WorldWideScience

Sample records for models adequately capture

  1. Modelling energy demand of developing countries: Are the specific features adequately captured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are commonly used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early seventies, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sectoral representations produce more realistic projections as compared to the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases, further development of models to better reflect developing country context and institutionalizing the modelling capacity in developing countries are the key requirements for energy demand modelling to deliver richer and more reliable input to policy formulation in developing countries.

  2. Modelling energy demand of developing countries: Are the specific features adequately captured?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C. [CEPMLP, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, Washington DC (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are commonly used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early seventies, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sectoral representations produce more realistic projections as compared to the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases, further development of models to better reflect developing country context and institutionalizing the modelling capacity in developing countries are the key requirements for energy demand modelling to deliver richer and more reliable input to policy formulation in developing countries. (author)

  3. Making ecological models adequate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M.; Marshall, Charles R.; Carlson, Colin J.; Giuggioli, Luca; Ryan, Sadie J.; Romañach, Stephanie; Boettiger, Carl; Chamberlain, Samuel D.; Larsen, Laurel; D'Odorico, Paolo; O'Sullivan, David

    2018-01-01

    Critical evaluation of the adequacy of ecological models is urgently needed to enhance their utility in developing theory and enabling environmental managers and policymakers to make informed decisions. Poorly supported management can have detrimental, costly or irreversible impacts on the environment and society. Here, we examine common issues in ecological modelling and suggest criteria for improving modelling frameworks. An appropriate level of process description is crucial to constructing the best possible model, given the available data and understanding of ecological structures. Model details unsupported by data typically lead to over parameterisation and poor model performance. Conversely, a lack of mechanistic details may limit a model's ability to predict ecological systems’ responses to management. Ecological studies that employ models should follow a set of model adequacy assessment protocols that include: asking a series of critical questions regarding state and control variable selection, the determinacy of data, and the sensitivity and validity of analyses. We also need to improve model elaboration, refinement and coarse graining procedures to better understand the relevancy and adequacy of our models and the role they play in advancing theory, improving hind and forecasting, and enabling problem solving and management.

  4. Providing adequate economic incentives for bioenergies with CO2 capture and geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    Knowing that carbon capture and storage (CCS) could play an important role in reducing emissions, it is important to have a good understanding of this role and the importance of environmental policies to support carbon capture and geological storage from bioenergies (BECCS). To date CCS technologies are not deployed on a commercial level, and policy instruments should be used to provide incentives to firms to use these technologies to reduce pollution. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost-efficiency of several incentive-based instruments (a fossil fuel tax, an emissions tax, a cap and trade system, and a subsidy on captured emissions) needed to spur the adoption of CCS and BECCS, using a dynamic general equilibrium model. This type of model has become the standard for assessing economy-wide impacts of environmental and technological policies. The study shows that BECCS will be deployed only if a specific subsidy per unit of biomass emissions captured with a CCS technology is available. We show also that the two most cost-efficient instruments for achieving a given emissions reduction target are a specific subsidy that rewards captured emissions and a carbon tax whose revenues are recycled to subsidize BECCS. - Highlights: ► We investigate the suitability of economic instruments to support CCS and BECCS. ► We model CCS and BECCS in a dynamic general equilibrium model. ► We compare the cost-efficiency of economic instruments to reduce emissions. ► A subsidy that rewards biomass captured emissions is appropriate to encourage BECCS. ► A carbon tax whose revenues are recycled to subsidize BECCS is cost-efficient.

  5. Arabidopsis: an adequate model for dicot root systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Zobel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to 8 different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5 of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems.

  6. Adequateness of applying the Zmijewski model on Serbian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Vladan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the accuracy of the prediction of Zmijewski model in Serbia on the eligible sample. At the same time, the paper identifies model's strengths, weaknesses and limitations of its possible application. Bearing in mind that the economic environment in Serbia is not similar to the United States at the time the model was developed, Zmijewski model is surprisingly accurate in the case of Serbian companies. The accuracy was slightly weaker than the model results in the U.S. in its original form, but much better than the results model gave in the U.S. in the period 1988-1991, and 1992-1999. Model gave also better results in Serbia comparing those in Croatia, even in Croatia model was adjusted.

  7. Arabidopsis: an adequate model for dicot root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the search for answers to pressing root developmental genetic issues, plant science has turned to a small genome dicot plant (Arabidopsis) to be used as a model to study and use to develop hypotheses for testing other species. Through out the published research only three classes of root are des...

  8. Constant-parameter capture-recapture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Jolly (1982, Biometrics 38, 301-321) presented modifications of the Jolly-Seber model for capture-recapture data, which assume constant survival and/or capture rates. Where appropriate, because of the reduced number of parameters, these models lead to more efficient estimators than the Jolly-Seber model. The tests to compare models given by Jolly do not make complete use of the data, and we present here the appropriate modifications, and also indicate how to carry out goodness-of-fit tests which utilize individual capture history information. We also describe analogous models for the case where young and adult animals are tagged. The availability of computer programs to perform the analysis is noted, and examples are given using output from these programs.

  9. Minimal Adequate Model of Unemployment Duration in the Post-Crisis Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Čabla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the leading economic problems in a developed world. The aim of this paper is to identify the differences in unemployment duration in different strata in the post-crisis Czech Republic via building a minimal adequate model, and to quantify the differences. Data from Labour Force Surveys are used and since they are interval censored in nature, proper metodology must be used. The minimal adequate model is built through the accelerated failure time modelling, maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests. Variables at the beginning are sex, marital status, age, education, municipality size and number of persons in a household, containing altogether 29 model parameters. The minimal adequate model contains 5 parameters and differences are found between men and women, the youngest category and the rest and the university educated and the rest. The estimated expected values, variances, medians, modes and 90th percentiles are provided for all subgroups.

  10. Developing a model for the adequate description of electronic communication in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboor, Samrend; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2011-01-01

    Adequate information and communication systems (ICT) can help to improve the communication in hospitals. Changes to the ICT-infrastructure of hospitals must be planed carefully. In order to support a comprehensive planning, we presented a classification of 81 common errors of the electronic communication on the MIE 2008 congress. Our objective now was to develop a data model that defines specific requirements for an adequate description of electronic communication processes We first applied the method of explicating qualitative content analysis on the error categorization in order to determine the essential process details. After this, we applied the method of subsuming qualitative content analysis on the results of the first step. A data model for the adequate description of electronic communication. This model comprises 61 entities and 91 relationships. The data model comprises and organizes all details that are necessary for the detection of the respective errors. It can be for either used to extend the capabilities of existing modeling methods or as a basis for the development of a new approach.

  11. Can Sophie's choice be adequately captured by cold computation of minimizing losses? An fMRI study of vital loss decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    Full Text Available The vast majority of decision-making research is performed under the assumption of the value maximizing principle. This principle implies that when making decisions, individuals try to optimize outcomes on the basis of cold mathematical equations. However, decisions are emotion-laden rather than cool and analytic when they tap into life-threatening considerations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, this study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying vital loss decisions. Participants were asked to make a forced choice between two losses across three conditions: both losses are trivial (trivial-trivial, both losses are vital (vital-vital, or one loss is trivial and the other is vital (vital-trivial. Our results revealed that the amygdala was more active and correlated positively with self-reported negative emotion associated with choice during vital-vital loss decisions, when compared to trivial-trivial loss decisions. The rostral anterior cingulate cortex was also more active and correlated positively with self-reported difficulty of choice during vital-vital loss decisions. Compared to the activity observed during trivial-trivial loss decisions, the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum were more active and correlated positively with self-reported positive emotion of choice during vital-trivial loss decisions. Our findings suggest that vital loss decisions involve emotions and cannot be adequately captured by cold computation of minimizing losses. This research will shed light on how people make vital loss decisions.

  12. 'Mathematical model of K Capture and its implications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, Andrew C.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of K Capture, the nuclear absorption of electron in the K shell, as induced by electricity, is explained in this article. Furthermore, a mathematical model of K Capture is formulated. Then, K Capture is applied to explain the negative results obtained by Steven Jones and the positive results obtained by Pons-Fleischmann in Deuterium Oxide Electrolysis Experiments. The most important implication of K Capture is the possibility of obtaining nuclear energy by fusion at low temperature from heavy water

  13. Prediction of Adequate Prenatal Care Utilization Based on the Extended Parallel Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Sepideh; Imani, Fatemeh; Riazi, Hedyeh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy complications are one of the major public health concerns. One of the main causes of preventable complications is the absence of or inadequate provision of prenatal care. The present study was conducted to investigate whether Extended Parallel Process Model's constructs can predict the utilization of prenatal care services. The present longitudinal prospective study was conducted on 192 pregnant women selected through the multi-stage sampling of health facilities in Qeshm, Hormozgan province, from April to June 2015. Participants were followed up from the first half of pregnancy until their childbirth to assess adequate or inadequate/non-utilization of prenatal care services. Data were collected using the structured Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale. The analysis of the data was carried out in SPSS-22 using one-way ANOVA, linear regression and logistic regression analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Totally, 178 pregnant women with a mean age of 25.31±5.42 completed the study. Perceived self-efficacy (OR=25.23; Pprenatal care. Husband's occupation in the labor market (OR=0.43; P=0.02), unwanted pregnancy (OR=0.352; Pcare for the minors or elderly at home (OR=0.35; P=0.045) were associated with lower odds of receiving prenatal care. The model showed that when perceived efficacy of the prenatal care services overcame the perceived threat, the likelihood of prenatal care usage will increase. This study identified some modifiable factors associated with prenatal care usage by women, providing key targets for appropriate clinical interventions.

  14. Model of electron capture in low-temperature glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartczak, W.M.; Swiatla, D.; Kroh, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new model of electron capture by a statistical variety of traps in glassy matrices is proposed. The electron capture is interpreted as the radiationless transition (assisted by multiphonon emission) of the mobile electron to the localized state in the trap. The conception of 'unfair' and 'fair' traps is introduced. The 'unfair' trap captures the mobile electron by the shallow excited state. In contrast, the 'fair' trap captures the electron by the ground state. The model calculations of the statistical distributions of the occupied electron traps are presented and discussed with respect to experimental results. (author)

  15. Rcapture: Loglinear Models for Capture-Recapture in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Baillargeon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces Rcapture, an R package for capture-recapture experiments. The data for analysis consists of the frequencies of the observable capture histories over the t capture occasions of the experiment. A capture history is a vector of zeros and ones where one stands for a capture and zero for a miss. Rcapture can fit three types of models. With a closed population model, the goal of the analysis is to estimate the size N of the population which is assumed to be constant throughout the experiment. The estimator depends on the way in which the capture probabilities of the animals vary. Rcapture features several models for these capture probabilities that lead to different estimators for N. In an open population model, immigration and death occur between sampling periods. The estimation of survival rates is of primary interest. Rcapture can fit the basic Cormack-Jolly-Seber and Jolly-Seber model to such data. The third type of models fitted by Rcapture are robust design models. It features two levels of sampling; closed population models apply within primary periods and an open population model applies between periods. Most models in Rcapture have a loglinear form; they are fitted by carrying out a Poisson regression with the R function glm. Estimates of the demographic parameters of interest are derived from the loglinear parameter estimates; their variances are obtained by linearization. The novel feature of this package is the provision of several new options for modeling capture probabilities heterogeneity between animals in both closed population models and the primary periods of a robust design. It also implements many of the techniques developed by R. M. Cormack for open population models.

  16. Developmental origins of metabolic disorders: The need for biomarker candidates and therapeutic targets from adequate preclinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on obesity and associated disorders have changed from an scenario in which genome drove the phenotype to a dynamic setup in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions are determinant. However, research in human beings is difficult due to confounding factors (lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity plus ethical issues. Hence, there is currently an intensive effort for developing adequate preclinical models, aiming for an adequate combination of basic studies in rodent models and specific preclinical studies in large animals. The results of these research strategies may increase the identification and development of contrasted biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  17. Rapid Capturing of Battlefield Mental Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Marvin

    1997-01-01

    ... (pattern matching, interpretative, and generative), and a set of metacognitive processes that monitor mental models for problems of uncertainty and adopt corrective strategies when problems are found...

  18. Phantom models for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.

    1990-08-01

    The development of a two-dimensional phantom model using the neutron and photon transport code DOT-IV is detailed. The effects of varying basic parameters such as aperture width, neutron source energy and tissue composition have been studied. One important conclusion from the study is that narrow beam apertures will give little or no advantage for tumour dose over tissue dose even in the 'ideal beam' range of 2-7 keV. The model may be used for future filter and beam studies with confidence. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  19. Adopting adequate leaching requirement for practical response models of basil to salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Hossein; Tabrizi, Mahdi Sarai; Darvishi, Hossein Hassanpour

    2016-07-01

    Several mathematical models are being used for assessing plant response to salinity of the root zone. Objectives of this study included quantifying the yield salinity threshold value of basil plants to irrigation water salinity and investigating the possibilities of using irrigation water salinity instead of saturated extract salinity in the available mathematical models for estimating yield. To achieve the above objectives, an extensive greenhouse experiment was conducted with 13 irrigation water salinity levels, namely 1.175 dS m-1 (control treatment) and 1.8 to 10 dS m-1. The result indicated that, among these models, the modified discount model (one of the most famous root water uptake model which is based on statistics) produced more accurate results in simulating the basil yield reduction function using irrigation water salinities. Overall the statistical model of Steppuhn et al. on the modified discount model and the math-empirical model of van Genuchten and Hoffman provided the best results. In general, all of the statistical models produced very similar results and their results were better than math-empirical models. It was also concluded that if enough leaching was present, there was no significant difference between the soil salinity saturated extract models and the models using irrigation water salinity.

  20. Transient modeling of electrochemically assisted CO2 capture and release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana; Stechel, Ellen B.; Buttry, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    to analyze the time-dependent behavior of CO2 capture and electro-migration transport across the cell length. Given high nonlinearity of the system, we used a finite element method (FEM) to numerically solve the coupled mass transport equations. The model describes the concentration profiles by taking......The present work aims to develop a model of a new electrochemical CO2 separation and release technology. We present a one-dimensional transient model of an electrochemical cell for point source CO2 capture and release, which mainly focuses on the simultaneous mass transport and complex chemical...... reactions associated with the separation process. For concreteness, we use an ionic liquid (IL) with 2 M thiolate anion (RS−) in 1 M disulfide (RSSR) as an electrolyte in the electrochemical cell to capture, transport and release CO2 under standard operating conditions. We computationally solved the model...

  1. Prediction of radionuclide migration in the geosphere: is the porous-flow model adequate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1982-01-01

    Practically all models used today to describe radionuclide migration in geologic media are based on the concept of flow in porous media. Recently it has been questioned if Fickian dispersion is the most important dispersion mechanism. Field observations of dispersion indicate that the dispersion coefficient increases with observation distance. This should not be the case in a homogeneous porous medium. For a medium with essentially independent channels, on the other hand, such an effect can be predicted. In some calculated examples it is shown that the use of the Fickian dispersion mechanism will very seriously underestimate the radionuclide concentration at a point downstream if the spreading mechanism in reality is channelling. The consequences of the often-used assumption that the interaction between the radionuclides and the rock is instantaneous is also discussed. It has been shown that in sparsely fissured crystalline rock the whole rock mass will not be able to participate in the sorption reactions, because the radionuclides will not have time to penetrate all through the large blocks. On the other hand, the assumption that only the surface of the fissures interacts with the radionuclides is likely to be an extremely conservative assumption in view of some recent diffusion experiments in crystalline rocks performed in our laboratories and at the Canadian Geologic Survey. Some experimental results on radionuclide migration in a single natural fissure under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory are also presented and interpreted using a model which includes channelling, surface sorption, diffusion in the rock matrix and sorption in the rock matrix. Some implications of these mechanisms in predicting radionuclide migration in the geosphere are discussed and compared with what a porous-flow model would predict

  2. A bottleneck model of set-specific capture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Sledge Moore

    Full Text Available Set-specific contingent attentional capture is a particularly strong form of capture that occurs when multiple attentional sets guide visual search (e.g., "search for green letters" and "search for orange letters". In this type of capture, a potential target that matches one attentional set (e.g. a green stimulus impairs the ability to identify a temporally proximal target that matches another attentional set (e.g. an orange stimulus. In the present study, we investigated whether set-specific capture stems from a bottleneck in working memory or from a depletion of limited resources that are distributed across multiple attentional sets. In each trial, participants searched a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP stream for up to three target letters (T1-T3 that could appear in any of three target colors (orange, green, or lavender. The most revealing findings came from trials in which T1 and T2 matched different attentional sets and were both identified. In these trials, T3 accuracy was lower when it did not match T1's set than when it did match, but only when participants failed to identify T2. These findings support a bottleneck model of set-specific capture in which a limited-capacity mechanism in working memory enhances only one attentional set at a time, rather than a resource model in which processing capacity is simultaneously distributed across multiple attentional sets.

  3. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents

  4. Cost Effectiveness of Screening Colonoscopy Depends on Adequate Bowel Preparation Rates - A Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kingsley

    Full Text Available Inadequate bowel preparation during screening colonoscopy necessitates repeating colonoscopy. Studies suggest inadequate bowel preparation rates of 20-60%. This increases the cost of colonoscopy for our society.The aim of this study is to determine the impact of inadequate bowel preparation rate on the cost effectiveness of colonoscopy compared to other screening strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC.A microsimulation model of CRC screening strategies for the general population at average risk for CRC. The strategies include fecal immunochemistry test (FIT every year, colonoscopy every ten years, sigmoidoscopy every five years, or stool DNA test every 3 years. The screening could be performed at private practice offices, outpatient hospitals, and ambulatory surgical centers.At the current assumed inadequate bowel preparation rate of 25%, the cost of colonoscopy as a screening strategy is above society's willingness to pay (<$50,000/QALY. Threshold analysis demonstrated that an inadequate bowel preparation rate of 13% or less is necessary before colonoscopy is considered more cost effective than FIT. At inadequate bowel preparation rates of 25%, colonoscopy is still more cost effective compared to sigmoidoscopy and stool DNA test. Sensitivity analysis of all inputs adjusted by ±10% showed incremental cost effectiveness ratio values were influenced most by the specificity, adherence, and sensitivity of FIT and colonoscopy.Screening colonoscopy is not a cost effective strategy when compared with fecal immunochemical test, as long as the inadequate bowel preparation rate is greater than 13%.

  5. Predicting kinetics using musculoskeletal modeling and inertial motion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatsidis, Angelos; Jung, Moonki; Schepers, H. Martin; Bellusci, Giovanni; de Zee, Mark; Veltink, Peter H.; Andersen, Michael Skipper

    2018-01-01

    Inverse dynamic analysis using musculoskeletal modeling is a powerful tool, which is utilized in a range of applications to estimate forces in ligaments, muscles, and joints, non-invasively. To date, the conventional input used in this analysis is derived from optical motion capture (OMC) and force

  6. Multi-scale modeling of carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, Joel David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The development and scale up of cost effective carbon capture processes is of paramount importance to enable the widespread deployment of these technologies to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) in 2011 with the goal of developing a computational toolset that would enable industry to more effectively identify, design, scale up, operate, and optimize promising concepts. The first half of the presentation will introduce the CCSI Toolset consisting of basic data submodels, steady-state and dynamic process models, process optimization and uncertainty quantification tools, an advanced dynamic process control framework, and high-resolution filtered computationalfluid- dynamics (CFD) submodels. The second half of the presentation will describe a high-fidelity model of a mesoporous silica supported, polyethylenimine (PEI)-impregnated solid sorbent for CO2 capture. The sorbent model includes a detailed treatment of transport and amine-CO2- H2O interactions based on quantum chemistry calculations. Using a Bayesian approach for uncertainty quantification, we calibrate the sorbent model to Thermogravimetric (TGA) data.

  7. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  8. Modeling and prototyping of a flux concentrator for positron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Gai, W.; Wang, H.; Wong, T.

    2008-01-01

    An adiabatic matching device (AMD) generates a tapered high-strength magnetic field to capture positrons emitted from a positron target to a downstream accelerating structure. The AMD is a key component of a positron source and represents a technical challenge. The International Linear Collider collaboration is proposing to employ a pulsed, normal-conducting, flux-concentrator to generate a 5 Tesla initial magnetic field. The flux-concentrator structure itself and the interactions between the flux-concentrator and the external power supply circuits give rise to a nontrivial system. In this paper, we present a recently developed equivalent circuit model for a flux concentrator, along with the characteristics of a prototype fabricated for validating the model. Using the model, we can obtain the transient response of the pulsed magnetic field and the field profile. Calculations based on the model and the results of measurements made on the prototype are in good agreement.

  9. Spatial capture-recapture models for search-encounter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Kery, Marc; Guelat, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    1. Spatial capture–recapture models make use of auxiliary data on capture location to provide density estimates for animal populations. Previously, models have been developed primarily for fixed trap arrays which define the observable locations of individuals by a set of discrete points. 2. Here, we develop a class of models for 'search-encounter' data, i.e. for detections of recognizable individuals in continuous space, not restricted to trap locations. In our hierarchical model, detection probability is related to the average distance between individual location and the survey path. The locations are allowed to change over time owing to movements of individuals, and individual locations are related formally by a model describing individual activity or home range centre which is itself regarded as a latent variable in the model. We provide a Bayesian analysis of the model in WinBUGS, and develop a custom MCMC algorithm in the R language. 3. The model is applied to simulated data and to territory mapping data for the Willow Tit from the Swiss Breeding Bird Survey MHB. While the observed density was 15 territories per nominal 1 km2 plot of unknown effective sample area, the model produced a density estimate of 21∙12 territories per square km (95% posterior interval: 17–26). 4. Spatial capture–recapture models are relevant to virtually all animal population studies that seek to estimate population size or density, yet existing models have been proposed mainly for conventional sampling using arrays of traps. Our model for search-encounter data, where the spatial pattern of searching can be arbitrary and may change over occasions, greatly expands the scope and utility of spatial capture–recapture models.

  10. A large animal model for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Kraft, S.L.; DeHaan, C.E.; Moore, M.P.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    An epithermal neutron beam is needed to treat relatively deep seated tumors. The scattering characteristics of neutrons in this energy range dictate that in vivo experiments be conducted in a large animal to prevent unacceptable total body irradiation. The canine species has proven an excellent model to evaluate the various problems of boron neutron capture utilizing an epithermal neutron beam. This paper discusses three major components of the authors study: (1) the pharmacokinetics of borocaptate sodium (NA 2 B 12 H 11 SH or BSH) in dogs with spontaneously occurring brain tumors, (2) the radiation tolerance of normal tissues in the dog using an epithermal beam alone and in combination with borocaptate sodium, and (3) initial treatment of dogs with spontaneously occurring brain tumors utilizing borocaptate sodium and an epithermal neutron beam

  11. Evaluation of bias associated with capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Cara; Allander, Kip K.; Pohll, Greg; Morway, Eric D.; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Huntington, Justin

    2018-01-01

    The impact of groundwater withdrawal on surface water is a concern of water users and water managers, particularly in the arid western United States. Capture maps are useful tools to spatially assess the impact of groundwater pumping on water sources (e.g., streamflow depletion) and are being used more frequently for conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater. Capture maps have been derived using linear groundwater flow models and rely on the principle of superposition to demonstrate the effects of pumping in various locations on resources of interest. However, nonlinear models are often necessary to simulate head-dependent boundary conditions and unconfined aquifers. Capture maps developed using nonlinear models with the principle of superposition may over- or underestimate capture magnitude and spatial extent. This paper presents new methods for generating capture difference maps, which assess spatial effects of model nonlinearity on capture fraction sensitivity to pumping rate, and for calculating the bias associated with capture maps. The sensitivity of capture map bias to selected parameters related to model design and conceptualization for the arid western United States is explored. This study finds that the simulation of stream continuity, pumping rates, stream incision, well proximity to capture sources, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and groundwater evapotranspiration extinction depth substantially affect capture map bias. Capture difference maps demonstrate that regions with large capture fraction differences are indicative of greater potential capture map bias. Understanding both spatial and temporal bias in capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models improves their utility and defensibility as conjunctive-use management tools.

  12. A Generalized Estimating Equations Approach to Model Heterogeneity and Time Dependence in Capture-Recapture Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanda Md. Abdus Salam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities and time dependence are fundamentally important for estimating the closed animal population parameters in capture-recapture studies. A generalized estimating equations (GEE approach accounts for linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions, and individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities in a closed population capture-recapture individual heterogeneity and time variation model. The estimated capture probabilities are used to estimate animal population parameters. Two real data sets are used for illustrative purposes. A simulation study is carried out to assess the performance of the GEE estimator. A Quasi-Likelihood Information Criterion (QIC is applied for the selection of the best fitting model. This approach performs well when the estimated population parameters depend on the individual heterogeneity and the nature of linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions.

  13. Solids Modelling and Capture Simulation of Piperazine in Potassium Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    be a benefit to the capture process, but it could also result in unforeseen situations of potential hazardous operation, clogging, equipment failure etc.Security of the PZ process needs to be in focus. Flow assurance requires additional attention, especially due to the precipitation phenomenon. This entails...

  14. Is it adequate to model the socio-cultural dimension of e-learners by informing a fixed set of personal criteria?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, interest has increased in proposing efficient techniques to capture and model cognitive and affective characteristics of e-learners. More recently,research has started investigating the development of culturally-aware educational technology. Indeed, cultures are known to ...

  15. Modeling of phonon- and Coulomb-mediated capture processes in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes modeling of carrier relaxation processes in self-assembled quantum-dot-structures, with particular emphasis on carrier capture processes in quantum dots. Relaxation by emission of lontitudinal optical (LO) phonons is very efficient in bulk semiconductors and nanostructures...... of higher dimensionality. Here, we investigate carrier capture processes into quantum dots, mediated by emission of one and two LO phonons. In these investigations is is assumed that the dot is empty initially. In the Case of single-phonon capture we also investigate the influence of the presence...... of a charge in the quantum-dot state to which the capture takes place. In general, capture rates are of the same order as capture rates into an empty dot state, but in some cases the dot-size interval for which the capture process is energetically allowed, is considerably reduced.The above calculations...

  16. Funding an 'Adequate' Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. political process has been used to define an "adequate" education, in terms of resources, procedures, content, or outcomes. The marketplace also allows individuals to define adequacy through various voucher arrangements. Both mechanisms should be used, based on whether public or private interests are paramount in a particular…

  17. Assessment of the Ability of Contemporary Climate Models to Assess Adequately the Risk of Possible Regional Anomalies and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhov, I. I.

    2018-04-01

    The results describing the ability of contemporary global and regional climate models not only to assess the risk of general trends of changes but also to predict qualitatively new regional effects are presented. In particular, model simulations predicted spatially inhomogeneous changes in the wind and wave conditions in the Arctic basins, which have been confirmed in recent years. According to satellite and reanalysis data, a qualitative transition to the regime predicted by model simulations occurred about a decade ago.

  18. Hydrologic modelling and dendrochronology as tool of site-species adequation assessment in a changing climate context

    OpenAIRE

    Sohier, Catherine; Debruxelles, Jérôme; Brusten, Thomas; Bauwens, Alexandra; Claessens, Hugues; Degre, Aurore

    2010-01-01

    A hydrologic model is related to dendrochronological measurements performed in a 52 years old Spruce stand. The site is situated on a hillside with shallow and acid brown soil in the ecoregion of Ardenne (Wallonia, Southern Belgium). Hydrologic modelling The hydrologic simulation runs from 1971 to 2005 at daily time step. The model is based on an EPIC code, adapted to the site concerning soil reservoirs depth, characteristic water contents, root profile and water uptake. Weather data c...

  19. A new pilot absorber for CO2 capture from flue gases: Measuring and modelling capture with MEA solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Tim L.; Carlsen, Kim B.; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2013-01-01

    A pilot absorber column for CO2 recovery from flue gases was constructed and tested with aqueous 30wt% monoethanolamine (MEA), a primary amine, as capture solvent. The pilot plant data were compared with a mathematical rate based packed-column model. The simulation results compared well...... with the pilot plant data. The packed height of the column can be varied from 1.6 to 8.2. m by means of five different liquid inlets. The column has an inner diameter of 100. mm and is packed with structured Mellapak 250Y packing. Counter-current flow is used. The pilot plant performance was investigated...

  20. From Near-Neutral to Strongly Stratified: Adequately Modelling the Clear-Sky Nocturnal Boundary Layer at Cabauw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, P; van de Wiel, B J H; van der Linden, S J A; Bosveld, F C

    2018-01-01

    The performance of an atmospheric single-column model (SCM) is studied systematically for stably-stratified conditions. To this end, 11 years (2005-2015) of daily SCM simulations were compared to observations from the Cabauw observatory, The Netherlands. Each individual clear-sky night was classified in terms of the ambient geostrophic wind speed with a [Formula: see text] bin-width. Nights with overcast conditions were filtered out by selecting only those nights with an average net radiation of less than [Formula: see text]. A similar procedure was applied to the observational dataset. A comparison of observed and modelled ensemble-averaged profiles of wind speed and potential temperature and time series of turbulent fluxes showed that the model represents the dynamics of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) at Cabauw very well for a broad range of mechanical forcing conditions. No obvious difference in model performance was found between near-neutral and strongly-stratified conditions. Furthermore, observed NBL regime transitions are represented in a natural way. The reference model version performs much better than a model version that applies excessive vertical mixing as is done in several (global) operational models. Model sensitivity runs showed that for weak-wind conditions the inversion strength depends much more on details of the land-atmosphere coupling than on the turbulent mixing. The presented results indicate that in principle the physical parametrizations of large-scale atmospheric models are sufficiently equipped for modelling stably-stratified conditions for a wide range of forcing conditions.

  1. From Near-Neutral to Strongly Stratified: Adequately Modelling the Clear-Sky Nocturnal Boundary Layer at Cabauw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, P.; van de Wiel, B. J. H.; van der Linden, S. J. A.; Bosveld, F. C.

    2018-02-01

    The performance of an atmospheric single-column model (SCM) is studied systematically for stably-stratified conditions. To this end, 11 years (2005-2015) of daily SCM simulations were compared to observations from the Cabauw observatory, The Netherlands. Each individual clear-sky night was classified in terms of the ambient geostrophic wind speed with a 1 m s^{-1} bin-width. Nights with overcast conditions were filtered out by selecting only those nights with an average net radiation of less than - 30 W m^{-2}. A similar procedure was applied to the observational dataset. A comparison of observed and modelled ensemble-averaged profiles of wind speed and potential temperature and time series of turbulent fluxes showed that the model represents the dynamics of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) at Cabauw very well for a broad range of mechanical forcing conditions. No obvious difference in model performance was found between near-neutral and strongly-stratified conditions. Furthermore, observed NBL regime transitions are represented in a natural way. The reference model version performs much better than a model version that applies excessive vertical mixing as is done in several (global) operational models. Model sensitivity runs showed that for weak-wind conditions the inversion strength depends much more on details of the land-atmosphere coupling than on the turbulent mixing. The presented results indicate that in principle the physical parametrizations of large-scale atmospheric models are sufficiently equipped for modelling stably-stratified conditions for a wide range of forcing conditions.

  2. Parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks is associated with children’s adequate consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxten, Michelle; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Friend, Sarah; Flattum, Colleen F.; Schow, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Parental role modeling of healthful eating behaviors has been shown to be positively correlated to children’s dietary intake and preference for fruits and vegetables. However, no study to date has utilized both parent and child report of parental role modeling and assessed role modeling at snacks and dinner. The purpose of this study is to 1) examine associations between parent and child report of parental role modeling of fruit and vegetable consumption at snacks and dinner and 2) determine whether parental role modeling is associated with children meeting daily fruit and vegetable recommendations. Parent-child dyads (N=160) participating in the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study completed baseline surveys that included questions regarding parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at dinner and snacks. Children also completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Spearman correlations and chi-square/Fisher’s exact test were used to examine relationships between parent and child report of parental role modeling of fruit and vegetable consumption at snacks and dinner and whether children met daily recommended servings of fruits and vegetables. On average, children consumed less than three servings of fruits and vegetables per day with only 23% of children consuming the recommended four daily servings. Similarities between parent and child reports of parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at snacks and dinner varied by food type (e.g., fruit versus green salad) and whether the role modeling behavior was at snack or dinner. Statistically significant correlations were seen between parent and child report of parental role modeling consumption of fruit at dinner and green salad at dinner. Children who reported parental role modeling of vegetable consumption at snack and green salad at dinner were significantly more likely, than those who did not, to meet the daily fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations. Parents who

  3. Parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks is associated with children's adequate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxten, Michelle; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Friend, Sarah; Flattum, Colleen F; Schow, Robin

    2014-07-01

    Research has shown that parental role modeling of healthful eating behaviors is positively correlated to children's dietary intake and fruit and vegetable (F&V) preferences. The purpose of this study is to (1) examine associations between parent and child report of parental role modeling of F&V consumption at snacks and dinner and (2) determine whether parental role modeling is associated with children meeting daily F&V recommendations. Parent-child dyads (N = 160) participating in the HOME Plus study completed baseline surveys on parental role modeling of F&V at snacks and dinner. Children also completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Spearman correlations and chi-square/Fisher's exact tests were used to examine relationships between parent and child report of parental role modeling of F&V at snacks and dinner and whether children met daily recommendations. On average, children consumed less than three daily servings of F&V with only 23% consuming the recommended servings. Statistically significant correlations were seen between parent and child report of parental role modeling fruit at dinner and green salad at dinner. Children who reported parental role modeling of vegetables at snack and salad at dinner were significantly more likely, than those who did not, to meet daily F&V recommendations. Parents who reported role modeling fruit at snack were significantly more likely to have children who met daily F&V recommendations. Results indicate that children are aware of their parents' eating behaviors and on occasion report this behavior similarly to their parents. Parents should be encouraged to utilize the opportunity to role model healthful dietary intake, especially at snacks, where consumption of F&V appears low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quasi-adequate semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1987-11-01

    The least fundamental adequate good congruence on an arbitrary type W semigroup S is described as well as the largest superabundant full subsemigroup of S and the largest full subsemigroup of S which is a band of cancellative monoids. Weak type W semigroups are defined by replacing the idempotent-connected property in type W by one of its consequences and a structure theorem is obtained for such semigroups. (author). 12 refs

  5. Adequate Security Protocols Adopt in a Conceptual Model in Identity Management for the Civil Registry of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Moisés; Mafla, Enrique; Orizaga, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed the problems of security of the information of the civil registries and identification at world level that are considered strategic. The objective is to adopt the appropriate security protocols in a conceptual model in the identity management for the Civil Registry of Ecuador. In this phase, the appropriate security protocols were determined in a Conceptual Model in Identity Management with Authentication, Authorization and Auditing (AAA). We used the deductive method and exploratory research to define the appropriate security protocols to be adopted in the identity model: IPSec, DNSsec, Radius, SSL, TLS, IEEE 802.1X EAP, Set. It was a prototype of the location of the security protocols adopted in the logical design of the technological infrastructure considering the conceptual model for Identity, Authentication, Authorization, and Audit management. It was concluded that the adopted protocols are appropriate for a distributed database and should have a direct relationship with the algorithms, which allows vulnerability and risk mitigation taking into account confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA).

  6. Sustaining the Higher Education Hub Model: The Challenge of Adequate Academic and Social Support Structures for International Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Richards

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Education Hub (EH concept has perhaps become the single most important focus of higher education policy in most Asian countries. A particular Asian Education Hub model (e.g. Cheng, 2010 is now globally influential with its emphasis on how governments can harness direct as well as indirect economic benefits of a higher education system. Such a model aims to prepare students for employment in an emerging global economy and also to attract fee-paying international students in terms of education as not just a public good but a key and increasingly important area of national investment and economic development. In a related paper which focused on a comparison between distinct Malaysian and Singaporean versions of Asian EH l models developed over the last two decades (Richards, 2011c, we investigated the dangers as well as opportunities at stake. In this paper, we investigate the linked idea that sufficient academic and social support structures for supporting international as well as local students provide the crucial key to the factors of sustainability needed to support the various versions of the general strategy of Higher Education internationalisation.

  7. Eigenvector space model to capture features of documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi DONGJIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eigenvectors are a special set of vectors associated with a linear system of equations. Because of the special property of eigenvector, it has been used a lot for computer vision area. When the eigenvector is applied to information retrieval field, it is possible to obtain properties of documents data corpus. To capture properties of given documents, this paper conducted simple experiments to prove the eigenvector is also possible to use in document analysis. For the experiment, we use short abstract document of Wikipedia provided by DBpedia as a document corpus. To build an original square matrix, the most popular method named tf-idf measurement will be used. After calculating the eigenvectors of original matrix, each vector will be plotted into 3D graph to find what the eigenvector means in document processing.

  8. A comparison of the COG and MCNP codes in computational neutron capture therapy modeling, Part I: boron neutron capture therapy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, C N; Wangerin, K; Ghandourah, E; Jevremovic, T

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the COG Monte Carlo radiation transport code, developed and tested by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, for neutron capture therapy related modeling. A boron neutron capture therapy model was analyzed comparing COG calculational results to results from the widely used MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle) transport code. The approach for computing neutron fluence rate and each dose component relevant in boron neutron capture therapy is described, and calculated values are shown in detail. The differences between the COG and MCNP predictions are qualified and quantified. The differences are generally small and suggest that the COG code can be applied for BNCT research related problems.

  9. Hard- and software of real time simulation tools of Electric Power System for adequate modeling power semiconductors in voltage source convertor based HVDC and FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices and High Voltage Direct Current Transmission (HVDC system as part of real electric power systems (EPS. For that, a hybrid approach for advanced simulation of the FACTS and HVDC based on Voltage Source is proposed. The presented simulation results of the developed hybrid model of VSC confirm the achievement of the desired properties of the model and the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  10. Real-time ultrasound imaging of irreversible electroporation in a porcine liver model adequately characterizes the zone of cellular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Carl R; Shires, Peter; Mootoo, Mary

    2012-02-01

      Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a largely non-thermal method for the ablation of solid tumours. The ability of ultrasound (US) to measure the size of the IRE ablation zone was studied in a porcine liver model.   Three normal pig livers were treated in vivo with a total of 22 ablations using IRE. Ultrasound was used within minutes after ablation and just prior to liver harvest at either 6 h or 24 h after the procedure. The area of cellular necrosis was measured after staining with nitroblue tetrazolium and the percentage of cell death determined by histomorphometry.   Visible changes in the hepatic parenchyma were apparent by US after all 22 ablations using IRE. The mean maximum diameter of the ablation zone measured by US during the procedure was 20.1 ± 2.7 mm. This compared with a mean cellular necrosis zone maximum diameter of 20.3 ± 2.9 mm as measured histologically. The mean percentage of dead cells within the ablation zone was 77% at 6 h and 98% at 24 h after ablation.   Ultrasound is a useful modality for measuring the ablation zone within minutes of applying IRE to normal liver tissue. The area of parenchymal change measured by US correlates with the area of cellular necrosis. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  11. Advanced modeling to accelerate the scale up of carbon capture technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Sun, XIN; Storlie, Curtis B.; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to help meet the goals of the DOE carbon capture program, the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) was launched in early 2011 to develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced computational tools and validated multi-scale models to reduce the time required to develop and scale-up new carbon capture technologies. This article focuses on essential elements related to the development and validation of multi-scale models in order to help minimize risk and maximize learning as new technologies progress from pilot to demonstration scale.

  12. Capturing and Categorizing Mental Models of Food Webs using QCM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dehghani, Morteza; Unsworth, Sara; Lovett, Andrew; Forbus, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the use of qualitative representations in modeling the similarities and differences in causal reasoning for biological kinds between Menominee Native Americans and US majority culture...

  13. Reconstructing 3D Tree Models Using Motion Capture and Particle Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Long

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovering tree shape from motion capture data is a first step toward efficient and accurate animation of trees in wind using motion capture data. Existing algorithms for generating models of tree branching structures for image synthesis in computer graphics are not adapted to the unique data set provided by motion capture. We present a method for tree shape reconstruction using particle flow on input data obtained from a passive optical motion capture system. Initial branch tip positions are estimated from averaged and smoothed motion capture data. Branch tips, as particles, are also generated within a bounding space defined by a stack of bounding boxes or a convex hull. The particle flow, starting at branch tips within the bounding volume under forces, creates tree branches. The forces are composed of gravity, internal force, and external force. The resulting shapes are realistic and similar to the original tree crown shape. Several tunable parameters provide control over branch shape and arrangement.

  14. Absorber Model for CO2 Capture by Monoethanolamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faramarzi, Leila; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2010-01-01

    The rate-based steady-state model proposed by Gabrielsen et al. (Gabrielsen, J.; Michelsen, M. L.; Kontogeorgis, G. M.; Stenby, E. H. AIChE J. 2006, 52, 10, 3443-3451) for the design of the CO2-2-amino-2-methylpropanol absorbers is adopted and improved for the design of the CO2-monoethanolamine......, and their impact on the model's prediction is compared. The model has been successfully applied to CO2 absorber packed columns and validated against pilot plant data with good agreement....

  15. A model capturing novel strand symmetries in bacterial DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobottka, Marcelo; Hart, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We propose a simple stochastic model to construct primitive DNA sequences. → The model provide an explanation for Chargaff's second parity rule in primitive DNA sequences. → The model is also used to predict a novel type of strand symmetry in primitive DNA sequences. → We extend the results for bacterial DNA sequences and compare distributional properties intrinsic to the model to statistical estimates from 1049 bacterial genomes. → We find out statistical evidences that the novel type of strand symmetry holds for bacterial DNA sequences. -- Abstract: Chargaff's second parity rule for short oligonucleotides states that the frequency of any short nucleotide sequence on a strand is approximately equal to the frequency of its reverse complement on the same strand. Recent studies have shown that, with the exception of organellar DNA, this parity rule generally holds for double-stranded DNA genomes and fails to hold for single-stranded genomes. While Chargaff's first parity rule is fully explained by the Watson-Crick pairing in the DNA double helix, a definitive explanation for the second parity rule has not yet been determined. In this work, we propose a model based on a hidden Markov process for approximating the distributional structure of primitive DNA sequences. Then, we use the model to provide another possible theoretical explanation for Chargaff's second parity rule, and to predict novel distributional aspects of bacterial DNA sequences.

  16. How important is diversity for capturing environmental-change responses in ecosystem models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowe, Friederike; Pahlow, M.; Dutkiewicz, S.

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystem models used to investigate how global change affects ocean ecosystems and their functioning typically omit pelagic plankton diversity. Diversity, however, may affect functions such as primary production and their sensitivity to environmental changes. Here we use a global ocean...... ecosystem model that explicitly resolves phytoplankton diversity by defining subtypes within four phytoplankton functional types (PFTs). We investigate the model's ability to capture diversity effects on primary production under environmental change. An idealized scenario with a sudden reduction in vertical...... in the model, for example via trade-offs or different PFTs, thus determines the diversity effects on ecosystem functioning captured in ocean ecosystem models....

  17. Capturing socio-technical systems with agent-based modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    What is a suitable modelling approach for socio-technical systems? The answer to this question is of great importance to decision makers in large scale interconnected network systems. The behaviour of these systems is determined by many actors, situated in a dynamic, multi-actor, multi-objective and

  18. Capturing Characteristics of Atmospheric Refractivity Using Observations and Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    times during TW13 where a rawinsonde was suspended from a kite or a tethered balloon , depending on the wind speed, launched from a ridged hull...appended to the bottom of a balloon sounding or a COAMPS model profile in some fashion in order to provide a complete profile for use in propagation...rawinsonde” (“radar wind-sonde”). The instrument package is suspended from a buoyant balloon which is released from the surface and often reaches heights

  19. CAPTURING UNCERTAINTY IN UNSATURATED-ZONE FLOW USING DIFFERENT CONCEPTUAL MODELS OF FRACTURE-MATRIX INTERACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUSAN J. ALTMAN, MICHAEL L. WILSON, GUMUNDUR S. BODVARSSON

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary calculations show that the two different conceptual models of fracture-matrix interaction presented here yield different results pertinent to the performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Namely, each model produces different ranges of flow in the fractures, where radionuclide transport is thought to be most important. This method of using different flow models to capture both conceptual model and parameter uncertainty ensures that flow fields used in TSPA calculations will be reasonably calibrated to the available data while still capturing this uncertainty. This method also allows for the use of three-dimensional flow fields for the TSPA-VA calculations

  20. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides, KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas Galiano, G.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electron-capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high

  1. Modelling of tetrahydrofuran promoted gas hydrate systems for carbon dioxide capture processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2014-01-01

    A thermodynamic study of a novel gas hydrate based CO2 capture process is presented.•Model predicts this process unsuitable for CO2 capture from power station flue gases. A thermodynamic modelling study of both fluid phase behaviour and hydrate phase behaviour is presented for the quaternary system...... of water, tetrahydrofuran, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The applied model incorporates the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state for the fluid phase description and the van der Waals-Platteeuw hydrate model for the solid (hydrate) phase. Six binary pairs are studied for their fluid phase behaviour...... accurate descriptions of both fluid- and hydrate phase equilibria in the studied system and its subsystems. The developed model is applied to simulate two simplified, gas hydrate-based processes for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture from power station flue gases. The first process, an unpromoted...

  2. Capturing spike variability in noisy Izhikevich neurons using point process generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Kramer, Mark A.; Eden, Uri T.

    2018-01-01

    current. We then fit these spike train datawith a statistical model (a generalized linear model, GLM, with multiplicative influences of past spiking). For different levels of noise, we show how the GLM captures both the deterministic features of the Izhikevich neuron and the variability driven...... by the noise. We conclude that the GLM captures essential features of the simulated spike trains, but for near-deterministic spike trains, goodness-of-fit analyses reveal that the model does not fit very well in a statistical sense; the essential random part of the GLM is not captured....... are separately applied; understanding the relationships between these modeling approaches remains an area of active research. In this letter, we examine this relationship using simulation. To do so, we first generate spike train data from a well-known dynamical model, the Izhikevich neuron, with a noisy input...

  3. Modelling of adequate and safe vitamin D intake in Danish women using different fortification and supplementation scenarios to inform fortification policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Tetens, Inge; Ege, Majken

    2018-01-01

    Fortification of foods with vitamin D may be a population-based solution to low vitamin D intake. We performed modelling of vitamin D from diet, fortified foods and supplements in a population of Danish women 18-50 years, a risk group of vitamin D deficiency, to inform fortification policies...... on safe and adequate levels. Based on individual habitual dietary vitamin D intake of female participants from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) (n = 855), we performed graded intake modelling to predict the intake in six scenarios increasing the vitamin D intake...... from a habitual diet without fish to habitual diet including fish, fortified foods and supplements (40/80 µg). Four different foods were used as potential foods to fortify with vitamin D. The vitamin D intake was below the Average Requirement (AR) of 7.5 µg/day for 88% of the assessed women. Safe...

  4. Modelling the oil producers: Capturing oil industry knowledge in a behavioural simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morecroft, J.D.W.; Van der Heijden, K.A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    A group of senior managers and planners from a major oil company met to discuss the changing structure of the oil industry with the purpose of improving group understanding of oil market behaviour for use in global scenarios. This broad ranging discussion led to a system dynamics simulation model of the oil producers. The model produced new insights into the power and stability of OPEC (the major oil producers' organization), the dynamic of oil prices, and the investment opportunities of non-OPEC producers. The paper traces the model development process, starting from group discussions and leading to working simulation models. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to capture team knowledge and to ensure that the computer models reflected opinions and ideas from the meetings. The paper describes how flip-chart diagrams were used to collect ideas about the logic of the principal producers' production decisions. A sub-group of the project team developed and tested an algebraic model. The paper shows partial model simulations used to build confidence and a sense of ownership in the algebraic formulations. Further simulations show how the full model can stimulate thinking about producers' behaviour and oil prices. The paper concludes with comments on the model building process. 11 figs., 37 refs

  5. Radiative proton-deuteron capture in a gauge invariant relativistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korchin, AY; Van Neck, D; Scholten, O; Waroquier, M

    A relativistic model is developed for the description of the process p+dHe-3+gamma*. It is based on the impulse approximation, but is explicitly gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant. The model is applied to radiative proton-deuteron capture and electrodisintegration of He-3 nt intermediate

  6. Applying the flow-capturing location-allocation model to an authentic network: Edmonton, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hodgson (John); K.E. Rosing (Kenneth); A.L.G. Storrier (Leontien)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTraditional location-allocation models aim to locate network facilities to optimally serve demand expressed as weights at nodes. For some types of facilities demand is not expressed at nodes, but as passing network traffic. The flow-capturing location-allocation model responds to this

  7. Modelling of catalytic oxidation of NH3 and reduction of NO on limestone during sulphur capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Bhatia, Suresh K.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1996-01-01

    activity with respect to each species involved. An existing particle model, the Grain-Micrograin Model, which simulates sulphur capture on limestone under oxidizing conditions is considered in the modelling. Simulation results in good qualitative agreement with experimental data are obtained here......A theoretical study of the complex transient system of simultaneous sulphur capture and catalytic reactions of N-containing compounds taking place on a single limestone particle is conducted. The numerical technique developed previously by the authors (Kiil et al. 1994) based on collocation...... for the catalytic chemistry of NH3 during simultaneous sulphur capture on a Stevns Chalk particle. The reduction of NO by NH3 over CaSO4 (which is the product of the reaction between SO2, O2 and limestone) was found to be important because this reaction could explain the change in selectivity with increased solid...

  8. Circuit simulation model multi-quantum well laser diodes inducing transport and capture/escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuber-Okrog, K.

    1996-04-01

    This work describes the development of world's first circuit simulation model for multi-quantum well (MQW) semiconductor lasers comprising caier transport and capture/escape effects. This model can be seen as the application of a new semiconductor device simulator for quasineutral structures including MQW layers with an extension for simple single mode modeling of optical behavior. It is implemented in a circuit simulation program. The model is applied to Fabry-Perot laser diodes and compared to measured data. (author)

  9. Magnetic Capture of a Molecular Biomarker from Synovial Fluid in a Rat Model of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmola, Elena G; Shah, Yash; Arnold, David P; Dobson, Jon; Allen, Kyle D

    2016-04-01

    Biomarker development for osteoarthritis (OA) often begins in rodent models, but can be limited by an inability to aspirate synovial fluid from a rodent stifle (similar to the human knee). To address this limitation, we have developed a magnetic nanoparticle-based technology to collect biomarkers from a rodent stifle, termed magnetic capture. Using a common OA biomarker--the c-terminus telopeptide of type II collagen (CTXII)--magnetic capture was optimized in vitro using bovine synovial fluid and then tested in a rat model of knee OA. Anti-CTXII antibodies were conjugated to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide-containing polymeric particles. Using these anti-CTXII particles, magnetic capture was able to estimate the level of CTXII in 25 μL aliquots of bovine synovial fluid; and under controlled conditions, this estimate was unaffected by synovial fluid viscosity. Following in vitro testing, anti-CTXII particles were tested in a rat monoiodoacetate model of knee OA. CTXII could be magnetically captured from a rodent stifle without the need to aspirate fluid and showed tenfold changes in CTXII levels from OA-affected joints relative to contralateral control joints. Combined, these data demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of magnetic capture for post-mortem analysis of OA biomarkers in the rat.

  10. Modelling of limestone injection for SO2 capture in a coal fired utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacik, G.J.; Reid, K.; McDonald, M.M.; Knill, K.

    1997-01-01

    A computer model was developed for simulating furnace sorbent injection for SO 2 capture in a full scale utility boiler using TASCFlow TM computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The model makes use of a computational grid of the superheater section of a tangentially fired utility boiler. The computer simulations are three dimensional so that the temperature and residence time distribution in the boiler could be realistically represented. Results of calculations of simulated sulphur capture performance of limestone injection in a typical utility boiler operation were presented

  11. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  12. Application of a distorted wave model to electron capture in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deco, G.R.; Martinez, A.E.; Rivarola, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, it is presented the CDW-EIS approximation applied to the description of processes of electron capture in ion-atom collisions. Differential and total cross sections are compared to results obtained by other theoretical models, as well as, to experimental data. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  13. On valuing patches: estimating contributions to metapopulation growth with reverse-time capture-recapture modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie S. Sanderlin; Peter M. Waser; James E. Hines; James D. Nichols

    2012-01-01

    Metapopulation ecology has historically been rich in theory, yet analytical approaches for inferring demographic relationships among local populations have been few. We show how reverse-time multi-state capture­recapture models can be used to estimate the importance of local recruitment and interpopulation dispersal to metapopulation growth. We use 'contribution...

  14. Model-Independent Calculation of Radiative Neutron Capture on Lithium-7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupak, Gautam; Higa, Renato

    2011-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture on lithium-7 is calculated model independently using a low-energy halo effective field theory. The cross section is expressed in terms of scattering parameters directly related to the S-matrix elements. It depends on the poorly known p-wave effective range parameter

  15. INTEGRATED DATA CAPTURING REQUIREMENTS FOR 3D SEMANTIC MODELLING OF CULTURAL HERITAGE: THE INCEPTION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Di Giulio

    2017-02-01

    In order to face these challenges and to start solving the issue of the large amount of captured data and time-consuming processes in the production of 3D digital models, an Optimized Data Acquisition Protocol (DAP has been set up. The purpose is to guide the processes of digitization of cultural heritage, respecting needs, requirements and specificities of cultural assets.

  16. A minimal unified model of disease trajectories captures hallmarks of multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Kannan, Venkateshan

    2017-03-29

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system (CNS) causing demyelination and neurodegeneration leading to accumulation of neurological disability. Here we present a minimal, computational model involving the immune system and CNS that generates the principal subtypes of the disease observed in patients. The model captures several key features of MS, especially those that distinguish the chronic progressive phase from that of the relapse-remitting. In addition, a rare subtype of the disease, progressive relapsing MS naturally emerges from the model. The model posits the existence of two key thresholds, one in the immune system and the other in the CNS, that separate dynamically distinct behavior of the model. Exploring the two-dimensional space of these thresholds, we obtain multiple phases of disease evolution and these shows greater variation than the clinical classification of MS, thus capturing the heterogeneity that is manifested in patients.

  17. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides. KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiano, G.; Grau, A.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electro capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high. (Author)

  18. A comparison of the COG and MCNP codes in computational neutron capture therapy modeling, Part II: gadolinium neutron capture therapy models and therapeutic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangerin, K; Culbertson, C N; Jevremovic, T

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the COG Monte Carlo radiation transport code, developed and tested by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, for gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) related modeling. The validity of COG NCT model has been established for this model, and here the calculation was extended to analyze the effect of various gadolinium concentrations on dose distribution and cell-kill effect of the GdNCT modality and to determine the optimum therapeutic conditions for treating brain cancers. The computational results were compared with the widely used MCNP code. The differences between the COG and MCNP predictions were generally small and suggest that the COG code can be applied to similar research problems in NCT. Results for this study also showed that a concentration of 100 ppm gadolinium in the tumor was most beneficial when using an epithermal neutron beam.

  19. Evaluation of Stochastic Rainfall Models in Capturing Climate Variability for Future Drought and Flood Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. F. M. K.; Lockart, N.; Willgoose, G. R.; Kuczera, G. A.; Kiem, A.; Nadeeka, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    One of the key objectives of stochastic rainfall modelling is to capture the full variability of climate system for future drought and flood risk assessment. However, it is not clear how well these models can capture the future climate variability when they are calibrated to Global/Regional Climate Model data (GCM/RCM) as these datasets are usually available for very short future period/s (e.g. 20 years). This study has assessed the ability of two stochastic daily rainfall models to capture climate variability by calibrating them to a dynamically downscaled RCM dataset in an east Australian catchment for 1990-2010, 2020-2040, and 2060-2080 epochs. The two stochastic models are: (1) a hierarchical Markov Chain (MC) model, which we developed in a previous study and (2) a semi-parametric MC model developed by Mehrotra and Sharma (2007). Our hierarchical model uses stochastic parameters of MC and Gamma distribution, while the semi-parametric model uses a modified MC process with memory of past periods and kernel density estimation. This study has generated multiple realizations of rainfall series by using parameters of each model calibrated to the RCM dataset for each epoch. The generated rainfall series are used to generate synthetic streamflow by using a SimHyd hydrology model. Assessing the synthetic rainfall and streamflow series, this study has found that both stochastic models can incorporate a range of variability in rainfall as well as streamflow generation for both current and future periods. However, the hierarchical model tends to overestimate the multiyear variability of wet spell lengths (therefore, is less likely to simulate long periods of drought and flood), while the semi-parametric model tends to overestimate the mean annual rainfall depths and streamflow volumes (hence, simulated droughts are likely to be less severe). Sensitivity of these limitations of both stochastic models in terms of future drought and flood risk assessment will be discussed.

  20. Establishing gene models from the Pinus pinaster genome using gene capture and BAC sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Zonjic, Pedro; Cañas, Rafael A; Bautista, Rocío; Gómez-Maldonado, Josefa; Arrillaga, Isabel; Fernández-Pozo, Noé; Claros, M Gonzalo; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2016-02-27

    In the era of DNA throughput sequencing, assembling and understanding gymnosperm mega-genomes remains a challenge. Although drafts of three conifer genomes have recently been published, this number is too low to understand the full complexity of conifer genomes. Using techniques focused on specific genes, gene models can be established that can aid in the assembly of gene-rich regions, and this information can be used to compare genomes and understand functional evolution. In this study, gene capture technology combined with BAC isolation and sequencing was used as an experimental approach to establish de novo gene structures without a reference genome. Probes were designed for 866 maritime pine transcripts to sequence genes captured from genomic DNA. The gene models were constructed using GeneAssembler, a new bioinformatic pipeline, which reconstructed over 82% of the gene structures, and a high proportion (85%) of the captured gene models contained sequences from the promoter regulatory region. In a parallel experiment, the P. pinaster BAC library was screened to isolate clones containing genes whose cDNA sequence were already available. BAC clones containing the asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase gene sequences were isolated and used in this study. The gene models derived from the gene capture approach were compared with the genomic sequences derived from the BAC clones. This combined approach is a particularly efficient way to capture the genomic structures of gene families with a small number of members. The experimental approach used in this study is a valuable combined technique to study genomic gene structures in species for which a reference genome is unavailable. It can be used to establish exon/intron boundaries in unknown gene structures, to reconstruct incomplete genes and to obtain promoter sequences that can be used for transcriptional studies. A bioinformatics algorithm (GeneAssembler) is also provided as a

  1. Environmental assessment of amine-based carbon capture Scenario modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Andreas; Askham, Cecilia; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Vold, Bjoern Ivar; Johnsen, Fredrik Moltu

    2012-07-01

    This report contains a first attempt at introducing the environmental impacts associated with amines and derivatives in a life cycle assessment (LCA) of gas power production with carbon capture and comparing these with other environmental impacts associated with the production system. The report aims to identify data gaps and methodological challenges connected both to modelling toxicity of amines and derivatives and weighting of environmental impacts. A scenario based modelling exercise was performed on a theoretical gas power plant with carbon capture, where emission levels of nitrosamines were varied between zero (gas power without CCS) to a worst case level (outside the probable range of actual carbon capture facilities). Because of extensive research and development in the areas of solvents and emissions from carbon capture facilities in the latter years, data used in the exercise may be outdated and results should therefore not be taken at face value.The results from the exercise showed: According to UseTox, emissions of nitrosamines are less important than emissions of formaldehyde with regard to toxicity related to operation of (i.e. both inputs to and outputs from) a carbon capture facility. If characterisation factors for emissions of metals are included, these outweigh all other toxic emissions in the study. None of the most recent weighting methods in LCA include characterisation factors for nitrosamines, and these are therefore not part of the environmental ranking.These results shows that the EDecIDe project has an important role to play in developing LCA methodology useful for assessing the environmental performance of amine based carbon capture in particular and CCS in general. The EDecIDe project will examine the toxicity models used in LCA in more detail, specifically UseTox. The applicability of the LCA compartment models and site specificity issues for a Norwegian/Arctic situation will be explored. This applies to the environmental compartments

  2. Modeling misidentification errors that result from use of genetic tags in capture-recapture studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, J.; Brownie, C.; Pollock, K.H.; Link, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Misidentification of animals is potentially important when naturally existing features (natural tags) such as DNA fingerprints (genetic tags) are used to identify individual animals. For example, when misidentification leads to multiple identities being assigned to an animal, traditional estimators tend to overestimate population size. Accounting for misidentification in capture-recapture models requires detailed understanding of the mechanism. Using genetic tags as an example, we outline a framework for modeling the effect of misidentification in closed population studies when individual identification is based on natural tags that are consistent over time (non-evolving natural tags). We first assume a single sample is obtained per animal for each capture event, and then generalize to the case where multiple samples (such as hair or scat samples) are collected per animal per capture occasion. We introduce methods for estimating population size and, using a simulation study, we show that our new estimators perform well for cases with moderately high capture probabilities or high misidentification rates. In contrast, conventional estimators can seriously overestimate population size when errors due to misidentification are ignored. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Attention capture by abrupt onsets: re-visiting the priority tag model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Mary Sunny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abrupt onsets have been shown to strongly attract attention in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up manner. However, the precise mechanism that drives capture by onsets is still debated. According to the new object account, abrupt onsets capture attention because they signal the appearance of a new object. Yantis and Johnson (1990 used a visual search task and showed that up to four onsets can be automatically prioritized. However, in their study the number of onsets co-varied with the total number of items in the display, allowing for a possible confound between these two variables. In the present study, display size was fixed at eight items while the number of onsets was systematically varied between zero and eight. Experiment 1 showed a systematic increase in reactions times with increasing number of onsets. This increase was stronger when the target was an onset than when it was a no-onset item, a result that is best explained by a model according to which only one onset is automatically prioritized. Even when the onsets were marked in red (Experiment 2, nearly half of the participants continued to prioritize only one onset item. Only when onset and no-onset targets were blocked (Experiment 3, participants started to search selectively through the set of only the relevant target type. These results further support the finding that only one onset captures attention. Many bottom-up models of attention capture, like masking or saliency accounts, can efficiently explain this finding.

  4. Attention capture by abrupt onsets: re-visiting the priority tag model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Meera M; von Mühlenen, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Abrupt onsets have been shown to strongly attract attention in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up manner. However, the precise mechanism that drives capture by onsets is still debated. According to the new object account, abrupt onsets capture attention because they signal the appearance of a new object. Yantis and Johnson (1990) used a visual search task and showed that up to four onsets can be automatically prioritized. However, in their study the number of onsets co-varied with the total number of items in the display, allowing for a possible confound between these two variables. In the present study, display size was fixed at eight items while the number of onsets was systematically varied between zero and eight. Experiment 1 showed a systematic increase in reactions times with increasing number of onsets. This increase was stronger when the target was an onset than when it was a no-onset item, a result that is best explained by a model according to which only one onset is automatically prioritized. Even when the onsets were marked in red (Experiment 2), nearly half of the participants continued to prioritize only one onset item. Only when onset and no-onset targets were blocked (Experiment 3), participants started to search selectively through the set of only the relevant target type. These results further support the finding that only one onset captures attention. Many bottom-up models of attention capture, like masking or saliency accounts, can efficiently explain this finding.

  5. CO_2 capture with solid sorbent: CFD model of an innovative reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new reactor solution based on rotating fixed beds was presented. • The preliminary design of the reactor was approached. • A CFD model of the reactor, including CO_2 capture kinetic, was developed. • The CFD model is validated with experimental results. • Sorbent exploitation increasing is possible thanks to the new reactor. - Abstract: In future decarbonization scenarios, CCS with particular reference to post-combustion technologies will be an important option also for energy intensive industries. Nevertheless, today CCS systems are rarely installed due to high energy and cost penalties of current technology based on chemical scrubbing with amine solvent. Therefore, innovative solutions based on new/optimized solvents, sorbents, membranes and new process designs, are R&D priorities. Regarding the CO_2 capture through solid sorbents, a new reactor solution based on rotating fixed beds is presented in this paper. In order to design the innovative system, a suitable CFD model was developed considering also the kinetic capture process. The model was validated with experimental results obtained by the authors in previous research activities, showing a potential reduction of energy penalties respect to current technologies. In the future, the model will be used to identify the control logic of the innovative reactor in order to verify improvements in terms of sorbent exploitation and reduction of system energy consumption.

  6. Semiclassical model of atomic collisions: stopping and capture of the heavy charged particles and exotic atom formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The semiclassical model of atomic collisions, especially in different areas of the maximum stopping, when proton collides at the velocity of the boron order velocity, providing as the result for interactions of many bodies with an electron target, enabling application of the model with high degree of confidence to a clearly expressed experimental problem, such the antiproton capture on helium, is presented. The semiclassical collision model and stopping energy are considered. The stopping and capture of negatively-charged particles are investigated. The capture and angular moments of antiprotons, captures at the end of the collision cascade, are presented [ru

  7. Simulation of mercury capture by sorbent injection using a simplified model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingtao; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Jin, Jing; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2009-10-30

    Mercury pollution by fossil fuel combustion or solid waste incineration is becoming the worldwide environmental concern. As an effective control technology, powdered sorbent injection (PSI) has been successfully used for mercury capture from flue gas with advantages of low cost and easy operation. In order to predict the mercury capture efficiency for PSI more conveniently, a simplified model, which is based on the theory of mass transfer, isothermal adsorption and mass balance, is developed in this paper. The comparisons between theoretical results of this model and experimental results by Meserole et al. [F.B. Meserole, R. Chang, T.R. Carrey, J. Machac, C.F.J. Richardson, Modeling mercury removal by sorbent injection, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 49 (1999) 694-704] demonstrate that the simplified model is able to provide good predictive accuracy. Moreover, the effects of key parameters including the mass transfer coefficient, sorbent concentration, sorbent physical property and sorbent adsorption capacity on mercury adsorption efficiency are compared and evaluated. Finally, the sensitive analysis of impact factor indicates that the injected sorbent concentration plays most important role for mercury capture efficiency.

  8. Estimation and Prediction of Avoidable Health Care Costs of Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Through Adequate Dairy Food Consumption: A Systematic Review and Micro Simulation Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Mohammadi, Zahra; Mashayekhi, Atefeh; Shokraneh, Farhad; Rezai Hamami, Mohsen; Yazdani Bakhsh, Raziyeh; Shabaninejad, Hossien; Delavari, Sajad; Tehrani, Arash

    2018-05-01

    Recent evidence from prospective cohort studies show a relationship between consumption of dairy foods and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This association highlights the importance of dairy foods consumption in prevention of these diseases and also reduction of associated healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to estimate avoidable healthcare costs of CVD and T2D through adequate dairy foods consumption in Iran. This was a multistage modelling study. We conducted a systematic literature review in PubMed and EMBASE to identify any association between incidence of CVD and T2DM and dairy foods intake, and also associated relative risks. We obtained age- and sex-specific dairy foods consumption level and healthcare expenditures from national surveys and studies. Patient level simulation Markov models were constructed to predict the disease incidence, patient population size and associated healthcare costs for current and optimal dairy foods consumption at different time horizons (1, 5, 10 and 20 years). All parameters including costs and transition probabilities were defined as statistical distributions in the models, and all analyses were conducted by accounting for first and second order uncertainty. The systematic review results indicated that dairy foods consumption was inversely associated with incidence of T2DM, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. We estimated that the introduction of a diet containing 3 servings of dairy foods per day may produce a $0.43 saving in annual per capita healthcare costs in Iran in the first year due to saving in cost of CVD and T2DM treatment. The estimated savings in per capita healthcare costs were $8.42, $39.97 and $190.25 in 5, 10 and 20-years' time, respectively. Corresponding total aggregated avoidable costs for the entire Iranian population within the study time horizons were $33.83, $661.31, $3,138.21 and $14,934.63 million, respectively. Our analysis demonstrated that increasing

  9. A welfare study into capture fisheries in cirata reservoir: a bio-economic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Z.; Hindayani, P.

    2018-04-01

    Capture fishery in inland such as reservoirs can be a source of food security and even the economy and public welfare of the surrounding community. This research was conducted on Cirata reservoir fishery in West Java, to see how far reservoir capture fishery can contribute economically in the form of resource rents. The method used is the bioeconomic model Copes, which can analyze the demand and supply functions to calculate the optimization of stakeholders’ welfare in various management regimes. The results showed that the management of capture fishery using Maximum Economic Yield regime (MEY) gave the most efficient result, where fewer inputs would produce maximum profit. In the MEY management, the producer surplus obtained is IDR 2,610.203.099, - per quarter and IDR 273.885.400,- of consumer surplus per quarter. Furthermore, researches showed that sustainable management regime policy MEY result in the government rent/surplus ofIDR 217.891,345, - per quarter with the average price of fish per kg being IDR 13.929. In open access fishery, it was shown that the producer surplus becomesIDR 0. Thus the implementation of the MEY-based instrument policy becomes a necessity for Cirata reservoir capture fishery.

  10. Particle capture efficiency in a multi-wire model for high gradient magnetic separation

    KAUST Repository

    Eisenträger, Almut

    2014-07-21

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is an efficient way to remove magnetic and paramagnetic particles, such as heavy metals, from waste water. As the suspension flows through a magnetized filter mesh, high magnetic gradients around the wires attract and capture the particles removing them from the fluid. We model such a system by considering the motion of a paramagnetic tracer particle through a periodic array of magnetized cylinders. We show that there is a critical Mason number (ratio of viscous to magnetic forces) below which the particle is captured irrespective of its initial position in the array. Above this threshold, particle capture is only partially successful and depends on the particle\\'s entry position. We determine the relationship between the critical Mason number and the system geometry using numerical and asymptotic calculations. If a capture efficiency below 100% is sufficient, our results demonstrate how operating the HGMS system above the critical Mason number but with multiple separation cycles may increase efficiency. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  11. Musculoskeletal Simulation Model Generation from MRI Data Sets and Motion Capture Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Jérôme; Sandholm, Anders; Chung, François; Thalmann, Daniel; Delingette, Hervé; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    Today computer models and computer simulations of the musculoskeletal system are widely used to study the mechanisms behind human gait and its disorders. The common way of creating musculoskeletal models is to use a generic musculoskeletal model based on data derived from anatomical and biomechanical studies of cadaverous specimens. To adapt this generic model to a specific subject, the usual approach is to scale it. This scaling has been reported to introduce several errors because it does not always account for subject-specific anatomical differences. As a result, a novel semi-automatic workflow is proposed that creates subject-specific musculoskeletal models from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets and motion capture data. Based on subject-specific medical data and a model-based automatic segmentation approach, an accurate modeling of the anatomy can be produced while avoiding the scaling operation. This anatomical model coupled with motion capture data, joint kinematics information, and muscle-tendon actuators is finally used to create a subject-specific musculoskeletal model.

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy for oral precancer: proof of principle in an experimental animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Monti Hughes; ECC Pozzi; S. Thorp; M. A. Garabalino; R. O. Farias; S. J. Gonzalez; E. M. Heber; M. E. Itoiz; R. F. Aromando; A. J. Molinari; M. Miller; D. W. Nigg; P. Curotto; V. A. Trivillin; A. E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Field-cancerized tissue can give rise to second primary tumours, causing therapeutic failure. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on biological targeting and would serve to treat undetectable foci of malignant transformation. The aim of this study was to optimize BNCT for the integral treatment for oral cancer, with particular emphasis on the inhibitory effect on tumour development originating in precancerous conditions, and radiotoxicity of different BNCT protocols in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model.

  13. Optical and statistical model calculation of the americium 242m capture cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Henry.

    1981-04-01

    The capture cross sections of Am 242m can be deduced from resonances analysis at low energy and computed with theoretical models at high energy. In this work, a coherent set of cross sections which reproduced the experimental values of the fission cross sections is computed. These calculations were performed for an energy of the incoming neutron between 1 keV and 1 MeV

  14. Modelling of cyclopentane promoted gas hydrate systems for carbon dioxide capture processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2014-01-01

    A thermodynamic model based on the Cubic-Plus-Association equation of state and the van der Waals-Platteeuw hydrate model is applied to perform a thermodynamic evaluation of gas hydrate forming systems relevant for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.A modelling study of both fluid phase...... behaviour and hydrate phase behaviour is presented. Cycloalkanes ranging from cyclopropane to cyclohexane, represents a challenge for CPA, both in the description of the pure component densities and for liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) in the binary systems with water. It is concluded that an insufficient...

  15. Modeling misidentification errors in capture-recapture studies using photographic identification of evolving marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, J.; Pollock, K.H.; Brownie, C.; Webster, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Misidentification of animals is potentially important when naturally existing features (natural tags) are used to identify individual animals in a capture-recapture study. Photographic identification (photoID) typically uses photographic images of animals' naturally existing features as tags (photographic tags) and is subject to two main causes of identification errors: those related to quality of photographs (non-evolving natural tags) and those related to changes in natural marks (evolving natural tags). The conventional methods for analysis of capture-recapture data do not account for identification errors, and to do so requires a detailed understanding of the misidentification mechanism. Focusing on the situation where errors are due to evolving natural tags, we propose a misidentification mechanism and outline a framework for modeling the effect of misidentification in closed population studies. We introduce methods for estimating population size based on this model. Using a simulation study, we show that conventional estimators can seriously overestimate population size when errors due to misidentification are ignored, and that, in comparison, our new estimators have better properties except in cases with low capture probabilities (<0.2) or low misidentification rates (<2.5%). ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Modeling and Testing of Phase Transition-Based Deployable Systems for Small Body Sample Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco; Backes, Paul; Wilkie, Keats; Giersch, Lou; Quijano, Ubaldo; Keim, Jason; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the modeling, simulation, and testing work related to the development of technology to investigate the potential that shape memory actuation has to provide mechanically simple and affordable solutions for delivering assets to a surface and for sample capture and return. We investigate the structural dynamics and controllability aspects of an adaptive beam carrying an end-effector which, by changing equilibrium phases is able to actively decouple the end-effector dynamics from the spacecraft dynamics during the surface contact phase. Asset delivery and sample capture and return are at the heart of several emerging potential missions to small bodies, such as asteroids and comets, and to the surface of large bodies, such as Titan.

  17. Thermodynamic and Process Modelling of Gas Hydrate Systems in CO2 Capture Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen

    A novel gas separation technique based on gas hydrate formation (solid precipitation) is investigated by means of thermodynamic modeling and experimental investigations. This process has previously been proposed for application in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture from power station flue gases...... formation may be performed at pressures of approximately 20 MPa and temperatures below 280 K. Thermodynamic promoters are needed, to reduce the pressure requirement of the process, thereby making it competitive to existing capture technologies. A literature study is presented focusing mainly...... on thermodynamic gas hydrate promotion by hydrate formers stabilising the classical gas clathrate hydrate structures (sI, sII and sH) at low to moderate pressures. Much literature is available on this subject. Both experimental and theoretical studies presented in the literature have pointed out cyclopentane...

  18. Process simulation of CO2 capture with aqueous ammonia using the Extended UNIQUAC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; van Well, Willy J.M.

    2012-01-01

    of the process is necessary.In this work, the performance of the carbon dioxide capture process using aqueous ammonia has been analyzed by process simulation. The Extended UNIQUAC thermodynamic model available for the CO2–NH3–H2O system has been implemented in the commercial simulator Aspen Plus®1 by using...... dioxide at low temperature (2–10°C). The low temperature limits the vaporization of ammonia in the absorber and entails precipitation of ammonium carbonate compounds, thereby allowing high loadings of CO2. The process has thereby good perspectives. However, a scientific understanding and evaluation......The use of aqueous ammonia is a promising option to capture carbon dioxide from power plants thanks to the potential low heat requirement during the carbon dioxide desorption compared to monoethanolamine (MEA) based process. The patented Chilled Ammonia Process developed by Alstom absorbs carbon...

  19. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO2-capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  20. Use of spatial capture-recapture modeling and DNA data to estimate densities of elusive animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, Marc; Gardner, Beth; Stoeckle, Tabea; Weber, Darius; Royle, J. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of abundance, survival, recruitment rates, and density (i.e., population assessment) is especially challenging for elusive species most in need of protection (e.g., rare carnivores). Individual identification methods, such as DNA sampling, provide ways of studying such species efficiently and noninvasively. Additionally, statistical methods that correct for undetected animals and account for locations where animals are captured are available to efficiently estimate density and other demographic parameters. We collected hair samples of European wildcat (Felis silvestris) from cheek-rub lure sticks, extracted DNA from the samples, and identified each animals' genotype. To estimate the density of wildcats, we used Bayesian inference in a spatial capture-recapture model. We used WinBUGS to fit a model that accounted for differences in detection probability among individuals and seasons and between two lure arrays. We detected 21 individual wildcats (including possible hybrids) 47 times. Wildcat density was estimated at 0.29/km2 (SE 0.06), and 95% of the activity of wildcats was estimated to occur within 1.83 km from their home-range center. Lures located systematically were associated with a greater number of detections than lures placed in a cell on the basis of expert opinion. Detection probability of individual cats was greatest in late March. Our model is a generalized linear mixed model; hence, it can be easily extended, for instance, to incorporate trap- and individual-level covariates. We believe that the combined use of noninvasive sampling techniques and spatial capture-recapture models will improve population assessments, especially for rare and elusive animals.

  1. Practical enhancement factor model based on GM for multiple parallel reactions: Piperazine (PZ) CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2017-01-01

    Reactive absorption is a key process for gas separation and purification and it is the main technology for CO2 capture. Thus, reliable and simple mathematical models for mass transfer rate calculation are essential. Models which apply to parallel interacting and non-interacting reactions, for all......, desorption and pinch conditions.In this work, we apply the GM model to multiple parallel reactions. We deduce the model for piperazine (PZ) CO2 capture and we validate it against wetted-wall column measurements using 2, 5 and 8 molal PZ for temperatures between 40 °C and 100 °C and CO2 loadings between 0.......23 and 0.41 mol CO2/2 mol PZ. We show that overall second order kinetics describes well the reaction between CO2 and PZ accounting for the carbamate and bicarbamate reactions. Here we prove the GM model for piperazine and MEA but we expect that this practical approach is applicable for various amines...

  2. Prey capture in zebrafish larvae serves as a model to study cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eMuto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prey capture in zebrafish larvae is an innate behavior which can be observed as early as 4 days post fertilization, the day when they start to swim. This simple behavior apparently involves several neural processes including visual perception, recognition, decision-making, and motor control, and, therefore, serves as a good model system to study cognitive functions underlying natural behaviors in vertebrates. Recent progresses in imaging techniques provided us with a unique opportunity to image neuronal activity in the brain of an intact fish in real-time while the fish perceives a natural prey, paramecium. By expanding this approach, it would be possible to image entire brain areas at a single cell resolution in real-time during prey capture, and identify neuronal circuits important for cognitive functions. Further, activation or inhibition of those neuronal circuits with recently developed optogenetic tools or neurotoxins should shed light on their roles. Thus, we will be able to explore the prey capture in zebrafish larvae more thoroughly at cellular levels, which should establish a basis of understanding of the cognitive function in vertebrates.

  3. Models to capture the potential for disease transmission in domestic sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, David; Whittle, Sophie; Taylor, Michael; Kiss, Istvan Zoltan

    2012-09-15

    Successful control of livestock diseases requires an understanding of how they spread amongst animals and between premises. Mathematical models can offer important insight into the dynamics of disease, especially when built upon experimental and/or field data. Here the dynamics of a range of epidemiological models are explored in order to determine which models perform best in capturing real-world heterogeneities at sufficient resolution. Individual based network models are considered together with one- and two-class compartmental models, for which the final epidemic size is calculated as a function of the probability of disease transmission occurring during a given physical contact between two individuals. For numerical results the special cases of a viral disease with a fast recovery rate (foot-and-mouth disease) and a bacterial disease with a slow recovery rate (brucellosis) amongst sheep are considered. Quantitative results from observational studies of physical contact amongst domestic sheep are applied and results from the differently structured flocks (ewes with newborn lambs, ewes with nearly weaned lambs and ewes only) compared. These indicate that the breeding cycle leads to significant changes in the expected basic reproduction ratio of diseases. The observed heterogeneity of contacts amongst animals is best captured by full network simulations, although simple compartmental models describe the key features of an outbreak but, as expected, often overestimate the speed of an outbreak. Here the weights of contacts are heterogeneous, with many low weight links. However, due to the well-connected nature of the networks, this has little effect and differences between models remain small. These results indicate that simple compartmental models can be a useful tool for modelling real-world flocks; their applicability will be greater still for more homogeneously mixed livestock, which could be promoted by higher intensity farming practices. Copyright © 2012

  4. How does spatial study design influence density estimates from spatial capture-recapture models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Sollmann

    Full Text Available When estimating population density from data collected on non-invasive detector arrays, recently developed spatial capture-recapture (SCR models present an advance over non-spatial models by accounting for individual movement. While these models should be more robust to changes in trapping designs, they have not been well tested. Here we investigate how the spatial arrangement and size of the trapping array influence parameter estimates for SCR models. We analysed black bear data collected with 123 hair snares with an SCR model accounting for differences in detection and movement between sexes and across the trapping occasions. To see how the size of the trap array and trap dispersion influence parameter estimates, we repeated analysis for data from subsets of traps: 50% chosen at random, 50% in the centre of the array and 20% in the South of the array. Additionally, we simulated and analysed data under a suite of trap designs and home range sizes. In the black bear study, we found that results were similar across trap arrays, except when only 20% of the array was used. Black bear density was approximately 10 individuals per 100 km(2. Our simulation study showed that SCR models performed well as long as the extent of the trap array was similar to or larger than the extent of individual movement during the study period, and movement was at least half the distance between traps. SCR models performed well across a range of spatial trap setups and animal movements. Contrary to non-spatial capture-recapture models, they do not require the trapping grid to cover an area several times the average home range of the studied species. This renders SCR models more appropriate for the study of wide-ranging mammals and more flexible to design studies targeting multiple species.

  5. Capturing and modelling high-complex alluvial topography with UAS-borne laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Pfennigbauer, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Due to fluvial activity alluvial forests are zones of highest complexity and relief energy. Alluvial forests are dominated by new and pristine channels in consequence of current and historic flood events. Apart from topographic features, the vegetation structure is typically very complex featuring, both, dense under story as well as high trees. Furthermore, deadwood and debris carried from upstream during periods of high discharge within the river channel are deposited in these areas. Therefore, precise modelling of the micro relief of alluvial forests using standard tools like Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is hardly feasible. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), in turn, is very time consuming for capturing larger areas as many scan positions are necessary for obtaining complete coverage due to view occlusions in the forest. In the recent past, the technological development of Unmanned Arial Systems (UAS) has reached a level that light-weight survey-grade laser scanners can be operated from these platforms. For capturing alluvial topography this could bridge the gap between ALS and TLS in terms of providing a very detailed description of the topography and the vegetation structure due to the achievable very high point density of >100 points per m2. In our contribution we demonstrate the feasibility to apply UAS-borne laser scanning for capturing and modelling the complex topography of the study area Neubacher Au, an alluvial forest at the pre-alpine River Pielach (Lower Austria). The area was captured with Riegl's VUX-1 compact time-of-flight laser scanner mounted on a RiCopter (X-8 array octocopter). The scanner features an effective scan rate of 500 kHz and was flown in 50-100 m above ground. At this flying height the laser footprint is 25-50 mm allowing mapping of very small surface details. Furthermore, online waveform processing of the backscattered laser energy enables the retrieval of multiple targets for single laser shots resulting in a dense point cloud of

  6. Comparison of two electrolyte models for the carbon capture with aqueous ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Post-combustion carbon capture is attracting much attention due to the fact that it can be retrofitted on existing coal power plants. Among the most interesting technologies is the one that employs aqueous ammonia solutions to absorb the generated carbon dioxide. The evaluation of such process.......2). Subsequently, a simple absorption/regeneration layout is simulated employing both models and the process performances are compared. In general, the Extended UNIQUAC appears to describe the experimental data for larger ranges of temperature, pressure and concentration of ammonia more satisfactorily. The energy...

  7. Biomechanical model-based displacement estimation in micro-sensor motion capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X L; Sun, S Y; Wu, J K; Zhang, Z Q; 3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), 02-02-10 I3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" >Wong, W C

    2012-01-01

    In micro-sensor motion capture systems, the estimation of the body displacement in the global coordinate system remains a challenge due to lack of external references. This paper proposes a self-contained displacement estimation method based on a human biomechanical model to track the position of walking subjects in the global coordinate system without any additional supporting infrastructures. The proposed approach makes use of the biomechanics of the lower body segments and the assumption that during walking there is always at least one foot in contact with the ground. The ground contact joint is detected based on walking gait characteristics and used as the external references of the human body. The relative positions of the other joints are obtained from hierarchical transformations based on the biomechanical model. Anatomical constraints are proposed to apply to some specific joints of the lower body to further improve the accuracy of the algorithm. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an optical motion capture system. The method is also demonstrated in outdoor and indoor long distance walking scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate clearly that the biomechanical model improves the displacement accuracy within the proposed framework. (paper)

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Tooru; Fujimoto, Takuya; Sudo, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Epstein, Alan L.; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  9. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  10. Rose bush leaf and internode expansion dynamics: analysis and development of a model capturing interplant variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eDemotes-Mainard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bush rose architecture, among other factors, such as plant health, determines plant visual quality. The commercial product is the individual plant and interplant variability may be high within a crop. Thus, both mean plant architecture and interplant variability should be studied. Expansion is an important feature of architecture, but it has been little studied at the level of individual organs in bush roses. We investigated the expansion kinetics of primary shoot organs, to develop a model reproducing the organ expansion of real crops from non destructive input variables. We took interplant variability in expansion kinetics and the model’s ability to simulate this variability into account. Changes in leaflet and internode dimensions over thermal time were recorded for primary shoot expansion, on 83 plants from three crops grown in different climatic conditions and densities. An empirical model was developed, to reproduce organ expansion kinetics for individual plants of a real crop of bush rose primary shoots. Leaflet or internode length was simulated as a logistic function of thermal time. The model was evaluated by cross-validation. We found that differences in leaflet or internode expansion kinetics between phytomer positions and between plants at a given phytomer position were due mostly to large differences in time of organ expansion and expansion rate, rather than differences in expansion duration. Thus, in the model, the parameters linked to expansion duration were predicted by values common to all plants, whereas variability in final size and organ expansion time was captured by input data. The model accurately simulated leaflet and internode expansion for individual plants (RMSEP = 7.3% and 10.2% of final length, respectively. Thus, this study defines the measurements required to simulate expansion and provides the first model simulating organ expansion in rosebush to capture interplant variability.

  11. A Comparison of Grizzly Bear Demographic Parameters Estimated from Non-Spatial and Spatial Open Population Capture-Recapture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Jesse; Sawaya, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071) for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975) for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981) for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024) for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948) for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957) for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative population growth

  12. A Comparison of Grizzly Bear Demographic Parameters Estimated from Non-Spatial and Spatial Open Population Capture-Recapture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Whittington

    Full Text Available Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071 for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975 for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981 for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024 for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948 for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957 for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative

  13. Hydrodynamical model and experimental results of a calcium looping cycle for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Romeo, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A scaled experimental cold flow model of a dual fluidized bed facility is presented. ► Two MATLAB models are developed for the single CFB and the dual CFB facility. ► Set of experiments are carried out and used to validate the mathematical model. ► Good agreement between model and experimental tests for sCFB. ► Further work required for validating dual CFB operation. -- Abstract: High temperature looping cycles involving solid circulation, such as carbonation–calcination, play an essential role among the CO 2 capture technologies under development. The low cost and high availability of Ca-based sorbents together with the feasibility of integration between these capture systems and existing power plants lead to very competitive potential costs of avoided CO 2 , below 20 €/tonne. Optimal configurations make use of several interconnected fluidized beds. One promising configuration for Ca-based sorbents looping systems relies on the use of two circulating beds (carbonator and calciner) and two bubbling beds acting as non-mechanical valves. Fluidized beds are well characterized when operating independently since they are extensively used in industrial applications, power and chemical plants. However, the operation when two or more fluidized beds exchange solid material through non-mechanical valves is still uncertain because of the more complex pressure balance of the system. Theoretical studies based on thermo-chemical simulations and experimental studies show that minimum CO 2 capture cost is attained with large solid circulation flow between reactors. The challenge is to reach the required particle circulation in a system with a complex configuration and be able to control it. Solid internal recirculation in any of these fluidized beds would provide flexibility in its control but it will also make harder the characterization of the whole system. The aim of this work is to analyse the hydrodynamics of the system and to generate a

  14. Real Time Investments with Adequate Portfolio Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kvietkauskienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify investment decision makingschemes using the adequate portfolio model. This approach can be employed to project investment in stocks, using the opportunities offered by the markets and investor intelligence. It was decided to use adequate portfolio theory for investment decision making, simulation of financial markets, and optimisation of utility function. The main conclusion of article suggests investigating return on individual portfolio level. Real investment is a way to make sure of the soundness of applicable strategies.

  15. Adjusting multistate capture-recapture models for misclassification bias: manatee breeding proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Matrix population models are important tools for research and management of populations. Estimating the parameters of these models is an important step in applying them to real populations. Multistate capture-recapture methods have provided a useful means for estimating survival and parameters of transition between locations or life history states but have mostly relied on the assumption that the state occupied by each detected animal is known with certainty. Nevertheless, in some cases animals can be misclassified. Using multiple capture sessions within each period of interest, we developed a method that adjusts estimates of transition probabilities for bias due to misclassification. We applied this method to 10 years of sighting data for a population of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in order to estimate the annual probability of transition from nonbreeding to breeding status. Some sighted females were unequivocally classified as breeders because they were clearly accompanied by a first-year calf. The remainder were classified, sometimes erroneously, as nonbreeders because an attendant first-year calf was not observed or was classified as more than one year old. We estimated a conditional breeding probability of 0.31 + 0.04 (estimate + 1 SE) when we ignored misclassification bias, and 0.61 + 0.09 when we accounted for misclassification.

  16. Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture: Modeling and Up-Scaling to CO2 Capture for an 800 MWe Coal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball Erin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A techno-economic analysis was completed to compare the use of Hollow Fiber Membrane Modules (HFMM with the more conventional structured packing columns as the absorber in amine-based CO2 capture systems for power plants. In order to simulate the operation of industrial scale HFMM systems, a two-dimensional model was developed and validated based on results of a laboratory scale HFMM. After successful experiments and validation of the model, a pilot scale HFMM was constructed and simulated with the same model. The results of the simulations, from both sizes of HFMM, were used to assess the feasibility of further up-scaling to a HFMM system to capture the CO2 from an 800 MWe power plant. The system requirements – membrane fiber length, total contact surface area, and module volume – were determined from simulations and used for an economic comparison with structured packing columns. Results showed that a significant cost reduction of at least 50% is required to make HFMM competitive with structured packing columns. Several factors for the design of industrial scale HFMM require further investigation, such as the optimal aspect ratio (module length/diameter, membrane lifetime, and casing material and shape, in addition to the need to reduce the overall cost. However, HFMM were also shown to have the advantages of having a higher contact surface area per unit volume and modular scale-up, key factors for applications requiring limited footprints or flexibility in configuration.

  17. Biological models in vivo for boron neutronic capture studies as tumors therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimann, Erica L.; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Farias, Silvia S.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    The use of experimental models for Boron Neutronic Capture studies as Tumors Therapy have as two main objectives: 1) To contribute to the basic knowledge of the biological mechanisms involved to increase the method therapeutical advantage, and 2) To explore the possible application of this therapeutic method to other pathologies. In this frame it was studied the carcinogenesis model of hamster cheek pouch, a type of human buccal cancer. Biodistribution studies of boron compound were performed in tumor, blood and in different precancerous and normal tissues as well as BNCT studies. Results validated this method for BNCT studies and show the capacity of the oral mucosa tumors of selectively concentrate the boron compound, showing a deleterious clear effect on the tumor after 24 hours with BNCT treatment. (author)

  18. Modeling and optimization of CO2 capture processes by chemical absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveux, Thibaut

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 capture processes by chemical absorption lead to a large energy penalty on efficiency of coal-fired power plants, establishing one of the main bottleneck to its industrial deployment. The objective of this thesis is the development and validation of a global methodology, allowing the precise evaluation of the potential of a given amine capture process. Characteristic phenomena of chemical absorption have been thoroughly studied and represented with state-of-the-art models. The e-UNIQUAC model has been used to describe vapor-liquid and chemical equilibria of electrolyte solutions and the model parameters have been identified for four solvents. A rate-based formulation has been adopted for the representation of chemically enhanced heat and mass transfer in columns. The absorption and stripping models have been successfully validated against experimental data from an industrial and a laboratory pilot plants. The influence of the numerous phenomena has been investigated in order to highlight the most limiting ones. A methodology has been proposed to evaluate the total energy penalty resulting from the implementation of a capture process on an advanced supercritical coal-fired power plant, including thermal and electric consumptions. Then, the simulation and process evaluation environments have been coupled with a non-linear optimization algorithm in order to find optimal operating and design parameters with respect to energetic and economic performances. This methodology has been applied to optimize five process flow schemes operating with an monoethanolamine aqueous solution at 30% by weight: the conventional flow scheme and four process modifications. The performance comparison showed that process modifications using a heat pump effect give the best gains. The use of technical-economic analysis as an evaluation criterion of a process performance, coupled with a optimization algorithm, has proved its capability to find values for the numerous operating and design

  19. A model to capture and manage tacit knowledge using a multiagent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Lilyam; Paggi, Horacio; Alonso, Fernando; López, Genoveva

    2014-10-01

    This article presents a model to capture and register business tacit knowledge belonging to different sources, using an expert multiagent system which enables the entry of incidences and captures the tacit knowledge which could fix them. This knowledge and their sources are evaluated through the application of trustworthy algorithms that lead to the registration of the data base and the best of each of them. Through its intelligent software agents, this system interacts with the administrator, users, with the knowledge sources and with all the practice communities which might exist in the business world. The sources as well as the knowledge are constantly evaluated, before being registered and also after that, in order to decide the staying or modification of its original weighting. If there is the possibility of better, new knowledge are registered through the old ones. This is also part of an investigation being carried out which refers to knowledge management methodologies in order to manage tacit business knowledge so as to make the business competitiveness easier and leading to innovation learning.

  20. A Subpath-based Logit Model to Capture the Correlation of Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Lai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A subpath-based methodology is proposed to capture the travellers’ route choice behaviours and their perceptual correlation of routes, because the original link-based style may not be suitable in application: (1 travellers do not process road network information and construct the chosen route by a link-by-link style; (2 observations from questionnaires and GPS data, however, are not always link-specific. Subpaths are defined as important portions of the route, such as major roads and landmarks. The cross-nested Logit (CNL structure is used for its tractable closed-form and its capability to explicitly capture the routes correlation. Nests represent subpaths other than links so that the number of nests is significantly reduced. Moreover, the proposed method simplifies the original link-based CNL model; therefore, it alleviates the estimation and computation difficulties. The estimation and forecast validation with real data are presented, and the results suggest that the new method is practical.

  1. A scalable infrastructure model for carbon capture and storage: SimCCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, Richard S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    In the carbon capture and storage (CCS) process, CO 2 sources and geologic reservoirs may be widely spatially dispersed and need to be connected through a dedicated CO 2 pipeline network. We introduce a scalable infrastructure model for CCS (simCCS) that generates a fully integrated, cost-minimizing CCS system. SimCCS determines where and how much CO 2 to capture and store, and where to build and connect pipelines of different sizes, in order to minimize the combined annualized costs of sequestering a given amount of CO 2 . SimCCS is able to aggregate CO 2 flows between sources and reservoirs into trunk pipelines that take advantage of economies of scale. Pipeline construction costs take into account factors including topography and social impacts. SimCCS can be used to calculate the scale of CCS deployment (local, regional, national). SimCCS' deployment of a realistic, capacitated pipeline network is a major advancement for planning CCS infrastructure. We demonstrate simCCS using a set of 37 CO 2 sources and 14 reservoirs for California. The results highlight the importance of systematic planning for CCS infrastructure by examining the sensitivity of CCS infrastructure, as optimized by simCCS, to varying CO 2 targets. We finish by identifying critical future research areas for CCS infrastructure

  2. Sampling the stream landscape: Improving the applicability of an ecoregion-level capture probability model for stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Mouser, Joshua B.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2018-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variability in streams result in heterogeneous gear capture probability (i.e., the proportion of available individuals identified) that confounds interpretation of data used to monitor fish abundance. We modeled tow-barge electrofishing capture probability at multiple spatial scales for nine Ozark Highland stream fishes. In addition to fish size, we identified seven reach-scale environmental characteristics associated with variable capture probability: stream discharge, water depth, conductivity, water clarity, emergent vegetation, wetted width–depth ratio, and proportion of riffle habitat. The magnitude of the relationship between capture probability and both discharge and depth varied among stream fishes. We also identified lithological characteristics among stream segments as a coarse-scale source of variable capture probability. The resulting capture probability model can be used to adjust catch data and derive reach-scale absolute abundance estimates across a wide range of sampling conditions with similar effort as used in more traditional fisheries surveys (i.e., catch per unit effort). Adjusting catch data based on variable capture probability improves the comparability of data sets, thus promoting both well-informed conservation and management decisions and advances in stream-fish ecology.

  3. The effect of modeled recharge distribution on simulated groundwater availability and capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, F D; Pool, D R; Leake, S A

    2015-01-01

    Simulating groundwater flow in basin-fill aquifers of the semiarid southwestern United States commonly requires decisions about how to distribute aquifer recharge. Precipitation can recharge basin-fill aquifers by direct infiltration and transport through faults and fractures in the high-elevation areas, by flowing overland through high-elevation areas to infiltrate at basin-fill margins along mountain fronts, by flowing overland to infiltrate along ephemeral channels that often traverse basins in the area, or by some combination of these processes. The importance of accurately simulating recharge distributions is a current topic of discussion among hydrologists and water managers in the region, but no comparative study has been performed to analyze the effects of different recharge distributions on groundwater simulations. This study investigates the importance of the distribution of aquifer recharge in simulating regional groundwater flow in basin-fill aquifers by calibrating a groundwater-flow model to four different recharge distributions, all with the same total amount of recharge. Similarities are seen in results from steady-state models for optimized hydraulic conductivity values, fit of simulated to observed hydraulic heads, and composite scaled sensitivities of conductivity parameter zones. Transient simulations with hypothetical storage properties and pumping rates produce similar capture rates and storage change results, but differences are noted in the rate of drawdown at some well locations owing to the differences in optimized hydraulic conductivity. Depending on whether the purpose of the groundwater model is to simulate changes in groundwater levels or changes in storage and capture, the distribution of aquifer recharge may or may not be of primary importance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Hickman, A. E.; Jahn, O.; Gregg, W. W.; Mouw, C. B.; Follows, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a numerical model of the ocean that couples a three-stream radiative transfer component with a marine biogeochemical-ecosystem component in a dynamic three-dimensional physical framework. The radiative transfer component resolves the penetration of spectral irradiance as it is absorbed and scattered within the water column. We explicitly include the effect of several optically important water constituents (different phytoplankton functional types; detrital particles; and coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM). The model is evaluated against in situ-observed and satellite-derived products. In particular we compare to concurrently measured biogeochemical, ecosystem, and optical data along a meridional transect of the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation captures the patterns and magnitudes of these data, and estimates surface upwelling irradiance analogous to that observed by ocean colour satellite instruments. We find that incorporating the different optically important constituents explicitly and including spectral irradiance was crucial to capture the variability in the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum. We conduct a series of sensitivity experiments to demonstrate, globally, the relative importance of each of the water constituents, as well as the crucial feedbacks between the light field, the relative fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean. CDOM has proportionally more importance at attenuating light at short wavelengths and in more productive waters, phytoplankton absorption is relatively more important at the subsurface Chl a maximum, and water molecules have the greatest contribution when concentrations of other constituents are low, such as in the oligotrophic gyres. Scattering had less effect on attenuation, but since it is important for the amount and type of upwelling irradiance, it is crucial for setting sea surface reflectance. Strikingly, sensitivity experiments in which absorption by any of the

  5. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  6. Capturing the state transitions of seizure-like events using Hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Mirna; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the number of states present in the progression of a seizure-like event (SLE). Of particular interest is to determine if there are more than two clearly defined states, as this would suggest that there is a distinct state preceding an SLE. Whole-intact hippocampus from C57/BL mice was used to model epileptiform activity induced by the perfusion of a low Mg(2+)/high K(+) solution while extracellular field potentials were recorded from CA3 pyramidal neurons. Hidden Markov models (HMM) were used to model the state transitions of the recorded SLEs by incorporating various features of the Hilbert transform into the training algorithm; specifically, 2- and 3-state HMMs were explored. Although the 2-state model was able to distinguish between SLE and nonSLE behavior, it provided no improvements compared to visual inspection alone. However, the 3-state model was able to capture two distinct nonSLE states that visual inspection failed to discriminate. Moreover, by developing an HMM based system a priori knowledge of the state transitions was not required making this an ideal platform for seizure prediction algorithms.

  7. Modeling and parametric analysis of hollow fiber membrane system for carbon capture from multicomponent flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2011-08-12

    The modeling and optimal design/operation of gas membranes for postcombustion carbon capture (PCC) is presented. A systematic methodology is presented for analysis of membrane systems considering multicomponent flue gas with CO 2 as target component. Simplifying assumptions is avoided by namely multicomponent flue gas represented by CO 2/N 2 binary mixture or considering the co/countercurrent flow pattern of hollow-fiber membrane system as mixed flow. Optimal regions of flue gas pressures and membrane area were found within which a technoeconomical process system design could be carried out. High selectivity was found to not necessarily have notable impact on PCC membrane performance, rather, a medium selectivity combined with medium or high permeance could be more advantageous. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  8. Spatial capture-recapture design and modelling for the study of small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Romairone

    Full Text Available Spatial capture-recapture modelling (SCR is a powerful analytical tool to estimate density and derive information on space use and behaviour of elusive animals. Yet, SCR has been seldom applied to the study of ecologically keystone small mammals. Here we highlight its potential and requirements with a case study on common voles (Microtus arvalis. First, we address mortality associated with live-trapping, which can be high in small mammals, and must be kept minimal. We designed and tested a nest box coupled with a classic Sherman trap and show that it allows a 5-fold reduction of mortality in traps. Second, we address the need to adjust the trapping grid to the individual home range to maximize spatial recaptures. In May-June 2016, we captured and tagged with transponders 227 voles in a 1.2-ha area during two monthly sessions. Using a Bayesian SCR with a multinomial approach, we estimated: (1 the baseline detection rate and investigated variation according to sex, time or behaviour (aversion/attraction after a previous capture; (2 the parameter sigma that describes how detection probability declines as a function of the distance to an individual´s activity centre, and investigated variation according to sex; and (3 density and population sex-ratio. We show that reducing the maximum distance between traps from 12 to 9.6m doubled spatial recaptures and improved model predictions. Baseline detection rate increased over time (after overcoming a likely aversion to entering new odourless traps and was greater for females than males in June. The sigma parameter of males was twice that of females, indicating larger home ranges. Density estimates were of 142.92±38.50 and 168.25±15.79 voles/ha in May and June, respectively, with 2-3 times more females than males. We highlight the potential and broad applicability that SCR offers and provide specific recommendations for using it to study small mammals like voles.

  9. Capturing complexity in work disability research: application of system dynamics modeling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Hettinger, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    Work disability (WD) is characterized by variable and occasionally undesirable outcomes. The underlying determinants of WD outcomes include patterns of dynamic relationships among health, personal, organizational and regulatory factors that have been challenging to characterize, and inadequately represented by contemporary WD models. System dynamics modeling (SDM) methodology applies a sociotechnical systems thinking lens to view WD systems as comprising a range of influential factors linked by feedback relationships. SDM can potentially overcome limitations in contemporary WD models by uncovering causal feedback relationships, and conceptualizing dynamic system behaviors. It employs a collaborative and stakeholder-based model building methodology to create a visual depiction of the system as a whole. SDM can also enable researchers to run dynamic simulations to provide evidence of anticipated or unanticipated outcomes that could result from policy and programmatic intervention. SDM may advance rehabilitation research by providing greater insights into the structure and dynamics of WD systems while helping to understand inherent complexity. Challenges related to data availability, determining validity, and the extensive time and technical skill requirements for model building may limit SDM's use in the field and should be considered. Contemporary work disability (WD) models provide limited insight into complexity associated with WD processes. System dynamics modeling (SDM) has the potential to capture complexity through a stakeholder-based approach that generates a simulation model consisting of multiple feedback loops. SDM may enable WD researchers and practitioners to understand the structure and behavior of the WD system as a whole, and inform development of improved strategies to manage straightforward and complex WD cases.

  10. Automatic generation of a subject-specific model for accurate markerless motion capture and biomechanical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Stefano; Gambaretto, Emiliano; Mündermann, Lars; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2010-04-01

    A novel approach for the automatic generation of a subject-specific model consisting of morphological and joint location information is described. The aim is to address the need for efficient and accurate model generation for markerless motion capture (MMC) and biomechanical studies. The algorithm applied and expanded on previous work on human shapes space by embedding location information for ten joint centers in a subject-specific free-form surface. The optimal locations of joint centers in the 3-D mesh were learned through linear regression over a set of nine subjects whose joint centers were known. The model was shown to be sufficiently accurate for both kinematic (joint centers) and morphological (shape of the body) information to allow accurate tracking with MMC systems. The automatic model generation algorithm was applied to 3-D meshes of different quality and resolution such as laser scans and visual hulls. The complete method was tested using nine subjects of different gender, body mass index (BMI), age, and ethnicity. Experimental training error and cross-validation errors were 19 and 25 mm, respectively, on average over the joints of the ten subjects analyzed in the study.

  11. Electron-capture Isotopes Could Constrain Cosmic-Ray Propagation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, David; Shaviv, Nir J.; Piran, Tsvi

    2017-12-01

    Electron capture (EC) isotopes are known to provide constraints on the low-energy behavior of cosmic rays (CRs), such as reacceleration. Here, we study the EC isotopes within the framework of the dynamic spiral-arms CR propagation model in which most of the CR sources reside in the galactic spiral arms. The model was previously used to explain the B/C and sub-Fe/Fe ratios. We show that the known inconsistency between the 49Ti/49V and 51V/51Cr ratios remains also in the spiral-arms model. On the other hand, unlike the general wisdom that says the isotope ratios depend primarily on reacceleration, we find here that the ratio also depends on the halo size (Z h) and, in spiral-arms models, also on the time since the last spiral-arm passage ({τ }{arm}). Namely, EC isotopes can, in principle, provide interesting constraints on the diffusion geometry. However, with the present uncertainties in the lab measurements of both the electron attachment rate and the fragmentation cross sections, no meaningful constraint can be placed.

  12. Modeling the economic outcomes of immuno-oncology drugs: alternative model frameworks to capture clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E J; Begum, N; Koblbauer, I; Dranitsaris, G; Liew, D; McEwan, P; Tahami Monfared, A A; Yuan, Y; Juarez-Garcia, A; Tyas, D; Lees, M

    2018-01-01

    Economic models in oncology are commonly based on the three-state partitioned survival model (PSM) distinguishing between progression-free and progressive states. However, the heterogeneity of responses observed in immuno-oncology (I-O) suggests that new approaches may be appropriate to reflect disease dynamics meaningfully. This study explored the impact of incorporating immune-specific health states into economic models of I-O therapy. Two variants of the PSM and a Markov model were populated with data from one clinical trial in metastatic melanoma patients. Short-term modeled outcomes were benchmarked to the clinical trial data and a lifetime model horizon provided estimates of life years and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The PSM-based models produced short-term outcomes closely matching the trial outcomes. Adding health states generated increased QALYs while providing a more granular representation of outcomes for decision making. The Markov model gave the greatest level of detail on outcomes but gave short-term results which diverged from those of the trial (overstating year 1 progression-free survival by around 60%). Increased sophistication in the representation of disease dynamics in economic models is desirable when attempting to model treatment response in I-O. However, the assumptions underlying different model structures and the availability of data for health state mapping may be important limiting factors.

  13. Capturing ecology in modeling approaches applied to environmental risk assessment of endocrine active chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintram, Kate S; Brown, A Ross; Maynard, Samuel K; Thorbek, Pernille; Tyler, Charles R

    2018-02-01

    Endocrine active chemicals (EACs) are widespread in freshwater environments and both laboratory and field based studies have shown reproductive effects in fish at environmentally relevant exposures. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) seeks to protect wildlife populations and prospective assessments rely on extrapolation from individual-level effects established for laboratory fish species to populations of wild fish using arbitrary safety factors. Population susceptibility to chemical effects, however, depends on exposure risk, physiological susceptibility, and population resilience, each of which can differ widely between fish species. Population models have significant potential to address these shortfalls and to include individual variability relating to life-history traits, demographic and density-dependent vital rates, and behaviors which arise from inter-organism and organism-environment interactions. Confidence in population models has recently resulted in the EU Commission stating that results derived from reliable models may be considered when assessing the relevance of adverse effects of EACs at the population level. This review critically assesses the potential risks posed by EACs for fish populations, considers the ecological factors influencing these risks and explores the benefits and challenges of applying population modeling (including individual-based modeling) in ERA for EACs in fish. We conclude that population modeling offers a way forward for incorporating greater environmental relevance in assessing the risks of EACs for fishes and for identifying key risk factors through sensitivity analysis. Individual-based models (IBMs) allow for the incorporation of physiological and behavioral endpoints relevant to EAC exposure effects, thus capturing both direct and indirect population-level effects.

  14. Application of the GEM Inventory Data Capture Tools for Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Recovery Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrucci, Enrica; Bevington, John; Vicini, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    A set of open-source tools to create building exposure datasets for seismic risk assessment was developed from 2010-13 by the Inventory Data Capture Tools (IDCT) Risk Global Component of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The tools were designed to integrate data derived from remotely-sensed imagery, statistically-sampled in-situ field data of buildings to generate per-building and regional exposure data. A number of software tools were created to aid the development of these data, including mobile data capture tools for in-field structural assessment, and the Spatial Inventory Data Developer (SIDD) for creating "mapping schemes" - statistically-inferred distributions of building stock applied to areas of homogeneous urban land use. These tools were made publically available in January 2014. Exemplar implementations in Europe and Central Asia during the IDCT project highlighted several potential application areas beyond the original scope of the project. These are investigated here. We describe and demonstrate how the GEM-IDCT suite can be used extensively within the framework proposed by the EC-FP7 project SENSUM (Framework to integrate Space-based and in-situ sENSing for dynamic vUlnerability and recovery Monitoring). Specifically, applications in the areas of 1) dynamic vulnerability assessment (pre-event), and 2) recovery monitoring and evaluation (post-event) are discussed. Strategies for using the IDC Tools for these purposes are discussed. The results demonstrate the benefits of using advanced technology tools for data capture, especially in a systematic fashion using the taxonomic standards set by GEM. Originally designed for seismic risk assessment, it is clear the IDCT tools have relevance for multi-hazard risk assessment. When combined with a suitable sampling framework and applied to multi-temporal recovery monitoring, data generated from the tools can reveal spatio-temporal patterns in the quality of recovery activities and resilience trends can be

  15. Capturing spiral radial growth of conifers using the superellipse to model tree-ring geometric shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pei-Jian; Huang, Jian-Guo; Hui, Cang; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D; Tardif, Jacques C; Zhai, Li-Hong; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Li, Bai-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Tree-rings are often assumed to approximate a circular shape when estimating forest productivity and carbon dynamics. However, tree rings are rarely, if ever, circular, thereby possibly resulting in under- or over-estimation in forest productivity and carbon sequestration. Given the crucial role played by tree ring data in assessing forest productivity and carbon storage within a context of global change, it is particularly important that mathematical models adequately render cross-sectional area increment derived from tree rings. We modeled the geometric shape of tree rings using the superellipse equation and checked its validation based on the theoretical simulation and six actual cross sections collected from three conifers. We found that the superellipse better describes the geometric shape of tree rings than the circle commonly used. We showed that a spiral growth trend exists on the radial section over time, which might be closely related to spiral grain along the longitudinal axis. The superellipse generally had higher accuracy than the circle in predicting the basal area increment, resulting in an improved estimate for the basal area. The superellipse may allow better assessing forest productivity and carbon storage in terrestrial forest ecosystems.

  16. Modeling the economic outcomes of immuno-oncology drugs: alternative model frameworks to capture clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson EJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available EJ Gibson,1 N Begum,1 I Koblbauer,1 G Dranitsaris,2 D Liew,3 P McEwan,4 AA Tahami Monfared,5,6 Y Yuan,7 A Juarez-Garcia,7 D Tyas,8 M Lees9 1Wickenstones Ltd, Didcot, UK; 2Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research Ltd, Cardiff, UK; 5Bristol-Myers Squibb Canada, Saint-Laurent, QC Canada; 6Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA; 8Bristol-Myers Squibb, Uxbridge, UK; 9Bristol-Myers Squibb, Rueil-Malmaison, France Background: Economic models in oncology are commonly based on the three-state partitioned survival model (PSM distinguishing between progression-free and progressive states. However, the heterogeneity of responses observed in immuno-oncology (I-O suggests that new approaches may be appropriate to reflect disease dynamics meaningfully. Materials and methods: This study explored the impact of incorporating immune-specific health states into economic models of I-O therapy. Two variants of the PSM and a Markov model were populated with data from one clinical trial in metastatic melanoma patients. Short-term modeled outcomes were benchmarked to the clinical trial data and a lifetime model horizon provided estimates of life years and quality adjusted life years (QALYs. Results: The PSM-based models produced short-term outcomes closely matching the trial outcomes. Adding health states generated increased QALYs while providing a more granular representation of outcomes for decision making. The Markov model gave the greatest level of detail on outcomes but gave short-term results which diverged from those of the trial (overstating year 1 progression-free survival by around 60%. Conclusion: Increased sophistication in the representation of disease dynamics in economic models

  17. A dynamic mathematical model for packed columns in carbon capture plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2015-01-01

    simulation using monoethanolamine (MEA) and piperazine (PZ) as solvent. MEA is considered as the base-case solvent in the carbon capture business. The effect of changes in the flue gas flow rate and changes in the available steam are investigated to determine their influence on the performance of the capture...

  18. ADEQUATE UV EXPOSURES FOR HEALTHY LIFE: IN SITU MONITORING AND MODEL CALCULATION OF THE VITAMIN-D-SYNTHETIC CAPACITY OF SUNLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Terenetskaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D which is formed upon UV solar radiation in human skin is essential in many physiological functions. To estimate beneficial vitamin-D-synthetic capacity of sunlight a bio-equivalent UV dosimeter that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin has been developed. The examples of an in situ monitoring of the vitamin-D-synthetic capacity of sunlight using an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis are presented, and various operational principles of the UV biodosimeter are discussed. In addition, reliable algorithm is presented for direct calculation of previtamin D3 accumulation using the photoreaction mathematical model with solar UV spectra as input data. Critical dependence of previtamin D3 accumulation on cloudiness and aerosols is demonstrated.

  19. Seasonal Synchronization of a Simple Stochastic Dynamical Model Capturing El Niño Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thual, S.; Majda, A.; Chen, N.

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has significant impact on global climate and seasonal prediction. Recently, a simple ENSO model was developed that automatically captures the ENSO diversity and intermittency in nature, where state-dependent stochastic wind bursts and nonlinear advection of sea surface temperature (SST) are coupled to simple ocean-atmosphere processes that are otherwise deterministic, linear and stable. In the present article, it is further shown that the model can reproduce qualitatively the ENSO synchronization (or phase-locking) to the seasonal cycle in nature. This goal is achieved by incorporating a cloud radiative feedback that is derived naturally from the model's atmosphere dynamics with no ad-hoc assumptions and accounts in simple fashion for the marked seasonal variations of convective activity and cloud cover in the eastern Pacific. In particular, the weak convective response to SSTs in boreal fall favors the eastern Pacific warming that triggers El Niño events while the increased convective activity and cloud cover during the following spring contributes to the shutdown of those events by blocking incoming shortwave solar radiations. In addition to simulating the ENSO diversity with realistic non-Gaussian statistics in different Niño regions, both the eastern Pacific moderate and super El Niño, the central Pacific El Niño as well as La Niña show a realistic chronology with a tendency to peak in boreal winter as well as decreased predictability in spring consistent with the persistence barrier in nature. The incorporation of other possible seasonal feedbacks in the model is also documented for completeness.

  20. A reaction-diffusion model to capture disparity selectivity in primary visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sultan Mohiuddin Siddiqui

    Full Text Available Decades of experimental studies are available on disparity selective cells in visual cortex of macaque and cat. Recently, local disparity map for iso-orientation sites for near-vertical edge preference is reported in area 18 of cat visual cortex. No experiment is yet reported on complete disparity map in V1. Disparity map for layer IV in V1 can provide insight into how disparity selective complex cell receptive field is organized from simple cell subunits. Though substantial amounts of experimental data on disparity selective cells is available, no model on receptive field development of such cells or disparity map development exists in literature. We model disparity selectivity in layer IV of cat V1 using a reaction-diffusion two-eye paradigm. In this model, the wiring between LGN and cortical layer IV is determined by resource an LGN cell has for supporting connections to cortical cells and competition for target space in layer IV. While competing for target space, the same type of LGN cells, irrespective of whether it belongs to left-eye-specific or right-eye-specific LGN layer, cooperate with each other while trying to push off the other type. Our model captures realistic 2D disparity selective simple cell receptive fields, their response properties and disparity map along with orientation and ocular dominance maps. There is lack of correlation between ocular dominance and disparity selectivity at the cell population level. At the map level, disparity selectivity topography is not random but weakly clustered for similar preferred disparities. This is similar to the experimental result reported for macaque. The details of weakly clustered disparity selectivity map in V1 indicate two types of complex cell receptive field organization.

  1. Do Physical Proximity and Availability of Adequate Infrastructure at Public Health Facility Increase Institutional Delivery? A Three Level Hierarchical Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rachana; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the inter-district and inter-village variation of utilization of health services for institutional births in EAG states in presence of rural health program and availability of infrastructures. District Level Household Survey-III (2007-08) data on delivery care and facility information was used for the purpose. Bivariate results examined the utilization pattern by states in presence of correlates of women related while a three-level hierarchical multilevel model illustrates the effect of accessibility, availability of health facility and community health program variables on the utilization of health services for institutional births. The study found a satisfactory improvement in state Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, importantly, in Bihar and Uttaranchal. The study showed that increasing distance from health facility discouraged institutional births and there was a rapid decline of more than 50% for institutional delivery as the distance to public health facility exceeded 10 km. Additionally, skilled female health worker (ANM) and observed improved public health facility led to significantly increase the probability of utilization as compared to non-skilled ANM and not-improved health centers. Adequacy of essential equipment/laboratory services required for maternal care significantly encouraged deliveries at public health facility. District/village variables neighborhood poverty was negatively related to institutional delivery while higher education levels in the village and women's residing in more urbanized districts increased the utilization. "Inter-district" variation was 14 percent whereas "between-villages" variation for the utilization was 11 percent variation once controlled for all the three-level variables in the model. This study suggests that the mere availability of health facilities is necessary but not sufficient condition to promote utilization until the quality of service is inadequate and inaccessible considering

  2. Do Physical Proximity and Availability of Adequate Infrastructure at Public Health Facility Increase Institutional Delivery? A Three Level Hierarchical Model Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Patel

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the inter-district and inter-village variation of utilization of health services for institutional births in EAG states in presence of rural health program and availability of infrastructures. District Level Household Survey-III (2007-08 data on delivery care and facility information was used for the purpose. Bivariate results examined the utilization pattern by states in presence of correlates of women related while a three-level hierarchical multilevel model illustrates the effect of accessibility, availability of health facility and community health program variables on the utilization of health services for institutional births. The study found a satisfactory improvement in state Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, importantly, in Bihar and Uttaranchal. The study showed that increasing distance from health facility discouraged institutional births and there was a rapid decline of more than 50% for institutional delivery as the distance to public health facility exceeded 10 km. Additionally, skilled female health worker (ANM and observed improved public health facility led to significantly increase the probability of utilization as compared to non-skilled ANM and not-improved health centers. Adequacy of essential equipment/laboratory services required for maternal care significantly encouraged deliveries at public health facility. District/village variables neighborhood poverty was negatively related to institutional delivery while higher education levels in the village and women's residing in more urbanized districts increased the utilization. "Inter-district" variation was 14 percent whereas "between-villages" variation for the utilization was 11 percent variation once controlled for all the three-level variables in the model. This study suggests that the mere availability of health facilities is necessary but not sufficient condition to promote utilization until the quality of service is inadequate and

  3. Real-Time Human Detection for Aerial Captured Video Sequences via Deep Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouar AlDahoul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human detection in videos plays an important role in various real life applications. Most of traditional approaches depend on utilizing handcrafted features which are problem-dependent and optimal for specific tasks. Moreover, they are highly susceptible to dynamical events such as illumination changes, camera jitter, and variations in object sizes. On the other hand, the proposed feature learning approaches are cheaper and easier because highly abstract and discriminative features can be produced automatically without the need of expert knowledge. In this paper, we utilize automatic feature learning methods which combine optical flow and three different deep models (i.e., supervised convolutional neural network (S-CNN, pretrained CNN feature extractor, and hierarchical extreme learning machine for human detection in videos captured using a nonstatic camera on an aerial platform with varying altitudes. The models are trained and tested on the publicly available and highly challenging UCF-ARG aerial dataset. The comparison between these models in terms of training, testing accuracy, and learning speed is analyzed. The performance evaluation considers five human actions (digging, waving, throwing, walking, and running. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed methods are successful for human detection task. Pretrained CNN produces an average accuracy of 98.09%. S-CNN produces an average accuracy of 95.6% with soft-max and 91.7% with Support Vector Machines (SVM. H-ELM has an average accuracy of 95.9%. Using a normal Central Processing Unit (CPU, H-ELM’s training time takes 445 seconds. Learning in S-CNN takes 770 seconds with a high performance Graphical Processing Unit (GPU.

  4. CO2 capture in amine solutions: modelling and simulations with non-empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Wanda; Pietrucci, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Absorption in aqueous amine solutions is the most advanced technology for the capture of CO2, although suffering from drawbacks that do not allow exploitation on large scale. The search for optimum solvents has been pursued with empirical methods and has also motivated a number of computational approaches over the last decade. However, a deeper level of understanding of the relevant chemical reactions in solution is required so as to contribute to this effort. We present here a brief critical overview of the most recent applications of computer simulations using ab initio methods. Comparison of their outcome shows a strong dependence on the structural models employed to represent the molecular systems in solution and on the strategy used to simulate the reactions. In particular, the results of very recent ab initio molecular dynamics augmented with metadynamics are summarized, showing the crucial role of water, which has been so far strongly underestimated both in the calculations and in the interpretation of experimental data. Indications are given for advances in computational approaches that are necessary if meant to contribute to the rational design of new solvents.

  5. CO2 capture in amine solutions: modelling and simulations with non-empirical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, Wanda; Pietrucci, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Absorption in aqueous amine solutions is the most advanced technology for the capture of CO 2 , although suffering from drawbacks that do not allow exploitation on large scale. The search for optimum solvents has been pursued with empirical methods and has also motivated a number of computational approaches over the last decade. However, a deeper level of understanding of the relevant chemical reactions in solution is required so as to contribute to this effort. We present here a brief critical overview of the most recent applications of computer simulations using ab initio methods. Comparison of their outcome shows a strong dependence on the structural models employed to represent the molecular systems in solution and on the strategy used to simulate the reactions. In particular, the results of very recent ab initio molecular dynamics augmented with metadynamics are summarized, showing the crucial role of water, which has been so far strongly underestimated both in the calculations and in the interpretation of experimental data. Indications are given for advances in computational approaches that are necessary if meant to contribute to the rational design of new solvents. (topical review)

  6. Directed natural product biosynthesis gene cluster capture and expression in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Zhongrui; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Weipeng; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto; Moore, Bradley S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Bacilli are ubiquitous low G+C environmental Gram-positive bacteria that produce a wide assortment of specialized small molecules. Although their natural product biosynthetic potential is high, robust molecular tools to support the heterologous expression of large biosynthetic gene clusters in Bacillus hosts are rare. Herein we adapt transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast to design a single genomic capture and expression vector for antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis. After validating this direct cloning ``plug-and-play'' approach with surfactin, we genetically interrogated amicoumacin biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis 1779. Its heterologous expression allowed us to explore an unusual maturation process involving the N-acyl-asparagine pro-drug intermediates preamicoumacins, which are hydrolyzed by the asparagine-specific peptidase into the active component amicoumacin A. This work represents the first direct cloning based heterologous expression of natural products in the model organism B. subtilis and paves the way to the development of future genome mining efforts in this genus.

  7. Modeling and Capturing Users’ Actions in CSCL Systems for Collaboration Analysis Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortega

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning environments support the learning of groups of students enabling their collaboration in solving problems. These collaborative environments usually need additional computational support to allow the automatic processing of both the actions carried out by the students and the end solution with the aim of studying the learning process and the validity of the solution proposed to the problem. This process, known as Collaboration and Interaction Analysis, is typically carried out in three phases: observation, abstraction and intervention. In this paper, we propose a methodological approach for the design of mechanisms for the observation phase. This approach provides a set of procedures enabling developers to design observation systems in CSCL environments that capture and model all the information required for comprehensive analyses of the collaboration process and the resulting solution to the problem. This methodological approach is put into practice by means of its use in the design of an observation system in the SPACE-DESIGN (SPecification and Automatic Construction of collaborative Environments of DESIGN collaborative environment.

  8. Directed natural product biosynthesis gene cluster capture and expression in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin

    2015-03-24

    Bacilli are ubiquitous low G+C environmental Gram-positive bacteria that produce a wide assortment of specialized small molecules. Although their natural product biosynthetic potential is high, robust molecular tools to support the heterologous expression of large biosynthetic gene clusters in Bacillus hosts are rare. Herein we adapt transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast to design a single genomic capture and expression vector for antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis. After validating this direct cloning plug-and-playa approach with surfactin, we genetically interrogated amicoumacin biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis 1779. Its heterologous expression allowed us to explore an unusual maturation process involving the N-acyl-asparagine pro-drug intermediates preamicoumacins, which are hydrolyzed by the asparagine-specific peptidase into the active component amicoumacin A. This work represents the first direct cloning based heterologous expression of natural products in the model organism B. subtilis and paves the way to the development of future genome mining efforts in this genus.

  9. Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma Accelerates Bone Union with Adequate Rigidity in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Surgery Model in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Yasuhiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamashita, Masaomi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Miyako; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-11-01

    Fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in rat model. However, fresh PRP has a short half-life. We suggested freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP) prepared in advance and investigated its efficacy in vivo. Spinal posterolateral fusion was performed on 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into six groups based on the graft materials (n = 10 per group): sham control, artificial bone (A hydroxyapatite-collagen composite) -alone, autologous bone, artificial bone + fresh-PRP, artificial bone + FD-PRP preserved 8 weeks, and artificial bone + human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) as a positive control. At 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, we investigated their bone union-related characteristics including amount of bone formation, histological characteristics of trabecular bone at remodeling site, and biomechanical strength on 3-point bending. Comparable radiological bone union was confirmed at 4 weeks after surgery in 80% of the FD-PRP groups, which was earlier than in other groups (p < 0.05). Histologically, the trabecular bone had thinner and more branches in the FD-PRP. Moreover, the biomechanical strength was comparable to that of autologous bone. FD-PRP accelerated bone union at a rate comparable to that of fresh PRP and BMP by remodeling the bone with thinner, more tangled, and rigid trabecular bone.

  10. Radiative capture reactions and spectroscopy of multipolar anions in the framework of Gamow Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossez, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Small open quantum systems, whose properties are profoundly affected by the environment of continuum states, are intensely studied in various fields of Physics: nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, quantum optics, etc. These different many-body systems, in spite of their specific features, have generic properties which are common to all weakly bound or unbound systems close to the threshold. Coupling to the continuum is essential to describe the low-energy nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest, the formation of halo states in nuclei, atomic clusters and dipolar anions, or the near-threshold two neutron and alpha particle correlations (clustering). Recently, the open quantum system extension of the nuclear shell model, the Gamow shell model (GSM), based on the Berggren ensemble, has been applied successfully for the description of resonant states spectra in atomic nuclei. The coupled-channel formulation of the GSM (GSM-CC) allows to describe various low-energy nuclear reactions. In this work, the GSM-CC is formulated and applied for the description of proton/neutron radiative capture reactions of astrophysical interest, such as: 17 F(p, γ) 18 Ne, 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B and 7 Li(n, γ) 8 Li. Moreover, for the first time, the GSM has been applied in atomic physics for the description of spectra of dipolar anions. Systematic investigation of the hydrogen cyanide dipolar anion (HCN - ) allowed to identify the collective bands of states both in the strong coupling regime, for weakly bound halo states, and in the weak coupling regime above the dissociation threshold. In the strong coupling regime, K J = 0 anion a rotational band has been found. Above the threshold, K J quantum number is not conserved. Resonances in this regime form rotational bands according to the angular momentum of the rotating molecule, whereas the band head energies and the lifetimes depend predominantly on the external electron wave function. (author) [fr

  11. Inhibition of tumor growth in a glioma model treated with boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.H.; McGregor, J.M.; Clendenon, N.R.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Barth, R.F.; Soloway, A.H.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This investigation attempts to determine whether increased survival time seen when the F98 glioma model is treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a result of inhibition of tumor growth caused by radiation-induced alterations in endothelial cells and normal tissue components. This indirect effect of radiation has been called the tumor bed effect. A series of tumor-bearing rats was studied, using a standardized investigational BNCT protocol consisting of 50 mg/kg of Na2B12H11SH injected intravenously 14 to 17 hours before neutron irradiation at 4 x 10(12) n/cm2. Ten rats, serving as controls, received no treatment either before or after tumor implantation. A second group of 10 rats was treated with BNCT 4 days before tumor implantation; these animals received no further treatment. The remaining group of 10 rats received no pretreatment but was treated with BNCT 10 days after implantation. Histological and ultrastructural analyses were performed in 2 animals from each group 17 days after implantation. Survival times of the untreated control animals (mean, 25.8 days) did not differ statistically from the survival times of the rats in the pretreated group (mean, 25.5 days). The rats treated with BNCT after implantation survived significantly longer (P less than 0.02; mean, 33.2 days) than the controls and the preirradiated animals. Tumor size indices calculated from measurements taken at the time of death were similar in all groups. These results indicate that, with this tumor model, BNCT does not cause a tumor bed effect in cerebral tissue. The therapeutic gains observed with BNCT result from direct effects on tumor cells or on the peritumoral neovascularity

  12. Radiative capture reaction {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B in the continuum shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennaceur, K; Ploszajczak, M [Grand Accelerateur National d` Ions Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France); Nowacki, F [Grand Accelerateur National d` Ions Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France); [Lab. de Physique Theorique Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Okolowicz, J [Grand Accelerateur National d` Ions Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France); [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    1998-06-01

    We present here the first application of realistic shell model (SM) including coupling between many-particle (quasi-)bound states and the continuum of one-particle scattering states to the calculation of the total capture cross section and the astrophysical factor in the reaction {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B. (orig.)

  13. Membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction: performance modelling of CO2 capture from flue gas in cement production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, R.H.B.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Berstad, D.; Anantharaman, R.

    2017-01-01

    CEMCAP is an international R&D project under the Horizon 2020 Programme preparing the ground for the large-scale implementation of CO2 capture in the European cement industry. This paper concerns the performance modeling of membraneassisted CO2 liquefaction as a possible retrofit application for

  14. Cellular Scanning Strategy for Selective Laser Melting: Capturing Thermal Trends with a Low-Fidelity, Pseudo-Analytical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankhya Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of additive manufacturing processes are known to be computationally expensive. The resulting large runtimes prohibit their application in secondary analysis requiring several complete simulations such as optimization studies, and sensitivity analysis. In this paper, a low-fidelity pseudo-analytical model has been introduced to enable such secondary analysis. The model has been able to mimic a finite element model and was able to capture the thermal trends associated with the process. The model has been validated and subsequently applied in a small optimization case study. The pseudo-analytical modelling technique is established as a fast tool for primary modelling investigations.

  15. CDW-EIS model for single-electron capture in ion-atom collisions involving multielectronic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abufager, P N; MartInez, A E; Rivarola, R D; Fainstein, P D

    2004-01-01

    A generalization of the continuum distorted wave eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation, for the description of single-electron capture in ion-atom collisions involving multielectronic targets is presented. This approximation is developed within the framework of the independent electron model taking particular care of the representation of the bound and continuum target states. Total cross sections for single-electron capture from the K-shell of He, Ne and Ar noble gases by impact of bare ions are calculated. Present results are compared to previous CDW-EIS ones and to experimental data

  16. Computational Modeling of Mixed Solids for CO2 CaptureSorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Since current technologies for capturing CO2 to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO2 capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO2 adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO2 sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO2 capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO2 capture Technologies.

  17. Numerical and theoretical aspects of the modelling of compressible two-phase flow by interface capture methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokh, S.

    2001-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of a numerical direct simulation of compressible two-phase flows by using interface capturing methods. These techniques are based on the use of an Eulerian fixed grid to describe flow variables as well as the interface between fluids. The author first recalls conventional interface capturing methods and makes the distinction between those based on discontinuous colour functions and those based on level set functions. The approach is then extended to a five equation model to allow the largest as possible choice of state equations for the fluids. Three variants are developed. A solver inspired by the Roe scheme is developed for one of them. These interface capturing methods are then refined, more particularly for problems of numerical diffusion at the interface. A last part addresses the study of dynamic phase change. Non-conventional thermodynamics tools are used to study the structures of an interface which performs phase transition [fr

  18. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, V.A.; Garabalino, M.A.; Colombo, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats Introduction: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective tumor uptake of boron compounds, followed by neutron irradiation. BNCT was proposed for the treatment of unresectable, diffuse lung metastases. The aim of the present study was to perform BNCT studies in an experimental model of lung metastases. Materials and Methods: 3 x 106/0.5 ml colon carcinoma cells (DHD/K12/TRb) were injected iv in syngeneic BDIX rats. Three weeks post-inoculation, rats with diffuse lung metastases were used for in vivo BNCT studies in the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Based on previous biodistribution studies and computational dosimetry with Monte Carlo simulation, 2 doses were prescribed, i.e. 4 Gy and 8 Gy minimum absorbed dose to tumor. The animals were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n= 4 to 8) at each dose level: T0 (euthanized pre-treatment), BPA-BNCT, Comb-BNCT (BPA+GB-10), Beam only (background dose) and Sham (same manipulation, no treatment). Boron concentration was measured in a blood sample taken pre-irradiation to verify that the value was in the range established in previous biodistribution studies. The animals were followed clinically for 2 weeks after neutron irradiation and then euthanized to assess the response of tumor and normal lung, macroscopically and histologically. To date we have evaluated the end-point weight of lung (normal lung + metastases) and % lung weight/body weight as an indicator of tumor growth. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of % lung weight/body weight showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between groups T0 (0.79 ± 0.38) and Sham (1.87 ± 0.91). No statistically significant differences were observed between the Beam only groups (at both dose levels) and Sham. Similar and statistically significant tumor control was induced in the groups BPA-BNCT Low dose (LD) (0.56 ± 0.11), BPA-BNCT High dose (HD) (0.80 ± 0.16), Comb

  19. Boron uptake measurements in a rat model for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of lung tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolussi, S., E-mail: silva.bortolussi@pv.infn.i [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bakeine, J.G. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ballarini, F. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Gadan, M.A. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Protti, N.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Cansolino, L.; Zonta, C.; Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, via Ferrata 27100 Pavia (Italy); Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Pavia, via Ferrata 27100 Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the Western countries. Despite the introduction over the last few years of new therapeutic agents, survival from lung cancer has shown no discernible improvement in the last 20 years. For these reasons any efforts to find and validate new effective therapeutic procedures for lung cancer are very timely. The selective boron uptake in the tumour with respect to healthy tissues makes Boron Neutron Capture Therapy a potentially advantageous option in the treatment of tumours that affect whole vital organs, and that are surgically inoperable. To study the possibility of applying BNCT to the treatment of diffuse pulmonary tumours, an animal model for boron uptake measurements in lung metastases was developed. Both healthy and tumour-bearing rats were infused with Boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sacrificed at different time intervals after drug administration. The lungs were extracted, and prepared for boron analysis by neutron autoradiography and {alpha}-spectroscopy. The boron concentrations in tumour and normal lung were plotted as a function of the time elapsed after BPA administration. The concentration in tumour is almost constant within the error bars for all the time intervals of the experiment (1-8 h), while the curve in normal lung decreases after 4 h from BPA infusion. At 4 h, the ratio of boron concentration in tumour to boron concentration in healthy lung is higher than 3, and it stays above this level up to 8 h. Also the images of boron distribution in the samples, obtained by neutron autoradiography, show a selective absorption in the metastases.

  20. Modeling and control of a flexible space robot to capture a tumbling debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubanchet, Vincent

    After 60 years of intensive satellite launches, the number of drifting objects in Earth orbits is reaching a shifting point, where human intervention is becoming necessary to reduce the threat of collision. Indeed, a 200 year forecast, known as the "Kessler syndrome", states that space access will be greatly compromised if nothing is done to address the proliferation of these debris. Scientist J.-C. Liou from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has shown that the current trend could be reversed if at least five massive objects, such as dead satellites or rocket upper stages, were de-orbited each year. Among the various technical concepts considered for debris removal, robotics has emerged, over the last 30 years, as one of the most promising solutions. The International Space Station (ISS) already possesses fully operational robotic arms, and other missions have explored the potential of a manipulator embedded onto a satellite. During two of the latter, key capabilities have been demonstrated for on-orbit servicing, and prove to be equally useful for the purpose of debris removal. This thesis focuses on the close range capture of a tumbling debris by a robotic arm with light-weight flexible segments. This phase includes the motion planning and the control of a space robot, in order to smoothly catch a target point on the debris. The validation of such technologies is almost impossible on Earth and leads to prohibitive costs when performed on orbit. Therefore, the modeling and simulation of flexible multi-body systems has been investigated thoroughly, and is likewise a strong contribution of the thesis. Based on these models, an experimental validation is proposed by reproducing the on-orbit kinematics on a test bench made up of two industrial manipulators and driven by a real-time dynamic simulation. In a nutshell, the thesis is built around three main parts: the modeling of a space robot, the design of control laws, and their validation on a

  1. A Self-Assessment Stereo Capture Model Applicable to the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yancong; Yang, Jiachen; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the Internet of Things greatly depends on the information communication among physical terminal devices and informationalized platforms, such as smart sensors, embedded systems and intelligent networks. Playing an important role in information acquisition, sensors for stereo capture have gained extensive attention in various fields. In this paper, we concentrate on promoting such sensors in an intelligent system with self-assessment capability to deal with the distortion and impairment in long-distance shooting applications. The core design is the establishment of the objective evaluation criteria that can reliably predict shooting quality with different camera configurations. Two types of stereo capture systems—toed-in camera configuration and parallel camera configuration—are taken into consideration respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed evaluation criteria can effectively predict the visual perception of stereo capture quality for long-distance shooting. PMID:26308004

  2. Evaluation of a target region capture sequencing platform using monogenic diabetes as a study-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Rui; Liu, Yanxia; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic diabetes is a genetic disease often caused by mutations in genes involved in beta-cell function. Correct sub-categorization of the disease is a prerequisite for appropriate treatment and genetic counseling. Target-region capture sequencing is a combination of genomic region enrichment...... and next generation sequencing which might be used as an efficient way to diagnose various genetic disorders. We aimed to develop a target-region capture sequencing platform to screen 117 selected candidate genes involved in metabolism for mutations and to evaluate its performance using monogenic diabetes...

  3. Attention capture by abrupt onsets: re-visiting the priority tag model

    OpenAIRE

    Meera Mary Sunny; Adrian evon Muhlenen

    2013-01-01

    Abrupt onsets have been shown to strongly attract attention in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up manner. However, the precise mechanism that drives capture by onsets is still debated. According to the new object account, abrupt onsets capture attention because they signal the appearance of a new object. Yantis and Johnson (1990) used a visual search task and showed that up to four onsets can be automatically prioritized. However, in their study the number of onsets co-varied with the total number ...

  4. Measurement and Modelling of the Piperazine Potassium Carbonate Solutions for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Waseem Arshad, Muhammad

    The climate is in a critical state due to the impact of pollution by CO2 and similar greenhouse gasses. Action needs to be taken in order reduce the emission of harmful components. CO2 capture is one process to help the world population back on track in order to return to normal condition...... with the purpose of simulating the CO2 capture process. This involves equilibrium studies on physical properties in the activated carbonate solvent. Energy consumption while applying the promoted carbonate solutions using piperazine is given in overview....

  5. Screening of metal-organic frameworks for carbon dioxide capture from flue gas using a combined experimental and modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaydin, A Ozgür; Snurr, Randall Q; Park, Tae-Hong; Koh, Kyoungmoo; Liu, Jian; Levan, M Douglas; Benin, Annabelle I; Jakubczak, Paulina; Lanuza, Mary; Galloway, Douglas B; Low, John J; Willis, Richard R

    2009-12-30

    A diverse collection of 14 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) was screened for CO(2) capture from flue gas using a combined experimental and modeling approach. Adsorption measurements are reported for the screened MOFs at room temperature up to 1 bar. These data are used to validate a generalized strategy for molecular modeling of CO(2) and other small molecules in MOFs. MOFs possessing a high density of open metal sites are found to adsorb significant amounts of CO(2) even at low pressure. An excellent correlation is found between the heat of adsorption and the amount of CO(2) adsorbed below 1 bar. Molecular modeling can aid in selection of adsorbents for CO(2) capture from flue gas by screening a large number of MOFs.

  6. Gravitational capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)

  7. Auditory Attentional Capture during Serial Recall: Violations at Encoding of an Algorithm-Based Neural Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert W.; Vachon, Francois; Jones, Dylan M.

    2005-01-01

    A novel attentional capture effect is reported in which visual-verbal serial recall was disrupted if a single deviation in the interstimulus interval occurred within otherwise regularly presented task-irrelevant spoken items. The degree of disruption was the same whether the temporal deviant was embedded in a sequence made up of a repeating item…

  8. Model-Based Systems Engineering for Capturing Mission Architecture System Processes with an Application Case Study - Orion Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanne, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging methodology that can be leveraged to enhance many system development processes. MBSE allows for the centralization of an architecture description that would otherwise be stored in various locations and formats, thus simplifying communication among the project stakeholders, inducing commonality in representation, and expediting report generation. This paper outlines the MBSE approach taken to capture the processes of two different, but related, architectures by employing the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a standard for architecture description and the modeling tool MagicDraw. The overarching goal of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of MBSE as a means of capturing and designing a mission systems architecture. The first portion of the project focused on capturing the necessary system engineering activities that occur when designing, developing, and deploying a mission systems architecture for a space mission. The second part applies activities from the first to an application problem - the system engineering of the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1) End-to-End Information System (EEIS). By modeling the activities required to create a space mission architecture and then implementing those activities in an application problem, the utility of MBSE as an approach to systems engineering can be demonstrated.

  9. Three-dimensional models of cancer for pharmacology and cancer cell biology: capturing tumor complexity in vitro/ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, John A; Graeser, Ralph; de Hoogt, Ronald; Vidic, Suzana; Brito, Catarina; Gutekunst, Matthias; van der Kuip, Heiko

    2014-09-01

    Cancers are complex and heterogeneous pathological "organs" in a dynamic interplay with their host. Models of human cancer in vitro, used in cancer biology and drug discovery, are generally highly reductionist. These cancer models do not incorporate complexity or heterogeneity. This raises the question as to whether the cancer models' biochemical circuitry (not their genome) represents, with sufficient fidelity, a tumor in situ. Around 95% of new anticancer drugs eventually fail in clinical trial, despite robust indications of activity in existing in vitro pre-clinical models. Innovative models are required that better capture tumor biology. An important feature of all tissues, and tumors, is that cells grow in three dimensions. Advances in generating and characterizing simple and complex (with added stromal components) three-dimensional in vitro models (3D models) are reviewed in this article. The application of stirred bioreactors to permit both scale-up/scale-down of these cancer models and, importantly, methods to permit controlled changes in environment (pH, nutrients, and oxygen) are also described. The challenges of generating thin tumor slices, their utility, and potential advantages and disadvantages are discussed. These in vitro/ex vivo models represent a distinct move to capture the realities of tumor biology in situ, but significant characterization work still remains to be done in order to show that their biochemical circuitry accurately reflects that of a tumor. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sequence capture by hybridization to explore modern and ancient genomic diversity in model and nonmodel organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasc, Cyrielle; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre

    2016-06-02

    The recent expansion of next-generation sequencing has significantly improved biological research. Nevertheless, deep exploration of genomes or metagenomic samples remains difficult because of the sequencing depth and the associated costs required. Therefore, different partitioning strategies have been developed to sequence informative subsets of studied genomes. Among these strategies, hybridization capture has proven to be an innovative and efficient tool for targeting and enriching specific biomarkers in complex DNA mixtures. It has been successfully applied in numerous areas of biology, such as exome resequencing for the identification of mutations underlying Mendelian or complex diseases and cancers, and its usefulness has been demonstrated in the agronomic field through the linking of genetic variants to agricultural phenotypic traits of interest. Moreover, hybridization capture has provided access to underexplored, but relevant fractions of genomes through its ability to enrich defined targets and their flanking regions. Finally, on the basis of restricted genomic information, this method has also allowed the expansion of knowledge of nonreference species and ancient genomes and provided a better understanding of metagenomic samples. In this review, we present the major advances and discoveries permitted by hybridization capture and highlight the potency of this approach in all areas of biology. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Hollow fiber membrane contactors for CO2 capture: modeling and up-scaling to CO2 capture for an 800 MWe coal power station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Al-Azki, A.; Gomez, A.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Booth, N.; Adams, D.; Ferre, D.

    2014-01-01

    A techno-economic analysis was completed to compare the use of Hollow Fiber Membrane Modules (HFMM) with the more conventional structured packing columns as the absorber in amine-based CO2capture systems for power plants. In order to simulate the operation of industrial scale HFMMsystems, a

  12. A new integration model of the calcium looping technology into coal fired power plants for CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, C.; Chacartegui, R.; Valverde, J.M.; Becerra, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A CaL-CFPP (coal fired power plant) integration model is proposed and efficiency penalty is estimated. • Carbonation in the diffusion stage is considered to predict the capture efficiency. • Low efficiency penalty may be achieved by operating with longer particles’ residence time. • Simulation results show that the energy penalty ranges between 4% and 7% points. - Abstract: The Ca-Looping (CaL) process is at the root of a promising 2nd generation technology for post-combustion CO_2 capture at coal fired power plants. The process is based on the reversible and quick carbonation/calcination reaction of CaO/CaCO_​_3 at high temperatures and allows using low cost, widely available and non toxic CaO precursors such as natural limestone. In this work, the efficiency penalty caused by the integration of the Ca-looping technology into a coal fired power plant is analyzed. The results of the simulations based on the proposed integration model show that efficiency penalty varies between 4% and 7% points, which yields lower energy costs than other more mature post-combustion CO_2 capture technologies such as the currently commercial amine scrubbing technology. A principal feature of the CaL process at CO_2 capture conditions is that it produces a large amount of energy and therefore an optimized integration of the systems energy flows is essential for the feasibility of the integration at the commercial level. As a main novel contribution, CO_2 capture efficiency is calculated in our work by considering the important role of the solid-state diffusion controlled carbonation phase, which becomes relevant when CaO regeneration is carried out under high CO_2 partial pressure as is the case with the CaL process for CO_2 capture. The results obtained based on the new model suggest that integration energy efficiency would be significantly improved as the solids residence time in the carbonator reactor is increased.

  13. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, G; Melville, P

    2013-02-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO{sub 2}-capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, Mathias

    2014-04-17

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  15. Comparison of methods of calibration of a neutron probe by gravimetry or neutron-capture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachaud, G.; Royer, J.M.; Cooper, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic analysis of two methods used for determining calibration curves of neutron probes. The uncertainties resulting from the use of the gravimetric method, with a linear correlation between count rates and water content of soil samples, are considered first. Particular care is given to the determination of errors in the values of water content and count rates, and to the difficulties arising from the choice of the correlation technique. The neutron-calibration curve of the soil was also obtained with a technique based on the determination of neutron thermal adsorption and diffusion constants. The importance of errors associated with this method is also analyzed. Different field examples are then presented. It appears that the neutron-capture technique should be particularly well suited for determining the calibration curve of clay soils or heterogeneous materials for which the gravimetric calibration technique cannot be applied with confidence. On the other hand, it is also shown that for a soil with a very well-defined gravimetric calibration curve, the neutron-capture technique gives results still at least as good as with the former method

  16. The Biological Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent as a Model to Study Carbon Dioxide Capturing Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premila D. Thongbam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO2 from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO2 fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture.

  17. Influence of wetting-layer wave functions on phonon-mediated carrier capture into self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    Models of carrier dynamics in quantum dots rely strongly on adequate descriptions of the carrier wave functions. In this work we numerically solve the one-band effective mass Schrodinger equation to calculate the capture times of phonon-mediated carrier capture into self-assembled quantum dots. C....... Comparing with results obtained using approximate carrier wave functions, we demonstrate that the capture times are strongly influenced by properties of the wetting layer wave functions not accounted for by earlier theoretical analyses....

  18. A Calibration-Capture-Recapture Model for Inferring Natual Gas Leak Population Characteristics Using Data from Google Street View Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Z.; Hoeting, J.; von Fischer, J.

    2017-12-01

    Pipeline systems that distribute natural gas (NG) within cities can leak, leading to safety hazards and wasted product. Moreover, these leaks are climate-altering because NG is primarily composed of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Scientists have recently developed an innovative method for mapping NG leak locations by installing atmospheric methane analyzers on Google Street View cars. We develop new statistical methodology to answer key inferential questions using data collected by these mobile air monitors. The new calibration-capture-recapture (CCR) model utilizes data from controlled methane releases and data collected by GSV cars to provide inference for several desired quantities, including the number of undetected methane sources and the total methane output rate in a surveyed region. The CCR model addresses challenges associated with using a capture-recapture model to analyze data collected by a mobile detection system including variable sampling effort and lack of physically marking individuals. We develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for parameter estimation and apply the CCR model to methane data collected in two U.S. cities. The CCR model provides a new framework for inferring the total number of leaks in NG distribution systems and offers critical insights for informing intelligent repair policy that is both cost-effective and environmentally friendly.

  19. Disability weight of Clonorchis sinensis infection: captured from community study and model simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Men-Bao Qian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis is among the most neglected tropical diseases. It is caused by ingesting raw or undercooked fish or shrimp containing the larval of Clonorchis sinensis and mainly endemic in Southeast Asia including China, Korea and Vietnam. The global estimations for population at risk and infected are 601 million and 35 million, respectively. However, it is still not listed among the Global Burden of Disease (GBD and no disability weight is available for it. Disability weight reflects the average degree of loss of life value due to certain chronic disease condition and ranges between 0 (complete health and 1 (death. It is crucial parameter for calculating the morbidity part of any disease burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: According to the probability and disability weight of single sequelae caused by C. sinensis infection, the overall disability weight could be captured through Monte Carlo simulation. The probability of single sequelae was gained from one community investigation, while the corresponding disability weight was searched from the literatures in evidence-based approach. The overall disability weights of the male and female were 0.101 and 0.050, respectively. The overall disability weights of the age group of 5-14, 15-29, 30-44, 45-59 and 60+ were 0.022, 0.052, 0.072, 0.094 and 0.118, respectively. There was some evidence showing that the disability weight and geometric mean of eggs per gram of feces (GMEPG fitted a logarithmic equation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The overall disability weights of C. sinensis infection are differential in different sex and age groups. The disability weight captured here may be referred for estimating the disease burden of C. sinensis infection.

  20. Semivarying coefficient models for capture-recapture data: colony size estimation for the little penguin Eudyptula minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Jakub; Dann, Peter; Huggins, Richard

    2014-09-01

    To accommodate seasonal effects that change from year to year into models for the size of an open population we consider a time-varying coefficient model. We fit this model to a capture-recapture data set collected on the little penguin Eudyptula minor in south-eastern Australia over a 25 year period using Jolly-Seber type estimators and nonparametric P-spline techniques. The time-varying coefficient model identified strong changes in the seasonal pattern across the years which we further examined using functional data analysis techniques. To evaluate the methodology we also conducted several simulation studies that incorporate seasonal variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hidden Markov model-derived structural alphabet for proteins: the learning of protein local shapes captures sequence specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Tufféry, P

    2005-08-05

    Understanding and predicting protein structures depend on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have recently set up a Hidden Markov Model to optimally compress protein three-dimensional conformations into a one-dimensional series of letters of a structural alphabet. Such a model learns simultaneously the shape of representative structural letters describing the local conformation and the logic of their connections, i.e. the transition matrix between the letters. Here, we move one step further and report some evidence that such a model of protein local architecture also captures some accurate amino acid features. All the letters have specific and distinct amino acid distributions. Moreover, we show that words of amino acids can have significant propensities for some letters. Perspectives point towards the prediction of the series of letters describing the structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence.

  2. Mathematical Capture of Human Crowd Behavioral Data for Computational Model Building, Verification, and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    throughout the experimental runs. Reliable and validated measures of anxiety ( Spielberger , 1983), as well as custom-constructed questionnaires about...Crowd modeling and simulation technologies. Transactions on modeling and computer simulation, 20(4). Spielberger , C. D. (1983

  3. Interatomic Coulombic electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhberg, K.; Cederbaum, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous publication [K. Gokhberg and L. S. Cederbaum, J. Phys. B 42, 231001 (2009)] we presented the interatomic Coulombic electron capture process--an efficient electron capture mechanism by atoms and ions in the presence of an environment. In the present work we derive and discuss the mechanism in detail. We demonstrate thereby that this mechanism belongs to a family of interatomic electron capture processes driven by electron correlation. In these processes the excess energy released in the capture event is transferred to the environment and used to ionize (or to excite) it. This family includes the processes where the capture is into the lowest or into an excited unoccupied orbital of an atom or ion and proceeds in step with the ionization (or excitation) of the environment, as well as the process where an intermediate autoionizing excited resonance state is formed in the capturing center which subsequently deexcites to a stable state transferring its excess energy to the environment. Detailed derivation of the asymptotic cross sections of these processes is presented. The derived expressions make clear that the environment assisted capture processes can be important for many systems. Illustrative examples are presented for a number of model systems for which the data needed to construct the various capture cross sections are available in the literature.

  4. Business Model Innovation to Create and Capture Resource Value in Future Circular Material Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Göran

    2014-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the origins and development of the business model concept resulting in a high level definition. Against this backdrop, frameworks from the literature around green business models with examples of green business models and the business model innovation process are presented. The article then discusses the origins and meaning of different "green" concepts relevant for the circular value chain concluding with a high level definition. The article finally outl...

  5. Early effects of boron neutron capture therapy on rat glioma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, N.; Akai, F.; Fukawa, N.; Taneda, M.; Ono, K.; Suzuki, M.

    2006-01-01

    Early effects of boron neutron capture therapy on malignant gliomas are characterized by reduction of the enhanced area regression of the peritumoral edema radiologically. The aim of this study is to investigate the early histological changes of tumors and inflammatory cells after BNCT in the rat brain. The rats were treated with BNCT using boronophenyialanine (BPA) 7 days after implantation of C6 glioma cells. The tumors were assessed their sizes and configurations with magnetic resonance imaging, then killed 4 days after BNCT. The mean tumor volumes were 39mm 3 in BNCT-treated group, and 138 mm 3 in the control group. In the histological examination, tumors of the BNCT group showed less pleomorphic appearance with atypical nuclei and mitotic figures, compared with the control group. Necrosis and edematous changes in the neuropile were negligible. There existed remnant tumors adjacent to the lateral ventricle. The reactions of the inflammatory cells were examined with ED-1 of macrophage marker. ED-1 positive cells and their processes were reduced in the marginal area of tumor in the BNCT group. BNCT reduce the tumor progression by suppression of the proliferation. Inhibition of the activated macrophages may reduce peritumoral edema in early phase. (author)

  6. Spatial regression methods capture prediction uncertainty in species distribution model projections through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan K. Swanson; Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Andrew O. Finley; James H. Thorne; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with species distribution model (SDM) projections is poorly characterized, despite its potential value to decision makers. Error estimates from most modelling techniques have been shown to be biased due to their failure to account for spatial autocorrelation (SAC) of residual error. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) have the ability to...

  7. Business Model Innovation to Create and Capture Resource Value in Future Circular Material Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Roos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses the origins and development of the business model concept resulting in a high level definition. Against this backdrop, frameworks from the literature around green business models with examples of green business models and the business model innovation process are presented. The article then discusses the origins and meaning of different "green" concepts relevant for the circular value chain concluding with a high level definition. The article finally outline the process by which a business model for a circular value chain can be developed taking into account the social dilemma that exist in these type of situations. The article concludes with the specific questions that need to be answered in order to create an appropriate business model for a circular value chain.

  8. A multiplicative reinforcement learning model capturing learning dynamics and interindividual variability in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bathellier, Brice; Tee, Sui Poh; Hrovat, Christina; Rumpel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Learning speed can strongly differ across individuals. This is seen in humans and animals. Here, we measured learning speed in mice performing a discrimination task and developed a theoretical model based on the reinforcement learning framework to account for differences between individual mice. We found that, when using a multiplicative learning rule, the starting connectivity values of the model strongly determine the shape of learning curves. This is in contrast to current learning models ...

  9. Modelling approaches to assess and design the deployment of CO2 capture, transport and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 presents a quantitative scenario study for the electricity and cogeneration sector in the Netherlands using MARKAL-NL-UU. This model is specifically developed for this research and is a dynamic bottom-up energy model with special CCS features generated with MARKAL. The focus of this

  10. Newcomer Psychologists and Organizational Socialization: Can a Content Model Capture the Experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Sagberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to evaluate how well Taormina’s Multidomain, Continuous Process Model of Organizational Socialization (Taormina, 1997 applies to the data from qualitative interviews with newcomer psychologists, and to explore the interview content that does not correspond with the model. A total of 64 interviews with 22 recently graduated psychologists in Norway were subjected to deductive content analysis by use of the model. The interview content that did not fit with the model was then explored by inductive content analysis. Largely, the model covered the interview material. However, the model’s categories are wide, and perhaps they too easily embraced the data. Moreover, the model did not embrace issues concerning the work/non-work interface and the participants’ own health and well-being, and an extension of the model is therefore discussed. These issues may be relevant in other professional contexts as well, and not only to newly graduated employees. The findings suggest that organizational socialization researchers could benefit from expanding their view of newcomers’ situation. To practitioners in the field of HR, the model may provide a framework for developing introductory programmes. In addition, attention to the newcomers’ personal well-being and life situation in general is recommended.

  11. Phase equilibrium modeling of gas hydrate systems for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    to form from vapor phases with initial mole fractions of CO2 at or above 0.15.The two models are validated against mixed hydrate equilibrium data found in literature. Both dissociation pressures and hydrate compositions are considered in the validation process.With the fitted parameters, Model I predicts...

  12. Evaluation of XHVRB for Capturing Explosive Shock Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Leah; Schmitt, Robert; Kittell, Dave; Harstad, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Explosive shock desensitization phenomena have been recognized for some time. It has been demonstrated that pressure-based reactive flow models do not adequately capture the basic nature of the explosive behavior. Historically, replacing the local pressure with a shock captured pressure has dramatically improved the numerical modeling approaches. Models based upon shock pressure or functions of entropy have recently been developed. A pseudo-entropy based formulation using the History Variable Reactive Burn model, as proposed by Starkenberg, was implemented into the Eulerian shock physics code CTH. Improvements in the shock capturing algorithm were made. The model is demonstrated to reproduce single shock behavior consistent with published pop plot data. It is also demonstrated to capture a desensitization effect based on available literature data, and to qualitatively capture dead zones from desensitization in 2D corner turning experiments. This models shows promise for use in modeling and simulation problems that are relevant to the desensitization phenomena. Issues are identified with the current implementation and future work is proposed for improving and expanding model capabilities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. A minimal unified model of disease trajectories captures hallmarks of multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Kannan, Venkateshan; Kiani, Narsis A.; Piehl, Fredrik; Tegner, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system (CNS) causing demyelination and neurodegeneration leading to accumulation of neurological disability. Here we present a minimal, computational model involving

  14. Principles and interest of GOF tests for multistate capture-recapture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradel, R.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimal goodness–of–fit procedures for multistate models are new. Drawing a parallel with the corresponding single–state procedures, we present their singularities and show how the overall test can be decomposed into interpretable components. All theoretical developments are illustrated with an application to the now classical study of movements of Canada geese between wintering sites. Through this application, we exemplify how the interpretable components give insight into the data, leading eventually to the choice of an appropriate general model but also sometimes to the invalidation of the multistate models as a whole. The method for computing a corrective overdispersion factor is then mentioned. We also take the opportunity to try to demystify some statistical notions like that of Minimal Sufficient Statistics by introducing them intuitively. We conclude that these tests should be considered an important part of the analysis itself, contributing in ways that the parametric modelling cannot always do to the understanding of the data.

  15. Four shells atomic model to computer the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Fernandez Martinez, A.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper develops a four-shells atomic model in order to obtain the efficiency of detection in liquid scintillation courting, Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of the 229 different atomic rearrangements so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit the study of the influence of the different parameters upon the counting efficiency for nuclides of high atomic number. (Author) 7 refs

  16. Development of a mechanistic model for prediction of CO2 capture from gas mixtures by amine solutions in porous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Mehdi; Marjani, Azam; Shirazian, Saeed

    2017-06-01

    A mechanistic model was developed in order to predict capture and removal of CO 2 from air using membrane technology. The considered membrane was a hollow-fiber contactor module in which gas mixture containing CO 2 was assumed as feed while 2-amino-2-metyl-1-propanol (AMP) was used as an absorbent. The mechanistic model was developed according to transport phenomena taking into account mass transfer and chemical reaction between CO 2 and amine in the contactor module. The main aim of modeling was to track the composition and flux of CO 2 and AMP in the membrane module for process optimization. For modeling of the process, the governing equations were computed using finite element approach in which the whole model domain was discretized into small cells. To confirm the simulation findings, model outcomes were compared with experimental data and good consistency was revealed. The results showed that increasing temperature of AMP solution increases CO 2 removal in the hollow-fiber membrane contactor.

  17. Probabilistic models for neural populations that naturally capture global coupling and criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, Jan; Tkačik, Gašper

    2017-09-01

    Advances in multi-unit recordings pave the way for statistical modeling of activity patterns in large neural populations. Recent studies have shown that the summed activity of all neurons strongly shapes the population response. A separate recent finding has been that neural populations also exhibit criticality, an anomalously large dynamic range for the probabilities of different population activity patterns. Motivated by these two observations, we introduce a class of probabilistic models which takes into account the prior knowledge that the neural population could be globally coupled and close to critical. These models consist of an energy function which parametrizes interactions between small groups of neurons, and an arbitrary positive, strictly increasing, and twice differentiable function which maps the energy of a population pattern to its probability. We show that: 1) augmenting a pairwise Ising model with a nonlinearity yields an accurate description of the activity of retinal ganglion cells which outperforms previous models based on the summed activity of neurons; 2) prior knowledge that the population is critical translates to prior expectations about the shape of the nonlinearity; 3) the nonlinearity admits an interpretation in terms of a continuous latent variable globally coupling the system whose distribution we can infer from data. Our method is independent of the underlying system's state space; hence, it can be applied to other systems such as natural scenes or amino acid sequences of proteins which are also known to exhibit criticality.

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimann, Erica L.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Longhino, Juan; Blaumann, Herman; Calzetta, Osvaldo

    2003-01-01

    We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for BNCT studies separately. We herein report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal oral tissue to BPA-mediated BNCT employing the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days post-treatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in a further 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue. (author)

  19. Empirical analyses of a choice model that captures ordering among attribute values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    an alternative additionally because it has the highest price. In this paper, we specify a discrete choice model that takes into account the ordering of attribute values across alternatives. This model is used to investigate the effect of attribute value ordering in three case studies related to alternative-fuel...... vehicles, mode choice, and route choice. In our application to choices among alternative-fuel vehicles, we see that especially the price coefficient is sensitive to changes in ordering. The ordering effect is also found in the applications to mode and route choice data where both travel time and cost...

  20. Early career burnout among Dutch nurses : A process captured in a Rasch model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jan Alexander; Brouwers, Andre; Schoot, Tineke; Pat-El, Ron; Verboon, Peter; Näring, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates burnout among Dutch nursing graduates as a process by testing a sequential-developmental model. A sample of 237 respondents was recruited from a population of Dutch early career nurses. Burnout was measured with the Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human

  1. Early career burnout among Dutch nurses: A process captured in a Rasch model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.A. de; Brouwers, A.; Schoot, T.; Pat-El, R.; Verboon, P.; Näring, G.W.B.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates burnout among Dutch nursing graduates as a process by testing a sequential-developmental model. A sample of 237 respondents was recruited from a population of Dutch early career nurses. Burnout was measured with the Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human

  2. Modeling phosphorus capture by plants growing in a multi-species riparian buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore phosphorus (P) uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126-d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and smooth brome (Bromis inermis L...

  3. Capturing the Family Context of Emotion Regulation: A Family Systems Model Comparison Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Grych, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Several dimensions of family functioning are recognized as formative influences on children's emotion regulation. Historically, they have been studied separately, limiting our ability to understand how they function within the family system. The present investigation tested models including family emotional climate, interparental conflict, and…

  4. USING AFFORDABLE DATA CAPTURING DEVICES FOR AUTOMATIC 3D CITY MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alizadehashrafi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research project, many movies from UTM Kolej 9, Skudai, Johor Bahru (See Figure 1 were taken by AR. Drone 2. Since the AR drone 2.0 has liquid lens, while flying there were significant distortions and deformations on the converted pictures of the movies. Passive remote sensing (RS applications based on image matching and Epipolar lines such as Agisoft PhotoScan have been tested to create the point clouds and mesh along with 3D models and textures. As the result was not acceptable (See Figure 2, the previous Dynamic Pulse Function based on Ruby programming language were enhanced and utilized to create the 3D models automatically in LoD3. The accuracy of the final 3D model is almost 10 to 20 cm. After rectification and parallel projection of the photos based on some tie points and targets, all the parameters were measured and utilized as an input to the system to create the 3D model automatically in LoD3 in a very high accuracy.

  5. Capturing microbial sources distributed in a mixed-use watershed within an integrated environmental modeling workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many watershed models simulate overland and instream microbial fate and transport, but few provide loading rates on land surfaces and point sources to the waterbody network. This paper describes the underlying equations for microbial loading rates associated with 1) land-applied ...

  6. Using Affordable Data Capturing Devices for Automatic 3d City Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehashrafi, B.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this research project, many movies from UTM Kolej 9, Skudai, Johor Bahru (See Figure 1) were taken by AR. Drone 2. Since the AR drone 2.0 has liquid lens, while flying there were significant distortions and deformations on the converted pictures of the movies. Passive remote sensing (RS) applications based on image matching and Epipolar lines such as Agisoft PhotoScan have been tested to create the point clouds and mesh along with 3D models and textures. As the result was not acceptable (See Figure 2), the previous Dynamic Pulse Function based on Ruby programming language were enhanced and utilized to create the 3D models automatically in LoD3. The accuracy of the final 3D model is almost 10 to 20 cm. After rectification and parallel projection of the photos based on some tie points and targets, all the parameters were measured and utilized as an input to the system to create the 3D model automatically in LoD3 in a very high accuracy.

  7. A Mathematical Model to Capture Complex Microstructure Orientation on Insect Wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyle T Polet

    Full Text Available Microstructures on insect wings can promote directional drop shedding, and the local orientation of these structures is expected to facilitate drop removal. However, microstructures may exhibit very different orientations at different locations on the wing. Using the march fly Penthetria heteroptera, we propose that local orientation of small hairs (microtrichia reflects a balance of three nonexclusive strategies: (1 preventing water from becoming stuck in intervenous grooves (microtrichia point upslope, (2 shedding water off the wing as readily as possible (microtrichia point towards the nearest edge, and, (3 shedding water away from the body (microtrichia point distally. We present evidence for all three and show that local microtrichial orientation is seldom determined by any one factor. We develop a mathematical model that employs factor-specific weighting values determined via optimization. Our predictions are tested against the orientation of microtrichia randomly sampled from a P. heteroptera specimen. Using the best-fit weighting parameters, the model displays a median residual of 20°; no residual is greater than 46°. The model also reproduces qualitative aspects of microtrichial orientation, such as bifurcation midway between veins and convergence toward peaks. This strong correspondence between modelled and observed orientation supports the role of microtrichia as directional antiwetting devices and highlights the importance of considering both function and wing geometry to explain the organization of natural microstructure arrays.

  8. Do maize models capture the impacts of heat and drought stresses on yield? Using algorithm ensembles to identify successful approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhenong; Zhuang, Qianlai; Tan, Zeli; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Zheng, Bangyou; Melillo, Jerry M

    2016-09-01

    Stresses from heat and drought are expected to increasingly suppress crop yields, but the degree to which current models can represent these effects is uncertain. Here we evaluate the algorithms that determine impacts of heat and drought stress on maize in 16 major maize models by incorporating these algorithms into a standard model, the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), and running an ensemble of simulations. Although both daily mean temperature and daylight temperature are common choice of forcing heat stress algorithms, current parameterizations in most models favor the use of daylight temperature even though the algorithm was designed for daily mean temperature. Different drought algorithms (i.e., a function of soil water content, of soil water supply to demand ratio, and of actual to potential transpiration ratio) simulated considerably different patterns of water shortage over the growing season, but nonetheless predicted similar decreases in annual yield. Using the selected combination of algorithms, our simulations show that maize yield reduction was more sensitive to drought stress than to heat stress for the US Midwest since the 1980s, and this pattern will continue under future scenarios; the influence of excessive heat will become increasingly prominent by the late 21st century. Our review of algorithms in 16 crop models suggests that the impacts of heat and drought stress on plant yield can be best described by crop models that: (i) incorporate event-based descriptions of heat and drought stress, (ii) consider the effects of nighttime warming, and (iii) coordinate the interactions among multiple stresses. Our study identifies the proficiency with which different model formulations capture the impacts of heat and drought stress on maize biomass and yield production. The framework presented here can be applied to other modeled processes and used to improve yield predictions of other crops with a wide variety of crop models. © 2016 John

  9. Modeling Phosphorus Capture by Plants Growing in a Multispecies Riparian Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore P uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126 d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., and smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss. Model estimates of P uptake from pure stands of smooth brome and cottonwood were 18.9 and 24.5 kg ha−1, respectively. Uptake estimates for mixed stands of trees and grasses were intermediate to pure stands. A single factor sensitivity analysis of parameters used to calculate P uptake for each cover type indicated that Imax, k, ro, and Lo were consistently the most responsive to changes ranging from −50% to +100%. Model exploration of P uptake as a function of soil depth interval indicated that uptake was highest in the 0–30 cm intervals, with values ranging from 85% of total for cottonwood to 56% for switchgrass.

  10. A Universal Isotherm Model to Capture Adsorption Uptake and Energy Distribution of Porous Heterogeneous Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ismail, Azahar Bin

    2017-01-01

    The adsorbate-adsorbent thermodynamics are complex as it is influenced by the pore size distributions, surface heterogeneity and site energy distribution, as well as the adsorbate properties. Together, these parameters defined the adsorbate uptake forming the state diagrams, known as the adsorption isotherms, when the sorption site energy on the pore surfaces are favorable. The available adsorption models for describing the vapor uptake or isotherms, hitherto, are individually defined to correlate to a certain type of isotherm patterns. There is yet a universal approach in developing these isotherm models. In this paper, we demonstrate that the characteristics of all sorption isotherm types can be succinctly unified by a revised Langmuir model when merged with the concepts of Homotattic Patch Approximation (HPA) and the availability of multiple sets of site energy accompanied by their respective fractional probability factors. The total uptake (q/q*) at assorted pressure ratios (P/P s ) are inextricably traced to the manner the site energies are spread, either naturally or engineered by scientists, over and across the heterogeneous surfaces. An insight to the porous heterogeneous surface characteristics, in terms of adsorption site availability has been presented, describing the unique behavior of each isotherm type.

  11. A Universal Isotherm Model to Capture Adsorption Uptake and Energy Distribution of Porous Heterogeneous Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-08-31

    The adsorbate-adsorbent thermodynamics are complex as it is influenced by the pore size distributions, surface heterogeneity and site energy distribution, as well as the adsorbate properties. Together, these parameters defined the adsorbate uptake forming the state diagrams, known as the adsorption isotherms, when the sorption site energy on the pore surfaces are favorable. The available adsorption models for describing the vapor uptake or isotherms, hitherto, are individually defined to correlate to a certain type of isotherm patterns. There is yet a universal approach in developing these isotherm models. In this paper, we demonstrate that the characteristics of all sorption isotherm types can be succinctly unified by a revised Langmuir model when merged with the concepts of Homotattic Patch Approximation (HPA) and the availability of multiple sets of site energy accompanied by their respective fractional probability factors. The total uptake (q/q*) at assorted pressure ratios (P/P s ) are inextricably traced to the manner the site energies are spread, either naturally or engineered by scientists, over and across the heterogeneous surfaces. An insight to the porous heterogeneous surface characteristics, in terms of adsorption site availability has been presented, describing the unique behavior of each isotherm type.

  12. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs -- Continuum through Discontinuum Representations. Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsworth, Derek [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Izadi, Ghazal [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Gan, Quan [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Fang, Yi [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Taron, Josh [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-28

    This work has investigated the roles of effective stress induced by changes in fluid pressure, temperature and chemistry in contributing to the evolution of permeability and induced seismicity in geothermal reservoirs. This work has developed continuum models [1] to represent the progress or seismicity during both stimulation [2] and production [3]. These methods have been used to resolve anomalous observations of induced seismicity at the Newberry Volcano demonstration project [4] through the application of modeling and experimentation. Later work then focuses on the occurrence of late stage seismicity induced by thermal stresses [5] including the codifying of the timing and severity of such responses [6]. Furthermore, mechanistic linkages between observed seismicity and the evolution of permeability have been developed using data from the Newberry project [7] and benchmarked against field injection experiments. Finally, discontinuum models [8] incorporating the roles of discrete fracture networks have been applied to represent stimulation and then thermal recovery for new arrangements of geothermal wells incorporating the development of flow manifolds [9] in order to increase thermal output and longevity in EGS systems.

  13. Coordination between Understanding Historic Buildings and BIM Modelling: A 3D-Output Oriented and typological Data Capture Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available At the present, in trend of shifting the old 2D-output oriented survey to a new 3D-output oriented survey based on BIM technology, the corresponding working methods and workflow for data capture, process, representation, etc. have to be changed.Based on case study of two buildings in the Summer Palace of Beijing, and Jiayuguan Pass at the west end of the Great Wall (both World Heritage sites, this paper puts forward a “structure-and-type method” by means of typological method used in archaeology, Revit family system, and the tectonic logic of building to realize a good coordination between understanding of historic buildings and BIM modelling.

  14. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Using a hybrid subtyping model to capture patterns and dimensionality of depressive and anxiety symptomatology in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Klaas J; Wanders, Rob B K; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; de Jonge, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Researchers have tried to identify more homogeneous subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD) with latent class analyses (LCA). However, this approach does no justice to the dimensional nature of psychopathology. In addition, anxiety and functioning-levels have seldom been integrated in subtyping efforts. Therefore, this study used a hybrid discrete-dimensional approach to identify subgroups with shared patterns of depressive and anxiety symptomatology, while accounting for functioning-levels. The Comprehensive International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 1.1 was used to assess previous-year depressive and anxiety symptoms in the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-1 (NEMESIS-1; n=5583). The data were analyzed with factor analyses, LCA and hybrid mixed-measurement item response theory (MM-IRT) with and without functioning covariates. Finally, the classes' predictors (measured one year earlier) and outcomes (measured two years later) were investigated. A 3-class MM-IRT model with functioning covariates best described the data and consisted of a 'healthy class' (74.2%) and two symptomatic classes ('sleep/energy' [13.4%]; 'mood/anhedonia' [12.4%]). Factors including older age, urbanicity, higher severity and presence of 1-year MDD predicted membership of either symptomatic class vs. the healthy class. Both symptomatic classes showed poorer 2-year outcomes (i.e. disorders, poor functioning) than the healthy class. The odds of MDD after two years were especially increased in the mood/anhedonia class. Symptoms were assessed for the past year whereas current functioning was assessed. Heterogeneity of depression and anxiety symptomatology are optimally captured by a hybrid discrete-dimensional subtyping model. Importantly, accounting for functioning-levels helps to capture clinically relevant interpersonal differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental validation of a rate-based model for CO2 capture using an AMP solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Svendsen, H. F.; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2007-01-01

    Detailed experimental data, including temperature profiles over the absorber, for a carbon dioxide (CO"2) absorber with structured packing in an integrated laboratory pilot plant using an aqueous 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) solution are presented. The experimental gas-liquid material balance...... was within an average of 3.5% for the experimental conditions presented. A predictive rate-based steady-state model for CO"2 absorption into an AMP solution, using an implicit expression for the enhancement factor, has been validated against the presented pilot plant data. Furthermore, a parameter...

  17. Thermodynamic modeling of liquid–liquid phase change solvents for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; von Solms, Nicolas; Thomsen, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    A thermodynamic model based on Extended UNIQUAC framework has been developed in this work for the de-mixing liquid–liquid phase change solvents, DEEA (2-(diethylamino)ethanol) and MAPA (3-(methylamino)propylamine). Parameter estimation was performed for two ternary systems, H2O-DEEA-CO2 and H2O......-MAPA-CO2, and a quaternary system, H2O-DEEA-MAPA-CO2 (phase change system), by using different types of experimental data (equilibrium and thermal) consisting of pure amine vapor pressure, vapor-liquid equilibrium, solid-liquid equilibrium, liquid–liquid equilibrium, excess enthalpy, and heat of absorption...

  18. Capturing flood-to-drought transitions in regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Ivonne; Haslinger, Klaus; Hofstätter, Michael; Salzmann, Manuela; Resch, Gernot

    2017-04-01

    In previous studies atmospheric cyclones have been investigated in terms of related precipitation extremes in Central Europe. Mediterranean (Vb-like) cyclones are of special relevance as they are frequently related to high atmospheric moisture fluxes leading to floods and landslides in the Alpine region. Another focus in this area is on droughts, affecting soil moisture and surface and sub-surface runoff as well. Such events develop differently depending on available pre-saturation of water in the soil. In a first step we investigated two time periods which encompass a flood event and a subsequent drought on very different time scales, one long lasting transition (2002/2003) and a rather short one between May and August 2013. In a second step we extended the investigation to the long time period 1950-2016. We focused on high spatial and temporal scales and assessed the currently achievable accuracy in the simulation of the Vb-events on one hand and following drought events on the other hand. The state-of-the-art regional climate model CCLM is applied in hindcast-mode simulating the single events described above, but also the time from 1948 to 2016 to evaluate the results from the short runs to be valid for the long time period. Besides the conventional forcing of the regional climate model at its lateral boundaries, a spectral nudging technique is applied. The simulations covering the European domain have been varied systematically different model parameters. The resulting precipitation amounts have been compared to E-OBS gridded European precipitation data set and a recent high spatially resolved precipitation data set for Austria (GPARD-6). For the drought events the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), soil moisture and runoff has been investigated. Varying the spectral nudging setup helps us to understand the 3D-processes during these events, but also to identify model deficiencies. To improve the simulation of such events in the past

  19. Performance estimation of a Venturi scrubber using a computational model for capturing dust particles with liquid spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, S.I. [National Fusion Research Center, 52 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: paksunil@dreamwiz.com; Chang, K.S. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kschang@kaist.ac.kr

    2006-12-01

    A Venturi scrubber has dispersed three-phase flow of gas, dust, and liquid. Atomization of a liquid jet and interaction between the phases has a large effect on the performance of Venturi scrubbers. In this study, a computational model for the interactive three-phase flow in a Venturi scrubber has been developed to estimate pressure drop and collection efficiency. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method is used to solve the model numerically. Gas flow is solved using the Eulerian approach by using the Navier-Stokes equations, and the motion of dust and liquid droplets, described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (B-B-O) equation, is solved using the Lagrangian approach. This model includes interaction between gas and droplets, atomization of a liquid jet, droplet deformation, breakup and collision of droplets, and capture of dust by droplets. A circular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber was simulated numerically with this new model. The numerical results were compared with earlier experimental data for pressure drop and collection efficiency, and gave good agreements.

  20. Performance estimation of a Venturi scrubber using a computational model for capturing dust particles with liquid spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, S.I.; Chang, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    A Venturi scrubber has dispersed three-phase flow of gas, dust, and liquid. Atomization of a liquid jet and interaction between the phases has a large effect on the performance of Venturi scrubbers. In this study, a computational model for the interactive three-phase flow in a Venturi scrubber has been developed to estimate pressure drop and collection efficiency. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method is used to solve the model numerically. Gas flow is solved using the Eulerian approach by using the Navier-Stokes equations, and the motion of dust and liquid droplets, described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (B-B-O) equation, is solved using the Lagrangian approach. This model includes interaction between gas and droplets, atomization of a liquid jet, droplet deformation, breakup and collision of droplets, and capture of dust by droplets. A circular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber was simulated numerically with this new model. The numerical results were compared with earlier experimental data for pressure drop and collection efficiency, and gave good agreements

  1. Performance estimation of a Venturi scrubber using a computational model for capturing dust particles with liquid spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, S I; Chang, K S

    2006-12-01

    A Venturi scrubber has dispersed three-phase flow of gas, dust, and liquid. Atomization of a liquid jet and interaction between the phases has a large effect on the performance of Venturi scrubbers. In this study, a computational model for the interactive three-phase flow in a Venturi scrubber has been developed to estimate pressure drop and collection efficiency. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method is used to solve the model numerically. Gas flow is solved using the Eulerian approach by using the Navier-Stokes equations, and the motion of dust and liquid droplets, described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (B-B-O) equation, is solved using the Lagrangian approach. This model includes interaction between gas and droplets, atomization of a liquid jet, droplet deformation, breakup and collision of droplets, and capture of dust by droplets. A circular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber was simulated numerically with this new model. The numerical results were compared with earlier experimental data for pressure drop and collection efficiency, and gave good agreements.

  2. Study on the Metal Fiber Filter Modeling for Capturing Radioactive Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunguk; Lee, Chanhyun; Park, Minchan; Lee, Jaekeun [EcoEnergy Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The components of air cleaning system are demisters to remove entrained moisture, pre-filters to remove the bulk of the particulate matter, high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, iodine absorbers(generally, activated carbon) and HEPA filters after the absorbers for redundancy and collection of carbon fines. The HEPA filters are most important components to prevent radioactive aerosols from being released to control room and adjacent environment. The Conventional HEPA filter has pleated media for low pressure drop. Consequently, the filters must provide high collection efficiency as well as low pressure drop. Unfortunately, conventional HEPA filters are made of glass fiber and polyester, and pose disposal issues since they cannot be recycled. In fact, 31,055 HEPA filters used in nuclear facilities in the U.S are annually disposed. The Analyses at face velocities 1cm/s and 10cm/s are also carried out, and they also show R2 value of 0.995. However, since official HEPA filter standards are established at face velocity of 5cm/s, this value will be used in further analysis. From the comparative studies carried out at different filter thickness and face velocities, a good correlation is found between the model and the experiment.

  3. Capturing cognitive causal paths in human reliability analysis with Bayesian network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirglmaier, Kilian; Straub, Daniel; Groth, Katrina M.

    2017-01-01

    reIn the last decade, Bayesian networks (BNs) have been identified as a powerful tool for human reliability analysis (HRA), with multiple advantages over traditional HRA methods. In this paper we illustrate how BNs can be used to include additional, qualitative causal paths to provide traceability. The proposed framework provides the foundation to resolve several needs frequently expressed by the HRA community. First, the developed extended BN structure reflects the causal paths found in cognitive psychology literature, thereby addressing the need for causal traceability and strong scientific basis in HRA. Secondly, the use of node reduction algorithms allows the BN to be condensed to a level of detail at which quantification is as straightforward as the techniques used in existing HRA. We illustrate the framework by developing a BN version of the critical data misperceived crew failure mode in the IDHEAS HRA method, which is currently under development at the US NRC . We illustrate how the model could be quantified with a combination of expert-probabilities and information from operator performance databases such as SACADA. This paper lays the foundations necessary to expand the cognitive and quantitative foundations of HRA. - Highlights: • A framework for building traceable BNs for HRA, based on cognitive causal paths. • A qualitative BN structure, directly showing these causal paths is developed. • Node reduction algorithms are used for making the BN structure quantifiable. • BN quantified through expert estimates and observed data (Bayesian updating). • The framework is illustrated for a crew failure mode of IDHEAS.

  4. A degree-day model initiated by pheromone trap captures for managing pecan nut casebearer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pecans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Allen E; Muegge, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Field observations from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) Koch, orchards in Texas were used to develop and validate a degree-day model of cumulative proportional adult flight and oviposition and date of first observed nut entry by larvae of the first summer generation of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Nuenzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The model was initiated on the date of first sustained capture of adults in pheromone traps. Mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used to determine the sum of degree-days from onset to 99% moth flight and oviposition and the date on which first summer generation larvae were first observed penetrating pecan nuts. Cumulative proportional oviposition (y) was described by a modified Gompertz equation, y = 106.05 x exp(-(exp(3.11 - 0.00669 x (x - 1), with x = cumulative degree-days at a base temperature of 3.33 degrees C. Cumulative proportional moth flight (y) was modeled as y = 102.62 x exp(- (exp(1.49 - 0.00571 x (x - 1). Model prediction error for dates of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% cumulative oviposition was 1.3 d and 83% of the predicted dates were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. Prediction error for date of first observed nut entry was 2.2 d and 77% of model predictions were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. The model provides ample lead time for producers to implement orchard scouting to assess pecan nut casebearer infestations and to apply an insecticide if needed to prevent economic loss.

  5. Improving Prediction Accuracy of a Rate-Based Model of an MEA-Based Carbon Capture Process for Large-Scale Commercial Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Luo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage (CCS technology will play a critical role in reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emission from fossil-fired power plants and other energy-intensive processes. However, the increment of energy cost caused by equipping a carbon capture process is the main barrier to its commercial deployment. To reduce the capital and operating costs of carbon capture, great efforts have been made to achieve optimal design and operation through process modeling, simulation, and optimization. Accurate models form an essential foundation for this purpose. This paper presents a study on developing a more accurate rate-based model in Aspen Plus® for the monoethanolamine (MEA-based carbon capture process by multistage model validations. The modeling framework for this process was established first. The steady-state process model was then developed and validated at three stages, which included a thermodynamic model, physical properties calculations, and a process model at the pilot plant scale, covering a wide range of pressures, temperatures, and CO2 loadings. The calculation correlations of liquid density and interfacial area were updated by coding Fortran subroutines in Aspen Plus®. The validation results show that the correlation combination for the thermodynamic model used in this study has higher accuracy than those of three other key publications and the model prediction of the process model has a good agreement with the pilot plant experimental data. A case study was carried out for carbon capture from a 250 MWe combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT power plant. Shorter packing height and lower specific duty were achieved using this accurate model.

  6. First-Principles Integrated Adsorption Modeling for Selective Capture of Uranium from Seawater by Polyamidoxime Sorbent Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladshaw, Austin P; Ivanov, Alexander S; Das, Sadananda; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; Tsouris, Costas; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    2018-04-18

    Nuclear power is a relatively carbon-free energy source that has the capacity to be utilized today in an effort to stem the tides of global warming. The growing demand for nuclear energy, however, could put significant strain on our uranium ore resources, and the mining activities utilized to extract that ore can leave behind long-term environmental damage. A potential solution to enhance the supply of uranium fuel is to recover uranium from seawater using amidoximated adsorbent fibers. This technology has been studied for decades but is currently plagued by the material's relatively poor selectivity of uranium over its main competitor vanadium. In this work, we investigate the binding schemes between uranium, vanadium, and the amidoxime functional groups on the adsorbent surface. Using quantum chemical methods, binding strengths are approximated for a set of complexation reactions between uranium and vanadium with amidoxime functionalities. Those approximations are then coupled with a comprehensive aqueous adsorption model developed in this work to simulate the adsorption of uranium and vanadium under laboratory conditions. Experimental adsorption studies with uranium and vanadium over a wide pH range are performed, and the data collected are compared against simulation results to validate the model. It was found that coupling ab initio calculations with process level adsorption modeling provides accurate predictions of the adsorption capacity and selectivity of the sorbent materials. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that this multiscale modeling paradigm could be utilized to aid in the selection of superior ligands or ligand compositions for the selective capture of metal ions. Therefore, this first-principles integrated modeling approach opens the door to the in silico design of next-generation adsorbents with potentially superior efficiency and selectivity for uranium over vanadium in seawater.

  7. Biodistribution of Boron compounds in an experimental model of liver metastases for Boron Neutron Capture (BNCT) Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, Marcela A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nievas, Susana; Aromando, Romina F.

    2009-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of 10 B carriers in tumors followed by irradiation with thermal or epithermal neutrons. The high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling 7 Li nuclei emitted during the capture of a thermal neutron by a 10 B nucleus have a short range and a high biological effectiveness. Thus, BNCT would potentially target neoplastic tissue selectively. In previous studies we demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. More recently we performed experimental studies in normal rat liver that evidenced the feasibility of treating liver metastases employing a novel BNCT protocol proposed by JEC based on ex-situ treatment and partial liver auto-transplant. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies with different boron compounds and different administration protocols to determine the protocols that would be therapeutically useful in 'in vivo' BNCT studies at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Materials and Methods. A total of 70 BDIX rats (Charles River Lab., MA, USA) were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DH/DK12/TRb (ECACC, UK) to induce the development of subcapsular metastatic nodules. 15 days post-inoculation the animals were used for biodistribution studies. A total of 11 protocols were evaluated employing the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 1 -0H 10 ), alone or combined employing different doses and administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by ICP-OES. Results. Several protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue, i.e. BPA 15.5 mg 10 B/kg iv + GB-10 50 mg 10 B/kg iv; BPA 46.5 mg 10 B/kg ip; BPA 46.5 mg 10 B/kg ip

  8. Thoughtflow: Standards and Tools for Provenance Capture and Workflow Definition to Support Model-Informed Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J J; Chan, Pls; Chard, J; Smith, G; Smith, M K; Beer, M; Dunn, A; Flandorfer, C; Franklin, C; Gomeni, R; Harnisch, L; Kaye, R; Moodie, S; Sardu, M L; Wang, E; Watson, E; Wolstencroft, K; Cheung, Sya

    2017-05-01

    Pharmacometric analyses are complex and multifactorial. It is essential to check, track, and document the vast amounts of data and metadata that are generated during these analyses (and the relationships between them) in order to comply with regulations, support quality control, auditing, and reporting. It is, however, challenging, tedious, error-prone, and time-consuming, and diverts pharmacometricians from the more useful business of doing science. Automating this process would save time, reduce transcriptional errors, support the retention and transfer of knowledge, encourage good practice, and help ensure that pharmacometric analyses appropriately impact decisions. The ability to document, communicate, and reconstruct a complete pharmacometric analysis using an open standard would have considerable benefits. In this article, the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium proposes a set of standards to facilitate the capture, storage, and reporting of knowledge (including assumptions and decisions) in the context of model-informed drug discovery and development (MID3), as well as to support reproducibility: "Thoughtflow." A prototype software implementation is provided. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  9. Does Your Terrestrial Model Capture Key Arctic-Boreal Relationships?: Functional Benchmarks in the ABoVE Model Benchmarking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofferahn, E.; Fisher, J. B.; Hayes, D. J.; Schwalm, C. R.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Hantson, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic-Boreal Region (ABR) is a major source of uncertainties for terrestrial biosphere model (TBM) simulations. These uncertainties are precipitated by a lack of observational data from the region, affecting the parameterizations of cold environment processes in the models. Addressing these uncertainties requires a coordinated effort of data collection and integration of the following key indicators of the ABR ecosystem: disturbance, vegetation / ecosystem structure and function, carbon pools and biogeochemistry, permafrost, and hydrology. We are continuing to develop the model-data integration framework for NASA's Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE), wherein data collection is driven by matching observations and model outputs to the ABoVE indicators via the ABoVE Grid and Projection. The data are used as reference datasets for a benchmarking system which evaluates TBM performance with respect to ABR processes. The benchmarking system utilizes two types of performance metrics to identify model strengths and weaknesses: standard metrics, based on the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILaMB) system, which relate a single observed variable to a single model output variable, and functional benchmarks, wherein the relationship of one variable to one or more variables (e.g. the dependence of vegetation structure on snow cover, the dependence of active layer thickness (ALT) on air temperature and snow cover) is ascertained in both observations and model outputs. This in turn provides guidance to model development teams for reducing uncertainties in TBM simulations of the ABR.

  10. An evaluation of interface capturing methods in a VOF based model for multiphase flow of a non-Newtonian ceramic in tape casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Bulatova, Regina; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the different interface capturing methods as well as to find the best approach for flow modeling of the ceramic slurry in the tape casting process. The conventional volume of fluid (VOF) method with three different interpolation methods for interface...... method for the free surface capturing during the flow of a ceramic slurry described by a constitutive power law equation in the tape casting process. First the developed model is tested against well-documented and relevant solutions from literature involving free surface tracking and subsequently...

  11. Current status of fast-neutron-capture calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    This work is primarily concerned with the calculation of neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra, in the framework of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model and for neutrons from the resonance region up to several MeV. An argument is made that, for applied purposes such as constructing evaluated cross-section libraries, nonstatistical capture mechanisms may be completely neglected at low energies and adequately approximated at high energies in a simple way. The use of gamma-ray strength functions to obtain radiation widths is emphasized. Using the reaction 89 Y + n as an example, the problems encountered in trying to construct a case that could be run equivalently on two different nuclear reaction codes are illustrated, and the effects produced by certain parameter variations are discussed

  12. Perception of Mothers on Adequate Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshini Valoo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in children less than 5 years old persists around the world. In West Java and one of the districts of West Java (Sumedang, the prevalence of malnutrition is about 18.5% and 15.8% respectively. Numerous factors can lead to child malnutrition. Difficulties in availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of food can be contributing factors. A good perception of mother on adequate nutrition can improve children’s nutritional status. This study was conducted to study the perception of mothers with children 2 to 5 years old on adequate nutrition. Methods: Most of the respondents had good perception on the aspect of adequate nutrition. Results showed perception on availability was 83.8%, physical accessibility was 97.1%, economical accessibility was 98.6%, information accessibility was 84.8% and acceptability was 81.0%. However, perception of respondents on good quality nutrition for the main meal and additional food was still poor. Moreover, there are taboos for eating shrimp and watermelon. Additionally, children were given snacks in large amount. Results: There was a strong correlation between mid-upper arm muscle area/size and muscular strength (correlation cooefficient 0.746. Moreover, the higher the Body Mass Index, the stronger the muscle strength was to some point. If the BMI was more than 25 kg/m2, this findings did not occurred. Conclusions: This study reveals that the perception of mothers on good quality food is poor regardless the good results on availibility, accesibility and acceptability.

  13. Muon capture in deuterium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, Emil; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 837, - (2010), s. 110-144 ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Negative muon capture * Deuteron * Potential models Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2010

  14. How adequate policies can push renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.; Coelho, S.T.; Lucon, Oswaldo

    2004-01-01

    The growing interest in the establishment of a minimum share of renewable sources in the world energy matrix, after the Johannesburg's World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD), has raised the question about the means for such new technologies to compete with the traditional ones. The Brazilian experience in the last 25 years with ethanol as a replacement for gasoline can illustrate this possibility. Moreover, recent policies introduced by the Federal government for a minimum share of new renewable sources - wind, modern biomass and small hydro - in the Brazilian electricity matrix reinforces the country's commitment to utilize adequate policies for achieving sustainable development

  15. Inferences about population dynamics from count data using multi-state models: A comparison to capture-recapture approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Zipkin, Elise; Scott, Sillett T.; Chandler, Richard; Royle, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife populations consist of individuals that contribute disproportionately to growth and viability. Understanding a population's spatial and temporal dynamics requires estimates of abundance and demographic rates that account for this heterogeneity. Estimating these quantities can be difficult, requiring years of intensive data collection. Often, this is accomplished through the capture and recapture of individual animals, which is generally only feasible at a limited number of locations. In contrast, N-mixture models allow for the estimation of abundance, and spatial variation in abundance, from count data alone. We extend recently developed multistate, open population N-mixture models, which can additionally estimate demographic rates based on an organism's life history characteristics. In our extension, we develop an approach to account for the case where not all individuals can be assigned to a state during sampling. Using only state-specific count data, we show how our model can be used to estimate local population abundance, as well as density-dependent recruitment rates and state-specific survival. We apply our model to a population of black-throated blue warblers (Setophaga caerulescens) that have been surveyed for 25 years on their breeding grounds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. The intensive data collection efforts allow us to compare our estimates to estimates derived from capture–recapture data. Our model performed well in estimating population abundance and density-dependent rates of annual recruitment/immigration. Estimates of local carrying capacity and per capita recruitment of yearlings were consistent with those published in other studies. However, our model moderately underestimated annual survival probability of yearling and adult females and severely underestimates survival probabilities for both of these male stages. The most accurate and precise estimates will necessarily require some amount of intensive

  16. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BCNT) for the Treatment of Liver Metastases: Biodistribution Studies of Boron Compounds in an Experimental Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Jorge E. Cardoso; Lucas L. Colombo; Susana Nievas; David W. Nigg; Romina F. Aromando

    2011-03-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B10H10), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  17. Capturing the DSM-5 Alternative Personality Disorder Model Traits in the Five-Factor Model's Nomological Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takakuni; Griffin, Sarah A; Samuel, Douglas B

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have shown structural and statistical similarities between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) alternative personality disorder model and the Five-Factor Model (FFM). However, no study to date has evaluated the nomological network similarities between the two models. The relations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) with relevant criterion variables were examined in a sample of 336 undergraduate students (M age  = 19.4; 59.8% female). The resulting profiles for each instrument were statistically compared for similarity. Four of the five domains of the two models have highly similar nomological networks, with the exception being FFM Openness to Experience and PID-5 Psychoticism. Further probing of that pair suggested that the NEO PI-R domain scores obscured meaningful similarity between PID-5 Psychoticism and specific aspects and lower-order facets of Openness. The results support the notion that the DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model trait domains represent variants of the FFM domains. Similarities of Openness and Psychoticism domains were supported when the lower-order aspects and facets of Openness domain were considered. The findings support the view that the DSM-5 trait model represents an instantiation of the FFM. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  19. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  20. Rotary Bed Reactor for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Carbon Capture. Part 1: Reactor Design and Model Development

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2013-01-17

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising technology for power generation with inherent CO2 capture. Currently, almost all of the research has been focused on developing CLC-based interconnected fluidized-bed reactors. In this two-part series, a new rotary reactor concept for gas-fueled CLC is proposed and analyzed. In part 1, the detailed configuration of the rotary reactor is described. In the reactor, a solid wheel rotates between the fuel and air streams at the reactor inlet and exit. Two purging sectors are used to avoid the mixing between the fuel stream and the air stream. The rotary wheel consists of a large number of channels with copper oxide coated on the inner surface of the channels. The support material is boron nitride, which has high specific heat and thermal conductivity. Gas flows through the reactor at elevated pressure, and it is heated to a high temperature by fuel combustion. Typical design parameters for a thermal capacity of 1 MW have been proposed, and a simplified model is developed to predict the performances of the reactor. The potential drawbacks of the rotary reactor are also discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Feasibility study on the utilization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a rat model of diffuse lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakeine, G.J. [Department of Clinical Medicine and Neurology, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: jamesbakeine1@yahoo.com; Di Salvo, M. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bertolotti, A.; Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, C. [Department of Surgery University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Marchetti, A. [Scientific Research Office, Fondazione San Matteo University Policlinic, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    In order for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to be eligible for application in lung tumour disease, three fundamental criteria must be fulfilled: there must be selective uptake of boron in the tumour cells with respect to surrounding healthy tissue, biological effectiveness of the radiation therapy and minimal damage or collateral effects of the irradiation on the surrounding tissues. In this study, we evaluated the biological effectiveness of BNCT by in vitro irradiation of rat colon-carcinoma cells previously incubated in boron-enriched medium. One part of these cells was re-cultured in vitro while the other was inoculated via the inferior vena cava to induce pulmonary metastases in a rat model. We observed a post-irradiation in vitro cell viability of 0.05% after 8 days of cell culture. At 4 months follow-up, all animal subjects in the treatment group that received irradiated boron-containing cells were alive. No animal survived beyond 1 month in the control group that received non-treated cells (p<0.001 Kaplan-Meier). These preliminary findings strongly suggest that BNCT has a significant lethal effect on tumour cells and post irradiation surviving cells lose their malignant capabilities in vivo. This radio-therapeutic potential warrants the investigation of in vivo BNCT for lung tumour metastases.

  2. Feasibility study on the utilization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a rat model of diffuse lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakeine, G.J.; Di Salvo, M.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Bruschi, P.; Bertolotti, A.; Nano, R.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, C.; Marchetti, A.; Altieri, S.

    2009-01-01

    In order for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to be eligible for application in lung tumour disease, three fundamental criteria must be fulfilled: there must be selective uptake of boron in the tumour cells with respect to surrounding healthy tissue, biological effectiveness of the radiation therapy and minimal damage or collateral effects of the irradiation on the surrounding tissues. In this study, we evaluated the biological effectiveness of BNCT by in vitro irradiation of rat colon-carcinoma cells previously incubated in boron-enriched medium. One part of these cells was re-cultured in vitro while the other was inoculated via the inferior vena cava to induce pulmonary metastases in a rat model. We observed a post-irradiation in vitro cell viability of 0.05% after 8 days of cell culture. At 4 months follow-up, all animal subjects in the treatment group that received irradiated boron-containing cells were alive. No animal survived beyond 1 month in the control group that received non-treated cells (p<0.001 Kaplan-Meier). These preliminary findings strongly suggest that BNCT has a significant lethal effect on tumour cells and post irradiation surviving cells lose their malignant capabilities in vivo. This radio-therapeutic potential warrants the investigation of in vivo BNCT for lung tumour metastases.

  3. Capturing the complex behavior of hydraulic fracture stimulation through multi-physics modeling, field-based constraints, and model reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.; Chiaramonte, L.; Cruz, L.; Izadi, G.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in the accuracy and fidelity of numerical methods have significantly improved our understanding of coupled processes in unconventional reservoirs. However, such multi-physics models are typically characterized by many parameters and require exceptional computational resources to evaluate systems of practical importance, making these models difficult to use for field analyses or uncertainty quantification. One approach to remove these limitations is through targeted complexity reduction and field data constrained parameterization. For the latter, a variety of field data streams may be available to engineers and asset teams, including micro-seismicity from proximate sites, well logs, and 3D surveys, which can constrain possible states of the reservoir as well as the distributions of parameters. We describe one such workflow, using the Argos multi-physics code and requisite geomechanical analysis to parameterize the underlying models. We illustrate with a field study involving a constraint analysis of various field data and details of the numerical optimizations and model reduction to demonstrate how complex models can be applied to operation design in hydraulic fracturing operations, including selection of controllable completion and fluid injection design properties. The implication of this work is that numerical methods are mature and computationally tractable enough to enable complex engineering analysis and deterministic field estimates and to advance research into stochastic analyses for uncertainty quantification and value of information applications.

  4. Reactive or proactive approach towards sustainability? A conceptual framework based on sustainable business models to increase stakeholders' sustainable value capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Francesco; Morioka, Sandra; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly

    2016-01-01

    and challenging companies to seek for business opportunities with an entrepreneurial attitude to help solving sustainable development challenges. By combining both approaches, organizations have the opportunity to increase sustainable value capture by its stakeholders, acting on their institutional responsibility...... as instrument to help companies describe, analyze, manage and communicate their sustainable value proposition, creation, delivery and capture mechanism. In particular, this research focuses on value capture dynamics, aiming to explore how companies can increase their contribution to sustainable development...... sustainability. In this sense, a proactive approach to foster sustainable value capture can complement the reactive approach by delivering value beyond stakeholders' expectations. In this case, companies use their capabilities to identify opportunities to create and deliver sustainable value that stakeholders...

  5. Synovectomy by Neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu 239 Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  6. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides. KLMN model; Probabilidades y energias de reestructuracion atomica subsiguientes a la captura electronica. Modelo KLMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiano, G.; Grau, A.

    1994-07-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electro capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high. (Author)

  7. Dynamic Modeling and Control Studies of a Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized Bed Adsorber-Reactor for Solid-Sorbent CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2013-07-31

    A one-dimensional, non-isothermal, pressure-driven dynamic model has been developed for a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor for solid-sorbent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM). The BFB model for the flow of gas through a continuous phase of downward moving solids considers three regions: emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake. Both the upper and lower reactor stages are of overflow-type configuration, i.e., the solids leave from the top of each stage. In addition, dynamic models have been developed for the downcomer that transfers solids between the stages and the exit hopper that removes solids from the bottom of the bed. The models of all auxiliary equipment such as valves and gas distributor have been integrated with the main model of the two-stage adsorber reactor. Using the developed dynamic model, the transient responses of various process variables such as CO{sub 2} capture rate and flue gas outlet temperatures have been studied by simulating typical disturbances such as change in the temperature, flowrate, and composition of the incoming flue gas from pulverized coal-fired power plants. In control studies, the performance of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, feedback-augmented feedforward controller, and linear model predictive controller (LMPC) are evaluated for maintaining the overall CO{sub 2} capture rate at a desired level in the face of typical disturbances.

  8. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula [Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Research and Production Reactors, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Colombo, Lucas L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Sara J. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carando, Daniel G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm{sup 3}. In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm{sup 3}. The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  9. Model-independent spectroscopic information and the peripheral direct capture A(a,γ)B reaction at stellar energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igamov, S.B.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Despite the impressive progress in our understanding of these processes has been made in the last decades, there are still many problems connected with obtaining precise data on the A(p,γ )B and A(α,γ )B reactions cross sections at stellar energies to be solved. One of the possibilities of solving these problems is based on the principally peripheral character of charged particles interaction at low energy and the possibility of using the information on asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC) (or respective nuclear vertex constants (NVC) for the virtual decay B→A+a ) of the overlap functions for the A(p,γ )B and A(α,γ)B reactions. This review is devoted to critical analysis of traditional methods of obtaining ANC information from DWBA - method calculation of proton transfer reactions and two - body potential model calculation of the direct capture reactions. Moreover in this review modified two - body potential approach allowing to determine both the ANC for virtual decays B→p+A and B→α+A and astrophysical S-factor, S(E), for the A(p,γ)B and A(α,γ)B at stellar energies E (∼ 25 keV) is discussed. This method involves two additional conditions that allow to verify the peripheral character of the considered reactions. New information about rates of t( α ,γ ) 7 Li, 3 He(α ,γ ) 7 Be, 7 Be(p,γ ) 8 B and 12 C(p,γ ) 13 N reactions and estimation of the values of the ANC's for 7 Li →α+t, 7 Be→α+ 3 He, and 8 B→ 7 Be+p has also been presented

  10. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula; Colombo, Lucas L.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Carando, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm 3 . In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm 3 . The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  11. Understanding and Modelling the Effect of Dissolved Metals on Solvent Degradation in Post Combustion CO2 Capture Based on Pilot Plant Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Dhingra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative degradation is a serious concern for upscaling of amine-based carbon capture technology. Different kinetic models have been proposed based on laboratory experiments, however the kinetic parameters included are limited to those relevant for a lab-scale system and not a capture plant. Besides, most of the models fail to recognize the catalytic effect of metals. The objective of this work is to develop a representative kinetic model based on an apparent auto-catalytic reaction mechanism between solvent degradation, corrosion and ammonia emissions. Measurements from four different pilot plants: (i EnBW’s plant at Heilbronn, Germany (ii TNO’s plant at Maasvlakte, The Netherlands; (iii CSIRO’s plants at Loy Yang and Tarong, Australia and (iv DONG Energy’s plant at Esbjerg, Denmark are utilized to propose a degradation kinetic model for 30 wt % ethanolamine (MEA as the capture solvent. The kinetic parameters of the model were regressed based on the pilot plant campaign at EnBW. The kinetic model was validated by comparing it with the measurements at the remaining pilot campaigns. The model predicted the trends of ammonia emissions and metal concentration within the same order of magnitude. This study provides a methodology to establish a quantitative approach for predicting the onset of unacceptable degradation levels which can be further used to devise counter-measure strategies such as reclaiming and metal removal.

  12. An optimization model for carbon capture & storage/utilization vs. carbon trading: A case study of fossil-fired power plants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağralı, Semra; Üçtuğ, Fehmi Görkem; Türkmen, Burçin Atılgan

    2018-06-01

    We consider fossil-fired power plants that operate in an environment where a cap and trade system is in operation. These plants need to choose between carbon capture and storage (CCS), carbon capture and utilization (CCU), or carbon trading in order to obey emissions limits enforced by the government. We develop a mixed-integer programming model that decides on the capacities of carbon capture units, if it is optimal to install them, the transportation network that needs to be built for transporting the carbon captured, and the locations of storage sites, if they are decided to be built. Main restrictions on the system are the minimum and maximum capacities of the different parts of the pipeline network, the amount of carbon that can be sold to companies for utilization, and the capacities on the storage sites. Under these restrictions, the model aims to minimize the net present value of the sum of the costs associated with installation and operation of the carbon capture unit and the transportation of carbon, the storage cost in case of CCS, the cost (or revenue) that results from the emissions trading system, and finally the negative revenue of selling the carbon to other entities for utilization. We implement the model on General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) by using data associated with two coal-fired power plants located in different regions of Turkey. We choose enhanced oil recovery (EOR) as the process in which carbon would be utilized. The results show that CCU is preferable to CCS as long as there is sufficient demand in the EOR market. The distance between the location of emission and location of utilization/storage, and the capacity limits on the pipes are an important factor in deciding between carbon capture and carbon trading. At carbon prices over $15/ton, carbon capture becomes preferable to carbon trading. These results show that as far as Turkey is concerned, CCU should be prioritized as a means of reducing nation-wide carbon emissions in an

  13. Rotary Bed Reactor for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Carbon Capture. Part 1: Reactor Design and Model Development

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong; Chen, Tianjiao; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising technology for power generation with inherent CO2 capture. Currently, almost all of the research has been focused on developing CLC-based interconnected fluidized-bed reactors. In this two

  14. Electron capture and stellar collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    In order, to investigate the function of electron capture in the phenomenon of pre-supernovae gravitacional collapse, an hydrodynamic caculation was carried out, coupling capture, decay and nuclear reaction equation system. A star simplified model (homogeneous model) was adopted using fermi ideal gas approximation for tthe sea of free electrons and neutrons. The non simplified treatment from quasi-static evolution to collapse is presented. The capture and beta decay rates, as wellas neutron delayed emission, were calculated by beta decay crude theory, while the other reaction rates were determined by usual theories. The preliminary results are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Evaluation and Modeling of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium and CO2 Absorption Enthalpies of Aqueous Designer Diamines for Post Combustion Capture Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weiliang; Yang, Qi; Conway, William; Puxty, Graeme; Feron, Paul; Chen, Jian

    2017-06-20

    Novel absorbents with improved characteristics are required to reduce the existing cost and environmental barriers to deployment of large scale CO 2 capture. Recently, bespoke absorbent molecules have been specifically designed for CO 2 capture applications, and their fundamental properties and suitability for CO 2 capture processes evaluated. From the study, two unique diamine molecules, 4-(2-hydroxyethylamino)piperidine (A4) and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-aminopiperidine (C4), were selected for further evaluation including thermodynamic characterization. The solubilities of CO 2 in two diamine solutions with a mass fraction of 15% and 30% were measured at different temperatures (313.15-393.15 K) and CO 2 partial pressures (up to 400 kPa) by thermostatic vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) stirred cell. The absorption enthalpies of reactions between diamines and CO 2 were evaluated at different temperatures (313.15 and 333.15 K) using a CPA201 reaction calorimeter. The amine protonation constants and associated protonation enthalpies were determined by potentiometric titration. The interaction of CO 2 with the diamine solutions was summarized and a simple mathematical model established that could make a preliminary but good prediction of the VLE and thermodynamic properties. Based on the analyses in this work, the two designer diamines A4 and C4 showed superior performance compared to amines typically used for CO 2 capture and further research will be completed at larger scale.

  16. Comparison of neutron capture cross sections obtained from two Hauser-Feshbach statistical models on a short-lived nucleus using experimentally constrained input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca; Liddick, Sean; Spyrou, Artemis; Crider, Benjamin; Dombos, Alexander; Naqvi, Farheen; Prokop, Christopher; Quinn, Stephen; Larsen, Ann-Cecilie; Crespo Campo, Lucia; Guttormsen, Magne; Renstrom, Therese; Siem, Sunniva; Bleuel, Darren; Couture, Aaron; Mosby, Shea; Perdikakis, George

    2017-09-01

    A majority of the abundance of the elements above iron are produced by neutron capture reactions, and, in explosive stellar processes, many of these reactions take place on unstable nuclei. Direct neutron capture experiments can only be performed on stable and long-lived nuclei, requiring indirect methods for the remaining isotopes. Statistical neutron capture can be described using the nuclear level density (NLD), the γ strength function (γSF), and an optical model. The NLD and γSF can be obtained using the β-Oslo method. The NLD and γSF were recently determined for 74Zn using the β-Oslo method, and were used in both TALYS and CoH to calculate the 73Zn(n, γ)74Zn neutron capture cross section. The cross sections calculated in TALYS and CoH are expected to be identical if the inputs for both codes are the same, however, after a thorough investigation into the inputs for the 73Zn(n, γ)74Zn reaction there is still a factor of two discrepancy between the two codes.

  17. Review, modeling, Heat Integration, and improved schemes of Rectisol®-based processes for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, Manuele; Martelli, Emanuele; Marechal, François; Consonni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The paper evaluates the thermodynamic performances and the energy integration of alternative schemes of a methanol absorption based acid gas removal process designed for CO 2 Capture and Storage. More precisely, this work focuses the attention on the Rectisol ® process specifically designed for the selective removal of H 2 S and CO 2 from syngas produced by coal gasification. The study addresses the following issues: (i) perform a review of the Rectisol ® schemes proposed by engineers and researchers with the purpose of determining the best one for CO 2 capture and storage; (ii) calibrate the PC-SAFT equation of state for CH 3 OH–CO 2 –H 2 S–H 2 –CO mixtures at conditions relevant to the Rectisol ® process; (iii) evaluate the thermodynamic performances and optimize the energy integration of a “Reference” scheme derived from those available in the literature; (iv) identify and assess alternative Rectisol ® schemes with optimized performance for CO 2 Capture and Storage and Heat Integration with utilities. On the basis of the analysis of the Composite Curves of the integrated process, we propose some possible improvements at the level of the process configuration, like the introduction of mechanical vapor recompression and the development of a two stage regeneration arrangement. - Highlights: • Comprehensive review of the Rectisol ® process configurations and applications. • Calibration of PC-SAFT equation of state for Rectisol ® -relevant mixtures. • Detailed process simulation and optimized Heat Integration, and utility design. • Development of alternative Rectisol ® schemes optimized for CO 2 Capture

  18. Neutron-capture gamma-ray study of levels in 135Ba and description of nuclear levels in the interacting-boson-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; Koene, B.K.S.; Stelts, M.L.; Meyer, R.A.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Lopac, V.

    1993-01-01

    We have performed neutron-capture gamma-ray studies on natural and enriched targets of 134 Ba in order to investigate the nuclear levels of 135 Ba. The low-energy level spectra were compared with the calculations using the interacting-boson-fermion model (IBFM) and the cluster-vibration model. The level densities up to 5 MeV that are calculated within the IBFM are in accordance with the constant temperature Fermi gas model. From the spin distribution we have determined the corresponding spin cutoff parameter σ and compared it to the prediction from nuclear systematics

  19. Astrophysical 3He(α ,γ )7Be and 3H(α ,γ )7Li direct capture reactions in a potential-model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursunov, E. M.; Turakulov, S. A.; Kadyrov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The astrophysical 3He(α ,γ )7Be and 3H(α ,γ )7Li direct capture processes are studied in the framework of the two-body model with potentials of a simple Gaussian form, which describe correctly the phase shifts in the s , p , d , and f waves, as well as the binding energy and the asymptotic normalization constant of the ground p3 /2 and the first excited p1 /2 bound states. It is shown that the E 1 transition from the initial s wave to the final p waves is strongly dominant in both capture reactions. On this basis the s -wave potential parameters are adjusted to reproduce the new data of the LUNA Collaboration around 100 keV and the newest data at the Gamov peak estimated with the help of the observed neutrino fluxes from the sun, S34(23-5+6keV ) =0.548 ±0.054 keV b for the astrophysical S factor of the capture process 3He(α ,γ )7Be . The resulting model describes well the astrophysical S factor in the low-energy big-bang nucleosynthesis region of 180-400 keV; however, it has a tendency to underestimate the data above 0.5 MeV. The energy dependence of the S factor is mostly consistent with the data and the results of the no-core shell model with continuum, but substantially different from the fermionic molecular dynamics model predictions. Two-body potentials, adjusted for the properties of the 7Be nucleus, 3He+α elastic scattering data, and the astrophysical S factor of the 3He(α ,γ )7Be direct capture reaction, are able to reproduce the properties of the 7Li nucleus, the binding energies of the ground 3 /2- and first excited 1 /2- states, and phase shifts of the 3H+α elastic scattering in partial waves. Most importantly, these potential models can successfully describe both absolute value and energy dependence of the existing experimental data for the mirror astrophysical 3H(α ,γ )7Li capture reaction without any additional adjustment of the parameters.

  20. The AtChem On-line model and Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN): A free community modelling tool with provenance capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. C.; Boronska, K.; Martin, C. J.; Rickard, A. R.; Vázquez Moreno, M.; Pilling, M. J.; Haji, M. H.; Dew, P. M.; Lau, L. M.; Jimack, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    AtChem On-line1 is a simple to use zero-dimensional box modelling toolkit, developed for use by laboratory, field and chamber scientists. Any set of chemical reactions can be simulated, in particular the whole Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM2) or any subset of it. Parameters and initial data can be provided through a self-explanatory web form and the resulting model is compiled and run on a dedicated server. The core part of the toolkit, providing a robust solver for thousands of chemical reactions, is written in Fortran and uses SUNDIALS3 CVODE libraries. Chemical systems can be constrained at multiple, user-determined timescales; this enabled studies of radical chemistry at one minute timescales. AtChem On-line is free to use and requires no installation - a web browser, text editor and any compressing software is all the user needs. CPU and storage are provided by the server (input and output data are saved indefinitely). An off-line version is also being developed, which will provide batch processing, an advanced graphical user interface and post-processing tools, for example, Rate of Production Analysis (ROPA) and chainlength analysis. The source code is freely available for advanced users wishing to adapt and run the program locally. Data management, dissemination and archiving are essential in all areas of science. In order to do this in an efficient and transparent way, there is a critical need to capture high quality metadata/provenance for modelling activities. An Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN) has been developed in parallel with AtChem Online as part of the EC EUROCHAMP24 project. In order to use controlled chamber experiments to evaluate the MCM, we need to be able to archive, track and search information on all associated chamber model runs, so that they can be used in subsequent mechanism development. Therefore it would be extremely useful if experiment and model metadata/provenance could be easily and automatically stored electronically

  1. Assessing the ability of potential evapotranspiration models in capturing dynamics of evaporative demand across various biomes and climatic regimes with ChinaFLUX measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han; Yu, Guirui; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Xianjin; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Huimin; Shi, Peili; Zhao, Fenghua; Li, Yingnian; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Junhui; Wang, Yanfen

    2017-08-01

    Estimates of atmospheric evaporative demand have been widely required for a variety of hydrological analyses, with potential evapotranspiration (PET) being an important measure representing evaporative demand of actual vegetated surfaces under given metrological conditions. In this study, we assessed the ability of various PET models in capturing long-term (typically 2003-2011) dynamics of evaporative demand at eight ecosystems across various biomes and climatic regimes in China. Prior to assessing PET dynamics, we first examined the reasonability of fourteen PET models in representing the magnitudes of evaporative demand using eddy-covariance actual evapotranspiration (AET) as an indicator. Results showed that the robustness of the fourteen PET models differed somewhat across the sites, and only three PET models could produce reasonable magnitudes of evaporative demand (i.e., PET ≥ AET on average) for all eight sites, including the: (i) Penman; (ii) Priestly-Taylor and (iii) Linacre models. Then, we assessed the ability of these three PET models in capturing dynamics of evaporative demand by comparing the annual and seasonal trends in PET against the equivalent trends in AET and precipitation (P) for particular sites. Results indicated that nearly all the three PET models could faithfully reproduce the dynamics in evaporative demand for the energy-limited conditions at both annual and seasonal scales, while only the Penman and Linacre models could represent dynamics in evaporative demand for the water-limited conditions. However, the Linacre model was unable to reproduce the seasonal switches between water- and energy-limited states for some sites. Our findings demonstrated that the choice of PET models would be essential for the evaporative demand analyses and other related hydrological analyses at different temporal and spatial scales.

  2. Rate-based modelling of combined SO2 removal and NH3 recycling integrated with an aqueous NH3-based CO2 capture process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Qi, Guojie; Feron, Paul; Tade, Moses; Yu, Jingwen; Wang, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A rigorous, rate-based model for an NH 3 –CO 2 –SO 2 –H 2 O system was developed. • Model predictions are in good agreement with pilot plant results. • >99.9% of SO 2 was captured and >99.9% of slipped ammonia was reused. • The process is highly adaptable to the variations of SO 2 /NH 3 level, temperatures. - Abstract: To reduce the costs of controlling emissions from coal-fired power stations, we propose an advanced and effective process of combined SO 2 removal and NH 3 recycling, which can be integrated with the aqueous NH 3 -based CO 2 capture process to simultaneously achieve SO 2 and CO 2 removal, NH 3 recycling and flue gas cooling in one process. A rigorous, rate-based model for an NH 3 –CO 2 –SO 2 –H 2 O system was developed and used to simulate the proposed process. The model was thermodynamically and kinetically validated by experimental results from the open literature and pilot-plant trials, respectively. Under typical flue gas conditions, the proposed process has SO 2 removal and NH 3 reuse efficiencies of >99.9%. The process is strongly adaptable to different scenarios such as high SO 2 levels in flue gas, high NH 3 levels from the CO 2 absorber and high flue gas temperatures, and has a low energy requirement. Because the process simplifies flue gas desulphurisation and resolves the problems of NH 3 loss and SO 2 removal, it could significantly reduce the cost of CO 2 and SO 2 capture by aqueous NH 3

  3. The Prediction Performance of Asset Pricing Models and Their Capability of Capturing the Effects of Economic Crises: The Case of Istanbul Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Muzır

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is prepared to test the common opinion that the multifactor asset pricing models produce superior predictions as compared to the single factor models and to evaluate the performance of Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT and Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM. For this purpose, the monthly return data from January 1996 and December 2004 of the stocks of 45 firms listed at Istanbul Stock Exchange were used. Our factor analysis results show that 68,3 % of the return variation can be explained by five factors. Although the APT model has generated a low coefficient of determination, 28,3 %, it proves to be more competent in explaining stock return changes when compared to CAPM which has an inferior explanation power, 5,4 %. Furthermore, we have observed that APT is more robust also in capturing the effects of any economic crisis on return variations.

  4. Sensitivity tests on the rates of the excited states of positron decays during the rapid proton capture process of the one-zone X-ray burst model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Rita

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the sensitivities of positron decays on a one-zone model of type-I X-ray bursts. Most existing studies have multiplied or divided entire beta decay rates (electron captures and beta decay rates) by 10. Instead of using the standard Fuller & Fowler (FFNU) rates, we used the most recently developed weak library rates [1], which include rates from Langanke et al.'s table (the LMP table) (2000) [2], Langanke et al.'s table (the LMSH table) (2003) [3], and Oda et al.'s table (1994) [4] (all shell model rates). We then compared these table rates with the old FFNU rates [5] to study differences within the final abundances. Both positron decays and electron capture rates were included in the tables. We also used pn-QRPA rates [6,7] to study the differences within the final abundances. Many of the positron rates from the nuclei's ground states and initial excited energy states along the rapid proton capture (rp) process have been measured in existing studies. However, because temperature affects the rates of excited states, these studies should have also acknowledged the half-lives of the nuclei's excited states. Thus, instead of multiplying or dividing entire rates by 10, we studied how the half-lives of sensitive nuclei in excited states affected the abundances by dividing the half-lives of the ground states by 10, which allowed us to set the half-lives of the excited states. Interestingly, we found that the peak of the final abundance shifted when we modified the rates from the excited states of the 105Sn positron decay rates. Furthermore, the abundance of 80Zr also changed due to usage of pn-QRPA rates instead of weak library rates (the shell model rates).

  5. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a new approach for clear cell sarcoma (CCS) treatment: Trial using a lung metastasis model of CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Tooru; Fujimoto, Takuya; Suzuki, Minoru; Sudo, Tamotsu; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fujita, Ikuo; Fukase, Naomasa; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Sakuma, Toshiko; Sasai, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Teruya; Kirihata, Mitsunori; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Akisue, Toshihiro; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In the present study, we established a lung metastasis animal model of CCS and investigated the therapeutic effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using p-borono-L-phenylalanine (L-BPA). Biodistribution data revealed tumor-selective accumulation of (10)B. Unlike conventional gamma-ray irradiation, BNCT significantly suppressed tumor growth without damaging normal tissues, suggesting that it may be a potential new therapeutic option to treat CCS lung metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling of a tubular membrane contactor for pre-combustion CO2 capture using ionic liquids: Influence of the membrane configuration, absorbent properties and operation parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongde Dai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A membrane contactor using ionic liquids (ILs as solvent for pre-combustion capture CO2 at elevated temperature (303–393 K and pressure (20 bar has been studied using mathematic model in the present work. A comprehensive two-dimensional (2D mass-transfer model was developed based on finite element method. The effects of liquid properties, membrane configurations, as well as operation parameters on the CO2 removal efficiency were systematically studied. The simulation results show that CO2 can be effectively removed in this process. In addition, it is found that the liquid phase mass transfer dominated the overall mass transfer. Membranes with high porosity and small thickness could apparently reduce the membrane resistance and thus increase the separation efficiency. On the other hand, the membrane diameter and membrane length have a relatively small influence on separation performance within the operation range. Keywords: CO2 capture, Pre-combustion, Membrane contactor, Ionic liquids, Modelling

  8. Capturing interactions between nitrogen and hydrological cycles under historical climate and land use: Susquehanna watershed analysis with the GFDL land model LM3-TAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, Paul C. D.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a process model LM3-TAN to assess the combined effects of direct human influences and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen (TAN) cycling. The model was developed by expanding NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land model LM3V-N of coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (C-N) cycling and including new N cycling processes and inputs such as a soil denitrification, point N sources to streams (i.e., sewage), and stream transport and microbial processes. Because the model integrates ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes, it captures key controls of the transport and fate of N in the vegetation–soil–river system in a comprehensive and consistent framework which is responsive to climatic variations and land-use changes. We applied the model at 1/8° resolution for a study of the Susquehanna River Basin. We simulated with LM3-TAN stream dissolved organic-N, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N loads throughout the river network, and we evaluated the modeled loads for 1986–2005 using data from 16 monitoring stations as well as a reported budget for the entire basin. By accounting for interannual hydrologic variability, the model was able to capture interannual variations of stream N loadings. While the model was calibrated with the stream N loads only at the last downstream Susquehanna River Basin Commission station Marietta (40°02' N, 76°32' W), it captured the N loads well at multiple locations within the basin with different climate regimes, land-use types, and associated N sources and transformations in the sub-basins. Furthermore, the calculated and previously reported N budgets agreed well at the level of the whole Susquehanna watershed. Here we illustrate how point and non-point N sources contributing to the various ecosystems are stored, lost, and exported via the river. Local analysis of six sub-basins showed combined effects of land use and climate on soil denitrification rates, with the highest rates in the

  9. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  10. Photon iso-effective dose for cancer treatment with mixed field radiation based on dose-response assessment from human and an animal model: clinical application to boron neutron capture therapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S J; Pozzi, E C C; Monti Hughes, A; Provenzano, L; Koivunoro, H; Carando, D G; Thorp, S I; Casal, M R; Bortolussi, S; Trivillin, V A; Garabalino, M A; Curotto, P; Heber, E M; Santa Cruz, G A; Kankaanranta, L; Joensuu, H; Schwint, A E

    2017-10-03

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a treatment modality that combines different radiation qualities. Since the severity of biological damage following irradiation depends on the radiation type, a quantity different from absorbed dose is required to explain the effects observed in the clinical BNCT in terms of outcome compared with conventional photon radiation therapy. A new approach for calculating photon iso-effective doses in BNCT was introduced previously. The present work extends this model to include information from dose-response assessments in animal models and humans. Parameters of the model were determined for tumour and precancerous tissue using dose-response curves obtained from BNCT and photon studies performed in the hamster cheek pouch in vivo models of oral cancer and/or pre-cancer, and from head and neck cancer radiotherapy data with photons. To this end, suitable expressions of the dose-limiting Normal Tissue Complication and Tumour Control Probabilities for the reference radiation and for the mixed field BNCT radiation were developed. Pearson's correlation coefficients and p-values showed that TCP and NTCP models agreed with experimental data (with r  >  0.87 and p-values  >0.57). The photon iso-effective dose model was applied retrospectively to evaluate the dosimetry in tumours and mucosa for head and neck cancer patients treated with BNCT in Finland. Photon iso-effective doses in tumour were lower than those obtained with the standard RBE-weighted model (between 10% to 45%). The results also suggested that the probabilities of tumour control derived from photon iso-effective doses are more adequate to explain the clinical responses than those obtained with the RBE-weighted values. The dosimetry in the mucosa revealed that the photon iso-effective doses were about 30% to 50% higher than the corresponding RBE-weighted values. While the RBE-weighted doses are unable to predict mucosa toxicity, predictions based on the proposed

  11. Photon iso-effective dose for cancer treatment with mixed field radiation based on dose-response assessment from human and an animal model: clinical application to boron neutron capture therapy for head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S. J.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Monti Hughes, A.; Provenzano, L.; Koivunoro, H.; Carando, D. G.; Thorp, S. I.; Casal, M. R.; Bortolussi, S.; Trivillin, V. A.; Garabalino, M. A.; Curotto, P.; Heber, E. M.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Kankaanranta, L.; Joensuu, H.; Schwint, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a treatment modality that combines different radiation qualities. Since the severity of biological damage following irradiation depends on the radiation type, a quantity different from absorbed dose is required to explain the effects observed in the clinical BNCT in terms of outcome compared with conventional photon radiation therapy. A new approach for calculating photon iso-effective doses in BNCT was introduced previously. The present work extends this model to include information from dose-response assessments in animal models and humans. Parameters of the model were determined for tumour and precancerous tissue using dose-response curves obtained from BNCT and photon studies performed in the hamster cheek pouch in vivo models of oral cancer and/or pre-cancer, and from head and neck cancer radiotherapy data with photons. To this end, suitable expressions of the dose-limiting Normal Tissue Complication and Tumour Control Probabilities for the reference radiation and for the mixed field BNCT radiation were developed. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and p-values showed that TCP and NTCP models agreed with experimental data (with r  >  0.87 and p-values  >0.57). The photon iso-effective dose model was applied retrospectively to evaluate the dosimetry in tumours and mucosa for head and neck cancer patients treated with BNCT in Finland. Photon iso-effective doses in tumour were lower than those obtained with the standard RBE-weighted model (between 10% to 45%). The results also suggested that the probabilities of tumour control derived from photon iso-effective doses are more adequate to explain the clinical responses than those obtained with the RBE-weighted values. The dosimetry in the mucosa revealed that the photon iso-effective doses were about 30% to 50% higher than the corresponding RBE-weighted values. While the RBE-weighted doses are unable to predict mucosa toxicity, predictions based on the proposed

  12. Radiative electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, J.A.; Appleton, B.R.; Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Neelavathi, V.N.; Noggle, T.S.; Ritchie, R.H.; VerBeek, H.

    1975-01-01

    Some data are presented for radiative electron capture by fast moving ions. The radiative electron capture spectrum is shown for O 8+ in Ag, along with the energy dependence of the capture cross-section. A discrepancy between earlier data, theoretical prediction, and the present data is pointed out. (3 figs) (U.S.)

  13. Capturing multi-stage fuzzy uncertainties in hybrid system dynamics and agent-based models for enhancing policy implementation in health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyong; Triantis, Konstantinos P; Zhao, Li; Wang, Youfa

    2018-01-01

    In practical research, it was found that most people made health-related decisions not based on numerical data but on perceptions. Examples include the perceptions and their corresponding linguistic values of health risks such as, smoking, syringe sharing, eating energy-dense food, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages etc. For the sake of understanding the mechanisms that affect the implementations of health-related interventions, we employ fuzzy variables to quantify linguistic variable in healthcare modeling where we employ an integrated system dynamics and agent-based model. In a nonlinear causal-driven simulation environment driven by feedback loops, we mathematically demonstrate how interventions at an aggregate level affect the dynamics of linguistic variables that are captured by fuzzy agents and how interactions among fuzzy agents, at the same time, affect the formation of different clusters(groups) that are targeted by specific interventions. In this paper, we provide an innovative framework to capture multi-stage fuzzy uncertainties manifested among interacting heterogeneous agents (individuals) and intervention decisions that affect homogeneous agents (groups of individuals) in a hybrid model that combines an agent-based simulation model (ABM) and a system dynamics models (SDM). Having built the platform to incorporate high-dimension data in a hybrid ABM/SDM model, this paper demonstrates how one can obtain the state variable behaviors in the SDM and the corresponding values of linguistic variables in the ABM. This research provides a way to incorporate high-dimension data in a hybrid ABM/SDM model. This research not only enriches the application of fuzzy set theory by capturing the dynamics of variables associated with interacting fuzzy agents that lead to aggregate behaviors but also informs implementation research by enabling the incorporation of linguistic variables at both individual and institutional levels, which makes unstructured linguistic data

  14. Gulf War Illnesses: DOD's Conclusions about U.S. Troops' Exposure Cannot Be Adequately Supported

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, Keith

    2004-01-01

    ... (MOD) conclusions about troops' exposure. The GAO found that DoD's and MOD's conclusions about troops' exposure to CW agents, based on DoD and CIA plume modeling, cannot be adequately supported...

  15. Prediction of heat capacity of amine solutions using artificial neural network and thermodynamic models for CO2 capture processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhamipour, Morteza; Mofarahi, Masoud; Borhani, Tohid Nejad Ghaffar; Zanganeh, Masoud

    2018-03-01

    In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) and thermodynamic models were developed for prediction of the heat capacity ( C P ) of amine-based solvents. For ANN model, independent variables such as concentration, temperature, molecular weight and CO2 loading of amine were selected as the inputs of the model. The significance of the input variables of the ANN model on the C P values was investigated statistically by analyzing of correlation matrix. A thermodynamic model based on the Redlich-Kister equation was used to correlate the excess molar heat capacity ({C}_P^E) data as function of temperature. In addition, the effects of temperature and CO2 loading at different concentrations of conventional amines on the C P values were investigated. Both models were validated against experimental data and very good results were obtained between two mentioned models and experimental data of C P collected from various literatures. The AARD between ANN model results and experimental data of C P for 47 systems of amine-based solvents studied was 4.3%. For conventional amines, the AARD for ANN model and thermodynamic model in comparison with experimental data were 0.59% and 0.57%, respectively. The results showed that both ANN and Redlich-Kister models can be used as a practical tool for simulation and designing of CO2 removal processes by using amine solutions.

  16. Capturing microscopic features of bone remodeling into a macroscopic model based on biological rationales of bone adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Kwan; Kameo, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Sakae; Adachi, Taiji

    2017-10-01

    To understand Wolff's law, bone adaptation by remodeling at the cellular and tissue levels has been discussed extensively through experimental and simulation studies. For the clinical application of a bone remodeling simulation, it is significant to establish a macroscopic model that incorporates clarified microscopic mechanisms. In this study, we proposed novel macroscopic models based on the microscopic mechanism of osteocytic mechanosensing, in which the flow of fluid in the lacuno-canalicular porosity generated by fluid pressure gradients plays an important role, and theoretically evaluated the proposed models, taking biological rationales of bone adaptation into account. The proposed models were categorized into two groups according to whether the remodeling equilibrium state was defined globally or locally, i.e., the global or local uniformity models. Each remodeling stimulus in the proposed models was quantitatively evaluated through image-based finite element analyses of a swine cancellous bone, according to two introduced criteria associated with the trabecular volume and orientation at remodeling equilibrium based on biological rationales. The evaluation suggested that nonuniformity of the mean stress gradient in the local uniformity model, one of the proposed stimuli, has high validity. Furthermore, the adaptive potential of each stimulus was discussed based on spatial distribution of a remodeling stimulus on the trabecular surface. The theoretical consideration of a remodeling stimulus based on biological rationales of bone adaptation would contribute to the establishment of a clinically applicable and reliable simulation model of bone remodeling.

  17. Long-term modelling of Carbon Capture and Storage, Nuclear Fusion, and large-scale District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Lüthje, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    before 2050. The modelling tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement ETSAP include both multi-regional global and long-term energy models till 2100, as well as national or regional models with shorter time horizons. Examples are the EFDA-TIMES model, focusing...... on nuclear fusion and the Pan European TIMES model, respectively. In the next decades CCS can be a driver for the development and expansion of large-scale district heating systems, which are currently widespread in Europe, Korea and China, and with large potentials in North America. If fusion will replace...... fossil fuel power plants with CCS in the second half of the century, the same infrastructure for heat distribution can be used which will support the penetration of both technologies. This paper will address the issue of infrastructure development and the use of CCS and fusion technologies using...

  18. Model independent spectroscopic information from an analysis of peripheral direct radiative capture reaction and its application for an extrapolation of an astrophysical S-factor to stellar energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igamov, S.B.; Tursunmuratov, T.M.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, within the framework of the cluster potential approach we develop a method which can be used an independent source of getting information on the value of the nuclear vertex constant (NVC) (or respective asymptotical normalization coefficient (ANC)) from the analysis of the direct radiative capture cross section σ(E)(or the astrophysical S-factor S(E)) at extremely low energies by a model independent way as possible. The main idea of the proposed method is that at stellar energies peripheral direct radiative capture reaction of astrophysical interest proceeds mainly through the tail of the overlap integral, which is completely determined by the binding energy and the respective ANC (or NVC). The main advantage of the proposed method is that it allows us to determine both the absolute value of NVC (or ANC) and the astrophysical S-factor S(E) at solar energies (0-50 keV) by means of the analysis of the same experimental astrophysical S-factor S exp (E) in a correct self consistent way using the same potential both for the bound state and for scattering state. The method has been applied for an investigation of the direct radiative capture t(α, γ) 7 Li and 3 He(α, γ) 7 Be reactions at extremely low energies. At first, this method was used for analysis of the S exp (E) to determine values of the modulus squared of the NVC's (or the respective ANC's). The values of NVC's are presented. Then, the obtained NVC's are used by us for extrapolation of the S(E) of the reactions considered to stellar energies (E=0-50 keV) for the 3 He(α, γ) 7 Be reaction and for the t(α, γ) 7 Li reaction. The obtained results are compared with those other authors

  19. Evaluating the capability of regional-scale air quality models to capture the vertical distribution of pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Solazzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted in the framework of the Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII and aims at the operational evaluation of an ensemble of 12 regional-scale chemical transport models used to predict air quality over the North American (NA and European (EU continents for 2006. The modelled concentrations of ozone and CO, along with the meteorological fields of wind speed (WS and direction (WD, temperature (T, and relative humidity (RH, are compared against high-quality in-flight measurements collected by instrumented commercial aircraft as part of the Measurements of OZone, water vapour, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides by Airbus In-service airCraft (MOZAIC programme. The evaluation is carried out for five model domains positioned around four major airports in NA (Portland, Philadelphia, Atlanta, and Dallas and one in Europe (Frankfurt, from the surface to 8.5 km. We compare mean vertical profiles of modelled and measured variables for all airports to compute error and variability statistics, perform analysis of altitudinal error correlation, and examine the seasonal error distribution for ozone, including an estimation of the bias introduced by the lateral boundary conditions (BCs. The results indicate that model performance is highly dependent on the variable, location, season, and height (e.g. surface, planetary boundary layer (PBL or free troposphere being analysed. While model performance for T is satisfactory at all sites (correlation coefficient in excess of 0.90 and fractional bias ≤ 0.01 K, WS is not replicated as well within the PBL (exhibiting a positive bias in the first 100 m and also underestimating observed variability, while above 1000 m, the model performance improves (correlation coefficient often above 0.9. The WD at NA airports is found to be biased in the PBL, primarily due to an overestimation of westerly winds. RH is modelled well within the PBL, but in the free troposphere large

  20. Sulfation diffusion model for SO{sub 2} capture on the T-T sorbent at moderate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.R.; Yang, L.Z.; You, C.F.; Qi, H.Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    A sulfation model was developed for dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at moderate temperatures to describe the reaction characteristics of the T-T sorbent clusters and the fine CaO particles that fall off the sorbent grains in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor. The cluster model describes the calcium conversion and reaction rate for various size sorbent clusters. The sulfation reaction is first order with respect to the SO{sub 2} concentration above 973 K. The calcium conversion and reaction rate for the CaO particles were obtained by extrapolation. In the model for CaO particle, the reaction rate is linearly related to the calcium conversion and the SO{sub 2} concentration in the rapid reaction stage and linearly related only with the calcium conversion after the product layer forms. The sulfation model accurately describes the sulfation of the T-T sorbent flowing through a CFB reactor.

  1. Capturing the role of awareness and information search processes on Choice Set Formation in Models of Activity-Travel Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals choose locations for conducting specific activities generally under limited information conditions and update their mental map during traveling and implementing activities. In an earlier study, we proposed a Bayesian belief network to model an individual's mental map and spatial

  2. A Parallel, Multi-Scale Watershed-Hydrologic-Inundation Model with Adaptively Switching Mesh for Capturing Flooding and Lake Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, X.; Shen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Flood inundation presents substantial societal hazards and also changes biogeochemistry for systems like the Amazon. It is often expensive to simulate high-resolution flood inundation and propagation in a long-term watershed-scale model. Due to the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction, high resolution and large local flow velocity both demand prohibitively small time steps even for parallel codes. Here we develop a parallel surface-subsurface process-based model enhanced by multi-resolution meshes that are adaptively switched on or off. The high-resolution overland flow meshes are enabled only when the flood wave invades to floodplains. This model applies semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian (SISL) scheme in solving dynamic wave equations, and with the assistant of the multi-mesh method, it also adaptively chooses the dynamic wave equation only in the area of deep inundation. Therefore, the model achieves a balance between accuracy and computational cost.

  3. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the required...

  4. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if an...

  5. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for NMVC...

  6. The attention-weighted sample-size model of visual short-term memory: Attention capture predicts resource allocation and memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip L; Lilburn, Simon D; Corbett, Elaine A; Sewell, David K; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) in a phase discrimination task that required judgments about the configural relations between pairs of black and white features. Sewell et al. (2014) previously showed that VSTM capacity in an orientation discrimination task was well described by a sample-size model, which views VSTM as a resource comprised of a finite number of noisy stimulus samples. The model predicts the invariance of [Formula: see text] , the sum of squared sensitivities across items, for displays of different sizes. For phase discrimination, the set-size effect significantly exceeded that predicted by the sample-size model for both simultaneously and sequentially presented stimuli. Instead, the set-size effect and the serial position curves with sequential presentation were predicted by an attention-weighted version of the sample-size model, which assumes that one of the items in the display captures attention and receives a disproportionate share of resources. The choice probabilities and response time distributions from the task were well described by a diffusion decision model in which the drift rates embodied the assumptions of the attention-weighted sample-size model. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining inferences from models of capture efficiency, detectability, and suitable habitat to classify landscapes for conservation of threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J.; Dunham, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Effective conservation efforts for at-risk species require knowledge of the locations of existing populations. Species presence can be estimated directly by conducting field-sampling surveys or alternatively by developing predictive models. Direct surveys can be expensive and inefficient, particularly for rare and difficult-to-sample species, and models of species presence may produce biased predictions. We present a Bayesian approach that combines sampling and model-based inferences for estimating species presence. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this approach were compared to those of sampling surveys and predictive models for estimating the presence of the threatened bull trout ( Salvelinus confluentus ) via simulation with existing models and empirical sampling data. Simulations indicated that a sampling-only approach would be the most effective and would result in the lowest presence and absence misclassification error rates for three thresholds of detection probability. When sampling effort was considered, however, the combined approach resulted in the lowest error rates per unit of sampling effort. Hence, lower probability-of-detection thresholds can be specified with the combined approach, resulting in lower misclassification error rates and improved cost-effectiveness.

  8. Hydroxyapatite clay for gap filling and adequate bone ingrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, M; Terayama, K; Ito, M; Takei, T; Kitagawa, E

    1995-03-01

    In uncemented total hip arthroplasty, a complete filling of the gap between femoral prosthesis and the host bone is difficult and defects would remain, because the anatomy of the reamed intramedullary canal cannot fit the prosthesis. Therefore, it seems practical to fill the gap with a clay containing hydroxyapatite (HA), which has an osteoconductive character. The clay (HA clay) is made by mixing HA granules (size 0.1 mm or more) having a homogeneous pore distribution and a porosity of 35-48 vol%, and a viscous substance such as a saline solution of sodium alginate (SSSA). In the first experiment, the ratio of HA granules and sodium alginate in SSSA is set for the same handling properties of HA clay and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (standard viscosity) before hardening. As a result, the ratio is set for 55 wt% of HA in the clay and 12.5 wt% of sodium alginate in SSSA (i.e., HA:sodium alginate:saline solution = 9.8:1:7). In the second study, the gap between the femoral stem and bone model is completely filled with HA clay. However, the gap is not filled only with HA granules or HA granules mixed with saline solution. In the third animal experiment, using an unloaded model, histology shows that HA clay has an osteoconductive property bridging the gap between the implant and the cortical bone without any adverse reaction. HA clay is considered a useful biomaterial to fill the gap with adequate bone ingrowth.

  9. Capturing the response of Clostridium acetobutylicum to chemical stressors using a regulated genome-scale metabolic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Satyakam; Mueller, Thomas J.; Venkataramanan, Keerthi P.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridia are anaerobic Gram-positive Firmicutes containing broad and flexible systems for substrate utilization, which have been used successfully to produce a range of industrial compounds. Clostridium acetobutylicum has been used to produce butanol on an industrial scale through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. A genome-scale metabolic (GSM) model is a powerful tool for understanding the metabolic capacities of an organism and developing metabolic engineering strategies for strain development. The integration of stress related specific transcriptomics information with the GSM model provides opportunities for elucidating the focal points of regulation

  10. Identification of plant configurations maximizing radiation capture in relay strip cotton using a functional-structural plant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Lili; Zhang, Lizhen; Evers, J.B.; Henke, M.; Werf, van der W.; Liu, Shaodong; Zhang, Siping; Zhao, Xinhua; Wang, Baomin; Li, Zhaohu

    2016-01-01

    One of the key decisions in crop production is the choice of row distance and plant density. The choice of these planting pattern parameters is especially challenging in heterogeneous systems, such as systems containing alternating strips. Here we use functional-structural plant modelling to

  11. Capturing intracellular pH dynamics by coupling its molecular mechanisms within a fully tractable mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Bouret

    Full Text Available We describe the construction of a fully tractable mathematical model for intracellular pH. This work is based on coupling the kinetic equations depicting the molecular mechanisms for pumps, transporters and chemical reactions, which determine this parameter in eukaryotic cells. Thus, our system also calculates the membrane potential and the cytosolic ionic composition. Such a model required the development of a novel algebraic method that couples differential equations for slow relaxation processes to steady-state equations for fast chemical reactions. Compared to classical heuristic approaches based on fitted curves and ad hoc constants, this yields significant improvements. This model is mathematically self-consistent and allows for the first time to establish analytical solutions for steady-state pH and a reduced differential equation for pH regulation. Because of its modular structure, it can integrate any additional mechanism that will directly or indirectly affect pH. In addition, it provides mathematical clarifications for widely observed biological phenomena such as overshooting in regulatory loops. Finally, instead of including a limited set of experimental results to fit our model, we show examples of numerical calculations that are extremely consistent with the wide body of intracellular pH experimental measurements gathered by different groups in many different cellular systems.

  12. Automated pattern analysis in gesture research : similarity measuring in 3D motion capture models of communicative action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schueller, D.; Beecks, C.; Hassani, M.; Hinnell, J.; Brenger, B.; Seidl, T.; Mittelberg, I.

    2017-01-01

    The question of how to model similarity between gestures plays an important role in current studies in the domain of human communication. Most research into recurrent patterns in co-verbal gestures – manual communicative movements emerging spontaneously during conversation – is driven by qualitative

  13. Improving uncertainty evaluation of process models by using pedigree analysis. A case study on CO2 capture with monoethanolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Mijndert; Ramirez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to improve uncertainty evaluation of process models by combining a quantitative uncertainty evaluation method (data validation) with a qualitative uncertainty evaluation method (pedigree analysis). The approach is tested on a case study of monoethanolamine based postcombustion CO2

  14. A general enhancement factor model for absorption and desorption systems: A CO2 capture case-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2015-01-01

    kinetics and applied for the CO2-MEA-H2O second order reversible system. The results show that the GM predicts the two-film theory within 2% accuracy and the surface renewal model within 10% accuracy, both at absorber and desorber conditions and for high driving force and pinch conditions. GM is compared...

  15. A machine learning model to determine the accuracy of variant calls in capture-based next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Jeroen; Mishne, Gilad; Zimmer, Anjali D; Zhou, Alicia Y

    2018-04-17

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has become a common technology for clinical genetic tests. The quality of NGS calls varies widely and is influenced by features like reference sequence characteristics, read depth, and mapping accuracy. With recent advances in NGS technology and software tools, the majority of variants called using NGS alone are in fact accurate and reliable. However, a small subset of difficult-to-call variants that still do require orthogonal confirmation exist. For this reason, many clinical laboratories confirm NGS results using orthogonal technologies such as Sanger sequencing. Here, we report the development of a deterministic machine-learning-based model to differentiate between these two types of variant calls: those that do not require confirmation using an orthogonal technology (high confidence), and those that require additional quality testing (low confidence). This approach allows reliable NGS-based calling in a clinical setting by identifying the few important variant calls that require orthogonal confirmation. We developed and tested the model using a set of 7179 variants identified by a targeted NGS panel and re-tested by Sanger sequencing. The model incorporated several signals of sequence characteristics and call quality to determine if a variant was identified at high or low confidence. The model was tuned to eliminate false positives, defined as variants that were called by NGS but not confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The model achieved very high accuracy: 99.4% (95% confidence interval: +/- 0.03%). It categorized 92.2% (6622/7179) of the variants as high confidence, and 100% of these were confirmed to be present by Sanger sequencing. Among the variants that were categorized as low confidence, defined as NGS calls of low quality that are likely to be artifacts, 92.1% (513/557) were found to be not present by Sanger sequencing. This work shows that NGS data contains sufficient characteristics for a machine-learning-based model to

  16. Stimulus-driven capture and contingent capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Belopolsky, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    Whether or not certain physical events can capture attention has been one of the most debated issues in the study of attention. This discussion is concerned with how goal-directed and stimulus-driven processes interact in perception and cognition. On one extreme of the spectrum is the idea that

  17. 2D Petroleum System Modeling in Support of Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage in the Northeast Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragg, E.; Van Wijk, J. W.; Balch, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    A 40 mile long 2D petroleum system model has been constructed and simulated along a 2D reflection seismic line in the western Anadarko Basin. Petroleum system models are useful for predicting carbon storage capacity, characterizing regional CO2 plume migration risks, predicting how future fields may respond to CO2-EOR via hydrocarbon compositional estimations and characterizing the petroleum system that make sites attractive for storage. This work is part of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase III large scale injection operation at Farnsworth Unit Ochiltree Co., Texas. Farnsworth Unit is a mature oil field producing from Morrowan Sandstone incised valley deposits. The project goal is to evaluate the injection and storage of 1 million metric tons of man-made CO2. Geologic carbon storage and utilization via CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations is a method under active research which aims to mitigate climate change via emission reductions while meeting current energy demands. The 2D model was constructed using 2D regional reflection seismic data, geophysical logs and core data. Simulations are forward modeled over 542 Ma of the Anadarko Basins geologic history. The research illustrates (1) in the unlikely case of CO2 leakage out of the reservoir, buoyancy driven regional migration risk is to the northwest-northeast (2) Morrowan play hydrocarbons in the Northeast Texas Panhandle dominantly migrated from the Thirteen Finger Limestone further basinward (3) the regions tectonic evolution has played an important role on the pressure and hydraulic history of reservoirs. Farnsworth's reservoir was discovered as under-pressured, the exact process(s) giving rise to this condition are not well-understood and need further investigation. Moreover, the heat flow model used in this study will aid understanding of the diagenetic evolution of the reservoir and caprocks better. The petroleum system modeling conducted here has accurately predicted 1st order

  18. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model capturing the time course of torasemide-induced diuresis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, A; Schneider, M; Dron, F; Woehrlé, F

    2016-12-01

    A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling approach was used to determine a dosage regimen which maximizes diuretic efficiency of torasemide in dogs. Kinetic profiles of plasma concentration, torasemide excretion rate in urine (TERU) and diuresis were investigated in 10 dogs after single oral administrations at 3 dose levels, 0.2, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/kg, and an intravenous injection of 0.2 mg/kg. Endogenous regulation was evidenced by a proteresis loop between TERU and diuresis. To describe the diuresis-time profile, TERU served as input into a turnover model with inhibition of loss of response, extended by a moderator acting on both loss and production of response. Estimated maximum inhibition of loss of response, I max , was 0.984 showing that torasemide is an efficacious diuretic able to suppress almost total water reabsorption. A TERU 50, value producing half of I max , of 1.45 μg/kg/h was estimated from the model. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were used to simulate the torasemide dose-effect relationship after oral administration. Model predictions were in good agreement with diuresis measured in a validation study conducted in 10 dogs, which were administered oral doses of 0.15, 0.4, 0.75, 1.5 and 4.5 mg/kg for 5 days. Finally, oral dose associated with the highest daily diuretic efficiency was predicted to be 0.1 mg/kg. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. CHAOTIC CAPTURE OF NEPTUNE TROJANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David

    2009-01-01

    Neptune Trojans (NTs) are swarms of outer solar system objects that lead/trail planet Neptune during its revolutions around the Sun. Observations indicate that NTs form a thick cloud of objects with a population perhaps ∼10 times more numerous than that of Jupiter Trojans and orbital inclinations reaching ∼25 deg. The high inclinations of NTs are indicative of capture instead of in situ formation. Here we study a model in which NTs were captured by Neptune during planetary migration when secondary resonances associated with the mean-motion commensurabilities between Uranus and Neptune swept over Neptune's Lagrangian points. This process, known as chaotic capture, is similar to that previously proposed to explain the origin of Jupiter's Trojans. We show that chaotic capture of planetesimals from an ∼35 Earth-mass planetesimal disk can produce a population of NTs that is at least comparable in number to that inferred from current observations. The large orbital inclinations of NTs are a natural outcome of chaotic capture. To obtain the ∼4:1 ratio between high- and low-inclination populations suggested by observations, planetary migration into a dynamically excited planetesimal disk may be required. The required stirring could have been induced by Pluto-sized and larger objects that have formed in the disk.

  20. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  1. Development of the new Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) in capturing the past season’s major rain events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Park

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available , E. 2003. Atmospheric Modelling, Data Assimilation and Predictability. new york city: cambridge university press. • Park, Y-Y., Buizza, R. and Leutbecher, M. 2008. TtIGGE: Preliminary Results on comparing and combining ensembles. Q. J... stream_source_info Park_2010_P.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7219 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Park_2010_P.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 K-8106 [www.kashan.co.za] Development...

  2. Capturing poromechanical coupling effects of the reactive fracturing process in porous rock via a DEM-network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, Ole Ivar; Sun, WaiChing

    2016-04-01

    Fluid transport in a porous medium has important implications for understanding natural geological processes. At a sufficiently large scale, a fluid-saturated porous medium can be regarded as a two-phase continuum, with the fluid constituent flowing in the Darcian regime. Nevertheless, a fluid mediated chemical reaction can in some cases change the permeability of the rock locally: Mineral dissolution can cause increased permeability, whereas mineral precipitation can reduce the permeability. This might trigger a complicated hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling effect that causes channeling of fluids or clogging of the system. If the fluid is injected or produced at a sufficiently high rate, the pressure might increase enough to cause the onset and propagation of fractures. Fractures in return create preferential flow paths that enhance permeability, localize fluid flow and chemical reaction, prevent build-up of pore pressure and cause anisotropy of the hydro-mechanical responses of the effective medium. This leads to a complex coupled process of solid deformation, chemical reaction and fluid transport enhanced by the fracture formation. In this work, we develop a new coupled numerical model to study the complexities of feedback among fluid pressure evolution, fracture formation and permeability changes due to a chemical process in a 2D system. We combine a discrete element model (DEM) previously used to study a volume expanding process[1, 2] with a new fluid transport model based on poroelasticity[3] and a fluid-mediated chemical reaction that changes the permeability of the medium. This provides new insights into the hydro-chemo-mechanical process of a transforming porous medium. References [1] Ulven, O. I., Storheim, H., Austrheim, H., and Malthe-Sørenssen, A. "Fracture Initiation During Volume Increasing Reactions in Rocks and Applications for CO2 Sequestration", Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 389C, 2014a, pp. 132 - 142, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2013.12.039. [2] Ulven, O. I

  3. MODELLING OF AN INEXPENSIVE 9M SATELLITE DISH FROM 3D POINT CLOUDS CAPTURED BY TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Belton

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS to model the surface of satellite dish. In this case, the dish was an inexpensive 9m parabolic satellite dish with a mesh surface, and was to be utilised in radio astronomy. The aim of the modelling process was to determine the deviation of the surface away from its true parabolic shape, in order to estimate the surface efficiency with respect to its principal receiving frequency. The main mathematical problems were the optimal and unbiased estimation the orientation of the dish and the fitting of a parabola to the local orientation or coordinate system, which were done by both orthogonal and algebraic minimization using the least-squares method. Due to the mesh structure of the dish, a classification method was also applied to filter out erroneous points being influenced by the supporting structure behind the dish. Finally, a comparison is performed between the ideal parabolic shape, and the data collected from three different temporal intervals.

  4. Capturing both the cognitive and emotional features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in rats: An updated animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBerardi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The new-released Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 defines post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD as a trauma and stressor-related disorder. PTSD pathogenesis relies on paradoxical changes of emotional memory processing induced by the trauma exposure and associated with emotional dysfunction. Several animal models of PTSD have been validated and are currently used. Each one mimics a particular subset of the disorder with particular emphasis, mainly driven by the past classification of PTSD in the DSM-4, on the emotional features. In view of the recent update in the DSM-5, our aim was to develop, by using well-validated paradigms, a modified model of PTSD able to mimic at the same time both the cognitive and emotional features of the disease. We exposed male rats to either a piece of worn cat collar or to a series of inescapable footshocks paired with a PTSD risk factor, i.e. social isolation. Animals were subsequently re-exposed to the conditioned contexts at different time intervals in order to test memory retention for the stressors. In addition, footshock-exposed rats were tested in the elevated-plus-maze and social interaction tests. We found that rats exposed to a cat collar exhibited an acute fear response that did not lead to enduring memory retention. Conversely, footshock-exposed rats expressed a successful retention of the stressful experience at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 56 post-exposure days. Footshock-exposed rats displayed an anxious behavioral profile in the social interaction test and a significantly reduced locomotor activity in the elevated-plus-maze test. These dysfunctions were not observed when animals were socially housed, thus highlighting a social buffer effect in the development of the pathology. Our results underline the good validity of a footshock-based paradigm paired with social isolation as a PTSD animal model, able to mimic at the same time both some of the enduring cognitive and emotional facets

  5. A stochastic model simulating the capture of pathogenic micro-organisms by superparamagnetic particles in an isodynamic magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotariu, O; Strachan, N J C; Badescu, V

    2004-01-01

    The method of immunomagnetic separation (IMS) has become an established technique to concentrate and separate animal cells, biologically active compounds and pathogenic micro-organisms from clinical, food and environmental matrices. One drawback of this technique is that the analysis is only possible for small sample volumes. We have developed a stochastic model that involves numerical simulations to optimize the process of concentration of pathogenic micro-organisms onto superparamagnetic carrier particles (SCPs) in a gradient magnetic field. Within the range of the system parameters varied in the simulations, optimal conditions favour larger particles with higher magnetite concentrations. The dependence on magnetic field intensity and gradient together with concentration of particles and micro-organisms was found to be less important for larger SCPs but these parameters can influence the values of the collision time for small particles. These results will be useful in aiding the design of apparatus for immunomagnetic separation from large volume samples

  6. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  7. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  8. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-02-15

    Feb 15, 2011 ... of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. ... plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but ...... governance in their business practices, to provide a tool for a.

  9. Region 6: Texas Austin Adequate Letter (11/23/2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA letter approves the Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets contained in the latest revision to Dallas/Fort Worth 2008 8-hour Ozone State Implementation Plan, finding them adequate for transportation conformity purposes to be announced in the Federal Register.

  10. The Effectiveness of Clinician Education on the Adequate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information to make their input in the patient's management.[1]. Some errors in ... to insufficient, and/or illegible clinical information provided ... Adequate Completion of Laboratory Test Request. Forms at a ..... the system prior to the posttest.

  11. Roughing in Human Replumbing of the Water Cycle: Challenges, Opportunities, and Progress in Capturing the Influence of Water Management in Regional Models of Hydrology and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A. N.; Kaiser, K. E.; Steimke, A.; Leonard, A.; FitzGerald, K.; Benner, S. G.; Vache, K. B.; Hillis, V.; Bolte, J.; Han, B.

    2017-12-01

    Humans exert tremendous influence on the redistribution of water in space and time. Humans have developed substantial infrastructure to provide water in adequate quantity and quality for production of food and energy, while seeking to maintain landscape processes and properties giving rise to ecosystem services on which humans rely (even when and if they are not well understood). Cyber-physical infrastructure includes dams, distributary canal networks, ditches to manage return flow, and networks of sensors to monitor environmental conditions. Social infrastructure includes legal frameworks for water rights, governance networks, and land management policies aimed at maintaining water quality. Changes in regional climate, land use and its intensity, and land cover in source areas exert pressures on this infrastructure, requiring models to characterize system-wide vulnerability and resilience. Here we present a synthesis of several ongoing and completed studies aimed at advancing our fundamental understanding of and ability to numerically model a system in which biophysical and human components cannot be separated. These studies are set within the Boise and Snake River Basin in the US Pacific Northwest and are organized around the aims of: (1) developing improved understanding and models of the ways that humans interact with each other and with biophysical processes at a range of spatiotemporal scales, and (2) using those models to predict how changes in climate and societal drivers, including in-migration and shifts in agricultural practices, will impact regional hydroclimate and associated ecosystem services. Key findings indicate differential pressures on water availability based on water rights seniority within the Lower Boise River basin under historical conditions, the potential for significantly earlier curtailment of water rights in future decades, and potential changes in agricultural practices in anticipation of future climate changes. This ongoing suite of

  12. Bayesian Modeling of Prion Disease Dynamics in Mule Deer Using Population Monitoring and Capture-Recapture Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Geremia

    Full Text Available Epidemics of chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American Cervidae have potential to harm ecosystems and economies. We studied a migratory population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus affected by CWD for at least three decades using a Bayesian framework to integrate matrix population and disease models with long-term monitoring data and detailed process-level studies. We hypothesized CWD prevalence would be stable or increase between two observation periods during the late 1990s and after 2010, with higher CWD prevalence making deer population decline more likely. The weight of evidence suggested a reduction in the CWD outbreak over time, perhaps in response to intervening harvest-mediated population reductions. Disease effects on deer population growth under current conditions were subtle with a 72% chance that CWD depressed population growth. With CWD, we forecasted a growth rate near one and largely stable deer population. Disease effects appear to be moderated by timing of infection, prolonged disease course, and locally variable infection. Long-term outcomes will depend heavily on whether current conditions hold and high prevalence remains a localized phenomenon.

  13. A Participatory Modeling Process to Capture Indigenous Ways of Adaptability to Uncertainty: Outputs From an Experiment in West African Drylands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick d'Aquino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, local communities have shaped atypical rules to deal with the uncertainty of their environment. They have developed complex prototypes for flexible overlapping institutions and arrangements to adapt their rules and uses to their uncertain environment. Today, this indigenous way of flexibly institutionalizing access rules could provide blueprints for dealing with uncertainty issues resulting from global change as well as designing practical guidelines for implementing resilient management. However, transforming indigenous skills for developing institutional flexibility into operational management rules that are appropriate in the current environmental and socioeconomic context is a huge challenge. However, communities could easily succeed in this reframing because the structuring principles of institutional flexibility are embedded in their mind frame. In this perspective, a participatory modeling process was applied in Senegal to explore, first, how to design a methodological platform to enable local people to shape different forms of environmental management and policies they consider appropriate in the new context of environmental uncertainty by drawing on their own attitudes to environmental management. Second, to increase the value of such "self-designed" outputs in improving knowledge about, and improving, the practical management of uncertainty, especially in drylands.

  14. CO2 Capture Dynamic and Steady-State Model Development, Optimization and Control: Applied to Piperazine and Enzyme Promoted MEA/MDEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef

    the market in the coming decades. However, the growing focus on mitigation of anthropogenic CO2 requires integration of fossil-fuel fired power plant with CO2 capture units. Post-combustion capture is the most mature capture technology and it is suitable for various processes in power plants, steel industry......, cement production, and bio-chemical industry. However, to make CO2 capture economically attractive, design of innovative solvents, optimization of operation conditions/process configuration and operational flexibility are of crucial importance. This thesis aims to contribute to the development...

  15. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Optional carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, T.; Scott, S.; Griffiths, J. [Jacobs Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In the case of IGCC power plants, carbon capture can be carried out before combustion. The carbon monoxide in the syngas is catalytically shifted to carbon dioxide and then captured in a standard gas absorption system. However, the insertion of a shift converter into an existing IGCC plant with no shift would mean a near total rebuild of the gasification waste heat recovery, gas treatment system and HRSG, with only the gasifier and gas turbine retaining most of their original features. To reduce the extent, cost and time taken for the revamping, the original plant could incorporate the shift, and the plant would then be operated without capture to advantage, and converted to capture mode of operation when commercially appropriate. This paper examines this concept of placing a shift converter into an IGCC plant before capture is required, and operating the same plant first without and then later with CO{sub 2} capture in a European context. The advantages and disadvantages of this 'capture ready' option are discussed. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Atomic capture of negative mesons in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1979-01-01

    After a brief description of the present state of theoretical understanding of atomic capture of negative mesons, a very simple model calculation of negative muon capture by the simplest atoms, hydrogen is described. Also the possibility of generalizing these results to more complicated atoms and even molecules is noted. 15 references

  18. Total chain dynamical assessment with an integrated model of a Post Combustion Capture Plant at a Pulverized Coal Plant and CO2 downstream infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kler, R.C.F. de; Haar, A.M. van de

    2013-01-01

    The application of Post Combustion Capture has a significant advantage for mitigating the anthropogenic greenhouse gases in our atmosphere, in comparison to other capture technologies, since it is a so called “End of the Pipe” retrofit and therefore potentially applicable to existing power plants.

  19. Characterization of limestone reactivity with SO{sub 2} and sulfur capture modelling under fluidized bed combustion conditions; Bestaemning av kalkstensreaktivitet med avseende paa SO{sub 2} och modellering av avsvavling foer foerbraenning i fluidiserad baedd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattisson, T. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Lyngfelt, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    1996-12-01

    During combustion of fossil fuels, SO{sub 2} is released to the atmosphere. Because of environmental concern with acid rain, the capture of SO{sub 2} is a very important process. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a combustion method where limestone may be added to the furnace chamber to capture SO{sub 2} as the stable product CaSO{sub 4}. In the present work a relatively simple laboratory method has been developed for characterizing limestone reactivity with SO{sub 2}. The reactivity data from such investigations are used, together with residence time and particle size distribution, in a sulfur capture model for fluidized bed boilers that predicts the sulfur capture as a function of the Ca/S molar ratio. In addition, the model predicts the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} for all particle sizes present in a boiler. The model was developed and verified using data from two boilers, a 12 and a 40 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler, and showed reasonable agreement for both boilers. In addition to the development of a sulfur capture model, the effects of SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations, particle size, temperature variations, and reducing conditions on the sulfation reaction was studied using a fixed-bed quartz reactor. The sulfation reaction was also studied for long periods of time, up to 60 hours. This was done because of the long residence times of certain particle sizes that may exist in a fluidized bed boiler. From the parameter study it was found that particle size and variations between oxidizing and reducing conditions had a large effect on the sulfation behaviour. The investigation of long sulfation times showed that the reaction continued even at high degrees of conversion, although at a very slow rate. CO{sub 2} concentration had a moderate effect on the sulfation reaction while temperature variations showed no effect on the final conversion between CaO and CaSO{sub 4}. 29 refs, 25 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Estimating reach-specific fish movement probabilities in rivers with a Bayesian state-space model: application to sea lamprey passage and capture at dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan P.; Twohey, Michael B.; Binder, Thomas R.; Krueger, Charles C.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods are needed to evaluate barriers and traps for control and assessment of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. A Bayesian state-space model provided reach-specific probabilities of movement, including trap capture and dam passage, for 148 acoustic tagged invasive sea lamprey in the lower Cheboygan River, Michigan, a tributary to Lake Huron. Reach-specific movement probabilities were combined to obtain estimates of spatial distribution and abundance needed to evaluate a barrier and trap complex for sea lamprey control and assessment. Of an estimated 21 828 – 29 300 adult sea lampreys in the river, 0%–2%, or 0–514 untagged lampreys, could have passed upstream of the dam, and 46%–61% were caught in the trap. Although no tagged lampreys passed above the dam (0/148), our sample size was not sufficient to consider the lock and dam a complete barrier to sea lamprey. Results also showed that existing traps are in good locations because 83%–96% of the population was vulnerable to existing traps. However, only 52%–69% of lampreys vulnerable to traps were caught, suggesting that traps can be improved. The approach used in this study was a novel use of Bayesian state-space models that may have broader applications, including evaluation of barriers for other invasive species (e.g., Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)) and fish passage structures for other diadromous fishes.

  1. Development and evaluation of GRAL-C dispersion model, a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian approach capturing NO-NO 2-O 3 chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettl, Dietmar; Uhrner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    Based on two recent publications using Lagrangian dispersion models to simulate NO-NO 2-O 3 chemistry for industrial plumes, a similar modified approach was implemented using GRAL-C ( Graz Lagrangian Model with Chemistry) and tested on two urban applications. In the hybrid dispersion model GRAL-C, the transport and turbulent diffusion of primary species such as NO and NO 2 are treated in a Lagrangian framework while those of O 3 are treated in an Eulerian framework. GRAL-C was employed on a one year street canyon simulation in Berlin and on a four-day simulation during a winter season in Graz, the second biggest city in Austria. In contrast to Middleton D.R., Jones A.R., Redington A.L., Thomson D.J., Sokhi R.S., Luhana L., Fisher B.E.A. (2008. Lagrangian modelling of plume chemistry for secondary pollutants in large industrial plumes. Atmospheric Environment 42, 415-427) and Alessandrini S., Ferrero E. (2008. A Lagrangian model with chemical reactions: application in real atmosphere. Proceedings of the 12th Int. Conf. on Harmonization within atmospheric dispersion modelling for regulatory purposes. Croatian Meteorological Journal, 43, ISSN: 1330-0083, 235-239) the treatment of ozone was modified in order to facilitate urban scale simulations encompassing dense road networks. For the street canyon application, modelled daily mean NO x/NO 2 concentrations deviated by +0.4%/-15% from observations, while the correlations for NO x and NO 2 were 0.67 and 0.76 respectively. NO 2 concentrations were underestimated in summer, but were captured well for other seasons. In Graz a fair agreement for NO x and NO 2 was obtained between observed and modelled values for NO x and NO 2. Simulated diurnal cycles of NO 2 and O 3 matched observations reasonably well, although O 3 was underestimated during the day. A possible explanation here might lie in the non-consideration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) chemistry.

  2. PHOBOS AS A D-TYPE CAPTURED ASTEROID, SPECTRAL MODELING FROM 0.25 TO 4.0 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajola, M.; Magrin, S.; Bertini, I.; Barbieri, C. [Center of Studies and Activities for Space, CISAS, ' G. Colombo' , University of Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lazzarin, M.; La Forgia, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Dalle Ore, C. M. [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Cruikshank, D. P.; Roush, T. L., E-mail: maurizio.pajola@studenti.unipd.it, E-mail: maurizio.pajola@gmail.com, E-mail: Maurizio.Pajola@jpl.nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    This paper describes the spectral modeling of the surface of Phobos in the wavelength range between 0.25 and 4.0 μm. We use complementary data to cover this spectral range: the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System on board the ESA Rosetta spacecraft) reflectance spectrum that Pajola et al. merged with the VSK-KRFM-ISM (Videospectrometric Camera (VSK)-Combined Radiometer and Photometer for Mars (KRFM)-Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (ISM) on board the USSR Phobos 2 spacecraft) spectra by Murchie and Erard and the IRTF (NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Hawaii, USA) spectra published by Rivkin et al. The OSIRIS data allow the characterization of an area of Phobos covering from 86.°8 N to 90° S in latitude and from 126° W to 286° W in longitude. This corresponds chiefly to the trailing hemisphere, but with a small sampling of the leading hemisphere as well. We compared the OSIRIS results with the Trojan D-type asteroid 624 Hektor and show that the overall slope and curvature of the two bodies over the common wavelength range are very similar. This favors Phobos being a captured D-type asteroid as previously suggested. We modeled the OSIRIS data using two models, the first one with a composition that includes organic carbonaceous material, serpentine, olivine, and basalt glass, and the second one consisting of Tagish Lake meteorite and magnesium-rich pyroxene glass. The results of these models were extended to longer wavelengths to compare the VSK-KRFM-ISM and IRTF data. The overall shape of the second model spectrum between 0.25 and 4.0 μm shows curvature and an albedo level that match both the OSIRIS and Murchie and Erard data and the Rivkin et al. data much better than the first model. The large interval fit is encouraging and adds weight to this model, making it our most promising fit for Phobos. Since Tagish Lake is commonly used as a spectral analog for D-type asteroids, this provides additional support for compositional

  3. PHOBOS AS A D-TYPE CAPTURED ASTEROID, SPECTRAL MODELING FROM 0.25 TO 4.0 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajola, M.; Magrin, S.; Bertini, I.; Barbieri, C.; Lazzarin, M.; La Forgia, F.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Roush, T. L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the spectral modeling of the surface of Phobos in the wavelength range between 0.25 and 4.0 μm. We use complementary data to cover this spectral range: the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System on board the ESA Rosetta spacecraft) reflectance spectrum that Pajola et al. merged with the VSK-KRFM-ISM (Videospectrometric Camera (VSK)-Combined Radiometer and Photometer for Mars (KRFM)-Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (ISM) on board the USSR Phobos 2 spacecraft) spectra by Murchie and Erard and the IRTF (NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Hawaii, USA) spectra published by Rivkin et al. The OSIRIS data allow the characterization of an area of Phobos covering from 86.°8 N to 90° S in latitude and from 126° W to 286° W in longitude. This corresponds chiefly to the trailing hemisphere, but with a small sampling of the leading hemisphere as well. We compared the OSIRIS results with the Trojan D-type asteroid 624 Hektor and show that the overall slope and curvature of the two bodies over the common wavelength range are very similar. This favors Phobos being a captured D-type asteroid as previously suggested. We modeled the OSIRIS data using two models, the first one with a composition that includes organic carbonaceous material, serpentine, olivine, and basalt glass, and the second one consisting of Tagish Lake meteorite and magnesium-rich pyroxene glass. The results of these models were extended to longer wavelengths to compare the VSK-KRFM-ISM and IRTF data. The overall shape of the second model spectrum between 0.25 and 4.0 μm shows curvature and an albedo level that match both the OSIRIS and Murchie and Erard data and the Rivkin et al. data much better than the first model. The large interval fit is encouraging and adds weight to this model, making it our most promising fit for Phobos. Since Tagish Lake is commonly used as a spectral analog for D-type asteroids, this provides additional support for compositional

  4. Selection of a representative subset of global climate models that captures the profile of regional changes for integrated climate impacts assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Ruane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the Representative Temperature and Precipitation (T&P GCM Subsetting Approach developed within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP to select a practical subset of global climate models (GCMs for regional integrated assessment of climate impacts when resource limitations do not permit the full ensemble of GCMs to be evaluated given the need to also focus on impacts sector and economics models. Subsetting inherently leads to a loss of information but can free up resources to explore important uncertainties in the integrated assessment that would otherwise be prohibitive. The Representative T&P GCM Subsetting Approach identifies five individual GCMs that capture a profile of the full ensemble of temperature and precipitation change within the growing season while maintaining information about the probability that basic classes of climate changes (relatively cool/wet, cool/dry, middle, hot/wet, and hot/dry are projected in the full GCM ensemble. We demonstrate the selection methodology for maize impacts in Ames, Iowa, and discuss limitations and situations when additional information may be required to select representative GCMs. We then classify 29 GCMs over all land areas to identify regions and seasons with characteristic diagonal skewness related to surface moisture as well as extreme skewness connected to snow-albedo feedbacks and GCM uncertainty. Finally, we employ this basic approach to recognize that GCM projections demonstrate coherence across space, time, and greenhouse gas concentration pathway. The Representative T&P GCM Subsetting Approach provides a quantitative basis for the determination of useful GCM subsets, provides a practical and coherent approach where previous assessments selected solely on availability of scenarios, and may be extended for application to a range of scales and sectoral impacts.

  5. "Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Silvia I. Thorp; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumors followed by irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam. The minor abundance stable isotope of boron, 10B, interacts with low energy (thermal) neutrons to produce high linear energy transfer (LET) a-particles and 7Li ions. These disintegration products are known to have a high relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Their short range (<10 {micro}m) would limit the damage to cells containing 10B (1,2). Thus, BNCT would target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Clinical trials of BNCT for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and/or melanoma and, more recently, head and neck tumors and liver metastases, using boronophenylalanine (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborane (BSH) as the 10B carriers, have been performed or are underway in Argentina, Japan, the US and Europe (e.g. 3-8). To date, the clinical results have shown a potential, albeit inconclusive, therapeutic advantage for this technique. Contributory translational studies have been carried out employing a variety of experimental models based on the implantation of tumor cells in normal tissue (e.g. 5).

  6. “Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Silvia I. Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel “Tandem” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with “Tandem BNCT”, i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly [(BPA + GB-10)-BNCT] was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. “Tandem” BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  7. 'Sequential' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Ana J.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Heber, Elisa M.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E.; Aromando, Romina F.; Nigg, David W.; Quintana, Jorge; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel 'Tandem' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with 'Tandem BNCT', i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly ((BPA + GB-10)-BNCT) was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. 'Tandem' BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  8. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  9. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the security and privacy of personal data. (4) The disposal and disposition of identifiable personal... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records....114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114...

  10. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... the security and privacy of such records. (5) The disposal and destruction of identifiable personal....14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200...

  11. Need for Adequate Funding in the Administration of Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Funding is considered all over the world as the life wire that propels the educational sector towards achieving her objectives. The paper focuses on the need for adequate funding of secondary education in Nigeria. Emphases were laid on the alternative sources of funding for secondary schools as well as the consequences ...

  12. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  13. PVTxy properties of CO2 mixtures relevant for CO2 capture, transport and storage: Review of available experimental data and theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hailong; Jakobsen, Jana P.; Wilhelmsen, Oivind; Yan, Jinyue

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Accurate knowledge about the thermodynamic properties of CO 2 is essential in the design and operation of CCS systems. → Experimental data about the phase equilibrium and density of CO 2 -mixtures have been reviewed. → Equations of state have been reviewed too regarding CO 2 -mixtures. None has shown any clear advantage in CCS applications. → Identified knowledge gaps suggest to conducting more experiments and developing novel models. -- Abstract: The knowledge about pressure-volume-temperature-composition (PVTxy) properties plays an important role in the design and operation of many processes involved in CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) systems. A literature survey was conducted on both the available experimental data and the theoretical models associated with the thermodynamic properties of CO 2 mixtures within the operation window of CCS. Some gaps were identified between available experimental data and requirements of the system design and operation. The major concerns are: for the vapour-liquid equilibrium, there are no data about CO 2 /COS and few data about the CO 2 /N 2 O 4 mixture. For the volume property, there are no published experimental data for CO 2 /O 2 , CO 2 /CO, CO 2 /N 2 O 4 , CO 2 /COS and CO 2 /NH 3 and the liquid volume of CO 2 /H 2 . The experimental data available for multi-component CO 2 mixtures are also scarce. Many equations of state are available for thermodynamic calculations of CO 2 mixtures. The cubic equations of state have the simplest structure and are capable of giving reasonable results for the PVTxy properties. More complex equations of state such as Lee-Kesler, SAFT and GERG typically give better results for the volume property, but not necessarily for the vapour-liquid equilibrium. None of the equations of state evaluated in the literature show any clear advantage in CCS applications for the calculation of all PVTxy properties. A reference equation of state for CCS should, thus, be a future goal.

  14. How Airbnb Captures and Disseminates Value

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses two of the six vital business model elements, explaining the functioning of peer-to-peer accommodation networks: value capture and dissemination. The other elements are discussed in detail in Chapter 4. We focus on Airbnb because it is the international market leader. Separate business analyses are necessary for other peer-to-peer accommodation networks given that each functions in a slightly different way. In this chapter the business model value capture and value disse...

  15. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  16. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of ∼ ±22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than ∼ 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance ∼ 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance ∼ 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  17. New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ritter; Armin Ebner; Steven Reynolds Hai Du; Amal Mehrotra

    2008-07-31

    tested successfully against several cycle schedules taken from the literature, including a 2-bed 4-step Skarstrom cycle, a 4-bed 9-step process with 2 equalization steps, a 9-bed 11-step process with 3 equalization steps, and a 6-bed 13-step process with 4 equalization steps and 4 idle steps. With respect to CO{sub 2} capture and concentration by PSA, this new approach is now providing a very straightforward way to determine all the viable 3-bed, 4-bed, 5-bed, n-bed, etc. HR PSA cycle schedules to explore using both simulation and experimentation. This program also touted the use of K-promoted HTlc as a high temperature, reversible adsorbent for CO{sub 2} capture by PSA. This program not only showed how to use this material in HR PSA cycles, but it also proposed a new CO{sub 2} interaction mechanism in conjunction with a non-equilibrium kinetic model that adequately describes the uptake and release of CO{sub 2} in this material, and some preliminary fixed bed adsorption breakthrough and desorption elution experiments were carried out to demonstrate complete reversibility on a larger scale. This information was essentially missing from the literature and deemed invaluable toward promoting the use of K-promoted HTlc as a high temperature, reversible adsorbent for CO{sub 2} capture by PSA. Overall, the objectives of this project were met. It showed the feasibility of using K-promoted hydrotalcite (HTlc) as a high temperature, reversible adsorbent for CO{sub 2} capture by PSA. It discovered some novel HR PSA cycles that might be useful for this purpose. Finally, it revealed a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of CO{sub 2} with K-promoted HTlc.

  18. Motion Capturing Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood Karen; Cisneros Rosemary E.; Whatley Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The ...

  19. Nuclear muon capture

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, N C

    1977-01-01

    Our present knowledge of the nuclear muon capture reactions is surveyed. Starting from the formation of the muonic atom, various phenomena, having a bearing on the nuclear capture, are reviewed. The nuclear reactions are then studied from two angles-to learn about the basic muon+nucleon weak interaction process, and to obtain new insights on the nuclear dynamics. Future experimental prospects with the newer generation muon 'factories' are critically examined. Possible modification of the muon+nucleon weak interaction in complex nuclei remains the most important open problem in this field. (380 refs).

  20. Proton capture resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bilpuch, E.G. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bybee, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Cox, J.M.; Fittje, L.M. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Labonte, M.A.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Vavrina, G.A. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Wallace, P.M. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708

    1997-02-01

    The fluctuation properties of quantum systems now are used as a signature of quantum chaos. The analyses require data of extremely high quality. The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction is being used to establish a complete level scheme of {sup 30}P to study chaos and isospin breaking in this nuclide. Determination of the angular momentum J, the parity {pi}, and the isospin T from resonance capture data is considered. Special emphasis is placed on the capture angular distributions and on a geometric description of these angular distributions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Capture of Planetesimals into a Circumterrestrial Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    The lunar origin model considered in this report involves processing of protolunar material through a circumterrestrial swarm of particles. Once such a swarm has formed, it can gain mass by capturing infalling planetesimals and ejecta from giant impacts on the Earth, although the angular momentum supply from these sources remains a problem. The first stage of formation of a geocentric swarm by capture of planetesimals from initially heliocentric orbits is examined. The only plausible capture mechanism that is not dependent on very low approach velocities is the mutual collision of planetesimals passing within Earth's sphere of influence. The dissipation of energy in inelastic collisions or accretion events changes the value of the Jacobi parameter, allowing capture into bound geocentric orbits. This capture scenario was tested directly by many body numerical integration of planetesimal orbits in near Earth space.

  2. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  3. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonchev A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  4. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M.A.; Heber, E.M.; Monti, Hughes A.; Molinari, A.J.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  5. Do Online Bicycle Routing Portals Adequately Address Prevalent Safety Concerns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety concerns are among the most prevalent deterrents for bicycling. The provision of adequate bicycling infrastructure is considered as one of the most efficient means to increase cycling safety. However, limited public funding does not always allow agencies to implement cycling infrastructure improvements at the desirable level. Thus, bicycle trip planners can at least partly alleviate the lack of adequate infrastructure by recommending optimal routes in terms of safety. The presented study provides a systematic review of 35 bicycle routing applications and analyses to which degree they promote safe bicycling. The results show that most trip planners lack corresponding routing options and therefore do not sufficiently address safety concerns of bicyclists. Based on these findings, we developed recommendations on how to better address bicycling safety in routing portals. We suggest employing current communication technology and analysis to consider safety concerns more explicitly.

  6. Physiological aspect walking and Nordic walking as adequate kinetic activities.

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠ, Václav

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis on the topic of The Physiological Aspect of Walking and Nordic Walking as an adequate physical activity focuses on chosen physiological changes of an organism during a five-month training cycle. In the theoretical part I describe the physiological changes of organism during a regularly repeated strain, and also the technique of walking, Nordic walking and health benefits of these activities are defined here. The research part of the thesis describes the measurement method...

  7. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    materials, the affinity ligand would need identification , as well as chemistries that graft the affinity ligand onto the surface of magnetic...ACTIVE CAPTURE MATRICES FOR THE DETECTION/ IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS...6 As shown in Figure 2.3-1a, the spectra exhibit similar baselines and the spectral peaks lineup . Under these circumstances, the spectral

  8. Capacitance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landskron, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO 2 into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Capacitance for carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landskron, Kai [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO{sub 2} into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Embedded enzymes catalyse capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Membrane technologies for carbon capture can offer economic and environmental advantages over conventional amine-based absorption, but can suffer from limited gas flux and selectivity to CO2. Now, a membrane based on enzymes embedded in hydrophilic pores is shown to exhibit combined flux and selectivity that challenges the state of the art.

  11. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  12. Synovectomy by neutron capture in boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    The rheumatoid arthritis is an illness which affect approximately at 3% of the World population. This illness is characterized by the inflammation of the joints which reduces the quality of life and the productivity of the patients. Since, it is an autoimmune illness, the inflammation is due to the overproduction of synovial liquid by the increase in the quantity of synoviocytes. The rheumatoid arthritis does not have a definitive recovery and the patients have three options of treatment: the use of drugs, the surgery and the radio synovectomy. The synovectomy by neutron capture in Boron is a novel proposal of treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis that consists in using a charged compound with Boron 10 that is preferently incorporated in the synoviocytes and to a less extent in the rest of surrounding tissues of the joint. Then, the joint is exposed to a thermal neutron field that induces the reaction (n, α) in the 10 B. the products of this reaction place their energy inside synoviocytes producing their reduction and therefore the reduction of the joint inflammation. Since it is a novel procedure, the synovectomy by neutron capture in boron has two problems: the source design and the design of the adequate drug. In this work it has been realized a Monte Carlo study with the purpose to design a moderating medium that with a 239 Pu Be source in its center, produces a thermal neutron field. With the produced neutron spectra, the neutrons spectra and neutron doses were calculated in different sites inside a model of knee joint. In Monte Carlo studies it is necessary to know the elemental composition of all the joint components, for the case of synovia and the synovial liquid this information does not exist in such way that it is supposed that its composition is equal than the water. In this work also it has been calculated the kerma factors by neutrons of synovia and the synovial liquid supposing that their elemental composition are similar to the blood tissue

  13. Boron Neutron Capture Therapty (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea Monti Hughes; Emiliano C.C. Pozzi; Elisa M. Heber; Silvia Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; Ana J. Molinari; Marcela A. Garabalino; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-11-01

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA [(GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT] or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  14. Therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a single and double application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A; Pozzi, E C C; Thorp, S; Garabalino, M A; Farias, R O; Gonzalez, S J; Heber, E M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Molinari, A J; Miller, M; Nigg, D W; Curotto, P; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development from tissue with potentially malignant disorders (PMD) gives rise to second primary tumors. We previously demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect on tumor development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) mediated by the boron compounds BPA (boronophenylalanine) and decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in a hamster pouch oral precancer model. Seeking to optimize BNCT, the aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology for oral precancer and assess new BNCT protocols in terms of inhibition of tumor development and radiotoxicity. Groups of cancerized hamsters were locally exposed to single or double applications (2 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 8Gy to tissue with PMD; to a single application of BPA-BNCT at 6Gy and to a double application (4 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy. Cancerized, sham-irradiated hamsters served as controls. Clinical status, tumor development from tissue with PMD and mucositis were followed for 8 months. The marked therapeutic efficacy of single applications of BNCT at 6 and 8Gy were associated to severe radiotoxicity. Dose fractionation into 2 applications reduced mucositis but also reduced therapeutic efficacy, depending on dose and interval between applications. A double application (4 weeks apart) of (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy rendered the best therapeutic advantage, i.e. 63% - 100% inhibition of tumor development with only slight mucositis in 67% of cases. The data reported herein show that issues such as dose levels and dose fractionation, interval between applications, and choice of boron compounds are pivotal to therapeutic advantage and must be tailored for a particular pathology and anatomic site. The present study determined treatment conditions that would contribute to optimize BNCT for precancer and that would warrant cautious assessment in a clinical scenario (author)

  15. Selective boron delivery by intra-arterial injection of BSH-WOW emulsion in hepatic cancer model for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Dewi, Novriana; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Seguchi, Koji; Mizumachi, Ryoji; Murata, Yuji; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Mikado, Shoji; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Fujihara, Mitsuteru; Sakurai, Yuriko; Mouri, Kikue; Yanagawa, Masashi; Iizuka, Tomoya; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Fujino, Takashi; Ogura, Koichi; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Yui, Sho; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Takamoto, Sinichi; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Hasumi, Kenichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) has been used to inhibit the growth of various types of cancers. In this study, we developed a 10 BSH-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion, evaluated it as a selective boron carrier for the possible application of BNCT in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. We prepared the 10 BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion using double emulsification technique and then evaluated the delivery efficacy by performing biodistribution experiment on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour model with comparison to iodized poppy-seed oil mix conventional emulsion. Neutron irradiation was carried out at Kyoto University Research Reactor with an average thermal neutron fluence of 5 × 10 12  n cm -2 . Morphological and pathological analyses were performed on Day 14 after neutron irradiation. Biodistribution results have revealed that 10 B atoms delivery with WOW emulsion was superior compared with those using iodized poppy-seed oil conventional emulsion. There was no dissemination in abdomen or lung metastasis observed after neutron irradiation in the groups treated with 10 BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion, whereas many tumour nodules were recognized in the liver, abdominal cavity, peritoneum and bilateral lobes of the lung in the non-injected group. Tumour growth suppression and cancer-cell-killing effect was observed from the morphological and pathological analyses of the 10 BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion-injected group, indicating its feasibility to be applied as a novel intra-arterial boron carrier for BNCT. Advances in knowledge: The results of the current study have shown that entrapped 10 BSH has the potential to increase the range of therapies available for hepatocellular carcinoma which is considered to be one of the most difficult tumours to cure.

  16. An assessment of the potentials of nuclear power and carbon capture and storage in the long-term global warming mitigation options based on Asian Modeling Exercise scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of global warming mitigation options based on scenarios from the Asian Modeling Exercise. Using an extended version of the integrated assessment model MARIA-23 (Multiregional Approach for Resource and Industry Allocation), we analyze nuclear fuel recycling options, carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS), and biomass utilization. To assess the potential implications of decreased social acceptance of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident, additional scenarios including a nuclear power expansion limitation, are analyzed. We also evaluate MARIA-23 model simulation estimates of long-term contributions and interrelationships among nuclear power, biomass, and CCS. Finally, potential costs of nuclear limitation under carbon control policies are assessed. The simulation results in this paper suggest the following: (1) under the reference scenario, global GDP losses in climate limitation scenarios range from 1.3% per year to 3.9% per year in 2060, rising to between 3.5% per year and 4.5% per year in 2100; (2) the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing technologies increase rapidly in all carbon control policy scenarios; (3) under a scenario where the price of CO 2 is $30 and nuclear power expansion is strictly limited, GDP losses increase significantly—from 4.5% per year to 6.4% per year by 2100; (4) nuclear power and CCS are substitute mitigation technologies. With nuclear power technology available CCS deployment reaches approximately 15,000 Mt-CO 2 per year by 2010; without a nuclear power option, CCS deployment rises to more than 80,000 Mt-CO 2 per year; and (5) biomass utilization cannot fully compensate for limitations to nuclear power expansion in policy scenarios. In addition to examining the role of these three technologies on global scales, we report results for several major Asian regions, namely Japan, China, and India. China tends to deploy nuclear power (if available) in response to rapidly growing

  17. Research on neutron capture therapy in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Research on neutron capture therapy in the USSR began in 1964. Towards 1975 prime knowledge in physics, pharmacology and radiobiology had been accumulated. It was realized that inherent to NCT is a variety of modalities as to the type and location of the tumor, the energy and source of neutrons, the nature and transportation of the nuclide-carrying agent (NCA), etc. Thus, it became likely that some modalities would turn out to be clinically feasible. At the end of the 70s, studies of boron derivatives began at the All-Union Oncological Research Center, Moscow. These studies were stimulated by the clinical trials in Japan. Still, neutron capturing nuclides (NCN) other than 10 b are regarded as promising. Research was aimed at clinical trials that could ensure sufficient safety, convenience and conclusiveness. Hence, new requirements emerged, such as the pre-clinical modeling of NCT in big animals and the monitoring of tumor response to each fraction of NCT. Usual requirements are also to be met, that is: tailoring neutron beams with an adequate intensity and energy, choosing NCNs and finding suitable NCAs, physical and radiobiological planning including adoption of tentative RBEs and time-fractionation regimen, selecting tumors as candidates for NCT, and developing techniques for monitoring NCNs in vivo

  18. Three L-subshells atomic model to compute counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides; Modelo con tres subcapas L para calcular la eficiencia de recuento de nucleidos que se desintegran por captura electronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau, A.; Arcos, J. M. los

    1986-07-01

    The present paper develops a three L-subshell a and K, M-a hells atomic model in order to obtain the counting efficiency in liquid scintillation counting. Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of 264 different atomic rearrangement way so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit to test the influence of the different atomic and nuclear parameters upon the counting efficiency nuclides of low and medium atomic number decaying by electron capture. (Author) 8 refs.

  19. Monitoring well utility in a heterogeneous DNAPL source zone area: Insights from proximal multilevel sampler wells and sampling capture-zone modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Lindsay A; Rivett, Michael O; Wealthall, Gary P; Zeeb, Peter; Dumble, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater-quality assessment at contaminated sites often involves the use of short-screen (1.5 to 3 m) monitoring wells. However, even over these intervals considerable variation may occur in contaminant concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the well screen. This is especially true in heterogeneous dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones, where cm-scale contamination variability may call into question the effectiveness of monitoring wells to deliver representative data. The utility of monitoring wells in such settings is evaluated by reference to high-resolution multilevel sampler (MLS) wells located proximally to short-screen wells, together with sampling capture-zone modelling to explore controls upon well sample provenance and sensitivity to monitoring protocols. Field data are analysed from the highly instrumented SABRE research site that contained an old trichloroethene source zone within a shallow alluvial aquifer at a UK industrial facility. With increased purging, monitoring-well samples tend to a flow-weighted average concentration but may exhibit sensitivity to the implemented protocol and degree of purging. Formation heterogeneity adjacent to the well-screen particularly, alongside pump-intake position and water level, influence this sensitivity. Purging of low volumes is vulnerable to poor reproducibility arising from concentration variability predicted over the initial 1 to 2 screen volumes purged. Marked heterogeneity may also result in limited long-term sample concentration stabilization. Development of bespoke monitoring protocols, that consider screen volumes purged, alongside water-quality indicator parameter stabilization, is recommended to validate and reduce uncertainty when interpreting monitoring-well data within source zone areas. Generalised recommendations on monitoring well based protocols are also developed. A key monitoring well utility is their proportionately greater sample draw from permeable horizons constituting

  20. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K(nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11) in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K(nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11) in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 (ae-B20H17NH3), administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 ± 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 ± 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  1. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg

    2012-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 [ae-B20H17NH3], administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 {+-} 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 {+-} 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  2. Monitoring well utility in a heterogeneous DNAPL source zone area: Insights from proximal multilevel sampler wells and sampling capture-zone modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Lindsay A.; Rivett, Michael O.; Wealthall, Gary P.; Zeeb, Peter; Dumble, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater-quality assessment at contaminated sites often involves the use of short-screen (1.5 to 3 m) monitoring wells. However, even over these intervals considerable variation may occur in contaminant concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the well screen. This is especially true in heterogeneous dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones, where cm-scale contamination variability may call into question the effectiveness of monitoring wells to deliver representative data. The utility of monitoring wells in such settings is evaluated by reference to high-resolution multilevel sampler (MLS) wells located proximally to short-screen wells, together with sampling capture-zone modelling to explore controls upon well sample provenance and sensitivity to monitoring protocols. Field data are analysed from the highly instrumented SABRE research site that contained an old trichloroethene source zone within a shallow alluvial aquifer at a UK industrial facility. With increased purging, monitoring-well samples tend to a flow-weighted average concentration but may exhibit sensitivity to the implemented protocol and degree of purging. Formation heterogeneity adjacent to the well-screen particularly, alongside pump-intake position and water level, influence this sensitivity. Purging of low volumes is vulnerable to poor reproducibility arising from concentration variability predicted over the initial 1 to 2 screen volumes purged. Marked heterogeneity may also result in limited long-term sample concentration stabilization. Development of bespoke monitoring protocols, that consider screen volumes purged, alongside water-quality indicator parameter stabilization, is recommended to validate and reduce uncertainty when interpreting monitoring-well data within source zone areas. Generalised recommendations on monitoring well based protocols are also developed. A key monitoring well utility is their proportionately greater sample draw from permeable horizons constituting a

  3. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko

    1993-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  4. A student's perspective: are medical students adequately trained in BLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobi Oyewole,1 Folashade Oyewole2 1University of Liverpool – The School of Medicine, Liverpool, 2Imperial College London, London, UK We read with great interest the article by Lami et al regarding improving basic life support (BLS training for medical students.1 We agree that BLS skills are vital for junior doctors. The days of trial by fire have long gone away, and junior doctors and medical students need to feel that they are adequately trained to handle emergency situations they may face in hospital.  Read the original article

  5. Radiographic appearances following adequate transfusion in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Bagni, B.; Franceschini, F.

    1989-01-01

    The main lesions of the skull and hand, observed in a group of hypertransfused ..beta..-thalassaemic patients, are compared with a control group of low-transfused patients. Bony abnormalities reflect the relationship between proliferating bone marrow and bone cortex, and hypertransfusion therapy will prevent development of lesions only if established early in life. If this is done, the diploe in the skull may become normal, overgrowth of facial bones is moderate, pneumatisation of the paranasal sinuses is not completely prevented, and the 'hair-brush' pattern may disappear completely. A normal appearance of the hand in adequately treated patients differentiates between prepubertal patients and adults.

  6. Capture of circulatory endothelial progenitor cells and accelerated re-endothelialization of a bio-engineered stent in human ex vivo shunt and rabbit denudation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Larsen (Katarína); C. Cheng (Caroline (Ka Lai)); D. Tempel (Dennie); S. Parker (Sherry); S. Yazdani (Saami); W.K. den Dekker (Wijnand); H.J. Houtgraaf (Jaco); R. de Jong (Renate); S. Swager-ten Hoor (Stijn); E. Ligtenberg (Erik); S.R. Hanson (Stephen); R. Rowland (Steve); F. Kolodgie (Frank); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); R. Virmani (Renu); H.J. Duckers (Henricus)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Genous™ Bio-engineered R™ stent (GS) aims to promote vascular healing by capture of circulatory endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to the surface of the stent struts, resulting in accelerated re-endothelialization. Here, we assessed the function of the GS in comparison to bare-metal

  7. Engineering of PDMS surfaces for use in microsystems for capture and isolation of complex and biomedically important proteins: epidermal growth factor receptor as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Aaron M; Ozer, Byram H; Wiepz, Gregory J; Bertics, Paul J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2008-08-01

    Elastomers based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are promising materials for fabrication of a wide range of microanalytical systems due to their mechanical and optical properties and ease of processing. To date, however, quantitative studies that demonstrate reliable and reproducible methods for attachment of binding groups that capture complex receptor proteins of relevance to biomedical applications of PDMS microsystems have not been reported. Herein we describe methods that lead to the reproducible capture of a transmembrane protein, the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, onto PDMS surfaces presenting covalently immobilized antibodies for EGF receptor, and subsequent isolation of the captured receptor by mechanical transfer of the receptor onto a chemically functionalized surface of a gold film for detection. This result is particularly significant because the physical properties of transmembrane proteins make this class of proteins a difficult one to analyze. We benchmark the performance of antibodies to the human EGF receptor covalently immobilized on PDMS against the performance of the same antibodies physisorbed to conventional surfaces utilized in ELISA assays through the use of EGF receptor that was (32)P-radiolabeled in its autophosphorylation domain. These results reveal that two pan-reactive antibodies for the EGF receptor (clones H11 and 111.6) and one phosphospecific EGF receptor antibody (clone pY1068) capture the receptor on both PDMS and ELISA plates. When using H11 antibody to capture EGF receptor and subsequent treatment with a stripping buffer (NaOH and sodium dodecylsulfate) to isolate the receptor, the signal-to-background obtained using the PDMS surface was 82 : 1, exceeding the signal-to-background measured on the ELISA plate (<48 : 1). We also characterized the isolation of captured EGF receptor by mechanical contact of the PDMS surface with a chemically functionalized gold film. The efficiency of mechanical transfer of the

  8. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ∼5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) × 10 –7 for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) × 10 7 planetesimals with absolute magnitude H disk ∼ 14-28 M Earth , is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  9. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10 –8 . This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  10. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  11. [The human right to adequate food: an urban vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemiro, Juliana Pereira; Valla, Victor Vincent; Guimarães, Maria Beatriz Lisboa

    2010-07-01

    The human right to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic sanitation were presented as the major obstacles to bring into effect the human right to food. It was possible to determine that, among the strategies to fight the poverty and hunger, a big highlight is the establishment of mutual help mechanisms. The social support, generosity and religiousness were presented as the most important categories among the thoughts of the leaders. Facing a reality in which poverty and hunger appear as something inherent or become a mechanism of change during elections, the issue of the clienteles appears as a huge concern and challenge for those leaders.

  12. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  13. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  14. Nuclear waste disposal: achieving adequate financing - special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasebarth, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) evaluates whether the current one mill fee now charged to nuclear-electricity consumers will adequately finance the waste disposal program. The CBO found that, if the fee is adjusted annually for inflation, it should provide enough revenues to cover all program costs under all nuclear growth forecasts. If the fee is unchanged, however, the fees will be inadequate if inflation exceeds 3% annually. The report suggests two alternatives for fee revision, but makes no recommendations. The alternatives are to increase the fee only at specific intervals or to automatically adjust the fee through indexation. The report examines the effect of delaying the program, cost overruns, and alternative inflation rate and interest rate assumptions. 3 figures, 12 tables

  15. Modeling and assessment of future IGCC plant concepts with CO{sub 2} capture; Simulation und Bewertung zukuenftiger IGCC-Kraftwerkskonzepte mit CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, Christian A.

    2012-07-13

    The thesis focuses on the assessment of efficiency potential of future IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture. Starting point is a comprehensive analysis (thermodynamic, economic and exergy) of a state of the art IGCC. Additionally, five future IGCC concepts are proposed and evaluated for their efficiency potential in the mid- and long-term. The concepts showed significantly higher efficiencies up to approximately 60% and enable an almost CO{sub 2}-free operation.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and analysis of Pd-based membrane module for CO{sub 2} capture from H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} binary gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong-Yoon; Park, Myung-June [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kyung-Ran; Park, Jong-Soo [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A Pd-based membrane module for the capture of CO{sub 2} from a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} binary gas mixture was considered, and computational fluid dynamics modeling was used to predict the module performance. Detailed models of momentum and mass balances, including local flux as a function of local linear velocity, satisfactorily described CO{sub 2} fraction in a retentate tube when compared to the experimental data under various feed flow rates. By using the model, several cases having different geometries, including the location and diameter of feed tube and the number and location of the feed and retentate tubes, were considered. Among tested geometries, the case of two feed tubes with each offset by an angle, θ, of 45° from the center line, and a feed tube diameter of 2.45mm showed the increase of the feed flow rate up to 11.80% compared to the reference case while a CO{sub 2} fraction of 90% in the retentate, which was the criterion for effective CO{sub 2} capture in the present study, was guaranteed. This would result in a plausible reduction in capital expenditures for the CO{sub 2} capture process.

  17. Motion Capturing Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Karen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The study embraced four dance genres: Ballet, Contemporary, Flamenco and Greek Folk dance. We are specifically interested in the kinesthetic and emotional engagement with the moving body and what new corporeal awareness may be experienced. Positioning the moving, dancing body as fundamental to technological advancements, we discuss the importance of considering the dancer’s experience in the real and virtual space. Some of the artists involved in the project have offered their experiences, which are included, and they form the basis of the discussion. In addition, we discuss the affect of immersive environments, how these environments expand reality and what effect (emotionally and otherwise that has on the body. The research reveals insights into relationships between emotion, movement and technology and what new sensorial knowledge this evokes for the dancer.

  18. Fragment capture device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  19. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  20. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, T; Fujimoto, T; Sudo, T; Fujita, I; Imabori, M; Moritake, H; Sugimoto, T; Sakuma, Y; Takeuchi, T; Kawabata, S; Kirihata, M; Akisue, T; Yayama, K; Kurosaka, M; Miyatake, S; Fukumori, Y; Ichikawa, H

    2011-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake l-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of (10)B (45-74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): Biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, T. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Miyazaki University, Kiyotake 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi University, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yayama, K. [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyatake, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Ichikawa, H., E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake L-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of {sup 10}B (45-74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg).

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): Biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Sudo, T.; Fujita, I.; Imabori, M.; Moritake, H.; Sugimoto, T.; Sakuma, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Kawabata, S.; Kirihata, M.; Akisue, T.; Yayama, K.; Kurosaka, M.; Miyatake, S.; Fukumori, Y.; Ichikawa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake L-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of 10 B (45–74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg).

  4. Circular polarization of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized neutrons by protons and the quark compound bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Shmatkov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    The circular polarization Psub(γ) of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized neutrons by protons is calculated The contribution of the M1 and E2 radiation of nucleons to Psub(γ) is found using the accurate wave functions of the continuous spectrum. The contribution of the six-quark bag to the polarization Psub(γ) is determined. The value of Psub(γ) is related to the admixture of the 6q-bag in the deuteron. Experimental value of Psub(γ) corresponds to small (< or approximately 0.7%) admixture of the bag

  5. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Zachary O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilico, Justin Derrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davis, Warren Leon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dixon, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Brian S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Nathaniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wendt, Jeremy Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  6. Capturing spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U.; Fan, Z.; Jastrow, J. D.; Matamala, R.; Vitharana, U.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of the land surface affects water, energy, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. Designing observation networks that capture land surface spatial heterogeneity is a critical scientific challenge. Here, we present a geospatial approach to capture the existing spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across Alaska, USA. We used the standard deviation of 556 georeferenced SOC profiles previously compiled in Mishra and Riley (2015, Biogeosciences, 12:3993-4004) to calculate the number of observations that would be needed to reliably estimate Alaskan SOC stocks. This analysis indicated that 906 randomly distributed observation sites would be needed to quantify the mean value of SOC stocks across Alaska at a confidence interval of ± 5 kg m-2. We then used soil-forming factors (climate, topography, land cover types, surficial geology) to identify the locations of appropriately distributed observation sites by using the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling approach. Spatial correlation and variogram analyses demonstrated that the spatial structures of soil-forming factors were adequately represented by these 906 sites. Using the spatial correlation length of existing SOC observations, we identified 484 new observation sites would be needed to provide the best estimate of the present status of SOC stocks in Alaska. We then used average decadal projections (2020-2099) of precipitation, temperature, and length of growing season for three representative concentration pathway (RCP 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to investigate whether the location of identified observation sites will shift/change under future climate. Our results showed 12-41 additional observation sites (depending on emission scenarios) will be required to capture the impact of projected climatic conditions by 2100 on the spatial heterogeneity of Alaskan SOC stocks. Our results represent an ideal distribution

  7. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  8. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R; Dietze, G

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H p (0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H p (3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  10. Are we telling the diabetic patients adequately about foot care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Jadoon, R.J.; Farooq, U.; Alam, M.A.; Qureshi, A.; Shah, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus affects more than 285 million people worldwide. The prevalence is expected to rise to 439 million by the year 2030. Diabetic foot ulcers precede 84 percentage of non-traumatic amputations in diabetics. One lower limb is lost every 30 seconds around the world because of diabetic foot ulceration. Apart from being lengthy, the treatment of diabetic foot is also very expensive. There is very limited emphasis on foot care in diabetic patients. Even in developed countries patients feel that they do not have adequate knowledge about foot care. This study was conducted to find out how much information is imparted by doctors to diabetic patients about foot care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in admitted patients of the Department of Medicine, DHQ Hospital, Abbottabad from May 2014 to June 2015. 139 diabetic patients more than 25 years of age were included by non-probability consecutive sampling. Results: The mean age was 57.17 ( percentage 11.1) years. 35.3 percentage of patients were male and 64.7 percentage were female. The mean duration of diabetes in patients was 8.3 (±6) years. Only 36.7 percentage of patients said that their doctor told them about foot care. Less than 40 percentage of patients knew that they should daily inspect their feet, wash them with gentle warm water, and dry them afterwards. Only 25.2 percentage of the participants knew how to manage corns or calluses on feet. 66.5 percentage of patients knew that they should not walk bare foot. Overall, 63 percentage of our patients had less than 50 percentage knowledge of the 11 points regarding foot care that the investigators asked them. Conclusion: Diabetic foot problems are the one of the costliest, most disabling and disheartening complication of diabetes mellitus. Doctors are not properly telling diabetic patients about foot care. There is a deficiency of knowledge among the diabetic patients regarding foot care. (author)

  11. Adequately Addressing Pediatric Obesity: Challenges Faced by Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Marilou; Scott, Allison; Vowell Johnson, Kelly

    2017-07-01

    To assess the challenges primary care providers encounter when providing counseling for pediatric patients identified as obese. A survey assessed the current challenges and barriers to the screening and treatment of pediatric obesity for providers in northwest Arkansas who provide care to families. The survey consisted of 15 Likert scale questions and 4 open-ended questions. Time, resources, comfort, and cultural issues were reported by providers as the biggest barriers in screening and the treatment of pediatric obesity. All providers reported lack of time as a barrier to providing the care needed for obese children. Cultural barriers of both the provider and client were identified as factors, which negatively affect the care and treatment of obese children. Primary care providers continue to experience challenges when addressing pediatric obesity. In this study, a lack of adequate time to address obesity was identified as the most significant current barrier and may likely be tied to physician resources. Although reimbursement for obesity is increasing, the level of reimbursement does not support the time or the resources needed to treat patients. Many providers reported their patients' cultural view of obesity influenced how they counsel their patients. Increasing providers' knowledge concerning differences in how weight is viewed or valued may assist them in the assessment and care of obese pediatric patients. The challenges identified in previous research continue to limit providers when addressing obesity. Although progress has been made regarding knowledge of guidelines, continuing effort is needed to tackle the remaining challenges. This will allow for earlier identification and intervention, resulting in improved outcomes in pediatric obesity.

  12. EVOLUTION OF PROGENITORS FOR ELECTRON CAPTURE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We provide progenitor models for electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) with detailed evolutionary calculation. We include minor electron capture nuclei using a large nuclear reaction network with updated reaction rates. For electron capture, the Coulomb correction of rates is treated and the contribution from neutron-rich isotopes is taken into account in each nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) composition. We calculate the evolution of the most massive super asymptotic giant branch stars and show that these stars undergo off-center carbon burning and form ONe cores at the center. These cores become heavier up to the critical mass of 1.367 M ☉ and keep contracting even after the initiation of O+Ne deflagration. Inclusion of minor electron capture nuclei causes convective URCA cooling during the contraction phase, but the effect on the progenitor evolution is small. On the other hand, electron capture by neutron-rich isotopes in the NSE region has a more significant effect. We discuss the uniqueness of the critical core mass for ECSNe and the effect of wind mass loss on the plausibility of our models for ECSN progenitors.

  13. Identification of children with reading difficulties: Cheap can be adequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    Classification of reading difficulties: Cheap screening can be accurate Purpose: Three factors are important for identification of students in need of remedial instruction: accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The identification has to be accurate to be of any use, the identification has to be timely......, inexpensive testing. The present study investigated the classification accuracy of three screening models varying in timeliness and cost. Method: We compared the ROC statistics of three logistic models for predicting end of Grade 2 reading difficulties in a sample of 164 students: 1) an early, comprehensive...... model using a battery of Grade 0 tests, including phoneme awareness, rapid naming, and paired associate learning, 2) a late, comprehensive model adding reading measures from January of Grade 1, and 3) a late, inexpensive model using only group-administered reading measures from January of Grade 1...

  14. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, B. J.

    1998-11-01

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  15. Captured by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  16. Hole-capture properties of the electron-irradiation-induced deep-level H5 in p-type InP: A charge-controlled bistable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretagnon, T.; Bastide, G.; Rouzeyre, M.

    1989-01-01

    The electron-induced irradiated defect H 5 in Zn-doped p-type InP is an unusual hole trap, since its temperature-independent weak-hole capture cross section, σ c ∼10 -21 cm 2 , is 6 orders of magnitude lower than the value obtained from thermal-emission rates. We present a charge-controlled bistable configuration-coordinate diagram that explains this large difference and accounts for the optical-absorption properties. In addition, a microscopic D In n+ -Zn - defect, made by pairing under electrostatic attraction of the ionized acceptor Zn - and of a positively charged primitive defect D In n+ of the In sublattice, is tentatively proposed as a plausible complex at the origin of H 5

  17. Radiative muon capture in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasinoff, M.D.; Ahmad, S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Burnham, R.A.; Gorringe, T.P.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Azuelos, G.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Egidy, T. von; Bertl, W.; Blecher, M.; Serne-angel, A.; Wright, D.H.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Numano, T.; Summhammer, J.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Zhang, N.S.; Henderson, R.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Mes, H.; Robertson, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radiative muon capture rates measured for carbon, oxygen and calcium targets. The carbon and oxygen rates yield large values for g p when compared to detailed microscopic calculations but the conventional Goldberger-Treiman value when compared to phenomenological model calculations. A progress report on the TRIUMF RMC measurements on hydrogen is also given

  18. Validation and Comparison of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Mediated By Boron-Rich Liposomes in Multiple Murine Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Maitz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT was performed at the University of Missouri Research Reactor in mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma flank tumors and the results were compared with previously performed studies with mice bearing EMT6 breast cancer flank tumors. Mice were implanted with CT26 tumors subcutaneously in the caudal flank and were given two separate tail vein injections of unilamellar liposomes composed of cholesterol, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycer-3-phosphocholine, and K[nido-7-CH3(CH215–7,8-C2B9H11] in the lipid bilayer and encapsulated Na3[1-(2`-B10H9-2-NH3B10H8] within the liposomal core. Mice were irradiated 30 hours after the second injection in a thermal neutron beam for various lengths of time. The tumor size was monitored daily for 72 days. Despite relatively lower tumor boron concentrations, as compared to EMT6 tumors, a 45 minute neutron irradiation BNCT resulted in complete resolution of the tumors in 50% of treated mice, 50% of which never recurred. Median time to tumor volume tripling was 38 days in BNCT treated mice, 17 days in neutron-irradiated mice given no boron compounds, and 4 days in untreated controls. Tumor response in mice with CT26 colon carcinoma was markedly more pronounced than in previous reports of mice with EMT6 tumors, a difference which increased with dose. The slope of the dose response curve of CT26 colon carcinoma tumors is 1.05 times tumor growth delay per Gy compared to 0.09 times tumor growth delay per Gy for EMT6 tumors, indicating that inherent radiosensitivity of tumors plays a role in boron neutron capture therapy and should be considered in the development of clinical applications of BNCT in animals and man.

  19. MODELING THE RADIATION SHIELDING OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY BASED ON 2.4 MEV D-D NEUTRON GENERATOR FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mu’Alim

    2018-01-01

    PEMODELAN PERISAI RADIASI PADA FASILITAS BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY BERBASIS GENERATOR NEUTRON D-D 2,4 MeV. Telah dimodelkan perisai radiasi pada fasilitas Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT berbasis reaksi D-D pada Neutron Generator 2,4 MeV dengan Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA yang telah didesain sebelumnya. Pemodelan ini dilakukan untuk memperoleh suatu desain perisai radiasi untuk fasilitas BNCT berbasis generator neutron 2,4 MeV. Pemodelan dilakukan dengan cara memvariasikan bahan dan ketebalan perisasi radiasi. Bahan yang dipilih adalah beton barit, parafin, polietilen terborasi dan timbal. Perhitungan dilakukan menggunakan program MCNPX dengan tally F4 untuk menentukan laju dosis yang keluar dari perisai radiasi. Desain periasi radiasi dinyatakan optimal jika radiasi yang dihasilkan diluar perisai radiasi tidak melebihi Nilai Batas Dosis (NBD yang telah ditentukan oleh BAPETEN. Hasilnya, diperoleh suatu desain perisai radiasi menggunakan lapisan utama beton barit setebal 100 cm yang mengelilingi ruangan 100 cm x 100 cm x 166,4 cm dan polietilen terborasi 40 cm yang mengelilingi bahan beton barit. Kemudian ditambahkan beton barit 10 cm dan polietilen terborasi 10 cm untuk mengurangi radiasi primer yang lurus dari BSA setelah keluar dari lapisan utama. Laju dosis terbesar adalah 4,58 μSv·jam-1 pada sel 227 dan laju dosis rata-rata yang dihasilkan adalah sebesar 0,65 µSv·jam-1. Nilai laju dosis tersebut masih dibawah ambang batas NBD yang diperbolehkan oleh BAPETEN untuk pekerja radiasi. Kata kunci: Perisai radiasi, tally, laju dosis radiasi, BSA, BNCT

  20. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  1. Carbon captured from the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This article presented an innovative way to achieve the efficient capture of atmospheric carbon. A team of scientists from the University of Calgary's Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy have shown that it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a simple machine that can capture the trace amount of CO{sub 2} present in ambient air at any place on the planet. The thermodynamics of capturing the small concentrations of CO{sub 2} from the air is only slightly more difficult than capturing much larger concentrations of CO{sub 2} from power plants. The research is significant because it offers a way to capture CO{sub 2} emissions from transportation sources such as vehicles and airplanes, which represent more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted on Earth. The energy efficient and cost effective air capture technology could complement other approaches for reducing emissions from the transportation sector, such as biofuels and electric vehicles. Air capture differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology used at coal-fired power plants where CO{sub 2} is captured and pipelined for permanent storage underground. Air capture can capture the CO{sub 2} that is present in ambient air and store it wherever it is cheapest. The team at the University of Calgary showed that CO{sub 2} could be captured directly from the air with less than 100 kWhrs of electricity per tonne of CO{sub 2}. A custom-built tower was able to capture the equivalent of 20 tonnes per year of CO{sub 2} on a single square meter of scrubbing material. The team devised a way to use a chemical process from the pulp and paper industry to cut the energy cost of air capture in half. Although the technology is only in its early stage, it appears that CO{sub 2} could be captured from the air with an energy demand comparable to that needed for CO{sub 2} capture from conventional power plants, but costs will be higher. The simple, reliable and scalable technology

  2. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Carbon captured from the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article presented an innovative way to achieve the efficient capture of atmospheric carbon. A team of scientists from the University of Calgary's Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy have shown that it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) using a simple machine that can capture the trace amount of CO 2 present in ambient air at any place on the planet. The thermodynamics of capturing the small concentrations of CO 2 from the air is only slightly more difficult than capturing much larger concentrations of CO 2 from power plants. The research is significant because it offers a way to capture CO 2 emissions from transportation sources such as vehicles and airplanes, which represent more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted on Earth. The energy efficient and cost effective air capture technology could complement other approaches for reducing emissions from the transportation sector, such as biofuels and electric vehicles. Air capture differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology used at coal-fired power plants where CO 2 is captured and pipelined for permanent storage underground. Air capture can capture the CO 2 that is present in ambient air and store it wherever it is cheapest. The team at the University of Calgary showed that CO 2 could be captured directly from the air with less than 100 kWhrs of electricity per tonne of CO 2 . A custom-built tower was able to capture the equivalent of 20 tonnes per year of CO 2 on a single square meter of scrubbing material. The team devised a way to use a chemical process from the pulp and paper industry to cut the energy cost of air capture in half. Although the technology is only in its early stage, it appears that CO 2 could be captured from the air with an energy demand comparable to that needed for CO 2 capture from conventional power plants, but costs will be higher. The simple, reliable and scalable technology offers an opportunity to build a commercial-scale plant. 1 fig

  4. Collisional Cascades Following Triton's Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Matija; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, Sarah T.

    2017-10-01

    Neptune's moon Triton is widely thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbit, most likely through binary dissociation (Agnor and Hamilton, 2006). Triton's original eccentric orbit must have been subsequently circularized by satellite tides (Goldreich et al. 1989). Cuk and Gladman (2005) found that Kozai oscillations make early tidal evolution inefficient, and have proposed that collisions between Triton and debris from pre-existing satellites was the dominant mechanism of shrinking Triton's large post-capture orbit. However, Cuk and Hamilton (DPS 2016), using numerical simulations and results of Stewart and Leinhardt (2012), have found that collisions between regular satellites are unlikely to be destructive, while collisions between prograde moons and Triton are certainly erosive if not catastrophic. An obvious outcome would be pre-existing moon material gradually grinding down Triton and making it reaccrete in the local Laplace plane, in conflict with Triton's large current inclination. We propose that the crucial ingredient for understanding the early evolution of the Neptunian system are the collisions between the moons and the prograde and retrograde debris originating from the pre-existing moons and Triton. In particular, we expect early erosive impact(s) on Triton to generate debris that will, in subsequent collisions, disrupt the regular satellites. If the retrograde material were to dominate at some planetocentric distances, the end result may be a large cloud or disk of retrograde debris that would be accreted by Triton, shrinking Triton's orbit. Some of the prograde debris could survive in a compact disk interior to Triton's pericenter, eventually forming the inner moons of Neptune. We will present results of numerical modeling of these complex dynamical processes at the meeting.

  5. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.H.; Ahmad, S.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Bertl, W.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Zhang, N.S.; Henderson, R.; McDonald, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Robertson, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the Standard Model, the weak interaction is purely V-A in character. However in semileptonic reactions the strong force induces additional couplings. One of these, the induced pseudoscalar coupling g p , is still very poorly determined experimentally. Using PCAC and the Goldberger-Treiman relation, one can obtain the estimate g p /g a = 6.8 for the nucleon. At present, the world average of 5 measurements of the rate of ordinary muon capture (each with an error in excess of 40%) yields g p /g a = 6.9 ± 1.5. Radiative Muon Capture (RMC) is considerably more sensitive to the pseudoscalar coupling. Due to the extremely small branching ratio (∼ 6 x 10 -8 ), the elementary reaction μ - p→ μnγ has never been measured. Effort to date has concentrated on nuclear RMC where the branching ratio is much larger, but the interpretation of these results is hindered by nuclear structure uncertainties. A measurement is being carried out at TRIUMF to determine the rate of RMC on hydrogen to a precision of 8% leading to a determination of g p with an error of 10%. The detection system is based on a large-volume drift chamber acting as a pair spectrometer. The drift chamber covers a solid angle of about 2π. At a magnetic field of 2.4 kG the acceptance for 70 MeV photons is about 0.9% using a 1.2 mm thick Pb photon converter. The expected photon energy resolution is about 10% FWHM. A detailed discussion of the systematic errors expected in the experiment and the preliminary results on the performance of the detector will be presented

  6. Upscaling of enzyme enhanced CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold

    Fossil fuels are the backbone of the energy generation in the coming decades for USA, China, India and Europe, hence high greenhouse gas emissions are expected in future. Carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) is the only technology that can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel...... the mass transfer of CO2 with slow-capturing but energetically favorable solvents can open up a variety of new process options for this technology. The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which enhances the mass transfer of CO2 in the lungs by catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2, is one very...... enhanced CO2 capture technology by identifying the potentials and limitations in lab and in pilot scale and benchmarking the process against proven technologies. The main goal was to derive a realistic process model for technical size absorbers with a wide range of validity incorporating a mechanistic...

  7. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  8. The Alchemy of "Costing Out" an Adequate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the rapid rise in court cases related to the adequacy of school funding, a variety of alternative methods have been developed to provide an analytical base about the necessary expenditure on schools. These approaches have been titled to give an aura of a thoughtful and solid scientific basis: the professional judgment model, the…

  9. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  10. Capturing Complex Multidimensional Data in Location-Based Data Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timko, Igor; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing need to handle complex multidimensional data inlocation-based data warehouses, this paper proposes apowerful data model that is able to capture the complexities of such data. The model provides a foundation for handling complex transportationinfrastructures...

  11. Fish welfare in capture fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about the welfare of production animals have extended from farm animals to fish, but an overview of the impact of especially capture fisheries on fish welfare is lacking. This review provides a synthesis of 85 articles, which demonstrates that research interest in fish welfare in capture

  12. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de.

    1994-01-01

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps

  13. Are current processes for nuclear emergency management in Europe adequate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E; French, S [Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    We describe the results of process mapping of nuclear emergency management procedures in four European countries. We find clear differences and explore these in relation to their suitability for building a shared understanding across the emergency management team of the evolving situation and a balanced appreciation of the uncertainties. Our findings indicate that there are some issues that cause concern in that the procedures may run smoothly and efficiently but they may also risk underestimating uncertainty or ignore key issues that have only been identified by a minority of experts or models. We are concerned that they do not facilitate the building of shared mental models that the literature such as that on highly reliable organisations has shown is important.

  14. Are current processes for nuclear emergency management in Europe adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E; French, S

    2006-01-01

    We describe the results of process mapping of nuclear emergency management procedures in four European countries. We find clear differences and explore these in relation to their suitability for building a shared understanding across the emergency management team of the evolving situation and a balanced appreciation of the uncertainties. Our findings indicate that there are some issues that cause concern in that the procedures may run smoothly and efficiently but they may also risk underestimating uncertainty or ignore key issues that have only been identified by a minority of experts or models. We are concerned that they do not facilitate the building of shared mental models that the literature such as that on highly reliable organisations has shown is important

  15. General considerations for neutron capture therapy at a reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to neutron beam intensity and quality, there are also a number of other significant criteria related to a nuclear reactor that contribute to a successful neutron capture therapy (NCT) facility. These criteria are classified into four main categories: Nuclear design factors, facility management and operations factors, facility resources, and non-technical factors. Important factors to consider are given for each of these categories. In addition to an adequate neutron beam intensity and quality, key requirements for a successful neutron capture therapy facility include necessary finances to construct or convert a facility for NCT, a capable medical staff to perform the NCT, and the administrative support for the facility. The absence of any one of these four factors seriously jeopardizes the overall probability of success of the facility. Thus nuclear reactor facility management considering becoming involved in neutron capture therapy, should it be proven clinically successful, should take all these factors into consideration. (author)

  16. Fluoroscopic radiation exposure: are we protecting ourselves adequately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffler, C Edward; Ilyas, Asif M

    2015-05-06

    While traditional intraoperative fluoroscopy protection relies on thyroid shields and aprons, recent data suggest that the surgeon's eyes and hands receive more exposure than previously appreciated. Using a distal radial fracture surgery model, we examined (1) radiation exposure to the eyes, thyroid, chest, groin, and hands of a surgeon mannequin; (2) the degree to which shielding equipment can decrease exposure; and (3) how exposure varies with fluoroscopy unit size. An anthropomorphic model was fit with radiation-attenuating glasses, a thyroid shield, an apron, and gloves. "Exposed" thermoluminescent dosimeters overlaid the protective equipment at the eyes, thyroid, chest, groin, and index finger while "shielded" dosimeters were placed beneath the protective equipment. Fluoroscopy position and settings were standardized. The mini-c-arm milliampere-seconds were fixed based on the selection of the kilovolt peak (kVp). Three mini and three standard c-arms scanned a model of the patient's wrist continuously for fifteen minutes each. Ten dosimeter exposures were recorded for each c-arm. Hand exposure averaged 31 μSv/min (range, 22 to 48 μSv/min), which was 13.0 times higher than the other recorded exposures. Eye exposure averaged 4 μSv/min, 2.2 times higher than the mean thyroid, chest, and groin exposure. Gloves reduced hand exposure by 69.4%. Glasses decreased eye exposure by 65.6%. There was no significant difference in exposure between mini and standard fluoroscopy. Surgeons' hands receive the most radiation exposure during distal radial plate fixation under fluoroscopy. There was a small but insignificant difference in mean exposure between standard fluoroscopy and mini-fluoroscopy, but some standard units resulted in lower exposure than some mini-units. On the basis of these findings, we recommend routine protective equipment to mitigate exposure to surgeons' hands and eyes, in addition to the thyroid, chest, and groin, during fluoroscopy procedures

  17. Analysis of capture-recapture data

    CERN Document Server

    McCrea, Rachel S

    2014-01-01

    An important first step in studying the demography of wild animals is to identify the animals uniquely through applying markings, such as rings, tags, and bands. Once the animals are encountered again, researchers can study different forms of capture-recapture data to estimate features, such as the mortality and size of the populations. Capture-recapture methods are also used in other areas, including epidemiology and sociology.With an emphasis on ecology, Analysis of Capture-Recapture Data covers many modern developments of capture-recapture and related models and methods and places them in the historical context of research from the past 100 years. The book presents both classical and Bayesian methods.A range of real data sets motivates and illustrates the material and many examples illustrate biometry and applied statistics at work. In particular, the authors demonstrate several of the modeling approaches using one substantial data set from a population of great cormorants. The book also discusses which co...

  18. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-06-20

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making materials, methods of capturing gas (e.g., CO.sub.2), and the like, and the like.

  19. Stability of a slotted ALOHA system with capture effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Yoshikuni; Liu, Jin; Noguchi, Shoichi

    1989-02-01

    The stability of a slotted ALOHA system with capture effect is investigated under a general communication environment where terminals are divided into two groups (low-power and high-power) and the capture effect is modeled by capture probabilities. An approximate analysis is developed using catastrophe theory, in which the effects of system and user parameters on the stability are characterized by the cusp catastrophe. Particular attention is given to the low-power group, since it must bear the strain under the capture effect. The stability conditions of the two groups are given explicitly by bifurcation sets.

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Understanding of Neutron Capture on Uranium Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Neutron capture cross sections on uranium isotopes are important quantities needed to model nuclear explosion performance, nuclear reactor design, nuclear test diagnostics, and nuclear forensics. It has been difficult to calculate capture accurately, and factors of 2 or more be- tween calculation and measurements are not uncommon, although normalization to measurements of the average capture width and nuclear level density can improve the result. The calculations of capture for 233,235,237,239U are further complicated by the need to accurately include the fission channel.

  1. Improving Land Dry Farmer Capacity Toward Adequate Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land dry farmers have not enrolled in supporting food security. Most of the farmer are the peasants with low capacity to produce food. The purpose of the research is to formulate policy recommendation to increase capacity of the peasants for support food security. The data were collected using following techniques: questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling (SEM. The research results showed that the peasant characteristics and the peasants capacity are within low category, influencing the level of food security. The Government are expected actively to increase the peasant’s capacity by optimizing efforts: providing extension and training in participatory ways; increasing role of facilitator and researcher in empowerment process, increasing the peasants’ access to production input, credit facilities and wider markets, give incentive to the peasants so that they can do double working, as well as increasing coordination between government institutions and stakeholder.

  2. Chronic Disease Management Programmes: an adequate response to patients’ needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, Mieke; Bekkema, Nienke; Boeckxstaens, Pauline; Schellevis, François G.; De Maeseneer, Jan M.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background  Inspired by American examples, several European countries are now developing disease management programmes (DMPs) to improve the quality of care for patients with chronic diseases. Recently, questions have been raised whether the disease management approach is appropriate to respond to patient‐defined needs. Objective  In this article we consider the responsiveness of current European DMPs to patients’ needs defined in terms of multimorbidity, functional and participation problems, and self‐management. Method  Information about existing DMPs was derived from a survey among country‐experts. In addition, we made use of international scientific literature. Results  Most European DMPs do not have a solid answer yet to the problem of multimorbidity. Methods of linking DMPs, building extra modules to deal with the most prevalent comorbidities and integration of case management principles are introduced. Rehabilitation, psychosocial and reintegration support are not included in all DMPs, and the involvement of the social environment of the patient is uncommon. Interventions tailored to the needs of specific social or cultural patient groups are mostly not available. Few DMPs provide access to individualized patient information to strengthen self‐management, including active engagement in decision making. Conclusion  To further improve the responsiveness of DMPs to patients’ needs, we suggest to monitor ‘patient relevant outcomes’ that might be based on the ICF‐model. To address the needs of patients with multimorbidity, we propose a generic comprehensive model, embedded in primary care. A goal‐oriented approach provides the opportunity to prioritize goals that really matter to patients. PMID:22712877

  3. An exponential growth model with decreasing r captures bottom-up effects on the population growth of Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costamagna, A.C.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Landis, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    1 There is ample evidence that the life history and population dynamics of aphids are closely linked to plant phenology. Based on life table studies, it has been proposed that the growth of aphid populations could be modeled with an exponential growth model, with r decreasing linearly with time.

  4. Proton capture by magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaussen, K.; Olsen, H.A.; Oeverboe, I.; Osland, P.

    1983-09-01

    In the Kazama-Yang approximation, the lowest monopole-proton bound states have binding energies of 938 MeV, 263 keV, 105 eV, and 0.04 eV. The cross section for radiative capture to these states is for velocities β = 10 -5 - 10 -3 found to be of the order of 10 -28 - 10 -26 cm 2 . For the state that has a binding energy of 263 keV, the capture length in water is 171 x (β/10 -4 )sup(0.48) m. Observation of photons from the capture process would indicate the presence of monopoles. (orig.)

  5. Home care: from adequate funding to integration of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Réjean

    2009-01-01

    With the aging of the population, the healthcare system needs to shift from the actual hospital-centred system developed in the past century for dealing with acute diseases and a young population toward a home-centred system, more appropriate for serving older people with chronic diseases. Funding of home care should not only be significantly increased but also be managed differently. We propose the introduction of an autonomy support benefit (ASB) to cover costs related to disabilities, irrespective of living environment, and to set up a public universal autonomy insurance program that will cover the ASB. This insurance should be at least partly capitalized to provide for the aging of the population and to ensure intergenerational equity. Also, since the home is a much more complicated service-delivery environment than the hospital, these services must be coordinated and integrated. The Program of Research to Integrate the Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy (PRISMA) is a coordination-type model of integration that was implemented and evaluated in three areas (one urban and two rural) in and around Sherbrooke, Quebec. A four-year longitudinal quasi-experimental study with over 1,500 participants demonstrated its efficiency in improving system effectiveness at no extra cost.

  6. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    Carbon capture and sequestration (or storage)known as CCShas attracted interest as a : measure for mitigating global climate change because large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) : emitted from fossil fuel use in the United States are potentiall...

  7. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebiger Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  8. Direct neutron capture and related mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.; Raman, S.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the evidence for the role of direct and related mechanisms in neutron capture at low and medium energies. Firstly, we compare the experimental data on the thermal neutron cross sections for El transitions in light nuclei with careful estimates of direct capture. Over the full range of light nuclei with small cross sections direct capture is found to be the predominant mechanism, in some cases being remarkable accurate, but in a few showing evidence for collective effects. When resonance effects become substantial there is evidence for an important contribution from the closely related valence mechanism, but full agreement with the data in such cases appears to require the introduction of a more generalised valence model. The possibility of direct and valence mechanisms playing a role in M1 capture is studied, and it is concluded that in light nuclei at relatively low gamma ray energies, it does indeed play some role. In heavier nuclei it appears that the evidence, especially from the correlations between E1 and M1 transitions to the same final states, favours the hypothesis that the main transition strength is governed by the M1 giant resonance. 31 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Overgeneral autobiographical memory in healthy young and older adults: Differential age effects on components of the capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and impaired executive control (CaRFAX) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Laura; Latorre, Jose M; Serrano, Juan P; Ricarte, Jorge J

    2017-08-01

    The CaRFAX model (Williams et al., 2007) has been used to explain the causes of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM; the difficulty to retrieve specific autobiographical memories), a cognitive phenomenon generally related with different psychopathologies. This model proposes 3 different mechanisms to explain OGM: capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA) and impaired executive functions (X). However, the complete CaRFAX model has not been tested in nonclinical populations. This study aims to assess the usefulness of the CaRFAX model to explain OGM in 2 healthy samples: a young sample and an older sample, to test for possible age-related differences in the underlying causes of OGM. A total of 175 young (age range: 19-36 years) and 175 older (age range: 53-88 years) participants completed measures of brooding rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA), and executive tasks (X). Using structural equation modeling, we found that memory specificity is mainly associated with lower functional avoidance and higher executive functions in the older group, but only with executive functions in young participants. We discuss the different roles of emotional regulation strategies used by young and older people and their relation to the CaRFAX model to explain OGM in healthy people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Alignment in double capture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N 7+ +He and Ne 8+ +He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3 ell 3 ell ' lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned

  11. Alignment in double capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))

    1993-06-05

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  12. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  13. Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    whereas laboratory-scale experiments typically seek to validate or obtain data for specific components of a system. Laboratory- and bench-scale processes...Plant,” Energy, vol. 35 (2010), pp. 841-850. E. Favre, R. Bounaceur, and D. Roizard, “ Biogas , Membranes and Carbon Dioxide Capture,” Journal of...pp. 1-49. 64 Favre, “ Biogas , Membranes.” Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment Congressional Research Service 42 materials have pore sizes

  14. Negative meson capture in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The processes of deexcitation and capture of negative mesons and hadrons in atomic hydrogen are investigated. Only slow collisions in which the projectile-atom relative velocity is less than one atomic unit are considered, and the motion of the incident particle is treated classically. For each classical trajectory the probability of ionizing the hydrogen atom is determined, together with the energy spectrum of the emitted electron. Ionization probabilities are calculated using the time-dependent formulation of the perturbed stationary state method. Exact two-center electronic wave functions are used for both bound and continuum states. The total ionization cross section and electron energy spectrum have been calculated for negative muons, kaons and antiprotons at incident relative velocities between 0.04 and 1.0 atomic units. The electron energy spectrum has a sharp peak for electron kinetic energies on the order of 10 -3 Rydbergs. The ionization process thus favors the emission of very slow electrons. The cross section for ionization with capture of the incident particle was calculated for relative kinetic energies greater than 1.0 Rydberg. Since ionization was found to occur with the emission of electrons of nearly zero kinetic energy, the fraction of ionizing collisions which result in capture decreases very rapidly with projectile kinetic energy. The energy distributions of slowed down muons and hadrons were also computed. These distributions were used together with the capture cross section to determine the distribution of kinetic energies at which capture takes place. It was found that most captures occur for kinetic energies slightly less than 1.0 Rydbergs with relatively little capture at thermal energies. The captured particles therefore tend to go into very large and loosely found orbits with binding energies less than 0.1 Rydbergs

  15. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertl, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Schott, W.; Wright, D.H.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Azuelos, G.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Von Egidy, T.; Zhang, N.S.; Robertson, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    The radiative capture of negative muons by protons can be used to measure the weak induced pseudoscalar form factor. Brief arguments why this method is preferable to ordinary muon capture are given followed by a discussion of the experimental difficulties. The solution to these problems as attempted by experiment no. 452 at TRIUMF is presented together with preliminary results from the first run in August 1990. An outlook on the expected final precision and the experimental schedule is also given. (orig.)

  16. Prey capture by freely swimming flagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Dolger, Julia; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Flagellates are unicellular microswimmers that propel themselves using one or several beating flagella. Here, we explore the dependence of swimming kinematics and prey clearance rate on flagellar arrangement and determine optimal flagellar arrangements and essential trade-offs. To describe near-cell flows around freely swimming flagellates we consider a model in which the cell is represented by a no-slip sphere and each flagellum by a point force. For uniflagellates pulled by a single flagellum the model suggests that a long flagellum favors fast swimming, whereas high clearance rate is favored by a very short flagellum. For biflagellates with both a longitudinal and a transversal flagellum we explore the helical swimming kinematics and the prey capture sites. We compare our predictions with observations of swimming kinematics, prey capture, and flows around common marine flagellates. The Centre for Ocean Life is a VKR Centre of Excellence supported by the Villum Foundation.

  17. Distribution of exogenous porphyrins in vivo; implications for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Gabel, D.; Hillman, M.; Watts, K.

    1982-01-01

    Endogenous porphyrins (HpD) are already in clinical use for phototherapy, in which red light is used to stimulate a cytotoxic response in tumors. The evident success, at least with superficial cancers, gives biological evidence of selective concentrations of porphyrins in tumors adequate for therapy. The authors have investigated, in addition, the biodistribution of a synthetic porphyrin (tetraphenylporphinesulfonate, or TPPS) in seven different animal tumor models. Their data, as well as those of others, indicate abundant accumulations of TPPS in tumor. If boronated analogs behave in the same way, boron concentrations would be up to 10 times that needed for therapy. Utilization of such porphyrin analogs in the neutron capture therapy (NCT) procedure is similar in concept to phototherapy currently being used clinically, with the distinct advantage of deeper tissue penetration produced by the activating neutrons

  18. HSQC-1,n-ADEQUATE: a new approach to long-range 13C-13C correlation by covariance processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary E; Hilton, Bruce D; Willcott, M Robert; Blinov, Kirill A

    2011-10-01

    Long-range, two-dimensional heteronuclear shift correlation NMR methods play a pivotal role in the assembly of novel molecular structures. The well-established GHMBC method is a high-sensitivity mainstay technique, affording connectivity information via (n)J(CH) coupling pathways. Unfortunately, there is no simple way of determining the value of n and hence no way of differentiating two-bond from three- and occasionally four-bond correlations. Three-bond correlations, however, generally predominate. Recent work has shown that the unsymmetrical indirect covariance or generalized indirect covariance processing of multiplicity edited GHSQC and 1,1-ADEQUATE spectra provides high-sensitivity access to a (13)C-(13) C connectivity map in the form of an HSQC-1,1-ADEQUATE spectrum. Covariance processing of these data allows the 1,1-ADEQUATE connectivity information to be exploited with the inherent sensitivity of the GHSQC spectrum rather than the intrinsically lower sensitivity of the 1,1-ADEQUATE spectrum itself. Data acquisition times and/or sample size can be substantially reduced when covariance processing is to be employed. In an extension of that work, 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra can likewise be subjected to covariance processing to afford high-sensitivity access to the equivalent of (4)J(CH) GHMBC connectivity information. The method is illustrated using strychnine as a model compound. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Multiple-predators-based capture process on complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, Rajput Ramiz; Pu Cunlai; Li Jie; Chen Rongbin; Xu Zhongqi

    2017-01-01

    The predator/prey (capture) problem is a prototype of many network-related applications. We study the capture process on complex networks by considering multiple predators from multiple sources. In our model, some lions start from multiple sources simultaneously to capture the lamb by biased random walks, which are controlled with a free parameter α . We derive the distribution of the lamb’s lifetime and the expected lifetime 〈 T 〉. Through simulation, we find that the expected lifetime drops substantially with the increasing number of lions. Moreover, we study how the underlying topological structure affects the capture process, and obtain that locating on small-degree nodes is better than on large-degree nodes to prolong the lifetime of the lamb. The dense or homogeneous network structures are against the survival of the lamb. We also discuss how to improve the capture efficiency in our model. (paper)

  20. Capture by colour: evidence for dimension-specific singleton capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    Previous work on attentional capture has shown the attentional system to be quite flexible in the stimulus properties it can be set to respond to. Several different attentional "modes" have been identified. Feature search mode allows attention to be set for specific features of a target (e.g., red). Singleton detection mode sets attention to respond to any discrepant item ("singleton") in the display. Relational search sets attention for the relative properties of the target in relation to the distractors (e.g., redder, larger). Recently, a new attentional mode was proposed that sets attention to respond to any singleton within a particular feature dimension (e.g., colour; Folk & Anderson, 2010). We tested this proposal against the predictions of previously established attentional modes. In a spatial cueing paradigm, participants searched for a colour target that was randomly either red or green. The nature of the attentional control setting was probed by presenting an irrelevant singleton cue prior to the target display and assessing whether it attracted attention. In all experiments, the cues were red, green, blue, or a white stimulus rapidly rotated (motion cue). The results of three experiments support the existence of a "colour singleton set," finding that all colour cues captured attention strongly, while motion cues captured attention only weakly or not at all. Notably, we also found that capture by motion cues in search for colour targets was moderated by their frequency; rare motion cues captured attention (weakly), while frequent motion cues did not.

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of NH_3-CO_2-SO_2-K_2SO_4-H_2O system for combined CO_2 and SO_2 capture using aqueous NH_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Guojie; Wang, Shujuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new application of aqueous NH_3 based combined CO_2 and SO_2 process was proposed. • A thermodynamic model simulated the heat of absorption and the K_2SO_4 precipitation. • The CO_2 content can be regenerated in a stripper with lower heat of desorption. • The SO_2 content can be removed by K_2SO_4 precipitation from the lean NH_3 solvent. - Abstract: A new application of aqueous NH_3 based post-combustion CO_2 and SO_2 combined capture process was proposed to simultaneously capture CO_2 and SO_2, and remove sulfite by solid (K_2SO_4) precipitation method. The thermodynamic model of the NH_3-CO_2-SO_2-K_2SO_4-H_2O system for the combined CO_2 and SO_2 capture process was developed and validated in this work to analyze the heat of CO_2 and SO_2 absorption in the NH_3-CO_2-SO_2-H_2O system, and the K_2SO_4 precipitation characteristics in the NH_3-CO_2-SO_2-K_2SO_4-H_2O system. The average heat of CO_2 absorption in the NH_3-CO_2-H_2O system at 40 °C is around −73 kJ/mol CO_2 in 2.5 wt% NH_3 with CO_2 loading between 0.2 and 0.5 C/N. The average heat of SO_2 absorption in the NH_3-SO_2-H_2O system at 40 °C is around −120 kJ/mol SO_2 in 2.5 wt% NH_3 with SO_2 loading between 0 and 0.5 S/N. The average heat of CO_2 absorption in the NH_3-CO_2-SO_2-H_2O system at 40 °C is 77, 68, and 58 kJ/mol CO_2 in 2.5 wt% NH_3 with CO_2 loading between 0.2 and 0.5 C/N, when SO_2 loading is 0, 0.1, 0.2 S/N, respectively. The solubility of K_2SO_4 increases with temperature, CO_2 and SO_2 loadings, but decreases with NH_3 concentration in the CO_2 and SO_2 loaded aqueous NH_3. The thermodynamic evaluation indicates that the combined CO_2 and SO_2 capture process could employ the typical absorption/regeneration process to simultaneously capture CO_2 and SO_2 in an absorber, thermally desorb CO_2 in a stripper, and feasibly remove sulfite (oxidized to sulfate) content by precipitating K_2SO_4 from the lean NH_3 solvent after the lean/rich heat exchanger.

  2. Capturing the Stratosphere’s Influence on Seasonal and Intraseasonal Predictability in a State-of-the-Art Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    NRL water vapor chemistry scheme of McCormack et al. (2008). The new scheme uses updated photochemical equilibrium states and chemical production ...replenished through production via methane oxidation. The new code has been extensively tested in the single column model, was ported to NAVGEM and...tested (see below), and is currently in the process of being fully intergrated into the developmental NAVGEM code for use by NRL’s entire NAVGEM

  3. Interpreting "Personality" Taxonomies: Why Previous Models Cannot Capture Individual-Specific Experiencing, Behaviour, Functioning and Development. Major Taxonomic Tasks Still Lay Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    As science seeks to make generalisations, a science of individual peculiarities encounters intricate challenges. This article explores these challenges by applying the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) and by exploring taxonomic "personality" research as an example. Analyses of researchers' interpretations of the taxonomic "personality" models, constructs and data that have been generated in the field reveal widespread erroneous assumptions about the abilities of previous methodologies to appropriately represent individual-specificity in the targeted phenomena. These assumptions, rooted in everyday thinking, fail to consider that individual-specificity and others' minds cannot be directly perceived, that abstract descriptions cannot serve as causal explanations, that between-individual structures cannot be isomorphic to within-individual structures, and that knowledge of compositional structures cannot explain the process structures of their functioning and development. These erroneous assumptions and serious methodological deficiencies in widely used standardised questionnaires have effectively prevented psychologists from establishing taxonomies that can comprehensively model individual-specificity in most of the kinds of phenomena explored as "personality", especially in experiencing and behaviour and in individuals' functioning and development. Contrary to previous assumptions, it is not universal models but rather different kinds of taxonomic models that are required for each of the different kinds of phenomena, variations and structures that are commonly conceived of as "personality". Consequently, to comprehensively explore individual-specificity, researchers have to apply a portfolio of complementary methodologies and develop different kinds of taxonomies, most of which have yet to be developed. Closing, the article derives some meta-desiderata for future research on individuals' "personality".

  4. 3D RVE models able to capture and quantify the dispersion, agglomeration and orientation state of CNT in CNT/PP nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Atiqur Bhuiyan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to investigate the capabilities of 3D RVE models in predicting the tensile modulus of carbon nanotube polypropylene (CNT/PP composites which differ slightly in the dispersion, agglomeration and orientation states of CNT within the PP matrix. The composites are made using melt mixing followed by either injection molding or melt spinning of fibers. The dispersion, agglomeration and orientation of CNT within the PP are experimentally altered by using a surfactant and by forcing the molten material to flow through a narrow orifice (melt spinning that promotes alignment of CNT along the flow/drawing direction. An elaborate image analysis technique is used to quantify the CNT characteristics in terms of probability distribution functions (PDF. The PDF are then introduced to the 3D RVE models which also account for the CNT-PP interfacial interactions. It is concluded that the 3D RVE models can accurately distinguish among the different cases (dispersion, distribution, geometry and alignment of CNT as the predicted tensile modulus is in good agreement with the experimentally determined one.

  5. Capturing the sensitivity of land-use regression models to short-term mobile monitoring campaigns using air pollution micro-sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, L; Gehr, R; Hatzopoulou, M

    2017-11-01

    The development of reliable measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution is crucial for the evaluation of the health effects of transportation. Land-use regression (LUR) techniques have been widely used for the development of exposure surfaces, however these surfaces are often highly sensitive to the data collected. With the rise of inexpensive air pollution sensors paired with GPS devices, we witness the emergence of mobile data collection protocols. For the same urban area, can we achieve a 'universal' model irrespective of the number of locations and sampling visits? Can we trade the temporal representation of fixed-point sampling for a larger spatial extent afforded by mobile monitoring? This study highlights the challenges of short-term mobile sampling campaigns in terms of the resulting exposure surfaces. A mobile monitoring campaign was conducted in 2015 in Montreal; nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels at 1395 road segments were measured under repeated visits. We developed LUR models based on sub-segments, categorized in terms of the number of visits per road segment. We observe that LUR models were highly sensitive to the number of road segments and to the number of visits per road segment. The associated exposure surfaces were also highly dissimilar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Annual Report: Carbon Capture (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, David; Morreale, Bryan; Richards, George; Syamlal, Madhava

    2014-04-16

    Capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a critical component in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-based processes. The Carbon Capture research to be performed is aimed at accelerating the development of efficient, cost-effective technologies which meet the post-combustion programmatic goal of capture of 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from an existing coal-fired power plant with less than a 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE), and the pre-combustion goal of 90% CO{sub 2} capture with less than a 10% increase in COE. The specific objective of this work is to develop innovative materials and approaches for the economic and efficient capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-based processes, and ultimately assess the performance of promising technologies at conditions representative of field application (i.e., slip stream evaluation). The Carbon Capture research includes seven core technical research areas: post-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; pre-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. The goal of each of these tasks is to develop advanced materials and processes that are able to reduce the energy penalty and cost of CO{sub 2} (or O{sub 2}) separation over conventional technologies. In the first year of development, materials will be examined by molecular modeling, and then synthesized and experimentally characterized at lab scale. In the second year, they will be tested further under ideal conditions. In the third year, they will be tested under realistic conditions. The most promising materials will be tested at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) using actual flue or fuel gas. Systems analyses will be used to determine whether or not materials developed are likely to meet the Department of Energy (DOE) COE targets. Materials which perform well and appear likely to improve in performance will be licensed for further development outside of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL

  7. Engineered Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG expressing IgG-binding domains of protein G: Capture of hyperimmune bovine colostrum antibodies and protection against diarrhea in a mouse pup rotavirus infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydın, Gökçe; Zhang, Ran; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2014-01-16

    Rotavirus-induced diarrhea causes more than 500,000 deaths annually in the world, and although vaccines are being made available, new effective treatment strategies should still be considered. Purified antibodies derived from hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), from cows immunized with rotavirus, were previously used for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children. A combination of HBC antibodies and a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus (L. rhamnosus GG) was also found to be more effective than HBC alone in reducing diarrhea in a mouse model of rotavirus infection. In order to further improve this form of treatment, L. rhamnosus GG was engineered to display surface expressed IgG-binding domains of protein G (GB1, GB2, and GB3) which capture HBC-derived IgG antibodies (HBC-IgG) and thus target rotavirus. The expression of IgG-binding domains on the surface of the bacteria as well as their binding to HBC-IgG and to rotavirus (simian strain RRV) was demonstrated by Western blot, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy. The prophylactic effect of engineered L. rhamnosus GG and anti-rotaviral activity of HBC antibodies was evaluated in a mouse pup model of RRV infection. The combination therapy with engineered L. rhamnosus GG (PG3) and HBC was significantly more effective in reducing the prevalence, severity, and duration of diarrhea in comparison to HBC alone or a combination of wild-type L. rhamnosus GG and HBC. The new therapy reduces the effective dose of HBC between 10 to 100-fold and may thus decrease treatment costs. This antibody capturing platform, tested here for the first time in vivo, could potentially be used to target additional gastrointestinal pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Top-Down Delivery of IoT-based Applications for Seniors Behavior Change Capturing Exploiting a Model-Driven Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, Alessandro; Caione, Adriana; Mainetti, Luca; Manco, Luigi; Vergallo, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Developing Internet of Things (IoT) requires expertise and considerable skills in different fields in order to cover all the involved heterogeneous technologies, communication formats and protocols. Developers and experts ask for new solutions that speed up the prototyping of IoT applications. One of these solutions is Web of Topics (WoX) middleware, a model-driven Cloud platform that aims to ease IoT applications developing, introducing a strong semantic abstraction of the IoT concepts. In W...

  9. Laser capture microdissection: Arcturus(XT) infrared capture and UV cutting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rosa I; Blakely, Steven R; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a technique that allows the precise procurement of enriched cell populations from a heterogeneous tissue under direct microscopic visualization. LCM can be used to harvest the cells of interest directly or can be used to isolate specific cells by ablating the unwanted cells, resulting in histologically enriched cell populations. The fundamental components of laser microdissection technology are (a) visualization of the cells of interest via microscopy, (b) transfer of laser energy to a thermolabile polymer with either the formation of a polymer-cell composite (capture method) or transfer of laser energy via an ultraviolet laser to photovolatize a region of tissue (cutting method), and (c) removal of cells of interest from the heterogeneous tissue section. Laser energy supplied by LCM instruments can be infrared (810 nm) or ultraviolet (355 nm). Infrared lasers melt thermolabile polymers for cell capture, whereas ultraviolet lasers ablate cells for either removal of unwanted cells or excision of a defined area of cells. LCM technology is applicable to an array of applications including mass spectrometry, DNA genotyping and loss-of-heterozygosity analysis, RNA transcript profiling, cDNA library generation, proteomics discovery, and signal kinase pathway profiling. This chapter describes the unique features of the Arcturus(XT) laser capture microdissection instrument, which incorporates both infrared capture and ultraviolet cutting technology in one instrument, using a proteomic downstream assay as a model.

  10. Lessons Learnt from Experts in Design Rationale Knowledge Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Mark; Bermell-Garcia, Pablo; Ravindranath, Ranjitun

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the use of argumentation models and software tools to support knowledge capture in the design of long-life engineering products. The results of semi-structured interviews with a number of experts in the field are presented, exploring their collective experience...... of knowledge capture and eliciting guidelines for successful implementation of such models and tools. The results of this research may be used as the basis for the design of future tools and techniques for knowledge capture....

  11. An elevated large-scale dust veil from the Taklimakan Desert: Intercontinental transport and three-dimensional structure as captured by CALIPSO and regional and global models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shimizu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An intense dust storm occurred during 19–20 May 2007 over the Taklimakan Desert in northwestern China. Over the following days, the space-borne lidar CALIOP tracked an optically thin, highly elevated, horizontally extensive dust veil that was transported intercontinentally over eastern Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean. A global aerosol transport model (SPRINTARS simulated the dust veil quite well and provided a three-dimensional view of the intercontinental dust transport. The SPRINTARS simulation revealed that the dust veil traveled at 4–10 km altitudes with a thickness of 1–4 km along the isentropic surface between 310 and 340 K. The transport speed was about 1500 km/day. The estimated dust amount exported to the Pacific was 30.8 Gg, of which 65% was deposited in the Pacific and 18% was transported to the North Atlantic. These results imply that dust veils can fertilize open oceans, add to background dust, and affect the radiative budget at high altitudes through scattering and absorption.

    The injection mechanism that lifts dust particles into the free atmosphere is important for understanding the formation of the dust veil and subsequent long-range transport. We used a regional dust transport model (RC4 to analyze the dust emission and injection over the source region. The RC4 analysis revealed that strong northeasterly surface winds associated with low pressures invaded the Taklimakan Desert through the eastern corridor. These winds then formed strong upslope wind along the high, steep mountainsides of the Tibetan Plateau and blew large amounts of dust into the air. The updraft lifted the dust particles farther into the upper troposphere (about 9 km above mean sea level, MSL, where westerlies are generally present. The unusual terrain surrounding the Taklimakan Desert played a key role in the injection of dust to the upper troposphere to form the dust veil.

  12. Gene expression profiling of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in an adult toxicity study captures a variety of neurodevelopmental dysfunctions in rat models of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Ayako; Saito, Fumiyo; Akane, Hirotoshi; Akahori, Yumi; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Itahashi, Megu; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We previously found that developmental hypothyroidism changed the expression of genes in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, a brain region where adult neurogenesis is known to occur. In the present study, we performed brain region-specific global gene expression profiling in an adult rat hypothyroidism model to see if it reflected the developmental neurotoxicity we saw in the developmental hypothyroidism model. Starting when male rats were 5 weeks old, we administered 6-propyl-2-thiouracil at a doses of 0, 0.1 and 10 mg kg(-1) body weight by gavage for 28 days. We selected four brain regions to represent both cerebral and cerebellar tissues: hippocampal dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. We observed significant alterations in the expression of genes related to neural development (Eph family genes and Robo3) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus and in the expression of genes related to myelination (Plp1 and Mbp) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We observed only minor changes in the expression of these genes in the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. We used real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to confirm Chrdl1, Hes5, Mbp, Plp1, Slit1, Robo3 and the Eph family transcript expression changes. The most significant changes in gene expression were found in the dentate gyrus. Considering that the gene expression profile of the adult dentate gyrus closely related to neurogenesis, 28-day toxicity studies looking at gene expression changes in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus may also detect possible developmental neurotoxic effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The author first defines what carbon capture and storage (CCS)is, describes more precisely the various technologies, methods and processes involved in carbon capture, carbon transport, and carbon geological storage. He briefly evokes the various applications and uses of CCS. In the second part, he proposes an overview of advances and deadlocks of CCS in the world, of the status of installations and projects, of the development of capture practices in the industry, of some existing and important storage sites, of some pilot installations developed by various industrial actors in different countries (26 installations in the world). He indicates power stations equipped for CCS (in Canada, USA, United-Kingdom, Netherlands, Norway, China, South Korea and United Arab Emirates). He evokes projects which have been given up or postponed. He proposes an overview of policies implemented in different countries (USA, Canada, European Union, Australia, and others) to promote CCS

  14. Electron Capture Cross Sections for Stellar Nucleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Giannaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the abovementioned e--capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the 66Zn isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  15. CO2 Capture and Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambimuthu, K.; Gupta, M.; Davison, J.

    2003-01-01

    CO2 capture and storage including its utilization or reuse presents an opportunity to achieve deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy use. The development and deployment of this option could significantly assist in meeting a future goal of achieving stabilization of the presently rising atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. CO2 capture from process streams is an established concept that has achieved industrial practice. Examples of current applications include the use of primarily, solvent based capture technologies for the recovery of pure CO2 streams for chemical synthesis, for utilization as a food additive, for use as a miscible agent in enhanced oil recovery operations and removal of CO2 as an undesired contaminant from gaseous process streams for the production of fuel gases such as hydrogen and methane. In these applications, the technologies deployed for CO2 capture have focused on gas separation from high purity, high pressure streams and in reducing (or oxygen deficient) environments, where the energy penalties and cost for capture are moderately low. However, application of the same capture technologies for large scale abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use poses significant challenges in achieving (at comparably low energy penalty and cost) gas separation in large volume, dilute concentration and/or low pressure flue gas streams. This paper will focus on a review of existing commercial methods of CO2 capture and the technology stretch, process integration and energy system pathways needed for their large scale deployment in fossil fueled processes. The assessment of potential capture technologies for the latter purpose will also be based on published literature data that are both 'transparent' and 'systematic' in their evaluation of the overall cost and energy penalties of CO2 capture. In view of the of the fact that many of the existing commercial processes for CO2 capture have seen applications in

  16. Neutron Capture Gamma-Ray Libraries for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleaford, B. W.; Summers, N.; Escher, J.; Firestone, R. B.; Basunia, S.; Hurst, A.; Krticka, M.; Molnar, G.; Belgya, T.; Revay, Z.; Choi, H. D.

    2011-01-01

    The neutron capture reaction is useful in identifying and analyzing the gamma-ray spectrum from an unknown assembly as it gives unambiguous information on its composition. This can be done passively or actively where an external neutron source is used to probe an unknown assembly. There are known capture gamma-ray data gaps in the ENDF libraries used by transport codes for various nuclear applications. The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation file (EGAF) is a new thermal neutron capture database of discrete line spectra and cross sections for over 260 isotopes that was developed as part of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project. EGAF is being used to improve the capture gamma production in ENDF libraries. For medium to heavy nuclei the quasi continuum contribution to the gamma cascades is not experimentally resolved. The continuum contains up to 90% of all the decay energy and is modeled here with the statistical nuclear structure code DICEBOX. This code also provides a consistency check of the level scheme nuclear structure evaluation. The calculated continuum is of sufficient accuracy to include in the ENDF libraries. This analysis also determines new total thermal capture cross sections and provides an improved RIPL database. For higher energy neutron capture there is less experimental data available making benchmarking of the modeling codes more difficult. We are investigating the capture spectra from higher energy neutrons experimentally using surrogate reactions and modeling this with Hauser-Feshbach codes. This can then be used to benchmark CASINO, a version of DICEBOX modified for neutron capture at higher energy. This can be used to simulate spectra from neutron capture at incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV to improve the gamma-ray spectrum in neutron data libraries used for transport modeling of unknown assemblies.

  17. Neutron Capture Gamma-Ray Libraries for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleaford, B.W.; Firestone, R.B.; Summers, N.; Escher, J.; Hurst, A.; Krticka, M.; Basunia, S.; Molnar, G.; Belgya, T.; Revay, Z.; Choi, H.D.

    2010-01-01

    The neutron capture reaction is useful in identifying and analyzing the gamma-ray spectrum from an unknown assembly as it gives unambiguous information on its composition. this can be done passively or actively where an external neutron source is used to probe an unknown assembly. There are known capture gamma-ray data gaps in the ENDF libraries used by transport codes for various nuclear applications. The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation file (EGAF) is a new thermal neutron capture database of discrete line spectra and cross sections for over 260 isotopes that was developed as part of an IAEA Coordinated Research project. EGAF is being used to improve the capture gamma production in ENDF libraries. For medium to heavy nuclei the quasi continuum contribution to the gamma cascades is not experimentally resolved. The continuum contains up to 90% of all the decay energy and is modeled here with the statistical nuclear structure code DICEBOX. This code also provides a consistency check of the level scheme nuclear structure evaluation. The calculated continuum is of sufficient accuracy to include in the ENDF libraries. This analysis also determines new total thermal capture cross sections and provides an improved RIPL database. For higher energy neutron capture there is less experimental data available making benchmarking of the modeling codes more difficult. They are investigating the capture spectra from higher energy neutrons experimentally using surrogate reactions and modeling this with Hauser-Feshbach codes. This can then be used to benchmark CASINO, a version of DICEBOX modified for neutron capture at higher energy. This can be used to simulate spectra from neutron capture at incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV to improve the gamma-ray spectrum in neutron data libraries used for transport modeling of unknown assemblies.

  18. [Comparative analysis of 3D data visibility of the prepared tooth finishing line on a synthetic jaw model, captured by international scanners in a laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryakhovskiy, A N; Kostyukova, V V

    The aim of the study was to compare accuracy of digital impression's finishing line and the zone under it taken by different intraoral scanning systems. Parameters of comparison were: different level of the finishing line to the gingiva and width of sulcus after retraction. For this purpose two synthetic jaw models with prepared teeth were scanned using intraoral scanning systems: 3D Progress (MHT S.P.A., IT - MHT Optic Research AG, CH); True Definition (3M ESPE, USA); Trios (3Shape A/S, DNK); CEREC AC Bluecam, CEREC Omnicam (Sirona Dental System GmbH, DE); Planscan (Planmeca, FIN) (each n=10). Reference-scanning was done by ATOS Core (GOM mbH, DE). The resulting digital impressions were superimposed with the master-scan. The lowest measured deviations (trueness) for intraoral scanners, where the finishing line was 0.5 mm above gingiva were with scanner True Definition - 18.8±6.63 (on the finishing line) and 51.0±14.33 µm (0.3 mm under the finishing line). In conditions where finishing line was on the same level with gingiva, scanner Trios showed the best results: 17.0±3.96 and 52.7±6.52 µm. When the finishing line was 0.5 mm under gingiva, none of the testing scanners could visualize the zone 0.3 mm lower the finishing line. The best results for accuracy o the finishing line in that circumstances showed Trios: 15.1±5.05 µm. The optimum visualization of the finishing line and the zone under it was reached when the sulcus was 0.3 mm after retraction. Thus, the best accuracy was obtained with Trios: 10.3±2.69 (on the finishing line) and 57.2±13.58 µm (0.3 mm under finishing line). The results show that intraoral scanners also provide enough accuracy for indicating finishing line and the zone under it in different conditions of preparation and gingiva retraction. However, not all of the testing scanners can properly indicate finishing line and the zone under it when shoulder is below gingiva and the width of sulcus is less than 0.2 mm.

  19. Local Equating Using the Rasch Model, the OPLM, and the 2PL IRT Model--or--What Is It Anyway if the Model Captures Everything There Is to Know about the Test Takers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias; González B., Jorge; von Davier, Alina A.

    2013-01-01

    Local equating (LE) is based on Lord's criterion of equity. It defines a family of true transformations that aim at the ideal of equitable equating. van der Linden (this issue) offers a detailed discussion of common issues in observed-score equating relative to this local approach. By assuming an underlying item response theory model, one of…

  20. Electron capture in asymmetric collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graviele, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    It is calculated the electronic capture of K shell by protons using the on-shell impulsive wave functions, exact and eikonal, in the initial and final channels respectively. Both wave functions are normalized and have the correct asyntotic conditions. A good agreement to the experimental data is found. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  2. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Zhang, N.S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; von Egidy, T.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Wright, D.H.; Henderson, R.S.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Doyle, B.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Bertl, W.; Gorringe, T.P.; Robertson, B.C.

    1991-03-01

    The induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, g P , of the weak hadronic current can be determined from the measurement of the branching ratio of radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen. This rare process is being investigated in the TRIUMF RMC experiment which is now taking data. This paper describes the experiment and indicates the status of the data analysis. (Author) 8 refs., 7 figs

  3. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  4. Electrofishing capture probability of smallmouth bass in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    Abundance estimation is an integral part of understanding the ecology and advancing the management of fish populations and communities. Mark-recapture and removal methods are commonly used to estimate the abundance of stream fishes. Alternatively, abundance can be estimated by dividing the number of individuals sampled by the probability of capture. We conducted a mark-recapture study and used multiple repeated-measures logistic regression to determine the influence of fish size, sampling procedures, and stream habitat variables on the cumulative capture probability for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in two eastern Oklahoma streams. The predicted capture probability was used to adjust the number of individuals sampled to obtain abundance estimates. The observed capture probabilities were higher for larger fish and decreased with successive electrofishing passes for larger fish only. Model selection suggested that the number of electrofishing passes, fish length, and mean thalweg depth affected capture probabilities the most; there was little evidence for any effect of electrofishing power density and woody debris density on capture probability. Leave-one-out cross validation showed that the cumulative capture probability model predicts smallmouth abundance accurately. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  5. Capturing a Commander's decision making style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugene; Nguyen, Hien; Russell, Jacob; Kim, Keumjoo; Veenhuis, Luke; Boparai, Ramnjit; Stautland, Thomas Kristoffer

    2017-05-01

    A Commander's decision making style represents how he weighs his choices and evaluates possible solutions with regards to his goals. Specifically, in the naval warfare domain, it relates the way he processes a large amount of information in dynamic, uncertain environments, allocates resources, and chooses appropriate actions to pursue. In this paper, we describe an approach to capture a Commander's decision style by creating a cognitive model that captures his decisionmaking process and evaluate this model using a set of scenarios using an online naval warfare simulation game. In this model, we use the Commander's past behaviors and generalize Commander's actions across multiple problems and multiple decision making sequences in order to recommend actions to a Commander in a manner that he may have taken. Our approach builds upon the Double Transition Model to represent the Commander's focus and beliefs to estimate his cognitive state. Each cognitive state reflects a stage in a Commander's decision making process, each action reflects the tasks that he has taken to move himself closer to a final decision, and the reward reflects how close he is to achieving his goal. We then use inverse reinforcement learning to compute a reward for each of the Commander's actions. These rewards and cognitive states are used to compare between different styles of decision making. We construct a set of scenarios in the game where rational, intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles will be evaluated.

  6. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Patil, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making

  7. Development of adequate meteorological monitoring standards for safety analysis of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E.; Lewis, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    The aim of this report is to identify what constitutes adequate meteorological information for airborne dispersion calculations in case of releases from nuclear facilities during 'normal operation', 'design postulated accidents', and 'emergency situations'. The models used for estimating downwind dispersion are reviewed, including short-range simple terrain, short-range complex terrain and medium to long range models with emphasis on Lagrangian models. The meteorogolical input parameters required for running these models are identified. The methods by which these parameters may be obtained from raw meteorological data are then considered. Emphasis is placed on well-tried and recommended methods rather than those which are currently being developed and lack long-term field tests. The meteorological data required to calculate the parameters that are in turn input to dispersion calculation methods can be obtained mainly from tower measurements. Recommended tower height is 50 m, with two levels of instruments (10 and 50 m) for wind speed, wind direction and temperature. Data for precipitation and solar radiation, that may be required under certain conditions and for special calculations, may be estimated from nearby representative weather stations (if available). For simple terrain, a single tower is sufficient. For complex terrain, such as coastal regions, two towers are desirable for accurate characterization of the turbulence regime in the vicinity of a release site. The report provides the necessary accuracy specifications for instruments required for the meteorological measurements. Data monitoring and recording, maintenance, quality control and assurance are also discussed. Error propagation analyses are recommended to determine the full implications of instrument accuracies on the accuracy of dispersion model predictions. 82 refs

  8. The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    mr.dr. Bart F.W. Wernaart

    2013-01-01

    While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this

  9. Study Concerning Exercising an Adequate Professional Reasoning in Developing the Evaluation and Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vârteiu Daniel Petru

    2017-01-01

    Even though there are regulations which clearly specify the way in which an evaluation process, respectively an adequate audit process must take place, for a good management of encountered situations and difficulties, the evaluator, respectively the auditor must exercise an adequate professional reasoning.

  10. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ an...

  11. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility shall...

  12. Cognitive Attributes of Adequate and Inadequate Responders to Reading Intervention in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciak, Jeremy; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    No studies have investigated the cognitive attributes of middle school students who are adequate and inadequate responders to Tier 2 reading intervention. We compared students in Grades 6 and 7 representing groups of adequate responders (n = 77) and inadequate responders who fell below criteria in (a) comprehension (n = 54); (b) fluency (n = 45);…

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) translational studies in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration of the RA-6 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Longhino, Juan; Boggio, Esteban [Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Department of Nuclear Engineering, San Carlos de Bariloche, Province Rio Negro (Argentina); Medina, Vanina A.; Martinel Lamas, Diego J. [National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina (UCA), Laboratory of Tumoral Biology and Inflammation, School of Medical Sciences, Institute for Biomedical Research (BIOMED CONICET-UCA), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, Maria E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, Romina F. [UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, David W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of B-10 carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We demonstrated, in 2001, the therapeutic effect of BNCT mediated by BPA (boronophenylalanine) in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer, at the RA-6 nuclear reactor. Between 2007 and 2011, the RA-6 was upgraded, leading to an improvement in the performance of the BNCT beam (B2 configuration). Our aim was to evaluate BPA-BNCT radiotoxicity and tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration. We also evaluated, for the first time in the oral cancer model, the radioprotective effect of histamine against mucositis in precancerous tissue as the dose-limiting tissue. Cancerized pouches were exposed to: BPA-BNCT; BPA-BNCT + histamine; BO: Beam only; BO + histamine; CONTROL: cancerized, no-treatment. BNCT induced severe mucositis, with an incidence that was slightly higher than in ''B1'' experiments (86 vs 67%, respectively). BO induced low/moderate mucositis. Histamine slightly reduced the incidence of severe mucositis induced by BPA-BNCT (75 vs 86%) and prevented mucositis altogether in BO animals. Tumor overall response was significantly higher in BNCT (94-96%) than in control (16%) and BO groups (9-38%), and did not differ significantly from the ''B1'' results (91%). Histamine did not compromise BNCT therapeutic efficacy. BNCT radiotoxicity and therapeutic effect at the B1 and B2 configurations of RA-6 were consistent. Histamine slightly reduced mucositis in precancerous tissue even in this overly aggressive oral cancer model, without compromising tumor control. (orig.)

  14. Modelo de armadilha etanólica de interceptação de voo para captura de escolitíneos (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Ethanolic model of flight interception trap to capture scolytine (Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bolson Murari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudo teve por objetivo desenvolver um modelo alternativo de armadilha etanólica de interceptação de insetos voadores, visando à redução dos custos relacionados aos levantamentos de insetos da subfamília Scolytinae (Curculionidae, realizados em ecossistemas florestais. O modelo de armadilha, denominado de PET-SM, foi confeccionado com materiais recicláveis: prato plástico, garrafa de polietileno (PET de dois litros, garrafa PET de 600 mL, e mangueira com álcool 96° GL empregado como atrativo. Em comparação a outros modelos utilizados para monitoramento de Scolytinae, o modelo PET-SM mostrou-se eficiente na captura, apresentando um maior número de espécies coletadas e oferecendo um menor custo de confecção.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.115

    This study aimed to develop an alternative model of trap for interception with ethanol for flying insects, in order to reduce the costs related to surveys of insects of the subfamily Scolytinae (Curculionidae, conducted in forest ecosystems. The model of trap, called PET-SM, was manufactured with recyclable materials: plastic plate, polyethylene (PET bottle of two liters, PET bottle of 600 mL, and a hose with alcohol 96 GL used as attractive. Compared to other models used to monitor Scolytinae, the PET-SM model proved to be effective for capture, presenting a greater number of species and offering a lower cost of manufacture.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.115

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) translational studies in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration of the RA-6 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Longhino, Juan; Boggio, Esteban; Medina, Vanina A.; Martinel Lamas, Diego J.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Aromando, Romina F.; Nigg, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of B-10 carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We demonstrated, in 2001, the therapeutic effect of BNCT mediated by BPA (boronophenylalanine) in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer, at the RA-6 nuclear reactor. Between 2007 and 2011, the RA-6 was upgraded, leading to an improvement in the performance of the BNCT beam (B2 configuration). Our aim was to evaluate BPA-BNCT radiotoxicity and tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration. We also evaluated, for the first time in the oral cancer model, the radioprotective effect of histamine against mucositis in precancerous tissue as the dose-limiting tissue. Cancerized pouches were exposed to: BPA-BNCT; BPA-BNCT + histamine; BO: Beam only; BO + histamine; CONTROL: cancerized, no-treatment. BNCT induced severe mucositis, with an incidence that was slightly higher than in ''B1'' experiments (86 vs 67%, respectively). BO induced low/moderate mucositis. Histamine slightly reduced the incidence of severe mucositis induced by BPA-BNCT (75 vs 86%) and prevented mucositis altogether in BO animals. Tumor overall response was significantly higher in BNCT (94-96%) than in control (16%) and BO groups (9-38%), and did not differ significantly from the ''B1'' results (91%). Histamine did not compromise BNCT therapeutic efficacy. BNCT radiotoxicity and therapeutic effect at the B1 and B2 configurations of RA-6 were consistent. Histamine slightly reduced mucositis in precancerous tissue even in this overly aggressive oral cancer model, without compromising tumor control. (orig.)

  16. Developments in capture-γ libraries for nonproliferation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, A. M.; Firestone, R. B.; Sleaford, B. W.; Bleuel, D. L.; Basunia, M. S.; Bečvář, F.; Belgya, T.; Bernstein, L. A.; Carroll, J. J.; Detwiler, B.; Escher, J. E.; Genreith, C.; Goldblum, B. L.; Krtička, M.; Lerch, A. G.; Matters, D. A.; McClory, J. W.; McHale, S. R.; Révay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Turkoglu, D.; Ureche, A.; Vujic, J.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron-capture reaction is fundamental for identifying and analyzing the γ-ray spectrum from an unknown assembly because it provides unambiguous information on the neutron-absorbing isotopes. Nondestructive-assay applications may exploit this phenomenon passively, for example, in the presence of spontaneous-fission neutrons, or actively where an external neutron source is used as a probe. There are known gaps in the Evaluated Nuclear Data File libraries corresponding to neutron-capture γ-ray data that otherwise limit transport-modeling applications. In this work, we describe how new thermal neutron-capture data are being used to improve information in the neutron-data libraries for isotopes relevant to nonproliferation applications. We address this problem by providing new experimentally-deduced partial and total neutron-capture reaction cross sections and then evaluate these data by comparison with statistical-model calculations.

  17. P-d capture reactions in muonic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Capture reactions for very low-energy n-d and p-d systems are calculated and compared with experiment, as are low-energy n-d and p-d scattering. We find excellent agreement for the n-d scattering lengths, but poor agreement for the p-d case, which we believe is a problem with the experimental extrapolation. The n-d radiative capture is sensitive to details of the meson-exchange currents, but reasonable models agree with the data. The latter models are in good agreement with experiment when extended to the p-d case. Our large quartet capture rate resolves a long-standing anomaly. The EO capture matrix element recently obtained from a reanalysis of internal conversion in muonic molecules is in excellent agreement with our predictions. This matrix element is very clean theoretically and provides the best test of the calculations. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. New optional IVC filter for percutaneous retrieval - in vitro evaluation of embolus capturing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.W.; Mossdorf, A.; Pfeffer, J.; Buecker, A.; Neuerburg, J.; Hoej, A.R.; Moelgaard-Nielsen, A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In-vitro evaluation of a new caval filter (Cook Celect Filter) developed for delayed percutaneous retrieval in comparison to the Guenther Tulip filter. Materials and Methods: The new Celect filter is constructed on the basis of the Tulip filter and consists of 4 primary anchoring legs and additional 8 thinner secondary wires to stabilize the filter and to guarantee adequate filtering efficiency. The filtering wires are of the same amount and equal distribution as the filtering wires of the Tulip filter. The secondary wires are arranged in such a way that percutaneous filter retrieval should be possible even if the wires are incorporated into the caval wall. In a flow model (tube size diameter 15-, diameter 22- and diameter 30 mm), the filter was exposed to single and multiple emboli (blood clots) of different sizes (3 x 5, 3 x 10, 5 x 10, 3 x 20, 5 x 20, 7 x 10, 7 x 20 to 10 x 24 mm) to analyse the embolus capturing efficiency under different conditions including eccentric and concentric, horizontal and vertical positions in comparison to the Tulip filter. All testing was carried out in SPSS analytic software; statistical significance was assumed for p-values <0.05. Results: The in-vitro embolus capturing efficiency of the Celect filter proved to be equivalent to the Tulip filter. In the single-embolus test, 91.6% of the clots were captured by the Celect filter and 87.2% by the Tulip filter (p=0.042). Large clots ranging from 7 x 10 to 10 x 24 mm were captured in all cases, whereas the capture rates for the 3 x 5-mm and 3 x 10-mm clots were lower. The filters captured significantly more clots in the concentric than in the eccentric location. There was no significant difference between the overall capture rates of the two filters in the multi-clot test (72.2% vs. 75.1%), which showed deterioration of filter function during multiple clot exposure. With the 15-mm tube, the Celect filter had a significantly higher capture rate than the Tulip filter, whereas it

  19. Carbon Capture and Storage: Model Regulatory Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are set to double by 2050 unless decisive action is taken. International Energy Agency (IEA) analysis demonstrates, however, that it is possible -- in the same timeframe to 2050 -- to reduce projected greenhouse-gas emissions to half 2005 levels, but this will require an energy technology revolution, involving the aggressive deployment of a portfolio of low-carbon energy technologies.

  20. Models of prey capture in larval fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The food uptake of larval carp and pike is described from high speed movies with synchronous lateral and ventral views.

    During prey intake by larval fishes the velocities of the created suction flow are high relative to their own size: 0.3 m/s for carp larvae of 6

  1. Selection of adequate site location during early stages of construction project management: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Ivan; Hanak, Tomaš

    2017-10-01

    In the management of construction projects special attention should be given to the planning as the most important phase of decision-making process. Quality decision-making based on adequate and comprehensive collaboration of all involved stakeholders is crucial in project’s early stages. Fundamental reasons for existence of this problem arise from: specific conditions of construction industry (final products are inseparable from the location i.e. location has a strong influence of building design and its structural characteristics as well as technology which will be used during construction), investors’ desires and attitudes, and influence of socioeconomic and environment aspects. Considering all mentioned reasons one can conclude that selection of adequate construction site location for future investment is complex, low structured and multi-criteria problem. To take into account all the dimensions, the proposed model for selection of adequate site location is devised. The model is based on AHP (for designing the decision-making hierarchy) and PROMETHEE (for pairwise comparison of investment locations) methods. As a result of mixing basis feature of both methods, operational synergies can be achieved in multi-criteria decision analysis. Such gives the decision-maker a sense of assurance, knowing that if the procedure proposed by the presented model has been followed, it will lead to a rational decision, carefully and systematically thought out.

  2. GENERIC APPROACH IN CHOICE OF ADEQUATE METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF IT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Kozina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investments into information technology (IT, (hereinafter: IT investments havereached very high figures, which are still continually on the rise. IT potentials are being usedin an increasing number of ways. Various company managers have different approaches tothis issue. A large number of methods/models for the assessment of IT investments isavailable, so the question is posed of how to choose the adequate assessment category. Thesaid reasons have initiated a need for defining the generic approach in the choice ofadequate methodology for the assessment of IT investments, which was indeed the goal ofthis paper. General ideas to this approach stem from the fact that each IT investment has itspurpose and belongs to a certain type of IT investment (decision-making aspect whichdemands its relevant methodology for assessing IT investments. Two groups of demands(conditions have been defined in choosing relevant methodology. The first group pertains tomethodology analysis and determination of its compatibility with characteristics of thedefined decision-making aspect. The second group of conditions pertains to methodologyanalysis with respect to its possibilities (abilities of integrating quantity, quality and riskfactors of IT decision. Conducted field research shows that the assessment of IT investmentshas been done mainly using simpler methods/models and their combinations, and is focusedon quantity aspects of IT values.

  3. Experimental studies of electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis discusses the main results of recent experimental studies of electron capture in asymmetric collisions. Most of the results have been published, but the thesis also contains yet unpublished data, or data presented only in unrefereed conference proceedings. The thesis aims at giving a coherent discussion of the understanding of the experimental results, based first on simple qualitative considerations and subsequently on quantitative comparisons with the best theoretical calculations currently available. (Auth.)

  4. Capturing the semiotic relationship between terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargood, Charlie; Millard, David E.; Weal, Mark J.

    2010-04-01

    Tags describing objects on the web are often treated as facts about a resource, whereas it is quite possible that they represent more subjective observations. Existing methods of term expansion expand terms based on dictionary definitions or statistical information on term occurrence. Here we propose the use of a thematic model for term expansion based on semiotic relationships between terms; this has been shown to improve a system's thematic understanding of content and tags and to tease out the more subjective implications of those tags. Such a system relies on a thematic model that must be made by hand. In this article, we explore a method to capture a semiotic understanding of particular terms using a rule-based guide to authoring a thematic model. Experimentation shows that it is possible to capture valid definitions that can be used for semiotic term expansion but that the guide itself may not be sufficient to support this on a large scale. We argue that whilst the formation of super definitions will mitigate some of these problems, the development of an authoring support tool may be necessary to solve others.

  5. Asymmetric capture of Dirac dark matter by the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Clementz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Current problems with the solar model may be alleviated if a significant amount of dark matter from the galactic halo is captured in the Sun. We discuss the capture process in the case where the dark matter is a Dirac fermion and the background halo consists of equal amounts of dark matter and anti-dark matter. By considering the case where dark matter and anti-dark matter have different cross sections on solar nuclei as well as the case where the capture process is considered to be a Poisson process, we find that a significant asymmetry between the captured dark particles and anti-particles is possible even for an annihilation cross section in the range expected for thermal relic dark matter. Since the captured number of particles are competitive with asymmetric dark matter models in a large range of parameter space, one may expect solar physics to be altered by the capture of Dirac dark matter. It is thus possible that solutions to the solar composition problem may be searched for in these type of models

  6. Asymmetric capture of Dirac dark matter by the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, Mattias; Clementz, Stefan [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Albanova University Center,106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-08-18

    Current problems with the solar model may be alleviated if a significant amount of dark matter from the galactic halo is captured in the Sun. We discuss the capture process in the case where the dark matter is a Dirac fermion and the background halo consists of equal amounts of dark matter and anti-dark matter. By considering the case where dark matter and anti-dark matter have different cross sections on solar nuclei as well as the case where the capture process is considered to be a Poisson process, we find that a significant asymmetry between the captured dark particles and anti-particles is possible even for an annihilation cross section in the range expected for thermal relic dark matter. Since the captured number of particles are competitive with asymmetric dark matter models in a large range of parameter space, one may expect solar physics to be altered by the capture of Dirac dark matter. It is thus possible that solutions to the solar composition problem may be searched for in these type of models.

  7. Asymmetric capture of Dirac dark matter by the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, Mattias; Clementz, Stefan, E-mail: emb@kth.se, E-mail: scl@kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Albanova University Center, 106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Current problems with the solar model may be alleviated if a significant amount of dark matter from the galactic halo is captured in the Sun. We discuss the capture process in the case where the dark matter is a Dirac fermion and the background halo consists of equal amounts of dark matter and anti-dark matter. By considering the case where dark matter and anti-dark matter have different cross sections on solar nuclei as well as the case where the capture process is considered to be a Poisson process, we find that a significant asymmetry between the captured dark particles and anti-particles is possible even for an annihilation cross section in the range expected for thermal relic dark matter. Since the captured number of particles are competitive with asymmetric dark matter models in a large range of parameter space, one may expect solar physics to be altered by the capture of Dirac dark matter. It is thus possible that solutions to the solar composition problem may be searched for in these type of models.

  8. Asynchronous beating of cilia enhances particle capture rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Many aquatic micro-organisms use beating cilia to generate feeding currents and capture particles in surrounding fluids. One of the capture strategies is to ``catch up'' with particles when a cilium is beating towards the overall flow direction (effective stroke) and intercept particles on the downstream side of the cilium. Here, we developed a 3D computational model of a cilia band with prescribed motion in a viscous fluid and calculated the trajectories of the particles with different sizes in the fluid. We found an optimal particle diameter that maximizes the capture rate. The flow field and particle motion indicate that the low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the laminar flow in the neighbor of the cilia, whereas larger particles have to move above the cilia tips to get advected downstream which decreases their capture rate. We then analyzed the effect of beating coordination between neighboring cilia on the capture rate. Interestingly, we found that asynchrony of the beating of the cilia can enhance the relative motion between a cilium and the particles near it and hence increase the capture rate.

  9. Experimental study on pion capture by hydrogen bound in molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, D.; Aniol, K.A.; Entezami, F.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Stanislaus, S.; Virtue, C.J.

    1988-08-01

    An experiment was performed at TRIUMF to study the formation of pionic hydrogen atoms and molecules in solids, particularly in groups of organic molecules of slightly different structure in order to help further clarify the problem. The nuclear capture of pions by hydrogen was measured using the charge exchange of stopped pions. The coincident photons emitted by the decaying π 0 mesons were detected by TRIUMF's two large NaI spectrometers. New experimental results were obtained for the capture probability of stopped π - mesons in the nuclei of hydrogen atoms, chemically bound in molecules of some simple hydrides, acid anhydrides, and sugar isomers. A linear relation was found between pion capture in hydrogen and melting point in sugar isomers. The pion capture probability in acid anhydrides is fairly well described by a simple atomic capture model in which the capture probability on the hydrogen dramatically increases as the hydrogen atom is separated from the strongly electronegative C 2 O 3 group. Both effects are consistent with a correlation between pion capture and electron density on hydrogen atoms. (Author) (38 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.)

  10. Capturing security requirements for software systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadary, Hassan; El-Kassas, Sherif

    2014-07-01

    Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way.

  11. Capturing security requirements for software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Hadary

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way.

  12. Capturing security requirements for software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadary, Hassan; El-Kassas, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way. PMID:25685514

  13. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA) and di-ethylamine (DEA), are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption column are analyzed to understand the model behavior. Re-boiler energy requirement is considerably lower for DEA than MEA as well as impact of corrosion also less in DEA. Therefore, DEA can be recommended as a better solvent for post combustion process for carbon capture plants in fossil fuel fired power industries.

  14. Child malnutrition and mortality among families not utilizing adequately iodized salt in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D; de Pee, Saskia; Hess, Sonja Y; Sun, Kai; Sari, Mayang; Bloem, Martin W

    2008-02-01

    Salt iodization is the main strategy for reducing iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. Characteristics of families not using iodized salt need to be known to expand coverage. The objective was to determine whether families who do not use iodized salt have a higher prevalence of child malnutrition and mortality and to identify factors associated with not using iodized salt. Use of adequately iodized salt (>or =30 ppm), measured by rapid test kits, was assessed between January 1999 and September 2003 in 145 522 and 445 546 families in urban slums and rural areas, respectively, in Indonesia. Adequately iodized salt was used by 66.6% and 67.2% of families from urban slums and rural areas, respectively. Among families who used adequately iodized salt, mortality in neonates, infants, and children aged urban slums; among families who did not use adequately iodized salt, the respective values were 4.2% compared with 6.3%, 7.1% compared with 11.2%, and 8.5% compared with 13.3% (P rural areas. Families not using adequately iodized salt were more likely to have children who were stunted, underweight, and wasted. In multivariate analyses that controlled for potential confounders, low maternal education was the strongest factor associated with not using adequately iodized salt. In Indonesia, nonuse of adequately iodized salt is associated with a higher prevalence of child malnutrition and mortality in neonates, infants, and children aged <5 y. Stronger efforts are needed to expand salt iodization in Indonesia.

  15. Technical and economic evaluation of biogas capture and treatment for the Piedras Blancas landfill in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisca, Franco Matías; Montoro, Marcos Alexis; Glatstein, Daniel Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) management is one of the most important tasks for landfill operation and closure because of its impact in potential global warming. The aim of this work is to present a case history evaluating an LFG capture and treatment system for the present landfill facility in Córdoba, Argentina. The results may be relevant for many developing countries around the world where landfill gas is not being properly managed. The LFG generation is evaluated by modeling gas production applying the zero-order model, Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]), Scholl Canyon model, and triangular model. Variability in waste properties, weather, and landfill management conditions are analyzed in order to evaluate the feasibility of implementing different treatment systems. The results show the advantages of capturing and treating LFG in order to reduce the emissions of gases responsible for global warming and to determine the revenue rate needed for the project's financial requirements. This particular project reduces by half the emission of equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) compared with the situation where there is no gas treatment. In addition, the study highlights the need for a change in the electricity prices if it is to be economically feasible to implement the project in the current Argentinean electrical market. Methane has 21 times more greenhouse gas potential than carbon dioxide. Because of that, it is of great importance to adequately manage biogas emissions from landfills. In addition, it is environmentally convenient to use this product as an alternative energy source, since it prevents methane emissions while preventing fossil fuel consumption, minimizing carbon dioxide emissions. Performed analysis indicated that biogas capturing and energy generation implies 3 times less equivalent carbon dioxide emissions; however, a change in the Argentinean electrical market fees are required to guarantee the

  16. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  17. Using principal component analysis to capture individual differences within a unified neuropsychological model of chronic post-stroke aphasia: Revealing the unique neural correlates of speech fluency, phonology and semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Ajay D; Woollams, Anna M; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences in the performance profiles of neuropsychologically-impaired patients are pervasive yet there is still no resolution on the best way to model and account for the variation in their behavioural impairments and the associated neural correlates. To date, researchers have generally taken one of three different approaches: a single-case study methodology in which each case is considered separately; a case-series design in which all individual patients from a small coherent group are examined and directly compared; or, group studies, in which a sample of cases are investigated as one group with the assumption that they are drawn from a homogenous category and that performance differences are of no interest. In recent research, we have developed a complementary alternative through the use of principal component analysis (PCA) of individual data from large patient cohorts. This data-driven approach not only generates a single unified model for the group as a whole (expressed in terms of the emergent principal components) but is also able to capture the individual differences between patients (in terms of their relative positions along the principal behavioural axes). We demonstrate the use of this approach by considering speech fluency, phonology and semantics in aphasia diagnosis and classification, as well as their unique neural correlates. PCA of the behavioural data from 31 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia resulted in four statistically-independent behavioural components reflecting phonological, semantic, executive-cognitive and fluency abilities. Even after accounting for lesion volume, entering the four behavioural components simultaneously into a voxel-based correlational methodology (VBCM) analysis revealed that speech fluency (speech quanta) was uniquely correlated with left motor cortex and underlying white matter (including the anterior section of the arcuate fasciculus and the frontal aslant tract), phonological skills with

  18. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) as a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: radiobiological studies at RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in a model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bruno, Leandro J.; Gatti, David A. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, LABOATEM (Laboratorio de Biologia Osteoarticular, Ingenieria Tisular y Terapias Emergentes), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Rosario (Argentina); Stur, Mariela [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Catedra de Diagnostico por Imagenes, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Rosario (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A.; Hughes, Andrea Monti [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castillo, Jorge; Wentzeis, Luis; Scolari, Hugo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Reactors, San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C.C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Research and Production Reactors, Ezeiza, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); Feldman, Sara [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Rosario, LABOATEM (Laboratorio de Biologia Osteoarticular, Ingenieria Tisular y Terapias Emergentes), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Rosario (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune pathology characterized by the proliferation and inflammation of the synovium. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS), a binary treatment modality that combines the preferential incorporation of boron carriers to target tissue and neutron irradiation, was proposed to treat the pathological synovium in arthritis. In a previous biodistribution study, we showed the incorporation of therapeutically useful boron concentrations to the pathological synovium in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in rabbits, employing two boron compounds approved for their use in humans, i.e., decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and boronophenylalanine (BPA). The aim of the present study was to perform low-dose BNCS studies at the RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in the same model. Neutron irradiation was performed post intra-articular administration of BPA or GB-10 to deliver 2.4 or 3.9 Gy, respectively, to synovium (BNCS-AIA). AIA and healthy animals (no AIA) were used as controls. The animals were followed clinically for 2 months. At that time, biochemical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological studies were performed. BNCS-AIA animals did not show any toxic effects, swelling or pain on palpation. In BNCS-AIA, the post-treatment levels of TNF-α decreased in four of six rabbits and IFN-γ levels decreased in five of six rabbits. In all cases, MRI images of the knee joint in BNCS-AIA resembled those of no AIA, with no necrosis or periarticular effusion. Synovial membranes of BNCS-AIA were histologically similar to no AIA. BPA-BNCS and GB-10-BNCS, even at low doses, would be therapeutically useful for the local treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  19. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) as a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: radiobiological studies at RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in a model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Bruno, Leandro J.; Gatti, David A.; Stur, Mariela; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Castillo, Jorge; Wentzeis, Luis; Scolari, Hugo; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Feldman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune pathology characterized by the proliferation and inflammation of the synovium. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS), a binary treatment modality that combines the preferential incorporation of boron carriers to target tissue and neutron irradiation, was proposed to treat the pathological synovium in arthritis. In a previous biodistribution study, we showed the incorporation of therapeutically useful boron concentrations to the pathological synovium in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in rabbits, employing two boron compounds approved for their use in humans, i.e., decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and boronophenylalanine (BPA). The aim of the present study was to perform low-dose BNCS studies at the RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in the same model. Neutron irradiation was performed post intra-articular administration of BPA or GB-10 to deliver 2.4 or 3.9 Gy, respectively, to synovium (BNCS-AIA). AIA and healthy animals (no AIA) were used as controls. The animals were followed clinically for 2 months. At that time, biochemical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological studies were performed. BNCS-AIA animals did not show any toxic effects, swelling or pain on palpation. In BNCS-AIA, the post-treatment levels of TNF-α decreased in four of six rabbits and IFN-γ levels decreased in five of six rabbits. In all cases, MRI images of the knee joint in BNCS-AIA resembled those of no AIA, with no necrosis or periarticular effusion. Synovial membranes of BNCS-AIA were histologically similar to no AIA. BPA-BNCS and GB-10-BNCS, even at low doses, would be therapeutically useful for the local treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  20. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) toxicity and permeability assessment after L-(4-¹⁰Boronophenyl)alanine, a conventional B-containing drug for boron neutron capture therapy, using an in vitro BBB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, E; Nion, S; Bernocchi, G; Coccini, T

    2014-10-02

    Since brain tumours are the primary candidates for treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, one major challenge in the selective drug delivery to CNS is the crossing of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present pilot study investigated (i) the transport of a conventional B-containing product (i.e., L-(4-(10)Boronophenyl)alanine, L-(10)BPA), already used in medicine but still not fully characterized regarding its CNS interactions, as well as (ii) the effects of the L-(10)BPA on the BBB integrity using an in vitro model, consisting of brain capillary endothelial cells co-cultured with glial cells, closely mimicking the in vivo conditions. The multi-step experimental strategy (i.e. Integrity test, Filter study, Transport assay) checked L-(10)BPA toxicity at 80 µg Boron equivalent/ml, and its ability to cross the BBB, additionally by characterizing the cytoskeletal and TJ's proteins by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. In conclusion, a lack of toxic effects of L-(10)BPA was demonstrated, nevertheless accompanied by cellular stress phenomena (e.g. vimentin expression modification), paralleled by a low permeability coefficient (0.39 ± 0.01 × 10(-3)cm min(-1)), corroborating the scarce probability that L-(10)BPA would reach therapeutically effective cerebral concentration. These findings emphasized the need for novel strategies aimed at optimizing boron delivery to brain tumours, trying to ameliorate the compound uptake or developing new targeted products suitable to safely and effectively treat head cancer. Thus, the use of in vitro BBB model for screening studies may provide a useful early safety assessment for new effective compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.