to analyse the evolution of the spot price in such a scheme. The analysis shows that the allowances spot price will not jump too much in the new scheme. The findings of this study could contribute to developing a new type of emissions trading.
McGurk, B. J.; Painter, T. H.
2014-12-01
Deterministic snow accumulation and ablation simulation models are widely used by runoff managers throughout the world to predict runoff quantities and timing. Model fitting is typically based on matching modeled runoff volumes and timing with observed flow time series at a few points in the basin. In recent decades, sparse networks of point measurements of the mountain snowpacks have been available to compare with modeled snowpack, but the comparability of results from a snow sensor or course to model polygons of 5 to 50 sq. km is suspect. However, snowpack extent, depth, and derived snow water equivalent have been produced by the NASA/JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) mission for spring of 20013 and 2014 in the Tuolumne River basin above Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. These high-resolution snowpack data have exposed the weakness in a model calibration based on runoff alone. The U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) calibration that was based on 30-years of inflow to Hetch Hetchy produces reasonable inflow results, but modeled spatial snowpack location and water quantity diverged significantly from the weekly measurements made by ASO during the two ablation seasons. The reason is that the PRMS model has many flow paths, storages, and water transfer equations, and a calibrated outflow time series can be right for many wrong reasons. The addition of a detailed knowledge of snow extent and water content constrains the model so that it is a better representation of the actual watershed hydrology. The mechanics of recalibrating PRMS to the ASO measurements will be described, and comparisons in observed versus modeled flow for both a small subbasin and the entire Hetch Hetchy basin will be shown. The recalibrated model provided a bitter fit to the snowmelt recession, a key factor for water managers as they balance declining inflows with demand for power generation and ecosystem releases during the final months of snow melt runoff.
Becker, Jérémie; Pérot, Philippe; Cheynet, Valérie; Oriol, Guy; Mugnier, Nathalie; Mommert, Marine; Tabone, Olivier; Textoris, Julien; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Mallet, François
2017-04-08
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have received much attention for their implications in the etiology of many human diseases and their profound effect on evolution. Notably, recent studies have highlighted associations between HERVs expression and cancers (Yu et al., Int J Mol Med 32, 2013), autoimmunity (Balada et al., Int Rev Immunol 29:351-370, 2010) and neurological (Christensen, J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 5:326-335, 2010) conditions. Their repetitive nature makes their study particularly challenging, where expression studies have largely focused on individual loci (De Parseval et al., J Virol 77:10414-10422, 2003) or general trends within families (Forsman et al., J Virol Methods 129:16-30, 2005; Seifarth et al., J Virol 79:341-352, 2005; Pichon et al., Nucleic Acids Res 34:e46, 2006). To refine our understanding of HERVs activity, we introduce here a new microarray, HERV-V3. This work was made possible by the careful detection and annotation of genomic HERV/MaLR sequences as well as the development of a new hybridization model, allowing the optimization of probe performances and the control of cross-reactions. RESULTS: HERV-V3 offers an almost complete coverage of HERVs and their ancestors (mammalian apparent LTR-retrotransposons, MaLRs) at the locus level along with four other repertoires (active LINE-1 elements, lncRNA, a selection of 1559 human genes and common infectious viruses). We demonstrate that HERV-V3 analytical performances are comparable with commercial Affymetrix arrays, and that for a selection of tissue/pathological specific loci, the patterns of expression measured on HERV-V3 is consistent with those reported in the literature. Given its large HERVs/MaLRs coverage and additional repertoires, HERV-V3 opens the door to multiple applications such as enhancers and alternative promoters identification, biomarkers identification as well as the characterization of genes and HERVs/MaLRs modulation caused by viral infection.
Allowing a wildfire to burn: estimating the effect on future fire suppression costs
Rachel M. Houtman; Claire A. Montgomery; Aaron R. Gagnon; David E. Calkin; Thomas G. Dietterich; Sean McGregor; Mark Crowley
2013-01-01
Where a legacy of aggressive wildland fire suppression has left forests in need of fuel reduction, allowing wildland fire to burn may provide fuel treatment benefits, thereby reducing suppression costs from subsequent fires. The least-cost-plus-net-value-change model of wildland fire economics includes benefits of wildfire in a framework for evaluating suppression...
Effect of Forging Allowance Value on the Power Consumption of Machining Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. D. Mal'kova
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper aim is to develop and study possible energy-efficiency measures for machined forgings drawing on analysis of the impact of the allowance for machining and its scatter.The most sophisticated option to take into consideration the effect of the cut depth is the work-piece machining in which the forging allowance value results from the blank production.Research of power consumption was conducted for turning the cylindrical surface of 144 mm length and 1,5 33 0,5 diameter on forgings of the work-pieces "screw of steering control" made from steel 60PP. A radial dimension allowance at said cylindrical surface at six points of the five sections was sized to assess the allowance value dispersion. The size of the sample measurements at the control points was n = 600. Statistic processing has shown normal law of distribution and sample homogeneity.To analyze the results of experiments was calculated a range of allowances for this workpiece. Calculated minimum and maximum allowance per one side for rough lathing were, respectively, 0.905 mm and 1.905mm. It was found that 77% points under control lie in calculated range of allowance values. And there are no points out of the range on lesser side that proves a lack of rejects; but there are points out of the range on the bigger side, that will require additional costs for machining the specified surface, including the cost of electricity.There were three power consumption calculations based on factory- recommended duty: for processing the entire sample of forgings with an average allowance, for machining forgings allowances of which are within the recommended design range of allowance, and for processing the entire sample of forgings with a minimum value of allowance.It was found that elimination of allowance values which are outside the recommended range enables to reduce the power consumption, at least, by 6%, and the overall power consumption for processing the measured forgings
The EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Allowance Prices, Trade Flows, Competitiveness Effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klepper, G.; Peterson, S.
2004-03-01
The upcoming European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is one of the more controversial climate policy instruments. Predictions about its likely impact and its performance can at present only be made to a certain degree. As long as the National Allocations Plans are not finally settled the overall supply of allowances is not determined. In this paper we will identify key features and key impacts of the EU ETS by scanning the range of likely allocation plans using the simulation model DART. The analysis of the simulation results highlights a number of interesting details in terms of allowance trade flows between member countries, of allowance prices, and in terms of the role of the accession countries in the ETS
A Mediated Definite Delegation Model allowing for Certified Grid Job Submission
Schreiner, Steffen; Grigoras, Costin; Litmaath, Maarten
2012-01-01
Grid computing infrastructures need to provide traceability and accounting of their users" activity and protection against misuse and privilege escalation. A central aspect of multi-user Grid job environments is the necessary delegation of privileges in the course of a job submission. With respect to these generic requirements this document describes an improved handling of multi-user Grid jobs in the ALICE ("A Large Ion Collider Experiment") Grid Services. A security analysis of the ALICE Grid job model is presented with derived security objectives, followed by a discussion of existing approaches of unrestricted delegation based on X.509 proxy certificates and the Grid middleware gLExec. Unrestricted delegation has severe security consequences and limitations, most importantly allowing for identity theft and forgery of delegated assignments. These limitations are discussed and formulated, both in general and with respect to an adoption in line with multi-user Grid jobs. Based on the architecture of the ALICE...
Feedback models allowing estimation of thresholds for self-promoting body weight gain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Edmund; Swann, Andrew; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.
2008-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Most people maintain almost constant body weight over long time with varying physical activity and food intake. This indicates the existence of a regulation that works well for most individuals. Yet some people develop obesity, indicating that this regulation sometimes fails...... expenditure and energy intake. Dependent on the precise balance between these effects of weight gain, they may make the body weight unstable and tend to further promote weight gain. With the aim of identifying the thresholds beyond which such self-promoting weight gain may take place, we develop a simple...... mathematical model of the body as an energy-consuming machine in which the changes in physical activity and food intake are described as feedback effects in addition to the effect of the weight gain on basal metabolic rate. The feedback parameters of the model may differ between individuals and only in some...
Role of Probabilistic Micromechanics Modeling in Establishing Design Allowables in Composites
Mital, Subodh K.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Brewer, David N.
2005-01-01
One of the major challenges in designing with any new material, and particularly with advanced composite materials, is the fidelity of material design allowables. In the case of composite materials, the concern arises from the inherent nature of these materials, i.e., their heterogeneous make-up and the various factors that affect their properties in a specific design environment. Composites have various scales - micro, macro, laminate and structural, as well as numerous other fabrication related parameters. Many advanced composites in aerospace applications involve complex two- and three-dimensional fiber architectures and requires high-temperature processing. Since there are uncertainties associated with each of these, the observed behavior of composite materials shows scatter. Evaluating the effect of each of these variables on the observed scatter in composite properties solely by teSting is cost and time prohibitive. One alternative is to evaluate these effects by computational simulation. The authors have developed probabilistic composite micromechanics techniques by combining woven composite micromechanics and Fast Probability Integration (FPI) techniques to address these issues. In this paper these techniques will be described and demonstrated through selected examples. Results in the form of cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the composite properties of a MI (melt-infiltrated) SiC/SiC (silicon carbide fiber in a silicon carbide matrix) Composite will be presented. A CDF is a relationship defined by the value of the property (the response variable) with respect to the cumulative probability of occurrence. Furthermore, input variables causing scatter are identified and ranked based upon their sensitivity magnitude. Sensitivity information is very valuable in quality control. How these results can be utilized to develop design allowables so that these materials may be used by structural analysts/designers will also be discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai Chang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Under departures from the cost-of-carry theory, traded spot prices and conditional volatility disturbed from futures market have significant impacts on futures price of emissions allowances, and then we propose time-varying hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness estimation using ECM-GARCH model. Our empirical results show that conditional variance, conditional covariance, and their correlation between between spot and futures prices exhibit time-varying trends. Conditional volatility of spot prices, conditional volatility disturbed from futures market, and conditional correlation of market noises implied from spot and futures markets have significant effects on time-varying hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness. In the immature emissions allowances market, market participants optimize portfolio sizes between spot and futures assets using historical market information and then achieve higher risk reduction of assets portfolio revenues; accordingly, we can obtain better hedging effectiveness through time-varying hedge ratios with departures from the cost-of-carry theory.
Investigating the effect of dose rate and maximum allowable MLC leaf velocity in dynamic IMRT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoganathan, S.A; Mani, Karthick Raj; Maria Das, K.J.; Agarwal, Arpita; Kesavan, C.; Kumar, Shaleen
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of various dose rates (DR) and maximum allowable MLC leaf velocities (MLV) in dynamic Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) planning and delivery of head and neck patients. Five head and neck patients were retrospectively included in this study. The initial dynamic IMRT 'reference plans' were created for all these patients, using a DR of 400 MU/min and MLV of 2.5 cm/s. Additional plans were generated by varying the DR and MLV values. The DR value was varied from 100 to 600 MU/min, in increments of 100 MU/min, for a MLV of 2.5 cm/s. Also the MLV was varied from 0.5 to 3 cm/s, in increments of 0.5 cm, for a DR of 400 MU/min. In order to maintain the prescribed dose to the PTV, the DR was allowed to vary ('beam hold or DR modulation' during delivery) when the MLV was changed and the MLV was allowed to vary when the DR was changed. The mean doses to the PTV as well as parotids, maximum dose of spinal cord and total MU were recorded for analysis. The effect of DR and MLV on treatment delivery was analyzed using the portal dosimetry for all the above plans. The predicted portal dose fluences of the TPS were compared with the measured EPID fluences using gamma evaluation criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement. A small proportional increase in OAR doses with DR was observed. Increases to MLV value resulted in decreases of the OAR doses and this effect was considerable for values below 1.5 cm/s. DR and MLV both resulted in no appreciable dose variation to the target. The total MU to deliver the plan increases with increasing DR and decreasing MLV. When comparing portal images derived from the treatment plans with portal images obtained by delivering the treatments, it was observed that the treatments was most reliably delivered when the DRs were set to lower values and when the MLVs were set to higher values.
Effects of space allowance on the behaviour of long-term housed shelter dogs.
Normando, Simona; Contiero, Barbara; Marchesini, Giorgio; Ricci, Rebecca
2014-03-01
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of space allowance (4.5 m(2)/head vs. 9 m(2)/head) on the behaviour of shelter dogs (Canis familiaris) at different times of the day (from 10:30 to 13:30 vs. from 14:30 to 17:30), and the dogs' preference between two types of beds (fabric bed vs. plastic basket). Twelve neutered dogs (seven males and five females aged 3-8 years) housed in pairs were observed using a scan sampling recording method every 20 s for a total of 14,592 scans/treatment. An increase in space allowance increased general level of activity (risk ratio (RR)=1.34), standing (RR=1.37), positive social interactions (RR=2.14), visual exploration of the environment (RR=1.21), and vocalisations (RR=2.35). Dogs spent more time in the sitting (RR=1.39) or standing (RR=1.88) posture, in positive interactions (RR=1.85), and active visual exploration (RR=1.99) during the morning than in the afternoon. The dogs were more often observed in the fabric bed than in the plastic basket (53% vs. 15% of total scans, pdogs than one of 4.5 m(2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Housing, energy cost, and the poor: Counteracting effects in Germany's housing allowance program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groesche, Peter
2010-01-01
Adequate housing and affordable warmth are essential human needs, the lack of which may seriously harm people's health. Germany provides an allowance to low-income households, covering the housing as well as the space heating cost, to protect people from the consequences of poor housing conditions and fuel poverty. In order to limit public expenditures, payment recipients are required to choose low-cost dwellings, with the consequence that they probably occupy flats with a poor thermal performance. Recipients might therefore exhibit a lower per-square meter rent but in turn are likely to have a higher energy consumption and energy expenditures. Using a large data set of German households, this paper demonstrates that this financially counteracting effect is of negligible magnitude.
A Model of Uranium Uptake by Plant Roots Allowing for Root-Induced Changes in the soil.
Boghi, Andrea; Roose, Tiina; Kirk, Guy J D
2018-03-20
We develop a model with which to study the poorly understood mechanisms of uranium (U) uptake by plants. The model is based on equations for transport and reaction of U and acids and bases in the rhizosphere around cylindrical plant roots. It allows for the speciation of U with hydroxyl, carbonate, and organic ligands in the soil solution; the nature and kinetics of sorption reactions with the soil solid; and the effects of root-induced changes in rhizosphere pH. A sensitivity analysis showed the importance of soil sorption and speciation parameters as influenced by pH and CO 2 pressure; and of root geometry and root-induced acid-base changes linked to the form of nitrogen taken up by the root. The root absorbing coefficient for U, relating influx to the concentration of U species in solution at the root surface, was also important. Simplified empirical models of U uptake by different plant species and soil types need to account for these effects.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teodorescu, Remus; Ruiz, Alberto Parera; Cirstea, Marcian
2008-01-01
The paper describes a new holistic approach to the modeling of integrated renewable energy systems. The method is using the DK5 modeling/design environment from Celoxica and is based on the new Handel-C programming language. The goal of the work carried out was to achieve a combined model...... containing a Xilinx Spartan II FPGA and was successfully experimentally tested. This approach enables the design and fast hardware implementation of efficient controllers for Distributed Energy Resource (DER) hybrid systems....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wesolowska, Agata; Dalgaard, M. D.; Borst, L.
2011-01-01
a model disease for exploring the impact of genetic variation due to well-characterized cytogenetics, drug response pathways and precise monitoring of minimal residual disease. Here, we have selected clinically relevant genes and SNPs through literature screening, and on the basis of associations with key...... pathways, protein-protein interactions or downstream partners that have a role in drug disposition and treatment efficacy in childhood ALL. This allows exploration of pathways, where one of several genetic variants may lead to similar clinical phenotypes through related molecular mechanisms. We have...... designed a cost-effective, high-throughput capture assay of â¼25â000 clinically relevant SNPs, and demonstrated that multiple samples can be tagged and pooled before genome capture in targeted enrichment with a sufficient sequencing depth for genotyping. This multiplexed, targeted sequencing method allows...
Human Resources Division
2001-01-01
HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.
A model that allows teachers to reflect on their ict approaches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher
2016-01-01
the backdrop of teacher planning and student evaluation of the perceived impact of the model on the teaching and learning – based on planning documents and questionnaires – the strengths and weaknesses of the model and its constituent elements will be presented. In particular, student and teacher perceptions...
De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Jatnieks, Janis; Kühn, Michael
2017-04-01
Reactive transport simulations - where geochemical reactions are coupled with hydrodynamic transport of reactants - are extremely time consuming and suffer from significant numerical issues. Given the high uncertainties inherently associated with the geochemical models, which also constitute the major computational bottleneck, such requirements may seem inappropriate and probably constitute the main limitation for their wide application. A promising way to ease and speed-up such coupled simulations is achievable employing statistical surrogates instead of "full-physics" geochemical models [1]. Data-driven surrogates are reduced models obtained on a set of pre-calculated "full physics" simulations, capturing their principal features while being extremely fast to compute. Model reduction of course comes at price of a precision loss; however, this appears justified in presence of large uncertainties regarding the parametrization of geochemical processes. This contribution illustrates the integration of surrogates into the flexible simulation framework currently being developed by the authors' research group [2]. The high level language of choice for obtaining and dealing with surrogate models is R, which profits from state-of-the-art methods for statistical analysis of large simulations ensembles. A stand-alone advective mass transport module was furthermore developed in order to add such capability to any multiphase finite volume hydrodynamic simulator within the simulation framework. We present 2D and 3D case studies benchmarking the performance of surrogates and "full physics" chemistry in scenarios pertaining the assessment of geological subsurface utilization. [1] Jatnieks, J., De Lucia, M., Dransch, D., Sips, M.: "Data-driven surrogate model approach for improving the performance of reactive transport simulations.", Energy Procedia 97, 2016, p. 447-453. [2] Kempka, T., Nakaten, B., De Lucia, M., Nakaten, N., Otto, C., Pohl, M., Chabab [Tillner], E., Kühn, M
Consistency Between Convection Allowing Model Output and Passive Microwave Satellite Observations
Bytheway, J. L.; Kummerow, C. D.
2018-01-01
Observations from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite were used along with precipitation forecasts from the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model to assess and interpret differences between observed and modeled storms. Using a feature-based approach, precipitating objects were identified in both the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Stage IV multisensor precipitation product and HRRR forecast at lead times of 1, 2, and 3 h at valid times corresponding to GPM overpasses. Precipitating objects were selected for further study if (a) the observed feature occurred entirely within the swath of the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and (b) the HRRR model predicted it at all three forecast lead times. Output from the HRRR model was used to simulate microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs), which were compared to those observed by the GMI. Simulated Tbs were found to have biases at both the warm and cold ends of the distribution, corresponding to the stratiform/anvil and convective areas of the storms, respectively. Several experiments altered both the simulation microphysics and hydrometeor classification in order to evaluate potential shortcomings in the model's representation of precipitating clouds. In general, inconsistencies between observed and simulated brightness temperatures were most improved when transferring snow water content to supercooled liquid hydrometeor classes.
A model that allows teachers to reflect on their ict approaches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher
2016-01-01
The increased global availability of technology and its entry onto the educational stage of Higher Education (HE) requires changes in the way we think of education and learning. This article will briefly describe and shed light on the new conditions for learning that are challenging our traditional...... pedagogical principles and present a model for pedagogical reflection that we call the Convergent Learning Space (CLS) consisting of the elements: Learning approaches; learning tools; learning spaces; availability; lifeworlds. The model reflects the choices and priorities teachers must make in relation...
Mechanical characterization and modelling of the heavy tungsten allow IT180
Scapin, M
2015-01-01
In this work, the mechanical characterization and the consequent material modeling of the tungsten alloy INERMET® IT180 were performed. The material is actually used in the collimation system of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and several studies are currently under development in order to be able to numerically predict the material damage in case of energy beamimpact, but to do this, a confident strength model has to be obtained. This is the basis of this work, in which a test campaign in compression and tension at different strain-rates and tempe...
Astronomical bounds on a cosmological model allowing a general interaction in the dark sector
Pan, Supriya; Mukerjee, Ankan; Banerjee, Narayan
2018-03-01
Non-gravitational interaction between two barotropic dark fluids, namely the pressureless dust and the dark energy in a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model has been discussed. It is shown that for the interactions which are linear in terms the energy densities of the dark components and their first order derivatives, the net energy density is governed by a second order differential equation with constant coefficients. Taking a generalized interaction, which includes a number of already known interactions as special cases, the dynamics of the universe is described for three types of the dark energy equation of state, namely that of interacting quintessence, interacting vacuum energy density and interacting phantom. The models have been constrained using the standard cosmological probes, Supernovae type Ia data from joint light curve analysis and the observational Hubble parameter data. Two geometric tests, the cosmographic studies and the Om diagnostic have been invoked so as to ascertain the behaviour of the present model vis-a-vis the ΛCDM model. We further discussed the interacting scenarios taking into account the thermodynamic considerations.
Linear mixed models for replication data to efficiently allow for covariate measurement error.
Bartlett, Jonathan W; De Stavola, Bianca L; Frost, Chris
2009-11-10
It is well known that measurement error in the covariates of regression models generally causes bias in parameter estimates. Correction for such biases requires information concerning the measurement error, which is often in the form of internal validation or replication data. Regression calibration (RC) is a popular approach to correct for covariate measurement error, which involves predicting the true covariate using error-prone measurements. Likelihood methods have previously been proposed as an alternative approach to estimate the parameters in models affected by measurement error, but have been relatively infrequently employed in medical statistics and epidemiology, partly because of computational complexity and concerns regarding robustness to distributional assumptions. We show how a standard random-intercepts model can be used to obtain maximum likelihood (ML) estimates when the outcome model is linear or logistic regression under certain normality assumptions, when internal error-prone replicate measurements are available. Through simulations we show that for linear regression, ML gives more efficient estimates than RC, although the gain is typically small. Furthermore, we show that RC and ML estimates remain consistent even when the normality assumptions are violated. For logistic regression, our implementation of ML is consistent if the true covariate is conditionally normal given the outcome, in contrast to RC. In simulations, this ML estimator showed less bias in situations where RC gives non-negligible biases. Our proposal makes the ML approach to dealing with covariate measurement error more accessible to researchers, which we hope will improve its viability as a useful alternative to methods such as RC.
Functional Connectivity under Optogenetic Control Allows Modeling of Human Neuromuscular Disease.
Steinbeck, Julius A; Jaiswal, Manoj K; Calder, Elizabeth L; Kishinevsky, Sarah; Weishaupt, Andreas; Toyka, Klaus V; Goldstein, Peter A; Studer, Lorenz
2016-01-07
Capturing the full potential of human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neurons in disease modeling and regenerative medicine requires analysis in complex functional systems. Here we establish optogenetic control in human PSC-derived spinal motorneurons and show that co-culture of these cells with human myoblast-derived skeletal muscle builds a functional all-human neuromuscular junction that can be triggered to twitch upon light stimulation. To model neuromuscular disease we incubated these co-cultures with IgG from myasthenia gravis patients and active complement. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder that selectively targets neuromuscular junctions. We saw a reversible reduction in the amplitude of muscle contractions, representing a surrogate marker for the characteristic loss of muscle strength seen in this disease. The ability to recapitulate key aspects of disease pathology and its symptomatic treatment suggests that this neuromuscular junction assay has significant potential for modeling of neuromuscular disease and regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Margit Bak; Studnitz, Merete; Pedersen, Lene Juul
2010-01-01
The experiment aimed to investigate the effect of type of rooting material and space allowance on explorative and abnormal behaviour in growing pigs. Thirty-six pens with partly slatted concrete floor were allocated to one of four treatments: (1) low space allowance and maize silage as rooting...... higher before allocation of rooting material than after. In conclusion, pigs manipulated maize silage more than chopped straw and the level of explorative behaviour redirected towards pen components was lower when maize silage was offered as a rooting material. Pigs with a high space allowance...... material, (2) high space allowance and maize silage as rooting material, (3) low space allowance and straw as rooting material, and (4) high space allowance and straw as rooting material. Pens with low space allowance had 17 pigs (0.64m2/pig), while pens with high space allowance had 11 pigs (1.0m2/pig...
A MODEL THAT ALLOWS TEACHERS TO REFLECT ON THEIR ICT APPROACHES
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher
2016-01-01
The increased global availability of technology and its entry onto the educational stage of Higher Education (HE) requires changes in the way we think of education and learning. This article will briefly describe and shed light on the new conditions for learning that are challenging our traditional...... to these elements. The model has been developed through a three-year action-research project, and this article will show the results of an intervention study carried out by the research team in collaboration with eight teachers and their students across a variety of educational programs in the fall of 2016. Against...
Eĭdel'man, Iu A; Slanina, S V; Sal'nikov, I V; Andreev, S G
2012-12-01
The knowledge of radiation-induced chromosomal aberration (CA) mechanisms is required in many fields of radiation genetics, radiation biology, biodosimetry, etc. However, these mechanisms are yet to be quantitatively characterised. One of the reasons is that the relationships between primary lesions of DNA/chromatin/chromosomes and dose-response curves for CA are unknown because the pathways of lesion interactions in an interphase nucleus are currently inaccessible for direct experimental observation. This article aims for the comparative analysis of two principally different scenarios of formation of simple and complex interchromosomal exchange aberrations: by lesion interactions at chromosome territories' surface vs. in the whole space of the nucleus. The analysis was based on quantitative mechanistic modelling of different levels of structures and processes involved in CA formation: chromosome structure in an interphase nucleus, induction, repair and interactions of DNA lesions. It was shown that the restricted diffusion of chromosomal loci, predicted by computational modelling of chromosome organization, results in lesion interactions in the whole space of the nucleus being impossible. At the same time, predicted features of subchromosomal dynamics agrees well with in vivo observations and does not contradict the mechanism of CA formation at the surface of chromosome territories. On the other hand, the "surface mechanism" of CA formation, despite having certain qualities, proved to be insufficient to explain high frequency of complex exchange aberrations observed by mFISH technique. The alternative mechanism, CA formation on nuclear centres is expected to be sufficient to explain frequent complex exchanges.
Ebadzadeh, M; Tondu, B; Darlot, C
2005-01-01
The command and control of limb movements by the cerebellar and reflex pathways are modeled by means of a circuit whose structure is deduced from functional constraints. One constraint is that fast limb movements must be accurate although they cannot be continuously controlled in closed loop by use of sensory signals. Thus, the pathways which process the motor orders must contain approximate inverse functions of the bio-mechanical functions of the limb and of the muscles. This can be achieved by means of parallel feedback loops, whose pattern turns out to be comparable to the anatomy of the cerebellar pathways. They contain neural networks able to anticipate the motor consequences of the motor orders, modeled by artificial neural networks whose connectivity is similar to that of the cerebellar cortex. These networks learn the direct biomechanical functions of the limbs and muscles by means of a supervised learning process. Teaching signals calculated from motor errors are sent to the learning sites, as, in the cerebellum, complex spikes issued from the inferior olive are conveyed to the Purkinje cells by climbing fibers. Learning rules are deduced by a differential calculation, as classical gradient rules, and they account for the long term depression which takes place in the dendritic arborizations of the Purkinje cells. Another constraint is that reflexes must not impede voluntary movements while remaining at any instant ready to oppose perturbations. Therefore, efferent copies of the motor orders are sent to the interneurones of the reflexes, where they cancel the sensory-motor consequences of the voluntary movements. After learning, the model is able to drive accurately, both in velocity and position, angular movements of a rod actuated by two pneumatic McKibben muscles. Reflexes comparable to the myotatic and tendinous reflexes, and stabilizing reactions comparable to the cerebellar sensory-motor reactions, reduce efficiently the effects of perturbing torques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charlotte J Beurskens
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helium is a noble gas with a low density, allowing for lower driving pressures and increased carbon dioxide (CO2 diffusion. Since application of protective ventilation can be limited by the development of hypoxemia or acidosis, we hypothesized that therefore heliox facilitates ventilation in an animal model of ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (N=8 per group were mechanically ventilated with heliox (50% oxygen; 50% helium. Controls received a standard gas mixture (50% oxygen; 50% air. VILI was induced by application of tidal volumes of 15 mL kg(-1; lung protective ventilated animals were ventilated with 6 mL kg(-1. Respiratory parameters were monitored with a pneumotach system. Respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain arterial pCO2 within 4.5-5.5 kPa, according to hourly drawn arterial blood gases. After 4 hours, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was obtained. Data are mean (SD. RESULTS: VILI resulted in an increase in BALF protein compared to low tidal ventilation (629 (324 vs. 290 (181 μg mL(-1; p<0.05 and IL-6 levels (640 (8.7 vs. 206 (8.7 pg mL(-1; p<0.05, whereas cell counts did not differ between groups after this short course of mechanical ventilation. Ventilation with heliox resulted in a decrease in mean respiratory minute volume ventilation compared to control (123 ± 0.6 vs. 146 ± 8.9 mL min(-1, P<0.001, due to a decrease in respiratory rate (22 (0.4 vs. 25 (2.1 breaths per minute; p<0.05, while pCO2 levels and tidal volumes remained unchanged, according to protocol. There was no effect of heliox on inspiratory pressure, while compliance was reduced. In this mild lung injury model, heliox did not exert anti-inflammatory effects. CONCLUSIONS: Heliox allowed for a reduction in respiratory rate and respiratory minute volume during VILI, while maintaining normal acid-base balance. Use of heliox may be a useful approach when protective tidal volume ventilation is limited by the development of
Ludwig, C; Grimmer, S; Seyfarth, A; Maus, H-M
2012-09-21
The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model is a well established model for describing bouncy gaits like human running. The notion of spring-like leg behavior has led many researchers to compute the corresponding parameters, predominantly stiffness, in various experimental setups and in various ways. However, different methods yield different results, making the comparison between studies difficult. Further, a model simulation with experimentally obtained leg parameters typically results in comparatively large differences between model and experimental center of mass trajectories. Here, we pursue the opposite approach which is calculating model parameters that allow reproduction of an experimental sequence of steps. In addition, to capture energy fluctuations, an extension of the SLIP (ESLIP) is required and presented. The excellent match of the models with the experiment validates the description of human running by the SLIP with the obtained parameters which we hence call dynamical leg parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Risse, Benjamin; Otto, Nils; Berh, Dimitri; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Klämbt, Christian
2014-12-24
The analysis of neuronal network function requires a reliable measurement of behavioral traits. Since the behavior of freely moving animals is variable to a certain degree, many animals have to be analyzed, to obtain statistically significant data. This in turn requires a computer assisted automated quantification of locomotion patterns. To obtain high contrast images of almost translucent and small moving objects, a novel imaging technique based on frustrated total internal reflection called FIM was developed. In this setup, animals are only illuminated with infrared light at the very specific position of contact with the underlying crawling surface. This methodology results in very high contrast images. Subsequently, these high contrast images are processed using established contour tracking algorithms. Based on this, we developed the FIMTrack software, which serves to extract a number of features needed to quantitatively describe a large variety of locomotion characteristics. During the development of this software package, we focused our efforts on an open source architecture allowing the easy addition of further modules. The program operates platform independent and is accompanied by an intuitive GUI guiding the user through data analysis. All locomotion parameter values are given in form of csv files allowing further data analyses. In addition, a Results Viewer integrated into the tracking software provides the opportunity to interactively review and adjust the output, as might be needed during stimulus integration. The power of FIM and FIMTrack is demonstrated by studying the locomotion of Drosophila larvae.
Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.
2012-01-01
The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center is a collaborative partnership between NASA and operational forecasting partners, including a number of National Weather Service forecast offices. SPoRT provides real-time NASA products and capabilities to help its partners address specific operational forecast challenges. One challenge that forecasters face is using guidance from local and regional deterministic numerical models configured at convection-allowing resolution to help assess a variety of mesoscale/convective-scale phenomena such as sea-breezes, local wind circulations, and mesoscale convective weather potential on a given day. While guidance from convection-allowing models has proven valuable in many circumstances, the potential exists for model improvements by incorporating more representative land-water surface datasets, and by assimilating retrieved temperature and moisture profiles from hyper-spectral sounders. In order to help increase the accuracy of deterministic convection-allowing models, SPoRT produces real-time, 4-km CONUS forecasts using a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (hereafter SPoRT-WRF) that includes unique NASA products and capabilities including 4-km resolution soil initialization data from the Land Information System (LIS), 2-km resolution SPoRT SST composites over oceans and large water bodies, high-resolution real-time Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composites derived from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, and retrieved temperature and moisture profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). NCAR's Model Evaluation Tools (MET) verification package is used to generate statistics of model performance compared to in situ observations and rainfall analyses for three months during the summer of 2012 (June-August). Detailed analyses of specific severe weather outbreaks during the summer
Reddy, Kavitha K; Brauer, Jeremy A; Anolik, Robert; Bernstein, Leonard; Brightman, Lori; Hale, Elizabeth; Karen, Julie; Weiss, Elliot; Geronemus, Roy G
2013-02-01
Laser tattoo removal using multiple passes per session, with each pass delivered after spontaneous resolution of whitening, improves tattoo fading in a 60-minute treatment time. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical perfluorodecalin (PFD) in facilitating rapid effective multiple-pass tattoo removal. In a randomized, controlled study using Q-switched ruby or Nd:YAG laser, 22 previously treated tattoos were treated with 3 passes using PFD to resolve whitening after each pass ("R0 method"). In previously untreated symmetric tattoos, seven were treated over half of the tattoo with the R20 method, and the opposite half with 4 passes using PFD (R0 method); two were treated over half with a single pass and the opposite half with 4 passes using PFD (R0 method); and six treated over half with a single pass followed by PFD and the opposite half with a single pass alone. Blinded dermatologists rated tattoo fading at 1-3 months. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of whitening was performed in two tattoos. Topical PFD clinically resolved immediate whitening reactions within a mean 5 seconds (range 3-10 seconds). Tattoos treated with the R0 method demonstrated excellent fading in an average total treatment time of 5 minutes. Tattoo areas treated with the R0 method demonstrated equal fading compared to the R20 method, and improved fading compared to a single pass method. OCT imaging of whitening demonstrated epidermal and dermal hyper-reflective "bubbles" that dissipated until absent at 9-10 minutes after PFD application, and at 20 minutes without intervention. Multiple-pass tattoo removal using PFD to deliver rapid sequential passes (R0 method) appears equally effective as the R20 method, in a total treatment time averaging 5 minutes, and more effective than single pass treatment. OCT-visualized whitening-associated "bubbles," upon treatment with PFD, resolve twice as rapidly as spontaneous resolution. Copyright © 2012 Wiley
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.
2015-01-01
A model is proposed capable of accounting for the local electric field increase in front of the lightning stepped leader up to magnitudes allowing front electrons to overcome the runaway energy threshold and thus to initiate relativistic runaway electron avalanches capable of generating X......-ray and ray bursts observed in negative lightning leader. The model is based on an idea that an ionization wave, propagating in a preionized channel, is being focused, such that its front remains narrow and the front electric field is being enhanced. It is proposed that when a space leader segment, formed...... ahead of a negative lightning leader, connects to the leader, the electric potential of the leader is transferred through the space leader in an ionizing wave that continues into the partly ionized channels of preexisting streamers of the space leader. It is shown with numerical simulations...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter O Hofgaard
Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a lethal human cancer characterized by a clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells in bone marrow. Mouse models of human MM are technically challenging and do not always recapitulate human disease. Therefore, new mouse models for MM are needed. Mineral-oil induced plasmacytomas (MOPC develop in the peritoneal cavity of oil-injected BALB/c mice. However, MOPC typically grow extramedullary and are considered poor models of human MM. Here we describe an in vivo-selected MOPC315 variant, called MOPC315.BM, which can be maintained in vitro. When injected i.v. into BALB/c mice, MOPC315.BM cells exhibit tropism for bone marrow. As few as 10(4 MOPC315.BM cells injected i.v. induced paraplegia, a sign of spinal cord compression, in all mice within 3-4 weeks. MOPC315.BM cells were stably transfected with either firefly luciferase (MOPC315.BM.Luc or DsRed (MOPC315.BM.DsRed for studies using noninvasive imaging. MOPC315.BM.Luc cells were detected in the tibiofemoral region already 1 hour after i.v. injection. Bone foci developed progressively, and as of day 5, MM cells were detected in multiple sites in the axial skeleton. Additionally, the spleen (a hematopoietic organ in the mouse was invariably affected. Luminescent signals correlated with serum myeloma protein concentration, allowing for easy tracking of tumor load with noninvasive imaging. Affected mice developed osteolytic lesions. The MOPC315.BM model employs a common strain of immunocompetent mice (BALB/c and replicates many characteristics of human MM. The model should be suitable for studies of bone marrow tropism, development of osteolytic lesions, drug testing, and immunotherapy in MM.
Minoves, Mélanie; Morand, Jessica; Perriot, Frédéric; Chatard, Morgane; Gonthier, Brigitte; Lemarié, Emeline; Menut, Jean-Baptiste; Polak, Jan; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Godin-Ribuot, Diane; Briançon-Marjollet, Anne
2017-10-01
Performing hypoxia-reoxygenation cycles in cell culture with a cycle duration accurately reflecting what occurs in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is a difficult but crucial technical challenge. Our goal was to develop a novel device to expose multiple cell culture dishes to intermittent hypoxia (IH) cycles relevant to OSA with limited gas consumption. With gas flows as low as 200 ml/min, our combination of plate holders with gas-permeable cultureware generates rapid normoxia-hypoxia cycles. Cycles alternating 1 min at 20% O 2 followed by 1 min at 2% O 2 resulted in Po 2 values ranging from 124 to 44 mmHg. Extending hypoxic and normoxic phases to 10 min allowed Po 2 variations from 120 to 25 mmHg. The volume of culture medium or the presence of cells only modestly affected the Po 2 variations. In contrast, the nadir of the hypoxia phase increased when measured at different heights above the membrane. We validated the physiological relevance of this model by showing that hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression was significantly increased by IH exposure in human aortic endothelial cells, murine breast carcinoma (4T1) cells as well as in a blood-brain barrier model (2.5-, 1.5-, and 6-fold increases, respectively). In conclusion, we have established a new device to perform rapid intermittent hypoxia cycles in cell cultures, with minimal gas consumption and the possibility to expose several culture dishes simultaneously. This device will allow functional studies of the consequences of IH and deciphering of the molecular biology of IH at the cellular level using oxygen cycles that are clinically relevant to OSA. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnau Benet
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of implanting 3D-printed brain aneurysm model in human cadavers and to assess their utility in neurosurgical research, complex case management/planning, and operative training. Methods. Two 3D-printed aneurysm models, basilar apex and middle cerebral artery, were generated and implanted in four cadaveric specimens. The aneurysms were implanted at the same anatomical region as the modeled patient. Pterional and orbitozygomatic approaches were done on each specimen. The aneurysm implant, manipulation capabilities, and surgical clipping were evaluated. Results. The 3D aneurysm models were successfully implanted to the cadaveric specimens’ arterial circulation in all cases. The features of the neck in terms of flexibility and its relationship with other arterial branches allowed for the practice of surgical maneuvering characteristic to aneurysm clipping. Furthermore, the relationship of the aneurysm dome with the surrounding structures allowed for better understanding of the aneurysmal local mass effect. Noticeably, all of these observations were done in a realistic environment provided by our customized embalming model for neurosurgical simulation. Conclusion. 3D aneurysms models implanted in cadaveric specimens may represent an untapped training method for replicating clip technique; for practicing certain approaches to aneurysms specific to a particular patient; and for improving neurosurgical research.
Benet, Arnau; Plata-Bello, Julio; Abla, Adib A.; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Saloner, David; Lawton, Michael T.
2015-01-01
Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of implanting 3D-printed brain aneurysm model in human cadavers and to assess their utility in neurosurgical research, complex case management/planning, and operative training. Methods. Two 3D-printed aneurysm models, basilar apex and middle cerebral artery, were generated and implanted in four cadaveric specimens. The aneurysms were implanted at the same anatomical region as the modeled patient. Pterional and orbitozygomatic approaches were done on each specimen. The aneurysm implant, manipulation capabilities, and surgical clipping were evaluated. Results. The 3D aneurysm models were successfully implanted to the cadaveric specimens' arterial circulation in all cases. The features of the neck in terms of flexibility and its relationship with other arterial branches allowed for the practice of surgical maneuvering characteristic to aneurysm clipping. Furthermore, the relationship of the aneurysm dome with the surrounding structures allowed for better understanding of the aneurysmal local mass effect. Noticeably, all of these observations were done in a realistic environment provided by our customized embalming model for neurosurgical simulation. Conclusion. 3D aneurysms models implanted in cadaveric specimens may represent an untapped training method for replicating clip technique; for practicing certain approaches to aneurysms specific to a particular patient; and for improving neurosurgical research. PMID:26539542
Keane, M P; McGee, M; O'Riordan, E G; Kelly, A K; Earley, B
2017-12-01
Accommodating cattle indoors during the winter is widely practiced throughout Europe. There is currently no legislation surrounding the space allowance and floor type that should be provided to cattle during this time, however, concerns have been raised regarding the type of housing systems currently in use. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of space allowance and floor type on performance and welfare of finishing beef heifers. Continental crossbred heifers (n=240: mean initial live; weight, 504 (SD 35.8) kg) were blocked by breed, weight and age and randomly assigned to one of four treatments; (i) 3.0 m2, (ii) 4.5 m2 and (iii) 6.0 m2 space allowance per animal on a fully slatted concrete floor and (iv) 6.0 m2 space allowance per animal on a straw-bedded floor, for 105 days. Heifers were offered a total mixed ration ad libitum. Dry matter intake was recorded on a pen basis and refusals were weighed back twice weekly. Heifers were weighed, dirt scored and blood sampled every 3 weeks. Whole blood was analysed for complete cell counts and serum samples were assayed for metabolite concentrations. Behaviour was recorded continuously using IR cameras from days 70 to 87. Heifers' hooves were inspected for lesions at the start of the study and again after slaughter. Post-slaughter, carcass weight, conformation and fat scores and hide weight were recorded. Heifers housed at 4.5 m2 had a greater average daily live weight gain (ADG) than those on both of the other concrete slat treatments; however, space allowance had no effect on carcass weight. Heifers accommodated on straw had a greater ADG (0.15 kg) (PSpace allowance and floor type had no effect on the number of hoof lesions gained or on any of the haematological or metabolic variables measured. It was concluded that increasing space allowance above 3.0 m2/animal on concrete slats was of no benefit to animal performance but it did improve animal cleanliness. Housing heifers on straw instead of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available By using optical microscope (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD and tensile test, the effect of annealing temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of a high Al-low Si TRIP steel was investigated. The results show that TRIP effect can be obtained when annealing temperature is above Ac3 due to the existence of δ-ferrite in this high Al-low Si TRIP steel. That is to say, the microstructure consisting of ferrite, bainite and retained austenite can be obtained when annealing temperature is above Ac3. Furthermore, the tensile strength and the product of strength and elongation decrease with increasing annealing temperature when annealing temperature is above Ac3.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirgaux, O.; Ablitzer, D.; Iosif, A.M.
2009-01-01
Assessing traditional iron and steelmaking processes from an environmental point of view and developing breakthrough eco-efficient processes for the future are major challenges for the steel industry today. In the framework of the challenging European project ULCOS, which stands for Ultra Low CO 2 Steelmaking, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was chosen to assess breakthrough processes that could be part of the future iron and steel making landscape and to compare them to the reference classical integrated steel-mill. To carry out such a study we propose a new methodological concept which combines LCA thinking with physicochemical process modelling. Physicochemical models were developed for each processes of the classical integrated steelmaking route in order to generate the data required to draw the Life Cycle Inventory of the route. Such a method bypasses the traditional data collection and brings accuracy to the inventory by introducing rigorous mass and energy balances into the methodology. In addition it was shown that such an approach allows testing and assessing different operational practices of the processes in order to optimise the use of energy and the CO 2 emissions, which showed that it can be used as a powerful tool for eco-conception of processes. (authors)
Liebetrau, Anne; Puta, Christian; Anders, Christoph; de Lussanet, Marc H E; Wagner, Heiko
2013-10-01
Model-based calculations indicate that reflex delay and reflex gain are both important for spinal stability. Experimental results demonstrate that chronic low back pain is associated with delayed muscle reflex responses of trunk muscles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of such time-delayed reflexes on the stability using a simple biomechanical model. Additionally, we compared the model-based predictions with experimental data from chronic low back pain patients and healthy controls using surface-electromyography. Linear stability methods were applied to the musculoskeletal model, which was extended with a time-delayed reflex model. Lateral external perturbations were simulated around equilibrium to investigate the effects of reflex delay and gain on the stability of the human lumbar spine. The model simulations predicted that increased reflex delays require a reduction of the reflex gain to avoid spinal instability. The experimental data support this dependence for the investigated abdominal muscles in chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects. Reflex time-delay and gain dependence showed that a delayed reflex latency could have relevant influence on spinal stability, if subjects do not adapt their reflex amplitudes. Based on the model and the experimental results, the relationship between muscle reflex response latency and the maximum of the reflex amplitude should be considered for evaluation of (patho) physiological data. We recommend that training procedures should focus on speeding up the delayed reflex response as well as on increasing the amplitude of these reflexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-09-15
In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad
2015-01-01
In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D.M.; Halekoh, Ulrich
2012-01-01
5 L of milk/d; (2) housed singly and fed 9 L of milk/d; (3) housed in pairs and fed 5 L of milk/d; (4) housed in pairs and fed 9 L of milk/d; or (5) kept with the dam and fed 9 L of milk/d. From 4 to 6 wk of age, all calves were offered 5 L of milk/d to promote intake of solid feed before weaning...... subjected to a feed competition test; calves receiving the high milk allowance and housed in pairs spent more time feeding than did those receiving the high milk allowance and housed singly, with all other treatments showing intermediate responses. These results indicate that social contact decreased......The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social contact and milk allowance on social behavior, play behavior, and responses to handling in dairy calves. Forty test calves and 16 companion calves were allocated to 1 of 5 treatments from birth to 4 wk of age: (1) housed singly and fed...
Use of a new model allowing controlled uniaxial loading to evaluate tendon healing in a bone tunnel.
Rodeo, Scott A; Voigt, Clifford; Ma, Richard; Solic, John; Stasiak, Mark; Ju, Xiaodong; El-Amin, Saddiq; Deng, Xiang-Hua
2016-05-01
The optimal mechanical loading regimen for the healing of a tendon graft in a bone tunnel is unknown. We developed a rat model that directly tensions a healing tendon graft, without the use of confounding joint motion. Fifty cycles of either 0, 3, or 6 N of tension were applied to groups daily for 3 or 6 weeks. At 3 weeks the low load (3 N) group had the highest failure load (p = 0.009), but by 6 weeks there were no differences in failure load among groups. At 3 weeks the high load (6 N) group had greater osteoclast activity compared to the immobilized (0 N) group (p < 0.05), and by 6 weeks there were significantly more osteoclasts in the high load group compared to the low load group (p = 0.01). Bone volume fraction was higher in the immobilized group compared to the 3 N load group at 3 weeks (p = 0.014) and 6 weeks (p = 0.007). At 6 weeks, the immobilized group had greater trabecular number compared to both loading groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low magnitude loading had a beneficial early effect but continued loading led to poorer new bone formation over time and no beneficial effect at 6 weeks, perhaps due to delayed maturation from cumulative loads. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:852-859, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Xin; Gao, Deli; Chen, Xuyue
2017-06-08
Hydraulic extended-reach limit (HERL) model of horizontal extended-reach well (ERW) can predict the maximum measured depth (MMD) of the horizontal ERW. The HERL refers to the well's MMD when drilling fluid cannot be normally circulated by drilling pump. Previous model analyzed the following two constraint conditions, drilling pump rated pressure and rated power. However, effects of the allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate (Q min ≤ Q ≤ Q max ) were not considered. In this study, three cases of HERL model are proposed according to the relationship between allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate and rated flow rate of drilling pump (Q r ). A horizontal ERW is analyzed to predict its HERL, especially its horizontal-section limit (L h ). Results show that when Q min ≤ Q r ≤ Q max (Case I), L h depends both on horizontal-section limit based on rated pump pressure (L h1 ) and horizontal-section limit based on rated pump power (L h2 ); when Q min < Q max < Q r (Case II), L h is exclusively controlled by L h1 ; while L h is only determined by L h2 when Q r < Q min < Q max (Case III). Furthermore, L h1 first increases and then decreases with the increase in drilling fluid flow rate, while L h2 keeps decreasing as the drilling fluid flow rate increases. The comprehensive model provides a more accurate prediction on HERL.
Yamamoto, Yumi; Valitalo, Pyry A.; van den Berg, Dirk-Jan; Hartman, Robin; van den Brink, Willem; Wong, Yin Cheong; Huntjens, Dymphy R.; Proost, Johannes H.; Vermeulen, An; Krauwinkel, Walter; Bakshi, Suruchi; Aranzana-Climent, Vincent; Marchand, Sandrine; Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Couet, William; Danhof, Meindert; van Hasselt, Johan G. C.; de lange, Elizabeth C. M.
Purpose Predicting target site drug concentration in the brain is of key importance for the successful development of drugs acting on the central nervous system. We propose a generic mathematical model to describe the pharmacokinetics in brain compartments, and apply this model to predict human
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Loreen eHertäg
2012-09-01
Full Text Available For large-scale network simulations, it is often desirable to have computationally tractable, yet in a defined sense still physiologically valid neuron models. In particular, these models should be able to reproduce physiological measurements, ideally in a predictive sense, and under different input regimes in which neurons may operate in vivo. Here we present an approach to parameter estimation for a simple spiking neuron model mainly based on standard f-I curves obtained from in vitro recordings. Such recordings are routinely obtained in standard protocols and assess a neuron's response under a wide range of mean input currents. Our fitting procedure makes use of closed-form expressions for the firing rate derived from an approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire (AdEx model. The resulting fitting process is simple and about two orders of magnitude faster compared to methods based on numerical integration of the differential equations. We probe this method on different cell types recorded from rodent prefrontal cortex. After fitting to the f-I current-clamp data, the model cells are tested on completely different sets of recordings obtained by fluctuating ('in-vivo-like' input currents. For a wide range of different input regimes, cell types, and cortical layers, the model could predict spike times on these test traces quite accurately within the bounds of physiological reliability, although no information from these distinct test sets was used for model fitting. Further analyses delineated some of the empirical factors constraining model fitting and the model's generalization performance. An even simpler adaptive LIF neuron was also examined in this context. Hence, we have developed a 'high-throughput' model fitting procedure which is simple and fast, with good prediction performance, and which relies only on firing rate information and standard physiological data widely and easily available.
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Marius Enachescu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Model membrane approaches have attracted much attention in biomedical sciences to investigate and simulate biological processes. The application of model membrane systems for biosensor measurements is partly restricted by the fact that the integrity of membranes critically depends on the maintenance of an aqueous surrounding, while various biosensors require a preconditioning of dry sensors. This is for example true for the well-established surface acoustic wave (SAW biosensor SAM®5 blue. Here, a simple drying procedure of sensor-supported model membranes is introduced using the protective disaccharide trehalose. Highly reproducible model membranes were prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, transferred to SAW sensors and supplemented with a trehalose solution. Membrane rehydration after dry incorporation into the SAW device becomes immediately evident by phase changes. Reconstituted model membranes maintain their full functionality, as indicated by biotin/avidin binding experiments. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the morphological invariability of dried and rehydrated membranes. Approximating to more physiological recognition phenomena, the site-directed immobilization of the integrin VLA-4 into the reconstituted model membrane and subsequent VCAM-1 ligand binding with nanomolar affinity were illustrated. This simple drying procedure is a novel way to combine the model membrane generation by Langmuir-Blodgett technique with SAW biosensor measurements, which extends the applicability of SAM®5 blue in biomedical sciences.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narvaiz, P.; Ladomery, L.G.
1998-01-01
The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether irradiation treatment of all foods, for which this treatment is of recognised technological usefulness, would have any detrimental effect on total dietary vitamin availability for consumption by the Argentinian population. Per capita availability of foods produced in or imported into Argentina that could be usefully irradiated and which are usually consumed in the country was recorded from FAO food balance sheets. The vitamin content of the foods and the vitamin losses occurring under good irradiation practices were gathered from the literature. The nutritional impact of vitamin losses due to irradiation was estimated by comparing results to the Recommended Dietary Allowances of the US National Research Council. The vitamins studied were: A, D, E, K, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, biotin, cyanocobalamin, folacin and pantothenic acid. Results showed that, even if irradiation was applied to every food which could be usefully treated, vitamin availabilities would exceed 100% of the respective RDA and so no adverse nutritional impact would be expected, except for folacin and vitamin D. However, typical availabilities of folate and vitamin D are less than the RDA. Synthesis of vitamin D in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol would suggest no nutritional problem. Available data on folic acid losses due to food irradiation are incomplete and suggest the need for further experimental research
2008-09-01
In recent years, several research projects have been conducted to study the feasibility of increasing the allowable : compressive stress in concrete at prestress transfer, currently defined as 0.60f'ci in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge : Design Specification...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jakob; Jensen, Søren Krogh
2007-01-01
The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition.......The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition....
Soloviev, O.
2003-03-01
The problem of radio wave propagation allowing for 3D localized lower ionosphere irregularity appears in accordance with the necessity of the theoretical interpretation of VLF remote sensing data. The various processes in the Earth's crust and in space (earthquakes, magnetic storms, sporadic E-layers, lightning induced electron precipitations, rocket launches, artificial ionosphere heating, nuclear explosions, etc.) may cause different power and size ionospheric disturbances. This paper presents a further development of the numerical-analytical method for 3D problem solving. We consider a vector problem of VLF vertical electric dipole field in a plane Earth-ionosphere waveguide with a localized anisotropic ionosphere irregularity. The possibility of lowering (elevating) of the local region of the upper waveguide wall is taken into account. The field components on the boundary surfaces obey the Leontovich impedance conditions. The problem is reduced to a system of 2D integral equations taking into account the depolarization of the field scattered by the irregularity. Using asymptotic /(kr>>1) integration along the direction perpendicular to the propagation path, we transform this system to a system of 1D integral equations. The system is solved in the diagonal approximation, combining direct inversion of the Volterra integral operator and the subsequent iterations. The proposed method is useful for study of both small-scale and large-scale irregularities. We obtained estimates of the TE field components that originate entirely from field scattering by a 3D irregularity.
Quent, Vmc; Taubenberger, A V; Reichert, J C; Martine, L C; Clements, J A; Hutmacher, D W; Loessner, D
2018-02-01
Bone metastases frequently occur in the advanced stages of breast cancer. At this stage, the disease is deemed incurable. To date, the mechanisms of breast cancer-related metastasis to bone are poorly understood. This may be attributed to the lack of appropriate animal models to investigate the complex cancer cell-bone interactions. In this study, two established tissue-engineered bone constructs (TEBCs) were applied to a breast cancer-related metastasis model. A cylindrical medical-grade polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold produced by fused deposition modelling (scaffold 1) was compared with a tubular calcium phosphate-coated polycaprolactone scaffold fabricated by solution electrospinning (scaffold 2) for their potential to generate ectopic humanised bone in NOD/SCID mice. While scaffold 1 was found not suitable to generate a sufficient amount of ectopic bone tissue due to poor ectopic integration, scaffold 2 showed excellent integration into the host tissue, leading to bone formation. To mimic breast cancer cell colonisation to the bone, MDA-MB-231, SUM1315, and MDA-MB-231BO breast cancer cells were cultured in polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels and implanted adjacent to the TEBCs. Histological analysis indicated that the breast cancer cells induced an osteoclastic reaction in the TEBCs, demonstrating analogies to breast cancer-related bone metastasis seen in patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Germana Zaccagnini
Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides non-invasive, repetitive measures in the same individual, allowing the study of a physio-pathological event over time. In this study, we tested the performance of 7 Tesla multi-parametric MRI to monitor the dynamic changes of mouse skeletal muscle injury and regeneration upon acute ischemia induced by femoral artery dissection. T2-mapping (T2 relaxation time, diffusion-tensor imaging (Fractional Anisotropy and perfusion by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (K-trans were measured and imaging results were correlated with histological morphometric analysis in both Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles. We found that tissue damage positively correlated with T2-relaxation time, while myofiber regeneration and capillary density positively correlated with Fractional Anisotropy. Interestingly, K-trans positively correlated with capillary density. Accordingly, repeated MRI measurements between day 1 and day 28 after surgery in ischemic muscles showed that: 1 T2-relaxation time rapidly increased upon ischemia and then gradually declined, returning almost to basal level in the last phases of the regeneration process; 2 Fractional Anisotropy dropped upon ischemic damage induction and then recovered along with muscle regeneration and neoangiogenesis; 3 K-trans reached a minimum upon ischemia, then progressively recovered. Overall, Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles displayed similar patterns of MRI parameters dynamic, with more marked responses and less variability in Tibialis anterior. We conclude that MRI provides quantitative information about both tissue damage after ischemia and the subsequent vascular and muscle regeneration, accounting for the differences between subjects and, within the same individual, between different muscles.
Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg
2015-03-01
Salicylic acid and anthocyanidins are known as plant-derived antioxidants, but also can provoke paradoxically seeming prooxidant effects in vitro. These prooxidant effects are connected to the potential of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins to induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells in vitro and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. Several epidemiological studies have shown that salicylic acid and its prodrug acetylsalicylic acid are tumor-preventive for humans. The mechanism of salicylic acid- and anthocyanidin-dependent antitumor effects has remained enigmatic so far. Extracellular apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl signaling pathway specifically induces apoptosis in transformed cells. Tumor cells have acquired resistance against intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Here, we show that salicylic acid and anthocyanidins inactivate tumor cell protective catalase and thus reactive apoptosis-inducing intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling of tumor cells and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis Salicylic acid inhibits catalase directly through its potential to transform compound I of catalase into the inactive compound II. In contrast, anthocyanidins provoke a complex mechanism for catalase inactivation that is initiated by anthocyanidin-mediated inhibition of NO dioxygenase. This allows the formation of extracellular singlet oxygen through the reaction between H(2)O(2) and peroxynitrite, amplification through a caspase8-dependent step and subsequent singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of catalase. The combination of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins allows for a remarkable synergistic effect in apoptosis induction. This effect may be potentially useful to elaborate novel therapeutic approaches and crucial for the interpretation of epidemiological results related to the antitumor effects of secondary plant compounds. © The
Vasseur, E; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M
2014-01-01
The use of caustic paste combined with a sedative is one of the least painful methods for disbudding. It is recommended to disbud at as early as 5d of age. However, the sedative xylazine reportedly causes a decrease in core temperature. Furthermore, young calves do not thermoregulate efficiently. We investigated the effects of disbudding calves at 5d of age using caustic paste and xylazine sedation on body temperature, activity, and milk intake of 46 individually housed 5-d-old calves in a 2×2 factorial design, with milk fed at 4.5L/d (low-fed calves) versus 9L/d (high-fed calves), with or without a heat lamp. Body temperature, calf activity (standing time), and barn temperature were monitored continuously using automatic data loggers on the day of, before the day of, and the day after disbudding. All calves were injected intramuscularly with 0.25mL of 2mg/mL xylazine 20min before disbudding (dose: 0.12±0.003mL/kg of BW). We found that the body temperature of 5-d-old calves decreased immediately after the injection of the sedative xylazine. The body temperature of calves decreased 0.9±0.09°C and it took 3.8±0.32h to climb back to the preinjection body temperature. Calves that were fed the lower amount of milk, received a higher dose of xylazine (mL/kg BW), or were disbudded in a colder environment were more affected by body temperature variations (lower and longest decrease in body temperature and higher magnitude). Calf activity recovery followed the pattern of body temperature recovery. Milk allowance and supplemental heat did not help enhance recovery during the 6h following the procedure. The disbudding procedure did not affect milk intake but calves with less body temperature decrease or kept in a warmer environment drank more milk following disbudding. Low-fed calves were overall more affected by the procedure than high-fed calves during the disbudding day and the following day (greater decrease in body temperature and drank less in the colder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kranke Peter
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the minimization of the applied tidal volume (VT during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV reduces the risk of alveolar shear stress, it can also result in insufficient CO2-elimination with severe respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that in a model of acute respiratory distress (ARDS the application of high oscillatory frequencies requires the combination of HFOV with arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist (av-ECLA in order to maintain or reestablish normocapnia. Methods After induction of ARDS in eight female pigs (56.5 ± 4.4 kg, a recruitment manoeuvre was performed and intratracheal mean airway pressure (mPaw was adjusted 3 cmH2O above the lower inflection point (Plow of the pressure-volume curve. All animals were ventilated with oscillatory frequencies ranging from 3–15 Hz. The pressure amplitude was fixed at 60 cmH2O. At each frequency gas exchange and hemodynamic measurements were obtained with a clamped and de-clamped av-ECLA. Whenever the av-ECLA was de-clamped, the oxygen sweep gas flow through the membrane lung was adjusted aiming at normocapnia. Results Lung recruitment and adjustment of the mPaw above Plow resulted in a significant improvement of oxygenation (p Conclusion In this animal model of ARDS, maximization of oscillatory frequencies with subsequent minimization of VT leads to hypercapnia that can only be reversed by adding av-ECLA. When combined with a recruitment strategy, these high frequencies do not impair oxygenation
Muellenbach, Ralf M; Kuestermann, Julian; Kredel, Markus; Johannes, Amélie; Wolfsteiner, Ulrike; Schuster, Frank; Wunder, Christian; Kranke, Peter; Roewer, Norbert; Brederlau, Jörg
2008-11-14
Although the minimization of the applied tidal volume (VT) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) reduces the risk of alveolar shear stress, it can also result in insufficient CO₂-elimination with severe respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that in a model of acute respiratory distress (ARDS) the application of high oscillatory frequencies requires the combination of HFOV with arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist (av-ECLA) in order to maintain or reestablish normocapnia. After induction of ARDS in eight female pigs (56.5 ± 4.4 kg), a recruitment manoeuvre was performed and intratracheal mean airway pressure (mPaw) was adjusted 3 cmH₂O above the lower inflection point (Plow) of the pressure-volume curve. All animals were ventilated with oscillatory frequencies ranging from 3-15 Hz. The pressure amplitude was fixed at 60 cmH₂O. At each frequency gas exchange and hemodynamic measurements were obtained with a clamped and de-clamped av-ECLA. Whenever the av-ECLA was de-clamped, the oxygen sweep gas flow through the membrane lung was adjusted aiming at normocapnia. Lung recruitment and adjustment of the mPaw above Plow resulted in a significant improvement of oxygenation (p < 0.05). Compared to lung injury, oxygenation remained significantly improved with rising frequencies (p < 0.05). Normocapnia during HFOV was only maintained with the addition of av-ECLA during frequencies of 9 Hz and above. In this animal model of ARDS, maximization of oscillatory frequencies with subsequent minimization of VT leads to hypercapnia that can only be reversed by adding av-ECLA. When combined with a recruitment strategy, these high frequencies do not impair oxygenation.
Korhonen, H; Niemelä, P; Jauhiainen, L; Tupasela, T
Welfare-related physiological and behavioural responses were studied in farm-bred male blue foxes (Alopex lagopus). Three different-sized cages (80-cm long [CL80], 120-cm long [CL120], and 240-cm long [CL240]; each 105-cm wide x 70-cm high) with wire-mesh floors and one enlarged cage (CL240E) with both wire-mesh floor (240-cm long x 105-cm wide x 70-cm high) and earthen floor (80-cm long x 105-cm wide x 70-cm high) were compared. N = 30 males for each group. The experiments lasted from weaning in July to pelting in December. Statistical analyses were based on the models accounting for litter as a block effect. Breaking strength of tibia was highest for foxes having access to both wire-mesh and ground floors (CL240E). Stress-induced hyperthermia was evident during capture and immobilisation. The highest rectal temperature (mean +/- SEM) was found in CL240E (capture: 39.6 +/- 0.09 degrees C, restraint:40.0 +/- 0.09 degrees C) and the lowest in CL80 (capture: 39.1 +/- 0.09 degrees C, restraint: 39.7 +/- 0.09 degrees C). Likewise, capture time (median; interquartile range) in the home cage was highest in CL240E (29; 18 to 44) and lowest in CL80 (12; 9 to 14). During capture, foxes tended to withdraw to the farthest site within the cage. CL240E foxes typically showed the most fear towards human. The most confident animals were found in CL80. The cortisol:creatinine ratio (median; interquartile range) obtained from circadian urine did not reveal statistically significant differences among CL80 (3. 5; 2.6 to 4.1), CL120 (2.3; 1.5 to 3.8) and CL240 (2.3, 1.5 to 3.7). The earthen flooring complicated the urine sampling and conclusions for CL240E (1.7; 1.2 to 2.2). CL240E foxes were the most active and explorative on both wire-mesh- and ground-floored open-field arenas. Altogether, 53% of furs from CL240E were classified as very dirty. Dirtiness of furs in other test groups was slight. In conclusion, the present results did not reveal an unambiguous superiority of any of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cozar, A.; Rodriguez, A.I.; Garijo, P.; Calvo, L.; Vergara, H.
2016-11-01
A total of 72 male lambs of Merina breed were sampled in a 3×2 factorial design, testing three different space allowances treatment (SA) during transport [0.16 m2/animal (SAL; n=24); 0.20 m2/animal (SAM; n=24) and 0.30 m2/animal (SAH; n=24)] and two lairage treatments (TL) during 18 h previous slaughter [fasting (FAST; n=36) vs feeding (FEED; n=36)] on welfare physiological indicators. After transport, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were highest in SAM group and lowest in SAH one (p<0.05). SAL showed intermediate values for both parameters. SA did not affect the rest of the blood parameters studied. TL-FAST treatment decreased glucose values (p<0.001) while increased LDH (p<0.001). Fasting caused an increase (p<0.05) of Red Blood Cell Count values in SAM group. Feed deprivation did not affect cortisol or adrenaline values. Noradrenaline value was higher (p<0.001) in TL-FAST groups than in TL-FEED. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, a range of space allowance during transport between 0.16 and 0.30 m2/lamb could be recommended without showing major changes on welfare physiological indicators; and feeding could be more appropriate than fasting during lairage. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana I. Rodriguez
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A total of 72 male lambs of Merina breed were sampled in a 3×2 factorial design, testing three different space allowances treatment (SA during transport [0.16 m2/animal (SAL; n=24; 0.20 m2/animal (SAM; n=24 and 0.30 m2/animal (SAH; n=24] and two lairage treatments (TL during 18 h previous slaughter [fasting (FAST; n=36 vs feeding (FEED; n=36] on welfare physiological indicators. After transport, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were highest in SAM group and lowest in SAH one (p<0.05. SAL showed intermediate values for both parameters. SA did not affect the rest of the blood parameters studied. TL-FAST treatment decreased glucose values (p<0.001 while increased LDH (p<0.001. Fasting caused an increase (p<0.05 of Red Blood Cell Count values in SAM group. Feed deprivation did not affect cortisol or adrenaline values. Noradrenaline value was higher (p<0.001 in TL-FAST groups than in TL-FEED. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, a range of space allowance during transport between 0.16 and 0.30 m2/lamb could be recommended without showing major changes on welfare physiological indicators; and feeding could be more appropriate than fasting during lairage.
Callahan, S R; Cross, A J; DeDecker, A E; Lindemann, M D; Estienne, M J
2017-01-01
The objective was to determine effects of nursery group-size-floor space allowance on growth, physiology, and hematology of replacement gilts. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used wherein gilts classified as large, medium, or small ( = 2537; BW = 5.6 ± 0.6 kg) from 13 groups of weaned pigs were placed in pens of 14, 11, or 8 pigs resulting in floor space allowances of 0.15, 0.19, or 0.27 m/pig, respectively. Pigs were weighed on d 0 (weaning) and d 46 (exit from nursery). The ADG was affected by group-size-floor space allowance × pig size ( = 0.04). Large- and medium-size gilts allowed the most floor space had greater ( gilts allowed the least floor space but for small size gilts there was no effect ( > 0.05) of group size-floor space allowance. Mortality in the nursery was not affected ( > 0.05) by treatment, size, or treatment × size and overall was approximately 2.1%. Complete blood counts and blood chemistry analyses were performed on samples collected at d 6 and 43 from a subsample of gilts ( = 18/group-size-floor space allowance) within a single group. The concentration ( gilts allowed 0.15 m floor space (effects of treatment). Blood calcium was affected by treatment ( = 0.02) and concentrations for gilts allowed the greatest and intermediate amounts of floor space were greater ( gilts allowed the least floor space. Serum concentrations of cortisol were not affected by treatment × day ( = 0.27). Cortisol concentrations increased from d 6 to d 43 in all groups and were affected by day ( gilts displaying increased ADG. Further study will determine if these effects influence lifetime reproductive capacity and sow longevity.
Afdhal, Nezam H; Dusheiko, Geoffrey M; Giannini, Edoardo G; Chen, Pei-Jer; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Mohsin, Aftab; Rodriguez-Torres, Maribel; Rugina, Sorin; Bakulin, Igor; Lawitz, Eric; Shiffman, Mitchell L; Tayyab, Ghias-Un-Nabi; Poordad, Fred; Kamel, Yasser Mostafa; Brainsky, Andres; Geib, James; Vasey, Sandra Y; Patwardhan, Rita; Campbell, Fiona M; Theodore, Dickens
2014-02-01
Thrombocytopenia is common among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis, limiting initiation and dose of peginterferon-alfa (PEG) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy. The phase 3 randomized, controlled studies, Eltrombopag to Initiate and Maintain Interferon Antiviral Treatment to Benefit Subjects with Hepatitis C-Related Liver Disease (ENABLE)-1 and ENABLE-2, investigated the ability of eltrombopag to increase the number of platelets in patients, thereby allowing them to receive initiation or maintenance therapy with PEG and RBV. Patients with HCV infection and thrombocytopenia (platelet count therapy (95% from ENABLE-1 and 94% from ENABLE-2) entered the antiviral treatment phase, and were assigned randomly (2:1) to groups that received eltrombopag or placebo along with antiviral therapy (24 or 48 weeks, depending on HCV genotype). The primary end point was sustained virologic response (SVR) 24 weeks after completion of antiviral therapy. More patients who received eltrombopag than placebo achieved SVRs (ENABLE-1: eltrombopag, 23%; placebo, 14%; P = .0064; ENABLE-2: eltrombopag, 19%; placebo, 13%; P = .0202). PEG was administered at higher doses, with fewer dose reductions, in the eltrombopag groups of each study compared with the placebo groups. More patients who received eltrombopag than placebo maintained platelet counts of 50,000/μL or higher throughout antiviral treatment (ENABLE-1, 69% vs 15%; ENABLE-2, 81% vs 23%). Adverse events were similar between groups, with the exception of hepatic decompensation (both studies: eltrombopag, 10%; placebo, 5%) and thromboembolic events, which were more common in the eltrombopag group of ENABLE-2. Eltrombopag increases platelet numbers in thrombocytopenic patients with HCV and advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, allowing otherwise ineligible or marginal patients to begin and maintain antiviral therapy, leading to significantly increased rates of SVR. Clinical trial no: NCT00516321, NCT
2010-07-01
... for any engine family in the 56-130 kW power category is 2.3 g/kW-hr for model years 2012 and 2013...-unit engine family in the 75-130 kW power category may be certified to meet the standards for PM, NMHC... the first four years of the Tier 4 standards for the applicable power category, as allowed in § 1039...
Verstappen, Wim H. J. M.; van der Weijden, Trudy; ter Riet, Gerben; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Winkens, Ron; Grol, Richard P. T. M.
2004-01-01
Background and Objective: To evaluate the value of balanced incomplete block designs in quality improvement research, and their capacity to control for the Hawthorne effect. Methods: General practitioners teams were randomized into three arms and received an intervention on test ordering, relating
Verstappen, W.H.; Weijden, T. van der; Riet, G. ter; Grimshaw, J.; Winkens, R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.
2004-01-01
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of balanced incomplete block designs in quality improvement research, and their capacity to control for the Hawthorne effect. METHODS: General practitioners teams were randomized into three arms and received an intervention on test ordering, relating
Jang, J C; Jin, X H; Hong, J S; Kim, Y Y
2017-12-01
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. A total of ninety crossbred pigs [(Yorkshire×Landrace)×Duroc, 30.25±1.13 kg] were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs/pen, 0.96 m2/pig; 0.80: five pigs/pen, 0.80 m2/pig; 0.69: six pigs/pen, 0.69 m2/pig) in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I, and finishing phase II). There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, pspace allowance in late finishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (pspace allowance (pspace allowance. Floor area allowance did not affect pork colors, but shear force linearly increased as floor space decreased (pspace allocation. Serum IgG was linearly ameliorated as space allowance increased on 10 week (pspace allowance deteriorates the immune system as well as growth performance of pigs, resulting in poor pork quality. Recommended adequate space allowance in a grow-to-finish production system is more than 0.80 m2/pig for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.
Pikin, S. A.
2017-01-01
The minimum size (nanoscale) of various phases occurring on the morphotropic phase boundary is determined based on the dislocation theory. It is shown that the flexoelectric effect is strong on this boundary, which explains the anomalous piezoelectric properties of nanoscale epitaxial structures, regardless of the type of crystal material. The debated question of the value of piezoelectric coefficients in favor of classical estimate is considered on the basis of dimensional relations and experimental data.
Shen, Yao An; Shyu, Ing Luen; Lu, Maggie; He, Chun Lin; Hsu, Yen Mei; Liang, Hsiang Fa; Liu, Chih Peng; Liu, Ren Shyan; Shen, Biing Jiun; Wei, Yau Huei; Chuang, Chi Mu
2015-01-01
The current enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)-based approved nanomedicines have had little impact in terms of prolongation of overall survival in patients with cancer. For example, the two Phase III trials comparing Doxil(®), the first nanomedicine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, with free doxorubicin did not find an actual translation of the EPR effect into a statistically significant increase in overall survival but did show less cardiotoxicity. In the current work, we used a two-factor factorial experimental design with intraperitoneal versus intravenous delivery and nanomedicine versus free drug as factors to test our hypothesis that regional (intraperitoneal) delivery of nanomedicine may better increase survival when compared with systemic delivery. In this study, we demonstrate that bypassing, rather than exploiting, the EPR effect via intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine harboring a sustained-release function demonstrates dual pharmacokinetic advantages, producing more efficient tumor control and suppressing the expression of stemness markers, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis signals, and multidrug resistance in the tumor microenvironment. Metastases to vital organs (eg, lung, liver, and lymphatic system) are also better controlled by intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine than by standard systemic delivery of the corresponding free drug. Moreover, the intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine has the potential to replace hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy because it shows equal efficacy and lower toxicity. In terms of efficacy, exploiting the EPR effect may not be the best approach for developing a nanomedicine. Because intraperitoneal chemotherapy is a type of regional chemotherapy, the pharmaceutical industry might consider the regional delivery of nanomedicine as a valid alternative pathway to develop their nanomedicine(s) with the goal of better tumor control in the future.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shen YA
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Yao An Shen,1,* Ing Luen Shyu,2,* Maggie Lu,3 Chun Lin He,4 Yen Mei Hsu,2 Hsiang Fa Liang,3 Chih Peng Liu,3 Ren Shyan Liu,5,6 Biing Jiun Shen,7 Yau Huei Wei,1 Chi Mu Chuang2,4 1Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 3Biomedical Technology and Device Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 5Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 6National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 7Division of Psychology, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore *These authors contributed equally to the work Abstract: The current enhanced permeability and retention (EPR-based approved nanomedicines have had little impact in terms of prolongation of overall survival in patients with cancer. For example, the two Phase III trials comparing Doxil®, the first nanomedicine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, with free doxorubicin did not find an actual translation of the EPR effect into a statistically significant increase in overall survival but did show less cardiotoxicity. In the current work, we used a two-factor factorial experimental design with intraperitoneal versus intravenous delivery and nanomedicine versus free drug as factors to test our hypothesis that regional (intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine may better increase survival when compared with systemic delivery. In this study, we demonstrate that bypassing, rather than exploiting, the EPR effect via intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine harboring a sustained-release function demonstrates dual pharmacokinetic advantages, producing more efficient tumor control and suppressing the expression of stemness markers, epithelial
Zhu, Qin
2013-01-01
Affordances mean opportunities for action. These affordances are important for sports performance and relevant to the abilities developed by skilled athletes. In racquet sports such as badminton, different players prefer widely different string tension because it is believed to provide opportunities for effective strokes. The current study examined whether badminton players can perceive the affordance of string tension for power strokes and whether the perception of affordance itself changed as a function of skill level. The results showed that string tension constrained the striking performance of both novice and recreational players, but not of expert players. When perceptual capability was assessed, perceptual mode did not affect perception of the optimal string tension. Skilled players successfully perceived the affordance of string tension, but only experts were concerned about saving energy. Our findings demonstrated that perception of the affordance of string tension in badminton was determined by action abilities. Furthermore, experts could adjust the action to maintain a superior level of performance based on the perception of affordance.
Modeling information technology effectiveness
Aleksander Lotko
2005-01-01
Numerous cases of systems not bringing expected results cause that investments in information technology are treated more and more carefully and are not privileged amongst others. This gives rise to the need for applying costs–effect calculations. Modeling IT effectiveness is a procedure which helps to bring system complexity under control. By using proper measures it is possible to perform an objective investment appraisal for projects under consideration. In the paper, a framework of method...
Dittrich, Birger; Wandtke, Claudia M; Meents, Alke; Pröpper, Kevin; Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Amin Sk, Nurul; Singh, Amit Pratap; Roesky, Herbert W; Sidhu, Navdeep
2015-02-02
Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) is often considered the gold standard in analytical chemistry, as it allows element identification as well as determination of atom connectivity and the solid-state structure of completely unknown samples. Element assignment is based on the number of electrons of an atom, so that a distinction of neighboring heavier elements in the periodic table by XRD is often difficult. A computationally efficient procedure for aspherical-atom least-squares refinement of conventional diffraction data of organometallic compounds is proposed. The iterative procedure is conceptually similar to Hirshfeld-atom refinement (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A- 2008, 64, 383-393; IUCrJ. 2014, 1,61-79), but it relies on tabulated invariom scattering factors (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B- 2013, 69, 91-104) and the Hansen/Coppens multipole model; disordered structures can be handled as well. Five linear-coordinate 3d metal complexes, for which the wrong element is found if standard independent-atom model scattering factors are relied upon, are studied, and it is shown that only aspherical-atom scattering factors allow a reliable assignment. The influence of anomalous dispersion in identifying the correct element is investigated and discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hamdaoui, Oualid; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel
2007-08-17
The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of five phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions onto granular activated carbon (GAC) were studied and modeled. Phenol (Ph), 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) were chosen for the adsorption tests. To predict the adsorption isotherms and to determine the characteristic parameters for process design, seven isotherm models: Langmuir (five linear forms), Freundlich, Elovich, Temkin, Fowler-Guggenheim, Kiselev, and Hill-de Boer models were applied to experimental data. The results reveal that the adsorption isotherm models fitted the data in the order: Fowler-Guggenheim>Hill-de Boer>Temkin>Freundlich>Kiselev>Langmuir isotherms. Adsorption isotherms modeling shows that the interaction of phenolic compounds with activated carbon surface is localized monolayer adsorption, that is adsorbed molecules are adsorbed at definite, localized sites. Each site can accommodate only one molecule. The interaction among adsorbed molecules is repulsive and there is no association between them, adsorption is carried out on energetically different sites and is an exothermic process. Uptake of phenols increases in the order Phadsorption is directly proportional to their degree of chlorination.
Training effectiveness evaluation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penrose, J.B.
1993-01-01
NAESCO's Training Effectiveness Evaluation Model (TEEM) integrates existing evaluation procedures with new procedures. The new procedures are designed to measure training impact on organizational productivity. TEEM seeks to enhance organizational productivity through proactive training focused on operation results. These results can be identified and measured by establishing and tracking performance indicators. Relating training to organizational productivity is not easy. TEEM is a team process. It offers strategies to assess more effectively organizational costs and benefits of training. TEEM is one organization's attempt to refine, manage and extend its training evaluation program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehrhardt, J.
1995-02-01
As one of the main objectives of the MARIA project (''Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents'') initiated by the Commission of the European Communities the program package COSYMA (''COde SYstem from MARIA'') for assessing the radiological and economic off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere has been jointly developed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), FRG, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), UK. COSYMA includes models and data for assessing a broad spectrum of accident consequences, and they are implemented in independent modules. The subject of this report are those modules, which incorporate models and data for assessing individual and collective risks for deterministic and stochastic health effects. It describes the models implemented, the mathematical algorithms and the required data. Examples are given and explained for the input and output part of the modules. (orig.)
Hemmerling, R.; Evers, J.B.; Smolenova, K.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Kurth, W.
2013-01-01
In simulation models of plant development, physiological processes taking place in plants are typically described in terms of ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations). On the one hand, those processes drive the development of the plant structure and on the other hand, the developed structure again
Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suter, G.W. II
1996-09-01
One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.
Kerckhofs, Greet; Sainz, Julie; Maréchal, Marina; Wevers, Martine; Van de Putte, Tom; Geris, Liesbet; Schrooten, Jan
2014-01-01
One of the early hallmarks of osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage. Early diagnosis of OA-associated cartilage alterations would be beneficial for disease prevention and control, and for the development of disease-modifying treatments. However, early diagnosis is still hampered by a lack of quantifiable readouts in preclinical models. In this study, we have shown the potency of contrast-enhanced nanofocus x-ray computed tomography (CE-nanoCT) to be used for virtual 3-dimensional (3D) histopathology in established mouse models for OA, and we compared with standard histopathology. We showed the equivalence of CE-nanoCT images to histopathology for the modified Mankin scoring of the cartilage structure and quality. Additionally, a limited set of 3D cartilage characteristics measured by CE-nanoCT image analysis in a user-independent and semiautomatic manner, that is, average and maximum of the noncalcified cartilage thickness distribution and loss in glycosaminoglycans, was shown to be predictive for the cartilage quality and structure as can be evaluated by histopathological scoring through the use of an empirical model. We have shown that CE-nanoCT is a tool that allows virtual histopathology and 3D morphological quantification of multitissue systems, such as the chondro-osseous junction. It provides faster and more quantitative data on cartilage structure and quality compared with standard histopathology while eliminating user bias. CE-nanoCT thus should allow capturing subtle differences in cartilage characteristics, carefully mapping OA progression and, ultimately, asses the beneficial changes when testing a candidate disease-modifying treatment.
Leung, Kawai; Mohammadi, Aylia; Ryu, William; Nemenman, Ilya
In animals, we must infer the pain level from experimental characterization of behavior. This is not trivial since behaviors are very complex and multidimensional. To establish C.elegans as a model for pain research, we propose for the first time a quantitative model that allows inference of a thermal nociceptive stimulus level from the behavior of an individual worm. We apply controlled levels of pain by locally heating worms with an infrared laser and capturing the subsequent behavior. We discover that the behavioral response is a product of stereotypical behavior and a nonlinear function of the strength of stimulus. The same stereotypical behavior is observed in normal, anesthetized and mutated worms. From this result we build a Bayesian model to infer the strength of laser stimulus from the behavior. This model allows us to measure the efficacy of anaesthetization and mutation by comparing the inferred strength of stimulus. Based on the measured nociceptive escape of over 200 worms, our model is able to significantly differentiate normal, anaesthetized and mutated worms with 40 worm samples. This work was partially supported by NSF Grant No. IOS/1208126 and HFSP Grant No. RGY0084/.
Trading sulfur dioxide allowances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.
1992-01-01
The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation
Widowski, T. M; Caston, L. J; Casey-Trott, T. M; Hunniford, M. E
2017-01-01
Abstract Standards for feeder (a.k.a. feed trough) space allowance (SA) are based primarily on studies in conventional cages where laying hens tend to eat simultaneously, limiting feeder space. Large furnished cages (FC) offer more total space and opportunities to perform a greater variety of behaviors, which may affect feeding behavior and feeder space requirements. Our objective was to determine the effects of floor/feeder SA on behavior at the feeder. LSL-Lite hens were housed in FC equipped with a nest, perches, and a scratch mat. Hens with SA of either 520 cm2 (Low; 8.9 cm feeder space/hen) or 748 cm2 (High; 12.8 cm feeder space/hen) per bird resulted in groups of 40 vs. 28 birds in small FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in large FC (LFC). Chain feeders ran at 0500, 0800, 1100, 1400, and 1700 with lights on at 0500 and off at 1900 hours. Digital recordings of FC were scanned at chain feeder onset and every 15 min for one h after (5 scans × 5 feeding times × 2 d) to count the number of birds with their head in the feeder. All occurrences of aggressive pecks and displacements during 2 continuous 30-minute observations at 0800 h and 1700 h also were counted. Mixed model repeated analyses tested the effects of SA, cage size, and time on the percent of hens feeding, and the frequency of aggressive pecks and displacements. Surprisingly, the percent of birds feeding simultaneously was similar regardless of cage size (LFC: 23.0 ± 0.9%; SFC: 24.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.44) or SA (Low: 23.8 ± 0.9%; High: 23.3 ± 1.0%; P = 0.62). More birds were observed feeding at 1700 h (35.3 ± 0.1%) than any at other time (P < 0.001). Feeder use differed by cage area (nest, middle, or scratch) over the d (P < 0.001). The frequency of aggressive pecks was low overall and not affected by SA or cage size. Frequency of displacements was also low but greater at Low SA (P = 0.001). There was little evidence of feeder competition at the Low SA in this study. PMID:29050409
2012-06-01
The mobility allowance shuttle transit (MAST) system is a hybrid transit system in which vehicles are : allowed to deviate from a fixed route to serve flexible demand. A mixed integer programming (MIP) : formulation for the static scheduling problem ...
Farmer, C; Palin, M F; Martel-Kennes, Y
2012-03-01
The impact of diet deprivation and subsequent over-allowance on the metabolite status, mammary development, and mammary gene expression in prepubertal gilts was determined. Forty-seven gilts were reared under a conventional (control, CTL; n = 23) or an experimental (treatment, TRT; n = 24) dietary regimen. The later regimen (consisting of diet deprivation and subsequent over-allowance) provided 70 (restriction diet, RES) and 115% (over-allowance diet, OVER) of the protein and DE contents provided by the CTL diet. Experimental diets were fed ad libitum starting at 27.7 ± 3.4 kg of BW as follows: 3 wk RES, 3 wk OVER, 4 wk RES, and 4 wk OVER. At each diet change, BW and individual feed intakes were measured, and blood samples for metabolite and IGF-I assays were obtained. Some gilts (11 CTL and 12 TRT) were slaughtered on d 235 (after reaching puberty) to collect mammary tissue for compositional analyses and measures of gene expression. Body weight gain (P gilts were reduced during each period with the RES diet; however, there was no compensatory growth during the periods when the OVER diet was fed. Feeding the RES diet reduced concentrations of urea and IGF-I (P gilts compared with CTL gilts. The TRT gilts had less parenchymal tissue (P gilts. The mammary mRNA relative abundance of the signal transducers and activators of transduction 5B was decreased in TRT compared with CTL gilts (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the diet deprivation and over-allowance regimen used in the growing-finishing period did not have beneficial effects on mammary development after puberty. In fact, a detrimental effect was observed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jérémie Silvent
Full Text Available Among persisting questions on bone calcification, a major one is the link between protein expression and mineral deposition. A cell culture system is here proposed opening new integrative studies on biomineralization, improving our knowledge on the role played by non-collagenous proteins in bone. This experimental in vitro model consisted in human primary osteoblasts cultured for 60 days at the surface of a 3D collagen scaffold mimicking an osteoid matrix. Various techniques were used to analyze the results at the cellular and molecular level (adhesion and viability tests, histology and electron microscopy, RT- and qPCR and to characterize the mineral phase (histological staining, EDX, ATG, SAED and RMN. On long term cultures human bone cells seeded on the osteoid-like matrix displayed a clear osteoblast phenotype as revealed by the osteoblast-like morphology, expression of specific protein such as alkaline phosphatase and expression of eight genes classically considered as osteoblast markers, including BGLAP, COL1A1, and BMP2. Von Kossa and alizarine red allowed us to identify divalent calcium ions at the surface of the matrix, EDX revealed the correct Ca/P ratio, and SAED showed the apatite crystal diffraction pattern. In addition RMN led to the conclusion that contaminant phases were absent and that the hydration state of the mineral was similar to fresh bone. A temporal correlation was established between quantified gene expression of DMP1 and IBSP, and the presence of hydroxyapatite, confirming the contribution of these proteins to the mineralization process. In parallel a difference was observed in the expression pattern of SPP1 and BGLAP, which questioned their attributed role in the literature. The present model opens new experimental possibilities to study spatio-temporal relations between bone cells, dense collagen scaffolds, NCPs and hydroxyapatite mineral deposition. It also emphasizes the importance of high collagen density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berge, P.; Buisine, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France); Gelpi, A. [FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France)
1997-12-31
When a 600 alloy component is significantly deformed during installation, by welding, rolling, bending, its stress corrosion cracking in Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor`s primary coolant, is significantly changed by the initial surface treatment. Therefore, the crack initiated time may be reduced by several orders of magnitude for certain surfaces preparations. Allowing for cold working of the surface, for which modelling is proposed, depends less on the degree of cold work then on the depths of the hardened layers. Honing hardens the metal over depths of about one micron for vessel head penetrations, for example, and has little influence on subsequent behaviour after the part deforms. On the other hand, coarser turning treatment produces cold worked layers which can reach several tens of microns and can very significantly reduce the initiation time compared to fine honing. So evaluation after depths of hardening is vital on test pieces for interpreting laboratory results as well as on service components for estimating their service life. Suppression by mechanical or chemical treatment of these layers, after deformation, seems to be the most appropriate solution for reducing over-stressing connected with surface treatment carried out before deformation. (author). 14 refs.
Adachi, Masataka; Kisu, Iori; Nagai, Toshihiro; Emoto, Katsura; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Nogami, Yuya; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Itagaki, Iori; Kawamoto, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Takahiro; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Aoki, Daisuke
2016-09-01
The objective of this study was to examine the allowable warm ischemic time and pathological changes due to ischemia and reperfusion injury in the uterus of the cynomolgus monkey as a model for uterus transplantation. Six female cynomolgus monkeys were used in the study. The uterus was resected from the vaginal canal and connected through the bilateral ovarian and uterine arteries and veins only. One animal was used as a control. In the other five animals, the bilateral uterine and ovarian vessels were clamped for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h, respectively. Biopsy of the smooth muscle tissue of corpus uteri was performed after each ischemic time and after subsequent reperfusion for 3 h. Biopsy samples were observed by light and electron microscopy. Menstruation recovery was monitored. There were no particular findings in both light and electron microscopy after ischemia for up to 2 h and after subsequent reperfusion. There were no marked changes after ischemia for 4 h, but dilated nuclear pores and rough endoplasmic reticulum swelling were found after reperfusion. These changes also occurred, along with mitochondrial swelling and cristae loss after ischemia for 8 h, and plasma membrane loss, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation were found after reperfusion. Periodical menstruation restarted in all animals with ischemia up to 4 h, but the animal with ischemia for 8 h had amenorrhea and uterine atrophy. The uterus of the cynomolgus monkey tolerates warm ischemia for up to 4 h. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubert, M.J.; Monforte, F.; Calo, C.; Lylyk, P.; Friedman, M.F.; Gamba, C.A.
2012-01-01
Purpose. To demonstrate the utility of Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography (MS-QCT) in the early detection of mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) alterations induced by an atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model. Materials and Methods. Male weanling Wistar rats (n =16) were divided by body weight (Wt) into 2 groups: control (C) and experimental (E), with no significant differences in the mean initial Wt (p>0.05). C was fed rodent stock diet ad libitum, and E an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks (3w). Zoometry (body weight and length) and diet intake (g/100g rat/day) were monitored. At 3 w in serum (mg/dL) lipidlipoprotein profile was studied: total cholesterol (t-C), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and MSQCT (Philips 64 CT, quantified with the eFilm Workstation 2.1) in seven mandibular areas (MA): n. 1 to 4: from chin to mandibular foramen, n. 5: coronoid process, n. 6: condylar process, n. 7: angular process. Statistics: Pearson's correlation between BMD in each MA and serum t-C. p 0.05). Correlation coefficients (r) and their significance levels (p) were relevant in 5/7 MA. MA1:-0.580 (p=0.019), MA2:-0.709 (p=0.002), MA3:-0.635 (p=0.008), MA5:-0.674 (p=0.004), MA6:-0.564 (p=0.023). Conclusions. These results suggest that MS-QCT is an imaging diagnostic method that allows the early detection of mandible bone architecture alterations induced by an atherogenic diet. Inverse correlation between BMD and t-C would indicate an association between an atherogenic diet intake and potential temporomandibular disorders. (authors)
Averos, X.; Brossard, L.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, de K.H.; Edge, H.L.; Edwards, S.A.; Meunier-Salaün, M.C.
2010-01-01
To obtain quantitative information that can be later used in animal welfare modelling, the relationship between the lying behaviour of growing-finishing pigs (initial body weight (BW) between 19 and 87 kg) and different factors related to the housing conditions, with a potential negative effect on
Better models are more effectively connected models
Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John
2016-04-01
can be represented in models: either by allowing it to emerge from model behaviour or by parameterizing it inside model structures; and on the appropriate scale at which processes should be represented explicitly or implicitly. It will also explore how modellers themselves approach connectivity through the results of a community survey. Finally, it will present the outline of an international modelling exercise aimed at assessing how different modelling concepts can capture connectivity in real catchments.
Widowski, T. M; Caston, L. J; Hunniford, M. E; Cooley, L; Torrey, S
2017-01-01
Abstract There are few published data on the effects of housing laying hens at different densities in large furnished cages (FC; a.k.a. enriched colony cages). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of housing laying hens at 2 space allowances (SA) in 2 sizes of FC on measures of production and well-being. At 18 wk of age, 1,218 LSL-Lite hens were housed in cages furnished with a curtained nesting area, perches, and scratch mat, and stocked at either 520 cm2 (Low) or 748 cm2 (High) total floor space. This resulted in 4 group sizes: 40 vs. 28 birds in smaller FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in larger FC (LFC). Data were collected from 20 to 72 wks of age. There was no effect of cage size (P = 0.21) or SA (P = 0.37) on hen day egg production, egg weight (PSize = 0.90; PSA = 0.73), or eggshell deformation (PSize = 0.14; PSA = 0.053), but feed disappearance was higher in SFC than LFC (P = 0.005). Mortality to 72 wk was not affected by cage size (P = 0.78) or SA (P = 0.55). BW (P = 0.006) and BW CV (P = 0.008) increased with age but were not affected by treatment. Feather cleanliness was poorer in FC with low SA vs. high (P hens housed at the lower space allowance may be compromised according to some welfare assessment criteria. PMID:29050408
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herminia Vergara
2017-07-01
Full Text Available A total of 72 Merino breed male lambs were used in this work, to study the effect of the space allowance during transport [(SA: low (SAL: 0.16 m2/animal; n=24; medium (SAM: 20 m2/animal; n=24; high (SAH: 0.30 m2/animal; n=24], and the management during 18 h lairage [(TL: fasting (TL-FAST; n=36 vs feeding (TL-FEED; n=36] on carcass microbial contamination (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas and meat quality. Carcasses contamination determination was carried out by swabbing (neck, flank and rump. Meat quality was assessed by pH, colour coordinates, drip loss (DL, shear force (SF ad lipid oxidation. SA did not have effect on carcass microbiological quality. TL caused a significant effect on total viable count and Pseudomonas spp values. Flank was the most contaminated site. SAL-FEED group showed the highest values of drip loss and lipid oxidation. At 24 h post-mortem, pH values were the highest in fasted lambs. At 7 d post-mortem the lowest pH was found in SAM-FAST group while the highest in SAM-FEED. TL had no effect on SF, DL neither on lipid oxidation values. These results could help to meat industry to decide the best management as in the transportation as during lairage before lambs slaughter.
Models for effective prevention.
Perry, C L; Kelder, S H
1992-07-01
The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W.
2010-01-01
The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)
Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)
2010-04-15
The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)
Lefebvre, P; Brouillette, L; Felteau, C
1994-12-01
"We suppose that women (couples), who are less than 40 years old, are faced with three types of sequential decisions: the fertility decision, the decision relative to the number of children to have and the decision concerning labour force participation.... We use a nested polychotomous discrete choice model to estimate the responsiveness of the behaviour of 'married' women in Quebec to variations in the expected flow of revenue resulting from changes in the parameters of the personal income tax and in the level of public monetary transfers conditional on the number of children. The model is estimated with micro-data from 9 repeated cross-sections for the years 1975 to 1987 with a full information maximum likelihood method.... This empirical setting is used to simulate the effects of changes made to the fiscal and transfer policies in favor of families with dependent children on fertility, [women's] labor force participation and the importance of spending costs for the two levels of government." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
Demir, Resit; Peros, Georgios; Hohenberger, Werner
2011-06-01
Since the introduction of the angiogenic therapy by Folkman et al. in the 1970'ies many antiangiogenic drugs were identified. Only few of them are still now in clinical use. Also the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), the cytokine with the highest angiogenic activity, has been identified. Its antagonist, Bevacizumab, is produced and admitted for the angiogenic therapy in first line for metastatic colorectal cancer. When we look at preclinical studies, they fail of in vivo models that define the "Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index" of angiogenic or antiangiogenic drugs. This work proposes a possible standardized procedure to define the "Drug Angiogenic Activity Index" by counting the vascular intersections (VIS) on the Chorioallantoic Membrane after drug application. The equation was defined as follows: {ΔVIS[Drug]-ΔVIS[Control]} / Δ VIS[Control]. For VEGF a Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index of 0.92 was found and for Bevacizumab a -1. This means almost that double of the naturally angiogenic activity was achieved by VEGF on the Chorioallantoic membrane. A complete blocking of naturally angiogenic activity was observed after Bevacizumabs application. Establishing the "Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index" in the preclinical phase will give us an impact of effectiveness for the new constructed antiangiogenic drugs like the impact of effectiveness in the cortisone family.
Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect
Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.
2013-12-01
A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.
Ter Boo, G J; Schmid, T; Zderic, I; Nehrbass, D; Camenisch, K; Richards, R G; Grijpma, D W; Moriarty, T F; Eglin, D
2018-03-02
Antibiotic-loaded biomaterials (ALBs) have emerged as a potential useful adjunctive antimicrobial measure for the prevention of infection in open fracture care. A biodegradable thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted hyaluronic acid (HApN) hydrogel loaded with gentamicin has recently been shown to prevent implant-related infection in a rabbit osteosynthesis model. The primary aim of this study was to determine the influence of this HApN hydrogel on bone healing at an early stage (4 weeks). A rabbit humeral osteotomy model with plating osteosynthesis was used to compare fracture healing in rabbits receiving the hydrogel as compared with control animals. The secondary aim was to observe fracture healing in groups treated with and without antibiotic-loaded hydrogel in the presence of bacterial contamination. In all groups, outcome measures were mechanical stability and histological score, with additional quantitative bacteriology in the inoculated groups. Application of the HApN hydrogel in non-inoculated rabbits did not significantly influence humeral stiffness or histological scores for fracture healing in comparison to controls. In the inoculated groups, animals receiving the bacterial inoculum without hydrogel were culture-positive at euthanasia and found to display lower humeral stiffness values and higher histopathological scores for bacterial presence in comparison with equivalents receiving the gentamicin-loaded HApN hydrogel, which were also infection-free. In summary, our data showed that HApN was an effective antibiotic carrier that did not affect fracture healing. This data supported its suitability for application in fracture care. Addition of osteopromotive compounds could provide further support for accelerating fracture healing in addition to successful infection prophylaxis.
Cherkesov, L. V.; Shul'ga, T. Ya.
2018-01-01
The effect of seawater movement through the Kerch Strait for extreme deviations in the level and speed of currents in the Sea of Azov caused by the action of climate wind fields has been studied using the Princeton ocean model (POM), a general three-dimensional nonlinear model of ocean circulation. Formation of the water flow through the strait is caused by the long-term action of the same type of atmospheric processes. The features of the water dynamics under conditions of changing intensity and active wind direction have been studied. Numerical experiments were carried out for two versions of model Sea of Azov basins: closed (without the Kerch Strait) and with a fluid boundary located in the Black Sea. The simulation results have shown that allowance for the strait leads to a significant change in the velocities of steady currents and level deviations at wind speeds greater than 5 m/s. The most significant effect on the parameters of steady-state movements is exerted by the speed of the wind that generates them; allowance for water exchange through the strait is less important. Analysis of the directions of atmospheric circulation has revealed that the response generated by the movement of water through the strait is most pronounced when a southeast wind is acting.
Safeguards system effectiveness modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.
1976-01-01
A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. The overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined
Safeguards system effectiveness modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.
1976-01-01
A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. In this paper, the overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contraires, Simon
2008-01-01
This research thesis addresses the issue of geological storage of CO 2 . It aims at experimentally determining the effects of dissolution/precipitation reactions of calcite (CaCO 3 ) in porous media on observable geophysics, at different scales. After a presentation of the general context (issue of CO 2 geological storage, fundamental research on this topic), the first part reports the design and performance of experiments of reactive percolation of fluid with a high content of CO 2 on carbonate deci-metric samples with a real time monitoring of rock and fluid electric conductivity, of fluid pH, of rock permeability. Some one-off measurements of alkalinity and fluid composition are also performed, as well as acquisitions of speed and attenuation profiles of seismic waves along the sample. Experiments are performed in a granular medium (geo-electric monitoring of injections of reactive fluids) as well as field measurements in the case of a tectonic fumarole in Nepal (CO 2 flow measurements, comparison with other data and interpretation) [fr
Szostak, Justyna; Martin, Florian; Talikka, Marja; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia
2016-01-01
The cellular and molecular mechanisms behind the process of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization are complex, and molecular data from aortic plaques are difficult to interpret. Biological network models may overcome these difficulties and precisely quantify the molecular mechanisms impacted during disease progression. The atherosclerosis plaque destabilization biological network model was constructed with the semiautomated curation pipeline, BELIEF. Cellular and molecular mechanisms promoting plaque destabilization or rupture were captured in the network model. Public transcriptomic data sets were used to demonstrate the specificity of the network model and to capture the different mechanisms that were impacted in ApoE -/- mouse aorta at 6 and 32 weeks. We concluded that network models combined with the network perturbation amplitude algorithm provide a sensitive, quantitative method to follow disease progression at the molecular level. This approach can be used to investigate and quantify molecular mechanisms during plaque progression.
Effective modelling of acoustofluidic devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld
, and 3) acoustic streaming patterns in the devices considered in model 2). 1) We derive an effective model for numerical studies of hydrodynamic particle-particle interactions in microfluidic high-concentration suspensions. A suspension of microparticles placed in a microfluidic channel and influenced...... and travelling waves as well as absorption. We model the connective tubing at the outlets, either as being free reflecting surfaces or perfect absorbers of outgoing acoustic waves, and we make an effective description of the mechanical actuation of the attached piezoelectric transducer. 3) Using the model...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kundu Antara
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with an economic order quantity (EOQ model of an inventory problem with alternating demand rate: (i For a certain period, the demand rate is a non linear function of the instantaneous inventory level. (ii For the rest of the cycle, the demand rate is time dependent. The time at which demand rate changes, may be deterministic or uncertain. The deterioration rate of the item is time dependent. The holding cost and shortage cost are taken as a linear function of time. The total cost function per unit time is obtained. Finally, the model is solved using a gradient based non-linear optimization technique (LINGO and is illustrated by a numerical example.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verdonk, M.; Vollebergh, H.
2012-11-15
A set-aside of CO2 allowances would reduce the current oversupply in the European Emissions Trading System (ETS). This would result in temporary higher CO2 prices. However, a literature study has shown that the impact of the European Commission's proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. However, the proposal sends out a signal to investors that the functioning of the ETS is a priority for politicians, and increases the likelihood of further reforms. Any negative impact of back loading on ETS companies in the Netherlands is likely to be limited.
76 FR 5733 - Clothing Allowance
2011-02-02
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN64 Clothing Allowance AGENCY: Department... to amend its adjudication regulations regarding clothing allowances. The amendment would provide for annual clothing allowances for each qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance worn or used by a...
Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; De Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Da Silva, Ronaldo Celerino; Kamada, Anselmo Jiro; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Coelho, Hemílio Fernandes Campos; Crovella, Sergio
2015-01-01
Here we review the prevalence of HIV-1 primary drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean using meta-analysis as well as time-series modeling. We also discuss whether there could be a drawback to HIV/AIDS programs due to drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean in the next years. We observed that, although some studies report low or moderate primary drug resistance prevalence in Caribbean countries, this evidence needs to be updated. In other countries, such as Brazil and Argentina, the prevalence of drug resistance appears to be rising. Mutations conferring resistance against reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most frequent in the analyzed populations (70% of all mutational events). HIV-1 subtype B was the most prevalent in Latin America and the Caribbean, although subtype C and B/F recombinants have significant contributions in Argentina and Brazil. Thus, we suggest that primary drug resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean could have been underestimated. Clinical monitoring should be improved to offer better therapy, reducing the risk for HIV-1 resistance emergence and spread, principally in vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men transmission group, sex workers and intravenous drug users.
Synergistic effects in threshold models on networks
Juul, Jonas S.; Porter, Mason A.
2018-01-01
Network structure can have a significant impact on the propagation of diseases, memes, and information on social networks. Different types of spreading processes (and other dynamical processes) are affected by network architecture in different ways, and it is important to develop tractable models of spreading processes on networks to explore such issues. In this paper, we incorporate the idea of synergy into a two-state ("active" or "passive") threshold model of social influence on networks. Our model's update rule is deterministic, and the influence of each meme-carrying (i.e., active) neighbor can—depending on a parameter—either be enhanced or inhibited by an amount that depends on the number of active neighbors of a node. Such a synergistic system models social behavior in which the willingness to adopt either accelerates or saturates in a way that depends on the number of neighbors who have adopted that behavior. We illustrate that our model's synergy parameter has a crucial effect on system dynamics, as it determines whether degree-k nodes are possible or impossible to activate. We simulate synergistic meme spreading on both random-graph models and networks constructed from empirical data. Using a heterogeneous mean-field approximation, which we derive under the assumption that a network is locally tree-like, we are able to determine which synergy-parameter values allow degree-k nodes to be activated for many networks and for a broad family of synergistic models.
Modeling quantization effects in field effect transistors
Troger, C
2001-01-01
Numerical simulation in the field of semiconductor device development advanced to a valuable, cost-effective and flexible facility. The most widely used simulators are based on classical models, as they need to satisfy time and memory constraints. To improve the performance of field effect transistors such as MOSFETs and HEMTs these devices are continuously scaled down in their dimensions. Consequently the characteristics of such devices are getting more and more determined by quantum mechanical effects arising from strong transversal fields in the channel. In this work an approach based on a two-dimensional electron gas is used to describe the confinement of the carriers. Quantization is considered in one direction only. For the derivation of a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in the effective mass framework a non-parabolic correction for the energy dispersion due to Kane is included. For each subband a non-parabolic dispersion relation characterized by subband masses and subband non-parabolicity coeffi...
Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.
2007-01-01
Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed
Behavioral effects in room evacuation models
Dossetti, V.; Bouzat, S.; Kuperman, M. N.
2017-08-01
In this work we study a model for the evacuation of pedestrians from an enclosure considering a continuous space substrate and discrete time. We analyze the influence of behavioral features that affect the use of the empty space, that can be linked to the attitudes or characters of the pedestrians. We study how the interaction of different behavioral profiles affects the needed time to evacuate completely a room and the occurrence of clogging. We find that neither fully egotistic nor fully cooperative attitudes are optimal from the point of view of the crowd. In contrast, intermediate behaviors provide lower evacuation times. This leads us to identify some phenomena closely analogous to the faster-is-slower effect. The proposed model allows for distinguishing between the role of the attitudes in the search for empty space and the attitudes in the conflicts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zahra H. Mohammad
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Sanitizer neutralizers can assist foodborne pathogen detection during routine testing by counteracting sanitizer residues carried over into fluids collected and tested from food samples. This study tested sanitizer-matched neutralizers applied at increasing concentrations to facilitate Salmonella enterica survival following exposure to cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC or peracetic acid (PAA, identifying minimum required concentrations of neutralizers to facilitate pathogen survival. Salmonella isolates were individually inoculated into a non-selective medium followed immediately by CPC (0.1 to 0.8% v/v or PAA (0.0125 to 0.2% v/v application, followed by neutralizers application. CPC was neutralized by lecithin and polysorbate 80, each supplemented into buffered peptone water (BPW at 0.125 to 2.0X its respective content in Dey-Engley (D/E neutralizing buffer. PAA was neutralized in BPW supplemented with disodium phosphate, potassium monophosphate, and sodium thiosulfate, each at 0.25 to 3.0X its respective concentration in BPW (phosphates or D/E buffer (thiosulfate. Addition of neutralizers at 1X their respective concentrations in D/E buffer was required to allow Salmonella growth at the maximum CPC concentration (0.8%, while 2X neutralizer addition was required for Salmonella growth at the maximum PAA level (0.2%. Sanitizer neutralizers can assist pathogen survival and detection during routine food product testing.
Effective field theory and the quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc; Jaczko, Gregory
2001-01-01
We analyze the connections between the quark model (QM) and the description of hadrons in the low-momentum limit of heavy-baryon effective field theory in QCD. By using a three-flavor-index representation for the effective baryon fields, we show that the 'nonrelativistic' constituent QM for baryon masses and moments is completely equivalent through O(m s ) to a parametrization of the relativistic field theory in a general spin-flavor basis. The flavor and spin variables can be identified with those of effective valence quarks. Conversely, the spin-flavor description clarifies the structure and dynamical interpretation of the chiral expansion in effective field theory, and provides a direct connection between the field theory and the semirelativistic models for hadrons used in successful dynamical calculations. This allows dynamical information to be incorporated directly into the chiral expansion. We find, for example, that the striking success of the additive QM for baryon magnetic moments is a consequence of the relative smallness of the non-additive spin-dependent corrections
Laporta, J; Astessiano, A L; López-Mazz, C; Soca, P; Espasandin, A C; Carriquiry, M
2014-07-01
Our objective was to evaluate the metabolic, endocrine and hepatic mRNA profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle in purebred (PU: Angus and Hereford) and crossbred (CR: reciprocal F1 crosses) mutliparous beef cows (n=32), grazing on two herbage allowances of native pastures (2.5 v. 4 kg dry matter/kg BW; LO v. HI) and their associations with cow's productive performance (calf birth weight, milk production and commencement of luteal activity). Cow BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected monthly, starting at -165 days relative to calving (days), and every 2 weeks after calving until +60 days of lactation. Liver biopsies were collected at -165, -75, -45, -15±10, and +15 and +60±3 days. Metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles, and calf birth weight, milk yield and postpartum commencement of luteal activity were evaluated. Overall, the most pronounced changes in metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression occurred during winter gestation (-165 to -45 days), when all cows experienced the onset of a negative energy balance (decreased BCS, glucose and insulin, and increased non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, Pcows. However, serum IGF-I concentrations and hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF1 mRNA decreased (Pcows. Although IGF-I concentrations decreased (Pcows, the typical molecular mechanism that control the uncoupling of the growth hormone-IGF1 axis during the transition period of the dairy cattle (reduced hepatic GHR1A and IGF-I mRNA) was not observed in this study. The hepatic mRNA expression of key transcripts involved in gluconeogenesis and fatty-acid oxidation were upregulated (Pcow groups). Particularly, acyl-CoA oxidase-1 mRNA was greater for CR than for PU cows during winter gestation (-75 and -45 days), and fibroblast growth factor-21 mRNA was downregulated (Pcows during the transition (-15 v. 15 days) and lactation period (+15 to +60 days, Pcows (Pcows were able to adapt more efficiently to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madhusmita Panda
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the level of progesterone (P4 in different quality of buffalo cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs and further to evaluate the effect of exogenous P4 supplementation on maturation and subsequent developmental ability of poor quality brilliant cresyl blue (BCB- COCs. Methods: Progesterone secreted by different quality of buffalo oocytes was estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and the concentration differences were translated into P4 doses to be incorporated in the maturation medium of BCB-ve COCs followed by expression analysis of genes involved in the cumulus expansion, extracellular matrix disintegration and progesterone receptor signalling. In addition, the study also evaluated the effect of exogenous P4 on sperm-cumulus interaction. Results: More than 10-fold upregulated expression of progesterone receptor in P4 supplemented oocytes signified that P4 might be acting predominantly through this receptor. Also, exogenous P4 supplementation had significant effect on transcatheter arterial chemoembolization protease regulated by P4- progesterone receptor pathway which in turn had an important role in extracellular matrix disintegration. On the contrary, cumulus expansion genes HAS2, TNFAIP6, AREG were not altered upon P4 supplementation. Also, it was observed that P4 addition did facilitate passage of significantly more number of spermatozoa through P4 treated cumulus cells. Further, incorporation of different doses of P4 did not improve significantly the cleavage and blastocyst rates of BCB-ve COCs. Conclusions: Different qualities of buffalo COCs secrete substantially diverse levels of P4, and its supplementation has a role in oocyte maturation via modulation of cumulus characteristics but perhaps not fertilization.
Mathematical model for gyroscope effects
Usubamatov, Ryspek
2015-05-01
Gyroscope effects are used in many engineering calculations of rotating parts, and a gyroscope is the basic unit of numerous devices and instruments used in aviation, space, marine and other industries. The primary attribute of a gyroscope is a spinning rotor that persists in maintaining its plane of rotation, creating gyroscope effects. Numerous publications represent the gyroscope theory using mathematical models based on the law of kinetic energy conservation and the rate of change in angular momentum of a spinning rotor. Gyroscope theory still attracts many researchers who continue to discover new properties of gyroscopic devices. In reality, gyroscope effects are more complex and known mathematical models do not accurately reflect the actual motions. Analysis of forces acting on a gyroscope shows that four dynamic components act simultaneously: the centrifugal, inertial and Coriolis forces and the rate of change in angular momentum of the spinning rotor. The spinning rotor generates a rotating plane of centrifugal and Coriols forces that resist the twisting of the spinning rotor with external torque applied. The forced inclination of the spinning rotor generates inertial forces, resulting in precession torque of a gyroscope. The rate of change of the angular momentum creates resisting and precession torques which are not primary one in gyroscope effects. The new mathematical model for the gyroscope motions under the action of the external torque applied can be as base for new gyroscope theory. At the request of the author of the paper, this corrigendum was issued on 24 May 2016 to correct an incomplete Table 1 and errors in Eq. (47) and Eq. (48).
Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares
Fok, Dennis; Paap, Richard; Franses, Philip Hans
2003-01-01
textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model. In this paper we put forward a representation of the attraction model, which allows for explicitly disentangling long-run from short-run effects. Our model also contains a second level, in which th...
76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance
2011-11-16
...), Compensation Service, Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW... limited knee movement when walking'' which causes shoes to wear out faster. VA makes no change based on... that multiple appliances might allow the award of multiple benefits.'' That decision provides no basis...
On the Methods for Calculating Annual Allowable Cut
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. А. Sokolov
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Crisis in supplying regions and the country related to available forest resources and low profitability of forest sector, as a whole, is an indicator of failure of the existing model of forest management and forest use organization in Russia at the present time. Many Russian regions, which are traditionally considered as forest industrial territories, face the challenge of lack of economically accessible forests. The forests are decreasing against a background of under exploitation of the annual allowable cut. This situation occurs in Siberia as well. In many cases, using calculated allowable cut will result in unsustainable harvest levels and a future decrease of accessible forest resources. Thus, the statement that «a volume of wood resource utilization is determined by allowable cut represented the scientifically grounded norm of sustainable forest use» is considered as no more than the declarative proposition. Modeling the normal forest, and using a formula of allowable cut calculation estimated for some decades based on the modeling, is totally unreliable and unreal. The long-term forecast should use analog methods, but it will hardly be sufficiently accurate and adequate to set norms. In order to estimate ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources, an algorithm was made, and a method and model were developed. This model is based on GIS-database and makes it possible to estimate accessibility of forest resources and to map it as well. The conclusion on necessity to determine annual allowable cut in two varieties was drawn following the procedures for calculating annual allowable cut. The first variety is silvicultural (according the currently used methods and the other one is economically accessible allowable cut, which could provide economic effective use of tradable mature wood, taking in to account ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources.
Sea-Level Allowances along the World Coastlines
Vandewal, R.; Tsitsikas, C.; Reerink, T.; Slangen, A.; de Winter, R.; Muis, S.; Hunter, J. R.
2017-12-01
Sea level changes as a result of climate change. For projections we take ocean mass changes and volume changes into account. Including gravitational and rotational fingerprints this provide regional sea level changes. Hence we can calculate sea-level rise patterns based on CMIP5 projections. In order to take the variability around the mean state, which follows from the climate models, into account we use the concept of allowances. The allowance indicates the height a coastal structure needs to be increased to maintain the likelihood of sea-level extremes. Here we use a global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels based on a global hydrodynamic model in order to calculate allowances. It is shown that the model compares in most regions favourably with tide gauge records from the GESLA data set. Combining the CMIP5 projections and the global hydrodynamical model we calculate sea-level allowances along the global coastlines and expand the number of points with a factor 50 relative to tide gauge based results. Results show that allowances increase gradually along continental margins with largest values near the equator. In general values are lower at midlatitudes both in Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Increased risk for extremes are typically 103-104 for the majority of the coastline under the RCP8.5 scenario at the end of the century. Finally we will show preliminary results of the effect of changing wave heights based on the coordinated ocean wave project.
Bilgi, Vineeta; Fosu-Nyarko, John; Jones, Michael G. K.
2017-01-01
RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective tool to study gene function. For in vitro studies of RNAi in insects, microinjection of double-stranded (ds)RNA may cause stress. Non-persuasive oral delivery of dsRNA to trigger RNAi is a better mode of delivery for delicate insects such as aphids because it mimics natural feeding. However, when insects feed ad libitum, some individuals may not feed. For accurate measurement of gene knockdown, analysis should only include insects that have ingested dsRNA. The suitability of eleven dyes was assessed to trace ingestion of dsRNA in an artificial feeding system for green peach aphids (GPA, Myzus persicae). Non-toxic levels of neutral red and acridine orange were suitable tracers: they were visible in the stylet and gut after feeding for 24 h, and may also attract aphids to feed. Nymphs stained with neutral red (0.02%) were analysed for target gene expression after feeding on sucrose with dsRNA (V-ATPase, vha-8). There was a greater reduction in vha-8 expression and reproduction compared to nymphs fed the diet without dye. The results confirm the importance of identifying aphids that have ingested dsRNA, and also provide evidence that the vha-8 gene is a potential target for control of GPAs. PMID:28054949
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vineeta Bilgi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is an effective tool to study gene function. For in vitro studies of RNAi in insects, microinjection of double-stranded (dsRNA may cause stress. Non-persuasive oral delivery of dsRNA to trigger RNAi is a better mode of delivery for delicate insects such as aphids because it mimics natural feeding. However, when insects feed ad libitum, some individuals may not feed. For accurate measurement of gene knockdown, analysis should only include insects that have ingested dsRNA. The suitability of eleven dyes was assessed to trace ingestion of dsRNA in an artificial feeding system for green peach aphids (GPA, Myzus persicae. Non-toxic levels of neutral red and acridine orange were suitable tracers: they were visible in the stylet and gut after feeding for 24 h, and may also attract aphids to feed. Nymphs stained with neutral red (0.02% were analysed for target gene expression after feeding on sucrose with dsRNA (V-ATPase, vha-8. There was a greater reduction in vha-8 expression and reproduction compared to nymphs fed the diet without dye. The results confirm the importance of identifying aphids that have ingested dsRNA, and also provide evidence that the vha-8 gene is a potential target for control of GPAs.
Comparison of potential models through heavy quark effective theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amundson, J.F.
1995-01-01
I calculate heavy-light decay constants in a nonrelativistic potential model. The resulting estimate of heavy quark symmetry breaking conflicts with similar estimates from lattice QCD. I show that a semirelativistic potential model eliminates the conflict. Using the results of heavy quark effective theory allows me to identify and compensate for shortcomings in the model calculations in addition to isolating the source of the differences in the two models. The results lead to a rule as to where the nonrelativistic quark model gives misleading predictions
Schmitz, Rolf; Schnabel, Karina; von Soosten, Dirk; Meyer, Ulrich; Spiekers, Hubert; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven
2018-04-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different energy supplies from roughage and concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency during early lactation. For this purpose an experiment was conducted containing 64 pluriparous German Holstein cows from 3 weeks prepartum until 16 weeks postpartum. During dry period all cows received an equal dry cow ration. After calving, cows were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of four groups, receiving either a moderate (MR, 6.0 MJ NE L ) or a high (HR, 6.4 MJ NE L ) energy concentration in roughage and furthermore moderate (MC, 150 g/kg energy-corrected milk (ECM)) or high amounts of concentrates (HC, 250 g/kg ECM) on dry matter (DM) basis, which were allocated from an automatic feeding system. Higher allocation of concentrates resulted in an increase of DM intake at expense of roughage intake. HC cows had a higher milk yield than MC cows, whereas ECM was higher in HR cows due to a decrease of milk fat yield in MR groups. Energy balance and body condition score were elevated in HC cows, but no differences occurred in development of subclinical ketosis. Furthermore, energy efficiency variables were lower in HC groups because the greater energy intake was not associated with a considerable elevation of milk yield. Consistency of faeces did not indicate digestive disorders in any of the treatment groups although the faecal manure score was significantly lower in HR groups. Our results underline the importance of a high energy uptake from roughage, which can contribute to an adequate performance and beneficial efficiency, especially at lower amounts of concentrates in ration. Feeding concentrates on an average amount of 9.4 kg/d compared to 6.4 kg/d on DM basis improved the energy balance in our trial, but without consequences for metabolic blood variables and general health of the cows.
Oliviero, Claudio; Ollila, Anna; Andersson, Magnus; Heinonen, Mari; Voutila, Liisa; Serenius, Timo; Peltoniemi, Olli
2016-02-01
Boar stations raise only entire male pigs for selection as reproductive boars, but the majority of them will fail the selection process, ending at slaughter with a high risk of boar tainted meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of Improvac given to 16-week old boars had a negative effect on their subsequent sperm numbers and motility in 16 artificial insemination boars. We also aimed to generate more knowledge on incidence of boar taint at slaughter among Finnish pigs, compare production performances as average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass and meat quality (lean meat percentage, back fat, pH, color, androstenone, and skatole) of immunocastrated boars (n = 248) with those of entire boars (n = 268). Moreover, we aimed also to explore whether a fat biopsy taken at 16 weeks of age could already reveal the presence of boar taint compounds and be predictive of boar taint development at slaughter age. We found that 32% of entire boars (Figen Landrace, Figen Large White, and their crossbreed) slaughtered at an age of 25 weeks presented levels of androstenone and/or skatole above the threshold for boar taint in their meat. These boars (control) had higher androstenone and skatole levels in the back fat samples at slaughter (0.77 ± 0.55 and 0.09 ± 0.06 μg/g, respectively, mean ± standard deviation) than those in the immuno group (0.20 ± 0.25 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μg/g, respectively, P artificial insemination. We found no difference in the levels of testosterone, anti-GnRH antibodies titers, testicle morphology, and sperm numbers and motility between the boars vaccinated once, at 16 weeks of age, with anti-GnRH vaccine and the control boars (no vaccination). There were no differences in average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, and back fat between the immunocastrated boars and entire boars. Meat from immunocastrated boars had a higher pH and better color than meat from entire boars (P meat quality
Forecasting the market for SO2 emission allowances under uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanson, D.; Molburg, J.; Fisher, R.; Boyd, G.; Pandola, G.; Lurie, G.; Taxon, T.
1991-01-01
This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO 2 emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), which are briefly reviewed here, provide for about twice as many SO 2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral, or potential speculators in the allowance market, are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by utilities that are risk averse. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO 2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions. 1 fig
International carbon trade with constrained allowance choices
Yu, S.; Weikard, H.P.; Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.
2017-01-01
International carbon markets are advocated in order to involve more countries in an agreement for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce the costs of mitigation. In this paper we develop a model where allowances are endogenously determined by each member of a carbon trade
Chilibroste, P.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, van J.; Togt, van der P.L.
1998-01-01
The effect of length of the allowed grazing time (Experiment 1), length of starvation time and placement in the rumen of inert bulk material before grazing (Experiment 2) on liquid and particulate rumen pool sizes, composition and fermentability was investigated. In Experiment 1, four lengths of
A mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression model.
Hedeker, Donald
2003-05-15
A mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression model is described for analysis of clustered or longitudinal nominal or ordinal response data. The model is parameterized to allow flexibility in the choice of contrasts used to represent comparisons across the response categories. Estimation is achieved using a maximum marginal likelihood (MML) solution that uses quadrature to numerically integrate over the distribution of random effects. An analysis of a psychiatric data set, in which homeless adults with serious mental illness are repeatedly classified in terms of their living arrangement, is used to illustrate features of the model. Copyright 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Modelling the effects of road traffic safety measures.
Lu, Meng
2006-05-01
A model is presented for assessing the effects of traffic safety measures, based on a breakdown of the process in underlying components of traffic safety (risk and consequence), and five (speed and conflict related) variables that influence these components, and are influenced by traffic safety measures. The relationships between measures, variables and components are modelled as coefficients. The focus is on probabilities rather than historical statistics, although in practice statistics may be needed to find values for the coefficients. The model may in general contribute to improve insight in the mechanisms between traffic safety measures and their safety effects. More specifically it allows comparative analysis of different types of measures by defining an effectiveness index, based on the coefficients. This index can be used to estimate absolute effects of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) related measures from absolute effects of substitutional (in terms of safety effects) infrastructure measures.
Requirements for effective modelling strategies.
Gaunt, J.L.; Riley, J.; Stein, A.; Penning de Vries, F.W.T.
1997-01-01
As the result of a recent BBSRC-funded workshop between soil scientists, modellers, statisticians and others to discuss issues relating to the derivation of complex environmental models, a set of modelling guidelines is presented and the required associated research areas are discussed.
The anchor integration model: A descriptive model of anchoring effects.
Turner, Brandon M; Schley, Dan R
2016-11-01
Few experimental effects in the psychology of judgment and decision making have been studied as meticulously as the anchoring effect. Although the existing literature provides considerable insight into the psychological processes underlying anchoring effects, extant theories up to this point have only generated qualitative predictions. While these theories have been productive in advancing our understanding of the underlying anchoring process, they leave much to be desired in the interpretation of specific anchoring effects. In this article, we introduce the Anchor Integration Model (AIM) as a descriptive tool for the measurement and quantification of anchoring effects. We develop two versions the model: one suitable for assessing between-participant anchoring effects, and another for assessing individual differences in anchoring effects. We then fit each model to data from two experiments, and demonstrate the model's utility in describing anchoring effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Svaiter, N.F.
2005-01-01
In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy
Nuclear EMC effect in non-extensive statistical model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trevisan, Luis A. [Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84010-790, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Mirez, Carlos [ICET, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri - UFVJM, Campus do Mucuri, Rua do Cruzeiro 01, Jardim Sao Paulo, 39803-371, Teofilo Otoni, MG (Brazil)
2013-05-06
In the present work, we attempt to describe the nuclear EMC effect by using the proton structure functions obtained from the non-extensive statistical quark model. We record that such model has three fundamental variables, the temperature T, the radius, and the Tsallis parameter q. By combining different small changes, a good agreement with the experimental data may be obtained. Another interesting point of the model is to allow phenomenological interpretation, for instance, with q constant and changing the radius and the temperature or changing the radius and q and keeping the temperature.
The differential susceptibility to media effects model
Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.
2013-01-01
In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It
Model instruments of effective segmentation of the fast food market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mityaeva Tetyana L.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The article presents results of optimisation step-type calculations of economic effectiveness of promotion of fast food with consideration of key parameters of assessment of efficiency of the marketing strategy of segmentation. The article justifies development of a mathematical model on the bases of 3D-presentations and three-dimensional system of management variables. The modern applied mathematical packages allow formation not only of one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays and analyse links of variables, but also of three-dimensional, besides, the more links and parameters are taken into account, the more adequate and adaptive are results of modelling and, as a result, more informative and strategically valuable. The article shows modelling possibilities that allow taking into account strategies and reactions on formation of the marketing strategy under conditions of entering the fast food market segments.
Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost allowing late arrival
Leng, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Lin
2017-05-01
In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the total trip cost allowing late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has great effects on each commuter's trip cost and the total trip costs and that these effects are dependent on each commuter's time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent impacts on the minimum value of total trip cost under each commuter's different time headway at the origin.
Modeling free convective gravitational effects in chemical vapor deposition
Stinespring, C. D.; Annen, K. D.
1987-01-01
In this paper, a combined fluid-mechanics, mass-transport, and chemistry model describing CVD in an open-tube atmospheric-pressure flow reactor is developed. The model allows gas-phase reactions to proceed to equilibrium and accounts for finite reaction rates at the surface of the deposition substrate. This model is a useful intermediate step toward a model employing fully rate-limited chemistry. The model is used to predict the effects of free convection on flow patterns, temperature and species-concentration profiles, and local deposition rates for silicon deposited by silane pyrolysis. These results are discussed in terms of implications for CVD of silicon and other compounds, microgravity studies, and techniques for testing and validating the model.
Bilinear Mixed Effects Models for Dyadic Data
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hoff, Peter D
2003-01-01
.... Such an effect, along with standard linear fixed and random effects, is incorporated into a generalized linear model, and a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is provided for Bayesian estimation and inference...
Modeling of Pressure Effects in HVDC Cables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Strøbech, Esben
1999-01-01
A model is developed for the prediction of pressure effects in HVDC mass impregnatedcables as a result of temperature changes.To test the model assumptions, experiments were performed in cable like geometries.It is concluded that the model may predict the formation of gas cavities....
Goetz, Benjamin; An, Wei; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Zutshi, Neha; Iseka, Fany; Storck, Matthew D; Meza, Jane; Sheinin, Yuri; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid
2016-08-09
CBL-family ubiquitin ligases are critical negative regulators of tyrosine kinase signaling, with a clear redundancy between CBL and CBL-B evident in the immune cell and hematopoietic stem cell studies. Since CBL and CBL-B are negative regulators of immune cell activation, elimination of their function to boost immune cell activities could be beneficial in tumor immunotherapy. However, mutations of CBL are associated with human leukemias, pointing to tumor suppressor roles of CBL proteins; hence, it is critical to assess the tumor-intrinsic roles of CBL and CBL-B in cancers. This has not been possible since the only available whole-body CBL-B knockout mice exhibit constitutive tumor rejection. We engineered a new CBL-Bflox/flox mouse, combined this with an existing CBLflox/flox mouse to generate CBLflox/flox; CBL-Bflox/flox mice, and tested the tissue-specific concurrent deletion of CBL and CBL-B using the widely-used CD4-Cre transgenic allele to produce a T-cell-specific double knockout. Altered T-cell development, constitutive peripheral T-cell activation, and a lethal multi-organ immune infiltration phenotype largely resembling the previous Lck-Cre driven floxed-CBL deletion on a CBL-B knockout background establish the usefulness of the new model for tissue-specific CBL/CBL-B deletion. Unexpectedly, CD4-Cre-induced deletion in a small fraction of hematopoietic stem cells led to expansion of certain non-T-cell lineages, suggesting caution in the use of CD4-Cre for T-cell-restricted gene deletion. The establishment of a new model of concurrent tissue-selective CBL/CBL-B deletion should allow a clear assessment of the tumor-intrinsic roles of CBL/CBL-B in non-myeloid malignancies and help test the potential for CBL/CBL-B inactivation in immunotherapy of tumors.
Wall modeled LES of wind turbine wakes with geometrical effects
Bricteux, Laurent; Benard, Pierre; Zeoli, Stephanie; Moureau, Vincent; Lartigue, Ghislain; Vire, Axelle
2017-11-01
This study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes when geometrical effects such as nacelle, tower, and built environment, are taken into account. The aim is to demonstrate the ability of a high order unstructured solver called YALES2 to perform wall modeled LES of wind turbine wake turbulence. The wind turbine rotor is modeled using an Actuator Line Model (ALM) while the geometrical details are explicitly meshed thanks to the use of an unstructured grid. As high Reynolds number flows are considered, sub-grid scale models as well as wall modeling are required. The first test case investigated concerns a wind turbine flow located in a wind tunnel that allows to validate the proposed methodology using experimental data. The second test case concerns the simulation of a wind turbine wake in a complex environment (e.g. a Building) using realistic turbulent inflow conditions.
Degradation modeling with application to aging and maintenance effectiveness evaluations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.; Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M.
1991-01-01
This paper describes a modeling approach to analyze light water reactor component degradation and failure data to understand the aging process of components. As used here, degradation modeling is the analysis of information on component degradation in order to develop models of the process and its implications. This particular modeling focuses on the analysis of the times of component degradations, to model how the rate of degradation changes with the age of the component. The methodology presented also discusses the effectiveness of maintenance as applicable to aging evaluations. The specific applications which are performed show quantitative models of component degradation rates and component failure rates from plant-specific data. The statistical techniques which are developed and applied allow aging trends to be effectively identified in the degradation data, and in the failure data. Initial estimates of the effectiveness of maintenance in limiting degradations from becoming failures also are developed. These results are important first steps in degradation modeling, and show that degradation can be modeled to identify aging trends
Degradation modeling with application to aging and maintenance effectiveness evaluations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samanta, P.K.; Hsu, F.; Subduhi, M.; Vesely, W.E.
1990-01-01
This paper describes a modeling approach to analyze component degradation and failure data to understand the aging process of components. As used here, degradation modeling is the analysis of information on component degradation in order to develop models of the process and its implications. This particular modeling focuses on the analysis of the times of component degradations, to model how the rate of degradation changes with the age of the component. The methodology presented also discusses the effectiveness of maintenance as applicable to aging evaluations. The specific applications which are performed show quantitative models of component degradation rates and component failure rates from plant-specific data. The statistical techniques which are developed and applied allow aging trends to be effectively identified in the degradation data, and in the failure data. Initial estimates of the effectiveness of maintenance in limiting degradations from becoming failures also are developed. These results are important first steps in degradation modeling, and show that degradation can be modeled to identify aging trends. 2 refs., 8 figs
Standard Model Effective Potential from Trace Anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renata Jora
2018-01-01
Full Text Available By analogy with the low energy QCD effective linear sigma model, we construct a standard model effective potential based entirely on the requirement that the tree level and quantum level trace anomalies must be satisfied. We discuss a particular realization of this potential in connection with the Higgs boson mass and Higgs boson effective couplings to two photons and two gluons. We find that this kind of potential may describe well the known phenomenology of the Higgs boson.
"Home Made" Model to Study the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
Onorato, P.; Mascheretti, P.; DeAmbrosis, A.
2011-01-01
In this paper a simplified two-parameter model of the greenhouse effect on the Earth is developed, starting from the well known two-layer model. It allows both the analysis of the temperatures of the inner planets, by focusing on the role of the greenhouse effect, and a comparison between the temperatures the planets should have in the absence of…
The US SO2 allowance trading program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellerman, A.D.
2001-01-01
The US SO 2 Allowance Trading Program is the world's first large-scale application of a cap-and-trade mechanism for limiting emissions, and it is often cited as an example for the control of other pollutants and of greenhouse gases. Drawing upon experience with this novel approach to omissions control since 1995, this article makes five observations that address common misunderstandings about emissions trading and that are applicable to the control of greenhouse gases. First, emissions trading did not compromise environmental effectiveness, and even enhanced it. Second, the program works because of the simplicity of the compliance requirement, the unavoidably strict accountability of the system, and the complete flexibility given to emitting sources. All three go together to form what may be regarded as a virtuous circle. Third, despite fears to the contrary, allowance markets developed in response to trading opportunities. Fourth, the politics of allowance allocation can be helpful in overcoming objections to emission control measures. Finally, provisions for voluntary accession present problems of moral hazard that must be carefully considered. (author)
Modelling the effect of land use change on hydrological model ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Conceptual rainfall–runoff models have become a basic tool for evaluating effects of land use/cover changes on the hydrologic processes in small-scale as well as large watersheds. The runoff-producing mechanism is influenced by land use/cover changes. In this study, we analysed the effect of land use change on ...
Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media
Waheed, Umair bin
2014-05-01
Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.
Effect Displays in R for Generalised Linear Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Fox
2003-07-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation in R of a method for tabular or graphical display of terms in a complex generalised linear model. By complex, I mean a model that contains terms related by marginality or hierarchy, such as polynomial terms, or main effects and interactions. I call these tables or graphs effect displays. Effect displays are constructed by identifying high-order terms in a generalised linear model. Fitted values under the model are computed for each such term. The lower-order "relatives" of a high-order term (e.g., main effects marginal to an interaction are absorbed into the term, allowing the predictors appearing in the high-order term to range over their values. The values of other predictors are fixed at typical values: for example, a covariate could be fixed at its mean or median, a factor at its proportional distribution in the data, or to equal proportions in its several levels. Variations of effect displays are also described, including representation of terms higher-order to any appearing in the model.
Evaluation of radiobiological effects in 3 distinct biological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, J.; Costa, P.; Cunha, L.; Metello, L.F.; Carvalho, A.P.; Vasconcelos, V.; Genesio, P.; Ponte, F.; Costa, P.S.; Crespo, P.
2015-01-01
Full text of publication follows. The present work aims at sharing the process of development of advanced biological models to study radiobiological effects. Recognizing several known limitations and difficulties of the current monolayer cellular models, as well as the increasing difficulties to use advanced biological models, our group has been developing advanced biological alternative models, namely three-dimensional cell cultures and a less explored animal model (the Zebra fish - Danio rerio - which allows the access to inter-generational data, while characterized by a great genetic homology towards the humans). These 3 models (monolayer cellular model, three-dimensional cell cultures and zebra fish) were externally irradiated with 100 mGy, 500 mGy or 1 Gy. The consequences of that irradiation were studied using cellular and molecular tests. Our previous experimental studies with 100 mGy external gamma irradiation of HepG2 monolayer cells showed a slight increase in the proliferation rate 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post irradiation. These results also pointed into the presence of certain bystander effects 72 h post irradiation, constituting the starting point for the need of a more accurate analysis realized with this work. At this stage, we continue focused on the acute biological effects. Obtained results, namely MTT and clonogenic assays for evaluating cellular metabolic activity and proliferation in the in vitro models, as well as proteomics for the evaluation of in vivo effects will be presented, discussed and explained. Several hypotheses will be presented and defended based on the facts previously demonstrated. This work aims at sharing the actual state and the results already available from this medium-term project, building the proof of the added value on applying these advanced models, while demonstrating the strongest and weakest points from all of them (so allowing the comparison between them and to base the subsequent choice for research groups starting
38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except... therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38 U.S.C. 1162. The annual clothing allowance is...
45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of...
34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title IV...
45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs...
2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.
2010-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 215.27 Section 215.27... § 215.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...
24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable...
50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 80.15 Section 80.15... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What are allowable costs? Allowable costs are costs that are necessary and reasonable for accomplishment of approved...
49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under Federal...
46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...
46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be...
Effective operator treatment of the Lipkin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abraham, K.J.; Vary, J.P.
2004-01-01
We analyze the Lipkin model in the strong coupling limit using effective operator techniques. We present both analytical and numerical results for low energy effective Hamiltonians. We investigate the reliability of various approximations used to simplify the nuclear many body problem, such as the cluster approximation. We demonstrate, in explicit examples, certain limits to the validity of the cluster approximation but caution that these limits may be particular to this model where the interactions are of unlimited range
Modelling of Deterioration Effects on Concrete Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Teplý
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In order to predict the service life of concrete structures models for deterioration effects are needed. This paper has the form of a survey, listing and describing such analytical models, namely carbonation of concrete, ingress of chlorides, corrosion of reinforcing steel and prestressing tendons. The probabilistic approach is applied.
High precision analytical description of the allowed β spectrum shape
Hayen, Leendert; Severijns, Nathal; Bodek, Kazimierz; Rozpedzik, Dagmara; Mougeot, Xavier
2018-01-01
A fully analytical description of the allowed β spectrum shape is given in view of ongoing and planned measurements. Its study forms an invaluable tool in the search for physics beyond the standard electroweak model and the weak magnetism recoil term. Contributions stemming from finite size corrections, mass effects, and radiative corrections are reviewed. Particular focus is placed on atomic and chemical effects, where the existing description is extended and analytically provided. The effects of QCD-induced recoil terms are discussed, and cross-checks were performed for different theoretical formalisms. Special attention was given to a comparison of the treatment of nuclear structure effects in different formalisms. Corrections were derived for both Fermi and Gamow-Teller transitions, and methods of analytical evaluation thoroughly discussed. In its integrated form, calculated f values were in agreement with the most precise numerical results within the aimed for precision. The need for an accurate evaluation of weak magnetism contributions was stressed, and the possible significance of the oft-neglected induced pseudoscalar interaction was noted. Together with improved atomic corrections, an analytical description was presented of the allowed β spectrum shape accurate to a few parts in 10-4 down to 1 keV for low to medium Z nuclei, thereby extending the work by previous authors by nearly an order of magnitude.
Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian
2016-01-01
We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects...
Mixed-effects regression models in linguistics
Heylen, Kris; Geeraerts, Dirk
2018-01-01
When data consist of grouped observations or clusters, and there is a risk that measurements within the same group are not independent, group-specific random effects can be added to a regression model in order to account for such within-group associations. Regression models that contain such group-specific random effects are called mixed-effects regression models, or simply mixed models. Mixed models are a versatile tool that can handle both balanced and unbalanced datasets and that can also be applied when several layers of grouping are present in the data; these layers can either be nested or crossed. In linguistics, as in many other fields, the use of mixed models has gained ground rapidly over the last decade. This methodological evolution enables us to build more sophisticated and arguably more realistic models, but, due to its technical complexity, also introduces new challenges. This volume brings together a number of promising new evolutions in the use of mixed models in linguistics, but also addres...
Effect of policosanol on experimental thrombosis models.
Carbajal, D; Arruzazabala, M L; Más, R; Molina, V; Valdés, S
1994-05-01
Policosanol is a natural product, obtained from sugar cane wax (Saccharum officinarum L.) with which cholesterol-lowering effects have been demonstrated in experimental models, healthy volunteers and hypercholesterolemic patients. The effects of policosanol on experimental venous and arterial thrombosis in rats were investigated. Policosanol (25 mg/kg) significantly decreased the thrombus weight, in the venous thrombosis models, the protective effect persisting until 4 h after its oral administration. Policosanol (25 mg/kg single dose) was able to reduce rectal temperature variation induced by arterial thrombosis. Also at the same dose policosanol increased 6-keto-PGF1 alpha serum levels in rats.
Incorporating herd immunity effects into cohort models of vaccine cost-effectiveness.
Bauch, Chris T; Anonychuk, Andrea M; Van Effelterre, Thierry; Pham, Bá Z; Merid, Maraki Fikre
2009-01-01
Cohort models are often used in cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of vaccination. However, because they cannot capture herd immunity effects, cohort models underestimate the reduction in incidence caused by vaccination. Dynamic models capture herd immunity effects but are often not adopted in vaccine CEA. The objective was to develop a pseudo-dynamic approximation that can be incorporated into an existing cohort model to capture herd immunity effects. The authors approximated changing force of infection due to universal vaccination for a pediatric infectious disease. The projected lifetime cases in a cohort were compared under 1) a cohort model, 2) a cohort model with pseudo-dynamic approximation, and 3) an age-structured susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered compartmental (dynamic) model. The authors extended the methodology to sexually transmitted infections. For average to high values of vaccine coverage (P > 60%) and small to average values of the basic reproduction number (R(0) vaccination programs for many common infections, the pseudo-dynamic approximation significantly improved projected lifetime cases and was close to projections of the full dynamic model. For large values of R(0) (R(0) > 15), projected lifetime cases were similar under the dynamic model and the cohort model, both with and without pseudo-dynamic approximation. The approximation captures changes in the mean age at infection in the 1st vaccinated cohort. This methodology allows for preliminary assessment of herd immunity effects on CEA of universal vaccination for pediatric infectious diseases. The method requires simple adjustments to an existing cohort model and less data than a full dynamic model.
Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...
Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...
Thermal Effects Modeling Developed for Smart Structures
Lee, Ho-Jun
1998-01-01
Applying smart materials in aeropropulsion systems may improve the performance of aircraft engines through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. To facilitate the experimental characterization of these smart structures, researchers have been focusing on developing analytical models to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of these materials. One focus of current research efforts has been directed toward incorporating a comprehensive thermal analysis modeling capability. Typically, temperature affects the behavior of smart materials by three distinct mechanisms: Induction of thermal strains because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch 1. Pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric elements; 2. Temperature-dependent changes in material properties; and 3. Previous analytical models only investigated the first two thermal effects mechanisms. However, since the material properties of piezoelectric materials generally vary greatly with temperature (see the graph), incorporating temperature-dependent material properties will significantly affect the structural deflections, sensory voltages, and stresses. Thus, the current analytical model captures thermal effects arising from all three mechanisms through thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. These constitutive equations were incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of smart structures in thermal environments. Corresponding finite element equations were formulated and implemented for both the beam and plate elements to provide a comprehensive thermal effects modeling capability.
20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed in § 632.78-80 except that community service employment is not...
42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs specified...
45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in applicable...
45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for— (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors...
50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those costs... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and...
43 CFR 12.927 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.927 Section 12.927... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements... Requirements § 12.927 Allowable costs. Federal awarding agencies shall determine allowable costs in accordance...
46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses...
46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...
34 CFR 642.40 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 642.40 Section 642.40 Education...? § 642.40 Allowable costs. Allowable project costs may include the following costs reasonably related to carrying out a Training Program project: (a) Rental of space, if space is not available at a sponsoring...
34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2) Costs... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education...
Effective ellipsoidal models for wavefield extrapolation in tilted orthorhombic media
Waheed, Umair Bin
2016-04-22
Wavefield computations using the ellipsoidally anisotropic extrapolation operator offer significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for media of orthorhombic symmetry. Therefore, we propose the use of ‘effective ellipsoidally anisotropic’ models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. We compute effective velocities for the ellipsoidally anisotropic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield, obtained by solving the TOR eikonal equation. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper ellipsoidally anisotropic wave extrapolation operators. Although the effective models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The proposed methodology offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate anisotropic strength. Furthermore, the computed wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference based TOR wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate applicability and usefulness of our formulation through numerical tests on synthetic TOR models. © 2016 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i
Modeling accuracy as a function of response time with the generalized linear mixed effects model.
Davidson, D J; Martin, A E
2013-09-01
In psycholinguistic studies using error rates as a response measure, response times (RT) are most often analyzed independently of the error rate, although it is widely recognized that they are related. In this paper we present a mixed effects logistic regression model for the error rate that uses RT as a trial-level fixed- and random-effect regression input. Production data from a translation-recall experiment are analyzed as an example. Several model comparisons reveal that RT improves the fit of the regression model for the error rate. Two simulation studies then show how the mixed effects regression model can identify individual participants for whom (a) faster responses are more accurate, (b) faster responses are less accurate, or (c) there is no relation between speed and accuracy. These results show that this type of model can serve as a useful adjunct to traditional techniques, allowing psycholinguistic researchers to examine more closely the relationship between RT and accuracy in individual subjects and better account for the variability which may be present, as well as a preliminary step to more advanced RT-accuracy modeling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mental Models about Seismic Effects: Students' Profile Based Comparative Analysis
Moutinho, Sara; Moura, Rui; Vasconcelos, Clara
2016-01-01
Nowadays, meaningful learning takes a central role in science education and is based in mental models that allow the representation of the real world by individuals. Thus, it is essential to analyse the student's mental models by promoting an easier reconstruction of scientific knowledge, by allowing them to become consistent with the curricular…
ANSYS Modeling of Hydrostatic Stress Effects
Allen, Phillip A.
1999-01-01
Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic pressure has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Plasticity textbooks, from the earliest to the most modem, infer that there is no hydrostatic effect on the yielding of metals, and even modem finite element programs direct the user to assume the same. The object of this study is to use the von Mises and Drucker-Prager failure theory constitutive models in the finite element program ANSYS to see how well they model conditions of varying hydrostatic pressure. Data is presented for notched round bar (NRB) and "L" shaped tensile specimens. Similar results from finite element models in ABAQUS are shown for comparison. It is shown that when dealing with geometries having a high hydrostatic stress influence, constitutive models that have a functional dependence on hydrostatic stress are more accurate in predicting material behavior than those that are independent of hydrostatic stress.
A Hierarchical Bayes Error Correction Model to Explain Dynamic Effects of Price Changes
D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); C. Horváth (Csilla); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
2005-01-01
textabstractThe authors put forward a sales response model to explain the differences in immediate and dynamic effects of promotional prices and regular prices on sales. The model consists of a vector autoregression rewritten in error-correction format which allows to disentangle the immediate
Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamada, Souad, E-mail: souadhamada@yahoo.fr [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Louai, Fatima Zohra, E-mail: fz_louai@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Nait-Said, Nasreddine, E-mail: n_naitsaid@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Benabou, Abdelkader, E-mail: Abdelkader.Benabou@univ-lille1.fr [L2EP, Université de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)
2016-07-15
An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.
Modeling socioeconomic status effects on language development.
Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica
2013-12-01
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data set provided by Bishop (2005). To our knowledge, this is the first application of computational models of development to SES. The simulations addressed 3 new challenges: (a) to combine models of development and individual differences in a single framework, (b) to expand modeling to the population level, and (c) to implement both environmental and genetic/intrinsic sources of individual differences. The model succeeded in capturing the qualitative patterns of regularity effects in both population performance and the predictive power of SES that were observed in the empirical data. The model suggested that the empirical data are best captured by relatively wider variation in learning abilities and relatively narrow variation in (and good quality of) environmental information. There were shortcomings in the model's quantitative fit, which are discussed. The model made several novel predictions, with respect to the influence of SES on delay versus giftedness, the change of SES effects over development, and the influence of SES on children of different ability levels (gene-environment interactions). The first of these predictions was that SES should reliably predict gifted performance in children but not delayed performance, and the prediction was supported by the Bishop data set. Finally, the model demonstrated limits on the inferences that can be drawn about developmental mechanisms on the basis of data from individual differences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Modeling the dispersion effects of contractile fibers in smooth muscles
Murtada, Sae-Il; Kroon, Martin; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
2010-12-01
Micro-structurally based models for smooth muscle contraction are crucial for a better understanding of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, incontinence and asthma. It is meaningful that models consider the underlying mechanical structure and the biochemical activation. Hence, a simple mechanochemical model is proposed that includes the dispersion of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments and that is capable to capture available experimental data on smooth muscle contraction. This allows a refined study of the effects of myofilament dispersion on the smooth muscle contraction. A classical biochemical model is used to describe the cross-bridge interactions with the thin filament in smooth muscles in which calcium-dependent myosin phosphorylation is the only regulatory mechanism. A novel mechanical model considers the dispersion of the contractile fiber orientations in smooth muscle cells by means of a strain-energy function in terms of one dispersion parameter. All model parameters have a biophysical meaning and may be estimated through comparisons with experimental data. The contraction of the middle layer of a carotid artery is studied numerically. Using a tube the relationships between the internal pressure and the stretches are investigated as functions of the dispersion parameter, which implies a strong influence of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments on the contraction response. It is straightforward to implement this model in a finite element code to better analyze more complex boundary-value problems.
Modeling and Study of the Cerenkov Effect
Angelov, I; Makovicka, L; Mishev, A; Stamenov, J N
2003-01-01
The studies realized in INRNE (Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy) particulary in cosmic rays detection and construction of Muonic Cerenkov Telescope in University of Blagoevgrad [1] shows the need to develop a theoretical model based on observed phenomenon and to refine it for the detection system optimisation. The effect was introduced in EGS4 code system. The first simulations were consecrated to different geometry of water tank in total reflection. The model was compared with experimental data realised with gamma source using the telescope. A simple atmospheric model is introduced in EGS4. The comparison between CORSIKA and EGS4 codes was realised.
Mesomechanical modeling of shape memory effect
Vokoun, David; Kafka, Vratislav
1999-06-01
Shape memory alloys (SMA) are well known materials. There is a lot of technical applications making use of their unique properties. Most of the significant applications are based on use of the thermomechancial properties. Growing number of those applications causes a need for an universal mathematical model with ability to describe all thermomechancial properties of SMA by relatively simple final set of constitutive equations that could be helpful for development of further sophisticated shape memory applications. Unfortunately, a lot of attention has been paid to metallurgical research of shape memory alloys in a few last decades and less attention was dedicated to shape memory modeling. Our model does not claim to be a universal model, but only one contribution to modeling of shape memory effect for binary SMA. The model is adapted for the most applied SMA -- nitinol and is based on the hypothesis that in the course of shape memory effect the distances of first atomic neighbors (Ni-Ti) remain nearly unchanged, whereas the distances of second neighbors (Ti-Ti and Ni-Ni) change substantially. Consequently, we consider some mechanical properties of Ni-substructure and Ti- substructure separately. The mechanical behavior of Ti- substructure is modeled as elastic whereas that of Ni- substructure as elasto-plastic. The resulting relatively simple differential constitutive equations express relationship among internal stress tensors, macroscopic stress tensors, macroscopic strain tensors and temperature.
Event models and the fan effect.
Radvansky, G A; O'Rear, Andrea E; Fisher, Jerry S
2017-08-01
The current study explored the persistence of event model organizations and how this influences the experience of interference during retrieval. People in this study memorized lists of sentences about objects in locations, such as "The potted palm is in the hotel." Previous work has shown that such information can either be stored in separate event models, thereby producing retrieval interference, or integrated into common event models, thereby eliminating retrieval interference. Unlike prior studies, the current work explored the impact of forgetting up to 2 weeks later on this pattern of performance. We explored three possible outcomes across the various retention intervals. First, consistent with research showing that longer delays reduce proactive and retroactive interference, any retrieval interference effects of competing event models could be reduced over time. Second, the binding of information into events models may weaken over time, causing interference effects to emerge when they had previously been absent. Third, and finally, the organization of information into event models could remain stable over long periods of time. The results reported here are most consistent with the last outcome. While there were some minor variations across the various retention intervals, the basic pattern of event model organization remained preserved over the two-week retention period.
Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech
de Boer, B.
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between
Random effect selection in generalised linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn
We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest...
BUSINESS MODELS FOR INCREASING TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFER EFFECTIVENESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simina FULGA
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The present paper is devoted to analyze the appropriate recommendations to increase the effectiveness of technology transfer organizations (centers from ReNITT, by using the specific instruments of Business Model Canvas, associated to the technological transfer value chain for the value added services addressed to their clients and according to a continuously improved competitive strategy over competition analysis.
Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin
We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...
COMPUTER MODELLING OF ENERGY SAVING EFFECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marian JANCZAREK
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the dynamics of the heat transfer through the outer wall of the thermal technical spaces, taking into account the impact of the sinusoidal nature of the changes in atmospheric temperature. These temporal variations of the input on the outer surface of the chamber divider result at the output of the sinusoidal change on the inner wall of the room, but suitably suppressed and shifted in phase. Properly selected phase shift is clearly important for saving energy used for the operation associated with the maintenance of a specific regime of heat inside the thermal technical chamber support. Laboratory tests of the model and the actual object allowed for optimal design of the chamber due to the structure of the partition as well as due to the orientation of the geographical location of the chamber.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.
1985-07-01
Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.
1985-07-01
Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.
Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck
2005-08-30
This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of
Genomic HEXploring allows landscaping of novel potential splicing regulatory elements.
Erkelenz, Steffen; Theiss, Stephan; Otte, Marianne; Widera, Marek; Peter, Jan Otto; Schaal, Heiner
2014-01-01
Effective splice site selection is critically controlled by flanking splicing regulatory elements (SREs) that can enhance or repress splice site use. Although several computational algorithms currently identify a multitude of potential SRE motifs, their predictive power with respect to mutation effects is limited. Following a RESCUE-type approach, we defined a hexamer-based 'HEXplorer score' as average Z-score of all six hexamers overlapping with a given nucleotide in an arbitrary genomic sequence. Plotted along genomic regions, HEXplorer score profiles varied slowly in the vicinity of splice sites. They reflected the respective splice enhancing and silencing properties of splice site neighborhoods beyond the identification of single dedicated SRE motifs. In particular, HEXplorer score differences between mutant and reference sequences faithfully represented exonic mutation effects on splice site usage. Using the HIV-1 pre-mRNA as a model system highly dependent on SREs, we found an excellent correlation in 29 mutations between splicing activity and HEXplorer score. We successfully predicted and confirmed five novel SREs and optimized mutations inactivating a known silencer. The HEXplorer score allowed landscaping of splicing regulatory regions, provided a quantitative measure of mutation effects on splice enhancing and silencing properties and permitted calculation of the mutationally most effective nucleotide. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Shiyko, Mariya P; Burkhalter, Jack; Li, Runze; Park, Bernard J
2014-10-01
The goal of this article is to introduce to social and behavioral scientists the generalized time-varying effect model (TVEM), a semiparametric approach for investigating time-varying effects of a treatment. The method is best suited for data collected intensively over time (e.g., experience sampling or ecological momentary assessments) and addresses questions pertaining to effects of treatment changing dynamically with time. Thus, of interest is the description of timing, magnitude, and (nonlinear) patterns of the effect. Our presentation focuses on practical aspects of the model. A step-by-step demonstration is presented in the context of an empirical study designed to evaluate effects of surgical treatment on quality of life among early stage lung cancer patients during posthospitalization recovery (N = 59; 61% female, M age = 66.1 years). Frequency and level of distress associated with physical symptoms were assessed twice daily over a 2-week period, providing a total of 1,544 momentary assessments. Traditional analyses (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA], repeated-measures ANCOVA, and multilevel modeling) yielded findings of no group differences. In contrast, generalized TVEM identified a pattern of the effect that varied in time and magnitude. Group differences manifested after Day 4. Generalized TVEM is a flexible statistical approach that offers insight into the complexity of treatment effects and allows modeling of nonnormal outcomes. The practical demonstration, shared syntax, and availability of a free set of macros aim to encourage researchers to apply TVEM to complex data and stimulate important scientific discoveries. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The Clean Air Act and bonus allowances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markey, E.J.; Moorhead, C.J.
1991-01-01
This article discusses how utility companies can benefit in the form of bonus sulfur dioxide allowances from the Environmental Protection Agency by investing in renewable energy sources such as wind and promoting conservation. Topics discussed include the Clean Air Act Amendments, acid rain, energy conservation, renewable energy sources, and the procedure for gaining bonus allowances
36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... Section 1210.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for... Educational Institutions.” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with...
20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter and...
36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...
44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...
24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-04-01
... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...
29 CFR 97.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. [53 FR 8069, 8087... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...
34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b) The... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial... principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the cost...
22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-04-01
... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22 Allowable... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...
32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...
43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.62 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...
45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.
2010-10-01
... claims for damage or loss when traveling between place of residence and duty station, or when the loss or... in exceptional cases may be allowed by the Claims Officer. (9) Transportation or travel losses... carrier, agent or agency of the government, or private conveyance, may be allowed only if the property is...
Are Quantum Models for Order Effects Quantum?
Moreira, Catarina; Wichert, Andreas
2017-12-01
The application of principles of Quantum Mechanics in areas outside of physics has been getting increasing attention in the scientific community in an emergent disciplined called Quantum Cognition. These principles have been applied to explain paradoxical situations that cannot be easily explained through classical theory. In quantum probability, events are characterised by a superposition state, which is represented by a state vector in a N-dimensional vector space. The probability of an event is given by the squared magnitude of the projection of this superposition state into the desired subspace. This geometric approach is very useful to explain paradoxical findings that involve order effects, but do we really need quantum principles for models that only involve projections? This work has two main goals. First, it is still not clear in the literature if a quantum projection model has any advantage towards a classical projection. We compared both models and concluded that the Quantum Projection model achieves the same results as its classical counterpart, because the quantum interference effects play no role in the computation of the probabilities. Second, it intends to propose an alternative relativistic interpretation for rotation parameters that are involved in both classical and quantum models. In the end, instead of interpreting these parameters as a similarity measure between questions, we propose that they emerge due to the lack of knowledge concerned with a personal basis state and also due to uncertainties towards the state of world and towards the context of the questions.
Effects of Anethole in Nociception Experimental Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandra Mileni Versuti Ritter
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the antinociceptive activity of anethole (anethole 1-methoxy-4-benzene (1-propenyl, major compound of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum, in different experimental models of nociception. The animals were pretreated with anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg one hour before the experiments. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of anethole, the open field test was conducted. Anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg showed an antinociceptive effect in the writhing model induced by acetic acid, in the second phase of the formalin test (125 and 250 mg/kg in the test of glutamate (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg, and expresses pain induced by ACF (250 mg/kg. In contrast, anethole was not able to increase the latency time on the hot plate and decrease the number of flinches during the initial phase of the formalin test in any of the doses tested. It was also demonstrated that anethole has no association with sedative effects. Therefore, these data showed that anethole, at all used doses, has no sedative effect and has an antinociceptive effect. This effect may be due to a decrease in the production/release of inflammatory mediators.
Effects of anethole in nociception experimental models.
Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; Otani, Fernando; de Oliveira, Rubia Maria Weffort; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida
2014-01-01
This study investigated the antinociceptive activity of anethole (anethole 1-methoxy-4-benzene (1-propenyl)), major compound of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum), in different experimental models of nociception. The animals were pretreated with anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) one hour before the experiments. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of anethole, the open field test was conducted. Anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) showed an antinociceptive effect in the writhing model induced by acetic acid, in the second phase of the formalin test (125 and 250 mg/kg) in the test of glutamate (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg), and expresses pain induced by ACF (250 mg/kg). In contrast, anethole was not able to increase the latency time on the hot plate and decrease the number of flinches during the initial phase of the formalin test in any of the doses tested. It was also demonstrated that anethole has no association with sedative effects. Therefore, these data showed that anethole, at all used doses, has no sedative effect and has an antinociceptive effect. This effect may be due to a decrease in the production/release of inflammatory mediators.
Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation
Ibanez-Jacome, W.
2014-07-18
Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.
Effect on Prediction when Modeling Covariates in Bayesian Nonparametric Models.
Cruz-Marcelo, Alejandro; Rosner, Gary L; Müller, Peter; Stewart, Clinton F
2013-04-01
In biomedical research, it is often of interest to characterize biologic processes giving rise to observations and to make predictions of future observations. Bayesian nonparametric methods provide a means for carrying out Bayesian inference making as few assumptions about restrictive parametric models as possible. There are several proposals in the literature for extending Bayesian nonparametric models to include dependence on covariates. Limited attention, however, has been directed to the following two aspects. In this article, we examine the effect on fitting and predictive performance of incorporating covariates in a class of Bayesian nonparametric models by one of two primary ways: either in the weights or in the locations of a discrete random probability measure. We show that different strategies for incorporating continuous covariates in Bayesian nonparametric models can result in big differences when used for prediction, even though they lead to otherwise similar posterior inferences. When one needs the predictive density, as in optimal design, and this density is a mixture, it is better to make the weights depend on the covariates. We demonstrate these points via a simulated data example and in an application in which one wants to determine the optimal dose of an anticancer drug used in pediatric oncology.
Anyonic glueballs from an effective string model
Boulanger, Nicolas; Buisseret, Fabien
2016-01-01
Relying on an effective-string approach in which glueballs—bound states of pure Yang-Mills theory—are modeled by closed strings, we give arguments suggesting that anyonic glueballs, i.e. glueballs with arbitrary spin, may exist in (2 +1 )-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. We then focus on the large-Nc limit of S U (Nc) Yang-Mills theory and show that our model leads to a mass spectrum in good agreement with lattice data in the scalar sector, while it predicts the masses and spins of anyonic glueball states.
SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed other models that are the main subject of this research, which explains how and why persuasive communication works, to understand why some approaches are effective and others are not.
Modelling the Effects of a Predictable Money Supply of Bitcoin
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jakub Jedlinský
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The paper examines effects of a predefined and immutable money supply using a simulation performed in Minsky. It uses the cryptocurrency Bitcoin as an example and compares its settings and outcomes with Euro as a credit based fiat currency. Minsky is a specialized software for creating SFC economic models. It operates in continuous time. Unlike Euro, Bitcoin is a non-liability currency. It is not being issued against debt and it does not allow a fiduciary issue. The study examines the economy of the EU complexly, focusing on its monetary system, using Eurostat data. Then it changes the rules of the system so that they comply with the rules of Bitcoin’s protocol. The performed simulations show different effects of these monetary settings on wealth distribution among particular groups of economic subjects as well as on the stability of the economy as a whole after some time has passed.
DsixTools: the standard model effective field theory toolkit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Celis, Alejandro [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); Fuentes-Martin, Javier; Vicente, Avelino [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Virto, Javier [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland)
2017-06-15
We present DsixTools, a Mathematica package for the handling of the dimension-six standard model effective field theory. Among other features, DsixTools allows the user to perform the full one-loop renormalization group evolution of the Wilson coefficients in the Warsaw basis. This is achieved thanks to the SMEFTrunner module, which implements the full one-loop anomalous dimension matrix previously derived in the literature. In addition, DsixTools also contains modules devoted to the matching to the ΔB = ΔS = 1, 2 and ΔB = ΔC = 1 operators of the Weak Effective Theory at the electroweak scale, and their QCD and QED Renormalization group evolution below the electroweak scale. (orig.)
Modeling the Effects of Knots in Structural Timber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foley, Christina
was established, which describes variations of radial growth direction and fiber orientation related to knots in timber. The adaptability of the paradigm allows practically any softwood knot and its effect on surrounding wood material to be modeled with an accuracy that is limited only by input data. The knot......The main purpose of the pursued research presented in this thesis is to increase knowledge of the effects of knots in structural timber so that characteristics of weaker timber may be determined and applied to improve current grading techniques. In the process, a three-dimensional fiber paradigm...... axis may be curved, and the knot cross-section oval with its vertical and horizontal axis increasing from the pith of the stem at chosen rates. Varying spiral gain with the radius of the annual growth layers may also be included in the paradigm. In the description of the fiber paradigm, considerations...
Oracle Efficient Variable Selection in Random and Fixed Effects Panel Data Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kock, Anders Bredahl
This paper generalizes the results for the Bridge estimator of Huang et al. (2008) to linear random and fixed effects panel data models which are allowed to grow in both dimensions. In particular we show that the Bridge estimator is oracle efficient. It can correctly distinguish between relevant...... of Huang et al. (2008). Furthermore, the number of relevant variables is allowed to be larger than the sample size....
Utility allowed returns and market extremes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murry, D.A.; Nan, G.D.; Harrington, B.M.
1993-01-01
In recent years interest rates have fluctuated from exceptionally high levels in the early 1980s to their current levels, the lowest in two decades. Observers and analysts generally have assumed that allowed returns by regulatory commissions follow the movement of interest rates; indeed some analysts use a risk premium method to estimate the cost of common equity, assuming a constant and linear relationship between interest rates and the cost of common equity. That suggests we could expect a relatively stable relationship between interest rates and allowed returns, as well. However, a simple comparison of allowed returns and interest rates shows that this is not the case in recent years. The relationship between market interest rates and the returns allowed by commissions varies and is obviously a great deal more complicated. Empirically, there appears to be only a narrow range where market interest rates significantly affect the allowed returns on common stock set by state commissions, at least for electric and combination utilities. If rates are at historically low levels, allowed returns based largely on market rates will hasten subsequent rate filings, and commissions appear to look beyond the low rate levels. Conversely, it appears that regulators do not let historically high market rates determine allowed returns either. At either high or low interest levels, caution seems to be the policy
The future(s) of emission allowances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenzweig, K.M.; Villarreal, J.A.
1993-01-01
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a sulfur dioxide emission allowance system to be implemented by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the two-phase implementation of the program, electric utilities responsible for approximately 70 percent of SO 2 emissions in the United States will be issued emission allowances, each representing authorization to emit one ton of sulfur dioxide during a specified calendar year or a later year. Allowances will be issued to utilities with electric-generating units affected by the CAAA limits, as well as to certain entities which may choose to opt-in to the program. Each utility or other emission source must hold a number of allowances at least equal to its total SO 2 emissions during any given year. Unused allowances may be sold, traded, or held in inventory for use against SO 2 emissions in future years. Anyone can buy and hold allowances, including affected utilities, non-utility companies, SO 2 allowances brokers and dealers, environmental groups, and individuals. During Phase I of the program, allowances equivalent to approximately 6.4 million tons of SO 2 emissions will be allocated annually to a group of 110 large, high-SO 2 -emitting power plants. In Phase II, virtually all power-generating utilities (representing approximately 99.4 percent of total US utility emissions) will be subject to the program. The number of allowances issued will increase to approximately 8.9 million a year, with certain special allocations raising the actual number issued to 9.48 million between the years 2000 to 2009, and 8.95 million yearly thereafter. Thus, the CAAA goal of annual emissions of 9 million tons should be achieved by 2010, when virtually all US emission sources will be participating in the program
Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy
Pressman, Steven
2014-01-01
This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...
Epidemiological data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to increased suseptibility to environmental pollutants. Furthermore, the association between a sedentary pattern and development of obesity may exacerbate susceptibility. To study the effects of ACT vs. SED l...
Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.
1992-12-01
Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u[parallel], T[parallel], and T[perpendicular] along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These FLR phase-mixing'' terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping [proportional to] k[sub [perpendicular
Internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model
RAHMANI, Samaneh
2015-01-01
Abstract. Present paper has been developed with the title of internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model. Presenting the question: Today Internet is an important channel in marketing and advertising. The reason for this could be the ability of the Internet to reduce costs and people’s access to online services[1]. Also advertisers can easily access a multitude of users and communicate with them at low cost [9]. On the other hand, compared to traditional advertising, interne...
Enhancing Mental Models for Team Effectiveness
2011-09-01
Mathieu, Maynard, Rapp, & Mangos , 2010) propose that there are two types of TMM that essentially represent two domains of knowledge, one that is task... Mangos , P. M. (2010). Interactive effects of team and task shared mental models as related to air traffic controllers’ collective efficacy and...Sexton, J. B., & Helmreich, R. L. (1999). Analysing cockpit communication: The links between language , performance, error, and workload. Paper
ACOUSTIC EFFECTS ON BINARY AEROELASTICITY MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kok Hwa Yu
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Acoustics is the science concerned with the study of sound. The effects of sound on structures attract overwhelm interests and numerous studies were carried out in this particular area. Many of the preliminary investigations show that acoustic pressure produces significant influences on structures such as thin plate, membrane and also high-impedance medium like water (and other similar fluids. Thus, it is useful to investigate the structure response with the presence of acoustics on aircraft, especially on aircraft wings, tails and control surfaces which are vulnerable to flutter phenomena. The present paper describes the modeling of structural-acoustic interactions to simulate the external acoustic effect on binary flutter model. Here, the binary flutter model which illustrated as a rectangular wing is constructed using strip theory with simplified unsteady aerodynamics involving flap and pitch degree of freedom terms. The external acoustic excitation, on the other hand, is modeled using four-node quadrilateral isoparametric element via finite element approach. Both equations then carefully coupled and solved using eigenvalue solution. The mentioned approach is implemented in MATLAB and the outcome of the simulated result are later described, analyzed and illustrated in this paper.
29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.
2010-07-01
... may be considered and allowed. For the purpose of subpart B of this part, an alternative work location..., including property in the custody of a carrier, an agent or agency of the Government, or the claimant. (3...
Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.
2003-01-01
This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy
Kudinov, V. A.; Eremin, A. V.; Kudinov, I. V.
2017-11-01
The differential equation of heat transfer with allowance for energy dissipation and spatial and temporal nonlocality has been derived by the relaxation of heat flux and temperature gradient in the Fourier law formula for the heat flux at the use of the heat balance equation. An investigation of the numerical solution of the heat-transfer problem at a laminar fluid flow in a plane duct has shown the impossibility of an instantaneous acceptance of the boundary condition of the first kind — the process of its settling at small values of relaxation coefficients takes a finite time interval the duration of which is determined by the thermophysical and relaxation properties of the fluid. At large values of relaxation coefficients, the use of the boundary condition of the first kind is possible only at Fo → ∞. The friction heat consideration leads to the alteration of temperature profiles, which is due to the rise of the intervals of elevated temperatures in the zone of the maximal velocity gradients. With increasing relaxation coefficients, the smoothing of temperature profiles occurs, and at their certain high values, the fluid cooling occurs at a gradientless temperature variation along the transverse spatial variable and, consequently, the temperature proves to be dependent only on time and on longitudinal coordinate.
Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K
2007-07-26
We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.
Colored noise and memory effects on formal spiking neuron models
da Silva, L. A.; Vilela, R. D.
2015-06-01
Simplified neuronal models capture the essence of the electrical activity of a generic neuron, besides being more interesting from the computational point of view when compared to higher-dimensional models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley one. In this work, we propose a generalized resonate-and-fire model described by a generalized Langevin equation that takes into account memory effects and colored noise. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis to study the dynamics and the point process statistics of the proposed model, highlighting interesting new features such as (i) nonmonotonic behavior (emergence of peak structures, enhanced by the choice of colored noise characteristic time scale) of the coefficient of variation (CV) as a function of memory characteristic time scale, (ii) colored noise-induced shift in the CV, and (iii) emergence and suppression of multimodality in the interspike interval (ISI) distribution due to memory-induced subthreshold oscillations. Moreover, in the noise-induced spike regime, we study how memory and colored noise affect the coherence resonance (CR) phenomenon. We found that for sufficiently long memory, not only is CR suppressed but also the minimum of the CV-versus-noise intensity curve that characterizes the presence of CR may be replaced by a maximum. The aforementioned features allow to interpret the interplay between memory and colored noise as an effective control mechanism to neuronal variability. Since both variability and nontrivial temporal patterns in the ISI distribution are ubiquitous in biological cells, we hope the present model can be useful in modeling real aspects of neurons.
Ising and Potts models: binding disorder-and dimension effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curado, E.M.F.
1983-01-01
Within the real space renormalization group framework, some thermal equilibrium properties of pure and disordered insulating systems are calculated. In the pure hypercubic lattice system, the Ising model surface tension and the correlation length of the q-state Potts model, which generalizes the former are analyzed. Several asymptotic behaviors are obtained (for the first time as far as we know) for both functions and the influence of dimension over them can be observed. Accurate numerical proposals for the surface tension are made in several dimensions, and the effect of the number of states (q) on the correlation lenght is shown. In disordered systems, attention is focused essentiall on those which can be theoretically represented by pure sistem Hamiltonians where probability distributions are assumed for the coupling constants (disorder in the bonds). It is obtained with high precision several approximate critical surfaces for the quenched square-lattice Ising model, whose probability distribution can assume two positive values (hence there is no frustration). These aproximate surfaces contain all the exact known points. In the cases where the coupling constant probability distribution can also assume negative values (allowing disordered and frustrated systems), a theoretical treatment which distinguishes the frustration effect from the dilution one is proposed. This distinction can be seen by the different ways in which the bonds of any series-parallel topological array combine. (Author) [pt
The fitting parameters extraction of conversion model of the low dose rate effect in bipolar devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakerenkov, Alexander
2011-01-01
The Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity (ELDRS) in bipolar devices consists of in base current degradation of NPN and PNP transistors increase as the dose rate is decreased. As a result of almost 20-year studying, the some physical models of effect are developed, being described in detail. Accelerated test methods, based on these models use in standards. The conversion model of the effect, that allows to describe the inverse S-shaped excess base current dependence versus dose rate, was proposed. This paper presents the problem of conversion model fitting parameters extraction.
EPA allocates emission allowances for phase II plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkhart, L.A.
1993-01-01
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) last month issued a final rule allocating acid rain emission allowances for use after 2000 by most United States power plants. The rule sets the stage for significant pollution reduction through the emission trading system established by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The rule complements EPA's comprehensive, final acid rain rule for SO 2 , which was published in the January 11, 1993, Federal Register. Under this rule, SO 2 reductions will occur in two phases: Phase I begins in 1995 and sets allowances for 110 of the nation's largest plants, mostly coal-fired generators in eastern and midwestern states. Phase II begins in 2000 and further reduces emissions for Phase I plants, while it sets additional restrictions for about 800 smaller plants. The March 5 rules list allowance allocations for Phase II, enabling Phase II utilities to choose the most effective compliance strategy. In a related matter, the Chicago Board of Trade was expected to hold EPA's first annual auction of acid rain allowances on March 29. The auction allowed new utilities - those not automatically allocated allowances under the Clean Air Act - to purchase allowances. The direct sale of allowances will begin no later than June 1, at a price of $1,500 an allowance (to be adjusted yearly for inflation), and will continue on a first-come, first-served basis until none are left
Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)
2013-11-15
Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.
Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonjes, David J.; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets
Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.
Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth
2013-11-01
Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modeling cellular effects of coal pollutants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1981-01-01
The goal of this project is to develop and test models for the dose and dose-rate dependence of biological effects of coal pollutants on mammalian cells in tissue culture. Particular attention is given to the interaction of pollutants with the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid, or NDA) in the cell. Unlike radiation, which can interact directly with chromatin, chemical pollutants undergo numerous changes before the ultimate carcinogen becomes covalently bound to the DNA. Synthetic vesicles formed from a phospholipid bilayer are being used to investigate chemical transformations that may occur during the transport of pollutants across cellular membranes. The initial damage to DNA is rapidly modified by enzymatic repair systems in most living organisms. A model has been developed for predicting the effects of excision repair on the survival of human cells exposed to chemical carcinogens. In addition to the excision system, normal human cells also have tolerance mechanisms that permit continued growth and division of cells without removal of the damage. We are investigating the biological effect of damage passed to daughter cells by these tolerance mechanisms
Allowance System: Proposed acid-rain rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-12-01
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). The fact sheet summarizes the key components of EPA's proposed Allowance System
Modeling terahertz heating effects on water
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Torben T.L.; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2010-01-01
down to a spot with a diameter of 0.5 mm, we find that the steadystate temperature increase per milliwatt of transmitted power is 1.8◦C/mW. A quantum cascade laser can produce a CW beam in the order of several milliwatts and this motivates the need to estimate the effect of beam power on the sample...... temperature. For THz time domain systems, we indicate how to use our model as a worst-case approximation based on the beam average power. It turns out that THz pulses created from photoconductive antennas give a negligible increase in temperature. As biotissue contains a high water content, this leads...... to a discussion of worst-case predictions for THz heating of the human body in order to motivate future detailed study. An open source Matlab implementation of our model is freely available for at www.eleceng.adelaide.edu.au/thz...
Effective hamiltonian calculations using incomplete model spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, S.; Mukherjee, D.
1987-01-01
It appears that the danger of encountering ''intruder states'' is substantially reduced if an effective hamiltonian formalism is developed for incomplete model spaces (IMS). In a Fock-space approach, the proof a ''connected diagram theorem'' is fairly straightforward with exponential-type of ansatze for the wave-operator W, provided the normalization chosen for W is separable. Operationally, one just needs a suitable categorization of the Fock-space operators into ''diagonal'' and ''non-diagonal'' parts that is generalization of the corresponding procedure for the complete model space. The formalism is applied to prototypical 2-electron systems. The calculations have been performed on the Cyber 205 super-computer. The authors paid special attention to an efficient vectorization for the construction and solution of the resulting coupled non-linear equations
A spatial error model with continuous random effects and an application to growth convergence
Laurini, Márcio Poletti
2017-10-01
We propose a spatial error model with continuous random effects based on Matérn covariance functions and apply this model for the analysis of income convergence processes (β -convergence). The use of a model with continuous random effects permits a clearer visualization and interpretation of the spatial dependency patterns, avoids the problems of defining neighborhoods in spatial econometrics models, and allows projecting the spatial effects for every possible location in the continuous space, circumventing the existing aggregations in discrete lattice representations. We apply this model approach to analyze the economic growth of Brazilian municipalities between 1991 and 2010 using unconditional and conditional formulations and a spatiotemporal model of convergence. The results indicate that the estimated spatial random effects are consistent with the existence of income convergence clubs for Brazilian municipalities in this period.
Modelling heating effects in cryocooled protein crystals
Nicholson, J; Fayz, K; Fell, B; Garman, E
2001-01-01
With the application of intense X-ray beams from third generation synchrotron sources, damage to cryocooled macromolecular crystals is being observed more commonly . In order to fully utilize synchrotron facilities now available for studying biological crystals, it is essential to understand the processes involved in radiation damage and beam heating so that, if possible, action can be taken to slow the rate of damage. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been applied to model the heating effects of X-rays on cryocooled protein crystals, and to compare the relative cooling efficiencies of nitrogen and helium.
Insider safeguards effectiveness model (ISEM). User's guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, D.D.; Engi, D.
1977-11-01
A comprehensive presentation of the ISEM computer program is provided. ISEM was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a fixed-site facility safeguards system in coping with the theft, sabotage, or dispersal of radiological material by a single person who has authorized access to the facility. This insider may be aided by a group of insiders who covertly degrade sensor systems. Each ISEM run evaluates safeguards system performance for a particular scenario specified by the user. The dispatching of guards following alarms and their interaction with the insider are explicitly treated by the model
METHODS OF SELECTING THE EFFECTIVE MODELS OF BUILDINGS REPROFILING PROJECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Александр Иванович МЕНЕЙЛЮК
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The article highlights the important task of project management in reprofiling of buildings. It is expedient to pay attention to selecting effective engineering solutions to reduce the duration and cost reduction at the project management in the construction industry. This article presents a methodology for the selection of efficient organizational and technical solutions for the reconstruction of buildings reprofiling. The method is based on a compilation of project variants in the program Microsoft Project and experimental statistical analysis using the program COMPEX. The introduction of this technique in the realigning of buildings allows choosing efficient models of projects, depending on the given constraints. Also, this technique can be used for various construction projects.
77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction
2012-06-11
... could be construed to impose a restriction that VA did not intend. This document corrects that error... medication would be eligible for a clothing allowance for each such appliance or medication if each appliance or medication ``[a]ffects a distinct article of clothing or outergarment.'' On November 16, 2011, VA...
20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.
2010-04-01
... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions.” (d...
22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.
2010-04-01
... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational...
10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.
2010-01-01
... applicable cost principles; and (3) Less than the total value of the award. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.317 Section 600.317 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Administrative Requirements...
42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... typical “provider” costs, and costs (such as marketing, enrollment, membership, and operation of the HMO... principles applicable to provider costs, as set forth in § 417.536. (2) The allowability of other costs is determined in accordance with principles set forth in §§ 417.538 through 417.550. (3) Costs for covered...
40 CFR 35.6245 - Allowable activities.
2010-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Support Agency Cooperative Agreements § 35.6245 Allowable activities. Support agency activities... CFR part 300), are eligible for funding under a support agency Cooperative Agreement. Participation in...
13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-01-01
... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...
29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...
40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...
34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.22... kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. For the...
38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-07-01
... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...
45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-10-01
... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...
7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.
2010-01-01
... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...
33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.
2010-07-01
...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...
33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.
2010-07-01
...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...
33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.
2010-07-01
...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...
40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.
2010-07-01
... institution, the owner or operator must obtain alternate financial assurance. (4) The owner or operator may... certified public accountant (or appropriate State agency) auditing its financial statement as required under... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms...
20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.
2010-04-01
... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN...
A model for effective intergovernmental planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, R.C.
1991-01-01
Effective intergovernmental planning processes are essential to the resolution of potential affects created by federal projects. Intergovernmental planning for the proposed Yucca Mountain High-level Nuclear Waste Repository has not been effective to date. In this paper, two successful planning efforts are described. The common elements of these processes are analyzed to provide a model that can be used for the resolution of impacts from other projects. Management authorities of the entities involved should establish a working group to conduct the intergovernmental planning. The parties must identify issues that can be resolved through intergovernmental planning. Clear management authority and direction to the staff participating the planning process is essential. Issues which cannot be resolved should not be included in the goals of the working group. Funding to support the planning process is essential
Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe
2008-01-01
The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.
Factor Analysis of Drawings: Application to College Student Models of the Greenhouse Effect
Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.; Ording, Gabriel
2015-01-01
Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by over 200 entering university freshmen. Initial content analysis allowed deconstruction of drawings into salient features, with grouping of these features via factor analysis. A resulting 4-factor solution explains 62% of the data variance,…
Modeling of Organic Effects on Aerosols Growth
Caboussat, A.; Amundson, N. R.; He, J.; Seinfeld, J. H.
2006-05-01
Over the last two decades, a series of modules has been developed in the atmospheric modeling community to predict the phase transition, multistage growth phenomena, crystallization and evaporation of inorganic aerosols. In the same time, the water interactions of particles containing organic constituents have been recognized as an important factor for aerosol activation and cloud formation. However, the research on hygroscopicity of organic-containing aerosols, motivated by the organic effect on aerosol growth and activation, has gathered much less attention. We present here a new model (UHAERO), that is both efficient and rigorously computes phase separation and liquid-liquid equilibrium for organic particles, as well as the dynamics partitioning between gas and particulate phases, with emphasis on the role of water vapor in the gas-liquid partitioning. The model does not rely on any a priori specification of the phases present in certain atmospheric conditions. The determination of the thermodynamic equilibrium is based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The mass transfer between the particle and the bulk gas phase is dynamically driven by the difference between bulk gas pressure and the gas pressure at the surface of a particle. The multicomponent phase equilibrium for a closed organic aerosol system at constant temperature and pressure and for specified feeds is the solution to the liquid-liquid equilibrium problem arising from the constrained minimization of the Gibbs free energy. A geometrical concept of phase simplex (phase separation) is introduced to characterize the thermodynamic equilibrium. The computation of the mass fluxes is achieved by coupling the thermodynamics of the organic aerosol particle and the determination of the mass fluxes. Numerical results show the efficiency of the model, which make it suitable for insertion in global three- dimensional air quality models. The Gibbs free energy is modeled by the UNIFAC model to illustrate
Modeling of interaction effects in granular systems
El-Hilo, M; Al-Rsheed, A
2000-01-01
Interaction effects on the magnetic behavior of granular solid systems are examined using a numerical model which is capable of predicting the field, temperature and time dependence of magnetization. In this work, interaction effects on the temperature dependence of time viscosity coefficient S(T) and formation of minor hysteresis loops have been studied. The results for the time- and temperature dependence of remanence ratio have showed that the distribution of energy barriers f(DELTA E) obtained depend critically on the strength and nature of interactions. These interactions-based changes in f(DELTA E) can easily give a temperature-independent behavior of S(T) when these changes give a 1/DELTA E behavior to the distribution of energy barriers. Thus, conclusions about macroscopic quantum tunneling must be carefully drawn when the temperature dependence of S(T) is used to probe for MQT effects. For minor hysteresis effects, the result shows that for the non-interacting case, no minor hysteresis loops occur an...
Lee, Duncan; Rushworth, Alastair; Sahu, Sujit K
2014-06-01
Estimation of the long-term health effects of air pollution is a challenging task, especially when modeling spatial small-area disease incidence data in an ecological study design. The challenge comes from the unobserved underlying spatial autocorrelation structure in these data, which is accounted for using random effects modeled by a globally smooth conditional autoregressive model. These smooth random effects confound the effects of air pollution, which are also globally smooth. To avoid this collinearity a Bayesian localized conditional autoregressive model is developed for the random effects. This localized model is flexible spatially, in the sense that it is not only able to model areas of spatial smoothness, but also it is able to capture step changes in the random effects surface. This methodological development allows us to improve the estimation performance of the covariate effects, compared to using traditional conditional auto-regressive models. These results are established using a simulation study, and are then illustrated with our motivating study on air pollution and respiratory ill health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland in 2011. The model shows substantial health effects of particulate matter air pollution and nitrogen dioxide, whose effects have been consistently attenuated by the currently available globally smooth models. © 2014, The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.
Allowable take of a population of red-winged blackbirds in the northern Great Plains
Runge, Michael C.; Sauer, John
2017-01-01
Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) are protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), which has provisions against take. Blackbirds may be taken legally without a Federal permit, however, under an existing Depredation Order (50 CFR 21.43), which allows for take of blackbirds that are in the process of doing, or about to do, agricultural damage. Modeling the effect of take on blackbird population allows us to balance the conservation protections of the MBTA with the protection of agricultural interests. A quantitative framework based on harvest theory, demography, and population status has been used to assess the allowable take of a number of species of birds under the MBTA. In this chapter, we calculate allowable levels of take for two populations of red-winged blackbirds in the northern Great Plains from estimates of intrinsic growth rate and population size.
Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.
1992-12-01
Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u parallel, T parallel, and T perpendicular along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These ''FLR phase-mixing'' terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping ∝ k perpendicular 2 |Φ rvec k rvec k x rvec k'| which should provide a physics-based damping mechanism at high k perpendicular ρ which is potentially as important as the usual polarization drift nonlinearity. The moments are taken in guiding center space to pick up the correct nonlinear FLR terms and the gyroaveraging of the shear. The equations are solved with a nonlinear, three dimensional initial value code. Linear results are presented, showing excellent agreement with linear gyrokinetic theory
Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.
1992-12-01
Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u{parallel}, T{parallel}, and T{perpendicular} along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These ``FLR phase-mixing`` terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping {proportional_to} k{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2}{vert_bar}{Phi}{sub {rvec k}}{rvec k} {times}{rvec k}{prime}{vert_bar} which should provide a physics-based damping mechanism at high k{perpendicular}{rho} which is potentially as important as the usual polarization drift nonlinearity. The moments are taken in guiding center space to pick up the correct nonlinear FLR terms and the gyroaveraging of the shear. The equations are solved with a nonlinear, three dimensional initial value code. Linear results are presented, showing excellent agreement with linear gyrokinetic theory.
Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose
Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry
2010-01-01
While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.
Strategic partitioning of emissions allowances in the EU ETS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boehringer, Christoph (Carl von Ossietzky Univ. Oldenburg (Germany)); Rosendahl, Knut Einar (Research Dept., Statistics Norway, Oslo (Norway))
2008-07-01
The EU ETS opens up for strategic partitioning of emissions allowances by the Member States. In this paper we examine the potential effects of such strategic behavior on quota prices and abatement costs. We show that although marginal abatement costs in the sectors outside the EU ETS become quite differentiated, the effects on the quota price and total abatement costs are small. More abatement, however, takes place in the old Member States that are importers of allowances, compared to the cost-effective outcome. Single countries can nevertheless significantly affect the outcome of the EU ETS by exploiting their market power
Effective business models for electric vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gavrilescu Ileana
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The proposed study aims to use asyncretic and synthetic approach of two elements that have an intrinsic efficiency value: business models and electric vehicles. Our approach seeks to circumscribe more widespread concerns globally - on the one hand, to oil shortages and climate change - and on the other hand, economic efficiency to business models customized to new types of mobility. New “electric” cars projects besiege the traditional position of the conventional car. In the current economy context the concept of efficiency of business models is quite different from what it meant in a traditional sense, particularly because of new technological fields. The arguments put forward by us will be both factual and emotional. Therefore, we rely on interviews and questionnaires designed to fit significantly to the point of the study. Research in the field of new propulsion systems for vehicles has been exploring various possibilities lately, such as: electricity, hydrogen, compressed air, biogas, etc. Theoretically or in principle, it is possible for tomorrow’s vehicles to be driven by the widest variety if resources. A primary goal of our study would be to theoretically reconsider some of the contemporary entrepreneurship coordinates and secondly to provide minimum guidance for decision-making of businesses that will operate in the field of electric mobility. To achieve this, we shall specifically analyze an electric mobility system but in parallel we will address business models that lend themselves effectively on aspects of this field. With a methodology based on questionnaires that had to overcome the conventional mechanism using some of the most unusual ingredients, we hope that the results of our research will successfully constitute a contribution to the goals and especially as a means of managerial orientation for entrepreneurs in the Romanian market.
Making It Personal: Per Capita Carbon Allowances
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I
2009-01-01
The Chapter highligts the importance of introducing new, efficient schemes for mitigation of global warming. One such scheme is Personal Carbon Allowances (PCA), whereby individuals are allotted a tradable ration of CO2 emission per year.This chapter reviews the fundamentals of PCA and analyzes i...... merits and problems. The United Kingdom and Denmark have been chosen as case studies because the energy situation and the institutional setup are quite different between the two countries....
'Home made' model to study the greenhouse effect and global warming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onorato, P; Mascheretti, P; DeAmbrosis, A, E-mail: pasquale.onorato@unipv.it, E-mail: anna.deambrosisvigna@unipv.it [Department of Physics ' A. Volta' , University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)
2011-03-15
In this paper a simplified two-parameter model of the greenhouse effect on the Earth is developed, starting from the well known two-layer model. It allows both the analysis of the temperatures of the inner planets, by focusing on the role of the greenhouse effect, and a comparison between the temperatures the planets should have in the absence of greenhouse effect and their actual ones. It may also be used to predict the average temperature of the Earth surface in the future, depending on the variations of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activities. This model can promote an elementary understanding of global warming since it allows a simple formalization of the energy balance for the Earth in the stationary condition, in the presence of greenhouse gases. For these reasons it can be introduced in courses for undergraduate physics students and for teacher preparation.
'Home made' model to study the greenhouse effect and global warming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onorato, P; Mascheretti, P; DeAmbrosis, A
2011-01-01
In this paper a simplified two-parameter model of the greenhouse effect on the Earth is developed, starting from the well known two-layer model. It allows both the analysis of the temperatures of the inner planets, by focusing on the role of the greenhouse effect, and a comparison between the temperatures the planets should have in the absence of greenhouse effect and their actual ones. It may also be used to predict the average temperature of the Earth surface in the future, depending on the variations of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activities. This model can promote an elementary understanding of global warming since it allows a simple formalization of the energy balance for the Earth in the stationary condition, in the presence of greenhouse gases. For these reasons it can be introduced in courses for undergraduate physics students and for teacher preparation.
'Home made' model to study the greenhouse effect and global warming
Onorato, P.; Mascheretti, P.; DeAmbrosis, A.
2011-03-01
In this paper a simplified two-parameter model of the greenhouse effect on the Earth is developed, starting from the well known two-layer model. It allows both the analysis of the temperatures of the inner planets, by focusing on the role of the greenhouse effect, and a comparison between the temperatures the planets should have in the absence of greenhouse effect and their actual ones. It may also be used to predict the average temperature of the Earth surface in the future, depending on the variations of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activities. This model can promote an elementary understanding of global warming since it allows a simple formalization of the energy balance for the Earth in the stationary condition, in the presence of greenhouse gases. For these reasons it can be introduced in courses for undergraduate physics students and for teacher preparation.
Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals
Schauble, Edwin A.
2013-01-01
Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac–Hartree–Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor–crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from 119Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium
Simple model of the slingshot effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaetano Fiore
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We present a detailed quantitative description of the recently proposed “slingshot effect.” Namely, we determine a broad range of conditions under which the impact of a very short and intense laser pulse normally onto a low-density plasma (or matter locally completely ionized into a plasma by the pulse causes the expulsion of a bunch of surface electrons in the direction opposite to the one of propagation of the pulse, and the detailed, ready-for-experiments features of the expelled electrons (energy spectrum, collimation, etc. The effect is due to the combined actions of the ponderomotive force and the huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation. Our predictions are based on estimating 3D corrections to a simple, yet powerful plane 2-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD model where the equations to be solved are reduced to a system of Hamilton equations in one dimension (or a collection of which become autonomous after the pulse has overcome the electrons. Experimental tests seem to be at hand. If confirmed by the latter, the effect would provide a new extraction and acceleration mechanism for electrons, alternative to traditional radio-frequency-based or Laser-Wake-Field ones.
The Effects of Permanent Technology Shocks on Labour Productivity and Hours in the RBC Model
Lindé, Jesper
2005-01-01
Recent work on the effects of permanent technology shocks argue that the basic RBC model cannot account for a negative correlation between hours worked and labour productivity. In this Paper, I show that this conjecture is not necessarily correct. In the basic RBC model, I find that hours worked fall and labour productivity rises after a positive permanent technology shock once one allows for the possibility that the process for the permanent technology shock is persistent in growth rates. A ...
Meta-analysis of choice set generation effects on route choice model estimates and predictions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prato, Carlo Giacomo
2012-01-01
are applied for model estimation and results are compared to the ‘true model estimates’. Last, predictions from the simulation of models estimated with objective choice sets are compared to the ‘postulated predicted routes’. A meta-analytical approach allows synthesizing the effect of judgments......Large scale applications of behaviorally realistic transport models pose several challenges to transport modelers on both the demand and the supply sides. On the supply side, path-based solutions to the user assignment equilibrium problem help modelers in enhancing the route choice behavior...... modeling, but require them to generate choice sets by selecting a path generation technique and its parameters according to personal judgments. This paper proposes a methodology and an experimental setting to provide general indications about objective judgments for an effective route choice set generation...
Macho, Siegfried; Ledermann, Thomas
2011-01-01
The phantom model approach for estimating, testing, and comparing specific effects within structural equation models (SEMs) is presented. The rationale underlying this novel method consists in representing the specific effect to be assessed as a total effect within a separate latent variable model, the phantom model that is added to the main…
ASVCP guidelines: Allowable total error hematology.
Nabity, Mary B; Harr, Kendal E; Camus, Melinda S; Flatland, Bente; Vap, Linda M
2018-02-11
The purpose of this document is to provide total allowable error (TE a ) recommendations for commonly analyzed hematology measurands for veterinary personnel. These guidelines define relevant terminology and highlight considerations specific to hematology measurands. They also provide reasons and guidelines for using TE a in instrument performance evaluation, including recommendations for when the total observed error exceeds the recommended TE a . Biological variation-based quality specifications are briefly discussed. The appendix describes the derivation of the hematology TE a recommendations and provides resources for external quality assurance/proficiency testing programs and a worksheet for implementation of the guidelines. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Robust technique allowing manufacturing superoleophobic surfaces
Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Chaniel, Gilad; Taitelbaum, Haim; Bormashenko, Yelena
2013-04-01
We report the robust technique allowing manufacturing of superhydrophobic and oleophobic (omniphobic) surfaces with industrial grade low density polyethylene. The reported process includes two stages: (1) hot embossing of polyethylene with micro-scaled steel gauzes; (2) treatment of embossed surfaces with cold radiofrequency plasma of tetrafluoromethane. The reported surfaces demonstrate not only pronounced superhydrophobicity but also superoleophobicity. Superoleophobicity results from the hierarchical nano-scaled topography of fluorinated polyethylene surface. The observed superoleophobicity is strengthened by the hydrophobic recovery. The stability of the Cassie wetting regime was studied.
Should Students Be Allowed to Miss?
Paredes, Ricardo D.; Ugarte, Gabriel A.
2011-01-01
Many educational policymakers consider attendance as a tool to induce learning. Researchers also agree that attendance has a positive effect on learning; however, there are few empirical studies that measure the nature and significance of that effect. The authors analyzed the effect of class attendance on academic performance and evaluated the…
Chun-Hai Fung, Isaac; Fitter, David L.; Borse, Rebekah H.; Meltzer, Martin I.; Tappero, Jordan W.
2013-01-01
In 2010, toxigenic Vibrio cholerae was newly introduced to Haiti. Because resources are limited, decision-makers need to understand the effect of different preventive interventions. We built a static model to estimate the potential number of cholera cases averted through improvements in coverage in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) (i.e., latrines, point-of-use chlorination, and piped water), oral cholera vaccine (OCV), or a combination of both. We allowed indirect effects and non-linear r...
Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models
van Rosmalen, Joost; Koning, Alex J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.
2009-01-01
Multiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's (1981) RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are suitable only for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an optimal scaling model for analyzing the content of…
Murphy, Daniel L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha
2015-01-01
This study examines the use of cross-classified random effects models (CCrem) and cross-classified multiple membership random effects models (CCMMrem) to model rater bias and estimate teacher effectiveness. Effect estimates are compared using CTT versus item response theory (IRT) scaling methods and three models (i.e., conventional multilevel…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schleich, J.; Cremer, C.
2007-07-01
Basing allocation of allowances for existing installations under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on specific emission values (benchmarks) rather than on historic emissions may have several advantages. Benchmarking may recognize early ac-tion, provide higher incentives for replacing old installations and result in fewer distortions in case of updating, facilitate EU-wide harmonization of allocation rules or allow for simplified and more efficient closure rules. Applying an optimization model for the German power sector, we analyze the distributional effects of vari-ous allocation regimes across and within different generation technologies. Re-sults illustrate that regimes with a single uniform benchmark for all fuels or with a single benchmark for coal- and lignite-fired plants imply substantial distributional effects. In particular, lignite- and old coal-fired plants would be made worse off. Under a regime with fuel-specific benchmarks for gas, coal, and lignite 50 % of the gas-fired plants and 4 % of the lignite and coal-fired plants would face an allow-ance deficit of at least 10 %, while primarily modern lignite-fired plants would benefit. Capping the surplus and shortage of allowances would further moderate the distributional effects, but may tarnish incentives for efficiency improvements and recognition of early action. (orig.)
Development of an equipment management model to improve effectiveness of processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, H. S.; Ju, T. Y.; Song, T. Y.
2012-01-01
The nuclear industries have developed and are trying to create a performance model to improve effectiveness of the processes implemented at nuclear plants in order to enhance performance. Most high performing nuclear stations seek to continually improve the quality of their operations by identifying and closing important performance gaps. Thus, many utilities have implemented performance models adjusted to their plant's configuration and have instituted policies for such models. KHNP is developing a standard performance model to integrate the engineering processes and to improve the inter-relation among processes. The model, called the Standard Equipment Management Model (SEMM), is under development first by focusing on engineering processes and performance improvement processes related to plant equipment used at the site. This model includes performance indicators for each process that can allow evaluating and comparing the process performance among 21 operating units. The model will later be expanded to incorporate cost and management processes. (authors)
40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albemarle Bill Clark Pest Control, Inc. Burnside Services, Inc. Cardinal Professional Products Chemtura Corp...
Coley, Rebecca Yates; Browna, Elizabeth R.
2016-01-01
Inconsistent results in recent HIV prevention trials of pre-exposure prophylactic interventions may be due to heterogeneity in risk among study participants. Intervention effectiveness is most commonly estimated with the Cox model, which compares event times between populations. When heterogeneity is present, this population-level measure underestimates intervention effectiveness for individuals who are at risk. We propose a likelihood-based Bayesian hierarchical model that estimates the individual-level effectiveness of candidate interventions by accounting for heterogeneity in risk with a compound Poisson-distributed frailty term. This model reflects the mechanisms of HIV risk and allows that some participants are not exposed to HIV and, therefore, have no risk of seroconversion during the study. We assess model performance via simulation and apply the model to data from an HIV prevention trial. PMID:26869051
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihui Guo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of wind power, the randomness and volatility of wind power output would have a greater impact on safety and steady operation of power system. In allusion to the uncertainty of wind speed and load demand, this paper applied box set robust optimization theory in determining the maximum allowable installed capacity of wind farm, while constraints of node voltage and line capacity are considered. Optimized duality theory is used to simplify the model and convert uncertainty quantities in constraints into certainty quantities. Under the condition of multi wind farms, a bilevel optimization model to calculate penetration capacity is proposed. The result of IEEE 30-bus system shows that the robust optimization model proposed in the paper is correct and effective and indicates that the fluctuation range of wind speed and load and the importance degree of grid connection point of wind farm and load point have impact on the allowable capacity of wind farm.
Vector spin modeling for magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage dependent effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Young, Ian A.
2014-01-01
Integration and co-design of CMOS and spin transfer devices requires accurate vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. A physically realistic model of the MTJ should comprehend the spin torque dynamics of nanomagnet interacting with an injected vector spin current and the voltage dependent spin torque. Vector spin modeling allows for calculation of 3 component spin currents and potentials along with the charge currents/potentials in non-collinear magnetic systems. Here, we show 4-component vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction devices coupled with spin transfer torque in the nanomagnet. Nanomagnet dynamics, voltage dependent spin transport, and thermal noise are comprehended in a self-consistent fashion. We show comparison of the model with experimental magnetoresistance (MR) of MTJs and voltage degradation of MR with voltage. Proposed model enables MTJ circuit design that comprehends voltage dependent spin torque effects, switching error rates, spin degradation, and back hopping effects
A synapse memristor model with forgetting effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Ling; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Chen, Yiran; Wen, Shiping; Qi, Jiangtao
2013-01-01
In this Letter we improved the ion diffusion term proposed in literature and redesigned the previous model as a dynamical model with two more internal state variables ‘forgetting rate’ and ‘retention’ besides the original variable ‘conductance’. The new model can not only describe the basic memory ability of memristor but also be able to capture the new finding forgetting behavior in memristor. And different from the previous model, the transition from short term memory to long term memory is also defined by the new model. Besides, the new model is better matched with the physical memristor (Pd/WOx/W) than the previous one.
A synapse memristor model with forgetting effect
Chen, Ling; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Chen, Yiran; Wen, Shiping; Qi, Jiangtao
2013-12-01
In this Letter we improved the ion diffusion term proposed in literature [13] and redesigned the previous model as a dynamical model with two more internal state variables ‘forgetting rate’ and ‘retention’ besides the original variable ‘conductance’. The new model can not only describe the basic memory ability of memristor but also be able to capture the new finding forgetting behavior in memristor. And different from the previous model, the transition from short term memory to long term memory is also defined by the new model. Besides, the new model is better matched with the physical memristor (Pd/WOx/W) than the previous one.
A synapse memristor model with forgetting effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Ling [The College of Computer, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Li, Chuandong, E-mail: licd@cqu.edu.cn [The College of Computer, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huang, Tingwen [Texas A and M University at Qatar, Doha 5825 (Qatar); Chen, Yiran [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Wen, Shiping [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Qi, Jiangtao [The College of Computer, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2013-12-17
In this Letter we improved the ion diffusion term proposed in literature and redesigned the previous model as a dynamical model with two more internal state variables ‘forgetting rate’ and ‘retention’ besides the original variable ‘conductance’. The new model can not only describe the basic memory ability of memristor but also be able to capture the new finding forgetting behavior in memristor. And different from the previous model, the transition from short term memory to long term memory is also defined by the new model. Besides, the new model is better matched with the physical memristor (Pd/WOx/W) than the previous one.
Effective models of inflation from a nonlocal framework
Koshelev, Alexey S.; Kumar, K. Sravan; Moniz, Paulo Vargas
2017-11-01
The dilaton is a possible inflaton candidate following recent CMB data allowing a nonminimal coupling to the Ricci curvature scalar in the early Universe. In this paper, we introduce an approach that has seldom been used in the literature, namely dilaton inflation with non-local features. More concretely, employing non-local features expressed in [J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2007) 029, 10.1088/1126-6708/2007/04/029], we study quadratic variations around a de Sitter geometry of an effective action with a nonlocal dilaton. The nonlocality refers to an infinite derivative kinetic term involving the operator F (□) . Algebraic roots of the characteristic equation F (z )=0 play a crucial role in determining the properties of the theory. We subsequently study the cases when F (□) has one real root and one complex root, from which we retrieve two concrete effective models of inflation. In the first case we retrieve a class of single field inflations with universal prediction of ns˜0.967 with any value of the tensor to scalar ratio r product of scalar fields. In this latter case, we obtain Starobinsky-like inflation through a spontaneously broken conformal invariance. Furthermore, an uplifted minimum of the potential, which accounts for the vacuum energy after inflation is produced naturally through this mechanism intrinsically within our approach.
Yang, Pan; Pang, Min; Li, Ming; Shen, Wei; He, Rongxing
2015-12-05
Geometrical optimizations of the ground and first excited states of benzimidazole and indene were performed using the density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension methods (TD-DFT), respectively. Their vibrationally resolved (1)Lb ((1)A')↔S0 ((1)A') absorption and fluorescence spectra were simulated within the Franck-Condon approximation including the Herzberg-Teller (HT) and Duschinsky effects. Calculated results revealed that, with the HT and Duschinsky effects getting involved, the simulated weak (1)Lb ((1)A')↔S0 ((1)A') electronic spectra of the two molecules excellently reproduce the experimental findings. Based on the experimental data and other theoretical results, we tentatively assigned most of the vibrational normal modes which emerged in the experimental spectra of the two molecules. The present theoretical insights are expected to help us understand the nature of electronic transitions in the vibrationally resolved absorption and fluorescence spectra of benzimidazole and its analogues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
9 CFR 50.14 - Claims not allowed.
2010-01-01
... the livestock were added to the herd, unless an approved herd plan was in effect at that time. ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.14 Claims not allowed. Claims for compensation for livestock destroyed because of...
Effective stimuli for constructing reliable neuron models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaul Druckmann
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The rich dynamical nature of neurons poses major conceptual and technical challenges for unraveling their nonlinear membrane properties. Traditionally, various current waveforms have been injected at the soma to probe neuron dynamics, but the rationale for selecting specific stimuli has never been rigorously justified. The present experimental and theoretical study proposes a novel framework, inspired by learning theory, for objectively selecting the stimuli that best unravel the neuron's dynamics. The efficacy of stimuli is assessed in terms of their ability to constrain the parameter space of biophysically detailed conductance-based models that faithfully replicate the neuron's dynamics as attested by their ability to generalize well to the neuron's response to novel experimental stimuli. We used this framework to evaluate a variety of stimuli in different types of cortical neurons, ages and animals. Despite their simplicity, a set of stimuli consisting of step and ramp current pulses outperforms synaptic-like noisy stimuli in revealing the dynamics of these neurons. The general framework that we propose paves a new way for defining, evaluating and standardizing effective electrical probing of neurons and will thus lay the foundation for a much deeper understanding of the electrical nature of these highly sophisticated and non-linear devices and of the neuronal networks that they compose.
CO2 Allowance and Electricity Price Interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2007-07-01
With the introduction of CO2 emission constraints on power generators in the European Union, climate policy is starting to have notable effects on energy markets. This paper sheds light on the links between CO2 prices, electricity prices, and electricity costs to industry. It is based on a series of interviews with industrial and electricity stakeholders, as well as a rich literature seeking to estimate the exact effect of CO2 prices on electricity prices.
Effective and efficient model clone detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Störrle, Harald
2015-01-01
Code clones are a major source of software defects. Thus, it is likely that model clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of models) have a significant negative impact on model quality, and thus, on any software created based on those models, irrespective of whether the software is generated fully...... automatically (“MDD-style”) or hand-crafted following the blueprint defined by the model (“MBSD-style”). Unfortunately, however, model clones are much less well studied than code clones. In this paper, we present a clone detection algorithm for UML domain models. Our approach covers a much greater variety...... of model types than existing approaches while providing high clone detection rates at high speed....
Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction
Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.
2016-01-01
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…
A modelling framework for MSP-oriented cumulative effects assessment
Stefano Menegon; Daniel Depellegrin; Giulio Farella; Elena Gissi; Michol Ghezzo; Alessandro Sarretta; Chiara Venier; Andrea Barbanti
2018-01-01
This research presents a comprehensive Cumulative Eects Assessment (CEA) based on the Tools4MSP modelling framework tested for the Italian Adriatic Sea. The CEA incorporates ve methodological advancements: (1) linear and non-linear ecosystem response to anthropogenic pressures/effects, (2) modelling of additive, dominant and antagonist stressor effects, (3) implementation of a convolution distance model for stressor dispersion modelling, (4) application of a CEA backsourcing (CEA-B) model to ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, Shihong; Nan, Xin; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiuying
2017-01-01
In 2013, China opened pilot carbon emission trading markets in seven provinces, where carbon emission allowances have now been traded for more than two years. In this paper, we employ a structural VAR model and the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance to study the dynamic relationships among the price of the carbon emission allowance, economic development and the price of energy. This paper's data cover the period from April 2, 2014 to November 6, 2015. This paper provides information that will be helpful to both investors and governmental policy makers. The results show that (1) an increase of one standard deviation in the coal price leads to an initial increase of approximately 0.1% in the Beijing carbon price. After 2 days, there is a decrease of less than 0.1%, and the price gradually increases by approximately 0.1% after 30 days; (2) the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance is mainly affected by its own historical price; (3) the Beijing carbon emission allowance price, crude oil price, natural gas price and economic development have positive – albeit non-significant – correlations. - Highlights: • This paper examines the response of the Beijing carbon emission allowance price. • A rise in coal prices will have different effects in different lag stages. • There are positive correlations between the BJC and economic development.
Mixed effects in stochastic differential equation models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Susanne; De Gaetano, Andrea
2005-01-01
maximum likelihood; pharmacokinetics; population estimates; random effects; repeated measurements; stochastic processes......maximum likelihood; pharmacokinetics; population estimates; random effects; repeated measurements; stochastic processes...
Does Confucianism allow for body donation?
Jones, D Gareth; Nie, Jing-Bao
2018-01-16
Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
Comparison of three artificial models of the magnetohydrodynamic effect on the electrocardiogram.
Oster, Julien; Llinares, Raul; Payne, Stephen; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Schmidt, Ehud Jeruham; Clifford, Gari D
2015-01-01
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is often acquired during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but its analysis is restricted by the presence of a strong artefact, called magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect. MHD effect is induced by the flow of electrically charged particles in the blood perpendicular to the static magnetic field, which creates a potential of the order of magnitude of the ECG and temporally coincident with the repolarisation period. In this study, a new MHD model is proposed by using MRI-based 4D blood flow measurements made across the aortic arch. The model is extended to several cardiac cycles to allow the simulation of a realistic ECG acquisition during MRI examination and the quality assessment of MHD suppression techniques. A comparison of two existing models, based, respectively, on an analytical solution and on a numerical method-based solution of the fluids dynamics problem, is made with the proposed model and with an estimate of the MHD voltage observed during a real MRI scan. Results indicate a moderate agreement between the proposed model and the estimated MHD model for most leads, with an average correlation factor of 0.47. However, the results demonstrate that the proposed model provides a closer approximation to the observed MHD effects and a better depiction of the complexity of the MHD effect compared with the previously published models, with an improved correlation (+5%), coefficient of determination (+22%) and fraction of energy (+1%) compared with the best previous model. The source code will be made freely available under an open source licence to facilitate collaboration and allow more rapid development of more accurate models of the MHD effect.
Should Students Be Allowed to Miss?
Paredes, Ricardo; Ugarte, Gabriel
2009-01-01
In this paper we investigate the effect of class attendance on academic performance, and evaluate the existence and importance of minimum attendance requirement thresholds. We found that attendance has a relevant and statistically significant impact on performance, together with the existence of a threshold, although contrary to the expected, not associated with a decrease in performance, which questions the existence of minimum attendance requirement.
Blutke, Andreas; Schneider, Marlon R; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Rüdiger
2016-03-01
Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic mice with permanently elevated systemic levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) reproducibly develop renal and glomerular hypertrophy and subsequent progressive glomerulosclerosis, finally leading to terminal renal failure. To dissociate IGF1-dependent and -independent effects of GH excess on renal growth and lesion development in vivo, the kidneys of 75 days old IGF1-deficient (I(-/-)) and of IGF1-deficient GH-transgenic mice (I(-/-)/G), as well as of GH-transgenic (G) and nontransgenic wild-type control mice (I(+/+)) were examined by quantitative stereological and functional analyses. Both G and I(-/-)/G mice developed glomerular hypertrophy, hyperplasia of glomerular mesangial and endothelial cells, podocyte hypertrophy and foot process effacement, albuminuria, and glomerulosclerosis. However, I(-/-)/G mice exhibited less severe glomerular alterations, as compared to G mice. Compared to I(+/+) mice, G mice exhibited renal hypertrophy with a significant increase in the number without a change in the size of proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells. In contrast, I(-/-)/G mice did not display significant PTE cell hyperplasia, as compared to I(-/-) mice. These findings indicate that GH excess stimulates glomerular growth and induces lesions progressing to glomerulosclerosis in the absence of IGF1. In contrast, IGF1 represents an important mediator of GH-dependent proximal tubular growth in GH-transgenic mice. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
Thermal effects in shales: measurements and modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKinstry, H.A.
1977-01-01
Research is reported concerning thermal and physical measurements and theoretical modeling relevant to the storage of radioactive wastes in a shale. Reference thermal conductivity measurements are made at atmospheric pressure in a commercial apparatus; and equipment for permeability measurements has been developed, and is being extended with respect to measurement ranges. Thermal properties of shales are being determined as a function of temperature and pressures. Apparatus was developed to measure shales in two different experimental configurations. In the first, a disk 15 mm in diameter of the material is measured by a steady state technique using a reference material to measure the heat flow within the system. The sample is sandwiched between two disks of a reference material (single crystal quartz is being used initially as reference material). The heat flow is determined twice in order to determine that steady state conditions prevail; the temperature drop over the two references is measured. When these indicate an equal heat flow, the thermal conductivity of the sample can be calculated from the temperature difference of the two faces. The second technique is for determining effect of temperature in a water saturated shale on a larger scale. Cylindrical shale (or siltstone) specimens that are being studied (large for a laboratory sample) are to be heated electrically at the center, contained in a pressure vessel that will maintain a fixed water pressure around it. The temperature is monitored at many points within the shale sample. The sample dimensions are 25 cm diameter, 20 cm long. A micro computer system has been constructed to monitor 16 thermocouples to record variation of temperature distribution with time
Comparative assessment of PV plant performance models considering climate effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tina, Giuseppe; Ventura, Cristina; Sera, Dezso
2017-01-01
. The methodological approach is based on comparative tests of the analyzed models applied to two PV plants installed respectively in north of Denmark (Aalborg) and in the south of Italy (Agrigento). The different ambient, operating and installation conditions allow to understand how these factors impact the precision...
modeling the effect of bandwidth allocation on network performance
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Modeling The Effect Of Bandwidth Allocation On Network Performance. MODELING THE EFFECT OF BANDWIDTH ... ABSTRACT. In this paper, a new channel capacity model for interference- limited systems was obtained .... congestion admission control, with the intent of minimizing energy consumption at each terminal.
Receiver Prejudice and Model Ethnicity: Impact on Advertising Effectiveness.
Lai, Hsiu-Chen Sandra; And Others
1990-01-01
Assesses the effect of model ethnicity on prejudiced respondents, and thus on advertising effectiveness. Finds that, for the most part, use of Asian models does not cause prejudiced respondents to evaluate a product or advertisement more negatively than when White models are used. (SR)
Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models
J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); A.J. Koning (Alex); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)
2007-01-01
textabstractMultiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are only suitable for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an
Computer model for predicting the effect of inherited sterility on population growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carpenter, J.E.; Layton, R.C.
1993-01-01
A Fortran based computer program was developed to facilitate modelling different inherited sterility data sets under various paradigms. The model was designed to allow variable input for several different parameters, such as rate of increase per generation, release ratio and initial population levels, reproductive rates and sex ratios resulting from different matings, and the number of nights a female is active in mating and oviposition. The model and computer program should be valuable tools for recognizing areas in which information is lacking and for identifying the effect that different parameters can have on the efficacy of the inherited sterility method. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs
Fokkema, M; Smits, N; Zeileis, A; Hothorn, T; Kelderman, H
2017-10-25
Identification of subgroups of patients for whom treatment A is more effective than treatment B, and vice versa, is of key importance to the development of personalized medicine. Tree-based algorithms are helpful tools for the detection of such interactions, but none of the available algorithms allow for taking into account clustered or nested dataset structures, which are particularly common in psychological research. Therefore, we propose the generalized linear mixed-effects model tree (GLMM tree) algorithm, which allows for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions, while accounting for the clustered structure of a dataset. The algorithm uses model-based recursive partitioning to detect treatment-subgroup interactions, and a GLMM to estimate the random-effects parameters. In a simulation study, GLMM trees show higher accuracy in recovering treatment-subgroup interactions, higher predictive accuracy, and lower type II error rates than linear-model-based recursive partitioning and mixed-effects regression trees. Also, GLMM trees show somewhat higher predictive accuracy than linear mixed-effects models with pre-specified interaction effects, on average. We illustrate the application of GLMM trees on an individual patient-level data meta-analysis on treatments for depression. We conclude that GLMM trees are a promising exploratory tool for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered datasets.
Effect of GPS errors on Emission model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmann, Anders; Gross, Allan
n this paper we will show how Global Positioning Services (GPS) data obtained from smartphones can be used to model air quality in urban settings. The paper examines the uncertainty of smartphone location utilising GPS, and ties this location uncertainty to air quality models. The results presented...... in this paper indicates that the location error from using smartphones is within the accuracy needed to use the location data in air quality modelling. The nature of smartphone location data enables more accurate and near real time air quality modelling and monitoring. The location data is harvested from user...
ACCOUNTING FOR GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS ALLOWANCES IN ROMANIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius Deac
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The present paper tries to analyze the accounting challenges that the implementation of EU Emissions Trading Scheme has risen. On 2 December 2004, IASB has issued an interpretation regarding the accounting of the GHG emissions allowances (IFRIC 3 „Emission Rights”. This interpretation should have been effective for annual periods beginning after 1 March 2005, the first year of the EU Emission Trading Scheme implementation. Less than a year after it was issued, IFRIC has withdrawn IFRIC 3. In December 2007, IASB has started a new project in order to provide guidance on accounting for carbon allowances called Emissions Trading Schemes Project. In the absence of an accounting standard regarding the accounting of these emissions allowances a diversity of accounting practices have been identified. Nowadays, there are three main accounting practices for the recognition of the emissions allowances and the GHG emissions liabilities: IFRIC 3 approach, the government grants approach and the net liability or off balance sheet approach. The accounting treatment of greenhouse gas emissions allowances by Romanian companies resembles the net liability or off balance sheet approach. Finance Ministry Order no. 1118/2012 states that GHG emission certificates should be recognized as fixed assets (if the entity is expecting a profit in the long term or in the category of short term investments (if the entity is expecting a profit in the short term. The accounting of the greenhouse gas emissions allowances described above is applicable mainly to traders of such certificates and not for the installations in the scope of the EU ETS directive, which should recognize GHG emissions off balance sheet, at their nominal value (nil if received for free. The shortfall or excess of allowances will be recognized in the profit or loss as they are bought or sold by the entity (the accounting treatment imposed by Finance Ministry Order no. 3055/2009.
Modelling of rate effects at multiple scales
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.
2008-01-01
, the length scale in the meso-model and the macro-model can be coupled. In this fashion, a bridging of length scales can be established. A computational analysis of a Split Hopkinson bar test at medium and high impact load is carried out at macro-scale and meso-scale including information from the micro-scale....
Comparison of three artificial models of the MHD effect on the electrocardiogram
Oster, Julien; Llinares, Raul; Payne, Stephen; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Schmidt, Ehud Jeruham; Clifford, Gari D.
2013-01-01
The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is often acquired during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for both image acquisition synchronisation with heart activity and patient monitoring to alert for life-threatening events. Accurate ECG analysis is mandatory for cutting-edge applications, such as MRI guided interventions. Nevertheless, the majority of the clinical analysis of ECG acquired inside MRI is made difficult by the superposition of a voltage called the MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) effect. MHD is induced by the flow of electrically charged particles in the blood perpendicular to the static magnetic field, which creates a potential of the order of magnitude of the ECG and temporally coincident with the repolatisation period. In this study, a new MHD model is proposed which is an extension of several existing models and incorporates MRI-based blood flow measurements made across the aortic arch. The model is extended to several cardiac cycles to allow the simulation of a realistic ECG acquisition during MRI examination and the quality assessment of MHD suppression techniques. A comparison of two existing models is made with our new model and with an estimate of the MHD voltage observed during a real MRI scan. Results indicate a good agreement between our proposed model and the estimated MHD for most leads, although there are clearly some descrepencies with the observed signal which are likely to be due to remaining deficiencies in the model. However, the results demonstrate that our new model provides a closer approximation to observed MHD effects and a better depiction of the complexity of the MHD effect compared to the previously published models. The source code will be made freely available under and open source license to facilitate collaboration and allow more rapid development of more accurate models of the MHD effect. PMID:24761753
Nature of size effects in compact models of field effect transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torkhov, N. A., E-mail: trkf@mail.ru [Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Scientific-Research Institute of Semiconductor Devices, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Babak, L. I.; Kokolov, A. A.; Salnikov, A. S.; Dobush, I. M. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Novikov, V. A., E-mail: novikovvadim@mail.ru; Ivonin, I. V. [Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)
2016-03-07
Investigations have shown that in the local approximation (for sizes L < 100 μm), AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures satisfy to all properties of chaotic systems and can be described in the language of fractal geometry of fractional dimensions. For such objects, values of their electrophysical characteristics depend on the linear sizes of the examined regions, which explain the presence of the so-called size effects—dependences of the electrophysical and instrumental characteristics on the linear sizes of the active elements of semiconductor devices. In the present work, a relationship has been established for the linear model parameters of the equivalent circuit elements of internal transistors with fractal geometry of the heteroepitaxial structure manifested through a dependence of its relative electrophysical characteristics on the linear sizes of the examined surface areas. For the HEMTs, this implies dependences of their relative static (A/mm, mA/V/mm, Ω/mm, etc.) and microwave characteristics (W/mm) on the width d of the sink-source channel and on the number of sections n that leads to a nonlinear dependence of the retrieved parameter values of equivalent circuit elements of linear internal transistor models on n and d. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the size effects in semiconductors determined by the fractal geometry must be taken into account when investigating the properties of semiconductor objects on the levels less than the local approximation limit and designing and manufacturing field effect transistors. In general, the suggested approach allows a complex of problems to be solved on designing, optimizing, and retrieving the parameters of equivalent circuits of linear and nonlinear models of not only field effect transistors but also any arbitrary semiconductor devices with nonlinear instrumental characteristics.
Yiu, Sean; Farewell, Vernon T; Tom, Brian D M
2018-02-01
In psoriatic arthritis, it is important to understand the joint activity (represented by swelling and pain) and damage processes because both are related to severe physical disability. The paper aims to provide a comprehensive investigation into both processes occurring over time, in particular their relationship, by specifying a joint multistate model at the individual hand joint level, which also accounts for many of their important features. As there are multiple hand joints, such an analysis will be based on the use of clustered multistate models. Here we consider an observation level random-effects structure with dynamic covariates and allow for the possibility that a subpopulation of patients is at minimal risk of damage. Such an analysis is found to provide further understanding of the activity-damage relationship beyond that provided by previous analyses. Consideration is also given to the modelling of mean sojourn times and jump probabilities. In particular, a novel model parameterization which allows easily interpretable covariate effects to act on these quantities is proposed.
Expanding the Allowable TRUPACT-II Payload
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
St Michel, W.; Lott, S.
2002-01-01
The partnership between the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the TRU and Mixed Waste Focus Area (TMFA) was rewarded when several long-term projects came to fruition. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) removed some of the conservatism in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) with their approval of Revision 19. The SARP strictly limits the payload constituents to ensure that hydrogen gas and other flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) don't build up to flammable/explosive levels while the transuranic (TRU) waste is sealed in the container during shipment. The CBFO/TMFA development program was based on laboratory experiments with surrogate waste materials, real waste experiments, and theoretical modeling that were used to justify payload expansion. Future work to expand the shipping envelope of the TRUPACT-II focuses on increasing the throughput through the waste certification process and reducing the waste operations costs by removing the need for a repack aging and/or treatment capability or reducing the size of the needed repackaging/treatment capability
Modeling Natural Space Ionizing Radiation Effects on External Materials
Alstatt, Richard L.; Edwards, David L.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Predicting the effective life of materials for space applications has become increasingly critical with the drive to reduce mission cost. Programs have considered many solutions to reduce launch costs including novel, low mass materials and thin thermal blankets to reduce spacecraft mass. Determining the long-term survivability of these materials before launch is critical for mission success. This presentation will describe an analysis performed on the outer layer of the passive thermal control blanket of the Hubble Space Telescope. This layer had degraded for unknown reasons during the mission, however ionizing radiation (IR) induced embrittlement was suspected. A methodology was developed which allowed direct comparison between the energy deposition of the natural environment and that of the laboratory generated environment. Commercial codes were used to predict the natural space IR environment model energy deposition in the material from both natural and laboratory IR sources, and design the most efficient test. Results were optimized for total and local energy deposition with an iterative spreadsheet. This method has been used successfully for several laboratory tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The study showed that the natural space IR environment, by itself, did not cause the premature degradation observed in the thermal blanket.
Emergent universe model with dissipative effects
Debnath, P. S.; Paul, B. C.
2017-12-01
Emergent universe model is presented in general theory of relativity with isotropic fluid in addition to viscosity. We obtain cosmological solutions that permit emergent universe scenario in the presence of bulk viscosity that are described by either Eckart theory or Truncated Israel Stewart (TIS) theory. The stability of the solutions are also studied. In this case, the emergent universe (EU) model is analyzed with observational data. In the presence of viscosity, one obtains emergent universe scenario, which however is not permitted in the absence of viscosity. The EU model is compatible with cosmological observations.
Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode; Overgaard, Rune Viig; Madsen, Henrik
2009-06-01
The extension from ordinary to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is an emerging field and has been motivated in a number of articles [N.R. Kristensen, H. Madsen, S.H. Ingwersen, Using stochastic differential equations for PK/PD model development, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 109-141; C.W. Tornøe, R.V. Overgaard, H. Agersø, H.A. Nielsen, H. Madsen, E.N. Jonsson, Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations, Pharm. Res. 22 (August(8)) (2005) 1247-1258; R.V. Overgaard, N. Jonsson, C.W. Tornøe, H. Madsen, Non-linear mixed-effects models with stochastic differential equations: implementation of an estimation algorithm, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 85-107; U. Picchini, S. Ditlevsen, A. De Gaetano, Maximum likelihood estimation of a time-inhomogeneous stochastic differential model of glucose dynamics, Math. Med. Biol. 25 (June(2)) (2008) 141-155]. PK/PD models are traditionally based ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with an observation link that incorporates noise. This state-space formulation only allows for observation noise and not for system noise. Extending to SDEs allows for a Wiener noise component in the system equations. This additional noise component enables handling of autocorrelated residuals originating from natural variation or systematic model error. Autocorrelated residuals are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE(1) approximation to the population likelihood which is generated from the individual likelihoods that are approximated using the Extended Kalman Filter's one-step predictions.
Advertising effects in Sznajd marketing model
Schulze, Christian
2002-01-01
The traditional Sznajd model, as well as its Ochrombel simplification for opinion spreading, are applied to marketing with the help of advertising. The larger the lattice is the smaller is the amount of advertising needed to convince the whole market
Modelling irradiation effects in fusion materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Victoria, M.; Dudarev, S.; Boutard, J.L.
2007-01-01
We review the current status of the European fusion materials modelling programme. We describe recent findings and outline potential areas for future development. Large-scale density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the structure of the point defects in α-Fe, and highlight the crucial ....... Experiments aimed at validating the models will be carried out in the future using a multi-beam ion irradiation facility chosen for its versatility and rapid feedback....
Force Modelling in Orthogonal Cutting Considering Flank Wear Effect
Rathod, Kanti Bhikhubhai; Lalwani, Devdas I.
2017-05-01
In the present work, an attempt has been made to provide a predictive cutting force model during orthogonal cutting by combining two different force models, that is, a force model for a perfectly sharp tool plus considering the effect of edge radius and a force model for a worn tool. The first force model is for a perfectly sharp tool that is based on Oxley's predictive machining theory for orthogonal cutting as the Oxley's model is for perfectly sharp tool, the effect of cutting edge radius (hone radius) is added and improve model is presented. The second force model is based on worn tool (flank wear) that was proposed by Waldorf. Further, the developed combined force model is also used to predict flank wear width using inverse approach. The performance of the developed combined total force model is compared with the previously published results for AISI 1045 and AISI 4142 materials and found reasonably good agreement.
Review of health effects models for Level 3 PSA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seok Jung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
Many international organizations have developed health risk models. Especially, as radiation-induced cancer is an important part among health effects, development has been focused on cancer risk model. This paper reviewed the cancer risk models of international agencies; United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Moreover, as pre-research for improving the health risk model in Korea, this paper analyzed the three methodologies and specific details in modeling. International agencies have developed radiation-induced cancer risk model reflecting the recent A-bomb survivor LSS data. This paper reviewed the recent cancer risk model of UNSCEAR, NAS and ICRP. All three models were based on ERR and EAR model in the form of a multiplication of dose-response model and modification function. Lifetime risk was calculated as a function of exposure age and gender.
Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baas, Jan, E-mail: jan.baas@falw.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stefanowicz, Anna M., E-mail: anna.stefanowicz@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Klimek, Beata, E-mail: beata.klimek@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard.laskowski@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M., E-mail: bas@bio.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2010-01-15
We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for effects on survival. The behavior of the threshold concentration was one of the key features of this research. We showed that the threshold concentration is shared by toxicants with the same mode of action, which gives a mechanistic explanation for the observation that toxic effects in mixtures may occur in concentration ranges where the individual components do not show effects. Our approach gives reliable predictions of partial effects on survival and allows for a reduction of experimental effort in assessing effects of mixtures, extrapolations to other mixtures, other points in time, or in a wider perspective to other organisms. - We show a mechanistic approach to assess effects of mixtures in low concentrations.
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
2007-01-01
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Integrating Effects-Based and Attrition-Based Modeling
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
DeGregorio, Edward A; Janssen, Raymond A; Wagenhals, Lee W; Messier, Richard H
2004-01-01
.... Modeling the NCW EBO process attempts to codify the belief structure and reasoning of adversaries and their cause-effect relationships with US and coalition actions, including mitigating undesired effects...
Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.
Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W
1990-01-01
A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers.
Effective model of nonlinear circuit quantum electrodynamics
Nigg, Simon; Devoret, Michel; Girvin, Steven
2012-02-01
Superconducting electronic circuits containing nonlinear elements such as Josephson junctions are of interest for quantum information processing. The low-energy spectrum of such circuits can now be measured to a precision of better than one part per million. A precise knowledge of their Hamiltonian that goes beyond current models is thus desirable. In this talk I will show how to quantize a superconducting, weakly nonlinear circuit from the knowledge of its classical linear admittance matrix. This approach represents a change of paradigm in circuit quantum electrodynamics and may potentially become a useful alternative to the standard models based on the language of atomic physics and quantum optics.
Atmospheric characteristics essential for health effects modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, N.S.
1977-01-01
Factors to be considered in evaluating the possible consequences of exposure of human populations to radioactive aerosols are reviewed. Mathematical models of the mechanisms of radioinduced carcinogenesis, tissue deposition and lung clearance of radioactive aerosols, and meteorological parameters affecting the diffusion of radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere are discussed
Enhanced battery model including temperature effects
Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.
2013-01-01
Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a
A Connectionist Model of Instructional Feedback Effects.
Clariana, Roy B.
Connectionist models apply various mathematical rules within neural network computer simulations in an effort, among other things, to mimic and describe human memory associations and learning. Learning involves the interaction of information provided by instruction with existing information already in the learner's memory (Ausubel, 1968; Bruner,…
Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin
2007-01-01
We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...
Bilinear Mixed Effects Models for Dyadic Data
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hoff, Peter D
2003-01-01
This article discusses the use of a symmetric multiplicative interaction effect to capture certain types of third-order dependence patterns often present in social networks and other dyadic datasets...
Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling: individualization and prediction.
Olofsen, Erik; Dinges, David F; Van Dongen, Hans P A
2004-03-01
The development of biomathematical models for the prediction of fatigue and performance relies on statistical techniques to analyze experimental data and model simulations. Statistical models of empirical data have adjustable parameters with a priori unknown values. Interindividual variability in estimates of those values requires a form of smoothing. This traditionally consists of averaging observations across subjects, or fitting a model to the data of individual subjects first and subsequently averaging the parameter estimates. However, the standard errors of the parameter estimates are assessed inaccurately by such averaging methods. The reason is that intra- and inter-individual variabilities are intertwined. They can be separated by mixed-effects modeling in which model predictions are not only determined by fixed effects (usually constant parameters or functions of time) but also by random effects, describing the sampling of subject-specific parameter values from probability distributions. By estimating the parameters of the distributions of the random effects, mixed-effects models can describe experimental observations involving multiple subjects properly (i.e., yielding correct estimates of the standard errors) and parsimoniously (i.e., estimating no more parameters than necessary). Using a Bayesian approach, mixed-effects models can be "individualized" as observations are acquired that capture the unique characteristics of the individual at hand. Mixed-effects models, therefore, have unique advantages in research on human neurobehavioral functions, which frequently show large inter-individual differences. To illustrate this we analyzed laboratory neurobehavioral performance data acquired during sleep deprivation, using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. The results serve to demonstrate the usefulness of mixed-effects modeling for data-driven development of individualized predictive models of fatigue and performance.
Generalized Degrees of Freedom and Adaptive Model Selection in Linear Mixed-Effects Models.
Zhang, Bo; Shen, Xiaotong; Mumford, Sunni L
2012-03-01
Linear mixed-effects models involve fixed effects, random effects and covariance structure, which require model selection to simplify a model and to enhance its interpretability and predictability. In this article, we develop, in the context of linear mixed-effects models, the generalized degrees of freedom and an adaptive model selection procedure defined by a data-driven model complexity penalty. Numerically, the procedure performs well against its competitors not only in selecting fixed effects but in selecting random effects and covariance structure as well. Theoretically, asymptotic optimality of the proposed methodology is established over a class of information criteria. The proposed methodology is applied to the BioCycle study, to determine predictors of hormone levels among premenopausal women and to assess variation in hormone levels both between and within women across the menstrual cycle.
The effect of Cordia platythyrsa on various experimental models of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Ned
2014-01-08
Jan 8, 2014 ... investigating the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of C. platythyrsa using various animal models: writhing test ... inhibited acetic acid-induced pain though these effects were weaker than the effects of morphine. Although, the ..... visceral pain model is used generally for screening compounds for ...
Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students
Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin
2009-01-01
This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...
Effect of Constructivist - Based Instructional Model on Students ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent group control design involving two intact classes were used to determine the effect of constructivist-based instructional model-Generative Learning Model (GLM) on students' conceptual change and knowledge retention in chemistry. Effect of GLM on gender is also monitored.
Effective Reading and Writing Instruction: A Focus on Modeling
Regan, Kelley; Berkeley, Sheri
2012-01-01
When providing effective reading and writing instruction, teachers need to provide explicit modeling. Modeling is particularly important when teaching students to use cognitive learning strategies. Examples of how teachers can provide specific, explicit, and flexible instructional modeling is presented in the context of two evidence-based…
Seventh Grade Students' Mental Models of the Greenhouse Effect
Shepardson, Daniel P.; Choi, Soyoung; Niyogi, Dev; Charusombat, Umarporn
2011-01-01
This constructivist study investigates 225 student drawings and explanations from three different schools in the midwest in the US, to identify seventh grade students' mental models of the greenhouse effect. Five distinct mental models were derived from an inductive analysis of the content of the students' drawings and explanations: Model 1, a…
High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models
Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.
2014-12-01
Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (solutions for rectification of the problem.
Environmental Radiation Effects on Mammals A Dynamical Modeling Approach
Smirnova, Olga A
2010-01-01
This text is devoted to the theoretical studies of radiation effects on mammals. It uses the framework of developed deterministic mathematical models to investigate the effects of both acute and chronic irradiation in a wide range of doses and dose rates on vital body systems including hematopoiesis, small intestine and humoral immunity, as well as on the development of autoimmune diseases. Thus, these models can contribute to the development of the system and quantitative approaches in radiation biology and ecology. This text is also of practical use. Its modeling studies of the dynamics of granulocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis in humans testify to the efficiency of employment of the developed models in the investigation and prediction of radiation effects on these hematopoietic lines. These models, as well as the properly identified models of other vital body systems, could provide a better understanding of the radiation risks to health. The modeling predictions will enable the implementation of more ef...
SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS
Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN
2014-01-01
Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits) over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed o...
Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pasquale Martiniello
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV. The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.
Global dynamics and bifurcation analysis of a host-parasitoid model with strong Allee effect.
Khan, Abdul Qadeer; Ma, Jiying; Xiao, Dongmei
2017-12-01
In this paper, we study the global dynamics and bifurcations of a two-dimensional discrete time host-parasitoid model with strong Allee effect. The existence of fixed points and their stability are analysed in all allowed parametric region. The bifurcation analysis shows that the model can undergo fold bifurcation and Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. As the parameters vary in a small neighbourhood of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation condition, the unique positive fixed point changes its stability and an invariant closed circle bifurcates from the positive fixed point. From the viewpoint of biology, the invariant closed curve corresponds to the periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations between host and parasitoid populations. Furthermore, it is proved that all solutions of this model are bounded, and there exist some values of the parameters such that the model has a global attractor. These theoretical results reveal the complex dynamics of the present model.
Separating form factor and nuclear model effects in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering
Wieske, Joseph
2017-09-01
When studying neutrino oscillations an understanding of charged current quasielastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus scattering is imperative. This interaction depends on a nuclear model as well as knowledge of form factors. In the past, CCQE data from the MiniBooNE experiment was analyzed assuming the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) nuclear model, an axial dipole form factor in, and using the the z-expansion for the axial form factor in. We present the first analysis that combines a non-RFG nuclear model, in particular the Correlated Fermi Gas nuclear model (CFG) of, and the z expansion for the axial form factor. This will allow us to separate form factor and nuclear model effects in CCQE scattering. This project was supported through the Wayne State University REU program under NSF Grant PHY-1460853 and by the DOE Grant DE-SC0007983.
Lin, Cheng-Jhe; Wu, Changxu
2012-01-01
Numerical typing is an important perceptual-motor task whose performance may vary with different pacing, finger strategies and urgency of situations. Queuing network-model human processor (QN-MHP), a computational architecture, allows performance of perceptual-motor tasks to be modelled mathematically. The current study enhanced QN-MHP with a top-down control mechanism, a close-loop movement control and a finger-related motor control mechanism to account for task interference, endpoint reduction, and force deficit, respectively. The model also incorporated neuromotor noise theory to quantify endpoint variability in typing. The model predictions of typing speed and accuracy were validated with Lin and Wu's (2011) experimental results. The resultant root-mean-squared errors were 3.68% with a correlation of 95.55% for response time, and 35.10% with a correlation of 96.52% for typing accuracy. The model can be applied to provide optimal speech rates for voice synthesis and keyboard designs in different numerical typing situations. An enhanced QN-MHP model was proposed in the study to mathematically account for the effects of pacing, finger strategies and internalised urgency on numerical typing performance. The model can be used to provide optimal pacing for voice synthesise systems and suggested optimal numerical keyboard designs under urgency.
Modelling of the tunnelling effect in granulated metallic nanostructures
Istratov, A. V.; Kucherik, A. O.
2018-01-01
Obtaining thin films of today is unthinkable without use of mathematical modeling, numerical methods and complex programs. In this regard, the practical importance of this calculations is that it can be used to investigate the conductivity of nano-sized granular structures that expands the diagnostic capabilities of thin films, opens up new perspectives in the creation of new devices based on thin-film technology, allow to predict their properties.
Coulaud, Romain; Geffard, Olivier; Coquillat, Amandine; Quéau, Hervé; Charles, Sandrine; Chaumot, Arnaud
2014-06-03
Evaluating the effects of chemical contamination on populations and ecological communities still constitutes a challenging necessity in environmental management. However, the toxic effects of contaminants are commonly measured by means of organism-level responses. Linking such effects measures with ecological models is a promising way to determine population-level impacts. In this way, population models are currently increasingly used in predictive risk assessment procedures, but their use in environmental diagnostic framework remains limited due to their lack of ecological realism. The present study with the crustacean Gammarus fossarum, a sentinel species in freshwater monitoring, combines a dual field and laboratory experimental approach with a population modeling framework. In this way, we developed an ecologically relevant periodic matrix population model for Gammarus. This model allowed us to capture the population dynamics in the field, and to understand the particular pattern of demographic sensitivities induced by Gammarus life-history phenology. The model we developed provided a robust population-level assessment of in situ-based effects measures recorded during a biomonitoring program on a French watershed impacted by past mining activities. Thus, our study illustrates the potential of population modeling when seeking to decipher the role of environmental toxic contamination in ecological perturbations.
Maruotti, Antonello; Raponi, Valentina; Lagona, Francesco
2016-03-01
We describe a mixed-effects model for nonnegative continuous cross-sectional data in a two-part modelling framework. A potentially endogenous binary variable is included in the model specification and association between the outcomes is modeled through a (discrete) latent structure. We show how model parameters can be estimated in a finite mixture context, allowing for skewness, multivariate association between random effects and endogeneity. The model behavior is investigated through a large-scale simulation experiment. The proposed model is computationally parsimonious and seems to produce acceptable results even if the underlying random effects structure follows a continuous parametric (e.g. Gaussian) distribution. The proposed approach is motivated by the analysis of a sample taken from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The analyzed outcome, that is ambulatory health expenditure, is a mixture of zeros and continuous values. The effects of socio-demographic characteristics on health expenditure are investigated and, as a by-product of the estimation procedure, two subpopulations (i.e. high and low users) are identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.
1993-05-01
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysisclose quotes, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,close quotes was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model
Wei, Jiawei
2011-07-01
We consider the problem of testing for a constant nonparametric effect in a general semi-parametric regression model when there is the potential for interaction between the parametrically and nonparametrically modeled variables. The work was originally motivated by a unique testing problem in genetic epidemiology (Chatterjee, et al., 2006) that involved a typical generalized linear model but with an additional term reminiscent of the Tukey one-degree-of-freedom formulation, and their interest was in testing for main effects of the genetic variables, while gaining statistical power by allowing for a possible interaction between genes and the environment. Later work (Maity, et al., 2009) involved the possibility of modeling the environmental variable nonparametrically, but they focused on whether there was a parametric main effect for the genetic variables. In this paper, we consider the complementary problem, where the interest is in testing for the main effect of the nonparametrically modeled environmental variable. We derive a generalized likelihood ratio test for this hypothesis, show how to implement it, and provide evidence that our method can improve statistical power when compared to standard partially linear models with main effects only. We use the method for the primary purpose of analyzing data from a case-control study of colorectal adenoma.
Life course models: improving interpretation by consideration of total effects.
Green, Michael J; Popham, Frank
2017-06-01
Life course epidemiology has used models of accumulation and critical or sensitive periods to examine the importance of exposure timing in disease aetiology. These models are usually used to describe the direct effects of exposures over the life course. In comparison with consideration of direct effects only, we show how consideration of total effects improves interpretation of these models, giving clearer notions of when it will be most effective to intervene. We show how life course variation in the total effects depends on the magnitude of the direct effects and the stability of the exposure. We discuss interpretation in terms of total, direct and indirect effects and highlight the causal assumptions required for conclusions as to the most effective timing of interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Measuring effectiveness of a university by a parallel network DEA model
Kashim, Rosmaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Rahman, Rosshairy Abd
2017-11-01
Universities contribute significantly to the development of human capital and socio-economic improvement of a country. Due to that, Malaysian universities carried out various initiatives to improve their performance. Most studies have used the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to measure efficiency rather than effectiveness, even though, the measurement of effectiveness is important to realize how effective a university in achieving its ultimate goals. A university system has two major functions, namely teaching and research and every function has different resources based on its emphasis. Therefore, a university is actually structured as a parallel production system with its overall effectiveness is the aggregated effectiveness of teaching and research. Hence, this paper is proposing a parallel network DEA model to measure the effectiveness of a university. This model includes internal operations of both teaching and research functions into account in computing the effectiveness of a university system. In literature, the graduate and the number of program offered are defined as the outputs, then, the employed graduates and the numbers of programs accredited from professional bodies are considered as the outcomes for measuring the teaching effectiveness. Amount of grants is regarded as the output of research, while the different quality of publications considered as the outcomes of research. A system is considered effective if only all functions are effective. This model has been tested using a hypothetical set of data consisting of 14 faculties at a public university in Malaysia. The results show that none of the faculties is relatively effective for the overall performance. Three faculties are effective in teaching and two faculties are effective in research. The potential applications of the parallel network DEA model allow the top management of a university to identify weaknesses in any functions in their universities and take rational steps for improvement.
Modeling the effects of pharmaceutical marketing
Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wieringa, J.E.
Successful innovation of prescription drugs requires a substantial amount of marketing support. There is, however, much concern about the effects of marketing expenditures on the demand of pharmaceutical products (Manchanda et al., Market Lett 16(3/4):293-308, 2005). For example, excessive marketing
Improved Inference of Heteroscedastic Fixed Effects Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Afshan Saeed
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Heteroscedasticity is a stern problem that distorts estimation and testing of panel data model (PDM. Arellano (1987 proposed the White (1980 estimator for PDM with heteroscedastic errors but it provides erroneous inference for the data sets including high leverage points. In this paper, our attempt is to improve heteroscedastic consistent covariance matrix estimator (HCCME for panel dataset with high leverage points. To draw robust inference for the PDM, our focus is to improve kernel bootstrap estimators, proposed by Racine and MacKinnon (2007. The Monte Carlo scheme is used for assertion of the results.
Model Equations of Shape Memory Effect - Nitinol
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion Vela
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Even it has been already confirmed that SMA’s have high potential for robotic actuators, actuators included in space robotics, underwater robotics, robotics for logistics, safety, as well as “green robotics” (robotics for the environment, energy conservation, sustainable development or agriculture, the number of applications of SMA-based actuators is still quite small, especially in applications in which their large strains, high specific work output and structural integration potential are useful,. The paper presents a formulated mathematical model calculated for binary SMA (Ni-Ti, helpful to estimate the stress distribution along with the transformation ratio of a SMA active element.
Modeling of Dissolution Effects on Waterflooding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexeev, Artem; Shapiro, Alexander; Thomsen, Kaj
2015-01-01
Physico-chemical interactions between the fluid and reservoir rock due to the presence of active components in the injected brine produce changes within the reservoir and can significantly impact the fluid flow. We have developed a 1D numerical model for waterflooding accounting for dissolution...... and precipitation of the components. Extending previous studies, we consider an arbitrary chemical non-equilibrium reaction-induced dissolution. We account for different individual volumes that a component has when precipitated or dissolved. This volume non-additivity also affects the pressure and the flow rate......-additivity is found to be responsible for insignificant change in the velocity of the displacement front....
The Rebound Effect: A Simulation Model of Telecommuting
Reitan, Fredrik Aadne
2014-01-01
This thesis aims to highlight the relationship between telecommuting and the rebound effect with respect to greenhouse gas emissions. This was done by gathering and analyzing the latest research from various fields that could provide information about telecommuting and the rebound effect. By surveying these fields, an informative and well-documented framework for modeling telecommuting and the rebound effect was made possible. The simulation model simulated the adoption of telecommuting in Lo...
Modeling Radiation Effectiveness for Inactivation of Bacillus Spores
2015-09-17
MODELING RADIATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES DISSERTATION Emily A. Knight, Major, USAF AFIT-ENC-DS-15-S-001 DEPARTMENT OF THE...not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENC-DS-15-S-001 MODELING RADIATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES...EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES Emily A. Knight, B.A., M.S. Major, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. William P. Baker Chair Dr. Larry W
Multivariate Term Structure Models with Level and Heteroskedasticity Effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Charlotte
2005-01-01
The paper introduces and estimates a multivariate level-GARCH model for the long rate and the term-structure spread where the conditional volatility is proportional to the ãth power of the variable itself (level effects) and the conditional covariance matrix evolves according to a multivariate GA...... and the level model. GARCH effects are more important than level effects. The results are robust to the maturity of the interest rates. Udgivelsesdato: MAY...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto
2006-02-01
allowance (HA (kg of leaf blade /100 kg animal live weight/day, % were: 6.1 ± 0.59; 11.1 ± 0.77; 18.0 ± 1.24 and 23.9 ± 1.15%. Eight Nelore animals averaging 229.0 and 249.5 kg grazed each paddock in the first and second sampling periods, respectively. A completely randomized block design was used. Grazing time, leaf dry matter availability, leaf:stem ratio and canopy height were highly correlated with forage intake and can be used to develop prediction models of forage intake and performance of the grazing animal. Studies on intake and grazing animal performance in relation to forage allowances should consider the pasture structural traits for data interpretation and comparison. Tanzaniagrass forage allowances induced changes in the pasture structural characteristics and had quadratic effect on the daily grazing time and on the forage intake by Nelore steers. Shortest grazing time and highest forage intake were observed on pasture with herbage allowance of about 22.5 kg leaf blade/100 kg BW, which corresponded to a post-grazing mass of 4323.2 kg/ha dry matter, 2887.6 kg/ha dry green matter and average canopy height of 64 cm.
Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.
2004-01-01
At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...
Effective UV radiation from model calculations and measurements
Feister, Uwe; Grewe, Rolf
1994-01-01
Model calculations have been made to simulate the effect of atmospheric ozone and geographical as well as meteorological parameters on solar UV radiation reaching the ground. Total ozone values as measured by Dobson spectrophotometer and Brewer spectrometer as well as turbidity were used as input to the model calculation. The performance of the model was tested by spectroradiometric measurements of solar global UV radiation at Potsdam. There are small differences that can be explained by the uncertainty of the measurements, by the uncertainty of input data to the model and by the uncertainty of the radiative transfer algorithms of the model itself. Some effects of solar radiation to the biosphere and to air chemistry are discussed. Model calculations and spectroradiometric measurements can be used to study variations of the effective radiation in space in space time. The comparability of action spectra and their uncertainties are also addressed.
Modeling hurricane effects on mangrove ecosystems
Doyle, Thomas W.
1997-01-01
Mangrove ecosystems are at their most northern limit along the coastline of Florida and in isolated areas of the gulf coast in Louisiana and Texas. Mangroves are marine-based forests that have adapted to colonize and persist in salty intertidal waters. Three species of mangrove trees are common to the United States, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems and provide valuable habitat for fisheries and shorebirds. They are susceptible to lightning and hurricane disturbance, both of which occur frequently in south Florida. Climate change studies predict that, while these storms may not become more frequent, they may become more intense with warming sea temperatures. Sea-level rise alone has the potential for increasing the severity of storm surge, particularly in areas where coastal habitats and barrier shorelines are rapidly deteriorating. Given this possibility, U.S. Geological Survey researchers modeled the impact of hurricanes on south Florida mangrove communities.
Middle-School Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect using a NetLogo Computer Model
Schultz, L.; Koons, P. O.; Schauffler, M.
2009-12-01
We investigated the effectiveness of a freely available agent based, modeling program as a learning tool for seventh and eighth grade students to explore the greenhouse effect without added curriculum. The investigation was conducted at two Maine middle-schools with 136 seventh-grade students and 11 eighth-grade students in eight classes. Students were given a pre-test that consisted of a concept map, a free-response question, and multiple-choice questions about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature. The computer model simulates the greenhouse effect and allows students to manipulate atmospheric and surface conditions to observe the effects on the Earth’s temperature. Students explored the Greenhouse Effect model for approximately twenty minutes with only two focus questions for guidance. After the exploration period, students were given a post-test that was identical to the pre-test. Parametric post-test analysis of the assessments indicated middle-school students gained in their understanding about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature after exploring the computer model for approximately twenty minutes. The magnitude of the changes in pre- and post-test concept map and free-response scores were small (average free-response post-test score of 7.0) compared to an expert's score (48), indicating that students understood only a few of the system relationships. While students gained in their understanding about the greenhouse effect, there was evidence that students held onto their misconceptions that (1) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere deteriorates the ozone layer, (2) the greenhouse effect is a result of humans burning fossil fuels, and (3) infrared and visible light have similar behaviors with greenhouse gases. We recommend using the Greenhouse Effect computer model with guided inquiry to focus students’ investigations on the system relationships in the model.
Composite symmetry-protected topological order and effective models
Nietner, A.; Krumnow, C.; Bergholtz, E. J.; Eisert, J.
2017-12-01
Strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at low dimension exhibit a wealth of phenomena, ranging from features of geometric frustration to signatures of symmetry-protected topological order. In suitable descriptions of such systems, it can be helpful to resort to effective models, which focus on the essential degrees of freedom of the given model. In this work, we analyze how to determine the validity of an effective model by demanding it to be in the same phase as the original model. We focus our study on one-dimensional spin-1 /2 systems and explain how nontrivial symmetry-protected topologically ordered (SPT) phases of an effective spin-1 model can arise depending on the couplings in the original Hamiltonian. In this analysis, tensor network methods feature in two ways: on the one hand, we make use of recent techniques for the classification of SPT phases using matrix product states in order to identify the phases in the effective model with those in the underlying physical system, employing Künneth's theorem for cohomology. As an intuitive paradigmatic model we exemplify the developed methodology by investigating the bilayered Δ chain. For strong ferromagnetic interlayer couplings, we find the system to transit into exactly the same phase as an effective spin-1 model. However, for weak but finite coupling strength, we identify a symmetry broken phase differing from this effective spin-1 description. On the other hand, we underpin our argument with a numerical analysis making use of matrix product states.
Finite-dimensional effects and critical indices of one-dimensional quantum models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogolyubov, N.M.; Izergin, A.G.; Reshetikhin, N.Yu.
1986-01-01
Critical indices, depending on continuous parameters in Bose-gas quantum models and Heisenberg 1/2 spin antiferromagnetic in two-dimensional space-time at zero temperature, have been calculated by means of finite-dimensional effects. In this case the long-wave asymptotics of the correlation functions is of a power character. Derivation of man asymptotics terms is reduced to the determination of a central charge in the appropriate Virassoro algebra representation and the anomalous dimension-operator spectrum in this representation. The finite-dimensional effects allow to find these values
Schuster, Stefan; Boley, Daniel; Möller, Philip; Stark, Heiko; Kaleta, Christoph
2015-12-01
For producing ATP, tumour cells rely on glycolysis leading to lactate to about the same extent as on respiration. Thus, the ATP synthesis flux from glycolysis is considerably higher than in the corresponding healthy cells. This is known as the Warburg effect (named after German biochemist Otto H. Warburg) and also applies to striated muscle cells, activated lymphocytes, microglia, endothelial cells and several other cell types. For similar phenomena in several yeasts and many bacteria, the terms Crabtree effect and overflow metabolism respectively, are used. The Warburg effect is paradoxical at first sight because the molar ATP yield of glycolysis is much lower than that of respiration. Although a straightforward explanation is that glycolysis allows a higher ATP production rate, the question arises why cells do not re-allocate protein to the high-yield pathway of respiration. Mathematical modelling can help explain this phenomenon. Here, we review several models at various scales proposed in the literature for explaining the Warburg effect. These models support the hypothesis that glycolysis allows for a higher proliferation rate due to increased ATP production and precursor supply rates. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.
Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim
1997-01-01
An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...
Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets.
Steinacher, Marco; Joos, Fortunat; Stocker, Thomas F
2013-07-11
Climate targets are designed to inform policies that would limit the magnitude and impacts of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other substances. The target that is currently recognized by most world governments places a limit of two degrees Celsius on the global mean warming since preindustrial times. This would require large sustained reductions in carbon dioxide emissions during the twenty-first century and beyond. Such a global temperature target, however, is not sufficient to control many other quantities, such as transient sea level rise, ocean acidification and net primary production on land. Here, using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) in an observation-informed Bayesian approach, we show that allowable carbon emissions are substantially reduced when multiple climate targets are set. We take into account uncertainties in physical and carbon cycle model parameters, radiative efficiencies, climate sensitivity and carbon cycle feedbacks along with a large set of observational constraints. Within this framework, we explore a broad range of economically feasible greenhouse gas scenarios from the integrated assessment community to determine the likelihood of meeting a combination of specific global and regional targets under various assumptions. For any given likelihood of meeting a set of such targets, the allowable cumulative emissions are greatly reduced from those inferred from the temperature target alone. Therefore, temperature targets alone are unable to comprehensively limit the risks from anthropogenic emissions.
Modeling Temporal Behavior of Awards Effect on Viewership of Movies
Altaf, Basmah
2017-04-22
The “rich get richer” effect is well-known in recommendation system. Popular items are recommended more, then purchased more, resulting in becoming even more popular over time. For example, we observe in Netflix data that awarded movies are more popular than non-awarded movies. Unlike other work focusing on making fair/neutralized recommendation, in this paper, we target on modeling the effect of awards on the viewership of movies. The main challenge of building such a model is that the effect on popularity changes over time with different intensity from movie to movie. Our proposed approach explicitly models the award effects for each movie and enables the recommendation system to provide a better ranked list of recommended movies. The results of an extensive empirical validation on Netflix and MovieLens data demonstrate the effectiveness of our model.
Toonen, Erik J M; Laskewitz, Anke J; van Dijk, Theo H; Bleeker, Aycha; Grefhorst, Aldo; Schouten, Annelies E; Bastiaanssen, Ellen A J; Ballak, Dov B; Koenders, Marije I; van Doorn, Cindy; van der Vleuten, Monique A J; van Lierop, Marie-Jose C; Groen, Albert K; Dokter, Wim H A
2014-01-01
Prednisolone and other glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, but chronic use is hampered by metabolic side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent medical need for improved GCs that are as effective as classical GCs but have a better safety profile. A well-established model to assess anti-inflammatory efficacy is the chronic collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model in mice, a model with features resembling rheumatoid arthritis. Models to quantify undesired effects of glucocorticoids on glucose kinetics are less well-established. Recently, we have described a model to quantify basal blood glucose kinetics using stably-labeled glucose. In the present study, we have integrated this blood glucose kinetic model in the CIA model to enable quantification of both efficacy and adverse effects in one animal model. Arthritis scores were decreased after treatment with prednisolone, confirming the anti-inflammatory properties of GCs. Both inflammation and prednisolone induced insulin resistance as insulin secretion was strongly increased whereas blood glucose concentrations and hepatic glucose production were only slightly decreased. This insulin resistance did not directly resulted in hyperglycemia, indicating a highly adaptive compensatory mechanism in these mice. In conclusion, this 'all-in-one' model allows for studying effects of (novel) GC compounds on the development of arthritis and glucose kinetics in a single animal. This integrative model provides a valuable tool for investigating (drug-induced) metabolic dysregulation in an inflammatory setting.
Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyoungbum; Chae, Dong-hyun; Kim, Eunjeong
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the case-based reasoning instructional model on learning about climate change unit. Results suggest that students showed interest because it allowed them to find the solution to the problem and solve the problem for themselves by analogy from other cases such as crossword puzzles in an…
Waheed, Umair bin
2014-08-01
The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleibeuker, Esther A; Hooven, Matthijs A ten; Castricum, Kitty C; Honeywell, Richard; Griffioen, Arjan W; Verheul, Henk M; Slotman, Ben J; Thijssen, Victor L
2015-01-01
The combination of radiotherapy with sunitinib is clinically hampered by rare but severe side effects and varying results with respect to clinical benefit. We studied different scheduling regimes and dose reduction in sunitinib and radiotherapy in preclinical tumor models to improve potential outcome of this combination treatment strategy. The chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was used as an angiogenesis in vivo model and as a xenograft model with human tumor cells (HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma, OE19 esophageal adenocarcinoma). Treatment consisted of ionizing radiation (IR) and sunitinib as single therapy or in combination, using different dose-scheduling regimes. Sunitinib potentiated the inhibitory effect of IR (4 Gy) on angiogenesis. In addition, IR (4 Gy) and sunitinib (4 days of 32.5 mg/kg per day) inhibited tumor growth. Ionizing radiation induced tumor cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation, whereas sunitinib decreased tumor angiogenesis and reduced tumor cell proliferation. When IR was applied before sunitinib, this almost completely inhibited tumor growth, whereas concurrent IR was less effective and IR after sunitinib had no additional effect on tumor growth. Moreover, optimal scheduling allowed a 50% dose reduction in sunitinib while maintaining comparable antitumor effects. This study shows that the therapeutic efficacy of combination therapy improves when proper dose-scheduling is applied. More importantly, optimal treatment regimes permit dose reductions in the angiogenesis inhibitor, which will likely reduce the side effects of combination therapy in the clinical setting. Our study provides important leads to optimize combination treatment in the clinical setting
Modeling fuels and fire effects in 3D: Model description and applications
Francois Pimont; Russell Parsons; Eric Rigolot; Francois de Coligny; Jean-Luc Dupuy; Philippe Dreyfus; Rodman R. Linn
2016-01-01
Scientists and managers critically need ways to assess how fuel treatments alter fire behavior, yet few tools currently exist for this purpose.We present a spatially-explicit-fuel-modeling system, FuelManager, which models fuels, vegetation growth, fire behavior (using a physics-based model, FIRETEC), and fire effects. FuelManager's flexible approach facilitates...
Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin; Thompson, Bruce
1999-01-01
A Monte Carlo simulation study investigated the effects on 10 structural equation modeling fit indexes of sample size, estimation method, and model specification. Some fit indexes did not appear to be comparable, and it was apparent that estimation method strongly influenced almost all fit indexes examined, especially for misspecified models. (SLD)
Modeling the effects of annual influenza vaccination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, D.J.; Ackley, D.H.; Forrest, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.
1998-12-31
Although influenza vaccine efficacy is 70--90% in young healthy first-time vaccinees, the efficacy in repeat vaccinees has varied considerably. In some studies, vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was higher than in first-time vaccinees, whereas in other studies vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was significantly lower than in first-time vaccinees and sometimes no higher than in unvaccinated controls. It is known that the closeness of the antigenic match between the vaccine strain and the epidemic virus is important for vaccine effectiveness. In this study the authors show that the antigenic differences between a first vaccine strain and a second vaccine strain, and between the first vaccine strain and the epidemic strain, might account for the observed variation in attack rate among two-time vaccinees.
Effect of suspension kinematic on 14 DOF vehicle model
Wongpattananukul, T.; Chantharasenawong, C.
2017-12-01
Computer simulations play a major role in shaping modern science and engineering. They reduce time and resource consumption in new studies and designs. Vehicle simulations have been studied extensively to achieve a vehicle model used in minimum lap time solution. Simulation result accuracy depends on the abilities of these models to represent real phenomenon. Vehicles models with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF), 10 DOF and 14 DOF are normally used in optimal control to solve for minimum lap time. However, suspension kinematics are always neglected on these models. Suspension kinematics are defined as wheel movements with respect to the vehicle body. Tire forces are expressed as a function of wheel slip and wheel position. Therefore, the suspension kinematic relation is appended to the 14 DOF vehicle model to investigate its effects on the accuracy of simulate trajectory. Classical 14 DOF vehicle model is chosen as baseline model. Experiment data is collected from formula student style car test runs as baseline data for simulation and comparison between baseline model and model with suspension kinematic. Results show that in a single long turn there is an accumulated trajectory error in baseline model compared to model with suspension kinematic. While in short alternate turns, the trajectory error is much smaller. These results show that suspension kinematic had an effect on the trajectory simulation of vehicle. Which optimal control that use baseline model will result in inaccuracy control scheme.
Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-06-10
Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented in the high-frequency asymptotic approximation by the eikonal equation, to develop effective isotropic models, which are used to efficiently and approximately extrapolate anisotropic wavefields using the isotropic, relatively cheaper, operators. These effective velocity models are source dependent and tend to embed the anisotropy in the inhomogeneity. Though this isotropically generated wavefield theoretically shares the same kinematic behavior as that of the first arrival anisotropic wavefield, it also has the ability to include all the arrivals resulting from a complex wavefield propagation. In fact, the effective models reduce to the original isotropic model in the limit of isotropy, and thus, the difference between the effective model and, for example, the vertical velocity depends on the strength of anisotropy. For reverse time migration (RTM), effective models are developed for the source and receiver fields by computing the traveltime for a plane wave source stretching along our source and receiver lines in a delayed shot migration implementation. Applications to the BP TTI model demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.
The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bambang Sukma Wijaya
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to review the hierarchy of effects models in adverti-sing, especially the well-known model, AIDA (Attention, Interest, De-sire, and Action. Since its introduction by Lewis (1900 and generally attributed in the marketing and advertising literature by Strong (1925, the concept of AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners. The model is used to measure the effect of an advertisement. However, the deve-lopment of information technology has radically changed the way of how people communicate and socialize; as well as a paradigm shift from product-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing or people-oriented marketing. Therefore, the variables in the hierarchy of effects model needs to be updated in respond to the latest develop-ments in the notice of public power as consumer audience. Based on deep literature review and reflective method, this paper introduces a new developed concept of hierarchy of effects model that was adop-ted from AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model, namely: AISDALSLove (At-tention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate.
The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bambang Sukma Wijaya
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to review the hierarchy of effects models in advertising, especially the well-known model, AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. Since its introduction by Lewis (1900 and generally attributed in the marketing and advertising literature by Strong (1925, the concept of AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners. The model is used to measure the effect of an advertisement. However, the development of information technology has radically changed the way of how people communicate and socialize; as well as a paradigm shift from product-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing or people-oriented marketing. Therefore, the variables in the hierarchy of effects model needs to be updated in respond to the latest developments in the notice of public power as consumer audience. Based on deep literature review and reflective method, this paper introduces a new developed concept of hierarchy of effects model that was adopted from AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model, namely: AISDALSLove (At-tention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate.
Coordinate and Kaehler σ-model anomalies and their cancellation in string effective field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopes Cardoso, G.; Ovrut, B.A.
1993-01-01
We discuss the complete set of one-loop triangle graphs involving the Yang-Mills gauge connection, the Kaehler connection and the σ-model coordinate connection in the effective field theory of (2, 2) symmetric Z N orbifolds. That is, we discuss pure gauge, pure Kaehler and pure σ-model coordinate anomalies as well as the mixed anomalies, such as Kaehler-gauge, some of which have been discussed elsewhere. We propose a mechanism for restoring both Kaehler and σ-model coordinate symmetry based upon the introduction of two types of counterterms. Finally, we enlarge σ-model generalization of the Green-Schwarz mechanism to allow the removal of the universal parts of a wider class of anomalies than those previously discussed. (orig.)
Transpiration and CO2 fluxes of a pine forest: modelling the undergrowth effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Rivalland
2005-02-01
Full Text Available A modelling study is performed in order to quantify the relative effect of allowing for the physiological properties of an undergrowth grass sward on total canopy water and carbon fluxes of the Le-Bray forest (Les-Landes, South-western France. The Le-Bray forest consists of maritime pine and an herbaceous undergrowth (purple moor-grass, which is characterised by a low stomatal control of transpiration, in contrast to maritime pine. A CO2-responsive land surface model is used that includes responses of woody and herbaceous species to water stress. An attempt is made to represent the properties of the undergrowth vegetation in the land surface model Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere, CO2-responsive, ISBA-A-gs. The new adjustment allows for a fairly different environmental response between the forest canopy and the understory in a simple manner. The model's simulations are compared with long term (1997 and 1998 micro-meteorological measurements over the Le-Bray site. The fluxes of energy, water and CO2, are simulated with and without the improved representation of the undergrowth vegetation, and the two simulations are compared with the observations. Accounting for the undergrowth permits one to improve the model's scores. A simple sensitivity experiment shows the behaviour of the model in response to climate change conditions, and the understory effect on the water balance and carbon storage of the forest. Accounting for the distinct characteristics of the undergrowth has a substantial and positive effect on the model accuracy and leads to a different response to climate change scenarios.
Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah
2015-01-01
In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits
Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)
2015-02-03
In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.
Dynamic modeling of hydrostatic guideway considering compressibility and inertia effect
Du, Yikang; Mao, Kuanmin; Zhu, Yaming; Wang, Fengyun; Mao, Xiaobo; Li, Bin
2015-03-01
Hydrostatic guideways are used as an alternative to contact bearings due to high stiffness and high damping in heavy machine tools. To improve the dynamic characteristic of bearing structure, the dynamic modeling of the hydrostatic guidway should be accurately known. This paper presents a "mass-spring-Maxwell" model considering the effects of inertia, squeeze, compressibility and static bearing. To determine the dynamic model coefficients, numerical simulation of different cases between displacement and dynamic force of oil film are performed with fluent code. Simulation results show that hydrostatic guidway can be taken as a linear system when it is subjected to a small oscillation amplitude. Based on a dynamic model and numerical simulation, every dynamic model's parameters are calculated by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Identification results show that "mass-spring-damper" model is the most appropriate dynamic model of the hydrostatic guidway. This paper provides a reference and preparation for the analysis of the dynamic model of the similar hydrostatic bearings.
General Friction Model Extended by the Effect of Strain Hardening
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris V.; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels
2016-01-01
An extension to the general friction model proposed by Wanheim and Bay [1] to include the effect of strain hardening is proposed. The friction model relates the friction stress to the fraction of real contact area by a friction factor under steady state sliding. The original model for the real...... contact area as function of the normalized contact pressure is based on slip-line analysis and hence on the assumption of rigid-ideally plastic material behavior. In the present work, a general finite element model is established to, firstly, reproduce the original model under the assumption of rigid......-ideally plastic material, and secondly, to extend the solution by the influence of material strain hardening. This corresponds to adding a new variable and, therefore, a new axis to the general friction model. The resulting model is presented in a combined function suitable for e.g. finite element modeling...
Drikvandi, Reza
2017-06-01
Nonlinear mixed-effects models are frequently used for pharmacokinetic data analysis, and they account for inter-subject variability in pharmacokinetic parameters by incorporating subject-specific random effects into the model. The random effects are often assumed to follow a (multivariate) normal distribution. However, many articles have shown that misspecifying the random-effects distribution can introduce bias in the estimates of parameters and affect inferences about the random effects themselves, such as estimation of the inter-subject variability. Because random effects are unobservable latent variables, it is difficult to assess their distribution. In a recent paper we developed a diagnostic tool based on the so-called gradient function to assess the random-effects distribution in mixed models. There we evaluated the gradient function for generalized liner mixed models and in the presence of a single random effect. However, assessing the random-effects distribution in nonlinear mixed-effects models is more challenging, especially when multiple random effects are present, and therefore the results from linear and generalized linear mixed models may not be valid for such nonlinear models. In this paper, we further investigate the gradient function and evaluate its performance for such nonlinear mixed-effects models which are common in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We use simulations as well as real data from an intensive pharmacokinetic study to illustrate the proposed diagnostic tool.
Seismic model of Mars: Effects of hydration
Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.
2014-12-01
The arguments according to which the Martian minerals are assumed to contain large amount of water in the mantle minerals are given. As for the Earth, these minerals may constitute about 60 wt% of the Martian mantle, and can be considered as main components in their zones. In the mantle of the Earth the molecular concentration of Fe is about 10%, and for the mantle of Mars - about 20%. Taking into account twofold increase of Fe in Martian silicates in comparison with the terrestrial minerals, we have extrapolated the available partial experimental data of the hydration effect on the compressional and shear velocities of seismic waves in forsterite (olivine) and its high pressure phases - wadsleyite and ringwoodite for Martian conditions. The presence of water in the mantle of Mars may lead to the noticeable widening of the olivine-wadsleite phase transition zone, thus the determination of the olivine-wadsleite phase transition width by seismological methods could get a direct indication on the presence of water in the mantle of Mars. To find out real estimates of water content in the mantle of Mars is a task for the future seismic missions. The results of this article are important for InSight mission that will land a geophysical station on Mars in 2016.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eleftherios Giovanis
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The current study examines the turn of the month effect on stock returns in 20 countries. This will allow us to explore whether the seasonal patterns usually found in global data; America, Australia, Europe and Asia. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS is problematic as it leads to unreliable estimations; because of the autocorrelation and Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH effects existence. For this reason Generalized GARCH models are estimated. Two approaches are followed. The first is the symmetric Generalized ARCH (1,1 model. However, previous studies found that volatility tends to increase more when the stock market index decreases than when the stock market index increases by the same amount. In addition there is higher seasonality in volatility rather on average returns. For this reason the Periodic-GARCH (1,1 is estimated. The findings support the persistence of the specific calendar effect in 19 out of 20 countries examined.
Development of a mathematical model to study the radiation-induced bystander effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: spm@cdtn.b, E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria Eugenia S., E-mail: mariaeugenia@iceb.ufop.b [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Living organisms are composed of millions of cells that together perform tasks of great complexity. Although every cell has an internal structure that obeys the laws of chemistry and biochemistry, it is the interactions between cells that generate a range of different phenomena. Until the 1990s it was believed that the DNA was the single molecule affected by radiation, the so-called theory of the single target. But some observations began to challenge this theory; in 1992 the bystander effect was described by Nagasawa and Little. This effect is responsible for a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. Understanding the bystander effect may have important consequences for therapy and studies of low-dose risk. In this work, we have developed a computational model to study the bystander effect. This computational model is a two-dimensional cellular automata, consisting of two overlapping networks, where the first represents the cell culture, and the second one, the medium in which cells are embedded. The computational model allows the establishment of curves to describe the behavior of the effect for different levels of signals released in the irradiated medium by the irradiated cells or by the bystander cells when a second order effect is considered. The percentage of cell survival obtained from the mathematical model showed to be in good agreement with experimental data available in the literature. (author)
Development of a mathematical model to study the radiation-induced bystander effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein; Nunes, Maria Eugenia S.
2011-01-01
Living organisms are composed of millions of cells that together perform tasks of great complexity. Although every cell has an internal structure that obeys the laws of chemistry and biochemistry, it is the interactions between cells that generate a range of different phenomena. Until the 1990s it was believed that the DNA was the single molecule affected by radiation, the so-called theory of the single target. But some observations began to challenge this theory; in 1992 the bystander effect was described by Nagasawa and Little. This effect is responsible for a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. Understanding the bystander effect may have important consequences for therapy and studies of low-dose risk. In this work, we have developed a computational model to study the bystander effect. This computational model is a two-dimensional cellular automata, consisting of two overlapping networks, where the first represents the cell culture, and the second one, the medium in which cells are embedded. The computational model allows the establishment of curves to describe the behavior of the effect for different levels of signals released in the irradiated medium by the irradiated cells or by the bystander cells when a second order effect is considered. The percentage of cell survival obtained from the mathematical model showed to be in good agreement with experimental data available in the literature. (author)
Modelling the electrical properties of concrete for shielding effectiveness prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandrolini, L; Reggiani, U; Ogunsola, A
2007-01-01
Concrete is a porous, heterogeneous material whose abundant use in numerous applications demands a detailed understanding of its electrical properties. Besides experimental measurements, material theoretical models can be useful to investigate its behaviour with respect to frequency, moisture content or other factors. These models can be used in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) to predict the shielding effectiveness of a concrete structure against external electromagnetic waves. This paper presents the development of a dispersive material model for concrete out of experimental measurement data to take account of the frequency dependence of concrete's electrical properties. The model is implemented into a numerical simulator and compared with the classical transmission-line approach in shielding effectiveness calculations of simple concrete walls of different moisture content. The comparative results show good agreement in all cases; a possible relation between shielding effectiveness and the electrical properties of concrete and the limits of the proposed model are discussed
Modelling the electrical properties of concrete for shielding effectiveness prediction
Sandrolini, L.; Reggiani, U.; Ogunsola, A.
2007-09-01
Concrete is a porous, heterogeneous material whose abundant use in numerous applications demands a detailed understanding of its electrical properties. Besides experimental measurements, material theoretical models can be useful to investigate its behaviour with respect to frequency, moisture content or other factors. These models can be used in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) to predict the shielding effectiveness of a concrete structure against external electromagnetic waves. This paper presents the development of a dispersive material model for concrete out of experimental measurement data to take account of the frequency dependence of concrete's electrical properties. The model is implemented into a numerical simulator and compared with the classical transmission-line approach in shielding effectiveness calculations of simple concrete walls of different moisture content. The comparative results show good agreement in all cases; a possible relation between shielding effectiveness and the electrical properties of concrete and the limits of the proposed model are discussed.
Effect of Linked Rules on Business Process Model Understanding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Wei; Indulska, Marta; Sadiq, Shazia
2017-01-01
of business processes has not been empirically evaluated. In this paper, we report on an experiment that investigates the effect of linked rules, a specific rule integration approach, on business process model understanding. Our results indicate that linked rules are associated with better time efficiency......Business process models are widely used in organizations by information systems analysts to represent complex business requirements and by business users to understand business operations and constraints. This understanding is extracted from graphical process models as well as business rules. Prior...... research advocated integrating business rules into business process models to improve the effectiveness of important organizational activities, such as developing shared understanding, effective communication, and process improvement. However, whether such integrated modeling can improve the understanding...
Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages
Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan
2016-02-01
We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.
Modeling 2-alternative forced-choice tasks: Accounting for both magnitude and difference effects.
Ratcliff, Roger; Voskuilen, Chelsea; Teodorescu, Andrei
2018-03-01
We present a model-based analysis of two-alternative forced-choice tasks in which two stimuli are presented side by side and subjects must make a comparative judgment (e.g., which stimulus is brighter). Stimuli can vary on two dimensions, the difference in strength of the two stimuli and the magnitude of each stimulus. Differences between the two stimuli produce typical RT and accuracy effects (i.e., subjects respond more quickly and more accurately when there is a larger difference between the two). However, the overall magnitude of the pair of stimuli also affects RT and accuracy. In the more common two-choice task, a single stimulus is presented and the stimulus varies on only one dimension. In this two-stimulus task, if the standard diffusion decision model is fit to the data with only drift rate (evidence accumulation rate) differing among conditions, the model cannot fit the data. However, if either of one of two variability parameters is allowed to change with stimulus magnitude, the model can fit the data. This results in two models that are extremely constrained with about one tenth of the number of parameters than there are data points while at the same time the models account for accuracy and correct and error RT distributions. While both of these versions of the diffusion model can account for the observed data, the model that allows across-trial variability in drift to vary might be preferred for theoretical reasons. The diffusion model fits are compared to the leaky competing accumulator model which did not perform as well. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Klaeboe, R.; Kolbenstvedt, M.
2000-01-01
In quantifying the benefits of air pollution reduction measures, it is desirable to compare the size of the benefits with the effects of other individual confounding factors such as smoking or passive smoking. The effect of pollution is rarely very large and in order to quantify it, exposure estimating procedures must be as accurate as possible. Dispersion models, run for hourly time intervals and controlled by measurements, are therefore used to provide estimates for specific receptor points. Results of three consecutive cross-sectional investigations in an area of Oslo characterized by heavy traffic are presented. The study was designed to provide repeated information on the effects of traffic diversion measures on the self-reporting of symptoms of reduced health of 1100 adults living in Oslo. The principal source of air pollution in Oslo is vehicular traffic. The primary pollutants of interest are nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and respirable particles (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ). The mean hourly concentration of exposure was estimated at each participant's home by means of a time-dependent finite dispersion model combined with subgrid models to describe the source contribution to the grid concentrations. The study controlled the confounding factors. Using the symptom fatigue, the study illustrates that by controlling the changes in population composition, estimated exposure-effect relationships for health symptoms allow the effect of the studied traffic measures on the population to be evaluated. Since the method is based on individual estimates of exposure to different pollutants, it allows standardizing the exposure to compare effects of different pollutants. The study offers a methodology that is useful in evaluating the benefits of measures by both being able to quantify and compare the effects of different compounds and effects on different population sub-groups. (author)
Bayesian Semi- and Non-Parametric Models for Longitudinal Data with Multiple Membership Effects in R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terrance Savitsky
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We introduce growcurves for R that performs analysis of repeated measures multiple membership (MM data. This data structure arises in studies under which an intervention is delivered to each subject through the subjects participation in a set of multiple elements that characterize the intervention. In our motivating study design under which subjects receive a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT treatment, an element is a group CBT session and each subject attends multiple sessions that, together, comprise the treatment. The sets of elements, or group CBT sessions, attended by subjects will partly overlap with some of those from other subjects to induce a dependence in their responses. The growcurves package offers two alternative sets of hierarchical models: 1. Separate terms are specified for multivariate subject and MM element random effects, where the subject effects are modeled under a Dirichlet process prior to produce a semi-parametric construction; 2. A single term is employed to model joint subject-by-MM effects. A fully non-parametric dependent Dirichlet process formulation allows exploration of differences in subject responses across different MM elements. This model allows for borrowing information among subjects who express similar longitudinal trajectories for flexible estimation. growcurves deploys estimation functions to perform posterior sampling under a suite of prior options. An accompanying set of plot functions allows the user to readily extract by-subject growth curves. The design approach intends to anticipate inferential goals with tools that fully extract information from repeated measures data. Computational efficiency is achieved by performing the sampling for estimation functions using compiled C++ code.
Comparison of Power Generating Systems Using Feedback Effect Modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon
2005-01-01
Comparative assessment of various power systems can be treated as a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there is interdependence among decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives). In our previous work, using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique, a comprehensive assessment framework for national power systems has been developed. It was assumed in the AHP modeling that there is no interdependence among decision elements. In the present work, one of interdependence phenomena, feedback effect, is investigated in the context of network structures instead of one-way directional tree structures. Moreover, attitudes of decision-makers can be incorporated into the feedback effect modeling. The main objectives of this work are to develop a feedback effect modeling using an analytic network process (ANP) technique and to demonstrate the feedback effect using a numerical example in comparison to the hierarchy model
FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement: intervention model fiscal year 2009.
2013-04-01
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), in cooperation with the researcher, has developed an analytic model to measure the effectiveness of roadside inspections and traffic enforcements in terms of crashes avoided, injuries avoided, ...
The Effective Standard Model after LHC Run I
Ellis, John; You, Tevong
2015-01-01
We treat the Standard Model as the low-energy limit of an effective field theory that incorporates higher-dimensional operators to capture the effects of decoupled new physics. We consider the constraints imposed on the coefficients of dimension-6 operators by electroweak precision tests (EWPTs), applying a framework for the effects of dimension-6 operators on electroweak precision tests that is more general than the standard $S,T$ formalism, and use measurements of Higgs couplings and the kinematics of associated Higgs production at the Tevatron and LHC, as well as triple-gauge couplings at the LHC. We highlight the complementarity between EWPTs, Tevatron and LHC measurements in obtaining model-independent limits on the effective Standard Model after LHC Run~1. We illustrate the combined constraints with the example of the two-Higgs doublet model.
The effective Standard Model after LHC Run I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, John; Sanz, Verónica; You, Tevong
2015-01-01
We treat the Standard Model as the low-energy limit of an effective field theory that incorporates higher-dimensional operators to capture the effects of decoupled new physics. We consider the constraints imposed on the coefficients of dimension-6 operators by electroweak precision tests (EWPTs), applying a framework for the effects of dimension-6 operators on electroweak precision tests that is more general than the standard S,T formalism, and use measurements of Higgs couplings and the kinematics of associated Higgs production at the Tevatron and LHC, as well as triple-gauge couplings at the LHC. We highlight the complementarity between EWPTs, Tevatron and LHC measurements in obtaining model-independent limits on the effective Standard Model after LHC Run 1. We illustrate the combined constraints with the example of the two-Higgs doublet model.
Modeling Cable-Harness Effects on Spacecraft Structures
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research involves modeling the effects of cable-harnesses and wiring on the dynamics of spacecraft structures. As space structure mass decreases due to...
Comparison of Power Generating Systems Using Feedback Effect Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2005-07-01
Comparative assessment of various power systems can be treated as a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there is interdependence among decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives). In our previous work, using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique, a comprehensive assessment framework for national power systems has been developed. It was assumed in the AHP modeling that there is no interdependence among decision elements. In the present work, one of interdependence phenomena, feedback effect, is investigated in the context of network structures instead of one-way directional tree structures. Moreover, attitudes of decision-makers can be incorporated into the feedback effect modeling. The main objectives of this work are to develop a feedback effect modeling using an analytic network process (ANP) technique and to demonstrate the feedback effect using a numerical example in comparison to the hierarchy model.
Modeling of Reverberation Effects for Radio Localization and Communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinböck, Gerhard
2013-01-01
a recently proposed approach, we transcribe these models to electromagnetics and validate them experimentally following a systematic procedure. These transcribed models provide accurate predictions of the delay power spectrum in a typical office environment. Furthermore, they can predict changes...... into a distance dependent model of the delay power spectrum, which we then validate experimentally. From this model we derive secondary models that predict the received power, the mean delay, the rms delay spread and the kurtosis versus distance. The behavior of the diffuse component versus distance in indoor...... environment is linked to reverberation effects analog to reverberation effects observed in room acoustics and electromagnetic reverberation chambers. Reverberation models of room acoustics relate the decay rate of the diffuse component to the room geometry and an average absorption coefficient. Following...
Enhancing treatment effectiveness through social modelling: A pilot study.
Faasse, Kate; Perera, Anna; Loveys, Kate; Grey, Andrew; Petrie, Keith J
2017-05-01
Medical treatments take place in social contexts; however, little research has investigated how social modelling might influence treatment outcomes. This experimental pilot study investigated social modelling of treatment effectiveness and placebo treatment outcomes. Fifty-nine participants took part in the study, ostensibly examining the use of beta-blockers (actually placebos) for examination anxiety. Participants were randomly assigned to observe a female confederate report positive treatment effects (reduced heart rate, relaxed, calm) or feeling no different. Heart rate, anxiety and blood pressure were assessed, as were symptoms and attributed side effects. Heart rate decreased significantly more in the social modelling compared to control condition, p = .027 (d = .63), and there were trends towards effects in the same direction for both anxiety, p = .097 (d = .46), and systolic blood pressure, p = .077 (d = .51). Significant pre-post placebo differences in heart rate, anxiety and diastolic blood pressure were found in the social modelling group, ps .28 (ds = .09-.59). Social observation of medication effectiveness enhanced placebo effectiveness in heart rate, and showed a trend towards enhancing treatment effectiveness in both anxiety and systolic blood pressure. Social modelling may have utility in enhancing the effectiveness of many active medical treatments.
Time-series regression models to study the short-term effects of environmental factors on health
Tobías, Aureli; Saez, Marc
2004-01-01
Time series regression models are especially suitable in epidemiology for evaluating short-term effects of time-varying exposures on health. The problem is that potential for confounding in time series regression is very high. Thus, it is important that trend and seasonality are properly accounted for. Our paper reviews the statistical models commonly used in time-series regression methods, specially allowing for serial correlation, make them potentially useful for selected epidemiological pu...
Sublethal toxicant effects with dynamic energy budget theory: model formulation
Muller, Erik B.; Nisbet, Roger M.; Berkley, Heather A.
2009-01-01
We develop and test a general modeling framework to describe the sublethal effects of pollutants by adding toxicity modules to an established dynamic energy budget (DEB) model. The DEB model describes the rates of energy acquisition and expenditure by individual organisms; the toxicity modules describe how toxicants affect these rates by changing the value of one or more DEB parameters, notably the parameters quantifying the rates of feeding and maintenance. We investigate four toxicity modul...
Achievement emotions and academic performance: longitudinal models of reciprocal effects
Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert, W.; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas
2017-01-01
A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the PALMA longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents’ development in mathematics (grades 5-9; N=3,425 German students; mean starting age=11.7 years; representative sample). Structural equation modeling showed that positive emotions (enjoyment, pride) positively predicted subsequent achievement (math end-of-the-year grades and test scores), and that achievem...
Elshall, A. S.; Ye, M.; Niu, G. Y.; Barron-Gafford, G.
2014-12-01
A Bayesian framework is developed to quantify predictive uncertainty in environmental modeling caused by uncertainty in modeling scenarios, model structures, model parameters, and data. An example of using the framework to quantify model uncertainty is presented to simulate soil microbial respiration pulses in response to episodic rainfall pulses (the "Birch effect"). A total of five models are developed; they evolve from an existing four-carbon (C) pool model to models with additional C pools and recently developed models with explicit representations of soil moisture controls on C degradation and microbial uptake rates. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods with generalized likelihood function (not Gaussian) are used to estimate posterior parameter distributions of the models, and the posterior parameter samples are used to evaluate probabilities of the models. The models with explicit representations of soil moisture controls outperform the other models. The models with additional C pools for accumulation of degraded C in the dry zone of the soil pore space result in a higher probability of reproducing the observed Birch pulses. A cross-validation is conducted to explore predictive performance of model averaging and of individual models. The Bayesian framework is mathematically general and can be applied to a wide range of environmental problems.
Effects of Scenario Planning on Participant Mental Models
Glick, Margaret B.; Chermack, Thomas J.; Luckel, Henry; Gauck, Brian Q.
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of scenario planning on participant mental model styles. Design/methodology/approach: The scenario planning literature is consistent with claims that scenario planning can change individual mental models. These claims are supported by anecdotal evidence and stories from the practical…
Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares
D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
2003-01-01
textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model.
Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance: Longitudinal Models of Reciprocal Effects
Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert W.; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas
2017-01-01
A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents' development in mathematics (Grades 5-9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting…
The effect of cognitive modelling in the reduction of impulsive ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study investigated the effect of cognitive modeling in the reduction of impulsive behaviour among primary school children. A total of twenty impulsive underachieving participants were randomly assigned to cognitive modeling and control groups. Different instruments comprising Impulsiveness Questionnaire for Children ...
Modeling the Effect of Oil Price on Global Fertilizer Prices
P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
2010-01-01
textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of crude oil price on global fertilizer prices in both the mean and volatility. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and alternative volatility models, including the
Using Dirichlet Processes for Modeling Heterogeneous Treatment Effects across Sites
Miratrix, Luke; Feller, Avi; Pillai, Natesh; Pati, Debdeep
2016-01-01
Modeling the distribution of site level effects is an important problem, but it is also an incredibly difficult one. Current methods rely on distributional assumptions in multilevel models for estimation. There it is hoped that the partial pooling of site level estimates with overall estimates, designed to take into account individual variation as…
The effect of longshore topographic variation on overwash modelling
McCall, R.; Plant, N.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.
2011-01-01
This paper describes an application of the XBeach model to investigate the effect of longshore topographic variance on overwash. The model is used to simulate the morphological response of an eight-kilometer section of Santa Rosa Island, Florida, due to Hurricane Ivan (2004). The influence of
Chain Risk Model for quantifying cost effectiveness of phytosanitary measures
Benninga, J.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Schans, van de J.
2010-01-01
A Chain Risk Model (CRM) was developed for a cost effective assessment of phytosanitary measures. The CRM model can be applied to phytosanitary assessments of all agricultural product chains. In CRM, stages are connected by product volume flows with which pest infections can be spread from one stage
Comparison of four nonlinear growth models for effective exploration ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tuoyo Aghomotsegin
2016-10-05
Oct 5, 2016 ... This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness for non-linear growth models designated as. Chapman-Richards, Gompertz, Logistic and von Bertalanffy for selection of fast-growing fish strain of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. These models were compared using the goodness of fit (the coefficient.
Relative effectiveness of assertive training, modelling and their ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study investigated the Relative Effectiveness of Assertive Training (AT), modelling (M) and a combination of Assertive Training and Modelling (AT & M) techniques in improving the social skills of primary school isolates and consequently reduce their isolate behaviour. The study is a quasi experimental research that ...
Personal Coaching: Reflection on a Model for Effective Learning
Griffiths, Kerryn
2015-01-01
The article "Personal Coaching: A Model for Effective Learning" (Griffiths, 2006) appeared in the "Journal of Learning Design" Volume 1, Issue 2 in 2006. Almost ten years on, Kerryn Griffiths reflects upon her original article. Specifically, Griffiths looks back at the combined coaching-learning model she suggested in her…
The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Counselling Model in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study focused on applying counselling models in managing adolescent psycho-social crisis. A laboratory approach using a simulated problem situation to determine the effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioural counselling model in managing psycho-social crisis and propensity to drug-abuse in adolescents was adopted ...
Comparison of four nonlinear growth models for effective exploration ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness for non-linear growth models designated as Chapman-Richards, Gompertz, Logistic and von Bertalanffy for selection of fast-growing fish strain of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. These models were compared using the goodness of fit (the coefficient of determination ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehran FARAJOLLAHI
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The present research aims at presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is an efficient factor in the planning of effective Distance learning in higher education. Considering the theoretical foundations of the present research, in the effective distance learning model, the learner is situated at the center of learning environment. For this purpose, the learner needs to be ready for successful learning and the teacher has to be ready to design the teaching- learning activities when they initially enter the environment. In the present model, group and individual active teaching-learning approach, timely feedback, using IT and eight types of interactions have been designed with respect to theoretical foundations and current university missions. From among the issues emphasized in this model, one can refer to the Initial, Formative and Summative evaluations. In an effective distance learning environment, evaluation should be part of the learning process and the feedback resulting from it should be used to improve learning. For validating the specified features, the opinions of Distance learning experts in Payame Noor, Shiraz, Science and Technology and Amirkabir Universities have been used which verified a high percentage of the statistical sample of the above mentioned features.
Auction design for the allocation of carbon emission allowances: Uniform or discriminatory price?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cong, R.G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Beijing Inst. of Tech., Bejing (China); Wei, Y.M. [Beijing Inst. of Tech. (China)
2010-07-01
The Kyoto Protocol has set emission reduction targets of 5.2% of 1990 levels for six greenhouse gases for thirty-eight OECD countries and transition economies for the commitment period of 2008-2012. To help member states achieve the reduction targets at low cost, the Kyoto Protocol introduced three flexible mechanisms: (1) Emission Trading (ET); (2) Joint Implementation (JI); and (3) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). In ET, how initial carbon allowances can be distributed among enterprises in a fair way to achieve the greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets is an important issue. The initial allocation of carbon allowances is the basis for designing the carbon emissions trading system. Methods studied by researchers include grandfathering (giving companies permits based on historical output or emissions), auction and the combination of these two modes. Carbon emission rights are essentially a kind of public goods. The free grandfathering allocation modes are neither efficient nor fair. On the other hand, the carbon auction provides a so-called 'double dividend effect'. Under an auction mechanism, carbon allowances are allocated to the agents who need them most, allowing exploitation of their economic value. The auction revenue can be used to finance environmental protection programs, reducing the tax burden otherwise needed for such measures. In designing the carbon auction, which factors are critical and which auction format is better are the issues of interest and which are addressed here. Only four states used auction in Phase I (2005-2007) of the European Union Emission Trading System, of which four used a uniform-price sealed auction format. Here we discuss whether the auction should adopt a uniform-price or discriminatory-price format using an agent-based carbon allowances auction model established for the purpose. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) when carbon allowances are relatively scarce, the government should use a discriminatory
40 CFR 60.4160 - Submission of Hg allowance transfers.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of Hg allowance transfers... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Transfers § 60.4160 Submission of Hg allowance transfers. An Hg authorized account representative seeking recordation of a Hg allowance transfer...
40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg allowance allocations. 60.4142... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in MMBtu) used with respect to Hg allowance allocations under...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José A. F. O. Correia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Structural design taking into account fatigue damage requires a thorough knowledge of the behaviour of materials. In addition to the monotonic behaviour of the materials, it is also important to assess their cyclic response and fatigue crack propagation behaviour under constant and variable amplitude loading. Materials whenever subjected to fatigue cracking may exhibit mean stress effects as well as crack closure effects. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the same initial assumptions of the analytical models proposed by Hudak and Davidson and Ellyin is proposed to estimate the influence of the crack closure effects. This proposal based further on Walker’s propagation law was applied to the P355NL1 steel using an inverse analysis (back-extrapolation of experimental fatigue crack propagation results. Based on this proposed model it is possible to estimate the crack opening stress intensity factor, Kop, the relationship between U=ΔKeff/ΔK quantity and the stress intensity factor, the crack length, and the stress ratio. This allows the evaluation of the influence of the crack closure effects for different stress ratio levels, in the fatigue crack propagation rates. Finally, a good agreement is found between the proposed theoretical model and the analytical models presented in the literature.
Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, J.S.; Abrahmson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.
1993-10-01
This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ''other''. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk
Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor
Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.
2018-02-01
This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.
Reduced Rank Mixed Effects Models for Spatially Correlated Hierarchical Functional Data
Zhou, Lan
2010-03-01
Hierarchical functional data are widely seen in complex studies where sub-units are nested within units, which in turn are nested within treatment groups. We propose a general framework of functional mixed effects model for such data: within unit and within sub-unit variations are modeled through two separate sets of principal components; the sub-unit level functions are allowed to be correlated. Penalized splines are used to model both the mean functions and the principal components functions, where roughness penalties are used to regularize the spline fit. An EM algorithm is developed to fit the model, while the specific covariance structure of the model is utilized for computational efficiency to avoid storage and inversion of large matrices. Our dimension reduction with principal components provides an effective solution to the difficult tasks of modeling the covariance kernel of a random function and modeling the correlation between functions. The proposed methodology is illustrated using simulations and an empirical data set from a colon carcinogenesis study. Supplemental materials are available online.
Factor Analysis of Drawings: Application to college student models of the greenhouse effect
Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.; Ording, Gabriel
2015-09-01
Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by over 200 entering university freshmen. Initial content analysis allowed deconstruction of drawings into salient features, with grouping of these features via factor analysis. A resulting 4-factor solution explains 62% of the data variance, suggesting that 4 archetype models of the greenhouse effect dominate thinking within this population. Factor scores, indicating the extent to which each student's drawing aligned with representative models, were compared to performance on conceptual understanding and attitudes measures, demographics, and non-cognitive features of drawings. Student drawings were also compared to drawings made by scientists to ascertain the extent to which models reflect more sophisticated and accurate models. Results indicate that student and scientist drawings share some similarities, most notably the presence of some features of the most sophisticated non-scientific model held among the study population. Prior knowledge, prior attitudes, gender, and non-cognitive components are also predictive of an individual student's model. This work presents a new technique for analyzing drawings, with general implications for the use of drawings in investigating student conceptions.
A mathematical model of radiation effect on the immunity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnova, O.A.
1984-01-01
A mathematical model, simulating the effect of ionizing radiation on the dynamics of humoral immune reaction is suggested. It represents the system of nonlinear differential equations and is realized in the form of program in Fortran computer language. The model describes the primary immune reaction of nonirradiated organism on T-independent antigen, reflects the postradiation lymphopoiesis dynamics in nonimmunized mammals, simulates the processes of injury and recovery of the humoral immunity system under the combined effect of ionizing radiation and antigenic stimulation. The model can be used for forecasting imminity state in irradiated mammals
A Bayesian Network View on Nested Effects Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fröhlich Holger
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Nested effects models (NEMs are a class of probabilistic models that were designed to reconstruct a hidden signalling structure from a large set of observable effects caused by active interventions into the signalling pathway. We give a more flexible formulation of NEMs in the language of Bayesian networks. Our framework constitutes a natural generalization of the original NEM model, since it explicitly states the assumptions that are tacitly underlying the original version. Our approach gives rise to new learning methods for NEMs, which have been implemented in the /Bioconductor package nem. We validate these methods in a simulation study and apply them to a synthetic lethality dataset in yeast.
Towards an integrated model of floodplain hydrology representing feedbacks and anthropogenic effects
Andreadis, K.; Schumann, G.; Voisin, N.; O'Loughlin, F.; Tesfa, T. K.; Bates, P.
2017-12-01
The exchange of water between hillslopes, river channels and floodplain can be quite complex and the difficulty in capturing the mechanisms behind it is exacerbated by the impact of human activities such as irrigation and reservoir operations. Although there has been a vast body of work on modeling hydrological processes, most of the resulting models have been limited with regards to aspects of the coupled human-natural system. For example, hydrologic models that represent processes such as evapotranspiration, infiltration, interception and groundwater dynamics often neglect anthropogenic effects or do not adequately represent the inherently two-dimensional floodplain flow. We present an integrated modeling framework that is comprised of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model, and the Water resources Management (WM) model. The VIC model solves the energy and water balance over a gridded domain and simulates a number of hydrologic features such as snow, frozen soils, lakes and wetlands, while also representing irrigation demand from cropland areas. LISFLOOD-FP solves an approximation of the Saint-Venant equations to efficiently simulate flow in river channels and the floodplain. The implementation of WM accommodates a variety of operating rules in reservoirs and withdrawals due to consumptive demands, allowing the successful simulation of regulated flow. The models are coupled so as to allow feedbacks between their corresponding processes, therefore providing the ability to test different hypotheses about the floodplain hydrology of large-scale basins. We test this integrated framework over the Zambezi River basin by simulating its hydrology from 2000-2010, and evaluate the results against remotely sensed observations. Finally, we examine the sensitivity of streamflow and water inundation to changes in reservoir operations, precipitation and temperature.
Nguyen, Trung N.; Siegmund, Thomas; Tomar, Vikas; Kruzic, Jamie J.
2017-12-01
Size effects occur in non-uniform plastically deformed metals confined in a volume on the scale of micrometer or sub-micrometer. Such problems have been well studied using strain gradient rate-independent plasticity theories. Yet, plasticity theories describing the time-dependent behavior of metals in the presence of size effects are presently limited, and there is no consensus about how the size effects vary with strain rates or whether there is an interaction between them. This paper introduces a constitutive model which enables the analysis of complex load scenarios, including loading rate sensitivity, creep, relaxation and interactions thereof under the consideration of plastic strain gradient effects. A strain gradient viscoplasticity constitutive model based on the Kocks-Mecking theory of dislocation evolution, namely the strain gradient Kocks-Mecking (SG-KM) model, is established and allows one to capture both rate and size effects, and their interaction. A formulation of the model in the finite element analysis framework is derived. Numerical examples are presented. In a special virtual creep test with the presence of plastic strain gradients, creep rates are found to diminish with the specimen size, and are also found to depend on the loading rate in an initial ramp loading step. Stress relaxation in a solid medium containing cylindrical microvoids is predicted to increase with decreasing void radius and strain rate in a prior ramp loading step.
Electronic Model of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor
MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A pair of electronic models has been developed of a Ferroelectric Field Effect transistor. These models can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The models use the Schmitt trigger circuit as a basis for their design. One model uses bipolar junction transistors and one uses MOSFET's. Each model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current from each model has similar values to an actual FFET that was measured experimentally. T'he input and o Output resistance in the models are also similar to that of the FFET. The models are valid for all frequencies below RF levels. No attempt was made to model the high frequency characteristics of the FFET. Each model can be used to design circuits using FFET's with standard electrical simulation packages. These circuits can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The models consist of only standard electrical components, such as BJT's, MOSFET's, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. Each model is compared to the experimental data measured from an actual FFET.
Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aditi Khanna
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jochem Kail
Full Text Available River biota are affected by global reach-scale pressures, but most approaches for predicting biota of rivers focus on river reach or segment scale processes and habitats. Moreover, these approaches do not consider long-term morphological changes that affect habitat conditions. In this study, a modelling framework was further developed and tested to assess the effect of pressures at different spatial scales on reach-scale habitat conditions and biota. Ecohydrological and 1D hydrodynamic models were used to predict discharge and water quality at the catchment scale and the resulting water level at the downstream end of a study reach. Long-term reach morphology was modelled using empirical regime equations, meander migration and 2D morphodynamic models. The respective flow and substrate conditions in the study reach were predicted using a 2D hydrodynamic model, and the suitability of these habitats was assessed with novel habitat models. In addition, dispersal models for fish and macroinvertebrates were developed to assess the re-colonization potential and to finally compare habitat suitability and the availability/ability of species to colonize these habitats. Applicability was tested and model performance was assessed by comparing observed and predicted conditions in the lowland Treene River in northern Germany. Technically, it was possible to link the different models, but future applications would benefit from the development of open source software for all modelling steps to enable fully automated model runs. Future research needs concern the physical modelling of long-term morphodynamics, feedback of biota (e.g., macrophytes on abiotic habitat conditions, species interactions, and empirical data on the hydraulic habitat suitability and dispersal abilities of macroinvertebrates. The modelling framework is flexible and allows for including additional models and investigating different research and management questions, e.g., in climate impact
Building more effective sea level rise models for coastal management
Kidwell, D.; Buckel, C.; Collini, R.; Meckley, T.
2017-12-01
For over a decade, increased attention on coastal resilience and adaptation to sea level rise has resulted in a proliferation of predictive models and tools. This proliferation has enhanced our understanding of our vulnerability to sea level rise, but has also led to stakeholder fatigue in trying to realize the value of each advancement. These models vary in type and complexity ranging from GIS-based bathtub viewers to modeling systems that dynamically couple complex biophysical and geomorphic processes. These approaches and capabilities typically have the common purpose using scenarios of global and regional sea level change to inform adaptation and mitigation. In addition, stakeholders are often presented a plethora of options to address sea level rise issues from a variety of agencies, academics, and consulting firms. All of this can result in confusion, misapplication of a specific model/tool, and stakeholder feedback of "no more new science or tools, just help me understand which one to use". Concerns from stakeholders have led to the question; how do we move forward with sea level rise modeling? This presentation will provide a synthesis of the experiences and feedback derived from NOAA's Ecological Effects of Sea level Rise (EESLR) program to discuss the future of predictive sea level rise impact modeling. EESLR is an applied research program focused on the advancement of dynamic modeling capabilities in collaboration with local and regional stakeholders. Key concerns from stakeholder engagement include questions about model uncertainty, approaches for model validation, and a lack of cross-model comparisons. Effective communication of model/tool products, capabilities, and results is paramount to address these concerns. Looking forward, the most effective predictions of sea level rise impacts on our coast will be attained through a focus on coupled modeling systems, particularly those that connect natural processes and human response.
School Processes Mediate School Compositional Effects: Model Specification and Estimation
Liu, Hongqiang; Van Damme, Jan; Gielen, Sarah; Van Den Noortgate, Wim
2015-01-01
School composition effects have been consistently verified, but few studies ever attempted to study how school composition affects school achievement. Based on prior research findings, we employed multilevel mediation modeling to examine whether school processes mediate the effect of school composition upon school outcomes based on the data of 28…
A Model for Effective Performance in the Indonesian Navy.
1987-06-01
NAVY LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT COM PETENCY M ODEL .................................. 15 D. MCBER COMPETENT MANAGERS MODEL ................ IS E. SU M M... leadership and managerial skills which emphasize on effective performance of the officers in managing the human resources under their cormnand and...supervision. By effective performance we mean officers who not only know about management theories , but who possess the characteristics, knowledge, skill, and
Effects of Role Models and Gender on Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions
Karimi, S.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Lans, T.; Chizari, M.; Mulder, M.
2014-01-01
Purpose – This paper aims to, drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), explore the effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention (EI) and its antecedents and examines the question of whether the effects vary by gender. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected
Empirical validity for a comprehensive model on educational effectiveness
Reezigt, G.J.; Guldemond, H.; Creemers, B.P.M.
Educational effectiveness research is often criticised because of the absence of a theoretical background. In our study we started out from an educational effectiveness model which was developed on the basis of educational theories and empirical evidence. We have tested the main assumptions of the
Numerical Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Human Body
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuzana Psenakova
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Interactions of electromagnetic field (EMF with environment and with tissue of human beings are still under discussion and many research teams are investigating it. The human simulation models are used for biomedical research in a lot of areas, where it is advantage to replace real human body (tissue by the numerical model. Biological effects of EMF are one of the areas, where numerical models are used with many advantages. On the other side, this research is very specific and it is always quite hard to simulate realistic human tissue. This paper deals with different possibilities of numerical modelling of electromagnetic field effects on the human body (especially calculation of the specific absorption rate (SAR distribution in human body and thermal effect.
A Layered Decision Model for Cost-Effective System Security
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Huaqiang; Alves-Foss, James; Soule, Terry; Pforsich, Hugh; Zhang, Du; Frincke, Deborah A.
2008-10-01
System security involves decisions in at least three areas: identification of well-defined security policies, selection of cost-effective defence strategies, and implementation of real-time defence tactics. Although choices made in each of these areas affect the others, existing decision models typically handle these three decision areas in isolation. There is no comprehensive tool that can integrate them to provide a single efficient model for safeguarding a network. In addition, there is no clear way to determine which particular combinations of defence decisions result in cost-effective solutions. To address these problems, this paper introduces a Layered Decision Model (LDM) for use in deciding how to address defence decisions based on their cost-effectiveness. To validate the LDM and illustrate how it is used, we used simulation to test model rationality and applied the LDM to the design of system security for an e-commercial business case.
Simulation of finite size effects of the fiber bundle model
Hao, Da-Peng; Tang, Gang; Xun, Zhi-Peng; Xia, Hui; Han, Kui
2018-01-01
In theory, the macroscopic fracture of materials should correspond with the thermodynamic limit of the fiber bundle model. However, the simulation of a fiber bundle model with an infinite size is unrealistic. To study the finite size effects of the fiber bundle model, fiber bundle models of various size are simulated in detail. The effects of system size on the constitutive behavior, critical stress, maximum avalanche size, avalanche size distribution, and increased step number of external load are explored. The simulation results imply that there is no feature size or cut size for macroscopic mechanical and statistical properties of the model. The constitutive curves near the macroscopic failure for various system size can collapse well with a simple scaling relationship. Simultaneously, the introduction of a simple extrapolation method facilitates the acquisition of more accurate simulation results in a large-limit system, which is better for comparison with theoretical results.
Non-perturbative effective interactions in the standard model
Arbuzov, Boris A
2014-01-01
This monograph is devoted to the nonperturbative dynamics in the Standard Model (SM), the basic theory of all, but gravity, fundamental interactions in nature. The Standard Model is devided into two parts: the Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electro-weak theory (EWT) are well-defined renormalizable theories in which the perturbation theory is valid. However, for the adequate description of the real physics nonperturbative effects are inevitable. This book describes how these nonperturbative effects may be obtained in the framework of spontaneous generation of effective interactions. The well-known example of such effective interaction is provided by the famous Nambu--Jona-Lasinio effective interaction. Also a spontaneous generation of this interaction in the framework of QCD is described and applied to the method for other effective interactions in QCD and EWT. The method is based on N.N. Bogoliubov conception of compensation equations. As a result we then describe the principle feathures of the Standard...
Effective potential in Lorentz-breaking field theory models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, Nova Gameleira Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Brito, L.C.T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Felipe, J.C.C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Instituto de Engenharia, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Veredas, Janauba, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2017-12-15
We calculate explicitly the one-loop effective potential in different Lorentz-breaking field theory models. First, we consider a Yukawa-like theory and some examples of Lorentz-violating extensions of scalar QED. We observe, for the extended QED models, that the resulting effective potential converges to the known result in the limit in which Lorentz symmetry is restored. Besides, the one-loop corrections to the effective potential in all the cases we study depend on the background tensors responsible for the Lorentz-symmetry violation. This has consequences for physical quantities like, for example, in the induced mass due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. (orig.)
Systematic effects in CALOR simulation code to model experimental configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Job, P.K.; Proudfoot, J.; Handler, T.
1991-01-01
CALOR89 code system is being used to simulate test beam results and the design parameters of several calorimeter configurations. It has been bench-marked against the ZEUS, Dθ and HELIOS data. This study identifies the systematic effects in CALOR simulation to model the experimental configurations. Five major systematic effects are identified. These are the choice of high energy nuclear collision model, material composition, scintillator saturation, shower integration time, and the shower containment. Quantitative estimates of these systematic effects are presented. 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs
Faraway, Julian J
2005-01-01
Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...
Dilbert-Peter model of organization effectiveness: computer simulations
Sobkowicz, Pawel
2010-01-01
We describe a computer model of general effectiveness of a hierarchical organization depending on two main aspects: effects of promotion to managerial levels and efforts to self-promote of individual employees, reducing their actual productivity. The combination of judgment by appearance in the promotion to higher levels of hierarchy and the Peter Principle (which states that people are promoted to their level of incompetence) results in fast declines in effectiveness of the organization. The...
Medical Modeling of Particle Size Effects for CB Inhalation Hazards
2015-09-01
warfare) may create adverse health effects when inhaled. Once the materials enter the respiratory tract, they may deposit on the airway surfaces...mppd.htm). New features in this version include a deposition model specifically for nanoparticles, nonuniform lung ventilation to include the effect ... mechanisms cause local lesions, but the more virulent strains may then spread throughout the body via blood or lymph (Celli 2008). The effects of
Development of SSUBPIC code for modeling the neutral gas depletion effect in helicon discharges
Kollasch, Jeffrey; Sovenic, Carl; Schmitz, Oliver
2017-10-01
The SSUBPIC (steady-state unstructured-boundary particle-in-cell) code is being developed to model helicon plasma devices. The envisioned modeling framework incorporates (1) a kinetic neutral particle model, (2) a kinetic ion model, (3) a fluid electron model, and (4) an RF power deposition model. The models are loosely coupled and iterated until convergence to steady-state. Of the four required solvers, the kinetic ion and neutral particle simulation can now be done within the SSUBPIC code. Recent SSUBPIC modifications include implementation and testing of a Coulomb collision model (Lemons et al., JCP, 228(5), pp. 1391-1403) allowing efficient coupling of kineticly-treated ions to fluid electrons, and implementation of a neutral particle tracking mode with charge-exchange and electron impact ionization physics. These new simulation capabilities are demonstrated working independently and coupled to ``dummy'' profiles for RF power deposition to converge on steady-state plasma and neutral profiles. The geometry and conditions considered are similar to those of the MARIA experiment at UW-Madison. Initial results qualitatively show the expected neutral gas depletion effect in which neutrals in the plasma core are not replenished at a sufficient rate to sustain a higher plasma density. This work is funded by the NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210 and NSF Grant PHY-1206421.
Computation of the posterior probability of linkage using 'high effect' genetic model priors.
Logue, M W; Li, Y
2008-01-01
The posterior probability of linkage, or PPL, directly measures the probability that a disease gene is linked to a marker. By placing a Bayesian prior on the elements of the genetic model, it allows for an unknown genetic model without the inflationary effects of maximization. The standard technique uses essentially uniform priors over the elements of the penetrance vector. However, much of the parameter space corresponds to models that seem unlikely to yield substantial evidence for linkage: for example, models with very high phenocopy rates. A new class of priors on the elements of the genetic model is examined both theoretically and in simulations. These priors place 0% probability over models with low sibling relative risk, lambda(s). Focusing the prior probability on high lambda(s) models does tend to increase the mean PPL for linked markers, and to decrease the mean PPL for unlinked markers. However, the power to detect linkage remains virtually unchanged. Moreover, under these priors, the PPL occasionally yields unacceptably high values under no linkage. It appears important to retain prior probability over apparently 'uninformative' genetic models to accurately characterize the amount of evidence for linkage represented by the data. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Consistency in Estimation and Model Selection of Dynamic Panel Data Models with Fixed Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangjie Li
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We examine the relationship between consistent parameter estimation and model selection for autoregressive panel data models with fixed effects. We find that the transformation of fixed effects proposed by Lancaster (2002 does not necessarily lead to consistent estimation of common parameters when some true exogenous regressors are excluded. We propose a data dependent way to specify the prior of the autoregressive coefficient and argue for comparing different model specifications before parameter estimation. Model selection properties of Bayes factors and Bayesian information criterion (BIC are investigated. When model uncertainty is substantial, we recommend the use of Bayesian Model Averaging to obtain point estimators with lower root mean squared errors (RMSE. We also study the implications of different levels of inclusion probabilities by simulations.
Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.
Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B
2013-03-14
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Degrande, Celine [CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fuks, Benjamin [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Paris (France); CNRS, Paris (France); Mawatari, Kentarou [Universite Grenoble-Alpes, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); Mimasu, Ken [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); Universite catholique de Louvain, Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Sanz, Veronica [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)
2017-04-15
We study the impact of dimension-six operators of the standard model effective field theory relevant for vector-boson fusion and associated Higgs boson production at the LHC. We present predictions at the next-to-leading order accuracy in QCD that include matching to parton showers and that rely on fully automated simulations. We show the importance of the subsequent reduction of the theoretical uncertainties in improving the possible discrimination between effective field theory and standard model results, and we demonstrate that the range of the Wilson coefficient values allowed by a global fit to LEP and LHC Run I data can be further constrained by LHC Run II future results. (orig.)
Degrande, Celine; Mawatari, Kentarou; Mimasu, Ken; Sanz, Veronica
2017-04-25
We study the impact of dimension-six operators of the standard model effective field theory relevant for vector-boson fusion and associated Higgs boson production at the LHC. We present predictions at the next-to-leading order accuracy in QCD that include matching to parton showers and that rely on fully automated simulations. We show the importance of the subsequent reduction of the theoretical uncertainties in improving the possible discrimination between effective field theory and standard model results, and we demonstrate that the range of the Wilson coefficient values allowed by a global fit to LEP and LHC Run I data can be further constrained by LHC Run II future results.
Multi-band effective mass approximations advanced mathematical models and numerical techniques
Koprucki, Thomas
2014-01-01
This book addresses several mathematical models from the most relevant class of kp-Schrödinger systems. Both mathematical models and state-of-the-art numerical methods for adequately solving the arising systems of differential equations are presented. The operational principle of modern semiconductor nano structures, such as quantum wells, quantum wires or quantum dots, relies on quantum mechanical effects. The goal of numerical simulations using quantum mechanical models in the development of semiconductor nano structures is threefold: First they are needed for a deeper understanding of experimental data and of the operational principle. Secondly, they allow us to predict and optimize in advance the qualitative and quantitative properties of new devices in order to minimize the number of prototypes needed. Semiconductor nano structures are embedded as an active region in semiconductor devices. Thirdly and finally, the results of quantum mechanical simulations of semiconductor nano structures can be used wit...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, René; Jørgensen, Bent
2015-01-01
The paper proposes a versatile class of multiplicative generalized linear longitudinal mixed models (GLLMM) with additive dispersion components, based on explicit modelling of the covariance structure. The class incorporates a longitudinal structure into the random effects models and retains...... a marginal as well as a conditional interpretation. The estimation procedure is based on a computationally efficient quasi-score method for the regression parameters combined with a REML-like bias-corrected Pearson estimating function for the dispersion and correlation parameters. This avoids...... the multidimensional integral of the conventional GLMM likelihood and allows an extension of the robust empirical sandwich estimator for use with both association and regression parameters. The method is applied to a set of otholit data, used for age determination of fish....