WorldWideScience

Sample records for models 1-d 2-d

  1. Coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow: Influence of modeling parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Ganiyu Adeogun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcome of our investigation on the influence of modeling parameters on 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow, developed through coupling of an existing 1D sewer network model (SWMM and 2D inundation model (BREZO. The 1D-2D hydrodynamic model was developed for the purpose of examining flood incidence due to surcharged water on overland surface. The investigation was carried out by performing sensitivity analysis on the developed model. For the sensitivity analysis, modeling parameters, such as mesh resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM resolution and roughness were considered. The outcome of the study shows the model is sensitive to changes in these parameters. The performance of the model is significantly influenced, by the Manning's friction value, the DEM resolution and the area of the triangular mesh. Also, changes in the aforementioned modeling parameters influence the Flood characteristics, such as the inundation extent, the flow depth and the velocity across the model domain.

  2. Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of

  3. Simplification of one-dimensional hydraulic networks by automated processes evaluated on 1D/2D deterministic flood models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Steffen; Löwe, Roland; Thrysøe, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of pluvial flood risk is often based on computations using 1D/2D urban flood models. However, guidelines on choice of model complexity are missing, especially for one-dimensional (1D) network models. This study presents a new automatic approach for simplification of 1D hydraulic networks...... nodes eliminated connection to some areas. This promoted errors in two-dimensional (2D) flood results with changes in spatial location of flooding in the reduced 1D/2D models. Applying delayed rain inputs to compensate for changes in travel time and preserving network volume by expanding node diameters...... did not improve overall results. Investigations on the expected annual damages (EAD) showed that differences in EAD are smaller than deviations in the simulated flooded areas, suggesting that spatial changes are limited to local displacements. Probably, minor improvements of the simplification...

  4. Simplification of one-dimensional hydraulic networks by automated processes evaluated on 1D/2D deterministic flood models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Steffen; Löwe, Roland; Thrysøe, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of pluvial flood risk is often based on computations using 1D/2D urban flood models. However, guidelines on choice of model complexity are missing, especially for one-dimensional (1D) network models. This study presents a new automatic approach for simplification of 1D hydraulic networks...... did not improve overall results. Investigations on the expected annual damages (EAD) showed that differences in EAD are smaller than deviations in the simulated flooded areas, suggesting that spatial changes are limited to local displacements. Probably, minor improvements of the simplification...... nodes eliminated connection to some areas. This promoted errors in two-dimensional (2D) flood results with changes in spatial location of flooding in the reduced 1D/2D models. Applying delayed rain inputs to compensate for changes in travel time and preserving network volume by expanding node diameters...

  5. Comparison between a coupled 1D-2D model and a fully 2D model for supercritical flow simulation in crossroads

    KAUST Repository

    Ghostine, Rabih

    2014-12-01

    In open channel networks, flow is usually approximated by the one-dimensional (1D) Saint-Venant equations coupled with an empirical junction model. In this work, a comparison in terms of accuracy and computational cost between a coupled 1D-2D shallow water model and a fully two-dimensional (2D) model is presented. The paper explores the ability of a coupled model to simulate the flow processes during supercritical flows in crossroads. This combination leads to a significant reduction in the computational time, as a 1D approach is used in branches and a 2D approach is employed in selected areas only where detailed flow information is essential. Overall, the numerical results suggest that the coupled model is able to accurately simulate the main flow processes. In particular, hydraulic jumps, recirculation zones, and discharge distribution are reasonably well reproduced and clearly identified. Overall, the proposed model leads to a 30% reduction in run times. © 2014 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research.

  6. Comparison between a 1D and a 2D numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2008-01-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration system represents an environmentally attractive alternative to vapour-compression refrigeration. This paper compares the results of two numerical AMR models: (1) a 1D finite difference model and (2) a 2D finite element model. Both models simulate...

  7. 1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih

    2014-05-01

    Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond

  8. SAHM - Simplification of one-dimensional hydraulic networks by automated processes evaluated on 1D/2D deterministic flood models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Davidsen, Steffen; Thrysøe, Cecilie

    the 1D network model. The simplifications lead to an underestimation of flooded area because interaction points between network and surface are removed and because water is transported downstream faster. These effects can be mitigated by maintaining nodes in flood-prone areas in the simplification......We present an algorithm for automated simplification of 1D pipe network models. The impact of the simplifications on the flooding simulated by coupled 1D-2D models is evaluated in an Australian case study. Significant reductions of the simulation time of the coupled model are achieved by reducing...

  9. Flood Inundation Modelling in the Kuantan River Basin using 1D-2D Flood Modeller coupled with ASTER-GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Z. F.; Gisen, J. I.; Akbari, A.

    2018-03-01

    Topography dataset is an important input in performing flood inundation modelling. However, it is always difficult to obtain high resolution topography that provide accurate elevation information. Fortunately, there are some open source topography datasets available with reasonable resolution such as SRTM and ASTER-GDEM. In Malaysia particularly in Kuantan, the modelling research on the floodplain area is still lacking. This research aims to: a) to investigate the suitability of ASTER-GDEM to be applied in the 1D-2D flood inundation modelling for the Kuantan River Basin; b) to generate flood inundation map for Kuantan river basin. The topography dataset used in this study is ASTER-GDEM to generate physical characteristics of watershed in the basin. It is used to perform rainfall runoff modelling for hydrological studies and to delineate flood inundation area in the Flood Modeller. The results obtained have shown that a 30m resolution ASTER-GDEM is applicable as an input for the 1D-2D flood modelling. The simulated water level in 2013 has NSE of 0.644 and RSME of 1.259. As a conclusion, ASTER-GDEM can be used as one alternative topography datasets for flood inundation modelling. However, the flood level obtained from the hydraulic modelling shows low accuracy at flat urban areas.

  10. A computational approach for coupled 1D and 2D/3D CFD modelling of pulse Tube cryocoolers

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    Fang, T.; Spoor, P. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The physics behind Stirling-type cryocoolers are complicated. One dimensional (1D) simulation tools offer limited details and accuracy, in particular for cryocoolers that have non-linear configurations. Multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods are useful but are computationally expensive in simulating cyrocooler systems in their entirety. In view of the fact that some components of a cryocooler, e.g., inertance tubes and compliance tanks, can be modelled as 1D components with little loss of critical information, a 1D-2D/3D coupled model was developed. Accordingly, one-dimensional – like components are represented by specifically developed routines. These routines can be coupled to CFD codes and provide boundary conditions for 2D/3D CFD simulations. The developed coupled model, while preserving sufficient flow field details, is two orders of magnitude faster than equivalent 2D/3D CFD models. The predictions show good agreement with experimental data and 2D/3D CFD model.

  11. Comparison between a 1D and a 2D numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Bahl, Christian R H; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration system represents an environmentally attractive alternative to vapour-compression refrigeration. This paper compares the results of two numerical AMR models: (1) a 1D finite difference model and (2) a 2D finite element model. Both models simulate a reciprocating AMR and can determine the cyclical steady-state temperature profile of the system as well as performance parameters such as the refrigeration capacity, the work input and the coefficient of performance (COP). The models are used to analyse an AMR with a regenerator made of flat parallel plates of gadolinium operating in the presence of a 1 T magnetic field. The results are used to discuss under which circumstances a 1D model is insufficient and a 2D model is necessary. The results indicate that when the temperature gradients in the AMR perpendicular to the flow are small a 1D model obtains accurate results of overall results such as the refrigeration capacity but that a 2D model is required for a detailed analysis of the phenomena occurring inside the AMR

  12. A 1D-2D coupled SPH-SWE model applied to open channel flow simulations in complicated geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kao-Hua; Sheu, Tony Wen-Hann; Chang, Tsang-Jung

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a one- and two-dimensional (1D-2D) coupled model is developed to solve the shallow water equations (SWEs). The solutions are obtained using a Lagrangian meshless method called smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate shallow water flows in converging, diverging and curved channels. A buffer zone is introduced to exchange information between the 1D and 2D SPH-SWE models. Interpolated water discharge values and water surface levels at the internal boundaries are prescribed as the inflow/outflow boundary conditions in the two SPH-SWE models. In addition, instead of using the SPH summation operator, we directly solve the continuity equation by introducing a diffusive term to suppress oscillations in the predicted water depth. The performance of the two approaches in calculating the water depth is comprehensively compared through a case study of a straight channel. Additionally, three benchmark cases involving converging, diverging and curved channels are adopted to demonstrate the ability of the proposed 1D and 2D coupled SPH-SWE model through comparisons with measured data and predicted mesh-based numerical results. The proposed model provides satisfactory accuracy and guaranteed convergence.

  13. 2D MHD AND 1D HD MODELS OF A SOLAR FLARE—A COMPREHENSIVE COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falewicz, R.; Rudawy, P. [Astronomical Institute, University of Wrocław, 51-622 Wrocław, ul. Kopernika 11 (Poland); Murawski, K. [Group of Astrophysics, UMCS, ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Srivastava, A. K., E-mail: falewicz@astro.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: rudawy@astro.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: kmur@kft.umcs.lublin.pl, E-mail: asrivastava.app@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi-221005 (India)

    2015-11-01

    Without any doubt, solar flaring loops possess a multithread internal structure that is poorly resolved, and there are no means to observe heating episodes and thermodynamic evolution of the individual threads. These limitations cause fundamental problems in numerical modeling of flaring loops, such as selection of a structure and a number of threads, and an implementation of a proper model of the energy deposition process. A set of one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic models of a flaring loop are developed to compare energy redistribution and plasma dynamics in the course of a prototypical solar flare. Basic parameters of the modeled loop are set according to the progenitor M1.8 flare recorded in AR 10126 on 2002 September 20 between 09:21 UT and 09:50 UT. The nonideal 1D models include thermal conduction and radiative losses of the optically thin plasma as energy-loss mechanisms, while the nonideal 2D models take into account viscosity and thermal conduction as energy-loss mechanisms only. The 2D models have a continuous distribution of the parameters of the plasma across the loop and are powered by varying in time and space along and across the loop heating flux. We show that such 2D models are an extreme borderline case of a multithread internal structure of the flaring loop, with a filling factor equal to 1. Nevertheless, these simple models ensure the general correctness of the obtained results and can be adopted as a correct approximation of the real flaring structures.

  14. Mapping temporal extent of Chiang Mai floods using coupled 1-D and quasi 2-D floodplain inundation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowit Boonrawd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A coupling of a 1-D flood routing model and quasi 2-D floodplain inundation model is applied for mapping spacetime flood extent. The routing model is formulated based on a non-linear storage-discharge relationship which is converted from an observed and synthetic rating curve. To draw the rating curve, required parameters for each reaches are estimated from hydraulic properties, floodplain geometry and vegetation and building cover of compound channels. The shape of the floodplain is defined by using fitting exercise based on the reverse approach between past and simulated inundation flood extent, to solve the current problem of inadequate topographic input data for floodplain. Mapping of daily flood can be generated relying on flat water levels. The quasi 2-D raster model is tested and applied to generate more realistic water surface and is used to estimate flood extent. The model is applied to the floodplains of Chiang Mai, north of Thailand and used to estimate a time series of hourly flood maps. Extending from daily to hourly flood extent, mapping development provides more details of flood inundation extent and depth.

  15. Coupled 1-D sewer and street networks and 2-D flooding model to rapidly evaluate surface inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hong-Ming; Hsu, Hao-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Flash floods have occurred frequently in the urban areas around the world and cause the infrastructure and people living to expose continuously in the high risk level of pluvial flooding. According to historical surveys, the major reasons of severe surface inundations in the urban areas can be attributed to heavy rainfall in the short time and/or drainage system failure. In order to obtain real-time flood forecasting with high accuracy and less uncertainty, an appropriate system for predicting floods is necessary. For the reason, this study coupled 1-D sewer and street networks and 2-D flooding model as an operational modelling system for rapidly evaluating surface inundation. The proposed system is constructed by three significant components: (1) all the rainfall-runoff of a sub-catchment collected via gullies is simulated by the RUNOFF module of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM); (2) and directly drained to the 1-D sewer and street networks via manholes as inflow discharges to conduct flow routing by using the EXTRAN module of SWMM; (3) after the 1-D simulations, the surcharges from manholes are considered as point sources in 2-D overland flow simulations that are executed by the WASH123D model. It can thus be used for urban flood modelling that reflects the rainfall-runoff processes, and the dynamic flow interactions between the storm sewer system and the ground surface in urban areas. In the present study, we adopted the Huwei Science and Technology Park, located in the south-western part of Taiwan, as the demonstration area because of its high industrial values. The region has an area about 1 km2 with approximately 1 km in both length and width. It is as isolated urban drainage area in which there is a complete sewer system that collects the runoff and drains to the detention pond. Based on the simulated results, the proposed modelling system was found that the simulated floods fit to the survey records because the physical rainfall-runoff phenomena in

  16. Using 1 -D and 2-D modelling of ground motion for seismic zonation criteria: results for the city of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caserta

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The geological information collected in the last years by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica for the city of Rome is used to construct 1- and 2-D models of the nearsurface structure. These models are the basis for the numerical generation of synthetic accelerograms which can simulate the horizontal ground motion (SH waves produced in the different areas of the city by a large (M ? 7 potential earthquake 100 km away in Central Apennines. The proposed methodology yields earthquake engineering parameters (peak ground acceleration and velocity, Arias intensity, energy flux, response spectra whose spatial variations are consistent with the damage distribution caused by the strongest earthquakes felt in Rome during its long history. Based on the macroseismic inforination and the results of the numerical simulations, general criteria for seismic zonation of the city of Rome are proposed.

  17. Two-region mass transfer to account for 2D profile scale heterogeneity in a 1D effective plot scale flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Gerke, Horst H.

    2017-04-01

    In arable soil landscapes, specific spatial heterogeneities related to tillage and trafficking can influence the movement of water and chemicals. The structure in the topsoil is characterized by spatial patterns with locally compacted zones. The contrasting hydraulic properties of more-and-less compacted soil zones can result in heterogeneous flow fields and preferential flow. Two- or three-dimensional models used to account for soil spatial variability are relatively too complex when trying to include local heterogeneities in the description of field scale flow and transport problems. The idea was to reduce the model complexity linked to the explicit description of heterogeneities in 2D or 3D without deteriorating the validity of simulation results. When reducing the spatial dimensionality, the geometry in a 2D, cross-sectional explicit plot description is removed on the expense of an increased complexity of the 1D model with two flow domains and mass exchange between them. Our objective was to design a simplified 1D model approach that effectively accounts for plot-scale soil structural variability. In this simplified 1D model, effective soil hydraulic parameters can be assigned to each of the two domains separately. Different theoretical scenarios simulating different shape, size and arrangement of compacted clods in the tilled layer were set to estimate their effect on solute behaviour. The mass exchange parameters could be determined from structure quantification and by comparing simplified 1D with reference 2D results accounting for defined soil structural (i.e., here the compacted regions) geometries. The mass exchange is strongly related to the geometry of the compacted zones including their distribution and size within the non-compacted soil. Additionally, the simplified model approach was tested by comparing it with measured results from a field tracer experiment.

  18. Homogenization of 1D and 2D magnetoelastic lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaeffer Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the equivalent in-plane mechanical properties of one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D, periodic magneto-elastic lattices. A lumped parameter model describes the lattices using magnetic dipole moments in combination with axial and torsional springs. The homogenization procedure is applied to systems linearized about stable configurations, which are identified by minimizing potential energy. Simple algebraic expressions are derived for the properties of 1D structures. Results for 1D lattices show that a variety of stiffness changes are possible through reconfiguration, and that magnetization can either stiffen or soften a structure. Results for 2D hexagonal and re-entrant lattices show that both reconfigurations and magnetization have drastic effects on the mechanical properties of lattice structures. Lattices can be stiffened or softened and the Poisson’s ratio can be tuned. Furthermore for certain hexagonal lattices the sign of Poisson’s ratio can change by varying the lattice magnetization. In some cases presented, analytical and numerically estimated equivalent properties are validated through numerical simulations that also illustrate the unique characteristics of the investigated configurations.

  19. Status of the solar and infrared radiation submodels in the LLNL 1-D and 2-D chemical-transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, K.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have implemented a series of state of the art radiation transport submodels in previously developed one dimensional and two dimensional chemical transport models of the troposphere and stratosphere. These submodels provide the capability of calculating accurate solar and infrared heating rates. They are a firm basis for further radiation submodel development as well as for studying interactions between radiation and model dynamics under varying conditions of clear sky, clouds, and aerosols. 37 refs., 3 figs

  20. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  1. Improving reliability of chemometric models for authentication of species origin of heparin by switching from 1D to 2D NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Fareed, Jawed; Yao, Yiming; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2018-05-10

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is regarded as one of the most powerful and versatile analytical approaches to assure the quality of heparin preparations. In particular, it was recently demonstrated that by using 1 H NMR coupled with chemometrics heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) samples derived from three major animal species (porcine, ovine and bovine) can be differentiated [Y.B. Monakhova et al. J. Pharm. Anal. 149 (2018) 114-119]. In this study, significant improvement of existing chemometric models was achieved by switching to 2D NMR experiments (heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY)). Two representative data sets (sixty-nine heparin and twenty-two LMWH) belonged to different batches and distributed by different commercial companies were investigated. A trend for animal species differentiation was observed in the principal component analysis (PCA) score plot built based on the DOSY data. A superior model was constructed using HMQC experiments, where individual heparin (LMWH) clusters as well as their blends were clearly differentiated. The predictive power of different classification methods as well as unsupervised techniques (independent components analysis, ICA) clearly proved applicability of the model for routine heparin and LMWH analysis. The switch from 1D to 2D NMR techniques provides a wealth of additional information, which is beneficial for multivariate modeling of NMR spectroscopic data for heparin preparations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Flood risk assessment through 1D/2D couple HEC-RAS hydrodynamic modeling- A case study of Surat City, Lower Tapi Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhruvesh; Ramirez, Jorge; Srivastava, Prashant; Bray, Michaela; Han, Dawei

    2017-04-01

    Surat, known as the diamond city of Gujart is situated 100 km downstream of Ukai dam and near the mouth of river Tapi and affected by the flood at every alternate year. The city experienced catastrophic floods in 1933, 1959, 1968, 1970, 1994, 1998 and 2006. It is estimated that a single flood event during August 6-12, 2006 in Surat and Hazira twin-city, caused heavy damages, resulted in the death of 300 people and property damage worth € 289 million. The peak discharge of 25768 m3 s-1 release from Ukai dam was responsible for the disastrous flood in Surat city. To identifylow lying areas prone to inundation and reduce the uncertainty in flood mitigation measures, HEC-RAS based 1D/2D Couple hydrodynamic modeling is carried out for Surat city. Release from the Ukai dam and tidal level of the sea are considered for upstream and downstream boundary condition. 299 surveyed cross-sections have been considered for 1D modeling, whereas a topographic map at 0.5 m contour interval was used to produce a 5 m grid and SRTM (30 & 90 m) grid has been considered for Suart and Lower Tapi Basin (LTB). Flow is simulated under unsteady conditions, calibrated for the year 1998 and validated for the year 2006. The simulated result shows that the 9th August 18.00 hr was the worst day for Surat city and maximum 75-77 % area was under inundation. Most of the flooded area experienced 0.25 m/s water velocity with the duration of 90 hr. Due to low velocity and high duration of the flood, a low lying area within the west zone and south-west zone of the city was badly affected by the flood, whereas the south zone and south-east zone was least. Simulated results show good correlation when compared with an observed flood level map. The simulated results will be helpful to improve the flood resilience strategy at Surat city and reduce the uncertainty for flood inundation mapping for future dam releases. The present case study shows the applicability of 1D/2D coupled hydrodynamic modeling for

  3. 2D FEM Inversion With A Moving Footprint And A hybrid 1D And 2D Forward And Derivative Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, T.; Auken, E.; Vöge, M.; Kirkegaard, C.; Andersen, K. R.; Pfaffhuber, A. A.; Christiansen, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    FEM inversions using a 1D model description have proven themselves extremely robust and fast, but every now and again geological structures that are not well modelled within the 1D Earth approximation are encountered. Finding and determining these structures are often one of the primary objectives in an EM survey. Unfortunately, pure 2D/3D modelling is prohibitively computational expensive, which limits inversions. We present a hybrid inversion scheme that consists of three stages: a 1D forward and derivative stage, a 2D forward and 1D derivative stage, and a full 2D stage. This ensures that the full 2D inversion has an optimal starting model and thus only requires a limited number of iterations. This hybrid scheme significantly lowers the time it takes to invert a survey compared to conventional full 2D inversions. We have implemented a moving footprint, which is required due to memory limitations. However, due to the quadratic increase in computation time when increasing the number of elements in our finite element mesh, one finds that the optimal section size, which results in the fastest computation speed, is much smaller than the limitations caused by memory requirements. The parallelisation is placed across the sections created by the moving footprint, which gives a strong scaling as shown in Figure 1. We present our algorithm on both synthetic data for a clear understanding of the benefits of the 2D algorithm as well as on field data to show the robustness and scalability. Figure 1: The speed-up as a function of the number of cpus on a non-uniform memory architecture (NUMA) system.

  4. A conformational NMR analysis of methymycin aglycones: complete and unambiguous assignments of stereochemically diverse glycosylated methymycin analogs by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, Novruz G; Gannett, Peter M; Wu, Bulan; Cummings, Matthew M; Train, Brian C

    2013-03-01

    The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of 10-deoxymethynolide (1), 8.9-dihydro-10-deoxymethynolide (2) and its glycosylated derivatives (3-9) were analyzed using gradient-selected NMR techniques, including 1D TOCSY, gCOSY, 1D NOESY (DPFGSENOE), NOESY, gHMBC, gHSQC and gHSQC-TOCSY. The NMR spectral parameters (chemical shifts and coupling constants) of 1-9 were determined by iterative analysis. For the first time, complete and unambiguous assignment of the (1)H NMR spectrum of 10-deoxymethynolide (1) has been achieved in CDCl(3), CD(3)OD and C(6)D(6) solvents. The (1)H NMR spectrum of 8,9-dihydro-10-deoxymethynolide (2) was recorded in CDCl(3), (CD(3))(2)CO and CD(3)OD solutions to determine the conformation. NMR-based conformational analysis of 1 and 2 in conjugation with molecular modeling concluded that the 12-membered ring of the macrolactones may predominantly exist in a single stable conformation in all solvents examined. In all cases, a change in solvent caused only small changes in chemical shifts and coupling constants, suggesting that all glycosylated methymycin analogs exist with similar conformations of the aglycone ring in solution. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Regional subsidence modelling in Murcia city (SE Spain using 1-D vertical finite element analysis and 2-D interpolation of ground surface displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tessitore

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subsidence is a hazard that may have natural or anthropogenic origin causing important economic losses. The area of Murcia city (SE Spain has been affected by subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation since the year 1992. The main observed historical piezometric level declines occurred in the periods 1982–1984, 1992–1995 and 2004–2008 and showed a close correlation with the temporal evolution of ground displacements. Since 2008, the pressure recovery in the aquifer has led to an uplift of the ground surface that has been detected by the extensometers. In the present work an elastic hydro-mechanical finite element code has been used to compute the subsidence time series for 24 geotechnical boreholes, prescribing the measured groundwater table evolution. The achieved results have been compared with the displacements estimated through an advanced DInSAR technique and measured by the extensometers. These spatio-temporal comparisons have showed that, in spite of the limited geomechanical data available, the model has turned out to satisfactorily reproduce the subsidence phenomenon affecting Murcia City. The model will allow the prediction of future induced deformations and the consequences of any piezometric level variation in the study area.

  6. A Review of Swarm-Based 1D/2D Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Mihail Teodorescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While swarming behavior, widely encountered in nature, has recently sparked numerous models and interest in domains as optimization, data clustering, and control, their application to signal processing remains sporadic. In this paper I provide a unitary treatment and a review of former results obtained in signal filtering and enhancement using swarms. General equations are presented for these procedures and stability issues are considered, with examples. The paper overviews several swarming model I introduced in previous papers and provides new evidence of the applicability of these models in signal processing. In all the models for 1D signal processing, the key idea is that the swarm hunts a prey that impersonates the filtered signal. In the 2D models, the signal (image represents the “landscape” over which the swarm moves at a distance, while the swarm interacts with the signal (landscape. I provide and discuss details of the underlying theory of the models for processing time-domain signals and images. While this paper partly follows and summarizes previous papers, it nevertheless includes supplementary theoretical and algorithmic considerations and new results for both 1D and 2D signal processing. Although following either biological models or physical models in swarm algorithms is not generally accepted for technical applications, we prefer to emphasize the analogies established by our biomimetic approach with these two groups of models.

  7. Assessing the applicability of the 1D flux theory to full-scale secondary settling tank design with a 2D hydrodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A; Marais, P

    2004-02-01

    The applicability of the one-dimensional idealized flux theory (1DFT) for the design of secondary settling tanks (SSTs) is evaluated by comparing its predicted maximum surface overflow (SOR) and solids loading (SLR) rates with that calculated with the two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model SettlerCAD using as a basis 35 full-scale SST stress tests conducted on different SSTs with diameters from 30 to 45m and 2.25-4.1m side water depth (SWD), with and without Stamford baffles. From the simulations, a relatively consistent pattern appeared, i.e. that the 1DFT can be used for design but its predicted maximum SLR needs to be reduced by an appropriate flux rating, the magnitude of which depends mainly on SST depth and hydraulic loading rate (HLR). Simulations of the Watts et al. (Water Res. 30(9)(1996)2112) SST, with doubled SWDs and the Darvill new (4.1m) and old (2.5m) SSTs with interchanged depths, were run to confirm the sensitivity of the flux rating to depth and HLR. Simulations with and without a Stamford baffle were also performed. While the design of the internal features of the SST, such as baffling, has a marked influence on the effluent SS concentration while the SST is underloaded, these features appeared to have only a small influence on the flux rating, i.e. capacity, of the SST. Until more information is obtained, it would appear from the simulations that the flux rating of 0.80 of the 1DFT maximum SLR recommended by Ekama and Marais (Water Pollut. Control 85(1)(1986)101) remains a reasonable value to apply in the design of full-scale SSTs-for deep SSTs (4m SWD) the flux rating could be increased to 0.85 and for shallow SSTs (2.5m SWD) decreased to 0.75. It is recommended that (i) while the apparent interrelationship between SST flux rating and depth suggests some optimization of the volume of the SST, this be avoided and (ii) the depth of the SST be designed independently of the surface area as is usually the practice and once selected, the

  8. Generalized Feature Extraction for Wrist Pulse Analysis: From 1-D Time Series to 2-D Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimin Wang; Zhang, David; Guangming Lu

    2017-07-01

    Traditional Chinese pulse diagnosis, known as an empirical science, depends on the subjective experience. Inconsistent diagnostic results may be obtained among different practitioners. A scientific way of studying the pulse should be to analyze the objectified wrist pulse waveforms. In recent years, many pulse acquisition platforms have been developed with the advances in sensor and computer technology. And the pulse diagnosis using pattern recognition theories is also increasingly attracting attentions. Though many literatures on pulse feature extraction have been published, they just handle the pulse signals as simple 1-D time series and ignore the information within the class. This paper presents a generalized method of pulse feature extraction, extending the feature dimension from 1-D time series to 2-D matrix. The conventional wrist pulse features correspond to a particular case of the generalized models. The proposed method is validated through pattern classification on actual pulse records. Both quantitative and qualitative results relative to the 1-D pulse features are given through diabetes diagnosis. The experimental results show that the generalized 2-D matrix feature is effective in extracting both the periodic and nonperiodic information. And it is practical for wrist pulse analysis.

  9. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskaly, Karlene Rosera [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with

  10. Stochastic analysis of 1D and 2D surface topography of x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurina, Anastasia Y.; Tyurin, Yury N.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-08-01

    The design and evaluation of the expected performance of new optical systems requires sophisticated and reliable information about the surface topography for planned optical elements before they are fabricated. The problem is especially complex in the case of x-ray optics, particularly for the X-ray Surveyor under development and other missions. Modern x-ray source facilities are reliant upon the availability of optics with unprecedented quality (surface slope accuracy quality optics. The uniqueness of the optics and limited number of proficient vendors makes the fabrication extremely time consuming and expensive, mostly due to the limitations in accuracy and measurement rate of metrology used in fabrication. We discuss improvements in metrology efficiency via comprehensive statistical analysis of a compact volume of metrology data. The data is considered stochastic and a new statistical model called Invertible Time Invariant Linear Filter (InTILF) is developed now for 2D surface profiles to provide compact description of the 2D data additionally to 1D data treated so far. The model captures faint patterns in the data and serves as a quality metric and feedback to polishing processes, avoiding high resolution metrology measurements over the entire optical surface. The modeling, implemented in our Beatmark software, allows simulating metrology data for optics made by the same vendor and technology. The forecast data is vital for reliable specification for optical fabrication, to be exactly adequate for the required system performance.

  11. Improvement of the 2D/1D Method in MPACT Using the Sub-Plane Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Aaron M [ORNL; Collins, Benjamin S [ORNL; Downar, Thomas [University of Michigan

    2017-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Michigan are jointly developing the MPACTcode to be the primary neutron transport code for the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA). To solve the transport equation, MPACT uses the 2D/1D method, which decomposes the problem into a stack of 2D planes that are then coupled with a 1D axial calculation. MPACT uses the Method of Characteristics for the 2D transport calculations and P3 for the 1D axial calculations, then accelerates the solution using the 3D Coarse mesh Finite Dierence (CMFD) method. Increasing the number of 2D MOC planes will increase the accuracy of the alculation, but will increase the computational burden of the calculations and can cause slow convergence or instability. To prevent these problems while maintaining accuracy, the sub-plane scheme has been implemented in MPACT. This method sub-divides the MOC planes into sub-planes, refining the 1D P3 and 3D CMFD calculations without increasing the number of 2D MOC planes. To test the sub-plane scheme, three of the VERA Progression Problems were selected: Problem 3, a single assembly problem; Problem 4, a 3x3 assembly problem with control rods and pyrex burnable poisons; and Problem 5, a quarter core problem. These three problems demonstrated that the sub-plane scheme can accurately produce intra-plane axial flux profiles that preserve the accuracy of the fine mesh solution. The eigenvalue dierences are negligibly small, and dierences in 3D power distributions are less than 0.1% for realistic axial meshes. Furthermore, the convergence behavior with the sub-plane scheme compares favorably with the conventional 2D/1D method, and the computational expense is decreased for all calculations due to the reduction in expensive MOC calculations.

  12. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs......). This extension of ASM2 allows for improved modeling of the processes, especially with respect to the dynamics of nitrate and phosphate. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. A Stochastic Wavelet Finite Element Method for 1D and 2D Structures Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xingwu Zhang; Xuefeng Chen; Zhibo Yang; Bing Li; Zhengjia He

    2014-01-01

    A stochastic finite element method based on B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI-SFEM) is presented for static analysis of 1D and 2D structures in this paper. Instead of conventional polynomial interpolation, the scaling functions of BSWI are employed to construct the displacement field. By means of virtual work principle and BSWI, the wavelet finite elements of beam, plate, and plane rigid frame are obtained. Combining the Monte Carlo method and the constructed BSWI elements together, the...

  14. 1-D and 2-D Probabilistic Inversions of Fault Zone Guided Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, A.; Eccles, J. D.; Kaipio, J. P.; Malin, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Fault Zone Guided Waves (FZGWs) are seismic coda that are trapped by the low velocity damage zone of faults. Inversions of these phases can be carried out using their measured dispersion and a Bayesian probability approach. This method utilises a Markov chain Monte Carlo which allows uncertainties and trade-offs to be quantified. Accordingly we have developed a scheme that estimates the dispersion curve and amplitude response variability from a FZGW record. This method allows the computation of both the point estimates and the covariance of the dispersion curve. The subsequent estimation of fault zone parameters is then based on a Gaussian model for the dispersion curve. We then show that inversions using FZGW dispersion data can only resolve fault zone velocity contrast and fault zone width - it leaves densities, absolute country rock velocities and the earthquake location unresolved. We show that they do however significantly affect the estimated fault zone velocities and widths. As these parameters cannot be resolved, we allow for their effects on the estimates of fault zone width and velocity contrast by using the Bayesian approximation error method. We show that using this method reduces computational time from days to minutes and the associated loss of accuracy is insignificant compared to carrying out the inversion on all parameters. We have extended our scheme to 2-D using 1-D slices. The Bayesian approximation error methodology is further employed to provide a 'correction term' with uncertainty for the 1-D slice approximation. We investigate these features with both synthetic data and FZGW data from the Alpine Fault of New Zealand.

  15. A comparison of 1D and 2D LSTM architectures for the recognition of handwritten Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Breuel, Thomas M.; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Arabic handwriting recognition method based on recurrent neural network. We use the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture, that have proven successful in different printed and handwritten OCR tasks. Applications of LSTM for handwriting recognition employ the two-dimensional architecture to deal with the variations in both vertical and horizontal axis. However, we show that using a simple pre-processing step that normalizes the position and baseline of letters, we can make use of 1D LSTM, which is faster in learning and convergence, and yet achieve superior performance. In a series of experiments on IFN/ENIT database for Arabic handwriting recognition, we demonstrate that our proposed pipeline can outperform 2D LSTM networks. Furthermore, we provide comparisons with 1D LSTM networks trained with manually crafted features to show that the automatically learned features in a globally trained 1D LSTM network with our normalization step can even outperform such systems.

  16. 1D and 2D economical FIR filters generated by Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoljub Pavlović, Vlastimir; Stanojko Dončov, Nebojša; Gradimir Ćirić, Dejan

    2013-11-01

    Christoffel-Darboux formula for Chebyshev continual orthogonal polynomials of the first kind is proposed to find a mathematical solution of approximation problem of a one-dimensional (1D) filter function in the z domain. Such an approach allows for the generation of a linear phase selective 1D low-pass digital finite impulse response (FIR) filter function in compact explicit form by using an analytical method. A new difference equation and structure of corresponding linear phase 1D low-pass digital FIR filter are given here. As an example, one extremely economic 1D FIR filter (with four adders and without multipliers) is designed by the proposed technique and its characteristics are presented. Global Christoffel-Darboux formula for orthonormal Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind and for two independent variables for generating linear phase symmetric two-dimensional (2D) FIR digital filter functions in a compact explicit representative form, by using an analytical method, is proposed in this paper. The formula can be most directly applied for mathematically solving the approximation problem of a filter function of even and odd order. Examples of a new class of extremely economic linear phase symmetric selective 2D FIR digital filters obtained by the proposed approximation technique are presented.

  17. 1D ferromagnetic edge contacts to 2D graphene/h-BN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiak, Bogdan; Dankert, André; Cummings, Aron W.; Power, Stephen R.; Roche, Stephan; Dash, Saroj P.

    2018-03-01

    We report the fabrication of one-dimensional (1D) ferromagnetic edge contacts to two-dimensional (2D) graphene/h-BN heterostructures. While aiming to study spin injection/detection with 1D edge contacts, a spurious magnetoresistance signal was observed, which is found to originate from the local Hall effect in graphene due to fringe fields from ferromagnetic edge contacts and in the presence of charge current spreading in the nonlocal measurement configuration. Such behavior has been confirmed by the absence of a Hanle signal and gate-dependent magnetoresistance measurements that reveal a change in sign of the signal for the electron- and hole-doped regimes, which is in contrast to the expected behavior of the spin signal. Calculations show that the contact-induced fringe fields are typically on the order of hundreds of mT, but can be reduced below 100 mT with careful optimization of the contact geometry. There may be an additional contribution from magnetoresistance effects due to tunneling anisotropy in the contacts, which needs further investigation. These studies are useful for optimization of spin injection and detection in 2D material heterostructures through 1D edge contacts.

  18. Membranes from nanoporous 1D and 2D materials: A review of opportunities, developments, and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2013-12-01

    Membranes utilizing nanoporous one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials are emerging as attractive candidates for applications in molecular separations and related areas. Such nanotubular and nanolayered materials include carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanotubes, layered zeolites, porous layered oxides, layered aluminophosphates, and porous graphenes. By virtue of their unique shape, size, and structure, they possess transport properties that are advantageous for membrane and thin film applications. These materials also have very different chemistry from more conventional porous 3D materials, due to the existence of a large, chemically active, external surface area. This feature also necessitates the development of innovative strategies to process these materials into membranes and thin films with high performance. This work provides the first comprehensive review of this emerging area. We first discuss approaches for the synthesis and structural characterization of nanoporous 1D and 2D materials. Thereafter, we elucidate different approaches for fabrication of membranes and thin films from these materials, either as multiphase (composite/hybrid) or single-phase membranes. The influence of surface chemistry and processing techniques on the membrane morphology is highlighted. We then discuss the applications of such membranes in areas relating to molecular transport and separation, e.g. gas and liquid-phase separations, water purification, and ion-conducting membranes. The review concludes with a discussion of the present outlook and some of the key scientific challenges to be addressed on the path to industrially applicable membranes containing nanoporous 1D and 2D materials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Mi; Jung, Hyun Young; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Jung, Yung Joon; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the transition from the semi-dilute to the isotropic concentrated regime. The resultant aerogels have highly porous and ultrafine three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of 1D (Ag, Si, MnO2, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) and 2D materials (MoS2, graphene, h-BN) with high surface areas, low densities, and high electrical conductivities. This method opens up a facile route for aerogel production with a wide variety of materials and tremendous opportunities for bio-scaffold, energy storage, thermoelectric, catalysis, and hydrogen storage applications. PMID:23152940

  20. Comparison of Students' Ability to Measure Distance using Wavelength in 1D and 2D Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gary

    2015-03-01

    When physics students are asked to measure the distance between two fixed locations using a concrete object like a pencil, virtually all respond successfully; however, in some settings, when asked to perform a similar measurement using wavelength as a ruler, there is less success, especially if the students are first asked to note that the ``ruler'' to be used is not fixed in length (see ``Is a Simple Measurement Task a Roadblock to Student Understanding of Wave Phenomena?,'' by M. Kryjevskaia, M. Stetzer, and P. Heron, The Physics Teacher 51,560, (2103) and references therein). I will show some data from introductory classes (algebra- and calculus-based) that replicate this latter result, and also show some interesting features when comparing particular 1D and 2D contexts.

  1. A Stochastic Wavelet Finite Element Method for 1D and 2D Structures Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic finite element method based on B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI-SFEM is presented for static analysis of 1D and 2D structures in this paper. Instead of conventional polynomial interpolation, the scaling functions of BSWI are employed to construct the displacement field. By means of virtual work principle and BSWI, the wavelet finite elements of beam, plate, and plane rigid frame are obtained. Combining the Monte Carlo method and the constructed BSWI elements together, the BSWI-SFEM is formulated. The constructed BSWI-SFEM can deal with the problems of structural response uncertainty caused by the variability of the material properties, static load amplitudes, and so on. Taking the widely used Timoshenko beam, the Mindlin plate, and the plane rigid frame as examples, numerical results have demonstrated that the proposed method can give a higher accuracy and a better constringency than the conventional stochastic finite element methods.

  2. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-07-06

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.

  3. 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis protein profiles of the scorpion venom from Brotheas amazonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, A.M.; Noronha, M.D.N. [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Rede Proteomica do Amazonas (Proteam). Lab. de Genomica e Proteomica; Rocha-Oliveira, F.; Lopez-Lozano, J.L.L. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Scorpions venoms show specific neurotoxins to insect or mammals. These toxins are very important molecular tools to development of news drugs or bioinsecticides. Brotheas amazonicus scorpion is an endemic specie in Amazonian Rain Forest, but your venom do not show toxicity in humans. Information about biological specific activity on insect of this venom is not known yet. Objectives: Molecular protein toxins profiles of the venom from Brotheas amazonicus scorpion by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis methods to detected toxins with potential biotech applications. Results: Several spots 'families' with {approx} 60, 70 and 80 kDa were detected in gel acidic region with pI {approx} 4,5 - 6 range, in the same region 1-D zimography showed proteolytic activity on gelatin and fibrinogen and proteolytic activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting scorpion serine proteinases. 50 kDa proteins were detected with pI {approx} 6,5 - 7 range. In 23 - 50 kDa gel acid region were observed some proteins. In 23 - 14 kDa gel acidic region were detected proteins with pI 4 - 7 range. 1-D Tris-tricine gel showed proteins with {approx} 7 kDa, suggesting scorpion neurotoxins. In gel basic region only 14 kDa proteins were observed with pI {approx} 9 - 10 range. Conclusion: Molecular profile of the scorpion venom from B. amazonicus showed proteins with high and low molecular masses, mainly with acidic pI. Proteolytic activity suggest serine proteinases with high molecular masses and 7 kDa proteins in B. amazonicus venom suggest scorpion neurotoxins. Purification and molecular characterization of these toxins are in course.

  4. 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis protein profiles of the scorpion venom from Brotheas amazonicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, A.M.; Noronha, M.D.N.; Rocha-Oliveira, F.; Lopez-Lozano, J.L.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Scorpions venoms show specific neurotoxins to insect or mammals. These toxins are very important molecular tools to development of news drugs or bioinsecticides. Brotheas amazonicus scorpion is an endemic specie in Amazonian Rain Forest, but your venom do not show toxicity in humans. Information about biological specific activity on insect of this venom is not known yet. Objectives: Molecular protein toxins profiles of the venom from Brotheas amazonicus scorpion by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis methods to detected toxins with potential biotech applications. Results: Several spots 'families' with ∼ 60, 70 and 80 kDa were detected in gel acidic region with pI ∼ 4,5 - 6 range, in the same region 1-D zimography showed proteolytic activity on gelatin and fibrinogen and proteolytic activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting scorpion serine proteinases. 50 kDa proteins were detected with pI ∼ 6,5 - 7 range. In 23 - 50 kDa gel acid region were observed some proteins. In 23 - 14 kDa gel acidic region were detected proteins with pI 4 - 7 range. 1-D Tris-tricine gel showed proteins with ∼ 7 kDa, suggesting scorpion neurotoxins. In gel basic region only 14 kDa proteins were observed with pI ∼ 9 - 10 range. Conclusion: Molecular profile of the scorpion venom from B. amazonicus showed proteins with high and low molecular masses, mainly with acidic pI. Proteolytic activity suggest serine proteinases with high molecular masses and 7 kDa proteins in B. amazonicus venom suggest scorpion neurotoxins. Purification and molecular characterization of these toxins are in course

  5. Determinare le aree inondabili del fiume Ofanto per mezzo di un modello idraulico 1D/2D su base Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Romano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of Ofanto river flood risk areas through a 1D/2D Lidar hydraulic model The national emergency management services should lean on flood risk areas thematic maps in order to manage an eventual catastrophic event. The article, focused on the Ofanto river hydrographic basins, is a clear example of how an accurate knowledge of the terrain, obtained through the latest technological instruments as Lidar, could be important in these situations.

  6. Variable-range hopping in 2D quasi-1D electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teber, S.

    2005-12-01

    A semi-phenomenological theory of variable-range hopping (VRH) is developed for two-dimensional (2D) quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) systems such as arrays of quantum wires in the Wigner crystal regime. The theory follows the phenomenology of Efros, Mott and Shklovskii allied with microscopic arguments. We first derive the Coulomb gap in the single-particle density of states, g(ε), where ε is the energy of the charge excitation. We then derive the main exponential dependence of the electron conductivity in the linear (L), i.e. σ(T) ∼ exp [-(T L /T) γL ], and current in the non-linear (NL), i.e. j(E) ∼ [-(E NL /E) γNL ], response regimes (E is the applied electric field). Due to the strong anisotropy of the system and its peculiar dielectric properties we show that unusual, with respect to known results, Coulomb gaps open followed by unusual VRH laws, i.e. with respect to the disorder-dependence of T L and E NL and the values of γ L and γ NL . (author)

  7. 2D resistivity inversion of 1D electrical-sounding measurements in deltaic complex geology: application to the delta Wadi El-Arish, Northern Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Mohamed Ahmed; Santos, Fernando A Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    This study is an application of the 2D resistivity inversion of Schlumberger electrical sounding. The 2D resistivity inversion was performed using a code based on the finite-element technique and regularization method. Twenty-nine electrical soundings collected in the delta of Wadi El-Arish, Northern Sinai, were used as a case study. The main objective is to compare the 1D and 2D inversion results of the subsurface resistivity distribution in areas where the lateral resistivity variation cannot be neglected. The examination of the resulting 2D, 1D resistivity models and geological cross-section built from borehole information approximately at the same location showed a significant reliability of 2D models. Some subsurface geological and hydrogeological features could be interpreted such as the identification of clay lenses, potentiometric surface of the quaternary aquifer, potentiometric depression due to over-pumping, the high resistivity contrast due to lateral facies change, and basin-like structural features

  8. Design, synthesis, and characterization of 0-D, 1-D, and 2-D Zinc–Adeninate coordination assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji Hyun [Dept. of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Geib, Steven J. [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (United States); Kim, Myung Gil [Dept. of Chemistry, Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of zinc– adeninate coordination polymers with 0-D, 1-D, and 2-D structures. We describe methods for controlling the structure of these materials by applying different synthetic conditions and discuss their structural relationships. 0-D, 1-D, and 2-D zinc–adeninate coordination polymers with the same metal–adeninate coordination mode were synthesized and characterized. By controlling the temperature, a material with 0-D macrocycle or 1-D chain coordination polymer was prepared. A replacement of pyridine with bipyridine formed 2-D sheet structure by connecting 1-D chains with each other. They exhibited an interesting relationship between synthetic methods and structures. Further study of metal–adeninate coordination chemistry will render a precise control of the structure in synthesis and will open a new venue to new materials with fascinating properties.

  9. Nonlinear 1D and 2D waveform inversions of SS precursors and their applications in mantle seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokht, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Sacchi, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic velocities and the topography of mantle discontinuities are crucial for the understanding of mantle structure, dynamics and mineralogy. While these two observables are closely linked, the vast majority of high-resolution seismic images are retrieved under the assumption of horizontally stratified mantle interfaces. This conventional correction-based process could lead to considerable errors due to the inherent trade-off between velocity and discontinuity depth. In this study, we introduce a nonlinear joint waveform inversion method that simultaneously recovers discontinuity depths and seismic velocities using the waveforms of SS precursors. Our target region is the upper mantle and transition zone beneath Northeast Asia. In this region, the inversion outcomes clearly delineate a westward dipping high-velocity structure in association with the subducting Pacific plate. Above the flat part of the slab west of the Japan sea, our results show a shear wave velocity reduction of 1.5% in the upper mantle and 10-15 km depression of the 410 km discontinuity beneath the Changbaishan volcanic field. We also identify the maximum correlation between shear velocity and transition zone thickness at an approximate slab dip of 30 degrees, which is consistent with previously reported values in this region.To validate the results of the 1D waveform inversion of SS precursors, we discretize the mantle beneath the study region and conduct a 2D waveform tomographic survey using the same nonlinear approach. The problem is simplified by adopting the discontinuity depths from the 1D inversion and solving only for perturbations in shear velocities. The resulting models obtained from the 1D and 2D approaches are self-consistent. Low-velocities beneath the Changbai intraplate volcano likely persist to a depth of 500 km. Collectively, our seismic observations suggest that the active volcanoes in eastern China may be fueled by a hot thermal anomaly originating from the mantle transition

  10. Stability and accuracy of 3D neutron transport simulations using the 2D/1D method in MPACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Benjamin; Stimpson, Shane; Kelley, Blake W.; Young, Mitchell T. H.; Kochunas, Brendan; Graham, Aaron; Larsen, Edward W.; Downar, Thomas; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    A consistent "2D/1D" neutron transport method is derived from the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, to calculate fuel-pin-resolved neutron fluxes for realistic full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) problems. The 2D/1D method employs the Method of Characteristics to discretize the radial variables and a lower order transport solution to discretize the axial variable. This paper describes the theory of the 2D/1D method and its implementation in the MPACT code, which has become the whole-core deterministic neutron transport solver for the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) core simulator VERA-CS. Several applications have been performed on both leadership-class and industry-class computing clusters. Results are presented for whole-core solutions of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 and compared to both continuous-energy Monte Carlo results and plant data.

  11. 2D and 3D Modeling Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidyte, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Many inventors and companies still use 2D drawings and are starting to realize a 3D design because 3D modeling can save time and money. In this project I am going to compare 2D and 3D drawings and modeling. 2D modeling and 3D modeling have advantages and disadvantages. For this comparison I made 2D and 3D models using AutoCAD, Autodesk Revit Architectural and Revit MEP software. So, I am going to compare CAD (Computer-aided design) and BIM (Building Information Modeling) technologies, beca...

  12. Multidimensional Nanocomposites of Epoxy Reinforced with 1D and 2D Carbon Nanostructures for Improve Fracture Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juventino López-Barroso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid nanocomposites based on epoxy reinforced with a combination of 1D and 2D carbon nanomaterials for improving impact resistance are reported. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and oxidized-multi-walled carbon nanotubes are used as 1D nanoreinforcements, and graphene derivative materials such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are utilized as 2D nanoreinforcements. In this research, the impact resistance of epoxy matrix reinforced with 1D or 2D and the mixture of both nanomaterials is studied. The research is focused on evaluation of the influence of adding different combinations of nanomaterials into epoxy resin and their Izod impact response. Moreover, fracture surface of nanocomposites is observed by scanning electron microscopy. Images show differences between the surfaces of brittle nature on thermoset epoxy polymer and tough nanocomposites. Synergy created with 1D and 2D nanomaterials produces stable dispersions in the processing, reflected in the interface. The interactions in nanocomposites are evidenced by infrared spectra, principally on the peaks related to oxygenated functional groups present in nanomaterials and absent in polymer matrix. Consequently, an increase of 138% in fracture strength of nanocomposites is exhibited, in comparison to the neat epoxy matrix. In addition, hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized in two different methods to evaluate the influence of manufacturing method on final properties of nanocomposites.

  13. Electronic Properties of a 1D Intrinsic/p-Doped Heterojunction in a 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Zhibo

    2017-07-28

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors offer a convenient platform to study 2D physics, for example, to understand doping in an atomically thin semiconductor. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication and unravel the electronic properties of a lateral doped/intrinsic heterojunction in a single-layer (SL) tungsten diselenide (WSe2), a prototype semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD), partially covered with a molecular acceptor layer, on a graphite substrate. With combined experiments and theoretical modeling, we reveal the fundamental acceptor-induced p-doping mechanism for SL-WSe2. At the 1D border between the doped and undoped SL-WSe2 regions, we observe band bending and explain it by Thomas-Fermi screening. Using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, the screening length is determined to be in the few nanometer range, and we assess the carrier density of intrinsic SL-WSe2. These findings are of fundamental and technological importance for understanding and employing surface doping, for example, in designing lateral organic TMD heterostructures for future devices.

  14. Coupled leaky mode theory for light absorption in 2D, 1D, and 0D semiconductor nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiling; Cao, Linyou

    2012-06-18

    We present an intuitive, simple theoretical model, coupled leaky mode theory (CLMT), to analyze the light absorption of 2D, 1D, and 0D semiconductor nanostructures. This model correlates the light absorption of nanostructures to the optical coupling between incident light and leaky modes of the nanostructure. Unlike conventional methods such as Mie theory that requests specific physical features of nanostructures to evaluate the absorption, the CLMT model provides an unprecedented capability to analyze the absorption using eigen values of the leaky modes. Because the eigenvalue shows very mild dependence on the physical features of nanostructures, we can generally apply one set of eigenvalues calculated using a real, constant refractive index to calculations for the absorption of various nanostructures with different sizes, different materials, and wavelength-dependent complex refractive index. This CLMT model is general, simple, yet reasonably accurate, and offers new intuitive physical insights that the light absorption of nanostructures is governed by the coupling efficiency between incident light and leaky modes of the structure.

  15. 1D AND 2D NMR STUDIES OF BENZYL O–VANILLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hadi Al–Douh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of o-vanillin A with benzyl bromide B2 in acetone as the solvent and K2CO3 as a base in the presence of tetra-n-butylammonium iodide (TBAI as catalyst formed benzyl o-vanillin, C. The complete assignments of C using PROTON, APT, DEPT-135, COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC NMR in both CDCl3 and acetone-d6 are discussed, and the coupling constants J are reported in Hertz (Hz.     Keywords: 1H NMR; 13C NMR; 2D NMR; Benzyl o-Vanillin

  16. Final LDRD report : the physics of 1D and 2D electron gases in III-nitride heterostructure NWs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Arslan, Ilke (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Upadhya, Prashanth C. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Morales, Eugenia T. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Leonard, Francois Leonard (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Talin, Albert Alec (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Prasankumar, Rohit P. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Lin, Yong

    2009-09-01

    The proposed work seeks to demonstrate and understand new phenomena in novel, freestanding III-nitride core-shell nanowires, including 1D and 2D electron gas formation and properties, and to investigate the role of surfaces and heterointerfaces on the transport and optical properties of nanowires, using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Obtaining an understanding of these phenomena will be a critical step that will allow development of novel, ultrafast and ultraefficient nanowire-based electronic and photonic devices.

  17. In vivo 1D and 2D correlation MR spectroscopy of the soleus muscle at 7T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Saadallah; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Wald, Lawrence L.; Mountford, Carolyn E.

    2010-05-01

    AimThis study aims to (1) undertake and analyse 1D and 2D MR correlation spectroscopy from human soleus muscle in vivo at 7T, and (2) determine T1 and T2 relaxation time constants at 7T field strength due to their importance in sequence design and spectral quantitation. MethodSix healthy, male volunteers were consented and scanned on a 7T whole-body scanner (Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany). Experiments were undertaken using a 28 cm diameter detunable birdcage coil for signal excitation and an 8.5 cm diameter surface coil for signal reception. The relaxation time constants, T1 and T2 were recorded using a STEAM sequence, using the 'progressive saturation' method for the T1 and multiple echo times for T2. The 2D L-Correlated SpectroscopY (L-COSY) method was employed with 64 increments (0.4 ms increment size) and eight averages per scan, with a total time of 17 min. ResultsT1 and T2 values for the metabolites of interest were determined. The L-COSY spectra obtained from the soleus muscle provided information on lipid content and chemical structure not available, in vivo, at lower field strengths. All molecular fragments within multiple lipid compartments were chemically shifted by 0.20-0.26 ppm at this field strength. 1D and 2D L-COSY spectra were assigned and proton connectivities were confirmed with the 2D method. ConclusionIn vivo 1D and 2D spectroscopic examination of muscle can be successfully recorded at 7T and is now available to assess lipid alterations as well as other metabolites present with disease. T1 and T2 values were also determined in soleus muscle of male healthy volunteers.

  18. Comparing the Transition from Diffusive to Ballistic Heat Transport for 1D and 2D Nanoscale Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Charpak, J.; Hoogeboom-Pot, K.; Anderson, E.; Murnane, M.; Kapteyn, H.; Nardi, D.

    2014-03-01

    How is thermal transport affected by spatial confinement in nanoscale systems? In past work we and others demonstrated that the Fourier Law of heat diffusion fails for length scales smaller than the mean free path of the energy carriers in a material. Here we probe how the transition from macroscopic diffusive behavior of phonons through the quasi-ballistic regime is different for 1D and 2D nano-confined hot spots. We study a series of periodic nickel lines (1D) and dots (2D) with linewidths varying from 750 to 30 nm deposited on both sapphire and silicon substrates. The thermal relaxation of these femtosecond-laser-excited nanostructures is monitored by the diffraction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light obtained from tabletop high harmonic generation. The short wavelength of EUV light, combined with the coherence and ultrashort pulses of high harmonic sources, provides a unique and powerful probe for nanostructured materials on their intrinsic length and time scales. The relaxation dynamics are linked to an effective thermal boundary resistivity with the assistance of multi-physics finite element analysis to quantify the stronger deviation from macroscopic diffusive behavior as a function of nanostructure linewidth in 2D hot spots compared to 1D. This work was supported by SRC Contract 2012-OJ-2304, by NSF Award No.: DGE 1144083, and used facilities provided by the NSF Engineering Research Center in EUV Science and Technology.

  19. A new numerical treatment based on Lucas polynomials for 1D and 2D sinh-Gordon equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Ömer

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new mixed method based on Lucas and Fibonacci polynomials is developed for numerical solutions of 1D and 2D sinh-Gordon equations. Firstly time variable discretized by central finite difference and then unknown function and its derivatives are expanded to Lucas series. With the help of these series expansion and Fibonacci polynomials, matrices for differentiation are derived. With this approach, finding the solution of sinh-Gordon equation transformed to finding the solution of an algebraic system of equations. Lucas series coefficients are acquired by solving this system of algebraic equations. Then by plugginging these coefficients into Lucas series expansion numerical solutions can be obtained consecutively. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that Lucas polynomial based method is convenient for 1D and 2D nonlinear problems. By calculating L2 and L∞ error norms of some 1D and 2D test problems efficiency and performance of the proposed method is monitored. Acquired accurate results confirm the applicability of the method.

  20. Synthesis of 1D, 2D, and 3D ZnO Polycrystalline Nanostructures Using the Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed various polyol solvents to synthesize zinc oxide polycrystalline nanostructures in the form of fibers (1D, rhombic flakes (2D, and spheres (3D. The synthetic process primarily involved the use of zinc acetate dihydrate in polyol solutions, which were used to derive precursors of zinc alkoxides. Following hydrolysis at 160°C, the zinc alkoxide particles self-assembled into polycrystalline nanostructures with different morphologies. Following calcination at 500°C for 1 h, polycrystalline ZnO with good crystallinity was obtained. FE-SEM explored variations in surface morphology; XRD was used to analyze the crystalline structures and crystallinity of the products, which were confirmed as ZnO wurtzite structures. FE-TEM verified that the ZnO nanostructures were polycrystalline. Furthermore, we employed TGA/DSC to observe the phase transition. According to the results of property analyses, we proposed models of the relevant formation mechanisms. Finally, various ZnO structures were applied in the degradation of methylene blue to compare their photocatalytic efficiency.

  1. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date

  2. Electronic transport properties of 1D-defects in graphene and other 2D-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willke, P.; Wenderoth, M. [IV. Physical Institute, Solids and Nanostructures, Georg-August-University Goettingen (Germany); Schneider, M.A. [Lehrstuhl fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The continuous progress in device miniaturization demands a thorough understanding of the electron transport processes involved. The influence of defects - discontinuities in the perfect and translational invariant crystal lattice - plays a crucial role here. For graphene in particular, they limit the carrier mobility often demanded for applications by contributing additional sources of scattering to the sample. Due to its two-dimensional nature graphene serves as an ideal system to study electron transport in the presence of defects, because one-dimensional defects like steps, grain boundaries and interfaces are easy to characterize and have profound effects on the transport properties. While their contribution to the resistance of a sample can be extracted by carefully conducted transport experiments, scanning probe methods are excellent tools to study the influence of defects locally. In this letter, the authors review the results of scattering at local defects in graphene and other 2D systems by scanning tunneling potentiometry, 4-point-probe microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy and conventional transport measurements. Besides the comparison of the different defect resistances important for device fabrication, the underlying scattering mechanisms are discussed giving insight into the general physics of electron scattering at defects. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. 2D Spatial Frequency Considerations in Comparing 1D Power Spectral Density Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Barber, S.; Church, E.L.; Kaznatcheev, K.; McKinney, W.R.; Yashchuk, V.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The frequency footprint of ID and 2D profiling instruments needs to be carefully considered in comparing ID surface roughness spectrum measurements made by different instruments. Contributions from orthogonal direction frequency components can not be neglected. The use of optical profiling instruments is ubiquitous in the measurement of the roughness of optical surfaces. Their ease-of-use and non-contact measurement method found widespread use in the optics industry for measuring the quality of delicate optical surfaces. Computerized digital data acquisition with these instruments allowed for quick and easy calculation of surface roughness statistics, such as root-mean-square (RMS) roughness. The computing power of the desktop computer allowed for the rapid conversion of spatial domain data into the frequency domain, enabling the application of sophisticated signal processing techniques to be applied to the analysis of surface roughness, the most powerful of which is the power spectral density (PSP) function. Application of the PSD function to surface statistics introduced the concept of 'bandwidth-limited' roughness, where the value of the RMS roughness depends critically upon the spatial frequency response of the instrument. Different instruments with different spatial frequency response characteristics give different answers when measuring the same surface.

  4. Matrix models and 2-D gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, F.

    1990-01-01

    In these lectures, I shall focus on the matrix formulation of 2-d gravity. In the first one, I shall discuss the main results of the continuum formulation of 2-d gravity, starting from the first renormalization group calculations which led to the concept of the conformal anomaly, going through the Polyakov bosonic string and the Liouville action, up to the recent results on the scaling properties of conformal field theories coupled to 2-d gravity. In the second lecture, I shall discuss the discrete formulation of 2-d gravity in term of random lattices, and the mapping onto random matrix models. The occurrence of critical points in the planar limit and the scaling limit at those critical points will be described, as well as the identification of these scaling limits with continuum 2-d gravity coupled to some matter field theory. In the third lecture, the double scaling limit in the one matrix model, and its connection with continuum non perturbative 2-d gravity, will be presented. The connection with the KdV hierarchy and the general form of the string equation will be discuted. In the fourth lecture, I shall discuss the non-perturbative effects present in the non perturbative solutions, in the case of pure gravity. The Schwinger-Dyson equations for pure gravity in the double scaling limit are described and their compatibility with the solutions of the string equation for pure gravity is shown to be somewhat problematic

  5. Fully digital 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos as hardware pseudo random number generators

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-10-07

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos using the sawtooth nonlinearity in a 3rd order ODE with the Euler approximation. Systems indicate chaotic behaviour through phase space boundedness and positive Lyapunov exponent. Low-significance bits form a PRNG and pass all tests in the NIST SP. 800-22 suite without post-processing. Real-time control of the number of scrolls allows distinct output streams with 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos enabling greater controllability. The proposed PRNGs are experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.25%, throughput up to 5.25 Gbits/s and up to 512 distinct output streams with low cross-correlation.

  6. 1D and 2D graphdiynes. Recent advances on the synthesis at interfaces and potential nanotechnological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi; Molina-Jiron, Concepcion; Klyatskaya, Svetlana [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Klappenberger, Florian [Physik Department E20, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ruben, Mario [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); IPCMS-CNRS, Universite de Strasbourg (France)

    2017-11-15

    In solution-based chemistry butadiyne linkage through the homocoupling reaction of alkynes is a versatile tool for the synthesis of π-conjugated polymers, scaffolds and networks. To date this strategy was actively implemented towards chemical synthesis at interfaces. In this review paper we summarize recent advances in the syntheses of 1D wires, 2D single-layers and thin films of graphdiyne-related carbon materials at interfaces and their potential applications in nanotechnology. With a high degree of π-conjunction, uniformly distributed pores and tunable electronic properties such 2D all-carbon networks with butadiyne linkages also known as 'graphdiynes' have been successfully employed in the field-effected emission devices, solar cells, for Li ion storage and oil water separation, and as catalysis or chemical sensors. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Styrylpyrylium Salts: 1H and 13C NMR High-Resolution Spectroscopy (1D and 2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Claude W. Ouédraogo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 1H and 13C NMR high-resolution spectroscopy (1D and 2D (1H, 1H-COSY, HSQC, HMBC for four styrylpyrylium perchlorates were carried out and signal attributions are reported. Chemical shifts observed on 13C NMR spectra for the styrylpyrylium salts were compared with net atomic charge for carbon obtained by AM1 semiempirical calculations. The position of the styryl group present low effect on chemical shifts for carbon atoms, while the presence of methyl group led to the unshielding of the substituted carbon.

  8. Assembly studies of six intestinal intermediate filament (IF) proteins B2, C1, C2, D1, D2, and E1 in the nematode C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabinos, Anton; Schünemann, Jürgen; Parry, David A D

    2017-03-01

    The dimerisation properties of six intestine-expressed intermediate filament (IF) proteins (B2, C1, C2, D1, D2, E1) were analysed in blot overlay assay on membranes containing all of the eleven recombinant C. elegans IF proteins (A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, D2, and E1). The interactions detected in the blot assays exclusively comprise intestine-expressed IF proteins and the protein A4, which is found in the dauer larva intestine. About 86% of these interactions are heterotypic, while the remaining interactions relate to C1, C2, and D2 homodimers. These multiple modes of interaction were also supported by calculations of the numbers of possible interchain ionic interactions derived from the individual rod sequences. The results predict that the six B2, C1, C2, D1, D2, and E1 IF proteins are able to form as many as eleven different heteropolymeric and three homopolymeric IFs in the C. elegans intestine. This simple model of the intestinal IF meshwork enables us to speculate that our previously reported triple RNAi worms arrested or decreased their growth because of feeding reduction due to morphological defects of the mechanically compromised intestine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A 2D/1D coupling neutron transport method based on the matrix MOC and NEM methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.; Zheng, Y.; Wu, H.; Cao, L. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2013-07-01

    A new 2D/1D coupling method based on the matrix MOC method (MMOC) and nodal expansion method (NEM) is proposed for solving the three-dimensional heterogeneous neutron transport problem. The MMOC method, used for radial two-dimensional calculation, constructs a response matrix between source and flux with only one sweep and then solves the linear system by using the restarted GMRES algorithm instead of the traditional trajectory sweeping process during within-group iteration for angular flux update. Long characteristics are generated by using the customization of commercial software AutoCAD. A one-dimensional diffusion calculation is carried out in the axial direction by employing the NEM method. The 2D and ID solutions are coupled through the transverse leakage items. The 3D CMFD method is used to ensure the global neutron balance and adjust the different convergence properties of the radial and axial solvers. A computational code is developed based on these theories. Two benchmarks are calculated to verify the coupling method and the code. It is observed that the corresponding numerical results agree well with references, which indicates that the new method is capable of solving the 3D heterogeneous neutron transport problem directly. (authors)

  10. 1D multi-fluid plasma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, P.; Suender, D.

    1998-01-01

    1D and time-dependent multi-fluid plasma models are derived from multi-fluid MHD equations. Including neutral particles and their ionization stages as fluids increases the number of equations to be solved and the indeterminacy of the results considerably. For this reason, especially for the case of high-Z materials, the impurities are described by distinct approaches without restricting the impurity densities to be small compared with the hydrogen plasma density. Using the approach of the average ion model, neglecting the effect of the neutral particles, equalizing the plasma temperatures and adopting the condition of quasi-neutrality, we arrive at a three-fluid description and analyze wave front solution of the self-consistent system of equations obtained. This system is reduced to a two-fluid description assuming the flow velocities of the electrons and ions to be equal. This model can be reduced further to a currentless, modified one-fluid approach if the impurity density in dependence on the model functions is known. Introducing Lagrangian coordinates and assuming a constant total pressure a single reaction-diffusion equation for the temperature is obtained. A differential equation for the impurity density in dependence of the temperature has to be included. It determines the influence of the impurities on the reaction-diffusion process which affect not only the radiation loss but also the heat conduction. This is demonstrated for carbon, beryllium and high-Z impurities. (orig.)

  11. 1D Bi2S3 nanorod/2D e-WS2 nanosheet heterojunction photocatalyst for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattikuti, S. V. Prabhakar; Shim, Jaesool; Byon, Chan

    2018-02-01

    The development of high-activity, long-life, precious-metal-free photocatalysts for redox reactions in photoelectrochemical cells and fuel cells remains challenging. The synthesis of high-activity heterostructured photocatalysts is crucial for efficient energy conversion strategies. Herein, a novel photocatalyst based on 1D Bi2S3 nanorods self-assembled on 2D exfoliated tungsten disulfide (e-WS2) nanosheets has been developed for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye in aqueous solution. We demonstrate a novel and facile hydrothermal method for the synthesis of a Bi2S3 nanorod/e-WS2 nanosheet heterostructure. The photocatalytic properties of the heterostructure under visible light were investigated. Enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to the presence of strong surface active sites, as well as the specific morphology of the composite. We also observed the fast transfer of electron-hole pairs at the material interface. This work demonstrates a non-noble semiconductor photocatalyst for the degradation of pollutants and evolution of H2.

  12. Direct Printing of 1-D and 2-D Electronically Conductive Structures by Molten Lead-Free Solder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsun Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effects of appropriate experimental parameters on the thermophysical properties of molten micro droplets, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder balls with an average droplet diameter of 50 μm were prepared. The inkjet printing parameters of the molten micro droplets, such as the dot spacing, stage velocity and sample temperature, were optimized in the 1D and 2D printing of metallic microstructures. The impact and mergence of molten micro droplets were observed with a high-speed digital camera. The line width of each sample was then calculated using a formula over a temperature range of 30 to 70 °C. The results showed that a metallic line with a width of 55 μm can be successfully printed with dot spacing (50 μm and the stage velocity (50 mm∙s−1 at the substrate temperature of 30 °C. The experimental results revealed that the height (from 0.63 to 0.58 and solidification contact angle (from 72° to 56° of the metallic micro droplets decreased as the temperature of the sample increased from 30 to 70 °C. High-speed digital camera (HSDC observations showed that the quality of the 3D micro patterns improved significantly when the droplets were deposited at 70 °C.

  13. Consistency between 2D-3D Sediment Transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaret, Catherine; Jodeau, Magali

    2017-04-01

    Sediment transport models have been developed and applied by the engineering community to estimate transport rates and morphodynamic bed evolutions in river flows, coastal and estuarine conditions. Environmental modelling systems like the open-source Telemac modelling system include a hierarchy of models from 1D (Mascaret), 2D (Telemac-2D/Sisyphe) and 3D (Telemac-3D/Sedi-3D) and include a wide range of processes to represent sediment flow interactions under more and more complex situations (cohesive, non-cohesive and mixed sediment). Despite some tremendous progresses in the numerical techniques and computing resources, the quality/accuracy of model results mainly depend on the numerous choices and skills of the modeler. In complex situations involving stratification effects, complex geometry, recirculating flows… 2D model assumptions are no longer valid. A full 3D turbulent flow model is then required in order to capture the vertical mixing processes and to represent accurately the coupled flow/sediment distribution. However a number of theoretical and numerical difficulties arise when dealing with sediment transport modelling in 3D which will be high-lighted : (1) Dependency of model results to the vertical grid refinement and choice of boundary conditions and numerical scheme (2) The choice of turbulence model determines also the sediment vertical distribution which is governed by a balance between the downward settling term and upward turbulent diffusion. (3) The use of different numerical schemes for both hydrodynamics (mean and turbulent flow) and sediment transport modelling can lead to some inconsistency including a mismatch in the definition of numerical cells and definition of boundary conditions. We discuss here those present issues and present some detailed comparison between 2D and 3D simulations on a set of validation test cases which are available in the Telemac 7.2 release using both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments.

  14. 2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992......). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92......-0042. Furthermore, Task IA will give the design diagram for Tetrapod breakwaters without a superstructure. The more complete research results on Dolosse can certainly give some insight into the behaviour of Tetrapods armour layer of the breakwaters with superstructure. The main part of the experiment...

  15. Identifying seawater intrusion in coastal areas by means of 1D and quasi-2D joint inversion of TDEM and VES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Bernardo, I.; Farzamian, M.; Nascimento, C.; Fernandes, J.; Casal, B.; Ribeiro, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Seawater intrusion is an increasingly widespread problem in coastal aquifers caused by climate changes -sea-level rise, extreme phenomena like flooding and droughts- and groundwater depletion near to the coastline. To evaluate and mitigate the environmental risks of this phenomenon it is necessary to characterize the coastal aquifer and the salt intrusion. Geophysical methods are the most appropriate tool to address these researches. Among all geophysical techniques, electrical methods are able to detect seawater intrusions due to the high resistivity contrast between saltwater, freshwater and geological layers. The combination of two or more geophysical methods is recommended and they are more efficient when both data are inverted jointly because the final model encompasses the physical properties measured for each methods. In this investigation, joint inversion of vertical electric and time domain soundings has been performed to examine seawater intrusion in an area within the Ferragudo-Albufeira aquifer system (Algarve, South of Portugal). For this purpose two profiles combining electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) methods were measured and the results were compared with the information obtained from exploration drilling. Three different inversions have been carried out: single inversion of the ERT and TDEM data, 1D joint inversion and quasi-2D joint inversion. Single inversion results identify seawater intrusion, although the sedimentary layers detected in exploration drilling were not well differentiated. The models obtained with 1D joint inversion improve the previous inversion due to better detection of sedimentary layer and the seawater intrusion appear to be better defined. Finally, the quasi-2D joint inversion reveals a more realistic shape of the seawater intrusion and it is able to distinguish more sedimentary layers recognised in the exploration drilling. This study demonstrates that the quasi-2D joint

  16. Ethanol catalytic optical driven deposition for 1D and 2D materials with ultra-low power threshold of 0 dBm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Bohua; Xiao, Xu; Guo, Chaoshi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Meng; Wu, Kan; Chen, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    We have demonstrated a generalized optical driven deposition method, ethanol catalytic deposition (ECD) method, which is widely applicable to the deposition of a broad range of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials with common deposition parameters. Using ECD method, deposition of 1D material carbon nanotubes and 2D materials MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 on tapered fiber has been demonstrated with the threshold power as low as 0 dBm. To our knowledge, this is the lowest threshold power ever reported in optical driven deposition, noting that the conventional optical driven deposition has a threshold typically near 15 dBm. It means ECD method can significantly reduce the power requirement and simplify the setup of the optical driven deposition as well as its wide applicability to different materials, which benefits the research on optical nonlinearity and ultrafast photonics of 1D and 2D materials.

  17. 3D, 2D and 1D networks via NH··· O and NH··· N hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 5. 3D, 2D and 1D networks via N-H…O and N-H…N hydrogen bonding by the bis-amide analogues: Effect of chain lengths and odd-even spacers. Gargi Mukherjee Kumar Biradha. Special issue on Chemical Crystallography Volume 126 Issue 5 September ...

  18. Modeling Flood Disasters: Issues Concerning Data for 2D Numerical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmad Fikri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood disasters are one of the worst natural disasters and they occur almost daily. Correspondingly, city managers are nowadays increasingly investing in data collection and modelling activities. Typically, flows in pipes and channels have been modelled using a one-dimensional (1D approach. Also, if the flood flows on the ground are confined to streets and curbs, the use of 1D/1D modelling approach (a.k.a. as dual drainage concept may be a feasible way forward. However, if the flows are two-dimensional with complex interactions taking place through surface/sub-surface links, then the required approach would be the so-called 1D/2D modelling approach. The ever-increasing power of computers is now allowing a 3D fluid dynamics analysis of overflow and manhole structures, and in time these may be coupled with 1D models that may be used in situations where flow characteristics require with higher dimensionality. With the use of 2D models, the importance of terrain data has become a growing issue. The current paper discusses some of the key modelling approaches and makes particular reference to the terrain data processing and collection which can either improve or deteriorate their predictive capability

  19. Structural determination of abutilins A and B, new flavonoids from Abutilon pakistanicum, by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bakhat; Imran, Muhammad; Hussain, Riaz; Ahmed, Zaheer; Malik, Abdul

    2010-02-01

    Two new flavonoids, abutilin A and B, were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of Abutilon pakistanicum and their structures assigned from (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, DEPT and by 2D COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. Ferulic acid (3), (E)-cinnamic acid (4), 5-hydroxy-4',6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (5), kaempferol (6), luteolin (7) and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8) have also been reported from this species. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. 1D-spectral editing and 2D multispectral in vivo1H-MRS and1H-MRSI - Methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Wolfgang; Hangel, Gilbert; Esmaeili, Morteza; Andronesi, Ovidiu C

    2017-07-15

    This article reviews the methodological aspects of detecting low-abundant J-coupled metabolites via 1D spectral editing techniques and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods applied in vivo, in humans, with a focus on the brain. A brief explanation of the basics of J-evolution will be followed by an introduction to 1D spectral editing techniques (e.g., J-difference editing, multiple quantum coherence filtering) and 2D-NMR methods (e.g., correlation spectroscopy, J-resolved spectroscopy). Established and recently developed methods will be discussed and the most commonly edited J-coupled metabolites (e.g., neurotransmitters, antioxidants, onco-markers, and markers for metabolic processes) will be briefly summarized along with their most important applications in neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nickel induced re-structuring of 2D graphene to 1D graphene nanotubes: Role of radical hydrogen in catalyst assisted growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Rahul; Titus, Elby

    2017-12-01

    Here, we demonstrate for the first time the structural evolution of 1D graphene nanotubes (GNTs) by the cutting of two dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) sheet in reducing environment at ambient conditions in presence of Ni metal in acidic environment. We observed that in-situ generated radical hydrogen (Hrad) responsible for cutting of graphene sheets and re-structuring of 2D sheet structure to one 1D nanotubes. Structural evolution of GNTs was confirmed by using of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The current vs. voltage (I-V) characteristics of GNTs displayed room temperature (RT) negative differential resistance (NDR) effect which is typical in nanowires, suggested the applicability of nanomaterial for various kind of electronics applications such as memory devices and transistors fabrication.

  2. Dopamine D1, D2, D3 receptors, vesicular monoamine transporter type-2 (VMAT2 and dopamine transporter (DAT densities in aged human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Sun

    Full Text Available The dopamine D(1, D(2, D(3 receptors, vesicular monoamine transporter type-2 (VMAT2, and dopamine transporter (DAT densities were measured in 11 aged human brains (aged 77-107.8, mean: 91 years by quantitative autoradiography. The density of D(1 receptors, VMAT2, and DAT was measured using [(3H]SCH23390, [(3H]dihydrotetrabenazine, and [(3H]WIN35428, respectively. The density of D(2 and D(3 receptors was calculated using the D(3-preferring radioligand, [(3H]WC-10 and the D(2-preferring radioligand [(3H]raclopride using a mathematical model developed previously by our group. Dopamine D(1, D(2, and D(3 receptors are extensively distributed throughout striatum; the highest density of D(3 receptors occurred in the nucleus accumbens (NAc. The density of the DAT is 10-20-fold lower than that of VMAT2 in striatal regions. Dopamine D(3 receptor density exceeded D(2 receptor densities in extrastriatal regions, and thalamus contained a high level of D(3 receptors with negligible D(2 receptors. The density of dopamine D(1 linearly correlated with D(3 receptor density in the thalamus. The density of the DAT was negligible in the extrastriatal regions whereas the VMAT2 was expressed in moderate density. D(3 receptor and VMAT2 densities were in similar level between the aged human and aged rhesus brain samples, whereas aged human brain samples had lower range of densities of D(1 and D(2 receptors and DAT compared with the aged rhesus monkey brain. The differential density of D(3 and D(2 receptors in human brain will be useful in the interpretation of PET imaging studies in human subjects with existing radiotracers, and assist in the validation of newer PET radiotracers having a higher selectivity for dopamine D(2 or D(3 receptors.

  3. Effect of geometric nanostructures on the absorption edges of 1-D and 2-D TiO₂ fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Huang; Liu, Chien-Min; Cheng, Hsyi-En; Chen, Chih

    2013-05-01

    2-Dimensional (2-D) TiO2 thin films and 1-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated on Si and quartz substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD) with an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template at 400 °C. The film thickness and the tube wall thickness can be precisely controlled using the ALD approach. The intensities of the absorption spectra were enhanced by an increase in the thickness of the TiO2 thin film and tube walls. A blue-shift was observed for a decrease in the 1-D and 2-D TiO2 nanostructure thicknesses, indicating a change in the energy band gap with the change in the size of the TiO2 nanostructures. Indirect and direct interband transitions were used to investigate the change in the energy band gap. The results indicate that both quantum confinement and interband transitions should be considered when the sizes of 1-D and 2-D TiO2 nanostructures are less than 10 nm.

  4. Extending the Nonlinear-Beam-Dynamics Concept of 1D Fixed Points to 2D Fixed Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Franchetti, G.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of nonlinear dynamics traces back to the study of the dynamics of planets with the seminal work of Poincaré at the end of the nineteenth century: Les Méthodes Nouvelles de la Mécanique Céleste, Vols. 1–3 (Gauthier Villars, Paris, 1899). In his work he introduced a methodology fruitful for investigating the dynamical properties of complex systems, which led to the so-called “Poincaré surface of section,” which allows one to capture the global dynamical properties of a system, characterized by fixed points and separatrices with respect to regular and chaotic motion. For two-dimensional phase space (one degree of freedom) this approach has been extremely useful and applied to particle accelerators for controlling their beam dynamics as of the second half of the twentieth century.We describe here an extension of the concept of 1D fixed points to fixed lines in two dimensions. These structures become the fundamental entities for characterizing the nonlinear motion in the four-dimensional phas...

  5. Port Adriano, 2D-Model tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Meinert, Palle; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    the crown wall have been measured. The model has been subjected to irregular waves corresponding to typical conditions offshore from the intended prototype location. Characteristic situations have been video recorded. The stability of the toe has been investigated. The wave-generated forces on the caisson...

  6. Mixed micelles of polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether with ionic surfactants studied by proton 1D and 2D NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Chang; Zhao, Sui; Mao, Shi-Zhen; Yuan, Han-Zhen; Yu, Jia-Yong; Shen, Lian-Fang; Du, You-Ru

    2002-05-01

    (1)H NMR chemical shift, spin-lattice relaxation time, spin-spin relaxation time, self-diffusion coefficient, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement (2D NOESY) measurements have been used to study the nonionic-ionic surfactant mixed micelles. Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were used as the ionic surfactants and polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether (Brij-35) as the nonionic surfactant. The two systems are both with varying molar ratios of CTAB/Brij-35 (C/B) and SDS/Brij-35 (S/B) ranging from 0.5 to 2, respectively, at a constant concentration of 6 mM for Brij-35 in aqueous solutions. Results give information about the relative arrangement of the surfactant molecules in the mixed micelles. In the former system, the trimethyl groups attached to the polar heads of the CTAB molecules are located between the first oxy-ethylene groups next to the hydrophobic chains of Brij-35 molecules. These oxy-ethylene groups gradually move outward from the hydrophobic core of the mixed micelle with an increase in C/B in the mixed solution. In contrast to the case of the CTAB/Triton X-100 system, the long flexible hydrophilic poly oxy-ethylene chains, which are in the exterior part of the mixed micelles, remain coiled, but looser, surrounding the hydrophobic core. There is almost no variation in conformation of the hydrophilic chains of Brij-35 molecules in the mixed micelles of the SDS/Brij-35 system as the S/B increases. The hydrophobic chains of both CTAB and SDS are co-aggregated with Brij-35, respectively, in their mixed micellar cores.

  7. Application of 1D and 2D MFR reactor technology for the isolation of insecticidal and anti-microbial properties from pyrolysis bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad M; Scott, Ian M; Berruti, Franco; Briens, Cedric

    2016-12-01

    Valuable chemicals can be separated from agricultural residues by chemical or thermochemical processes. The application of pyrolysis has already been demonstrated as an efficient means to produce a liquid with a high concentration of desired product. The objective of this study was to apply an insect and microorganism bioassay-guided approach to separate and isolate pesticidal compounds from bio-oil produced through biomass pyrolysis. Tobacco leaf (Nicotianata bacum), tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum), and spent coffee (Coffea arabica) grounds were pyrolyzed at 10°C/min from ambient to 565°C using the mechanically fluidized reactor (MFR). With one-dimensional (1D) MFR pyrolysis, the composition of the product vapors varied as the reactor temperature was raised allowing for the selection of the temperature range that corresponds to vapors with a high concentration of pesticidal properties. Further product separation was performed in a fractional condensation train, or 2D MFR pyrolysis, thus allowing for the separation of vapor components according to their condensation temperature. The 300-400°C tobacco and tomato bio-oil cuts from the 1D MFR showed the highest insecticidal and anti-microbial activity compared to the other bio-oil cuts. The 300-350 and 350-400°C bio-oil cuts produced by 2D MFR had the highest insecticidal activity when the bio-oil was collected from the 210°C condenser. The tobacco and tomato bio-oil had similar insecticidal activity (LC 50 of 2.1 and 2.2 mg/mL) when the bio-oil was collected in the 210°C condenser from the 300-350°C reactor temperature gases. The 2D MFR does concentrate the pesticidal products compared to the 1D MFR and thus can reduce the need for further separation steps such as solvent extraction.

  8. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung Lim, Mi; Maeng, Young Jae; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries) which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C) reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  9. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Mi Joung; Maeng Young Jae; Fero Arnold H.; Anderson Stanwood L.

    2016-01-01

    The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries) which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and p...

  10. Quasi 2D hydrodynamic modelling of the flooded hinterland due to dyke breaching on the Elbe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In flood modeling, many 1D and 2D combination and 2D models are used to simulate diversion of water from rivers through dyke breaches into the hinterland for extreme flood events. However, these models are too demanding in data requirements and computational resources which is an important consideration when uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo techniques is used to complement the modeling exercise. The goal of this paper is to show the development of a quasi-2D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1D but the discretisation of the computational units are in 2D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in the hinterland due to dyke breaching without a large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. A 2D representation of the flow and velocity fields is required to model sediment and micro-pollutant transport. The model DYNHYD (1D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations. The model was extended to incorporate the quasi-2D approach and a Monte-Carlo Analysis was used to conduct a flood sensitivity analysis to determine the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions to the resulting water flow. An extreme flood event on the Elbe River, Germany, with a possible dyke breach area was used as a test case. The results show a good similarity with those obtained from another 1D/2D modeling study.

  11. Data of the recombination loss mechanisms analysis on Al2O3PERC cell using PC1D and PC2D simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibing; Lv, Jun; Bao, Yameng; Xuan, Rongwei; Sun, Shenghua; Sneck, Sami; Li, Shuo; Modanese, Chiara; Savin, Hele; Wang, Aihua; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    This data article is related to our recently published article ('20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al 2 O 3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%', Huang et al., 2017 [1]) where we have presented a systematic evaluation of the overall cell processing and a cost-efficient industrial roadmap for PERC cells. Aside from the information already presented in Huang et al., 2017 [1], here we provide data related to Sectin 3 in Huang et al., 2017 [1] concerning the analysis of the recombination losses׳ mechanisms by PC1D V5.9 and PC2D simulations (Clugston and Basore, 1997, Basore and Cabanas-Holmen, 2011, Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012 and Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012.) [2], [3], [4], [5] on our current industrial Al 2 O 3 PERC cell. The data include: i) PC2D simulations on J 02 , ii) the calculation of series resistance and back surface recombination velocity (BSRV) on the rear side metallization of PERC cell for the case of a point contact, and iii) the PC1D simulation on the cumulative photo-generation and recombination along the distance from the front surface. Finally, the roadmap of the solar cell efficiency for an industrial PERC technology up to 24% is presented, with the aim of providing a potential guideline for industrial researchers.

  12. Data of the recombination loss mechanisms analysis on Al2O3 PERC cell using PC1D and PC2D simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to our recently published article (‘20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%’, Huang et al., 2017 [1] where we have presented a systematic evaluation of the overall cell processing and a cost-efficient industrial roadmap for PERC cells. Aside from the information already presented in Huang et al., 2017 [1], here we provide data related to Sectin 3 in Huang et al., 2017 [1] concerning the analysis of the recombination losses׳ mechanisms by PC1D V5.9 and PC2D simulations (Clugston and Basore, 1997, Basore and Cabanas-Holmen, 2011, Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012 and Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012. [2–5] on our current industrial Al2O3 PERC cell. The data include: i PC2D simulations on J02, ii the calculation of series resistance and back surface recombination velocity (BSRV on the rear side metallization of PERC cell for the case of a point contact, and iii the PC1D simulation on the cumulative photo-generation and recombination along the distance from the front surface. Finally, the roadmap of the solar cell efficiency for an industrial PERC technology up to 24% is presented, with the aim of providing a potential guideline for industrial researchers.

  13. 1D-2D carbon heterostructure with low Pt loading as a superior cathode electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechiyil, Divya; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2017-02-01

    Cost-effective counter electrode (CE) with high electrocatalytic performance is very much essential for the wide application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The 1D-2D carbon heterostructure (Pt/GR@CNT) with low platinum (Pt) loading has been synthesized by a facile in situ microwave-assisted polyol-reduction method. The excellent electrocatalytic activity as well as photovoltaic performance was achieved due to the combination of 2D graphene nanoribbons (GR) and 1D multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) with high catalytically active Pt nanoparticles. Microwave-assisted longitudinal unzipping of few outer layers of CNTs along with co-reduction of Pt nanoparticles is an effective method to create electrochemically active defective edge sites, which have a crucial role in enhancing electrochemical performance. Synergistic effect of ultra-fine Pt nanoparticles, partially unzipped graphene nanoribbons and inner core tubes of CNTs modulates the power conversion efficiency of solar cell to 5.57% ± 0.03 as compared with 4.73% ± 0.13 of CNTs. Pt/GR@CNT CE even with low Pt loading of 14 μg cm-2 showcases equivalent performance with that of pure Pt counter electrode.

  14. 1D-2D carbon heterostructure with low Pt loading as a superior cathode electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechiyil, Divya; Ramaprabhu, S., E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AENL), Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC), Department of Physics (India)

    2017-02-15

    Cost-effective counter electrode (CE) with high electrocatalytic performance is very much essential for the wide application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The 1D-2D carbon heterostructure (Pt/GR@CNT) with low platinum (Pt) loading has been synthesized by a facile in situ microwave-assisted polyol-reduction method. The excellent electrocatalytic activity as well as photovoltaic performance was achieved due to the combination of 2D graphene nanoribbons (GR) and 1D multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) with high catalytically active Pt nanoparticles. Microwave-assisted longitudinal unzipping of few outer layers of CNTs along with co-reduction of Pt nanoparticles is an effective method to create electrochemically active defective edge sites, which have a crucial role in enhancing electrochemical performance. Synergistic effect of ultra-fine Pt nanoparticles, partially unzipped graphene nanoribbons and inner core tubes of CNTs modulates the power conversion efficiency of solar cell to 5.57% ± 0.03 as compared with 4.73% ± 0.13 of CNTs. Pt/GR@CNT CE even with low Pt loading of 14 μg cm{sup −2} showcases equivalent performance with that of pure Pt counter electrode.

  15. PBE–DFT theoretical study of organic photovoltaic materials based on thiophene with 1D and 2D periodic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saïl, K.; Bassou, G.; Gafour, M. H.; Miloua, F.

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated organic systems such as thiophene are interesting topics in the field of organic solar cells. We theoretically investigate π-conjugated polymers constituted by n units (n = 1–11) based on the thiophene (Tn) molecule. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures of these compounds are performed using the density functional theory (DFT) at the 6–31 G(d, p) level of theory and the Perdew–Burke–Eenzerhof (PBE) formulation of the generalized gradient approximation with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Moreover, the electronic properties (HOCO, LUCO, E gap , V oc , and V bi ) are determined from 1D and 2D PBC to understand the effect of the number of rings in polythiophene. The absorption properties—excitation energies (E ex ), the maximal absorption wavelength (λ max ), oscillator strengths, and light harvesting—efficiency are studied using the time-dependent DFT method. Our studies show that changing the number of thiophene units can effectively modulate the electronic and optical properties. On the other hand, our work demonstrates the efficiency of theoretical calculation in the PBCs

  16. PBE–DFT theoretical study of organic photovoltaic materials based on thiophene with 1D and 2D periodic boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saïl, K., E-mail: sailkari7@yahoo.com; Bassou, G. [Université Djillali Liabès, Laboratoire de Microscopie, Microanalyse de la Matière et Spectroscopie Moléculaire (L2MSM), Faculté des Sciences Exactes (Algeria); Gafour, M. H. [Centre Universitaire Ahmed Zabana de Rélizane, Institut des Sciences Exactes et Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Département de Chimie (Algeria); Miloua, F. [Université Djillali Liabès, Laboratoire de Microscopie, Microanalyse de la Matière et Spectroscopie Moléculaire (L2MSM), Faculté des Sciences Exactes (Algeria)

    2015-12-15

    Conjugated organic systems such as thiophene are interesting topics in the field of organic solar cells. We theoretically investigate π-conjugated polymers constituted by n units (n = 1–11) based on the thiophene (Tn) molecule. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures of these compounds are performed using the density functional theory (DFT) at the 6–31 G(d, p) level of theory and the Perdew–Burke–Eenzerhof (PBE) formulation of the generalized gradient approximation with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Moreover, the electronic properties (HOCO, LUCO, E{sub gap}, V{sub oc}, and V{sub bi}) are determined from 1D and 2D PBC to understand the effect of the number of rings in polythiophene. The absorption properties—excitation energies (E{sub ex}), the maximal absorption wavelength (λ{sub max}), oscillator strengths, and light harvesting—efficiency are studied using the time-dependent DFT method. Our studies show that changing the number of thiophene units can effectively modulate the electronic and optical properties. On the other hand, our work demonstrates the efficiency of theoretical calculation in the PBCs.

  17. Effects on the Thermo-Mechanical and Crystallinity Properties of Nylon 6,6 Electrospun Fibres Reinforced with One Dimensional (1D and Two Dimensional (2D Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Medellín-Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, oxidised carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. Functional groups associated with the order structure of the polymers are analysed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies; the morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy and the crystallinity properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Differences in crystallisation behaviour between 1D and 2D carbon based nanofibres are shown by their crystallinity degree and their crystal sizes. The nanocomposite crystal sizes perpendicular to the plane (100 decrease with nanofiller content in all cases. The crystallinity trend and crystal sizes are in accordance with storage modulus response. The results also suggest that functionalisation favours interfacial bonding and dispersion of the nanomaterials within the polymer matrix. As a consequence the number of nucleating sites increases which in turn decreases the crystal size in the nanocomposites. These features explain the improved thermo-mechanical properties in the nanocomposites.

  18. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Mi Joung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  19. Modeling of 1-D Nanowires and analyzing their Hydrogen and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUDIP PAN

    Modeling of 1-D Nanowires and analyzing their Hydrogen and Noble. Gas Binding Ability. †. SUDIP PANa, RANAJIT SAHAa, ASHUTOSH GUPTAb and PRATIM K CHATTARAJa,∗. aDepartment of Chemistry and Center for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur,. Kharagpur, West Bengal 721 302, ...

  20. ZnO Nanorods on a LaAlO 3 -SrTiO 3 Interface: Hybrid 1D-2D Diodes with Engineered Electronic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Ashok

    2015-12-28

    Integrating nanomaterials with different dimensionalities and properties is a versatile approach toward realizing new functionalities in advanced devices. Here, a novel diode-type heterostructure is reported consisting of 1D semiconducting ZnO nanorods and 2D metallic LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface. Tunable insulator-to-metal transitions, absent in the individual components, are observed as a result of the competing temperature-dependent conduction mechanisms. Detailed transport analysis reveals direct tunneling at low bias, Fowler-Nordheim tunneling at high forward bias, and Zener breakdown at high reverse bias. Our results highlight the rich electronic properties of such artificial diodes with hybrid dimensionalities, and the design principle may be generalized to other nanomaterials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The hierarchy of 1D-, 2D- and 3D-dimensional LPS in Cu-Pd and Ag-Pd: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärthlein, S.; Winning, E.; Müller, S.; Hart, G. L. W.; Zunger, A.

    2006-03-01

    Throughout many decades the marvelous variety of so-called long-periodic superlattices (LPS) - being constructed from stacks of L12 with a certain period M after which an anti-phase boundary is introduced - has been a matter of interest for binary compounds consisting of Pd and noble metals such like Cu, Ag and Au. Whereas Au0.75Pd0.75 puts forth the D023 (i.e. M=2) structure as ground state [1], Cu0.75Pd0.75 and Ag0.75Pd0.75 exhibit LPS3 (i.e. M=3) as T=0K ground state. Moreover, the formation enthalpies for a whole class of superlattices are almost degenerated. In order to control the energetical hierarchies of all LPS in question the usual 1D-LPS configuration space must be overcome. We therefore demonstrate how for each system a set of suitable interactions can be constructed by first principles means. Questions concerning a complete description and exhaustive predictive power will be asked and answered by a mixed-space cluster expansion that allows us to handle 1D-LPS with average M, 2D- and 3D-LPS with arbitrary integer M and to predict their energies in order to investigate their abilities to serve as ground state candidates. [1] S. Barabash et al., submitted to Phys. Rev. B

  2. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To simulate the bend development and lateral migration of alluvial channels, a 2D numerical model must account for bend flow effects and river bank erosion processes. Subsequent works on helical flow and forces on sed- iment grains on a transversely sloping bed (e.g.,. Einstein and Shen 1964; Engelund 1974; Bathurst.

  3. Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical

  4. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square constraint given by forbidding neighboring 1s and provide novel results for the constraint that no uniform 2...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...

  5. Gold-standard performance for 2D hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; MacVicar, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic (2D) models are emerging as an increasingly useful tool for environmental water resources engineering. One of the remaining technical hurdles to the wider adoption and acceptance of 2D modeling is the lack of standards for 2D model performance evaluation when the riverbed undulates, causing lateral flow divergence and convergence. The goal of this study was to establish a gold-standard that quantifies the upper limit of model performance for 2D models of undulating riverbeds when topography is perfectly known and surface roughness is well constrained. A review was conducted of published model performance metrics and the value ranges exhibited by models thus far for each one. Typically predicted velocity differs from observed by 20 to 30 % and the coefficient of determination between the two ranges from 0.5 to 0.8, though there tends to be a bias toward overpredicting low velocity and underpredicting high velocity. To establish a gold standard as to the best performance possible for a 2D model of an undulating bed, two straight, rectangular-walled flume experiments were done with no bed slope and only different bed undulations and water surface slopes. One flume tested model performance in the presence of a porous, homogenous gravel bed with a long flat section, then a linear slope down to a flat pool bottom, and then the same linear slope back up to the flat bed. The other flume had a PVC plastic solid bed with a long flat section followed by a sequence of five identical riffle-pool pairs in close proximity, so it tested model performance given frequent undulations. Detailed water surface elevation and velocity measurements were made for both flumes. Comparing predicted versus observed velocity magnitude for 3 discharges with the gravel-bed flume and 1 discharge for the PVC-bed flume, the coefficient of determination ranged from 0.952 to 0.987 and the slope for the regression line was 0.957 to 1.02. Unsigned velocity

  6. Shape matters: Cr(VI) removal using iron nanoparticle impregnated 1-D vs 2-D carbon nanohybrids prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Arvid; Cui, Yanbin; Atkinson, John D.; Aich, Nirupam

    2018-03-01

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are used for treating water contaminated with metals or organic compounds. One-dimensional (1-D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional (2-D) graphenes act as useful nanocarbon (NC) supports for Fe NPs by resisting aggregation and enhancing adsorption and redox activity. However, no study showed how shape difference between tubular CNT and planar graphene structures dictates the physicochemical properties and pollutant removal potential of their iron-based nanohybrids. In this work, ultrasonic spray pyrolysis was used to continuously prepare Fe-CNT and Fe-rGO nanohybrids. Both NC shape and Fe/NC ratio influenced Fe NP size, loading, and oxidation states. High Fe content (precursor Fe/NC mass ratio = 2) resulted Fe NPs with diameters of 30.97 ± 7.00 and 24.11 ± 4.42 nm for Fe-CNT and Fe-rGO, respectively; however, low Fe content (Fe/NC = 0.2) provided more uniformly dispersed Fe NPs of 15.65 ± 3.06 and 9.67 ± 1.49 nm, respectively, while unsupported Fe NPs were 285.71 ± 132.42 nm. The USP-derived nanohybrids, for the first time, were used for removal of pollutant, i.e., chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous media. Both CNT and rGO provided synergistic effects to significantly enhance Fe NPs' ability to remove Cr(VI); the effect was more pronounced in Fe-rGO than Fe-CNT and also for low Fe content in both cases. Fe-rGO with low Fe/NC ratio and smallest Fe NPs provided the highest Cr(VI) removal capacity (25 mg/g), which was a multifold improvement over bare Fe NPs and other synthesized nanohybrids (range 7-14 mg/g). Overall, 2-D rGO improved contaminant removal capacity of the nanohybrids more than 1-D CNT indicating towards shape effect of NC supports. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. A longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy rate reflecting four decades of multiple sclerosis: a comparison of serial 1D, 2D, and volumetric measurements from MRI images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martola, Juha; Zhang, Yi; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Radiology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstroem, Jakob [Karolinska Institutet, The Medical Statistics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Stockholm (Sweden); Fredrikson, Sten; Stawiarz, Leszek; Hillert, Jan [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Flodmark, Olof; Lilja, Anders [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Anders [Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span. Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005). Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up. Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation. (orig.)

  8. A longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy rate reflecting four decades of multiple sclerosis: a comparison of serial 1D, 2D, and volumetric measurements from MRI images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martola, Juha; Zhang, Yi; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria; Bergstroem, Jakob; Fredrikson, Sten; Stawiarz, Leszek; Hillert, Jan; Flodmark, Olof; Lilja, Anders; Ekbom, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span. Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005). Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up. Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation. (orig.)

  9. 1D models for condensation induced water hammer in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemeling, Frank; Neuhas, Thorsten; Schaffrath, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) are caused by contact of steam and subcooled water. Thus, modeling the direct contact condensation is a crucial step towards the simulation of condensation induced water hammer with 1D pressure surge codes. Therefore, also the TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH and Co. KG inhouse pressure surge code DYVRO has been equipped with a new contact condensation model. The validation of DYVRO against an experiment dealing with CIWH is presented in this contribution. (orig.)

  10. Strengthening of Ceramic-based Artificial Nacre via Synergistic Interactions of 1D Vanadium Pentoxide and 2D Graphene Oxide Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöller, Andrea; Lampa, Christian P.; Cube, Felix von; Zeng, Tingying Helen; Bell, David C.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Burghard, Zaklina; Bill, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nature has evolved hierarchical structures of hybrid materials with excellent mechanical properties. Inspired by nacre’s architecture, a ternary nanostructured composite has been developed, wherein stacked lamellas of 1D vanadium pentoxide nanofibres, intercalated with water molecules, are complemented by 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The components self-assemble at low temperature into hierarchically arranged, highly flexible ceramic-based papers. The papers’ mechanical properties are found to be strongly influenced by the amount of the integrated GO phase. Nanoindentation tests reveal an out-of-plane decrease in Young’s modulus with increasing GO content. Furthermore, nanotensile tests reveal that the ceramic-based papers with 0.5 wt% GO show superior in-plane mechanical performance, compared to papers with higher GO contents as well as to pristine V2O5 and GO papers. Remarkably, the performance is preserved even after stretching the composite material for 100 nanotensile test cycles. The good mechanical stability and unique combination of stiffness and flexibility enable this material to memorize its micro- and macroscopic shape after repeated mechanical deformations. These findings provide useful guidelines for the development of bioinspired, multifunctional systems whose hierarchical structure imparts tailored mechanical properties and cycling stability, which is essential for applications such as actuators or flexible electrodes for advanced energy storage. PMID:28102338

  11. Simple synthesis of PbSe nanocrystals and their self-assembly into 2D ‘flakes’ and 1D ‘ribbons’ structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Torres, E.; Ortega-López, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Santoyo-Salazar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PbSe is obtained in a simple way by the co-precipitation method at low-temperature. • The structural, morphological and optical properties of PbSe were studied. • Adding NH 4 OH to the precursor solutions influences on the morphology. • 2D- and 1D-PbSe structures assemble by oriented attachment. • PbSe can be a potential candidate for thermoelectric applications. - Abstract: This work presents a simple and low-temperature method to prepare a variety of Lead selenide (PbSe) nanostructures, using aqueous solutions of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and NaHSe. Nanostructures with different morphology were obtained by varying the Pb:Se molar ratio, as well as the mixing sequence of NH 4 OH with either Pb(NO 3 ) 2 or NaHSe. Nanoparticles with different shapes (spherical and octahedral), and self-assembled structures (flakes and ribbons) were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. X-ray results confirmed that the PbSe rock-salt crystalline structure was obtained for all of the prepared samples. The crystal size is in the order of 7.3 to 8.9 nm for single nanocrystals. The absorption spectra of the samples show exciton absorption bands at 1395 nm and 1660 nm. This material could be used to develop more advanced structures for thermoelectric generators.

  12. Simple synthesis of PbSe nanocrystals and their self-assembly into 2D ‘flakes’ and 1D ‘ribbons’ structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Torres, E., E-mail: ediaz@cinvestav.mx [Programa de Doctorado en Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico); Ortega-López, M.; Matsumoto, Y. [Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Sección de Electrónica del Estado Sólido, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico); Santoyo-Salazar, J. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional, No. 2508, México D.F. C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • PbSe is obtained in a simple way by the co-precipitation method at low-temperature. • The structural, morphological and optical properties of PbSe were studied. • Adding NH{sub 4}OH to the precursor solutions influences on the morphology. • 2D- and 1D-PbSe structures assemble by oriented attachment. • PbSe can be a potential candidate for thermoelectric applications. - Abstract: This work presents a simple and low-temperature method to prepare a variety of Lead selenide (PbSe) nanostructures, using aqueous solutions of Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NaHSe. Nanostructures with different morphology were obtained by varying the Pb:Se molar ratio, as well as the mixing sequence of NH{sub 4}OH with either Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} or NaHSe. Nanoparticles with different shapes (spherical and octahedral), and self-assembled structures (flakes and ribbons) were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. X-ray results confirmed that the PbSe rock-salt crystalline structure was obtained for all of the prepared samples. The crystal size is in the order of 7.3 to 8.9 nm for single nanocrystals. The absorption spectra of the samples show exciton absorption bands at 1395 nm and 1660 nm. This material could be used to develop more advanced structures for thermoelectric generators.

  13. Fabrication of Novel 2D NiO Nanosheet Branched on 1D-ZnO Nanorod Arrays for Gas Sensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thuy Hoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of 3D structures composed of 1D n-type ZnO nanorods (NRs and 2D p-type NiO nanosheets (NSs by a low-cost, low-temperature, and large-area scalable hydrothermal process and its use in highly sensitive NO2 gas sensors were studied. The p-n heterojunctions formed by NiO-ZnO interfaces as well as large area two-dimensional NiO NSs themselves increased the adsorption of NO2. Moreover, the charge transfer between NiO and ZnO enhanced the responsivity and sensitivity of NO2 sensing even at a concentration of 1 ppm. The 30-min NiO NS growth on ZnO NRs in the hybrid sensor showed the highest sensitivity due to the formation of optimum p-n heterojunctions between ZnO NRs and NiO NSs for gas adsorption and carrier transport. Low responsivity toward reducing gases was also observed.

  14. A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.

  15. Simplistic approach for 2D grown-in microdefect modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prostomolotov, Anatoly; Verezub, Nataliya [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    In the present paper the analysis of cooling conditions influence on microdefect formation in Si single crystal was carried out on the basis of an analytical formulation for crystal temperature field jointly with developed two-dimensional (2D) models of microdefect formation. The new mathematical model is applied for calculations of vacancy microdefect formation, in which the 2D vacancy migration process is taken into account and the approached calculation algorithm is offered, which is not requiring the data storage for whole defect growth pre-history. The calculated results are discussed for conditions of Cz silicon single crystal growing. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. 1-D blood flow modelling in a running human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Viktor; Halász, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly.

  17. Numerical 2D-modeling of multiroll leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, N.; Potier-Ferry, M.; Zahrouni, H.

    2016-10-01

    Multiroll leveling is a forming process used in the metals industries (aluminum, steel, …) in order to correct flatness defects and minimize residual stresses in strips thanks to alternating bending. This work proposes a Finite Element 2D model to simulate the metal sheet conveying through the machine. Obtained results (plastic strain and residual stress distributions through thickness) are analysed. Strip deformation, after elastic springback and potential buckling, is also predicted (residual curvatures).

  18. More on supersymmetric and 2d analogs of the SYK model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Jeff; Stanford, Douglas; Witten, Edward

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we explore supersymmetric and 2d analogs of the SYK model. We begin by working out a basis of (super)conformal eigenfunctions appropriate for expanding a four-point function. We use this to clarify some details of the 1d supersymmetric SYK model. We then introduce new bosonic and supersymmetric analogs of SYK in two dimensions. These theories consist of N fields interacting with random q-field interactions. Although models built entirely from bosons appear to be problematic, we find a supersymmetric model that flows to a large N CFT with interaction strength of order one. We derive an integral formula for the four-point function at order 1 /N , and use it to compute the central charge, chaos exponent and some anomalous dimensions. We describe a problem that arises if one tries to find a 2d SYK-like CFT with a continuous global symmetry.

  19. Mapping the Habitable Zone of Exoplanets with a 2D Energy Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Nicole Taylor; Dr. Lisa Kaltenegger, Dr. Ramses Ramirez

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the habitable zone has been defined as the distance at which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. However, different complexity models (simplified and fast:1D, and complex and time-intense:3D) models derive different boundaries for the habitable zone. The goal of this project was to test a new intermediate complexity 2D Energy Balance model, add a new ice albedo feedback mechanism, and derive the habitable zone boundaries. After completing this first project, we also studied how other feedback mechanisms, such as the presence of clouds and the carbonate-silicate cycle, effected the location of the habitable zone boundaries using this 2D model. This project was completed as part of a 2017 summer REU program hosted by Cornell's Center for Astrophysics and Plantary Sciecne and in partnership with the Carl Sagan Institute.

  20. NKG2D performs two functions in invariant NKT cells: direct TCR-independent activation of NK-like cytolysis and co-stimulation of activation by CD1d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuylenstierna, Carlotta; Björkström, Niklas K; Andersson, Sofia K; Sahlström, Peter; Bosnjak, Lidija; Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Moll, Markus; Sandberg, Johan K

    2011-07-01

    Invariant NKT cells are important in the activation and regulation of immune responses. They can also function as CD1d-restricted killer cells. However, the role of activating innate NK-cell receptors expressed on NKT cells in triggering cytolytic function is poorly characterized. Here, we initially confirmed that the cellular stress-ligand receptor NKG2D is expressed on CD4- NKT cells, whereas most CD4+ NKT cells lack this receptor. Interestingly, NKG2D+ NKT cells frequently expressed perforin, and both NKG2D and perforin localized at the site of contact with NKG2D ligand-expressing target cells. CD4- NKT cells degranulated in response to NKG2D engagement in a redirected activation assay independent of stimulation via their invariant TCR. NKT cells killed P815 cells coated with anti-NKG2D mAb and CD1d-negative K562 tumor target cells in an NKG2D-dependent manner. Furthermore, NKG2D engagement co-stimulated TCR-mediated NKT-cell activation in response to endogenous CD1d-presented ligands or suboptimal levels of anti-CD3 triggering. These data indicate that the CD4- subset of human NKT cells can mediate direct lysis of target cells via NKG2D engagement independent of CD1d, and that NKG2D also functions as a co-stimulatory receptor in these cells. NKG2D thus plays both a direct and a co-stimulatory role in the activation of NKT cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Traveling waves in a continuum model of 1D schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Anand; Kanso, Eva; Shelley, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We construct and analyze a continuum model of a 1D school of flapping swimmers. Our starting point is a delay differential equation that models the interaction between a swimmer and its upstream neighbors' wakes, which is motivated by recent experiments in the Applied Math Lab at NYU. We coarse-grain the evolution equations and derive PDEs for the swimmer density and variables describing the upstream wake. We study the equations both analytically and numerically, and find that a uniform density of swimmers destabilizes into a traveling wave. Our model makes a number of predictions about the properties of such traveling waves, and sheds light on the role of hydrodynamics in mediating the structure of swimming schools.

  2. Influence of Elevation Data Source on 2D Hydraulic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuła, Krzysztof; StĘpnik, Mateusz; Kurczyński, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of the source of various elevation data on hydraulic modelling in open channels. In the research, digital terrain models from different datasets were evaluated and used in two-dimensional hydraulic models. The following aerial and satellite elevation data were used to create the representation of terrain-digital terrain model: airborne laser scanning, image matching, elevation data collected in the LPIS, EuroDEM, and ASTER GDEM. From the results of five 2D hydrodynamic models with different input elevation data, the maximum depth and flow velocity of water were derived and compared with the results of the most accurate ALS data. For such an analysis a statistical evaluation and differences between hydraulic modelling results were prepared. The presented research proved the importance of the quality of elevation data in hydraulic modelling and showed that only ALS and photogrammetric data can be the most reliable elevation data source in accurate 2D hydraulic modelling.

  3. Modeling atrazine transport in soil columns with HYDRUS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leju Celestino Ladu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Both physical and chemical processes affect the fate and transport of herbicides. It is useful to simulate these processes with computer programs to predict solute movement. Simulations were run with HYDRUS-1D to identify the sorption and degradation parameters of atrazine through calibration from the breakthrough curves (BTCs. Data from undisturbed and disturbed soil column experiments were compared and analyzed using the dual-porosity model. The study results show that the values of dispersivity are slightly lower in disturbed columns, suggesting that the more heterogeneous the structure is, the higher the dispersivity. Sorption parameters also show slight variability, which is attributed to the differences in soil properties, experimental conditions and methods, or other ecological factors. For both of the columns, the degradation rates were similar. Potassium bromide was used as a conservative non-reactive tracer to characterize the water movement in columns. Atrazine BTCs exhibited significant tailing and asymmetry, indicating non-equilibrium sorption during solute transport. The dual-porosity model was verified to best fit the BTCs of the column experiments. Greater or lesser concentration of atrazine spreading to the bottom of the columns indicated risk of groundwater contamination. Overall, HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated the atrazine transport in soil columns.

  4. Hydrodynamic modelling of a tidal delta wetland using an enhanced quasi-2D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Sjoerd J.; Grimson, Rafael; Minotti, Priscilla G.; Booija, Martijn J.; Brugnach, Marcela

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge about the hydrological regime of wetlands is key to understand their physical and biological properties. Modelling hydrological and hydrodynamic processes within a wetland is therefore becoming increasingly important. 3D models have successfully modelled wetland dynamics but depend on very detailed bathymetry and land topography. Many 1D and 2D models of river deltas highly simplify the interaction between the river and wetland area or simply neglect the wetland area. This study proposes an enhanced quasi-2D modelling strategy that captures the interaction between river discharge and moon tides and the resulting hydrodynamics, while using the scarce data available. The water flow equations are discretised with an interconnected irregular cell scheme, in which a simplification of the 1D Saint-Venant equations is used to define the water flow between cells. The spatial structure of wetlands is based on the ecogeomorphology in complex estuarine deltas. The islands within the delta are modelled with levee cells, creek cells and an interior cell representing a shallow marsh wetland. The model is calibrated for an average year and the model performance is evaluated for another average year and additionally an extreme dry three-month period and an extreme wet three-month period. The calibration and evaluation are done based on two water level measurement stations and two discharge measurement stations, all located in the main rivers. Additional calibration is carried out with field water level measurements in a wetland area. Accurate simulations are obtained for both calibration and evaluation with high correlations between observed and simulated water levels and simulated discharges in the same order of magnitude as observed discharges. Calibration against field measurements showed that the model can successfully simulate the overflow mechanism in wetland areas. A sensitivity analysis for several wetland parameters showed that these parameters are all

  5. Quantum-critical scaling of fidelity in 2D pairing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, Mariusz; Jȩdrzejewski, Janusz; Krokhmalskii, Taras

    2017-01-01

    The laws of quantum-critical scaling theory of quantum fidelity, dependent on the underlying system dimensionality D, have so far been verified in exactly solvable 1D models, belonging to or equivalent to interacting, quadratic (quasifree), spinless or spinfull, lattice-fermion models. The obtained results are so appealing that in quest for correlation lengths and associated universal critical indices ν, which characterize the divergence of correlation lengths on approaching critical points, one might be inclined to substitute the hard task of determining an asymptotic behavior at large distances of a two-point correlation function by an easier one, of determining the quantum-critical scaling of the quantum fidelity. However, the role of system's dimensionality has been left as an open problem. Our aim in this paper is to fill up this gap, at least partially, by verifying the laws of quantum-critical scaling theory of quantum fidelity in a 2D case. To this end, we study correlation functions and quantum fidelity of 2D exactly solvable models, which are interacting, quasifree, spinfull, lattice-fermion models. The considered 2D models exhibit new, as compared with 1D ones, features: at a given quantum-critical point there exists a multitude of correlation lengths and multiple universal critical indices ν, since these quantities depend on spatial directions, moreover, the indices ν may assume larger values. These facts follow from the obtained by us analytical asymptotic formulae for two-point correlation functions. In such new circumstances we discuss the behavior of quantum fidelity from the perspective of quantum-critical scaling theory. In particular, we are interested in finding out to what extent the quantum fidelity approach may be an alternative to the correlation-function approach in studies of quantum-critical points beyond 1D.

  6. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIAO, Y.; ZHOU, G.; YANG, F. S.

    2016-03-01

    A 2D depth-averaged model for hydrodynamic sediment transport and river morphological adjustment was established. The sediment transport submodel takes into account the influence of non-uniform sediment with bed surface armoring and considers the impact of secondary flow in the direction of bed-load transport and transverse slope of the river bed. The bank erosion submodel incorporates a simple simulation method for updating bank geometry during either degradational or aggradational bed evolution. Comparison of the results obtained by the extended model with experimental and field data, and numerical predictions validate that the proposed model can simulate grain sorting in river bends and duplicate the characteristics of meandering river and its development. The results illustrate that by using its control factors, the improved numerical model can be applied to simulate channel evolution under different scenarios and improve understanding of patterning processes.

  7. Brane brick models and 2d(0,2) triality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Sebastián [Physics Department, The City College of the CUNY,160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, The City University of New York,365 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10016 (United States); Lee, Sangmin [Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); College of Liberal Studies, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Seong, Rak-Kyeong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-04

    We provide a brane realization of 2d(0,2) Gadde-Gukov-Putrov triality in terms of brane brick models. These are Type IIA brane configurations that are T-dual to D1-branes over singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. Triality translates into a local transformation of brane brick models, whose simplest representative is a cube move. We present explicit examples and construct their triality networks. We also argue that the classical mesonic moduli space of brane brick model theories, which corresponds to the probed Calabi-Yau 4-fold, is invariant under triality. Finally, we discuss triality in terms of phase boundaries, which play a central role in connecting Calabi-Yau 4-folds to brane brick models.

  8. Modeling of 1D Anomalous Diffusion in Fractured Nanoporous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albinali Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fractured nanoporous reservoirs include multi-scale and discontinuous fractures coupled with a complex nanoporous matrix. Such systems cannot be described by the conventional dual-porosity (or multi-porosity idealizations due to the presence of different flow mechanisms at multiple scales. More detailed modeling approaches, such as Discrete Fracture Network (DFN models, similarly suffer from the extensive data requirements dictated by the intricacy of the flow scales, which eventually deter the utility of these models. This paper discusses the utility and construction of 1D analytical and numerical anomalous diffusion models for heterogeneous, nanoporous media, which is commonly encountered in oil and gas production from tight, unconventional reservoirs with fractured horizontal wells. A fractional form of Darcy’s law, which incorporates the non-local and hereditary nature of flow, is coupled with the classical mass conservation equation to derive a fractional diffusion equation in space and time. Results show excellent agreement with established solutions under asymptotic conditions and are consistent with the physical intuitions.

  9. Detection of Anisotropic Hyperfine Components of Chemically Prepared Carotenoid Radical Cations:1D and 2D ESEEM and Pulsed ENDOR Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalova, Tatyana A.; Dikanov, Sergei A.; Bowman, Michael K.; Kispert, Lowell D.

    2001-01-01

    Canthaxanthin and 8'-apo-B-caroten-8'-al radical cations chemically prepared on activated silica-alumina and in CH2CI2 solution containing A1C13 were studied by pulsed EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies. Both the 1D three-pulse ESEEM and the 2D HYSCORE spectra of the carotenoid-A1C13 mixtures exhibited the 27 A1 nuclei peak at 3.75 MHz. This indicates electron-transfer interactions between carotenoids and A1III ions resulting in the formation and stabilization of carotenoid radical cations. Davies ENDOR measurements of the canthaxanthin radical cation on silica-alumina determined the hyperfine couplings of B protons belonging to three different methyl groups with ahI=2.6 MHz, aH2=8.6MHz, and ah3 ca. 13 MHz. The principal components of the proton hyperfine tensors were obtained from HYSCORE spectra in A1C13 solutions and on the solid support. Identification of the protons was made on the basis of isotropic hyperfine couplings determined by RHF-INDO/SP molecular orbital calculations. In frozen A1C13 solution, the C(7, 7')Ha and C(14, 14')-Ha a protons were observed for Canthaxanthin and the C(8 or 14')-Ha, C(15')-Ha were observed for 8'-apo-B-caroten-8'-al. On the silica-alumina support, the C(10, 10')-Ha, C(11, 11')-Ha, and C(15,15')-Ha a protons were measured for Canthaxanthin and the C(12)-Ha and C(15')-Ha were measured for 8' apo-B-caroten-8'-al. Some protons with large isotropic couplings (> 10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE analysis could be assigned to B protons, but the principal components of their hyperfine tensors are much more anisotropic than those reported previously for B protons. We suggest that cis/trans isomerization of carotenoids on silica-alumina results in stabilization of di-cis isomers with large isotropic couplings for some a protons which are comparable to those of B protons

  10. Parallelization of elliptic solver for solving 1D Boussinesq model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarwidi, D.; Adytia, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a parallel implementation of an elliptic solver in solving 1D Boussinesq model is presented. Numerical solution of Boussinesq model is obtained by implementing a staggered grid scheme to continuity, momentum, and elliptic equation of Boussinesq model. Tridiagonal system emerging from numerical scheme of elliptic equation is solved by cyclic reduction algorithm. The parallel implementation of cyclic reduction is executed on multicore processors with shared memory architectures using OpenMP. To measure the performance of parallel program, large number of grids is varied from 28 to 214. Two test cases of numerical experiment, i.e. propagation of solitary and standing wave, are proposed to evaluate the parallel program. The numerical results are verified with analytical solution of solitary and standing wave. The best speedup of solitary and standing wave test cases is about 2.07 with 214 of grids and 1.86 with 213 of grids, respectively, which are executed by using 8 threads. Moreover, the best efficiency of parallel program is 76.2% and 73.5% for solitary and standing wave test cases, respectively.

  11. Validation of 2D flood models with insurance claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischg, Andreas Paul; Mosimann, Markus; Bernet, Daniel Benjamin; Röthlisberger, Veronika

    2018-02-01

    Flood impact modelling requires reliable models for the simulation of flood processes. In recent years, flood inundation models have been remarkably improved and widely used for flood hazard simulation, flood exposure and loss analyses. In this study, we validate a 2D inundation model for the purpose of flood exposure analysis at the river reach scale. We validate the BASEMENT simulation model with insurance claims using conventional validation metrics. The flood model is established on the basis of available topographic data in a high spatial resolution for four test cases. The validation metrics were calculated with two different datasets; a dataset of event documentations reporting flooded areas and a dataset of insurance claims. The model fit relating to insurance claims is in three out of four test cases slightly lower than the model fit computed on the basis of the observed inundation areas. This comparison between two independent validation data sets suggests that validation metrics using insurance claims can be compared to conventional validation data, such as the flooded area. However, a validation on the basis of insurance claims might be more conservative in cases where model errors are more pronounced in areas with a high density of values at risk.

  12. 2-D Petroleum System Modelling of the Browse Basin, Offshore Northwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byeong-Kook

    2017-04-01

    Petroleum system modelling was performed for the Browse Basin, which is a hydrocarbon-bearing basin in the offshore area of northwestern Australia. The Browse Basin was formed by two cycles of tectonically controlled extension, thermal subsidence, and inversion. The first rifting had occurred by the extension in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian, and the second was in the Early to Middle Jurassic. Thick sediments were deposited during subsequent subsidence and inversion in the basin. The Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous succession is considered to have the high quality source potential. Major reservoirs are fluvio-deltaic and nearshore marine sandstone units in the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Late Cretaceous to Tertiary sequences are dominated by thick carbonate rocks. Maturity model and paleo-heat flow history were made in 1-D petroleum system modelling by comparing with vitrinite values and temperature measured from the drill wells. Based on the geologic setting and the 1-D model, 2-D Petroleum system modelling was conducted on an E-W cross section crossing three wells to understand hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation in the basin. Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous formations, including Aptian, Vlanginian, and Callovian rocks, were assigned as source rocks in the 2-D modelling. The 2-D model shows that hydrocarbons were generated during Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. A thick succession of overburden rocks provided the source rocks with heat and pressure to generate a significant amount of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons expelled from the source rocks were migrated dominantly downward to Late Jurassic sandy reservoir rocks. Upward migration is restricted by dense shale and carbonate successions. Large accumulations of gas have been found in the basin, rather than oil. It seems that the amount of gases was significantly increased by secondary cracking of the oil in reservoir formations in deep and hot conditions.

  13. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models

  14. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hose Rodney

    2011-04-01

    -specific, 2D and 3D models, and this application is also addressed. As an example of 0D cardiovascular modelling, a small selection of simple models have been represented in the CellML mark-up language and uploaded to the CellML model repository http://models.cellml.org/. They are freely available to the research and education communities. Conclusion Each published cardiovascular model has merit for particular applications. This review categorises 0D and 1D models, highlights their advantages and disadvantages, and thus provides guidance on the selection of models to assist various cardiovascular modelling studies. It also identifies directions for further development, as well as current challenges in the wider use of these models including service to represent boundary conditions for local 3D models and translation to clinical application.

  15. Review of zero-D and 1-D models of blood flow in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yubing; Lawford, Patricia; Hose, Rodney

    2011-04-26

    Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models, and this application is also

  16. Three-field modeling for MARS 1-D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moonkyu; Lim, Ho-Gon; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chung, Bub-Dong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the three-field modeling of the two-phase mixture is developed. The finite difference equations for the three-field equations thereafter are devised. The solution scheme has been implemented into the MARS 1-D code. The three-field formulations adopted are similar to those for MARS 3-D module, in a sense that the mass and momentum are treated separately for the entrained liquid and continuous liquid. As in the MARS-3D module, the entrained liquid and continuous liquid are combined into one for the energy equation, assuming thermal equilibrium between the two. All the non-linear terms are linearized to arrange the finite difference equation set into a linear matrix form with respect to the unknown arguments. The problems chosen for the assessment of the newly added entrained field consist of basic conceptual tests. Among the tests are gas-only test, liquid-only test, gas-only with supplied entrained liquid test, Edwards pipe problem, and GE level swell problem. The conceptual tests performed confirm the sound integrity of the three-field solver

  17. An implicit solver for 1D arterial network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jason; Van Loon, Raoul

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the 1D blood flow equations are solved using a newly proposed enhanced trapezoidal rule method (ETM), which is an extension to the simplified trapezoidal rule method. At vessel junctions, the conservation of mass and conservation of total pressure are held as system constraints using Lagrange multipliers that can be physically interpreted as external flow rates. The ETM scheme is compared with published arterial network benchmark problems and a dam break problem. Strengths of the ETM scheme include being simple to implement, intuitive connection to lumped parameter models, and no restrictive stability criteria such as the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. The ETM scheme does not require the use of characteristics at vessel junctions, or for inlet and outlet boundary conditions. The ETM forms an implicit system of equations, which requires only one global solve per time step for pressure, followed by flow rate update on the elemental system of equations; thus, no iterations are required per time step. Consistent results are found for all benchmark cases, and for a 56-vessel arterial network problem, it gives very satisfactory solutions at a spatial and time discretization that results in a maximum CFL of 3, taking 4.44 seconds per cardiac cycle. By increasing the time step and element size to produce a maximum CFL number of 15, the method takes only 0.39 second per cardiac cycle with only a small compromise on accuracy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. GENERALIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR 2D+SCALE DHE DATA MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Karim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Different users or applications need different scale model especially in computer application such as game visualization and GIS modelling. Some issues has been raised on fulfilling GIS requirement of retaining the details while minimizing the redundancy of the scale datasets. Previous researchers suggested and attempted to add another dimension such as scale or/and time into a 3D model, but the implementation of scale dimension faces some problems due to the limitations and availability of data structures and data models. Nowadays, various data structures and data models have been proposed to support variety of applications and dimensionality but lack research works has been conducted in terms of supporting scale dimension. Generally, the Dual Half Edge (DHE data structure was designed to work with any perfect 3D spatial object such as buildings. In this paper, we attempt to expand the capability of the DHE data structure toward integration with scale dimension. The description of the concept and implementation of generating 3D-scale (2D spatial + scale dimension for the DHE data structure forms the major discussion of this paper. We strongly believed some advantages such as local modification and topological element (navigation, query and semantic information in scale dimension could be used for the future 3D-scale applications.

  19. A 2D Model of Hydraulic Fracturing, Damage and Microseismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Magnus

    2018-03-01

    We present a model for hydraulic fracturing and damage of low-permeable rock. It computes the intermittent propagation of rock damage, microseismic event locations, microseismic frequency-magnitude distributions, stimulated rock volume and the injection pressure. The model uses a regular 2D grid and is based on ideas from invasion percolation. All damaged and connected cells during a time step constitute a microseismic event, where the size of the event is the number of cells in the cluster. The magnitude of the event is the log _{10} of the event size. The model produces events with a magnitude-frequency distribution having a b value that is approximately 0.8. The model is studied with respect to the physical parameters: permeability of damaged rock and the rock strength. "High" permeabilities of the damaged rock give the same b value ≈ 0.8, but "moderate" permeabilities give higher b values. Another difference is that "high" permeabilities produce a percolation-like fracture network, while "moderate" permeabilities result in damage zones that expand circularly away from the injection point. In the latter case of "moderate" permeabilities, the injection pressure increases substantially beyond the fracturing level. The rock strength and the time step do not change the observed b value of the model for moderate changes.

  20. 2D modelling and its applications in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinbalik, M. Tahir; İRSEL, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    A model, in computer aided engineering applications, may be created by either using a two- dimensional or a three-dimensional design depending on the purpose of design. What matters most in this regard is the selection of a right method to meet system solution requirements in the most economical way. Manufacturability of a design that is developed by utilising computer aided engineering is important, but usability of the data obtained in the course of design works in the production is also equally important. In the applications consisting of such production operations as CNC or plasma cutting, two-dimensional designs can be directly used in production. These machines are equipped with interfaces which converts two-dimensional drawings into codes. In this way, a design can be directly transferred to production, and any arrangements during production process can be synchronously evaluated. As a result of this, investment expenses will be lowered, and thus the costs can be reduced to some extent. In the presented study, we have studied two-dimensional design applications and requirements. We created a two-dimensional design for a part for which a three-dimensional model have previously been generated, and then, we transferred this design to plasma cutting machine, and thus, the operation has been realized experimentally. Key words: Plasma Cutting, 2D modelling, flexibility

  1. Ab initio modeling of 2D layered organohalide lead perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraccarollo, Alberto; Cantatore, Valentina; Boschetto, Gabriele; Marchese, Leonardo; Cossi, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.cossi@uniupo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica (DISIT), Università del Piemonte Orientale, via T. Michel 11, I-15121 Alessandria (Italy)

    2016-04-28

    A number of 2D layered perovskites A{sub 2}PbI{sub 4} and BPbI{sub 4}, with A and B mono- and divalent ammonium and imidazolium cations, have been modeled with different theoretical methods. The periodic structures have been optimized (both in monoclinic and in triclinic systems, corresponding to eclipsed and staggered arrangements of the inorganic layers) at the DFT level, with hybrid functionals, Gaussian-type orbitals and dispersion energy corrections. With the same methods, the various contributions to the solid stabilization energy have been discussed, separating electrostatic and dispersion energies, organic-organic intralayer interactions and H-bonding effects, when applicable. Then the electronic band gaps have been computed with plane waves, at the DFT level with scalar and full relativistic potentials, and including the correlation energy through the GW approximation. Spin orbit coupling and GW effects have been combined in an additive scheme, validated by comparing the computed gap with well known experimental and theoretical results for a model system. Finally, various contributions to the computed band gaps have been discussed on some of the studied systems, by varying some geometrical parameters and by substituting one cation in another’s place.

  2. QSAR Models for P-450 (2D6) Substrate Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    2009-01-01

    Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a large group of enzymes that possess an essential function in metabolising different exogenous and endogenous compounds. Humans have more than 50 different genes encoding CYP enzymes, among these a gene encoding for the CYP isoenzyme 2D6, a CYP able to metabolise d...... substrates. These chemicals are potentially present in the environment. The biological importance of the CYP 2D6 and the use of the software mentioned above were discussed....

  3. Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2015-01-01

    Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (spaceborne or airborne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the light detection and ranging (lidar), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30 to 90 m). On the other hand, the lidar technique is able to produce high-resolution DEMs (at around 1 m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of 1-D hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. To test model selection, the outcomes of the 1-D models were also compared, in terms of flood water levels, to the results of 2-D models (LISFLOOD-FP). The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicate that the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. lidar 1 m) to lower resolution is much less than the loss of model accuracy due

  4. Numerical modelling of unsteady 2D sheet cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, D.F.; de Bruin, G.J.; van Wijngaarden, L.; van Wijngaarden, L.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady 2D sheet cavitation has been calculated by a BEM. Cubics are used to represent various quantities like the potential on the wet part of the profile, the normal velocity on the sheet, the geometry of the profile and the sheet. The growing cavity sheet, the re-entrant jet and the sheet

  5. A 2D simulation model for urban flood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo

    2014-05-01

    The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and

  6. 1D and 2D NMR Spectroscopy of Bonding Interactions within Stable and Phase-Separating Organic Electrolyte-Cellulose Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Matthew T; Farès, Christophe; Rinaldi, Roberto

    2017-09-11

    Organic electrolyte solutions (i.e. mixtures containing an ionic liquid and a polar, molecular co-solvent) are highly versatile solvents for cellulose. However, the underlying solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are not yet fully understood. Herein, mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, the co-solvent 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone, and cellulose are investigated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The use of a triply- 13 C-labelled ionic liquid enhances the signal-to-noise ratio for 13 C NMR spectroscopy, enabling changes in bonding interactions to be accurately pinpointed. Current observations reveal an additional degree of complexity regarding the distinct roles of cation, anion, and co-solvent toward maintaining cellulose solubility and phase stability. Unexpectedly, the interactions between the dialkylimidazolium ring C 2 -H substituent and cellulose become more pronounced at high temperatures, counteracted by a net weakening of acetate-cellulose interactions. Moreover, for mixtures that exhibit critical solution behavior, phase separation is accompanied by the apparent recombination of cation-anion pairs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Flood & Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-6 June 2016 Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes Using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes...of this Technical Report is to evaluate the benefits of three- dimensional ( 3D ) modeling of common seepage and piping issues along embankments over...traditional two-dimensional (2D) models . To facilitate the evaluation, one 3D model , two 2D cross-sectional models , and one 2D plan-view model were

  8. Using a 1-D model to reproduce diurnal SST signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    of measurement. A generally preferred approach to bridge the gap between in situ and remotely obtained measurements is through modelling of the upper ocean temperature. This ESA supported study focuses on the implementation of the 1 dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM), in order to resolve...... an additional parametrisation for the total outgoing long-wave radiation and a 9-band parametrisation for the light extinction. New parametrisations for the stability functions, associated with vertical mixing, have been included. GOTM is tested using experimental data from the Woods Hole Oceanographic...

  9. The 1D Kondo lattice model at criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulacsi, M.

    1998-01-01

    The transition from a ferromagnetic phase, to a disordered paramagnetic phase, which occurs in one-dimensional Kondo lattice models is described. The transition is the quantum order-disorder transition of the transverse-field Ising chain type, and reflects ferromagnetically ordered regions of localized spins being gradually destroyed as the coupling to the conduction electrons is reduced. For incommensurate conduction band fillings, the low-energy properties of the localized spins near the transition are dominated by anomalous ordered (disordered) regions of localized spins which survive into the ferromagnetic (paramagnetic) phase. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  10. Size Effect on the Infrared Spectra of Condensed Media under Conditions of 1D, 2D, and 3D Dielectric Confinement

    KAUST Repository

    Shaganov, Igor I.

    2010-10-07

    The effect of dielectric confinement on the peak position of intramolecular and a lattice vibration in the infrared spectra of various condensed media is investigated. Liquid benzene, carbon disulfide, and chloroform, as well as amorphous SiO2 and microcrystalline MgO particles, were characterized in this study. The absorption spectra of organic liquids and aqueous solutions of a silica submicrometer powder were measured under a variety of dielectric confinement configurations using Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy. A significant shift of the resonant absorption band of liquid mesoparticles has been observed under dielectric confinement, which is in good agreement with model predictions. A corresponding expression for the dielectric loss spectrum of an absorbing composite medium was obtained using a Maxwell-Garnett generalized equation for the cases of one, two, and three-dimensional dielectric confinement in both ordered and disordered thin layers (disks), rods (wires or needles), and spheres of an absorbing medium. The experimental data on peak positions obtained from the infrared spectra of the organic liquids investigated in this work, as well as from the infrared spectra of amorphous quartz spherical particles and rods, are in good agreement with the calculated data. It is shown using simulations of the absorption spectrum of MgO powder that the approach suggested can be applied under certain conditions to the modeling of the spectra of microcrystalline particles of nonspheroidal shape. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Modelling heterogeneity of concrete using 2D lattice network for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, numerical modelling of fracture in concrete using two-dimensional lattice model is presented and also a few issues related to lattice modelling technique applicable to concrete fracture are reviewed. A comparison is made with acoustic emission (AE) events with the number of fractured elements. To implement ...

  12. A New Low Complexity Angle of Arrival Algorithm for 1D and 2D Direction Estimation in MIMO Smart Antenna Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. G. Al-Sadoon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new low complexity angle of arrival (AOA method for signal direction estimation in multi-element smart wireless communication systems. The new method estimates the AOAs of the received signals directly from the received signals with significantly reduced complexity since it does not need to construct the correlation matrix, invert the matrix or apply eigen-decomposition, which are computationally expensive. A mathematical model of the proposed method is illustrated and then verified using extensive computer simulations. Both linear and circular sensors arrays are studied using various numerical examples. The method is systematically compared with other common and recently introduced AOA methods over a wide range of scenarios. The simulated results show that the new method has several advantages in terms of reduced complexity and improved accuracy under the assumptions of correlated signals and limited numbers of snapshots.

  13. A New Low Complexity Angle of Arrival Algorithm for 1D and 2D Direction Estimation in MIMO Smart Antenna Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed A G; Ali, Nazar T; Dama, Yousf; Zuid, Abdulkareim; Jones, Stephen M R; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A; Noras, James M

    2017-11-15

    This paper proposes a new low complexity angle of arrival (AOA) method for signal direction estimation in multi-element smart wireless communication systems. The new method estimates the AOAs of the received signals directly from the received signals with significantly reduced complexity since it does not need to construct the correlation matrix, invert the matrix or apply eigen-decomposition, which are computationally expensive. A mathematical model of the proposed method is illustrated and then verified using extensive computer simulations. Both linear and circular sensors arrays are studied using various numerical examples. The method is systematically compared with other common and recently introduced AOA methods over a wide range of scenarios. The simulated results show that the new method has several advantages in terms of reduced complexity and improved accuracy under the assumptions of correlated signals and limited numbers of snapshots.

  14. 2d Model Field Theories at Finite Temperature and Density

    OpenAIRE

    Schoen, Verena; Thies, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In certain 1+1 dimensional field theoretic toy models, one can go all the way from microscopic quarks via the hadron spectrum to the properties of hot and dense baryonic matter in an essentially analytic way. This "miracle" is illustrated through case studies of two popular large N models, the Gross-Neveu and the 't Hooft model - caricatures of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and real QCD, respectively. The main emphasis will be on aspects related to spontaneous symmetry breaking (discrete or co...

  15. 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR analysis of the thermal degradation products from vitrinites in relation to their natural hydrogen enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, M.J. [Area de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Cuesta, M.J.; Suarez-Ruiz, I. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Ap. Co. 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Laggoun-Defarge, F. [ISTO/UMR 6113 CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, Batiment Geosciences, BP 6759, 45067, Cedex 2 (France)

    2006-08-15

    for establishing accurate structural models for perhydrous vitrinites. At the same time, the data obtained will contribute to explain the involvement of the high hydrogen content in the suppression of vitrinite reflectance. (author)

  16. 2-D Model Test Study of the Suape Breakwater, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.; Sopavicius, A.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the extension of the breakwater in Suape, Brazil. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:35. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  17. 2D sigma models and differential Poisson algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Cesar [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Boulanger, Nicolas [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons - UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique,Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson,Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Sundell, Per [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Torres-Gomez, Alexander [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile-UACh,Valdivia (Chile)

    2015-08-18

    We construct a two-dimensional topological sigma model whose target space is endowed with a Poisson algebra for differential forms. The model consists of an equal number of bosonic and fermionic fields of worldsheet form degrees zero and one. The action is built using exterior products and derivatives, without any reference to a worldsheet metric, and is of the covariant Hamiltonian form. The equations of motion define a universally Cartan integrable system. In addition to gauge symmetries, the model has one rigid nilpotent supersymmetry corresponding to the target space de Rham operator. The rigid and local symmetries of the action, respectively, are equivalent to the Poisson bracket being compatible with the de Rham operator and obeying graded Jacobi identities. We propose that perturbative quantization of the model yields a covariantized differential star product algebra of Kontsevich type. We comment on the resemblance to the topological A model.

  18. Quasicomplex N=2, d=1 Supersymmetric Sigma Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Ivanov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We derive and discuss a new type of N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical sigma models which appear when the superfield action of the (1,2,1 multiplets is modified by adding an imaginary antisymmetric tensor to the target space metric, thus completing the latter to a non-symmetric Hermitian metric. These models are not equivalent to the standard de Rham sigma models, but are related to them through a certain special similarity transformation of the supercharges. On the other hand, they can be obtained by a Hamiltonian reduction from the complex supersymmetric N=2 sigma models built on the multiplets (2,2,0 and describing the Dolbeault complex on the manifolds with proper isometries. We study in detail the extremal two-dimensional case, when the target space metric is defined solely by the antisymmetric tensor, and show that the corresponding quantum systems reveal a hidden N=4 supersymmetry.

  19. A 2-D model for friction of complex anisotropic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2018-03-01

    The friction force observed at macroscale is the result of interactions at various lower length scales that are difficult to model in a combined manner. For this reason, simplified approaches are required, depending on the specific aspect to be investigated. In particular, the dimensionality of the system is often reduced, especially in models designed to provide a qualitative description of frictional properties of elastic materials, e.g. the spring-block model. In this paper, we implement for the first time a two dimensional extension of the spring-block model, applying it to structured surfaces and investigating by means of numerical simulations the frictional behaviour of a surface in the presence of features like cavities, pillars or complex anisotropic structures. We show how friction can be effectively tuned by appropriate design of such surface features.

  20. Development of a 3D consistent 1D neutronics model for reactor core simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Bog; Joo, Han Gyu; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun

    2001-02-01

    In this report a 3D consistent 1D model based on nonlinear analytic nodal method is developed to reproduce the 3D results. During the derivation, the current conservation factor (CCF) is introduced which guarantees the same axial neutron currents obtained from the 1D equation as the 3D reference values. Furthermore in order to properly use 1D group constants, a new 1D group constants representation scheme employing tables for the fuel temperature, moderator density and boron concentration is developed and functionalized for the control rod tip position. To test the 1D kinetics model with CCF, several steady state and transient calculations were performed and compared with 3D reference values. The errors of K-eff values were reduced about one tenth when using CCF without significant computational overhead. And the errors of power distribution were decreased to the range of one fifth or tenth at steady state calculation. The 1D kinetics model with CCF and the 1D group constant functionalization employing tables as a function of control rod tip position can provide preciser results at the steady state and transient calculation. Thus it is expected that the 1D kinetics model derived in this report can be used in the safety analysis, reactor real time simulation coupled with system analysis code, operator support system etc.

  1. Improvement of a 2D numerical model of lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimine, Y.

    2013-12-01

    I propose an improved procedure that reduces an improper dependence of lava flow directions on the orientation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in two-dimensional simulations based on Ishihara et al. (in Lava Flows and Domes, Fink, JH eds., 1990). The numerical model for lava flow simulations proposed by Ishihara et al. (1990) is based on two-dimensional shallow water model combined with a constitutive equation for a Bingham fluid. It is simple but useful because it properly reproduces distributions of actual lava flows. Thus, it has been regarded as one of pioneer work of numerical simulations of lava flows and it is still now widely used in practical hazard prediction map for civil defense officials in Japan. However, the model include an improper dependence of lava flow directions on the orientation of DEM because the model separately assigns the condition for the lava flow to stop due to yield stress for each of two orthogonal axes of rectangular calculating grid based on DEM. This procedure brings a diamond-shaped distribution as shown in Fig. 1 when calculating a lava flow supplied from a point source on a virtual flat plane although the distribution should be circle-shaped. To improve the drawback, I proposed a modified procedure that uses the absolute value of yield stress derived from both components of two orthogonal directions of the slope steepness to assign the condition for lava flows to stop. This brings a better result as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 1. (a) Contour plots calculated with the original model of Ishihara et al. (1990). (b) Contour plots calculated with a proposed model.

  2. Modelling heterogeneity of concrete using 2D lattice network for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    present work brings out certain finer details which are not available explicitly in the earlier works. Keywords. Concrete fracture; lattice model; Fuller distribution; ... examples are cement mortar and concrete in civil engineering. ..... Although acoustic emission technique is a well established non destructive testing (NDT).

  3. 2D Modeling and Classification of Extended Objects in a Network of HRR Radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasoula, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the modeling of extended objects with low-dimensional representations of their 2D geometry is addressed. The ultimate objective is the classification of the objects using libraries of such compact 2D object models that are much smaller than in the state-of-the-art classification

  4. ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood

  5. Modeling Overlapping Laminations in Magnetic Core Materials Using 2-D Finite-Element Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Guest, Emerson David; Mecrow, Barrie C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for modeling overlapping laminations in magnetic core materials using two-dimensional finite-element (2-D FE) analysis. The magnetizing characteristic of the overlapping region is captured using a simple 2-D FE model of the periodic overlapping geometry...... and a composite material is created, which has the same magnetization characteristic. The benefit of this technique is that it allows a designer to perform design and optimization of magnetic cores with overlapped laminations using a 2-D FE model rather than a 3-D FE model, which saves modeling and simulation...... time. The modeling technique is verified experimentally by creating a composite material of a lap joint with a 3-mm overlapping region and using it in a 2-D FE model of a ring sample made up of a stack of 20 laminations. The B-H curve of the simulated ring sample is compared with the B-H curve obtained...

  6. Novos derivados do sistema heterocíclico 1H-pirazolo[3,4-b]piridina: síntese e assinalamentos de hidrogênios e carbonos por RMN 1D e 2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Heloisa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and NMR analysis of seven new 4-(arylamino-5-carboethoxy-1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4- b]pyridines (7-13 are described. The synthetic approach used involved the preparation of intermediates 5-aminopyrazol (4, the enamine derivative (5 and the 4-chloro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine (6. Compounds (7-13 were obtained by treatment of 6 with the desired aniline. The structures of new heterocyclic compounds and their precursors intermediates were assigned on the basis of spectral analysis including 1D and 2D NMR experiments [¹H; 13C{¹H} and DEPT; ¹H x ¹H - COSY; ¹H x13C - COSY, nJ CH, n = 1, 2 or 3 (HETECOR and COLOC].

  7. Development of a dual permeability model within a hydrological catchment modeling framework: 1D application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djabelkhir, K; Lauvernet, C; Kraft, P; Carluer, N

    2017-01-01

    Preferential flow contributes significantly to pesticide fast transfer from surface to groundwater. Modeling this process at several scales is an important challenge for improving the representation of this process which is often neglected. In this study, we developed a dual permeability approach in a hydrological modeling framework, CMF, which is a collaborative environment for developing spatially-integrated models of water fluxes. In the development we propose here, infiltration in macropores which are connected to the surface is activated when the first matrix layer reaches saturation. A transfer function is used to represent water fluxes from macropores to matrix. This approach is tested in 1D by comparison with the dual permeability approach included in Hydrus1D, on 4 typical soil-types (sandy-loam, silty-loam, clay-loam and sandy-clay-loam). The results showed an underestimation of the flux infiltrated in the matrix surface and important infiltration in macropores with the new model, for most of soil-types, comparing to Hydrus1D. Similarities are observed for fluxes transferred from macropores to matrix. Solute transport is then coupled to CMF-DP model considering a convection transport and a linear adsorption to represent pesticides behavior in macroporous soils. The approach we developed is similar to Hydrus though having the advantage to need less input parameters, especially for the exchange between the two porous media. In the future, it could be applied for predicting pesticides transfer in macroporous soils at different scales for operational applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Deconvolution of Complex 1D NMR Spectra Using Objective Model Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis S Hughes

    Full Text Available Fluorine (19F NMR has emerged as a useful tool for characterization of slow dynamics in 19F-labeled proteins. One-dimensional (1D 19F NMR spectra of proteins can be broad, irregular and complex, due to exchange of probe nuclei between distinct electrostatic environments; and therefore cannot be deconvoluted and analyzed in an objective way using currently available software. We have developed a Python-based deconvolution program, decon1d, which uses Bayesian information criteria (BIC to objectively determine which model (number of peaks would most likely produce the experimentally obtained data. The method also allows for fitting of intermediate exchange spectra, which is not supported by current software in the absence of a specific kinetic model. In current methods, determination of the deconvolution model best supported by the data is done manually through comparison of residual error values, which can be time consuming and requires model selection by the user. In contrast, the BIC method used by decond1d provides a quantitative method for model comparison that penalizes for model complexity helping to prevent over-fitting of the data and allows identification of the most parsimonious model. The decon1d program is freely available as a downloadable Python script at the project website (https://github.com/hughests/decon1d/.

  9. Results and performances of X-ray imaging GEM cameras on FTU (1-D), KSTAR (2-D) and progresses of future experimental set up on W7-X and EAST Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordella, F.; Choe, W.; Claps, G.; Gabellieri, L.; Jang, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, S. H.; Li, E.; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Song, I.

    2017-10-01

    The triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a good candidate for the observation of the plasma volume emitting X-rays photons in the energy band up to 30 keV . The GEM camera system can be simply installed outside the port of a fusion device and it's a micropattern proportional gas detector which consists of an ionization gap, where X-rays photon conversion occurs, three consecutive foils working as amplification stage and finally a dedicated printed circuit board. Its simple experimental setup can be made in different configurations with 1D or 2D imaging possibilities: perpendicular GEM camera allows a 1D emissivity profile reconstruction instead a tangential GEM camera allows a poloidal cross-section image. Moreover, they offer high sensitivity, noise free, optical flexibility (zooming and tilting, magnification 10× up to 30×), high contrast, high dynamic range (6 orders of magnitude) and good time resolution (submillisecond). In this work several experimental results already observed on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) and the Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) devices will be presented. The perpendicular installation on FTU allows a 1D radial profile with 128 lines of sight, while thanks to the 2D tangential view of the plasma, the reconstruction of the cross section has been done on KSTAR. Between them there are dynamic and precursors of sawtooth, effects of Edge Localized Mode (ELM) in the core and possible interplay between core and edge in ELMs (high m modes), effects of plasma rotation in the core, dynamic of injected impurities in the outer part of the plasma or also impurity accumulation and localized effects of additional heating. Installation of GEM systems is planned on Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) also for their robustness and flexibility X-rays detection in presence of high radiative environments (neutrons and gammas). In future applications on the above mentioned

  10. Dopamine D1/D5, but not D2/D3, receptor dependency of synaptic plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses that is enabled by patterned afferent stimulation, or spatial learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Hagena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the mossy fiber (MF synapses of the hippocampal CA3 region display quite distinct properties in terms of the molecular mechanisms that underlie synaptic plasticity, they nonetheless exhibit persistent (>24h synaptic plasticity that is akin to that observed at the Schaffer collateral (SCH-CA1 and perforant path (PP-dentate gyrus (DG synapses of freely behaving rats. In addition, they also respond to novel spatial learning with very enduring forms of long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. These latter forms of synaptic plasticity are directly related to the learning behavior: novel exploration of generalized changes in space facilitates the expression of LTP at MF-CA3 synapses, whereas exploration of novel configurations of large environmental features facilitates the expression of LTD. In the absence of spatial novelty, synaptic plasticity is not expressed. Motivation is a potent determinant of whether learning about spatial experience effectively occurs and the neuromodulator dopamine plays a key role in motivation-based learning. Prior research on the regulation by dopamine receptors of long-term synaptic plasticity in CA1 and dentate gyrus synapses in vivo suggests that whereas D2/D3 receptors may modulate a general predisposition toward expressing plasticity, D1/D5 receptors may directly regulate the direction of change in synaptic strength that occurs during learning. Although the CA3 region is believed to play a pivotal role in many forms of learning, the role of these receptors in persistent (>24h forms of synaptic plasticity at MF-CA3 synapses is unknown. Here, we report that whereas pharmacological antagonism of D2/D3 receptors had no impact on LTP or LTD, antagonism of D1/D5 receptors significantly impaired LTP and LTD that were induced by solely by means of patterned afferent stimulation, or LTP/LTD that are typically enhanced by the conjunction of afferent stimulation and novel spatial learning. These data

  11. Dopamine D1/D5, But not D2/D3, Receptor Dependency of Synaptic Plasticity at Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses that Is Enabled by Patterned Afferent Stimulation, or Spatial Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagena, Hardy; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Although the mossy fiber (MF) synapses of the hippocampal CA3 region display quite distinct properties in terms of the molecular mechanisms that underlie synaptic plasticity, they nonetheless exhibit persistent (>24 h) synaptic plasticity that is akin to that observed at the Schaffer collateral (SCH)-CA1 and perforant path (PP)-dentate gyrus (DG) synapses of freely behaving rats. In addition, they also respond to novel spatial learning with very enduring forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These latter forms of synaptic plasticity are directly related to the learning behavior: novel exploration of generalized changes in space facilitates the expression of LTP at MF-CA3 synapses, whereas exploration of novel configurations of large environmental features facilitates the expression of LTD. In the absence of spatial novelty, synaptic plasticity is not expressed. Motivation is a potent determinant of whether learning about the spatial experience effectively occurs and the neuromodulator dopamine (DA) plays a key role in motivation-based learning. Prior research on the regulation by DA receptors of long-term synaptic plasticity in CA1 and DG synapses in vivo suggests that whereas D2/D3 receptors may modulate a general predisposition toward expressing plasticity, D1/D5 receptors may directly regulate the direction of change in synaptic strength that occurs during learning. Although the CA3 region is believed to play a pivotal role in many forms of learning, the role of dopamine receptors in persistent (>24 h) forms of synaptic plasticity at MF-CA3 synapses is unknown. Here, we report that whereas pharmacological antagonism of D2/D3 receptors had no impact on LTP or LTD, antagonism of D1/D5 receptors significantly impaired LTP and LTD that were induced by solely by means of patterned afferent stimulation, or LTP/LTD that are typically enhanced by the conjunction of afferent stimulation and novel spatial learning. These data indicate an

  12. 2-D model for pollutant dispersion at the coastal outfall off Paradip

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.; Gouveia, A.D.

    Simulation of dispersion of the effluent discharge has been carried out using 2-D Model to verify the advection and diffusion of the pollutant patch of the proposed effluent disposal off Paradip, Orissa, India. The simulation of dispersion...

  13. Towards the development of a fully coupled arterial-venous 1D model: suitability of using a 1D finite volume method with staggered spatial discretization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline the development of a 1D finite volume model to solve for blood flow through the arterial system. The model is based on a staggered spatial discretization which leads to a stable solution scheme. This scheme can accurately...

  14. Northern Korean Peninsula 1-D velocity model from surface wave dispersion and full-waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J.; Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Kang, T. S.; Cho, C.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring seismic activities in the northern Korean Peninsula is important not only for understanding the characteristics of earthquakes but also for watching nuclear tests. To better monitor those natural and man-made seismic activities, reliable seismic velocity models are required. However, the seismic velocity structure of the region is not known well due to the lack of available seismic data directly measured in the region. This study presents 1-D velocity models of the region using two different datasets comprised of two-year-long continuous waveform and the 2013 North Korea nuclear test event waveform recorded at stations surrounding the region. Two reference 1-D models for the inland and offshore areas (Western East Sea) were estimated by 1-D inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements from ambient noise cross-correlations of the continuous waveform. To investigate the variations in the velocity models, many 1-D models for the paths between the 2013 nuclear test site and stations in China and South Korea were constructed by forward waveform modeling. The velocity variations are not significant for both models representing the inland and offshore paths, respectively. The 1-D models for the inland paths are similar to the models constructed for the southern Korean Peninsula. Interestingly, waveforms sampling through the offshore paths are not well explained by simple 1-D isotropic models. The preliminary result indicates that there exists radial anisotropy with SH being faster than SV by 3-5% in the upper mantle beneath the offshore northern Korean Peninsula, although further studies are necessary to explain the origin of anisotropy. A proper characterization of propagation effects along the offshore paths would be useful for monitoring future nuclear tests because many seismic stations in the eastern South Korea record waveforms sampling the offshore region from the nuclear test site to those stations.

  15. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Gujer, W.; Mino, T.

    This book has been produced to give a total overview of the Activated Sludge Model (ASM) family at the start of 2000 and to give the reader easy access to the different models in their original versions. It thus presents ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3 together for the first time.Modelling of activated...... sludge processes has become a common part of the design and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Today models are being used in design, control, teaching and research.ContentsASM3: Introduction, Comparison of ASM1 and ASM3, ASM3: Definition of compounds in the model, ASM3: Definition of processes...... in the Model, ASM3: Stoichiometry, ASM3: Kinetics, Limitations of ASM3, Aspects of application of ASM3, ASM3C: A Carbon based model, Conclusion ASM 2d: Introduction, Conceptual Approach, ASM 2d, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Limitations, Conclusion ASM 2...

  16. Periodic Properties of 1D FE Discrete Models in High Frequency Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Żak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element discrete models of various engineering 1D structures may be considered as structures of certain periodic characteristics. The source of this periodicity comes from the discontinuity of stress/strain field between the elements. This behaviour remains unnoticeable, when low frequency dynamics of these structures is investigated. At high frequency regimes, however, its influence may be strong enough to dominate calculated structural responses distorting or even falsifying them completely. In this paper, certain computational aspects of structural periodicity of 1D FE discrete models are discussed by the authors. In this discussion, the authors focus their attention on an exemplary problem of 1D rod modelled according to the elementary theory.

  17. Estimation of actual evapotranspiration over a rainfed vineyard using a 1-D water transfer model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galleguillos, Mauricio; Jacob, Frédéric; Prévot, Laurent; Faundez Urbina, Carlos; Bsaibes, Aline

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to evaluate the capabilities of soil water balance modeling to estimate ET for very different conditions of rainfed grapevine water status, within a vineyard landscape that depicts heterogeneities in canopy, soil and water table conditions. We calibrated the HYDRUS-1D model

  18. The Solar Photospheric Nitrogen Abundance : Determination with 3D and 1D Model Atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maiorca, E.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Busso, M.; Faraggiana, R.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H. -G.; Kamp, I.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new determination of the solar nitrogen abundance making use of 3D hydrodynamical modelling of the solar photosphere, which is more physically motivated than traditional static 1D models. We selected suitable atomic spectral lines, relying on equivalent width measurements already

  19. Column Testing and 1D Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Uranium Plume Persistence Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Raymond H. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morrison, Stan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morris, Sarah [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Tigar, Aaron [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Dam, William [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Dayvault, Jalena [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management

    2016-04-26

    Motivation for Study: Natural flushing of contaminants at various U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management sites is not proceeding as quickly as predicted (plume persistence) Objectives: Help determine natural flushing rates using column tests. Use 1D reactive transport modeling to better understand the major processes that are creating plume persistence Approach: Core samples from under a former mill tailings area Tailings have been removed. Column leaching using lab-prepared water similar to nearby Gunnison River water. 1D reactive transport modeling to evaluate processes

  20. Simulation of cardiac arrhythmias using a 2D heterogeneous whole heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minimol eBalakrishnan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation studies of cardiac arrhythmias at the whole heart level with electrocardiogram (ECG gives an understanding of how the underlying cell and tissue level changes manifest as rhythm disturbances in the ECG. We present a 2D whole heart model (WHM2D which can accommodate variations at the cellular level and can generate the ECG waveform. It is shown that, by varying cellular-level parameters like the gap junction conductance (GJC, excitability, action potential duration(APD and frequency of oscillations of the auto-rhythmic cell in WHM2D a large variety of cardiac arrhythmias can be generated including sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sinus pause, junctional rhythm, Wolf Parkinson White syndrome and all types of AV conduction blocks. WHM2D includes key components of the electrical conduction system of the heart like the SA (Sino atrial node cells, fast conducting intranodal pathways, slow conducting atriovenctricular (AV node, bundle of His cells, Purkinje network, atrial and ventricular myocardial cells. SA nodal cells, AV nodal cells, bundle of His cells and Purkinje cells are represented by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FN model which is a reduced model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The atrial and ventricular myocardial cells are modeled by the Aliev-Panfilov (AP two-variable model proposed for cardiac excitation. WHM2D can prove to be a valuable clinical tool for understanding cardiac arrhythmias

  1. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reffray, G.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Calone, C.

    2015-01-01

    Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k+l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993, and two equation models: generic length scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003) are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969) under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a 1-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011) at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between -2 and 2 °C during the stratified period (June to October). However, the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 °C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 °C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D) is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (PAPA">http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA). This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  2. Modeling of impurity spectroscopy in the divertor and SOL of DIII-D using the 1D multifluid model NEWT1D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, W.P.; Evans, T.E.; Brooks, N.H.

    1996-10-01

    NEWT1D, a one dimensional multifluid model of the scrape-off layer and divertor plasma, has been used to model the plasma including the distribution of carbon ionization states in the SOL and divertor of ELMing H-mode at two injected power levels in DIII-D. Comparison of the code predictions to the measured divertor and scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma density and temperature shows good agreement. Comparison of the predicted line emissions to the spectroscopic data suggests that physically sputtered carbon from the strike point is not transported up the flux tube; a distributed source of carbon a few centimeters up the flux tube is required to achieve reasonable agreement

  3. Comparison of 2D and 3D Models of Salinity Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the study of the effect of 2D and 3D mathematical model in salinity simulation, with Liuheng island strong brine discharge of seawater desalination project as an example, using 2D and 3D salinity mathematical models of Liuheng island to simulate coastal hydrodynamic environment and salinity distribution before and after the concentrated brine discharge, and analyzed the results. Finally got the applicable scope of the two models, it has an important significance in the study of similar problems.

  4. Modeling of 1-D nitrate transport in single layer soils | Dike | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transport of nitrate in laboratory single soil columns of sand, laterite and clay were investigated after 21 days. The 1-D contaminant transport model by Notodarmojo et al (1991) for single layer soils were calibrated and verified using field data collected from a refuse dump site at avu, owerri, Imo state. The experimental ...

  5. Minimal representations of supersymmetry and 1D N-extended σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the minimal representations of the 1D N-Extended Supersymmetry algebra (the Z 2 -graded symmetry algebra of the Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics) linearly realized on a finite number of fields depending on a real parameter t, the time. Their knowledge allows to construct one-dimensional sigma-models with extended off-shell supersymmetries without using superfields (author)

  6. 2D and 3D modelling of magnetic and resistivity data from Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-05-01

    This report presents results from modelling of geophysical data. Ground magnetic and geo electric data were collected in 1988 as part of the pre-investigations carried out before the construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). The work presented in this report is an evaluation of the magnetic and geo electric data with the focus on estimating variations in geometry and dip of some of the possible deformation zones indicated in lineament interpretations presented earlier. This was done by 2D forward magnetic modelling, 2D forward resistivity modelling and 3D inversion of the magnetic data. The specific aims of this work are: 1. Produce magnetic 2D forward models across 12 selected linked lineaments. 2. Produce a 3D susceptibility model of the entire data set of Aespoe. 3. Use 2D forward resistivity modelling to produce electric anomaly response diagrams for a dipole-dipole survey across low resistivity zones with various dips. The results of the modelling work will mainly be used as supportive information for deterministic geological modelling of deformation zones and rock units in the vicinity of the Aespoe HRL. The results of the 2D forward modelling of magnetic data show geologically reasonable solutions, and in most cases it is possible to make reliable estimates of the width and orientation of the cause of the targeted lineament. The possible deformation zones generally dip steeply (80 deg-90 deg) and have a width of c. 30-50 m. In some cases the modelled lineament has a diffuse character with low amplitude, which makes the model solution uncertain. Two 3D susceptibility models were created by use of inversion of the ground magnetic data; one coarse model of the entire Island of Aespoe and one more detailed model of the south-eastern peninsula of the Island, covering the volume of the Aespoe HRL. The two models fit nicely to the measured data and they are geologically realistic. It is possible to identify well-defined bodies (rock volumes) of

  7. Bringing Kano’s Perspective to AHP: The 2D-AHP Decision Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Uk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AHP and the Kano model are such prevalent TQM tools that it may be surprising that a true hybrid decision-making model has so far eluded researchers. The quest for a hybrid approach is complicated by the differing output perspective of each model, namely discrete ranking (AHP versus a multi-dimensional picture (Kano. This paper presents a hybrid model of AHP and Kano model, so called two-dimension AHP (2D-AHP.

  8. Stress Induced Phononic Properties and Surface Waves in 2D Model of Auxetic Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzupek, D.; Twarog, D.; Zielinski, P.

    2009-01-01

    Elastic stiffness parameters are determined in a 2D model system of rigid rods interacting by harmonic force constants. Any positive ('' normal '' crystal) or negative (auxetic crystal) Poisson ratio can be obtained in this model as a function of the external stress. Conditions for opening an absolute stop band (phononic crystal) and for various kinds of surface waves are obtained. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of 2D shallow-water model for spillway flow with a complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the two-dimensional (2D) shallow water model is formulated based on several assumptions such as hydrostatic pressure distribution and vertical velocity is negligible, as a simple alternative to the complex 3D model, it has been used to compute water flows in which these assumptions may be ...

  10. A predictive model for substrates of cytochrome P450-debrisoquine (2D6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koymans, L.; Vermeulen, N P; van Acker, S.A.B.E.; te Koppele, J.M.; Heykants, J J; Lavrijsen, K; Meuldermans, W; Donné-Op den Kelder, G M

    1992-01-01

    Molecular modeling techniques were used to derive a predictive model for substrates of cytochrome P450 2D6, an isozyme known to metabolize only compounds with one or more basic nitrogen atoms. Sixteen substrates, accounting for 23 metabolic reactions, with a distance of either 5 A ("5-A substrates",

  11. Progress in integrated 2-D models for analysis of scrape-off layer transport physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Braams, B.J. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Knoll, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (United States)

    1996-08-01

    We present the status of comprehensive two-dimensional (2-D) transport modeling for the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) using the UEDGE and B2.5 codes. These codes are now able to integrate a variety of physics, including coupling of plasma and neutral transport leading to detachment, complicated diverto-plate geometries, multispecies impurities, and currents and E x B drifts. These new models are outlined and the capabilities are illustrated by a number of examples that emphasize the importance of including the 2-D geometry. (orig.)

  12. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Eman; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C; Van Ongeval, Chantal

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly suggestive for malignancy (BIRADS 5

  13. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, Eman, E-mail: eman.shaheen@uzleuven.be; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly

  14. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, Eman; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly

  15. Impact of high speed civil transports on stratospheric ozone. A 2-D model investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnison, D.E.; Connell, P.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This study investigates the effect on stratospheric ozone from a fleet of proposed High Speed Civil Transports (HSCTs). The new LLNL 2-D operator-split chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere is used for this HSCT investigation. This model is integrated in a diurnal manner, using an implicit numerical solver. Therefore, rate coefficients are not modified by any sort of diurnal average factor. This model also does not make any assumptions on lumping of chemical species into families. Comparisons to previous model-derived HSCT assessment of ozone change are made, both to the previous LLNL 2-D model and to other models from the international assessment modeling community. The sensitivity to the NO{sub x} emission index and sulfate surface area density is also explored. (author) 7 refs.

  16. Modelling river bank erosion processes and mass failure mechanisms using 2-D depth averaged numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die Moran, Andres; El kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Tassi, Pablo; Herouvet, Jean-Michel

    2014-05-01

    Bank erosion is a key process that may cause a large number of economic and environmental problems (e.g. land loss, damage to structures and aquatic habitat). Stream bank erosion (toe erosion and mass failure) represents an important form of channel morphology changes and a significant source of sediment. With the advances made in computational techniques, two-dimensional (2-D) numerical models have become valuable tools for investigating flow and sediment transport in open channels at large temporal and spatial scales. However, the implementation of mass failure process in 2D numerical models is still a challenging task. In this paper, a simple, innovative algorithm is implemented in the Telemac-Mascaret modeling platform to handle bank failure: failure occurs whether the actual slope of one given bed element is higher than the internal friction angle. The unstable bed elements are rotated around an appropriate axis, ensuring mass conservation. Mass failure of a bank due to slope instability is applied at the end of each sediment transport evolution iteration, once the bed evolution due to bed load (and/or suspended load) has been computed, but before the global sediment mass balance is verified. This bank failure algorithm is successfully tested using two laboratory experimental cases. Then, bank failure in a 1:40 scale physical model of the Rhine River composed of non-uniform material is simulated. The main features of the bank erosion and failure are correctly reproduced in the numerical simulations, namely the mass wasting at the bank toe, followed by failure at the bank head, and subsequent transport of the mobilised material in an aggradation front. Volumes of eroded material obtained are of the same order of magnitude as the volumes measured during the laboratory tests.

  17. A simple model for 2D image upconversion of incoherent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple theoretical model for 2 dimensional (2-D) image up-conversion of incoherent light. While image upconversion has been known for more than 40 years, the technology has been hindered by very low conversion quantum efficiency (~10-7). We show that our implementation compared...

  18. 2D Modelling of Mechanical Stress Evolution and Electromigration in Confined Aluminium Interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrescu, V.; Mouthaan, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    A complete description for mechanical stress evolution and electromigration in confined Al interconnects, taking into account the microstructure features, is presented in this paper. In the last years there were proposed several 1D models for the time-dependent evolution of the mechanical stress in

  19. A preliminary 3D model for cytochrome P450 2D6 constructed by homology model building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koymans, L M; Vermeulen, N P; Baarslag, A; Donné-Op den Kelder, G M

    A homology model building study of cytochrome P450 2D6 has been carried out based on the crystal structure of cytochrome P450 101. The primary sequences of P450 101 and P450 2D6 were aligned by making use of an automated alignment procedure. This alignment was adjusted manually by matching

  20. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Gujer, W.; Mino, T.

    sludge processes has become a common part of the design and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Today models are being used in design, control, teaching and research.ContentsASM3: Introduction, Comparison of ASM1 and ASM3, ASM3: Definition of compounds in the model, ASM3: Definition of processes...... in the Model, ASM3: Stoichiometry, ASM3: Kinetics, Limitations of ASM3, Aspects of application of ASM3, ASM3C: A Carbon based model, Conclusion ASM 2d: Introduction, Conceptual Approach, ASM 2d, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Limitations, Conclusion ASM 2...... Oxidation Nitrification and Denitrification, Characterization of Wastewater and Estimation of Parameter Values, Typical Parameter Ranges, Default Values, and Effects of Environmental Factors, Assumptions, Restrictions and Constraints, Implementation of the Activated Sludge Model...

  1. A deformed shape monitoring model for building structures based on a 2D laser scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Bub Ryur; Lee, Hong Min; Kim, Yousok; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-21

    High-rise buildings subjected to lateral loads such as wind and earthquake loads must be checked not to exceed the limits on the maximum lateral displacement or the maximum inter-story drift ratios. In this paper, a sensing model for deformed shapes of a building structure in motion is presented. The deformed shape sensing model based on a 2D scanner consists of five modules: (1) module for acquiring coordinate information of a point in a building; (2) module for coordinate transformation and data arrangement for generation of time history of the point; (3) module for smoothing by adjacent averaging technique; (4) module for generation of the displacement history for each story and deformed shape of a building, and (5) module for evaluation of the serviceability of a building. The feasibility of the sensing model based on a 2D laser scanner is tested through free vibration tests of a three-story steel frame structure with a relatively high slenderness ratio of 5.0. Free vibration responses measured from both laser displacement sensors and a 2D laser scanner are compared. In the experimentation, the deformed shapes were obtained from three different methods: the model based on the 2D laser scanner, the direct measurement based on laser displacement sensors, and the numerical method using acceleration data and the displacements from GPS. As a result, it is confirmed that the deformed shape measurement model based on a 2D laser scanner can be a promising alternative for high-rise buildings where installation of laser displacement sensors is impossible.

  2. Nonlinear inversion of resistivity sounding data for 1-D earth models using the Neighbourhood Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, A. O.; Xie, Jun; Olorunfemi, M. O.

    2018-01-01

    To reduce ambiguity related to nonlinearities in the resistivity model-data relationships, an efficient direct-search scheme employing the Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA) was implemented to solve the 1-D resistivity problem. In addition to finding a range of best-fit models which are more likely to be global minimums, this method investigates the entire multi-dimensional model space and provides additional information about the posterior model covariance matrix, marginal probability density function and an ensemble of acceptable models. This provides new insights into how well the model parameters are constrained and make assessing trade-offs between them possible, thus avoiding some common interpretation pitfalls. The efficacy of the newly developed program is tested by inverting both synthetic (noisy and noise-free) data and field data from other authors employing different inversion methods so as to provide a good base for comparative performance. In all cases, the inverted model parameters were in good agreement with the true and recovered model parameters from other methods and remarkably correlate with the available borehole litho-log and known geology for the field dataset. The NA method has proven to be useful whilst a good starting model is not available and the reduced number of unknowns in the 1-D resistivity inverse problem makes it an attractive alternative to the linearized methods. Hence, it is concluded that the newly developed program offers an excellent complementary tool for the global inversion of the layered resistivity structure.

  3. Coupled 0D-1D CFD Modeling of Right Heart and Pulmonary Artery Morphometry Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Melody; Yang, Weiguang; Feinstein, Jeffrey A.; Marsden, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery (PA) pressure and remodeling of the distal PAs resulting in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and failure. It is hypothesized that patients with untreated ventricular septal defects (VSD) may develop PAH due to elevated flows and pressures in the PAs. Wall shear stress (WSS), due to elevated flows, and circumferential stress, due to elevated pressures, are known to play a role in vascular mechanobiology. Thus, simulating VSD hemodynamics and wall mechanics may facilitate our understanding of mechanical stimuli leading to PAH initiation and progression. Although 3D CFD models can capture detailed hemodynamics in the proximal PAs, they cannot easily model hemodynamics and wave propagation in the distal PAs, where remodeling occurs. To improve current PA models, we will present a new method that couples distal PA hemodynamics with RV function. Our model couples a 0D lumped parameter model of the RV to a 1D model of the PA tree, based on human PA morphometry data, to characterize RV performance and WSS changes in the PA tree. We will compare a VSD 0D-1D model and a 0D-3D model coupled to a mathematical morphometry tree model to quantify WSS in the entire PA vascular tree.

  4. Characteristics of the FTU scrape-off layer (SOL) determined by a simple 1-D model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, C.

    1994-12-01

    A simple 1-D model analytical model has been developed to determine the SOL characteristics from the parameters of the main plasma. The solutions are compared with FTU experimental data. The solutions fit quite well the experimental data and their trend. Moreover the model suggests the presence of a critical density related to the non isothermal power flux and the corresponding maximum power which can be safely removed by volumetric sinks. Differences between a limiter-like configuration and a divertor-like configuration are described

  5. 1D-Var temperature retrievals from microwave radiometer and convective scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Martinet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the potential of ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR for providing accurate temperature retrievals by combining convective scale numerical models and brightness temperatures (BTs. A one-dimensional variational (1D-Var retrieval technique has been tested to optimally combine MWR and 3-h forecasts from the French convective scale model AROME. A microwave profiler HATPRO (Humidity and Temperature PROfiler was operated during 6 months at the meteorological station of Bordeaux (Météo France. MWR BTs were monitored against simulations from the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator 2 radiative transfer model. An overall good agreement was found between observations and simulations for opaque V-band channels but large errors were observed for channels the most affected by liquid water and water vapour emissions (51.26 and 52.28 GHz. 1D-Var temperature retrievals are performed in clear-sky and cloudy conditions using a screening procedure based on cloud base height retrieval from ceilometer observations, infrared radiometer temperature and liquid water path derived from the MWR observations. The 1D-Var retrievals were found to improve the AROME forecasts up to 2 km with a maximum gain of approximately 50 % in root-mean-square-errors (RMSE below 500 m. They were also found to outperform neural network retrievals. A static bias correction was proposed to account for systematic instrumental errors. This correction was found to have a negligible impact on the 1D-Var retrievals. The use of low elevation angles improves the retrievals up to 12 % in RMSE in cloudy-sky in the first layers. The present implementation achieved a RMSE with respect to radiosondes within 1 K in clear-sky and 1.3 K in cloudy-sky conditions for temperature.

  6. Modeling human diseases with induced pluripotent stem cells: from 2D to 3D and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; Sayed, Nazish; Wu, Joseph C

    2018-03-08

    The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) presents unprecedented opportunities to model human diseases. Differentiated cells derived from iPSCs in two-dimensional (2D) monolayers have proven to be a relatively simple tool for exploring disease pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms. In this Spotlight article, we discuss the progress and limitations of the current 2D iPSC disease-modeling platform, as well as recent advancements in the development of human iPSC models that mimic in vivo tissues and organs at the three-dimensional (3D) level. Recent bioengineering approaches have begun to combine different 3D organoid types into a single '4D multi-organ system'. We summarize the advantages of this approach and speculate on the future role of 4D multi-organ systems in human disease modeling. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Reliability of a Novel Model for Drug Release from 2D HPMC-Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Blagoeva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel model of drug release from 2D-HPMC matrices is considered. Detailed mathematical description of matrix swelling and the effect of the initial drug loading are introduced. A numerical approach to solution of the posed nonlinear 2D problem is used on the basis of finite element domain approximation and time difference method. The reliability of the model is investigated in two steps: numerical evaluation of the water uptake parameters; evaluation of drug release parameters under available experimental data. The proposed numerical procedure for fitting the model is validated performing different numerical examples of drug release in two cases (with and without taking into account initial drug loading. The goodness of fit evaluated by the coefficient of determination is presented to be very good with few exceptions. The obtained results show better model fitting when accounting the effect of initial drug loading (especially for larger values.

  8. Evaluation of Fish Passage at Whitewater Parks Using 2D and 3D Hydraulic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, T.; Nelson, P. A.; Kondratieff, M.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    In-stream whitewater parks (WWPs) are increasingly popular recreational amenities that typically create waves by constricting flow through a chute to increase velocities and form a hydraulic jump. However, the hydraulic conditions these structures create can limit longitudinal habitat connectivity and potentially inhibit upstream fish migration, especially of native fishes. An improved understanding of the fundamental hydraulic processes and potential environmental effects of whitewater parks is needed to inform management decisions about Recreational In-Channel Diversions (RICDs). Here, we use hydraulic models to compute a continuous and spatially explicit description of velocity and depth along potential fish swimming paths in the flow field, and the ensemble of potential paths are compared to fish swimming performance data to predict fish passage via logistic regression analysis. While 3d models have been shown to accurately predict trout movement through WWP structures, 2d methods can provide a more cost-effective and manager-friendly approach to assessing the effects of similar hydraulic structures on fish passage when 3d analysis in not feasible. Here, we use 2d models to examine the hydraulics in several WWP structures on the North Fork of the St. Vrain River at Lyons, Colorado, and we compare these model results to fish passage predictions from a 3d model. Our analysis establishes a foundation for a practical, transferable and physically-rigorous 2d modeling approach for mechanistically evaluating the effects of hydraulic structures on fish passage.

  9. arXiv Topology in the 2d Heisenberg Model under Gradient Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, Ilya O.; de Forcrand, Philippe; Gerber, Urs; Mejía-Díaz, Héctor

    2017-10-28

    The 2d Heisenberg model — or 2d O(3) model — is popular in condensed matter physics, and in particle physics as a toy model for QCD. Along with other analogies, it shares with 4d Yang-Mills theories, and with QCD, the property that the configurations are divided in topological sectors. In the lattice regularisation the topological charge Q can still be defined such that $Q\\in \\mathbb{Z}$. It has generally been observed, however, that the topological susceptibility ${{\\chi }_{t}}=\\langle {{Q}^{2}}\\rangle /V$ does not scale properly in the continuum limit, i.e. that the quantity ${{\\chi }_{t}}{{\\xi }^{2}}$ diverges for ξ → ∞ (where ξ is the correlation length in lattice units). Here we address the question whether or not this divergence persists after the application of the Gradient Flow.

  10. COMPARISON BETWEEN 2D TURBULENCE MODEL ESEL AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA FROM AUG AND COMPASS TOKAMAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ondac

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have used the 2D fluid turbulence numerical model, ESEL, to simulate turbulent transport in edge tokamak plasma. Basic plasma parameters from the ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS tokamaks are used as input for the model, and the output is compared with experimental observations obtained by reciprocating probe measurements from the two machines. Agreements were found in radial profiles of mean plasma potential and temperature, and in a level of density fluctuations. Disagreements, however, were found in the level of plasma potential and temperature fluctuations. This implicates a need for an extension of the ESEL model from 2D to 3D to fully resolve the parallel dynamics, and the coupling from the plasma to the sheath.

  11. Elliptic genera of 2d (0,2) gauge theories from brane brick models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Sebastian; Ghim, Dongwook; Lee, Sangmin; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2017-06-01

    Auc(bstract) We compute the elliptic genus of abelian 2d (0, 2) gauge theories corresponding to brane brick models. These theories are worldvolume theories on a single D1-brane probing a toric Calabi-Yau 4-fold singularity. We identify a match with the elliptic genus of the non-linear sigma model on the same Calabi-Yau background, which is computed using a new localization formula. The matching implies that the quantum effects do not drastically alter the correspondence between the geometry and the 2d (0, 2) gauge theory. In theories whose matter sector suffers from abelian gauge anomaly, we propose an ansatz for an anomaly cancelling term in the integral formula for the elliptic genus. We provide an example in which two brane brick models related to each other by Gadde-Gukov-Putrov triality give the same elliptic genus.

  12. Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and 3D cabin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, J.; Pokorný, J.; Jícha, M.

    2012-04-01

    Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of modelling of car cabin environment; the first model was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry) and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-FE (3D approach with cabin geometry). Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.

  13. Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and 3D cabin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of modelling of car cabin environment; the first model was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-FE (3D approach with cabin geometry. Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.

  14. TRENT2D WG: a smart web infrastructure for debris-flow modelling and hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Nadia; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zugliani, Daniel; Rizzi, Alessandro; Piffer, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Mountain regions are naturally exposed to geomorphic flows, which involve large amounts of sediments and induce significant morphological modifications. The physical complexity of this class of phenomena represents a challenging issue for modelling, leading to elaborate theoretical frameworks and sophisticated numerical techniques. In general, geomorphic-flows models proved to be valid tools in hazard assessment and management. However, model complexity seems to represent one of the main obstacles to the diffusion of advanced modelling tools between practitioners and stakeholders, although the UE Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) requires risk management and assessment to be based on "best practices and best available technologies". Furthermore, several cutting-edge models are not particularly user-friendly and multiple stand-alone software are needed to pre- and post-process modelling data. For all these reasons, users often resort to quicker and rougher approaches, leading possibly to unreliable results. Therefore, some effort seems to be necessary to overcome these drawbacks, with the purpose of supporting and encouraging a widespread diffusion of the most reliable, although sophisticated, modelling tools. With this aim, this work presents TRENT2D WG, a new smart modelling solution for the state-of-the-art model TRENT2D (Armanini et al., 2009, Rosatti and Begnudelli, 2013), which simulates debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows adopting a two-phase description over a mobile bed. TRENT2D WG is a web infrastructure joining advantages offered by the software-delivering model SaaS (Software as a Service) and by WebGIS technology and hosting a complete and user-friendly working environment for modelling. In order to develop TRENT2D WG, the model TRENT2D was converted into a service and exposed on a cloud server, transferring computational burdens from the user hardware to a high-performing server and reducing computational time. Then, the system was equipped with an

  15. 2-D Versus 3-D Cross-Correlation-Based Radial and Circumferential Strain Estimation Using Multiplane 2-D Ultrafast Ultrasound in a 3-D Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkes, Stein; Swillens, Abigail E S; Hansen, Hendrik H G; Saris, Anne E C M; Nillesen, Maartje M; Iannaccone, Francesco; Segers, Patrick; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) strain estimation might improve the detection and localization of high strain regions in the carotid artery (CA) for identification of vulnerable plaques. This paper compares 2-D versus 3-D displacement estimation in terms of radial and circumferential strain using simulated ultrasound (US) images of a patient-specific 3-D atherosclerotic CA model at the bifurcation embedded in surrounding tissue generated with ABAQUS software. Global longitudinal motion was superimposed to the model based on the literature data. A Philips L11-3 linear array transducer was simulated, which transmitted plane waves at three alternating angles at a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. Interframe (IF) radio-frequency US data were simulated in Field II for 191 equally spaced longitudinal positions of the internal CA. Accumulated radial and circumferential displacements were estimated using tracking of the IF displacements estimated by a two-step normalized cross-correlation method and displacement compounding. Least-squares strain estimation was performed to determine accumulated radial and circumferential strain. The performance of the 2-D and 3-D methods was compared by calculating the root-mean-squared error of the estimated strains with respect to the reference strains obtained from the model. More accurate strain images were obtained using the 3-D displacement estimation for the entire cardiac cycle. The 3-D technique clearly outperformed the 2-D technique in phases with high IF longitudinal motion. In fact, the large IF longitudinal motion rendered it impossible to accurately track the tissue and cumulate strains over the entire cardiac cycle with the 2-D technique.

  16. 2D versus 3D cross-correlation-based radial and circumferential strain estimation using multiplane 2D ultrafast ultrasound in a 3D atherosclerotic carotid artery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkes, Stein; Swillens, Abigail E S; Hansen, Hendrik H G; Saris, Anne E C M; Nillesen, Maartje M; Iannaccone, Francesco; Segers, Patrick; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-08-25

    Three-dimensional strain estimation might improve the detection and localization of high strain regions in the carotid artery for identification of vulnerable plaques. This study compares 2D vs. 3D displacement estimation in terms of radial and circumferential strain using simulated ultrasound images of a patient specific 3D atherosclerotic carotid artery model at the bifurcation embedded in surrounding tissue generated with ABAQUS software. Global longitudinal motion was superimposed to the model based on literature data. A Philips L11-3 linear array transducer was simulated which transmitted plane waves at 3 alternating angles at a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. Inter-frame radiofrequency ultrasound data were simulated in Field II for 191 equally spaced longitudinal positions of the internal carotid artery. Accumulated radial and circumferential displacements were estimated using tracking of the inter-frame displacements estimated by a two-step normalized cross-correlation method and displacement compounding. Least squares strain estimation was performed to determine accumulated radial and circumferential strain. The performance of the 2D and 3D method was compared by calculating the root-mean-squared error of the estimated strains with respect to the reference strains obtained from the model. More accurate strain images were obtained using the 3D displacement estimation for the entire cardiac cycle. The 3D technique clearly outperformed the 2D technique in phases with high inter-frame longitudinal motion. In fact the large inter-frame longitudinal motion rendered it impossible to accurately track the tissue and cumulate strains over the entire cardiac cycle with the 2D technique.

  17. Observation and simulation of heterogeneous 2D water and solute flow processes in ditch beds for subsequent catchment modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dages, Cecile; Samouelian, Anatja; Lanoix, Marthe; Dollinger, Jeanne; Chakkour, Sara; Chovelon, Gabrielle; Trabelsi, Khouloud; Voltz, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Ditches are involved in the transfer of pesticide to surface and groundwaters (e.g. Louchart et al., 2001). Soil horizons underlying ditch beds may present specific soil characteristics compared to neighbouring field soils due to erosion/deposition processes, to the specific biological activities (rooting dynamic and animal habitat) in the ditches (e.g. Vaughan et al., 2008) and to management practices (burning, dredging, mowing,...). Moreover, in contrast to percolation processes in field soils that can be assumed to be mainly 1D vertical, those occurring in the ditch beds are by essence 2D or even 3D. Nevertheless, due to a lake of knowledge, these specific aspects of transfer within ditch beds are generally omitted for hydrological simulation at the catchment scale (Mottes et al., 2014). Accordingly, the aims of this study were i) to characterize subsurface solute transfer through ditch beds and ii) to determine equivalent hydraulic parameters of the ditch beds for use in catchment scale hydrological simulations. A complementary aim was to evaluate the error in predictions performed when percolation in ditches is assumed to be similar to that in the neighbouring field soil. First, bromide transfer experiments were performed on undisturbed soil column (15 cm long with a 15 cm inner-diameter), horizontally and vertically sampled within each soil horizon underlying a ditch bed and within the neighboring field. Columns were sampled at the Roujan catchment (Hérault, France), which belongs to the long term Mediterranean hydrological observatory OMERE (Voltz and Albergel, 2002). Second, for each column, a set of parameters was determined by inverse optimization with mobile-immobile or dual permeability models, with CXTFIT (Toride et al., 1999) or with HYDRUS (Simunek et al., 1998). Third, infiltration and percolation in the ditch was simulated by a 2D flow domain approach considering the 2D variation in hydraulic properties of the cross section of a ditch bed. Last

  18. Flame monitoring of a model swirl injector using 1D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Cao, Zhang; Li, Fangyan; Lin, Yuzhen; Xu, Lijun

    2017-05-01

    Distributions of temperature and H2O concentration in a swirling flame are critical to evaluate the performance of a gas turbine combustor. In this paper, 1D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy tomography (1D-TDLAST) was introduced to monitor swirling flames generated from a model swirl injector by simultaneously reconstructing the rotationally symmetric distributions of temperature and H2O concentration. The optical system was sufficiently simplified by introducing only one fan-beam illumination and a linear detector array of 12 equally-spaced photodetectors. The fan-beam illumination penetrated a cross section of interest in the swirling flame and the transmitted intensities were detected by the detector array. With the transmitted intensities in hand, projections were extracted and employed by a 1D tomographic algorithm to reconstruct the distributions of temperature and H2O concentration. The route of the precessing vortex core generated in the swirling flame can be easily inferred from the reconstructed profiles of temperature and H2O concentration at different heights above the nozzle of the swirl injector.

  19. Parameterising root system growth models using 2D neutron radiography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Leitner, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Root architecture is a key factor for plant acquisition of water and nutrients from soil. In particular in view of a second green revolution where the below ground parts of agricultural crops are important, it is essential to characterise and quantify root architecture and its effect on plant resource acquisition. Mathematical models can help to understand the processes occurring in the soil-plant system, they can be used to quantify the effect of root and rhizosphere traits on resource acquisition and the response to environmental conditions. In order to do so, root architectural models are coupled with a model of water and solute transport in soil. However, dynamic root architectural models are difficult to parameterise. Novel imaging techniques such as x-ray computed tomography, neutron radiography and magnetic resonance imaging enable the in situ visualisation of plant root systems. Therefore, these images facilitate the parameterisation of dynamic root architecture models. These imaging techniques are capable of producing 3D or 2D images. Moreover, 2D images are also available in the form of hand drawings or from images of standard cameras. While full 3D imaging tools are still limited in resolutions, 2D techniques are a more accurate and less expensive option for observing roots in their environment. However, analysis of 2D images has additional difficulties compared to the 3D case, because of overlapping roots. We present a novel algorithm for the parameterisation of root system growth models based on 2D images of root system. The algorithm analyses dynamic image data. These are a series of 2D images of the root system at different points in time. Image data has already been adjusted for missing links and artefacts and segmentation was performed by applying a matched filter response. From this time series of binary 2D images, we parameterise the dynamic root architecture model in the following way: First, a morphological skeleton is derived from the binary

  20. Modeling of subsurface structures in Telomoyo Volcano geothermal area, Magelang using 1-D magnetotelluric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjan, Achmad Fajar Narotama; Niasari, Sintia Windhi

    2017-07-01

    There are some of geothermal prospects around Java Island. One of them are located in Telomoyo Volcano area, Magelang, Central Java. The existence of hot spring manifestations in Telomoyo Volcano area shows the presence of geothermal system. The upflow zone of this geothermal system was formed in the caldera of Telomoyo Volcano area, while the outflow zone was formed around Candi Umbul. In addition, from the geological map shows a geological structure assumed as a normal fault with southwest-northeast orientation that was caused by the volcanic activity. The aim of this research is to give a brief introduction about subsurface resistivity beneath Telomoyo Volcano area using 1-D magnetotelluric forward model. Thus, we can determine the possibility of data that will obtained during the acquisition process based on the geological model that was made. The apparent resistivity, phase, and period values were obtained from the forward modeling process. The result from this study is a 1-D resistivity section with synthetics curves of each geothermal model. In each model the presence of clay cap characterized by a low resistivity layer. A layer below the clay cap with a medium resistivity value interpreted as the reservoir of this geothermal system. The heat source of this geothermal area is characterized by a low resistivity that is located at depth 4000-5500m. This study is still in progress to acquire the exact values of resistivity from each layer from the field data acquisition in Telomoyo Volcano area, Magelang.

  1. Validation of a 2-D semi-coupled numerical model for fluid-structure-seabed interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianhong; Jeng, Dongsheng; Wang, Ren; Zhu, Changqi

    2013-10-01

    A 2-D semi-coupled model PORO-WSSI 2D (also be referred as FSSI-CAS 2D) for the Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction (FSSI) has been developed by employing RANS equations for wave motion in fluid domain, VARANS equations for porous flow in porous structures; and taking the dynamic Biot's equations (known as "u - p" approximation) for soil as the governing equations. The finite difference two-step projection method and the forward time difference method are adopted to solve the RANS, VARANS equations; and the finite element method is adopted to solve the "u - p" approximation. A data exchange port is developed to couple the RANS, VARANS equations and the dynamic Biot's equations together. The analytical solution proposed by Hsu and Jeng (1994) and some experiments conducted in wave flume or geotechnical centrifuge in which various waves involved are used to validate the developed semi-coupled numerical model. The sandy bed involved in these experiments is poro-elastic or poro-elastoplastic. The inclusion of the interaction between fluid, marine structures and poro-elastoplastic seabed foundation is a special point and highlight in this paper, which is essentially different with other previous coupled models The excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experiment data indicates that the developed coupled model is highly reliablefor the FSSI problem.

  2. Approximate 2D inversion of airborne TEM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; Wolfgram, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We propose an approximate two-dimensional inversion procedure for transient electromagnetic data. The method is a two-stage procedure, where data are first inverted with 1D multi-layer models. The 1D model section is then considered as data for the next inversion stage that produces the 2D model...

  3. Hybrid 2D-3D modelling of GTA welding with filler wire addition

    KAUST Repository

    Traidia, Abderrazak

    2012-07-01

    A hybrid 2D-3D model for the numerical simulation of Gas Tungsten Arc welding is proposed in this paper. It offers the possibility to predict the temperature field as well as the shape of the solidified weld joint for different operating parameters, with relatively good accuracy and reasonable computational cost. Also, an original approach to simulate the effect of immersing a cold filler wire in the weld pool is presented. The simulation results reveal two important observations. First, the weld pool depth is locally decreased in the presence of filler metal, which is due to the energy absorption by the cold feeding wire from the hot molten pool. In addition, the weld shape, maximum temperature and thermal cycles in the workpiece are relatively well predicted even when a 2D model for the arc plasma region is used. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A 2D model of causal set quantum gravity: the emergence of the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightwell, Graham; Henson, Joe; Surya, Sumati

    2008-01-01

    Non-perturbative theories of quantum gravity inevitably include configurations that fail to resemble physically reasonable spacetimes at large scales. Often, these configurations are entropically dominant and pose an obstacle to obtaining the desired classical limit. We examine this 'entropy problem' in a model of causal set quantum gravity corresponding to a discretization of 2D spacetimes. Using results from the theory of partial orders we show that, in the large volume or continuum limit, its partition function is dominated by causal sets which approximate to a region of 2D Minkowski space. This model of causal set quantum gravity thus overcomes the entropy problem and predicts the emergence of a physically reasonable geometry

  5. Modeling Root Growth, Crop Growth and N Uptake of Winter Wheat Based on SWMS_2D: Model and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Simulations for root growth, crop growth, and N uptake in agro-hydrological models are of significant concern to researchers. SWMS_2D is one of the most widely used physical hydrologically related models. This model solves equations that govern soil-water movement by the finite element method, and has a public access source code. Incorporating key agricultural components into the SWMS_2D model is of practical importance, especially for modeling some critical cereal crops such as winter wheat. We added root growth, crop growth, and N uptake modules into SWMS_2D. The root growth model had two sub-models, one for root penetration and the other for root length distribution. The crop growth model used was adapted from EU-ROTATE_N, linked to the N uptake model. Soil-water limitation, nitrogen limitation, and temperature effects were all considered in dry-weight modeling. Field experiments for winter wheat in Bouwing, the Netherlands, in 1983-1984 were selected for validation. Good agreements were achieved between simulations and measurements, including soil water content at different depths, normalized root length distribution, dry weight and nitrogen uptake. This indicated that the proposed new modules used in the SWMS_2D model are robust and reliable. In the future, more rigorous validation should be carried out, ideally under 2D situations, and attention should be paid to improve some modules, including the module simulating soil N mineralization.

  6. Climate impact of aircraft emissions in the upper troposphere. Studies with a 2D-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, G.; Gabriel, A.; Gepraegs, R. [Institut fuer Atmosphaerenphysik, Kuehlungsborn (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    A new efficient interactive dynamical-chemical radiative 2D-model based on the standard climate 3D-GCM ECHAM3 and a coupled NCAR chemistry module was developed to study the climate impact of aircraft emissions. The main feature of the 2D-model is a selfconsistent parameterization of the tropospheric eddy heat and momentum fluxes. Assuming perpetual January conditions, the results give a realistic picture of the zonally averaged meridional mass circulation, the tracer transport and the chemistry. In this case, the NO{sub x} background concentrations depend on the composition of downward sinking lower stratospheric air masses and on the tropopause structure in northern winter midlatitudes. The inclusion of zonally averaged January civil aircraft NO{sub x} emissions leads to a positive maximum disturbance in the NO{sub x} mixing ratio of about 60 ppt (50%) in the area of the maximum of the aircraft emissions and induces a positive change in the upper tropospheric O{sub x} mixing ratio of about 1-1.5 ppb (1%). The advantage of the 2D-model is the more efficiency in carrying out further dynamical-chemical coupled sensitivity studies giving a better understanding of the dynamical-chemical interactions and the climatic features of both the background and the disturbed atmosphere. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  7. 1D-3D hybrid modeling-from multi-compartment models to full resolution models in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Stephan; Stepniewski, Martin; Reiter, Sebastian; Knodel, Markus M; Queisser, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of cellular and network dynamics in the brain by means of modeling and simulation has evolved into a highly interdisciplinary field, that uses sophisticated modeling and simulation approaches to understand distinct areas of brain function. Depending on the underlying complexity, these models vary in their level of detail, in order to cope with the attached computational cost. Hence for large network simulations, single neurons are typically reduced to time-dependent signal processors, dismissing the spatial aspect of each cell. For single cell or networks with relatively small numbers of neurons, general purpose simulators allow for space and time-dependent simulations of electrical signal processing, based on the cable equation theory. An emerging field in Computational Neuroscience encompasses a new level of detail by incorporating the full three-dimensional morphology of cells and organelles into three-dimensional, space and time-dependent, simulations. While every approach has its advantages and limitations, such as computational cost, integrated and methods-spanning simulation approaches, depending on the network size could establish new ways to investigate the brain. In this paper we present a hybrid simulation approach, that makes use of reduced 1D-models using e.g., the NEURON simulator-which couples to fully resolved models for simulating cellular and sub-cellular dynamics, including the detailed three-dimensional morphology of neurons and organelles. In order to couple 1D- and 3D-simulations, we present a geometry-, membrane potential- and intracellular concentration mapping framework, with which graph- based morphologies, e.g., in the swc- or hoc-format, are mapped to full surface and volume representations of the neuron and computational data from 1D-simulations can be used as boundary conditions for full 3D simulations and vice versa. Thus, established models and data, based on general purpose 1D-simulators, can be directly coupled to the

  8. Reverse Flow Routing in a Bayesian Framework Using a GPU-accelerated 2D Shallow Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oria, M.; Ferrari, A.; Mignosa, P.; Tanda, M. G.; Vacondio, R.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of discharge hydrographs in specific sites of natural rivers is important for water resource management, flood frequency analysis, design of structures, etc. Many times, the flood hydrograph is needed in a river section upstream of a monitoring station; here the flood wave differs from the upstream one because of the effects of resistance, channel storage, lateral inflow, etc. Reverse flow routing is a method that allows obtaining hydrographs in upstream ungauged stations using information available at downstream monitored sites. In this study, we propose an inverse procedure, based on a Bayesian Geostatistical Approach, to solve the reverse problem. The upstream flow values over time (parameters) are considered as random variables and a-priori information about the parameters and observations (downstream discharge or water level values) are combined together in a Bayesian framework. The methodology needs a forward model of the considered open channel that includes the upstream ungauged station and the downstream gauged one and it is able to describe, with sufficient accuracy, the hydraulic routing processes. In many real cases, especially when large floodable areas are involved, a 1D hydraulic model is not able to capture the complex river hydrodynamic and a 2D model must be used. The inverse procedure requires a high number of flow model run to linearize the forward problem through multiple evaluations of a Jacobian matrix (sensitivity of each observation to each parameter) using a finite difference approach. For this reason, the computational efficiency of the forward model is a crucial element to reduce the overall computational costs. Therefore, in this work we used, in combination with the inverse procedure, a GPU-parallel numerical model for the solution of the 2D Shallow Water equations (implemented in CUDA/C++ code) that allows achieving ratio of physical to computational time of about 500-1000 (depending on the test case features). In addition

  9. 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap help modeling- Microdrain® liner option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-03

    At the request of Area Completion Engineering and in support of the 488-1D Ash Basin closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed hydrologic simulations of the revised 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap design using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. The revised design substitutes a MicroDrain Liner®—60-mil low-density polyethylene geomembrane structurally integrated with 130-mil drainage layer—for the previously planned drainage/barrier system—300-mil geosynthetic drainage layer (GDL), 300-mil geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and 6-inch common fill soil layer. For a 25-year, 24-hour storm event, HELP model v3.07 was employed to (1) predict the peak maximum daily hydraulic head for the geomembrane layer, and (2) ensure that South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) requirements for the barrier layer (i.e., ≤ 12 inches hydraulic head on top of a barrier having a saturated hydraulic conductivity ≤ 1.0E-05 cm/s) will not be exceeded. A 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches rainfall (Weber 1998). HELP model v3.07 results based upon the new planned cap design suggest that the peak maximum daily hydraulic head on the geomembrane barrier layer will be 0.15 inches for a minimum slope equal to 3%, which is two orders of magnitude below the SCDHEC upper limit of 12 inches.

  10. Edge-Corrected Mean-Field Hubbard Model: Principle and Applications in 2D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Wang, Tianlei; Chen, Wencong; Wang, Sanmei; Peng, Da

    2017-05-01

    This work reviews the current progress of tight-binding methods and the recent edge-modified mean-field Hubbard model. Undercoordinated atoms and nonbonding electrons exist widely in nanomaterials and in network-structural materials with their impact under-estimated. A quantum theory was proposed to calculate the under-coordinated effects on the electronic structure of materials by incorporating bond order-length-strength (BOLS) correlation theory to mean-field Hubbard model, i.e. BOLS-HM. Consistency between the BOLS-HM calculation and density functional theory (DFT) calculation on 2D materials verified that i) bond contractions and potential well depression occur at the edge of graphene, phosphorene, and antimonene nanoribbons; ii) the physical origin of the band gap opening of graphene, phosphorene, and antimonene nanoribbons lays in the enhancement of edge potentials and hopping integrals due to the shorter and stronger bonds between undercoordinated atoms; iii) the band gap of 2D material nanoribbons expand as the width decreases due to the increasing under-coordination effects of edges which modulates the conductive behaviors; and iv) nonbond electrons at the edges and atomic vacancies of 2D material accompanied with the broken bond contribute to the Dirac-Fermi polaron (DFP) with a local magnetic moment.

  11. Micropolar curved rods. 2-D, high order, Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zozulya V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New models for micropolar plane curved rods have been developed. 2-D theory is developed from general 2-D equations of linear micropolar elasticity using a special curvilinear system of coordinates related to the middle line of the rod and special hypothesis based on assumptions that take into account the fact that the rod is thin.High order theory is based on the expansion of the equations of the theory of elasticity into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials. First stress and strain tensors,vectors of displacements and rotation and body force shave been expanded into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials with respect to a thickness coordinate.Thereby all equations of elasticity including Hooke’s law have been transformed to the corresponding equations for Fourier coefficients. Then in the same way as in the theory of elasticity, system of differential equations in term of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients have been obtained. The Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli theories are based on the classical hypothesis and 2-D equations of linear micropolar elasticity in a special curvilinear system. The obtained equations can be used to calculate stress-strain and to model thin walled structures in macro, micro and nano scale when taking in to account micropolar couple stress and rotation effects.

  12. Edge-Corrected Mean-Field Hubbard Model: Principle and Applications in 2D Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews the current progress of tight-binding methods and the recent edge-modified mean-field Hubbard model. Undercoordinated atoms (atoms not fully coordinated exist at a high rate in nanomaterials with their impact overlooked. A quantum theory was proposed to calculate electronic structure of nanomaterials by incorporating bond order-length-strength (BOLS correlation to mean-field Hubbard model, i.e., BOLS-HM. Consistency between the BOLS-HM calculation and density functional theory (DFT calculation on 2D materials verified that (i bond contractions and potential well depression occur at the edge of graphene, phosphorene, and antimonene nanoribbons; (ii the physical origin of the band gap opening of graphene, phosphorene, and antimonene nanoribbons lays in the enhancement of edge potentials and hopping integrals due to the shorter and stronger bonds between undercoordinated atoms; (iii the band gap of 2D material nanoribbons expand as the width decreases due to the increasing under-coordination effects of edges which modulates the conductive behaviors; and (iv non-bond electrons at the edges and atomic vacancies of 2D material accompanied with the broken bond contribute to the Dirac-Fermi polaron (DFP with a local magnetic moment.

  13. Modeling Physiological Events in 2D vs. 3D Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Kayla; Grover, Hannah; Han, Li-Hsin; Mou, Yongchao; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Fredberg, Jeffery; Chen, Zi

    2017-07-01

    Cell culture has become an indispensable tool to help uncover fundamental biophysical and biomolecular mechanisms by which cells assemble into tissues and organs, how these tissues function, and how that function becomes disrupted in disease. Cell culture is now widely used in biomedical research, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and industrial practices. Although flat, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture has predominated, recent research has shifted toward culture using three-dimensional (3D) structures, and more realistic biochemical and biomechanical microenvironments. Nevertheless, in 3D cell culture, many challenges remain, including the tissue-tissue interface, the mechanical microenvironment, and the spatiotemporal distributions of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic wastes. Here, we review 2D and 3D cell culture methods, discuss advantages and limitations of these techniques in modeling physiologically and pathologically relevant processes, and suggest directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Gujer, W.; Mino, T.

    This book has been produced to give a total overview of the Activated Sludge Model (ASM) family at the start of 2000 and to give the reader easy access to the different models in their original versions. It thus presents ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3 together for the first time.Modelling of activated......: Introduction, ASM 2, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Wastewater Characterization for Activated Sludge Processes, Calibration of the ASM 2, Model Limitations, Conclusion, Bibliography ASM 1: Introduction, Method of Model Presentation, Model Incorporating Carbon...... Oxidation Nitrification and Denitrification, Characterization of Wastewater and Estimation of Parameter Values, Typical Parameter Ranges, Default Values, and Effects of Environmental Factors, Assumptions, Restrictions and Constraints, Implementation of the Activated Sludge Model...

  15. Magnetic properties of 2D nano-islands I: Ising spin model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de L' Etat Condense, UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France); Abou Ghantous, M., E-mail: michel.aboughantous@qatar.tamu.edu [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University at Qatar, Education City, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)

    2011-11-15

    An Ising spin effective field theory (EFT) is developed as a framework for a detailed analysis of the magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) nano-islands on a nonmagnetic substrate with an out of plane magnetization. The Hamiltonian with nearest neighbor exchange interactions and single-atom magnetic anisotropy defines the ground state. The calculation yields the single site spin correlations, the magnetizations, and the isothermal susceptibilities for the core and periphery domains, and the island core phase diagrams. The choice of a spin S=1 for the atoms permits the analysis of the effects of spin fluctuations via the single site spin correlations. In particular we investigate the effects due to the different anisotropies and reduced dimensionalities for the core and periphery domains. The present model calculations are developed for different 2D nano-islands lattices. Detailed theoretical results are presented for the square and hexagonal lattices, with numerical applications for the 2D Co nano-islands on Pt. The derived transition temperature for the hexagonal lattice nano-islands is in good agreement with the experimental data for Co nano-islands on Pt. Though both the core and the periphery domains have the same order-disorder transition temperature, the magnetization of each domain attains this transition differently. The temperature behavior of the spin correlations is also fundamentally different for the periphery and core sites, which entails distinctly different isothermal susceptibilities, and yields statistically averaged nano-islands susceptibilities that do not correspond to a second order phase transition. The experimental susceptibility results for 2D Co nano-islands on Pt can be interpreted within our EFT Ising model without reference to a transition from a blocking state of the particle to a superparamagnetic behavior. The results for the different lattices are formally comparable, and demonstrate the robustness and general character of the

  16. Uncertainties in modelling Mt. Pinatubo eruption with 2-D AER model and CCM SOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzelmann, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Peter, T.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Fueglistaler, S.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions may introduce a strong forcing on climate. They challenge the skills of climate models. In addition to the short time attenuation of solar light by ashes the formation of stratospheric sulphate aerosols, due to volcanic sulphur dioxide injection into the lower stratosphere, may lead to a significant enhancement of the global albedo. The sulphate aerosols have a residence time of about 2 years. As a consequence of the enhanced sulphate aerosol concentration both the stratospheric chemistry and dynamics are strongly affected. Due to absorption of longwave and near infrared radiation the temperature in the lower stratosphere increases. So far chemistry climate models overestimate this warming [Eyring et al. 2006]. We present an extensive validation of extinction measurements and model runs of the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991. Even if Mt. Pinatubo eruption has been the best quantified volcanic eruption of this magnitude, the measurements show considerable uncertainties. For instance the total amount of sulphur emitted to the stratosphere ranges from 5-12 Mt sulphur [e.g. Guo et al. 2004, McCormick, 1992]. The largest uncertainties are in the specification of the main aerosol cloud. SAGE II, for instance, could not measure the peak of the aerosol extinction for about 1.5 years, because optical termination was reached. The gap-filling of the SAGE II [Thomason and Peter, 2006] using lidar measurements underestimates the total extinctions in the tropics for the first half year after the eruption by 30% compared to AVHRR [Rusell et. al 1992]. The same applies to the optical dataset described by Stenchikov et al. [1998]. We compare these extinction data derived from measurements with extinctions derived from AER 2D aerosol model calculations [Weisenstein et al., 2007]. Full microphysical calculations with injections of 14, 17, 20 and 26 Mt SO2 in the lower stratosphere were performed. The optical aerosol properties derived from SAGE II

  17. Calculation of the band structure of 2d conducting polymers using the network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra, M. K.; Suman, H.

    2007-01-01

    the network model has been used to calculate the band structure the gap energy and Fermi level of conducting polymers in two dimensions. For this purpose, a geometrical classification of possible polymer chains configurations in two dimensions has been introduced leading to a classification of the unit cells based on the number of bonds in them. The model has been applied to graphite in 2D, represented by a three bonds unit cell, and, as a new case, the anti-parallel Polyacetylene chains (PA) in two dimensions, represented by a unit cell with four bons. The results are in good agreement with the first principles calculations. (author)

  18. Hydrodynamic model for 2D degenerate free-electron gas for arbitrary frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, M D; Cocoletzi, G H

    2003-01-01

    Following Halevi's procedure for 3D degenerate free-electron gas (3D-DEG), we investigate the response function in the hydrodynamic model (HM) for 2D-DEG confined in low dimensional systems when collisions are included. For small wave vectors we found from the two- dimensional Boltzmann-Mermin model a useful expression for the HM complex stiffness parameter of the nonlocal dielectric function beta, which is beta = [((3 omega/ 4) + i(v/ 2)) / (w + iv)]v sub F , where omega and v are the circular and collisional frequencies and v sub F is the Fermi velocity. (Author)

  19. Canonical vs. micro-canonical sampling methods in a 2D Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepner, J.

    1990-12-01

    Canonical and micro-canonical Monte Carlo algorithms were implemented on a 2D Ising model. Expressions for the internal energy, U, inverse temperature, Z, and specific heat, C, are given. These quantities were calculated over a range of temperature, lattice sizes, and time steps. Both algorithms accurately simulate the Ising model. To obtain greater than three decimal accuracy from the micro-canonical method requires that the more complicated expression for Z be used. The overall difference between the algorithms is small. The physics of the problem under study should be the deciding factor in determining which algorithm to use. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Brane brick models, toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds and 2d (0,2) quivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Sebastián [Physics Department, The City College of the CUNY, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, The City University of New York,365 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10016 (United States); Lee, Sangmin [Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); College of Liberal Studies, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Seong, Rak-Kyeong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-08

    We introduce brane brick models, a novel type of Type IIA brane configurations consisting of D4-branes ending on an NS5-brane. Brane brick models are T-dual to D1-branes over singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. They fully encode the infinite class of 2d (generically) N=(0,2) gauge theories on the worldvolume of the D1-branes and streamline their connection to the probed geometries. For this purpose, we also introduce new combinatorial procedures for deriving the Calabi-Yau associated to a given gauge theory and vice versa.

  1. Validation and uncertainty analysis of a pre-treatment 2D dose prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Jose A.; Wolfs, Cecile J. A.; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Independent verification of complex treatment delivery with megavolt photon beam radiotherapy (RT) has been effectively used to detect and prevent errors. This work presents the validation and uncertainty analysis of a model that predicts 2D portal dose images (PDIs) without a patient or phantom in the beam. The prediction model is based on an exponential point dose model with separable primary and secondary photon fluence components. The model includes a scatter kernel, off-axis ratio map, transmission values and penumbra kernels for beam-delimiting components. These parameters were derived through a model fitting procedure supplied with point dose and dose profile measurements of radiation fields. The model was validated against a treatment planning system (TPS; Eclipse) and radiochromic film measurements for complex clinical scenarios, including volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Confidence limits on fitted model parameters were calculated based on simulated measurements. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the parameter uncertainties on the model output. For the maximum uncertainty, the maximum deviating measurement sets were propagated through the fitting procedure and the model. The overall uncertainty was assessed using all simulated measurements. The validation of the prediction model against the TPS and the film showed a good agreement, with on average 90.8% and 90.5% of pixels passing a (2%,2 mm) global gamma analysis respectively, with a low dose threshold of 10%. The maximum and overall uncertainty of the model is dependent on the type of clinical plan used as input. The results can be used to study the robustness of the model. A model for predicting accurate 2D pre-treatment PDIs in complex RT scenarios can be used clinically and its uncertainties can be taken into account.

  2. 2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bifulco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.

  3. 3D vs 2D laparoscopic systems: Development of a performance quantitative validation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedi, Andrea; Donarini, Erica; Lamera, Roberta; Sgroi, Giovanni; Turati, Luca; Ercole, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The new technology ensures 3D laparoscopic vision by adding depth to the traditional two dimensions. This realistic vision gives the surgeon the feeling of operating in real space. Hospital of Treviglio-Caravaggio isn't an university or scientific institution; in 2014 a new 3D laparoscopic technology was acquired therefore it led to evaluation of the of the appropriateness in term of patient outcome and safety. The project aims at achieving the development of a quantitative validation model that would ensure low cost and a reliable measure of the performance of 3D technology versus 2D mode. In addition, it aims at demonstrating how new technologies, such as open source hardware and software and 3D printing, could help research with no significant cost increase. For these reasons, in order to define criteria of appropriateness in the use of 3D technologies, it was decided to perform a study to technically validate the use of the best technology in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and safety in the use of a system between laparoscopic vision in 3D and the traditional 2D. 30 surgeons were enrolled in order to perform an exercise through the use of laparoscopic forceps inside a trainer. The exercise consisted of having surgeons with different level of seniority, grouped by type of specialization (eg. surgery, urology, gynecology), exercising videolaparoscopy with two technologies (2D and 3D) through the use of a anthropometric phantom. The target assigned to the surgeon was that to pass "needle and thread" without touching the metal part in the shortest time possible. The rings selected for the exercise had each a coefficient of difficulty determined by depth, diameter, angle from the positioning and from the point of view. The analysis of the data collected from the above exercise has mathematically confirmed that the 3D technique ensures a learning curve lower in novice and greater accuracy in the performance of the task with respect to 2D.

  4. Modelling the water balance of irrigated fields in tropical floodplain soils using Hydrus-1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Abebech; Frankl, Amaury; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Tilahun, Seifu; Alamirew, Tena; Adgo, Enyew; Nyssen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimation of evaporation, transpiration and deep percolation is crucial in irrigated agriculture and the sustainable management of water resources. Here, the Hydrus-1D process-based numerical model was used to estimate the actual transpiration, soil evaporation and deep percolation from irrigated fields of floodplain soils. Field experiments were conducted from Dec 2015 to May 2016 in a small irrigation scheme (50 ha) called 'Shina' located in the Lake Tana floodplains of Ethiopia. Six experimental plots (three for onion and three for maize) were selected along a topographic transect to account for soil and groundwater variability. Irrigation amount (400 to 550 mm during the growing period) was measured using V-notches installed at each plot boundary and daily groundwater levels were measured manually from piezometers. There was no surface runoff observed in the growing period and rainfall was measured using a manual rain gauge. All daily weather data required for the evapotranspiration calculation using Pen Man Monteith equation were collected from a nearby metrological station. The soil profiles were described for each field to include the vertical soil heterogeneity in the soil water balance simulations. The soil texture, organic matter, bulk density, field capacity, wilting point and saturated moisture content were measured for all the soil horizons. Soil moisture monitoring at 30 and 60 cm depths was performed. The soil hydraulic parameters for each horizon was estimated using KNN pedotransfer functions for tropical soils and were effectively fitted using the RETC program (R2= 0.98±0.011) for initial prediction. A local sensitivity analysis was performed to select and optimize the most important hydraulic parameters for soil water flow in the unsaturated zone. The most sensitive parameters were saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), saturated moisture content (θs) and pore size distribution (n). Inverse modelling using Hydrus-1D further optimized

  5. Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic sound fields in anisotropic austenitic welds using 2D ray tracing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkoori, S. R.; Rahaman, M.-U.; Chinta, P. K.; Kreutzbruck, M.; Prager, J.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasonic investigation of inhomogeneous anisotropic materials such as austenitic welds is complicated because its columnar grain structure leads to curved energy paths, beam splitting and asymmetrical beam profiles. A ray tracing model has potential advantage in analyzing the ultrasonic sound field propagation and there with optimizing the inspection parameters. In this contribution we present a 2D ray tracing model to predict energy ray paths, ray amplitudes and travel times for the three wave modes quasi longitudinal, quasi shear vertical, and shear horizontal waves in austenitic weld materials. Inhomogenity in the austenitic weld material is represented by discretizing the inhomogeneous region into several homogeneous layers. At each interface between the layers the reflection and transmission problem is computed and yields energy direction, amplitude and energy coefficients. The ray amplitudes are computed accurately by taking into account directivity, divergence and density of rays, phase relations as well as transmission coefficients. Ultrasonic sound fields obtained from the ray tracing model are compared quantitatively with the 2D Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT). The excellent agreement between both models confirms the validity of the presented ray tracing results. Experiments are conducted on austenitic weld samples with longitudinal beam transducer as transmitting probe and amplitudes at the rear surface are scanned by means of electrodynamical probes. Finally, the ray tracing model results are also validated through the experiments.

  6. A 2D-View Depth Image- and CNN-Based 3D Model Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Hong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of three-dimensional (3D technology and an increase in the number of available models, issues with copyright protection of 3D models are inevitable. In this paper, we propose a 2D-view depth image- and convolutional neural network (CNN-based 3D model identification method. To identify a 3D model, we first need an adequate number of the modified versions that could be made by copyright infringers. Then, they can be represented by a number of 2D-view depth images that are captured from evenly distributed vertices on a regular convex polyhedron. Finally, a CNN is trained by these depth images to acquire the capability of identifying the 3D model. The experiment carried out with the dataset of Shape Retrieval Contest 2015 (SHREC’15: Non-Rigid 3D Shape Retrieval shows the practicability of our method, which yields 93.5% accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated via evaluation in the latest standard benchmark SHREC’17 Deformable Shape Retrieval with Missing Parts. It clearly shows superior or comparable performance to state-of-the-art methods, shown by the fact that it is in the top three of the 11 participating methods (without counting different runs.

  7. 2D lattice model of a lipid bilayer: Microscopic derivation and thermodynamic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Davit; Heuer, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Based on all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of a lipid bilayer we present a systematic mapping on a 2D lattice model. Keeping the lipid type and the chain order parameter as key variables we derive a free energy functional, containing the enthalpic interaction of adjacent lipids as well as the tail entropy. The functional form of both functions is explicitly determined for saturated and polyunsaturated lipids. By studying the lattice model via Monte Carlo simulations it is possible to reproduce the temperature dependence of the distribution of order parameters of the pure lipids, including the prediction of the gel transition. Furthermore, application to a mixture of saturated and polyunsaturated lipids yields the correct phase separation behavior at lower temperatures with a simulation time reduced by approximately 7 orders of magnitude as compared to the corresponding MD simulations. Even the time-dependence of the de-mixing is reproduced on a semi-quantitative level. Due to the generality of the approach we envisage a large number of further applications, ranging from modeling larger sets of lipids, sterols, and solvent proteins to predicting nucleation barriers for the melting of lipids. Particularly, from the properties of the 2D lattice model one can directly read off the enthalpy and entropy change of the 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine gel-to-liquid transition in excellent agreement with experimental and MD results.

  8. 2d forward modelling of marine CSEM survey geometry for seabed logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, N.; Noh, M.; Yahya, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbon reserve exploration in deep water is done by geophysical surveys. Previously seismic geophysical surveys were explicitly used but it has indistinct results for both water and hydrocarbon saturated reservoir. Recent development for the detection of hydrocarbon reservoir in deeper water is Marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic (MCSEM) geophysical survey. MCSEM is sensitive to electrical conductivity of rocks by which it can differentiate between hydrocarbon reservoir and water saturated reservoir. MCSEM survey geometry put vital role and may causes for anomalies in synthetic data. Consequentially MCSEM is sensitive to survey geometry (e.g. source dipping, rotation and speed, receivers' orientation etc) which causes anomalies. The interpretation for delineating subsurface structure from survey data need to well understand the effects of survey geometry anomalies. Forward modelling is an alternative rather real time survey to study the aforementioned anomalies. In this paper finite difference method (FDM) is implemented for 2D forward modelling in the sense of qualitative understanding to how induced Electromagnetic (EM) signal changes its overall pattern while interact with physical earth properties. A stratified earth structure is developed and modelled in MatLabTM software to study the behaviour of EM field with physical earth properties. Obtained results of 2D geological models are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  9. Rotating 2d point source plume models with application to Deepwater Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregat, A.; Deremble, B.; Wienders, N.; Stroman, A.; Poje, A.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Dewar, W. K.

    2017-11-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) accident in the Gulf of Mexico has renewed oceanographic interest in point source buoyant convection. The present paper applies modern numerical techniques to study this problem, focussing specifically on the DwH event. The gas/oil/seawater nature of the problem requires a 'multiphase' approach, which is relatively unfamiliar in physical oceanography, although applications are becoming more common. The model is cast in an Eulerian framework and includes feedbacks between the convection and the environment, unlike past oil/gas plume simulations that adopt a semi-passive, Lagrangian approach. Fully three dimensional (3d) simulations are too computationally demanding for practical multi-day use, so a two-dimensional (2d) radially symmetric model is developed from the equations and calibrated to the 3d results. Both the 2d and 3d solutions show the somewhat unexpected result that oil/bubble plumes modelled after the DwH event are strongly affected by rotation and exert a considerable dynamic feedback on the ambient. These effects are not typically included in classical oil/gas plume models.

  10. EFDC1D - A ONE DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL FOR RIVER AND STREAM NETWORKS: MODEL THEORY AND USERS GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical report describes the new one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and sediment transport model EFDC1D. This model that can be applied to stream networks. The model code and two sample data sets are included on the distribution CD. EFDC1D can simulate bi-directional unstea...

  11. 488-1D Ash basin closure cap help modeling-Microdrain® liner option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-06

    At the request of Area Completion Engineering and in support of the 488-1D Ash Basin closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed hydrologic simulations of the revised 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap design using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. The revised design substitutes a MicroDrain Liner®—50-mil linear low-density polyethylene geomembrane structurally integrated with 130-mil drainage layer—for the previously planned drainage/barrier system—300-mil geosynthetic drainage layer (GDL), 300-mil geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and 6-inch common fill soil layer. For a 25-year, 24-hour storm event, HELP model v3.07 was employed to (1) predict the peak maximum daily hydraulic head for the geomembrane layer, and (2) ensure that South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) requirements for the barrier layer (i.e., ≤ 12 inches hydraulic head on top of a barrier having a saturated hydraulic conductivity ≤ 1.0E-05 cm/s) will not be exceeded. A 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches rainfall (Weber 1998). HELP model v3.07 results based upon the new planned cap design suggest that the peak maximum daily hydraulic head on the geomembrane barrier layer will be 0.179 inches for a minimum slope equal to 3%, which is approximately two orders of magnitude below the SCDHEC upper limit of 12 inches.

  12. Comparative analysis of 2D and 3D model of a PEMFC in COMSOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, R. Bakiya; Harikrishnan, N. P.; Juliet, A. Vimala

    2017-10-01

    In this article, 2D and 3D model of a PEMFC has been simulated in order to study their performance when subjected to similar operating conditions. The comparison reveals interesting phenomena of performance enhancement of the fuel cell. Design of fuel cell channel and stationary studies were done in COMSOL. Variations in current density and electrolyte potential from simulation results were observed when operated at a temperature of 120 °C. The electrolyte potential was found to have increased from 1 to 2.5 V and the surface pressure due to fluid flow was found to have increased from 3 to 9.58 Pa.

  13. Entanglement entropy through conformal interfaces in the 2D Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2015-01-01

    We consider the entanglement entropy for the 2D Ising model at the conformal fixed point in the presence of interfaces. More precisely, we investigate the situation where the two subsystems are separated by a defect line that preserves conformal invariance. Using the replica trick, we compute the entanglement entropy between the two subsystems. We observe that the entropy, just like in the case without defects, shows a logarithmic scaling behavior with respect to the size of the system. Here, the prefactor of the logarithm depends on the strength of the defect encoded in the transmission coefficient. We also commend on the supersymmetric case.

  14. Static properties of 2D spin-ice as a sixteen-vertex model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foini, Laura; Levis, Demian; Cugliandolo, Leticia F; Tarzia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We present a thorough study of the static properties of 2D models of spin-ice type on the square lattice or, in other words, the sixteen-vertex model. We use extensive Monte Carlo simulations to determine the phase diagram and critical properties of the finite-dimensional system. We put forward a suitable mean-field approximation, by defining the model on carefully chosen trees. We employ the cavity (Bethe–Peierls) method to derive self-consistent equations, the fixed points of which yield the equilibrium properties of the model on the tree-like graph. We compare mean-field and finite-dimensional results. We discuss our findings in the context of experiments in artificial two-dimensional spin-ice. (paper)

  15. Stochastic dynamics of phase singularities under ventricular fibrillation in 2D Beeler-Reuter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Suzuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of ventricular fibrillation (VF has been studied extensively, and the initiation mechanism of VF has been elucidated to some extent. However, the stochastic dynamical nature of sustained VF remains unclear so far due to the complexity of high dimensional chaos in a heterogeneous system. In this paper, various statistical mechanical properties of sustained VF are studied numerically in 2D Beeler-Reuter-Drouhard-Roberge (BRDR model with normal and modified ionic current conductance. The nature of sustained VF is analyzed by measuring various fluctuations of spatial phase singularity (PS such as velocity, lifetime, the rates of birth and death. It is found that the probability density function (pdf for lifetime of PSs is independent of system size. It is also found that the hyper-Gamma distribution serves as a universal pdf for the counting number of PSs for various system sizes and various parameters of our model tissue under VF. Further, it is demonstrated that the nonlinear Langevin equation associated with a hyper-Gamma process can mimic the pdf and temporal variation of the number of PSs in the 2D BRDR model.

  16. Mechanical Modelling of Pultrusion Process: 2D and 3D Numerical Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko

    2015-01-01

    The process induced variations such as residual stresses and distortions are a critical issue in pultrusion, since they affect the structural behavior as well as the mechanical properties and geometrical precision of the final product. In order to capture and investigate these variations, a mecha......The process induced variations such as residual stresses and distortions are a critical issue in pultrusion, since they affect the structural behavior as well as the mechanical properties and geometrical precision of the final product. In order to capture and investigate these variations......, a mechanical analysis should be performed. In the present work, the two dimensional (2D) quasi-static plane strain mechanical model for the pultrusion of a thick square profile developed by the authors is further improved using generalized plane strain elements. In addition to that, a more advanced 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical...... analysis is carried out using 3D quadratic elements which is a novel application for the numerical modelling of the pultrusion process. It is found that the 2D mechanical models give relatively reasonable and accurate stress and displacement evolutions in the transverse direction as compared to the 3D...

  17. Self-Organization in 2D Traffic Flow Model with Jam-Avoiding Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    1995-04-01

    A stochastic cellular automaton (CA) model is presented to investigate the traffic jam by self-organization in the two-dimensional (2D) traffic flow. The CA model is the extended version of the 2D asymmetric exclusion model to take into account jam-avoiding drive. Each site contains either a car moving to the up, a car moving to the right, or is empty. A up car can shift right with probability p ja if it is blocked ahead by other cars. It is shown that the three phases (the low-density phase, the intermediate-density phase and the high-density phase) appear in the traffic flow. The intermediate-density phase is characterized by the right moving of up cars. The jamming transition to the high-density jamming phase occurs with higher density of cars than that without jam-avoiding drive. The jamming transition point p 2c increases with the shifting probability p ja. In the deterministic limit of p ja=1, it is found that a new jamming transition occurs from the low-density synchronized-shifting phase to the high-density moving phase with increasing density of cars. In the synchronized-shifting phase, all up cars do not move to the up but shift to the right by synchronizing with the move of right cars. We show that the jam-avoiding drive has an important effect on the dynamical jamming transition.

  18. Inhibitory effects of phytochemicals on metabolic capabilities of CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 using cell-based models in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qiang; Qu, Jian; Han, Lu; Zhan, Min; Wu, Lan-xiang; Zhang, Yi-wen; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-hao

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Herbal products have been widely used, and the safety of herb-drug interactions has aroused intensive concerns. This study aimed to investigate the effects of phytochemicals on the catalytic activities of human CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 in vitro. Methods: HepG2 cells were stably transfected with CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 expression vectors. The metabolic kinetics of the enzymes was studied using HPLC and fluorimetry. Results: HepG2-CYP2D6*1 and HepG2-CYP2D6*10 cell lines were successfully constructed. Among the 63 phytochemicals screened, 6 compounds, including coptisine sulfate, bilobalide, schizandrin B, luteolin, schizandrin A and puerarin, at 100 μmol/L inhibited CYP2D6*1- and CYP2D6*10-mediated O-demethylation of a coumarin compound AMMC by more than 50%. Furthermore, the inhibition by these compounds was dose-dependent. Eadie-Hofstee plots demonstrated that these compounds competitively inhibited CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10. However, their Ki values for CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 were very close, suggesting that genotype-dependent herb-drug inhibition was similar between the two variants. Conclusion: Six phytochemicals inhibit CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10-mediated catalytic activities in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Thus herbal products containing these phytochemicals may inhibit the in vivo metabolism of co-administered drugs whose primary route of elimination is CYP2D6. PMID:24786236

  19. Exponentially long Equilibration times in a 1-D Collisional Model of a classical gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Benettin, G.

    1999-01-01

    Around the year 1900, J.H. Jeans suggested that the `abnormal' specific heats observed in diatomic gases, specifically the lack of contribution to the heat capacity from the internal vibrational degrees of freedom, in apparent violation of the equipartition theorem, might be caused by the large...... separation between the time scale for the vibration and the time scale associated with a typical binary collision in the gas. We consider here a simple 1-D model, and show how, when these time scales are well separated, the collisional dynamics is constrained by a many-particle adiabatic invariant....... The effect is that the collisional energy exchanges between the translational and the vibrational degrees of freedom are slowed down by an exponential factor (as Jeans conjectured). A metastable situation thus occurs, in which the fast vibrational degrees of freedom effectivly do not contribute...

  20. A comparative 2D modeling of debris-flow propagation and outcomes for end-users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettella, F.; Bertoldi, G.; Pozza, E.; McArdell, B. W.; D'Agostino, V.

    2012-04-01

    In Alpine regions gravity-driven natural hazards, in particular debris flows, endanger settlements and human life. Mitigation strategies based on hazard maps are necessary tools for land planning. These maps can be made more precise by using numerical models to forecasting the inundated areas after a careful setting of those 'key parameters' (K-P) which directly affect the flow motion and its interaction with the ground surface. Several physically based 2D models are available for practitioners and governmental agencies, but the selection criteria of model type and of the related K-P remain flexible and partly subjective. This remark has driven us to investigate how different models simulate different types of debris flows (from granular to muddy debris flows, going through intermediate types), in particular when the flow is influenced by the presence of deposition basins. Two commercial 2D physical models (RAMMS and FLO-2D) have been tested for five well-documented debris flows events from five Italian catchments were different geology and flow dynamics are observed: 1) a viscous debris flow occurred in 2009 in a catchment with a metamorphic geology (Gadria torrent, Bolzano Province); 2) the 2009 granular debris flow in an granitic geological setting (Rio Dosson, Trento Province); 3-4) two events occurred in the 'rio Val del Lago' and 'rio Molinara' (Trento Province) in 2010 where porphyritic lithology prevails (intermediate granular debris flow); 5) the Rotolon torrent (Vicenza Province) 2009 debris flow containing sedimentary rocks enclosed in an abundant clay-rich matrix (intermediate viscous case). Event volumes range from 5.000 to 50.000 cubic meters. The Gadria, Rotolon and Val del Lago events are also influenced by artificial retention basins. Case study simulations allowed delineation of some practical end-user suggestions and good practices in order to guide the model choice and the K-P setting, particularly related to different flow dynamics. The

  1. Linking 1D coastal ocean modelling to environmental management: an ensemble approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussap, Giulia; Zavatarelli, Marco; Pinardi, Nadia

    2017-12-01

    The use of a one-dimensional interdisciplinary numerical model of the coastal ocean as a tool contributing to the formulation of ecosystem-based management (EBM) is explored. The focus is on the definition of an experimental design based on ensemble simulations, integrating variability linked to scenarios (characterised by changes in the system forcing) and to the concurrent variation of selected, and poorly constrained, model parameters. The modelling system used was previously specifically designed for the use in "data-rich" areas, so that horizontal dynamics can be resolved by a diagnostic approach and external inputs can be parameterised by nudging schemes properly calibrated. Ensembles determined by changes in the simulated environmental (physical and biogeochemical) dynamics, under joint forcing and parameterisation variations, highlight the uncertainties associated to the application of specific scenarios that are relevant to EBM, providing an assessment of the reliability of the predicted changes. The work has been carried out by implementing the coupled modelling system BFM-POM1D in an area of Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), considered homogeneous from the point of view of hydrological properties, and forcing it by changing climatic (warming) and anthropogenic (reduction of the land-based nutrient input) pressure. Model parameters affected by considerable uncertainties (due to the lack of relevant observations) were varied jointly with the scenarios of change. The resulting large set of ensemble simulations provided a general estimation of the model uncertainties related to the joint variation of pressures and model parameters. The information of the model result variability aimed at conveying efficiently and comprehensibly the information on the uncertainties/reliability of the model results to non-technical EBM planners and stakeholders, in order to have the model-based information effectively contributing to EBM.

  2. Applicability of a 1D Analytical Model for Pulse Thermography of Laterally Heterogeneous Semitransparent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernegger, R.; Altenburg, S. J.; Röllig, M.; Maierhofer, C.

    2018-03-01

    Pulse thermography (PT) has proven to be a valuable non-destructive testing method to identify and quantify defects in fiber-reinforced polymers. To perform a quantitative defect characterization, the heat diffusion within the material as well as the material parameters must be known. The heterogeneous material structure of glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRP) as well as the semitransparency of the material for optical excitation sources of PT is still challenging. For homogeneous semitransparent materials, 1D analytical models describing the temperature distribution are available. Here, we present an analytical approach to model PT for laterally inhomogeneous semitransparent materials. We show the validity of the model by considering different configurations of the optical heating source, the IR camera, and the differently coated GFRP sample. The model considers the lateral inhomogeneity of the semitransparency by an additional absorption coefficient. It includes additional effects such as thermal losses at the samples surfaces, multilayer systems with thermal contact resistance, and a finite duration of the heating pulse. By using a sufficient complexity of the analytical model, similar values of the material parameters were found for all six investigated configurations by numerical fitting.

  3. Extraction of Bose-Hubbard parameters from a 1D microscopic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Tom; Simoni, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The Bose-Hubbard model is a powerful tool to understand the many-body physics of cold atoms in lattices. The link between its parameters and the underlying microscopic model is therefore of outstanding importance. The standard Bose-Hubbard model assumes that (i) the excited energy bands are neglected, (ii) tunneling is allowed only between nearest neighbors and (iii) the interaction only acts on-site. However it has been shown in Ref. from an exact 2-body 1D calculation that the effective interaction of two cold atoms in a lattice strongly depends on the center-of-mass motion, a behavior not predicted by the standard Bose-Hubbard model. We present here an approach to extract effective Bose-Hubbard parameters from a microscopic two-body model that is based on the solution of the Schrödinger equation in a lattice without approximations. As a crucial intermediate we compute the two-body interacting Green function, expressed in terms of regular and irregular solutions. In order to avoid solution linear-dependence problems, we adapt the algorithm of Ref. to our spectral-element solution approach. Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).

  4. Kinetic parameter estimation in N. europaea biofilms using a 2-D reactive transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchnor, Ellen G; Semprini, Lewis; Wood, Brian D

    2015-06-01

    Biofilms of the ammonia oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea were cultivated to study microbial processes associated with ammonia oxidation in pure culture. We explored the hypothesis that the kinetic parameters of ammonia oxidation in N. europaea biofilms were in the range of those determined with batch suspended cells. Oxygen and pH microelectrodes were used to measure dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH above and inside biofilms and reactive transport modeling was performed to simulate the measured DO and pH profiles. A two dimensional (2-D) model was used to simulate advection parallel to the biofilm surface and diffusion through the overlying fluid while reaction and diffusion were simulated in the biofilm. Three experimental studies of microsensor measurements were performed with biofilms: i) NH3 concentrations near the Ksn value of 40 μM determined in suspended cell tests ii) Limited buffering capacity which resulted in a pH gradient within the biofilms and iii) NH3 concentrations well below the Ksn value. Very good fits to the DO concentration profiles both in the fluid above and in the biofilms were achieved using the 2-D model. The modeling study revealed that the half-saturation coefficient for NH3 in N. europaea biofilms was close to the value measured in suspended cells. However, the third study of biofilms with low availability of NH3 deviated from the model prediction. The model also predicted shifts in the DO profiles and the gradient in pH that resulted for the case of limited buffering capacity. The results illustrate the importance of incorporating both key transport and chemical processes in a biofilm reactive transport model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Interchange turbulence model for the edge plasma in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufferand, H.; Marandet, Y. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, Marseille (France); Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Bucalossi, J.; Fedorczak, N.; Gunn, J.; Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Colin, C.; Galassi, D.; Leybros, R.; Serre, E. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, M2P2, Marseille (France)

    2016-08-15

    Cross-field transport in edge tokamak plasmas is known to be dominated by turbulent transport. A dedicated effort has been made to simulate this turbulent transport from first principle models but the numerical cost to run these simulations on the ITER scale remains prohibitive. Edge plasma transport study relies mostly nowadays on so-called transport codes where the turbulent transport is taken into account using effective ad-hoc diffusion coefficients. In this contribution, we propose to introduce a transport equation for the turbulence intensity in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE to describe the interchange turbulence properties. Going beyond the empirical diffusive model, this system automatically generates profiles for the turbulent transport and hence reduces the number of degrees of freedom for edge plasma transport codes. We draw inspiration from the k-epsilon model widely used in the neutral fluid community. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Observation of spatial charge and spin correlations in the 2D Fermi-Hubbard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Lawrence W; Nichols, Matthew A; Lawrence, Katherine R; Okan, Melih; Zhang, Hao; Khatami, Ehsan; Trivedi, Nandini; Paiva, Thereza; Rigol, Marcos; Zwierlein, Martin W

    2016-09-16

    Strong electron correlations lie at the origin of high-temperature superconductivity. Its essence is believed to be captured by the Fermi-Hubbard model of repulsively interacting fermions on a lattice. Here we report on the site-resolved observation of charge and spin correlations in the two-dimensional (2D) Fermi-Hubbard model realized with ultracold atoms. Antiferromagnetic spin correlations are maximal at half-filling and weaken monotonically upon doping. At large doping, nearest-neighbor correlations between singly charged sites are negative, revealing the formation of a correlation hole, the suppressed probability of finding two fermions near each other. As the doping is reduced, the correlations become positive, signaling strong bunching of doublons and holes, in agreement with numerical calculations. The dynamics of the doublon-hole correlations should play an important role for transport in the Fermi-Hubbard model. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. A 2D Electromechanical Model of Human Atrial Tissue Using the Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brocklehurst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue is a syncytium of coupled cells with pronounced intrinsic discrete nature. Previous models of cardiac electromechanics often ignore such discrete properties and treat cardiac tissue as a continuous medium, which has fundamental limitations. In the present study, we introduce a 2D electromechanical model for human atrial tissue based on the discrete element method (DEM. In the model, single-cell dynamics are governed by strongly coupling the electrophysiological model of Courtemanche et al. to the myofilament model of Rice et al. with two-way feedbacks. Each cell is treated as a viscoelastic body, which is physically represented by a clump of nine particles. Cell aggregations are arranged so that the anisotropic nature of cardiac tissue due to fibre orientations can be modelled. Each cell is electrically coupled to neighbouring cells, allowing excitation waves to propagate through the tissue. Cell-to-cell mechanical interactions are modelled using a linear contact bond model in DEM. By coupling cardiac electrophysiology with mechanics via the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the DEM model successfully simulates the conduction of cardiac electrical waves and the tissue’s corresponding mechanical contractions. The developed DEM model is numerically stable and provides a powerful method for studying the electromechanical coupling problem in the heart.

  8. Bayesian sensitivity analysis of a 1D vascular model with Gaussian process emulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Alessandro; Clayton, Richard H; Marzo, Alberto

    2017-12-01

    One-dimensional models of the cardiovascular system can capture the physics of pulse waves but involve many parameters. Since these may vary among individuals, patient-specific models are difficult to construct. Sensitivity analysis can be used to rank model parameters by their effect on outputs and to quantify how uncertainty in parameters influences output uncertainty. This type of analysis is often conducted with a Monte Carlo method, where large numbers of model runs are used to assess input-output relations. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the computational efficiency of variance-based sensitivity analysis of 1D vascular models using Gaussian process emulators, compared to a standard Monte Carlo approach. The methodology was tested on four vascular networks of increasing complexity to analyse its scalability. The computational time needed to perform the sensitivity analysis with an emulator was reduced by the 99.96% compared to a Monte Carlo approach. Despite the reduced computational time, sensitivity indices obtained using the two approaches were comparable. The scalability study showed that the number of mechanistic simulations needed to train a Gaussian process for sensitivity analysis was of the order O(d), rather than O(d×103) needed for Monte Carlo analysis (where d is the number of parameters in the model). The efficiency of this approach, combined with capacity to estimate the impact of uncertain parameters on model outputs, will enable development of patient-specific models of the vascular system, and has the potential to produce results with clinical relevance. © 2017 The Authors International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Absence of ballistic charge transport in the half-filled 1D Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Nemati, S.; Prosen, T.

    2018-05-01

    Whether in the thermodynamic limit of lattice length L → ∞, hole concentration mηz = - 2Sηz / L = 1 -ne → 0, nonzero temperature T > 0, and U / t > 0 the charge stiffness of the 1D Hubbard model with first neighbor transfer integral t and on-site repulsion U is finite or vanishes and thus whether there is or there is no ballistic charge transport, respectively, remains an unsolved and controversial issue, as different approaches yield contradictory results. (Here Sηz = - (L -Ne) / 2 is the η-spin projection and ne =Ne / L the electronic density.) In this paper we provide an upper bound on the charge stiffness and show that (similarly as at zero temperature), for T > 0 and U / t > 0 it vanishes for mηz → 0 within the canonical ensemble in the thermodynamic limit L → ∞. Moreover, we show that at high temperature T → ∞ the charge stiffness vanishes as well within the grand-canonical ensemble for L → ∞ and chemical potential μ →μu where (μ -μu) ≥ 0 and 2μu is the Mott-Hubbard gap. The lack of charge ballistic transport indicates that charge transport at finite temperatures is dominated by a diffusive contribution. Our scheme uses a suitable exact representation of the electrons in terms of rotated electrons for which the numbers of singly occupied and doubly occupied lattice sites are good quantum numbers for U / t > 0. In contrast to often less controllable numerical studies, the use of such a representation reveals the carriers that couple to the charge probes and provides useful physical information on the microscopic processes behind the exotic charge transport properties of the 1D electronic correlated system under study.

  10. Be2D: A model to understand the distribution of meteoric 10Be in soilscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Vanacker, Veerle; Vanderborght, Jan; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides have revolutionised our understanding of earth surface process rates. They have become one of the standard tools to quantify soil production by weathering, soil redistribution and erosion. Especially Beryllium-10 has gained much attention due to its long half-live and propensity to be relatively conservative in the landscape. The latter makes 10Be an excellent tool to assess denudation rates over the last 1000 to 100 × 103 years, bridging the anthropogenic and geological time scale. Nevertheless, the mobility of meteoric 10Be in soil systems makes translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into erosion and deposition rates difficult. Here we present a coupled soil hillslope model, Be2D, that is applied to synthetic and real topography to address the following three research questions. (i) What is the influence of vertical meteoric Be10 mobility, caused by chemical mobility, clay translocation and bioturbation, on its lateral redistribution over the soilscape, (ii) How does vertical mobility influence erosion rates and soil residence times inferred from meteoric 10Be inventories and (iii) To what extent can a tracer with a half-life of 1.36 Myr be used to distinguish between natural and human-disturbed soil redistribution rates? The model architecture of Be2D is designed to answer these research questions. Be2D is a dynamic model including physical processes such as soil formation, physical weathering, clay migration, bioturbation, creep, overland flow and tillage erosion. Pathways of meteoric 10Be mobility are simulated using a two step approach which is updated each timestep. First, advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be is simulated within the soil profile and second, lateral redistribution because of lateral soil fluxes is calculated. The performance and functionality of the model is demonstrated through a number of synthetic and real model runs using existing datasets of meteoric 10Be from case-studies in southeastern US. Brute

  11. Monte Carlo Uncertainty Quantification Using Quasi-1D SRM Ballistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Viganò

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compactness, reliability, readiness, and construction simplicity of solid rocket motors make them very appealing for commercial launcher missions and embarked systems. Solid propulsion grants high thrust-to-weight ratio, high volumetric specific impulse, and a Technology Readiness Level of 9. However, solid rocket systems are missing any throttling capability at run-time, since pressure-time evolution is defined at the design phase. This lack of mission flexibility makes their missions sensitive to deviations of performance from nominal behavior. For this reason, the reliability of predictions and reproducibility of performances represent a primary goal in this field. This paper presents an analysis of SRM performance uncertainties throughout the implementation of a quasi-1D numerical model of motor internal ballistics based on Shapiro’s equations. The code is coupled with a Monte Carlo algorithm to evaluate statistics and propagation of some peculiar uncertainties from design data to rocker performance parameters. The model has been set for the reproduction of a small-scale rocket motor, discussing a set of parametric investigations on uncertainty propagation across the ballistic model.

  12. A New Material Model for 2D FE Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin ZHAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective and convenient stress analysis techniques play important roles in the analysis and design of adhesively bonded composite joints. A new material model is presented at the level of composite ply according to the orthotropic elastic mechanics theory and plane strain assumption. The model proposed has the potential to reserve nature properties of laminates with ply-to-ply modeling. The equivalent engineering constants in the model are obtained only by the material properties of unidirectional composites. Based on commercial FE software ABAQUS, a 2D FE model of a single-lap adhesively bonded joint was established conveniently by using the new model without complex modeling process and much professional knowledge. Stress distributions in adhesive were compared with the numerical results by Tsai and Morton and interlaminar stresses between adhesive and adherents were compared with the results from a detailed 3D FE analysis. Good agreements in both cases verify the validity of the proposed model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.5960

  13. Short distance behaviour of correlators in the 2d Ising model in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselle, M. E-mail: caselle@to.infn.it; Grinza, P. E-mail: grinza@to.infn.it; Magnoli, N. E-mail: magnoli@ge.infn.it

    2000-07-24

    We study the <{sigma}{sigma}>, <{sigma}{epsilon}>, <{epsilon}{epsilon}> correlators in the 2d Ising model perturbed by a magnetic field. We compare the results of a set of high precision Monte Carlo simulations with the predictions of two different approximations: the Form Factor approach, based on the exact S-matrix description of the model, and a short distance perturbative expansion around the conformal point. Both methods give very good results, the first one performs better for distances larger than the correlation length, while the second one is more precise for distances smaller than the correlation length. In order to improve this agreement we extend the perturbative analysis to the second order in the derivatives of the OPE constants.

  14. A local time stepping algorithm for GPU-accelerated 2D shallow water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazzi, Susanna; Vacondio, Renato; Dal Palù, Alessandro; Mignosa, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    In the simulation of flooding events, mesh refinement is often required to capture local bathymetric features and/or to detail areas of interest; however, if an explicit finite volume scheme is adopted, the presence of small cells in the domain can restrict the allowable time step due to the stability condition, thus reducing the computational efficiency. With the aim of overcoming this problem, the paper proposes the application of a Local Time Stepping (LTS) strategy to a GPU-accelerated 2D shallow water numerical model able to handle non-uniform structured meshes. The algorithm is specifically designed to exploit the computational capability of GPUs, minimizing the overheads associated with the LTS implementation. The results of theoretical and field-scale test cases show that the LTS model guarantees appreciable reductions in the execution time compared to the traditional Global Time Stepping strategy, without compromising the solution accuracy.

  15. Optimization of cell seeding in a 2D bio-scaffold system using computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nicholas; Chua, Matthew; Chui, Chee-Kong

    2017-05-01

    The cell expansion process is a crucial part of generating cells on a large-scale level in a bioreactor system. Hence, it is important to set operating conditions (e.g. initial cell seeding distribution, culture medium flow rate) to an optimal level. Often, the initial cell seeding distribution factor is neglected and/or overlooked in the design of a bioreactor using conventional seeding distribution methods. This paper proposes a novel seeding distribution method that aims to maximize cell growth and minimize production time/cost. The proposed method utilizes two computational models; the first model represents cell growth patterns whereas the second model determines optimal initial cell seeding positions for adherent cell expansions. Cell growth simulation from the first model demonstrates that the model can be a representation of various cell types with known probabilities. The second model involves a combination of combinatorial optimization, Monte Carlo and concepts of the first model, and is used to design a multi-layer 2D bio-scaffold system that increases cell production efficiency in bioreactor applications. Simulation results have shown that the recommended input configurations obtained from the proposed optimization method are the most optimal configurations. The results have also illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method. The potential of the proposed seeding distribution method as a useful tool to optimize the cell expansion process in modern bioreactor system applications is highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Destabilization of survival factor MEF2D mRNA by neurotoxin in models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Cai, Zhibiao; Lu, Fangfang; Li, Chen; Zhu, Xiaofei; Su, Linna; Gao, Guodong; Yang, Qian

    2014-09-01

    Progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantial nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important pathological feature in Parkinson's disease (PD). Loss of transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), a key neuronal survival factor, has been shown to underlie the loss of DA neurons in SNc and the pathogenic process of PD. It is known that PD-associated neurotoxins reduce the level of MEF2D protein to trigger neuronal death. Although neurotoxins clearly destabilize MEF2D by post-translational mechanisms, it is not known whether regulation of MEF2D mRNA contributes to neurotoxin-induced decrease in MEF2D protein. In this work, we showed that MPP(+), the toxic metabolite of MPTP, caused a significant decrease in the half-life and total level of MEF2D mRNA in a DA neuronal cell line, SN4741 cells. Quantitative PCR analysis of the SNc DA neurons captured by immune-laser capture microdissection showed that exposure to MPTP led to a marked reduction in the level of MEF2D mRNA in SNc DA neurons compared to controls. Down-regulation of MEF2D mRNA alone reduced the viability of SN4741 cells and sensitized the cells to MPP(+)-induced toxicity. These results suggest that destabilization and reduction in MEF2D mRNA is in part responsible for neurotoxin-induced decrease in MEF2D protein and neuronal viability. Myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) plays an important role in neuronal survival. How MEF2D mRNA is deregulated under toxic stress is unclear. We found that PD-associated neurotoxins destabilize MEF2D mRNA and reduce its level in vitro and in vivo. Reduction in MEF2D mRNA is sufficient to sensitize model cells to neurotoxin-induced toxicity, suggesting that destabilization of MEF2D mRNA is part of the mechanism by which neurotoxins trigger deregulation of neuronal survival. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs of FANCG are required for assembly of the BRCA2/D1-D2-G-X3 complex, FANCD2 monoubiquitylation and phleomycin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, James B. [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Blom, Eric [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cunningham, Ryan; Xiao, Yuxuan [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Kupfer, Gary M. [Departments of Pediatrics and Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 0652 (United States); Jones, Nigel J., E-mail: njjones@liv.ac.uk [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-07

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) FANCG protein is an integral component of the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitylation of FANCD2. FANCG is also part of another protein complex termed D1-D2-G-X3 that contains FANCD2 and the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 (FANCD1) and XRCC3. Formation of the D1-D2-G-X3 complex is mediated by serine-7 phosphorylation of FANCG and occurs independently of the FA core complex and FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. FANCG contains seven tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions and here we show that mutation of several of the TPR motifs at a conserved consensus residue ablates the in vivo binding activity of FANCG. Expression of mutated TPR1, TPR2, TPR5 and TPR6 in Chinese hamster fancg mutant NM3 fails to functionally complement its hypersensitivities to mitomycin C (MMC) and phleomycin and fails to restore FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Using co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrate that these TPR-mutated FANCG proteins fail to interact with BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCA or FANCF. The interactions of other proteins in the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are also absent, including the interaction of BRCA2 with both the monoubiquitylated (FANCD2-L) and non-ubiquitylated (FANCD2-S) isoforms of FANCD2. Interestingly, a mutation of TPR7 (R563E), that complements the MMC and phleomycin hypersensitivity of human FA-G EUFA316 cells, fails to complement NM3, despite the mutated FANCG protein co-precipitating with FANCA, BRCA2 and XRCC3. Whilst interaction of TPR7-mutated FANCG with FANCF does appear to be reduced in NM3, FANCD2 is monoubiquitylated suggesting that sub-optimal interactions of FANCG in the core complex and the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are responsible for the observed MMC- and phleomycin-hypersensitivity, rather than a defect in FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Our data demonstrate that FANCG functions as a mediator of protein-protein interactions and is vital for the assembly of multi-protein complexes

  18. The combined effect of attraction and orientation zones in 2D flocking models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliass, Tarras; Cambui, Dorilson

    2016-01-01

    In nature, many animal groups, such as fish schools or bird flocks, clearly display structural order and appear to move as a single coherent entity. In order to understand the complex motion of these systems, we study the Vicsek model of self-propelled particles (SPP) which is an important tool to investigate the behavior of collective motion of live organisms. This model reproduces the biological behavior patterns in the two-dimensional (2D) space. Within the framework of this model, the particles move with the same absolute velocity and interact locally in the zone of orientation by trying to align their direction with that of the neighbors. In this paper, we model the collective movement of SPP using an agent-based model which follows biologically motivated behavioral rules, by adding a second region called the attraction zone, where each particles move towards each other avoiding being isolated. Our main goal is to present a detailed numerical study on the effect of the zone of attraction on the kinetic phase transition of our system. In our study, the consideration of this zone seems to play an important role in the cohesion. Consequently, in the directional orientation, the zone that we added forms the compact particle group. In our simulation, we show clearly that the model proposed here can produce two collective behavior patterns: torus and dynamic parallel group. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Time-dependent 2-D modeling of edge plasma transport with high intermittency due to blobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2012-01-01

    The results on time-dependent 2-D fluid modeling of edge plasmas with non-diffusive intermittent transport across the magnetic field (termed cross-field) based on the novel macro-blob approach are presented. The capability of this approach to simulate the long temporal evolution (∼0.1 s) of the background plasma and simultaneously the fast spatiotemporal dynamics of blobs (∼10 −4 s) is demonstrated. An analysis of a periodic sequence of many macro-blobs (PSMB) is given showing that the resulting plasma attains a dynamic equilibrium. Plasma properties in the dynamic equilibrium are discussed. In PSMB modeling, the effect of macro-blob generation frequency on edge plasma parameters is studied. Comparison between PSMB modeling and experimental profile data is given. The calculations are performed for the same plasma discharge using two different models for anomalous cross-field transport: time-average convection and PSMB. Parametric analysis of edge plasma variation with transport coefficients in these models is presented. The capability of the models to accurately simulate enhanced transport due to blobs is compared. Impurity dynamics in edge plasma with macro-blobs is also studied showing strong impact of macro-blob on profiles of impurity charge states caused by enhanced outward transport of high-charge states and simultaneous inward transport of low-charge states towards the core. Macro-blobs cause enhancement of sputtering rates, increase radiation and impurity concentration in plasma, and change erosion/deposition patterns.

  20. 2D and 3D Modeling Efforts in Fuel Film Cooling of Liquid Rocket Engines (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    Conference Paper with Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 November 2016 – 12 January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2D and 3D Modeling ...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 2D and 3D Modeling Efforts in Fuel Film Cooling of Liquid Rocket Engines Kevin C. Brown∗, Edward B. Coy†, and...wide. As a consequence, the 3D simulations may better model the experimental setup used, but are perhaps not representative of the long circumferential

  1. On new traveling wave solutions and conserved densities for the 2D Ricci flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoiasu, Rodica

    2018-01-01

    In this paper some travelling wave solutions and conservation laws for the 2D Ricci flow model in conformal gauge are investigated. A guideline able to classify the types of solutions according to the values of some parameters is provided by making use of two versions of the auxiliary equation method. The key feature of these approaches is to take a second order linear ordinary differential equation (ODE), respectively a first order nonlinear ODE with at most an eighth-degree nonlinear term as auxiliary equations. Conserved forms of the travelling wave equation for the Ricci flow are derived through three specific approaches, namely the variational approach, the Ibragimov method for nonlinear self-adjoint differential equations and the one based upon a relationship between conserved forms and their associated symmetries. The former two methods generated similar results, while the latter one has revealed new conserved densities.

  2. The strong-weak coupling symmetry in 2D Φ4 field models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N.Shalaev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the exact beta-function β(g of the continuous 2D gΦ4 model possesses two types of dual symmetries, these being the Kramers-Wannier (KW duality symmetry and the strong-weak (SW coupling symmetry f(g, or S-duality. All these transformations are explicitly constructed. The S-duality transformation f(g is shown to connect domains of weak and strong couplings, i.e. above and below g*. Basically it means that there is a tempting possibility to compute multiloop Feynman diagrams for the β-function using high-temperature lattice expansions. The regular scheme developed is found to be strongly unstable. Approximate values of the renormalized coupling constant g* found from duality symmetry equations are in an agreement with available numerical results.

  3. Transition from static to kinetic friction: insights from a 2D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trømborg, J; Scheibert, J; Amundsen, D S; Thøgersen, K; Malthe-Sørenssen, A

    2011-08-12

    We describe a 2D spring-block model for the transition from static to kinetic friction at an elastic-slider-rigid-substrate interface obeying a minimalistic friction law (Amontons-Coulomb). By using realistic boundary conditions, a number of previously unexplained experimental results on precursory microslip fronts are successfully reproduced. From the analysis of the interfacial stresses, we derive a prediction for the evolution of the precursor length as a function of the applied loads, as well as an approximate relationship between microscopic and macroscopic friction coefficients. We show that the stress buildup due to both elastic loading and microslip-related relaxations depends only weakly on the underlying shear crack propagation dynamics. Conversely, crack speed depends strongly on both the instantaneous stresses and the friction coefficients, through a nontrivial scaling parameter.

  4. Microstructure representations for sound absorbing fibrous media: 3D and 2D multiscale modelling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Tomasz G.

    2017-11-01

    The paper proposes and investigates computationally-efficient microstructure representations for sound absorbing fibrous media. Three-dimensional volume elements involving non-trivial periodic arrangements of straight fibres are examined as well as simple two-dimensional cells. It has been found that a simple 2D quasi-representative cell can provide similar predictions as a volume element which is in general much more geometrically accurate for typical fibrous materials. The multiscale modelling allowed to determine the effective speeds and damping of acoustic waves propagating in such media, which brings up a discussion on the correlation between the speed, penetration range and attenuation of sound waves. Original experiments on manufactured copper-wire samples are presented and the microstructure-based calculations of acoustic absorption are compared with the corresponding experimental results. In fact, the comparison suggested the microstructure modifications leading to representations with non-uniformly distributed fibres.

  5. An application of the distributed hydrologic model CASC2D to a tropical montane watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsik, Matt; Waylen, Peter

    2006-11-01

    SummaryIncreased stormflow in the Quebrada Estero watershed (2.5 km 2), in the northwestern Central Valley tectonic depression of Costa Rica, reportedly has caused flooding of the city of San Ramón in recent decades. Although scientifically untested, urban expansion was deemed the cause and remedial measures were recommended by the Programa de Investigación en Desarrollo Humano Sostenible (ProDUS). CASC2D, a physically-based, spatially explicit hydrologic model, was constructed and calibrated to a June 10th 2002 storm that delivered 110.5 mm of precipitation in 4.5 h visibly exceeded the bankfull stage (0.9 m) of the Quebrada flooding portions of San Ramón. The calibrated hydrograph showed a peak discharge 16.68% (2.5 m 3 s -1) higher, an above flood stage duration 20% shorter, and time to peak discharge 11 min later than the same observed discharge hydrograph characteristics. Simulations of changing land cover conditions from 1979 to 1999 showed an increase also in the peak discharge, above flood stage duration, and time to peak discharge. Analysis using a modified location quotient identified increased urbanization in lower portions of the watershed over the time period studied. These results suggest that increased urbanization in the Quebrada Estero watershed have increased flooding peaks, and durations above threshold, confirming the ProDUS report. These results and the CASC2D model offer an easy-to-use, pragmatic planning tool for policymakers in San Ramón to assess future development scenarios and their potential flooding impacts to San Ramón.

  6. A 2D semi-analytical model for Faraday shield in ICP source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.G.; Chen, D.Z.; Li, D.; Liu, K.F.; Li, X.F.; Pan, R.M.; Fan, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In this paper, a 2D model of ICP with faraday shield is proposed considering the complex structure of the Faraday shield. • Analytical solution is found to evaluate the electromagnetic field in the ICP source with Faraday shield. • The collision-free motion of electrons in the source is investigated and the results show that the electrons will oscillate along the radial direction, which brings insight into how the RF power couple to the plasma. - Abstract: Faraday shield is a thin copper structure with a large number of slits which is usually used in inductive coupled plasma (ICP) sources. RF power is coupled into the plasma through these slits, therefore Faraday shield plays an important role in ICP discharge. However, due to the complex structure of the Faraday shield, the resulted electromagnetic field is quite hard to evaluate. In this paper, a 2D model is proposed on the assumption that the Faraday shield is sufficiently long and the RF coil is uniformly distributed, and the copper is considered as ideal conductor. Under these conditions, the magnetic field inside the source is uniform with only the axial component, while the electric field can be decomposed into a vortex field generated by changing magnetic field together with a gradient field generated by electric charge accumulated on the Faraday shield surface, which can be easily found by solving Laplace's equation. The motion of the electrons in the electromagnetic field is investigated and the results show that the electrons will oscillate along the radial direction when taking no account of collision. This interesting result brings insight into how the RF power couples into the plasma.

  7. Growth of intermetallic compounds in the Au–In system: Experimental study and 1-D modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deillon, L.; Hessler, T.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Rappaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The gold–indium system is of primary interest for bonding processes such as solid–liquid interdiffusion bonding. In order to optimize the manufacturing parameters, it is essential to know which intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are formed when solid Au and liquid In are brought into close contact with each other, and what are their growth kinetics. For this purpose, we fabricated diffusion couples above and below the melting point of In (for T=250 and 150 °C respectively). Three IMCs, identified as AuIn 2 , AuIn and Au 7 In 3 , are always observed in the reaction zone, even after short times. AuIn 2 is the thickest and fastest growing layer and AuIn is only present as a thin layer. Whereas AuIn 2 and AuIn exhibit an equiaxed structure, Au 7 In 3 is found to grow as columnar grains. The diffusion coefficients in each phase were determined by means of a 1-D finite difference modelling of In diffusion. The values are consistent and can be used to predict the growth rate as a function of temperature and time, i.e. to simulate a whole bonding process with finite thicknesses

  8. Modelling hydrology of a single bioretention system with HYDRUS-1D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems.

  9. Implications on 1 + 1 D Tsunami Runup Modeling due to Time Features of the Earthquake Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M.; Riquelme, S.; Ruiz, J.; Campos, J.

    2018-02-01

    The time characteristics of the seismic source are usually neglected in tsunami modeling, due to the difference in the time scale of both processes. Nonetheless, there are just a few analytical studies that intended to explain separately the role of the rise time and the rupture velocity. In this work, we extend an analytical 1 + 1 D solution for the shoreline motion time series, from the static case to the kinematic case, by including both rise time and rupture velocity. Our results show that the static case corresponds to a limit case of null rise time and infinite rupture velocity. Both parameters contribute in shifting the arrival time, but maximum runup may be affected by very slow ruptures and long rise time. Parametric analysis reveals that runup is strictly decreasing with the rise time while is highly amplified in a certain range of slow rupture velocities. For even lower rupture velocities, the tsunami excitation vanishes and for larger, quicker approaches to the instantaneous case.

  10. Column Testing and 1D Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Uranium Plume Persistence Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. H.; Morrison, S.; Morris, S.; Tigar, A.; Dam, W. L.; Dayvault, J.

    2015-12-01

    At many U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management sites, 100 year natural flushing was selected as a remedial option for groundwater uranium plumes. However, current data indicate that natural flushing is not occurring as quickly as expected and solid-phase and aqueous uranium concentrations are persistent. At the Grand Junction, Colorado office site, column testing was completed on core collected below an area where uranium mill tailings have been removed. The total uranium concentration in this core was 13.2 mg/kg and the column was flushed with laboratory-created water with no uranium and chemistry similar to the nearby Gunnison River. The core was flushed for a total of 91 pore volumes producing a maximum effluent uranium concentration of 6,110 μg/L at 2.1 pore volumes and a minimum uranium concentration of 36.2 μg/L at the final pore volume. These results indicate complex geochemical reactions at small pore volumes and a long tailing affect at greater pore volumes. Stop flow data indicate the occurrence of non-equilibrium processes that create uranium concentration rebound. These data confirm the potential for plume persistence, which is occurring at the field scale. 1D reactive transport modeling was completed using PHREEQC (geochemical model) and calibrated to the column test data manually and using PEST (inverse modeling calibration routine). Processes of sorption, dual porosity with diffusion, mineral dissolution, dispersion, and cation exchange were evaluated separately and in combination. The calibration results indicate that sorption and dual porosity are major processes in explaining the column test data. These processes are also supported by fission track photographs that show solid-phase uranium residing in less mobile pore spaces. These procedures provide valuable information on plume persistence and secondary source processes that may be used to better inform and evaluate remedial strategies, including natural flushing.

  11. Slope stability and rockfall assessment of volcanic tuffs using RPAS with 2-D FEM slope modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos; Barsi, Árpád; Bögöly, Gyula; Lovas, Tamás; Somogyi, Árpád; Görög, Péter

    2018-02-01

    Steep, hardly accessible cliffs of rhyolite tuff in NE Hungary are prone to rockfalls, endangering visitors of a castle. Remote sensing techniques were employed to obtain data on terrain morphology and to provide slope geometry for assessing the stability of these rock walls. A RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) was used to collect images which were processed by Pix4D mapper (structure from motion technology) to generate a point cloud and mesh. The georeferencing was made by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) with the use of seven ground control points. The obtained digital surface model (DSM) was processed (vegetation removal) and the derived digital terrain model (DTM) allowed cross sections to be drawn and a joint system to be detected. Joint and discontinuity system was also verified by field measurements. On-site tests as well as laboratory tests provided additional engineering geological data for slope modelling. Stability of cliffs was assessed by 2-D FEM (finite element method). Global analyses of cross sections show that weak intercalating tuff layers may serve as potential slip surfaces. However, at present the greatest hazard is related to planar failure along ENE-WSW joints and to wedge failure. The paper demonstrates that RPAS is a rapid and useful tool for generating a reliable terrain model of hardly accessible cliff faces. It also emphasizes the efficiency of RPAS in rockfall hazard assessment in comparison with other remote sensing techniques such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS).

  12. Deformable Registration of Biomedical Images using 2D Hidden Markov Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Renuka; Shih, Min-Chi; Rose, Kenneth

    2016-07-18

    Robust registration of unimodal and multimodal images is a key task in biomedical image analysis, and is often utilized as an initial step on which subsequent analysis techniques critically depend. We propose a novel probabilistic framework, based on a variant of the 2D hidden Markov model, namely the turbo hidden Markov model, to capture the deformation between pairs of images. The HMM is tailored to capture spatial transformations across images via state transitions, and modalityspecific data costs via emission probabilities. The method is derived for the unimodal setting (where simpler matching metrics may be used) as well as the multimodal setting, where different modalities may provide very different representations for a given class of objects, necessitating the use of advanced similarity measures. We utilize a rich model with hundreds of model parameters to describe the deformation relationships across such modalities. We also introduce a local edge-adaptive constraint to allow for varying degrees of smoothness between object boundaries and homogeneous regions. The parameters of the described method are estimated in a principled manner from training data via maximum likelihood learning, and the deformation is subsequently estimated using an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed approach over state-ofthe- art deformable registration techniques, on both unimodal and multimodal biomedical datasets.

  13. Slope stability and rockfall assessment of volcanic tuffs using RPAS with 2-D FEM slope modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Török

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Steep, hardly accessible cliffs of rhyolite tuff in NE Hungary are prone to rockfalls, endangering visitors of a castle. Remote sensing techniques were employed to obtain data on terrain morphology and to provide slope geometry for assessing the stability of these rock walls. A RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System was used to collect images which were processed by Pix4D mapper (structure from motion technology to generate a point cloud and mesh. The georeferencing was made by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS with the use of seven ground control points. The obtained digital surface model (DSM was processed (vegetation removal and the derived digital terrain model (DTM allowed cross sections to be drawn and a joint system to be detected. Joint and discontinuity system was also verified by field measurements. On-site tests as well as laboratory tests provided additional engineering geological data for slope modelling. Stability of cliffs was assessed by 2-D FEM (finite element method. Global analyses of cross sections show that weak intercalating tuff layers may serve as potential slip surfaces. However, at present the greatest hazard is related to planar failure along ENE–WSW joints and to wedge failure. The paper demonstrates that RPAS is a rapid and useful tool for generating a reliable terrain model of hardly accessible cliff faces. It also emphasizes the efficiency of RPAS in rockfall hazard assessment in comparison with other remote sensing techniques such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS.

  14. Radio haloes in nearby galaxies modelled with 1D cosmic ray transport using SPINNAKER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, V.; Krause, M.; Beck, R.; Adebahr, B.; Bomans, D. J.; Carretti, E.; Dumke, M.; Heald, G.; Irwin, J.; Koribalski, B. S.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Westmeier, T.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2018-05-01

    We present radio continuum maps of 12 nearby (D ≤ 27 Mpc), edge-on (i ≥ 76°), late-type spiral galaxies mostly at 1.4 and 5 GHz, observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, Very Large Array, Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, Effelsberg 100-m, and Parkes 64-m telescopes. All galaxies show clear evidence of radio haloes, including the first detection in the Magellanic-type galaxy NGC 55. In 11 galaxies, we find a thin and a thick disc that can be better fitted by exponential rather than Gaussian functions. We fit our SPINNAKER (SPectral INdex Numerical Analysis of K(c)osmic-ray Electron Radio-emission) 1D cosmic ray transport models to the vertical model profiles of the non-thermal intensity and to the non-thermal radio spectral index in the halo. We simultaneously fit for the advection speed (or diffusion coefficient) and magnetic field scale height. In the thick disc, the magnetic field scale heights range from 2 to 8 kpc with an average across the sample of 3.0 ± 1.7 kpc; they show no correlation with either star formation rate (SFR), SFR surface density (ΣSFR), or rotation speed (Vrot). The advection speeds range from 100 to 700 km s - 1 and display correlations of V∝SFR0.36 ± 0.06 and V∝ Σ _SFR^{0.39± 0.09}; they agree remarkably well with the escape velocities (0.5 ≤ V/Vesc ≤ 2), which can be explained by cosmic ray-driven winds. Radio haloes show the presence of disc winds in galaxies with ΣSFR > 10 - 3 M⊙ yr - 1 kpc - 2 that extend over several kpc and are driven by processes related to the distributed star formation in the disc.

  15. FD-TD modeling of 2-D dielectric waveguides for propagation and scattering of femtosecond optical solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rose; Goorjian, Peter; Taflove, Allen

    1993-01-01

    Experimentalists have produced all-optical switches capable of 100-fs responses. To adequately model such switches, nonlinear effects in optical materials (both instantaneous and dispersive) must be included. In principle, the behavior of electromagnetic fields in nonlinear dielectrics can be determined by solving Maxwell's equations subject to the assumption that the electric polarization has a nonlinear relation to the electric field. However, until our previous work, the resulting nonlinear Maxwell's equations have not been solved directly. Rather, approximations have been made that result in a class of generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equations (GNLSE) that solve only for the envelope of the optical pulses. In this paper, we present first-time calculations from the vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations of femtosecond soliton propagation and scattering, including carrier waves, in two-dimensional systems of dielectric waveguides exhibiting the Kerr and Raman quantum effects. We use the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method in an extension of our 1-D work. There, in a fundamental innovation, we treated the linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization as new dependent variables. By differentiating these convolutions in the time domain, we derived an equivalent system of coupled, nonlinear second-order ODE's. These equations together with Maxwell's equations form the system that is solved to determine the electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous nonlinear dispersive media. Backstorage in time is limited to only that needed by the time-integration algorithm for the ODE's, rather than that needed to store the time-history of the kernel functions of the convolutions (1000-10,000 time steps). Thus, a 2-D nonlinear optics model from Maxwell's equations is now feasible.

  16. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin

    2013-10-11

    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  17. Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic 2D Inversion for synthetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We present a 2D inverse algorithm for frequency domain marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data, which is based on the regularized Gauss-Newton approach. As a forward solver, our parallel adaptive finite element forward modeling program is employed. It is a self-adaptive, goal-oriented grid refinement algorithm in which a finite element analysis is performed on a sequence of refined meshes. The mesh refinement process is guided by a dual error estimate weighting to bias refinement towards elements that affect the solution at the EM receiver locations. With the use of the direct solver (MUMPS), we can effectively compute the electromagnetic fields for multi-sources and parametric sensitivities. We also implement the parallel data domain decomposition approach of Key and Ovall (2011), with the goal of being able to compute accurate responses in parallel for complicated models and a full suite of data parameters typical of offshore CSEM surveys. All minimizations are carried out by using the Gauss-Newton algorithm and model perturbations at each iteration step are obtained by using the Inexact Conjugate Gradient iteration method. Synthetic test inversions are presented.

  18. Fast numerical simulations of 2D turbulence using a dynamic model for subfilter motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, J.-P.; Dubrulle, B.; Nazarenko, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of 2D turbulent flow using a new model for the subfilter scales which are computed using a dynamic equation linking the subfilter scales with the resolved velocity. This equation is not postulated, but derived from the constitutive equations under the assumption that the non-linear interactions of subfilter scales between themselves are small compared to their distortions by the resolved scales. Such an assumption results in a linear stochastic equation for the subfilter scales, which can be numerically solved by a decomposition of the subfilter scales into localized wave packets. The wave packets are randomly produced by the smallest of the resolved scales. They are further transported by the resolved-scale velocity and they have wavenumbers and amplitudes which evolve according to the resolved strain. Performance of our model is compared with direct numerical simulations of decaying and forced turbulence. For the same resolution, numerical simulations using our model allow for a significant reduction of the computational time (of the order of 100 in the case we consider), and allow to achieve of significantly larger Reynolds number than the direct method

  19. 2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.

    2012-08-16

    We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.

  20. (1,q=-1) model as a topological description of 2D string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavi, Yoav; Oz, Yaron; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    1994-01-01

    We study the (1,q=-1) model coupled to topological gravity as a candidate to describing 2D string theory at the self-dual radius. We define the model by analytical continuation of q>1 topological recursion relations to q=-1. We show that at genus zero the q=-1 recursion relations yield the W 1+∞ Ward identities for tachyon correlators on the sphere. A scheme for computing correlation functions of q=-1 gravitational descendants is proposed and applied for the computation of several correlators. It is suggested that the latter correspond to correlators of discrete states of the c=1 string. In a similar manner to the q>1 models, we show that there exist topological recursion relations for the correlators in the q=-1 theory that consist of only one and two splittings of the Riemann surface. Using a postulated regularized contact, we prove that the genus one q=-1 recursion relations for tachyon correlators coincide with the W 1+∞ Ward identities on the torus. We argue that the structure of these recursion relations coincides with that of the W 1+∞ Ward identities for any genus. ((orig.))

  1. In vitro systems to study nephropharmacology : 2D versus 3D models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Romero, Natalia; Schophuizen, Carolien M S; Giménez, Ignacio; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2016-01-01

    The conventional 2-dimensional (2D) cell culture is an invaluable tool in, amongst others, cell biology and experimental pharmacology. However, cells cultured in 2D, on the top of stiff plastic plates lose their phenotypical characteristics and fail in recreating the physiological environment found

  2. Study of the seasonal cycle of the biogeochemical processes in the Ligurian Sea using a 1D interdisciplinary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raick, C.; Delhez, E.J.M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Grégoire, M.

    2005-01-01

    A one-dimensional coupled physical–biogeochemical model has been built to study the pelagic food web of the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea). The physical model is the turbulent closure model (version 1D) developed at the GeoHydrodynamics and Environmental Laboratory (GHER) of the University of

  3. Development of a 1D canopy module to couple mesoscale meteorogical model with building energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauree, Dasaraden; Kohler, Manon; Blond, Nadège; Clappier, Alain

    2013-04-01

    The actual global warming, highlighted by the scientific community, is due to the greenhouse gases emissions resulting from our energy consumption. This energy is mainly produced in cities (about 70% of the total energy use). Around 36% of this energy are used in buildings (residential/tertiary) and this accounts for about 20% of the greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, the world population is more and more concentrated in urban areas, 50% of the actual world population already lives in cities and this ratio is expected to reach 70% by 2050. With the obviously increasing responsibility of cities in climate change in the future, it is of great importance to go toward more sustainable cities that would reduce the energy consumption in urban areas. The energy use inside buildings is driven by two factors: (1) the level of comfort wished by the inhabitants and (2) the urban climate. On the other hand, the urban climate is influenced by the presence of buildings. Indeed, artificial surfaces of urban areas modify the energy budget of the Earth's surface and furthermore, heat is released into the atmosphere due to the energy used by buildings. Modifications at the building scale (micro-scale) can thus have an influence on the climate of the urban areas and surroundings (meso-scale), and vice and versa. During the last decades, meso-scale models have been developed to simulate the atmospheric conditions for domain of 100-1000km wide with a resolution of few kilometers. Due to their low resolution, the effects of small obstacles (such as buildings, trees, ...) near the ground are not reproduced properly and parameterizations have been developed to represent such effects in meso-scale models. On the other side, micro-scale models have a higher resolution (around 1 meter) and consequently can better simulate the impact of obstacles on the atmospheric heat flux exchanges with the earth surface. However, only a smaller domain (less than 1km) can be simulated for the same

  4. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  5. 2D spectral element modeling of GPR wave propagation in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Sajad; Oskooi, Behrooz; Amini, Navid; Dalkhani, Amin Rahimi

    2016-10-01

    We present a spectral element method, for simulation of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in two dimensions. The technique is based upon a weak formulation of the equations of Maxwell and combines the flexibility of the elemental-based methods with the accuracy of the spectral based methods. The wave field on the elements is discretized using high-degree Lagrange interpolation and integration over an element is accomplished based upon the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre integration rule. As a result, the mass matrix and the damping matrix are always diagonal, which drastically reduces the computational cost. We first develop the formulation of 2D spectral element method (SEM) in the time-domain based on Maxwell's equations. The presented formulation is with matrix notation that simplifies the implementation of the relations in computer programs, especially in MATLAB application. We discuss the differences between spectral element method and finite-element method in the time-domain. Also, we show that the SEM numerical dispersion is much lower than FEM. To absorb waves at the edges of the modeling domain, we implement first order Clayton and Engquist absorbing boundary conditions (CE-ABC) introduced in numerical finite-difference modeling of seismic wave propagation. We used the SEM to simulate a complex model to show its abilities and limitations. As well as, one distinct advantage of SEM is that we can easily define our model features in nodal points, because the integration points and the interpolation points are similar that makes it very flexible in simulation of complex models.

  6. 2D Echocardiographic Evaluation of Right Ventricular Function Correlates With 3D Volumetric Models in Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magunia, Harry; Schmid, Eckhard; Hilberath, Jan N; Häberle, Leo; Grasshoff, Christian; Schlensak, Christian; Rosenberger, Peter; Nowak-Machen, Martina

    2017-04-01

    The early diagnosis and treatment of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are of critical importance in cardiac surgery patients and impact clinical outcome. Two-dimensional (2D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) can be used to evaluate RV function using surrogate parameters due to complex RV geometry. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the commonly used visual evaluation of RV function and size using 2D TEE correlated with the calculated three-dimensional (3D) volumetric models of RV function. Retrospective study, single center, University Hospital. Seventy complete datasets were studied consisting of 2D 4-chamber view loops (2-3 beats) and the corresponding 4-chamber view 3D full-volume loop of the right ventricle. RV function and RV size of the 2D loops then were assessed retrospectively purely qualitatively individually by 4 clinician echocardiographers certified in perioperative TEE. Corresponding 3D volumetric models calculating RV ejection fraction and RV end-diastolic volumes then were established and compared with the 2D assessments. 2D assessment of RV function correlated with 3D volumetric calculations (Spearman's rho -0.5; pright ventricular function based on visual estimation as frequently used in clinical practice appeared to be a reliable method of RV functional evaluation. However, 2D assessment of RV size seemed unreliable and should be used with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conformal internal symmetry of 2d σ-models coupled to gravity and a dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia, B.; Nicolai, H.

    1996-08-01

    General relativity reduced to two dimensions possesses a large group of symmetries that exchange classical solutions. The associated Lie algebra is known to contain the affine Kac-Moody algebra A 1 (1) and half of a real Witt algebra. In this paper we exhibit the full symmetry under the semi-direct product of Lie(A 1 (1) ) by the Witt algebra Lie(W). Furthermore we exhibit the corresponding hidden gauge symmetries. We show that the theory can be understood in terms of an infinite dimensional potential space involving all degrees of freedom: The dilaton as well as matter and gravitation. In the dilaton sector the linear system that extends the previously known Lax pair has the form of a twisted self-duality constraint that is the analog of the self-duality constraint arising in extended supergravities in higher spacetime dimensions. Our results furnish a group theoretical explanation for the simultaneous occurrence of two spectral parameters, a constant one (=y) and a variable one (=t). They hold for all 2d non-linear σ-models that are obtained by dimensional reduction of G/H models in three dimensions coupled to pure gravity. In that case the Lie algebra is Lie(W∝G (1) ); this symmetry acts on a set of off shell fields (in a fixed gauge) and preserves the equations of motion. (orig.)

  8. Conformal internal symmetry of 2d σ-models coupled to gravity and a dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia, B.

    1996-01-01

    General relativity reduced to two dimensions possesses a large group of symmetries that exchange classical solutions. The associated Lie algebra is known to contain the affine Kac-Moody algebra A 1 (1) and half of a real Witt algebra. In this paper we exhibit the full symmetry under the semi-direct product of Lie(A 1 (1) ) by the Witt algebra Lie(W). Furthermore we exhibit the corresponding hidden gauge symmetries. We show that the theory can be understood in terms of an infinite dimensional potential space involving all degrees of freedom: the dilaton as well as matter and gravitation. In the dilaton sector the linear system that extends the previously known Lax pair has the form of a twisted self-duality constraint that is the analog of the self-duality constraint arising in extended supergravities in higher space-time dimensions. Our results furnish a group theoretical explanation for the simultaneous occurrence of two spectral parameters, a constant one (=y) and a variable one (=t). They hold for all 2d non-linear σ-models that are obtained by dimensional reduction of G/H models in three dimensions coupled to pure gravity. (orig./WL) (orig.)

  9. PREDICTION OF BLOOD FLOW VELOCITY AND LEAFLET DEFORMATION VIA 2D MITRAL VALVE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.H. Mohd Adib

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mitral valve, regional variations in structure and material properties combine to affect the biomechanics of the entire valve. From previous studies, we know that the mitral valve leaflet tissue is highly extensible. A two-dimensional model of the mitral valve was generated using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE mesh. A simple approximation of the heart geometry was used and the valve dimensions were based on actual measurements made. Valve opening and closure was simulated using contact equations. The objective of this study was to investigate and predict flow and leaflet phenomena via a simple 2D mitral valve model based on the critical parameter of blood. Two stages of mitral valves analysis were investigated: the systolic and diastolic stages. The results show a linear correlation between the mitral valve leaflet rigidity and the volume of backflow. Additionally, the simulation predicted mitral valve leaflet displacement during closure, which agreed with the results of our previous data analysis and the results for blood flow velocity during systole condition through the mitral valve outlet, as reported in the medical literature. In conclusion, these computational techniques are very useful in the study of both degenerative valve disease and failure of prostheses and will be further developed to investigate heart valve failure and subsequent surgical repair.

  10. Passive object detection from pressure sensing using a 2-D viscous fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jack; Park, Jeongyong; Dahl, Jason

    2017-11-01

    Embedded pressure sensors have the ability to inform an object about the surrounding flow environment. Fish demonstrate this ability through the use of their lateral line system, which enables complex behaviors (feeding, schooling, etc.) based on measures of pressure on the surface of the body. Previous work has shown that inviscid models may be used for identifying object shapes or local flow structures based on several measurements of pressure, though these models fail to capture flow structures with large viscous effects or complex object shapes. In the present study, 2-D simulations are performed for a NACA 0012 foil passing by an object on a wall. The simulations vary object shape and size, demonstrating distinct wake behavior through pressure. A classifier is developed based on the pressure time histories in order to classify object shape and size, and demonstrated to work well using under-resolved simulated data. Experiments are also performed for a subset of object shapes and sizes. The experiments include physical sources of noise such as free surface disturbances and electrical noise to demonstrate the feasibility of this object recognition process. The classifier is tested against the physical measurements and compared with the simulated results. Office of Naval Research (Grant No: N00014-16-1-2968).

  11. 2D modelling of a UF6 container in a fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    We present some results on 2D thermal modelisation of the behaviour of UF6 in a fire. A cylindrical container is engulfed by a high temperature space where the heat transfer is expected to occur by radiation only. During the first minutes, we assume that the thermal resistance is between the external wall and the UF6 solid, the heat transfer can be split up into three kinds: 1) conduction to solid UF6 through a contact surface. 2) radiative transfer. 3) gas layer with a small heat conductance. This thermal resistance is initially determined by the UF6 filling type, shape and also is time dependant by thermal dilatation effects. On the onset of liquifying the heat transfer increases because of the larger liquid exchange. The liquid and boiling heat flow is then calculated by a model on the basis of classical correlations in vertical cavities. Numerical evaluations have been performed with a finite element model using: ANSYS. With a realistic hypothesis, the effect of the following parameters is estimated: thermal conductivity of UF6 solid, contact surface fraction, UF6 emissivity, gas gap thickness, liquid UF6 wall exchange, solid liquid transition criteria, non condensation factor k. (J.P.N.)

  12. Effects of Precipitation on Ocean Mixed-Layer Temperature and Salinity as Simulated in a 2-D Coupled Ocean-Cloud Resolving Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K-M.; Adamec, D.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional coupled ocean-cloud resolving atmosphere model is used to investigate possible roles of convective scale ocean disturbances induced by atmospheric precipitation on ocean mixed-layer heat and salt budgets. The model couples a cloud resolving model with an embedded mixed layer-ocean circulation model. Five experiment are performed under imposed large-scale atmospheric forcing in terms of vertical velocity derived from the TOGA COARE observations during a selected seven-day period. The dominant variability of mixed-layer temperature and salinity are simulated by the coupled model with imposed large-scale forcing. The mixed-layer temperatures in the coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models show similar variations when salinity effects are not included. When salinity effects are included, however, differences in the domain-mean mixed-layer salinity and temperature between coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models could be as large as 0.3 PSU and 0.4 C respectively. Without fresh water effects, the nocturnal heat loss over ocean surface causes deep mixed layers and weak cooling rates so that the nocturnal mixed-layer temperatures tend to be horizontally-uniform. The fresh water flux, however, causes shallow mixed layers over convective areas while the nocturnal heat loss causes deep mixed layer over convection-free areas so that the mixed-layer temperatures have large horizontal fluctuations. Furthermore, fresh water flux exhibits larger spatial fluctuations than surface heat flux because heavy rainfall occurs over convective areas embedded in broad non-convective or clear areas, whereas diurnal signals over whole model areas yield high spatial correlation of surface heat flux. As a result, mixed-layer salinities contribute more to the density differences than do mixed-layer temperatures.

  13. Application of an Ensemble Kalman filter to a 1-D coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model of the Ligurian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenartz, F.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Grégoire, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been applied to a 1-D complex ecosystem model coupled with a hydrodynamic model of the Ligurian Sea. In order to improve the performance of the EnKF, an ensemble subsampling strategy has been used to better represent the covariance matrices and a pre-analysis

  14. Electrical resistivity tomography applied to a complex lava dome: 2D and 3D models comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Angélie; Fargier, Yannick; Lénat, Jean-François; Labazuy, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The study of volcanic domes growth (e.g. St. Helens, Unzen, Montserrat) shows that it is often characterized by a succession of extrusion phases, dome explosions and collapse events. Lava dome eruptive activity may last from days to decades. Therefore, their internal structure, at the end of the eruption, is complex and includes massive extrusions and lava lobes, talus and pyroclastic deposits as well as hydrothermal alteration. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, initially developed for environmental and engineering exploration, is now commonly used for volcano structure imaging. Because a large range of resistivity values is often observed in volcanic environments, the method is well suited to study the internal structure of volcanic edifices. We performed an ERT survey on an 11ka years old trachytic lava dome, the Puy de Dôme volcano (French Massif Central). The analysis of a recent high resolution DEM (LiDAR 0.5 m), as well as other geophysical data, strongly suggest that the Puy de Dôme is a composite dome. 11 ERT profiles have been carried out, both at the scale of the entire dome (base diameter of ~2 km and height of 400 m) on the one hand, and at a smaller scale on the summit part on the other hand. Each profile is composed of 64 electrodes. Three different electrode spacing have been used depending on the study area (35 m for the entire dome, 10 m and 5 m for its summit part). Some profiles were performed with half-length roll-along acquisitions, in order to keep a good trade-off between depth of investigation and resolution. Both Wenner-alpha and Wenner-Schlumberger protocols were used. 2-D models of the electrical resistivity distribution were computed using RES2DINV software. In order to constrain inversion models interpretation, the depth of investigation (DOI) method was applied to those results. It aims to compute a sensitivity index on inversion results, illustrating how the data influence the model and constraining models

  15. Modeling of two-storey precast school building using Ruaumoko 2D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, N. H.; Tarmizi, L. H.; Ghani, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    The long-distant earthquake loading from Sumatra and Java Island had caused some slight damages to precast and reinforced concrete buildings in West Malaysia such as cracks on wall panels, columns and beams. Subsequently, the safety of existing precast concrete building is needed to be analyzed because these buildings were designed using BS 8110 which did not include the seismic loading in the design. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the seismic performance and dynamic behavior of precast school building constructed in Malaysia under three selected past earthquakes excitations ; El Centro 1940 North-South, El Centro East-West components and San Fernando 1971 using RUAUMOKO 2D program. This program is fully utilized by using prototype precast school model and dynamic non-linear time history analysis. From the results, it can be concluded that two-storey precast school building has experienced severe damage and partial collapse especially at beam-column joint under San Fernando and El Centro North-South Earthquake as its exceeds the allowable inter-storey drift and displacement as specified in Eurocode 8. The San Fernando earthquake has produced a massive destruction to the precast building under viscous damping, ξ = 5% and this building has generated maximum building displacement of 435mm, maximum building drift of 0.68% and maximum bending moment at 8458kNm

  16. Optimization of hybrid organic-inorganic interdigitated photovoltaic device structure using a 2D diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krali, Emiljana; Curry, Richard J

    2011-04-26

    To improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices the inclusion of semiconducting nanoparticles such as PbS has been used to enhance near-infrared absorption. Additionally the use of interdigitated heterojunctions has been explored as a means of improving charge extraction. In this paper we provide a two-dimensional model taking into account these approaches with the aim of predicting an optimized device geometry to maximize the efficiency. The steady-state exciton population has been calculated in each of the active regions taking into account the full optical response based on using a finite difference approach to obtain approximate numerical solutions to the 2D exciton diffusion equation. On the basis of this we calculate the contribution of each active material to the device short circuit current and power conversion efficiency. We show that optimized structures can lead to power conversions efficiencies of ∼50% compared to a maximum of ∼17% for planar heterojunction devices. To achieve this the interdigitated region thickness should be ∼800 nm with PbS and C(60) widths of ∼60 and 20 nm, respectively. Even modest nanopatterning using much thinner active regions provides improvements in efficiency and may be approached using a variety of methods including nanoimprinting lithography, nanotemplating, or the incorporation of presynthesized nanorod structures.

  17. Modeling of two-storey precast school building using Ruaumoko 2D program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, N. H.; Tarmizi, L. H.; Ghani, K. D. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The long-distant earthquake loading from Sumatra and Java Island had caused some slight damages to precast and reinforced concrete buildings in West Malaysia such as cracks on wall panels, columns and beams. Subsequently, the safety of existing precast concrete building is needed to be analyzed because these buildings were designed using BS 8110 which did not include the seismic loading in the design. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the seismic performance and dynamic behavior of precast school building constructed in Malaysia under three selected past earthquakes excitations ; El Centro 1940 North-South, El Centro East-West components and San Fernando 1971 using RUAUMOKO 2D program. This program is fully utilized by using prototype precast school model and dynamic non-linear time history analysis. From the results, it can be concluded that two-storey precast school building has experienced severe damage and partial collapse especially at beam-column joint under San Fernando and El Centro North-South Earthquake as its exceeds the allowable inter-storey drift and displacement as specified in Eurocode 8. The San Fernando earthquake has produced a massive destruction to the precast building under viscous damping, ξ = 5% and this building has generated maximum building displacement of 435mm, maximum building drift of 0.68% and maximum bending moment at 8458kNm.

  18. Modeling of two-storey precast school building using Ruaumoko 2D program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, N. H.; Tarmizi, L. H.; Ghani, K. D.

    2015-05-01

    The long-distant earthquake loading from Sumatra and Java Island had caused some slight damages to precast and reinforced concrete buildings in West Malaysia such as cracks on wall panels, columns and beams. Subsequently, the safety of existing precast concrete building is needed to be analyzed because these buildings were designed using BS 8110 which did not include the seismic loading in the design. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the seismic performance and dynamic behavior of precast school building constructed in Malaysia under three selected past earthquakes excitations ; El Centro 1940 North-South, El Centro East-West components and San Fernando 1971 using RUAUMOKO 2D program. This program is fully utilized by using prototype precast school model and dynamic non-linear time history analysis. From the results, it can be concluded that two-storey precast school building has experienced severe damage and partial collapse especially at beam-column joint under San Fernando and El Centro North-South Earthquake as its exceeds the allowable inter-storey drift and displacement as specified in Eurocode 8. The San Fernando earthquake has produced a massive destruction to the precast building under viscous damping, ξ = 5% and this building has generated maximum building displacement of 435mm, maximum building drift of 0.68% and maximum bending moment at 8458kNm.

  19. Stability of superfluid phases in the 2D spin-polarized attractive Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Cichy, A.; Micnas, R.

    2011-08-01

    We study the evolution from the weak coupling (BCS-like limit) to the strong coupling limit of tightly bound local pairs (LPs) with increasing attraction, in the presence of the Zeeman magnetic field (h) for d=2, within the spin-polarized attractive Hubbard model. The broken symmetry Hartree approximation as well as the strong coupling expansion are used. We also apply the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) scenario to determine the phase coherence temperatures. For spin-independent hopping integrals (t↑=t↓), we find no stable homogeneous polarized superfluid (SCM) state in the ground state for the strong attraction and obtain that for a two-component Fermi system on a 2D lattice with population imbalance, phase separation (PS) is favoured for a fixed particle concentration, even on the LP (BEC) side. We also examine the influence of spin-dependent hopping integrals (mass imbalance) on the stability of the SCM phase. We find a topological quantum phase transition (Lifshitz type) from the unpolarized superfluid phase (SC0) to SCM and tricritical points in the h-|U| and t↑/t↓-|U| ground-state phase diagrams. We also construct the finite temperature phase diagrams for both t↑=t↓ and t↑≠t↓ and analyze the possibility of occurrence of a spin-polarized KT superfluid.

  20. Approaches to Modeling Coupled Flow and Reaction in a 2-D Cementation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Cochepin, B.; Trotignon, L.; Bildstein, O.; Steefel, C.; Lagneau, V.; van der Lee, J.

    2008-04-01

    Porosity evolution at reactive interfaces is a key process that governs the evolution and performances of many engineered systems that have important applications in earth and environmental sciences. This is the case, for example, at the interface between cement structures and clays in deep geological nuclear waste disposals. Although in a different transport regime, similar questions arise for permeable reactive barriers used for biogeochemical remediation in surface environments. The COMEDIE project aims at investigating the coupling between transport, hydrodynamics and chemistry when significant variations of porosity occur. The present work focuses on a numerical benchmark used as a design exercise for the future COMEDIE-2D experiment. The use of reactive transport simulation tools like Hytec and Crunch provides predictions of the physico-chemical evolutions that are expected during the future experiments in laboratory. Focus is given in this paper on the evolution during the simulated experiment of precipitate, permeability and porosity fields. A first case is considered in which the porosity is constant. Results obtained with Crunch and Hytec are in relatively good agreement. Differences are attributable to the models of reactive surface area taken into account for dissolution/precipitation processes. Crunch and Hytec simulations taking into account porosity variations are then presented and compared. Results given by the two codes are in qualitative agreement, with differences attributable in part to the models of reactive surface area for dissolution/precipitation processes. As a consequence, the localization of secondary precipitates predicted by Crunch leads to lower local porosities than for predictions obtained by Hytec and thus to a stronger coupling between flow and chemistry. This benchmark highlights the importance of the surface area model employed to describe systems in which strong porosity variations occur as a result of dissolution

  1. D Recording for 2d Delivering - the Employment of 3d Models for Studies and Analyses -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, A.; Baratti, G.; Jiménez, B.; Girardi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d'Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino). APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying and 3D material to

  2. Land use regression models for total particle number concentrations using 2D, 3D and semantic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, Yahya; Löwner, Marc-Oliver

    2017-10-01

    Total particle number concentration (TNC) was studied in a 1 × 2 km area in Berlin, the capital of Germany by three Land Use Regression models (LUR). The estimation of TNC was established and compared using one 2D-LUR and two 3D-LUR models. All models predict total number concentrations TNC by using urban morphological (2D resp. 3D) and additional semantical parameters. 2D and semantical parameters were derived from Open Street Map data (OSM) whereas 3D parameters were derived from a CityGML-based 3D city model. While the models are capable to depict the spatial variation of TNC across the study area, the two 3D-LUR showed better results than the 2D-LUR. The 2D-LUR model explained 74% of the variance of TNC for the full data set with root mean square error (RMSE) of 4014 cm-3 while the 3D-LUR explained 79% of the variance with an RMSE of 3477 cm-3. The further introduction of a new spatial parameter, the Frontal Area Index (FAI) that represents the dynamic factor wind direction enhanced the 3D-LUR to explain 82% of the variance with RMSE of 3389 cm-3. Furthermore, the semantical parameters (e.g. streets type) played a significant role in all models.

  3. Modeling Cellular Networks with Full Duplex D2D Communication: A Stochastic Geometry Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2016-08-24

    Full-duplex (FD) communication is optimistically promoted to double the spectral efficiency if sufficient self-interference cancellation (SIC) is achieved. However, this is not true when deploying FD-communication in a large-scale setup due to the induced mutual interference. Therefore, a large-scale study is necessary to draw legitimate conclusions about gains associated with FD-communication. This paper studies the FD operation for underlay device-to-device (D2D) communication sharing the uplink resources in cellular networks. We propose a disjoint fine-tuned selection criterion for the D2D and FD modes of operation. Then, we develop a tractable analytical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, to calculate the outage probability and rate for cellular and D2D users. The results reveal that even in the case of perfect SIC, due to the increased interference injected to the network by FD-D2D communication, having all proximity UEs transmit in FD-D2D is not beneficial for the network. However, if the system parameters are carefully tuned, non-trivial network spectral-efficiency gains (64% shown) can be harvested. We also investigate the effects of imperfect SIC and D2D-link distance distribution on the harvested FD gains.

  4. Mitigation of harmful indoor organic vapors using plug-flow unit coated with 2D g-C3N4and metallic Cu dual-incorporated 1D titania heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    2018-03-16

    Herein, a plug-flow reactor coated with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 nanotube (TNT) heterostructures incorporated with g-C 3 N 4 (CN) and metallic Cu (CN/Cu/TNT) nanocomposite and irradiated by a daylight lamp was newly applied for the mitigation of harmful indoor organic vapors. The CN/Cu/TNT catalyst showed high mitigation efficiency for all target pollutants, followed by Cu-incorporated TNT (Cu/TNT), CN-incorporated TNT (CN/TNT), TNT, and TiO 2 , in that order. The order of their photocatalytic activities agrees with that of the electron‒hole separation rates determined from their photoluminescence emission spectra. The mitigation efficiency of the CN/Cu/TNT catalyst increased as the CN-to-Cu/TNT percentage was increased from 1% to 10%, but subsequently decreased as the CN-to-Cu/TNT percentage increased to 20%. The mitigation efficiencies of the CN/Cu/TNT catalyst decreased with increasing relative humidity, feed pollutant concentrations, and airstream flow rates. However, in most cases, the reaction rates of the target compounds increased when the feed concentration was increased from 1 to 5 ppm. The mineralization rates of all target pollutants were lower than the corresponding photocatalytic mitigation rates, which could be ascribed to the production of CO and organic intermediates observed during the photocatalysis of the target pollutants. Nevertheless, the intermediates formed during the photocatalytic mitigation process would not cause significant adverse health effects to building occupants, because their concentrations were far below their exposure or threshold limit values. A probable mechanism for the photocatalytic mitigation of the organic vapors by the CN/Cu/TNT catalyst under daylight illumination was also proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling thermal stratification in the North Sea: Application of a 2-D potential energy model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; St. John, Michael

    2001-01-01

    dynamics we have developed and tested a potential energy model of thermal stratification based on the energy equation (for turbulence). The energy equation relates the temporal and spatial changes of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), the production of TKE and the dissipation of TKE to the change of potential...... energy as water masses of different densities are mixed in the field of gravity. A constant ratio between the gain in potential energy and the production of TKE is assumed, known as the flux Richardson number. The model is comprised of 0·5m vertical layers with a temporal time step of 1 day. The model...... is forced with wind, dew point temperature from Ekofisk oilfield in the central North Sea, and tidal current and atmospheric radiation. The model is used to simulate the seasonal cycle of stratification in the central North Sea in the years 1988, 1989 and 1990 and is compared to density profiles...

  6. 2D Global Rayleigh Wave Attenuation Model Using Finite Frequency Focusing and Defocusing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Masters, G.; Dalton, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed an efficient technique to process and measure surface-wave amplitude and phase from a large collection of seismic waveforms. These amplitude and phase data sets are used to jointly invert for 2D phase velocity and attenuation maps. As demonstrated by Dalton and Ekstrom (2006), correcting for the effects of focusing and defocusing by elastic structure is crucial in order to obtain reliable attenuation structures. A robust theory that can reliably predict focusing-defocusing effects and is insensitive to the details of making the phase velocity maps is preferred. Great circle ray theory can give useful predictions for the focusing-defocusing effects if careful attention is paid to how the phase velocity model is smoothed. However, the predictions of the finite frequency kernels are more robust at the low-intermediate frequency range (below 25mHz) and suggest that they are better suited as a basis for inversion.We invert for the phase velocity, attenuation, source, and receiver terms simultaneously. Our models provide 60-70% variance reduction to the raw data though the source terms are the biggest contribution to the fit of the data. The attenuation maps show structures that correlate well with surface tectonics and the age-dependent trend of attenuation is clearly seen in the ocean basins. We have also identified problematic stations and earthquake sources as a by-product of our data selection process. Although our approach was developed for a global study, it can be extended to regional studies. Our first regional-scale application of this approach is to the Atlantic upper mantle.

  7. Code-To-Code Benchmarking Of The Porflow And GoldSim Contaminant Transport Models Using A Simple 1-D Domain - 11191

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to compare and evaluate contaminant transport results of two model codes, GoldSim and Porflow, using a simple 1-D string of elements in each code. Model domains were constructed to be identical with respect to cell numbers and dimensions, matrix material, flow boundary and saturation conditions. One of the codes, GoldSim, does not simulate advective movement of water; therefore the water flux term was specified as a boundary condition. In the other code, Porflow, a steady-state flow field was computed and contaminant transport was simulated within that flow-field. The comparisons were made solely in terms of the ability of each code to perform contaminant transport. The purpose of the investigation was to establish a basis for, and to validate follow-on work that was conducted in which a 1-D GoldSim model developed by abstracting information from Porflow 2-D and 3-D unsaturated and saturated zone models and then benchmarked to produce equivalent contaminant transport results. A handful of contaminants were selected for the code-to-code comparison simulations, including a non-sorbing tracer and several long- and short-lived radionuclides exhibiting both non-sorbing to strongly-sorbing characteristics with respect to the matrix material, including several requiring the simulation of in-growth of daughter radionuclides. The same diffusion and partitioning coefficients associated with each contaminant and the half-lives associated with each radionuclide were incorporated into each model. A string of 10-elements, having identical spatial dimensions and properties, were constructed within each code. GoldSim's basic contaminant transport elements, Mixing cells, were utilized in this construction. Sand was established as the matrix material and was assigned identical properties (e.g. bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity) in both codes. Boundary conditions applied included an influx of water at the rate of 40 cm/yr at one

  8. Building a 2.5D Digital Elevation Model from 2D Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Curtis W.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Brennan, Shane; Cheng, Yang; Clouse, Daniel S.; Almeida, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When projecting imagery into a georeferenced coordinate frame, one needs to have some model of the geographical region that is being projected to. This model can sometimes be a simple geometrical curve, such as an ellipse or even a plane. However, to obtain accurate projections, one needs to have a more sophisticated model that encodes the undulations in the terrain including things like mountains, valleys, and even manmade structures. The product that is often used for this purpose is a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The technology presented here generates a high-quality DEM from a collection of 2D images taken from multiple viewpoints, plus pose data for each of the images and a camera model for the sensor. The technology assumes that the images are all of the same region of the environment. The pose data for each image is used as an initial estimate of the geometric relationship between the images, but the pose data is often noisy and not of sufficient quality to build a high-quality DEM. Therefore, the source imagery is passed through a feature-tracking algorithm and multi-plane-homography algorithm, which refine the geometric transforms between images. The images and their refined poses are then passed to a stereo algorithm, which generates dense 3D data for each image in the sequence. The 3D data from each image is then placed into a consistent coordinate frame and passed to a routine that divides the coordinate frame into a number of cells. The 3D points that fall into each cell are collected, and basic statistics are applied to determine the elevation of that cell. The result of this step is a DEM that is in an arbitrary coordinate frame. This DEM is then filtered and smoothed in order to remove small artifacts. The final step in the algorithm is to take the initial DEM and rotate and translate it to be in the world coordinate frame [such as UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator), MGRS (Military Grid Reference System), or geodetic] such that it can be saved in

  9. Export of earthquake-triggered landslides in active mountain ranges: insights from 2D morphodynamic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe; Steer, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In active mountain ranges, large earthquakes (Mw > 5-6) trigger numerous landslides that impact river dynamics. These landslides bring local and sudden sediment piles that will be eroded and transported along the river network causing downstream changes in river geometry, transport capacity and erosion efficiency. The progressive removal of landslide materials has implications for downstream hazards management and also for understanding landscape dynamics at the timescale of the seismic cycle. The export time of landslide-derived sediments after large-magnitude earthquakes has been studied from suspended load measurements but a full understanding of the total process, including the coupling between sediment transfer and channel geometry change, still remains an issue. Note that the transport of small sediment pulses has been studied in the context of river restoration, but the magnitude of sediment pulses generated by landslides may make the problem different. Here, we study the export of large volumes (>106 m3) of sediments with the 2D hydro-morphodynamic model, Eros. This model uses a new hydrodynamic module that resolves a reduced form of the Saint-Venant equations with a particle method. It is coupled with a sediment transport and lateral and vertical erosion model. Eros accounts for the complex retroactions between sediment transport and fluvial geometry, with a stochastic description of the floods experienced by the river. Moreover, it is able to reproduce several features deemed necessary to study the evacuation of large sediment pulses, such as river regime modification (single-thread to multi-thread), river avulsion and aggradation, floods and bank erosion. Using a synthetic and simple topography we first present how granulometry, landslide volume and geometry, channel slope and flood frequency influence 1) the dominance of pulse advection vs. diffusion during its evacuation, 2) the pulse export time and 3) the remaining volume of sediment in the catchment

  10. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabtaji, Agung; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-01

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  11. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabtaji, Agung, E-mail: sabtaji.agung@gmail.com, E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id [Study Program of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciencies and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Indonesia’s Agency for Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysics Region V, Jayapura 1572 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  12. A self-consistent kinetic modeling of a 1-D, bounded, plasma in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a distribution with zero drift. However, in the frame of the drifting plasma, this injected source appears to be a drifting Maxwellian. Thus, the total energy per particle injected is СЪ2Ж. 2 + СЪ2 d. Ж. 2. Since this exceeds. Мo. Ж. 2, the R.M.S. width of the distribution increases. Thus the plasma is actually heated by the source.

  13. INFIL1D: a quasi-analytical model for simulating one-dimensional, constant flux infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; McKeon, T.J.

    1984-04-01

    The program INFIL1D is designed to calculate approximate wetting-front advance into an unsaturated, uniformly moist, homogeneous soil profile, under constant surface-flux conditions. The code is based on a quasi-analytical method, which utilizes an assumed invariant functional relationship between reduced (normalized) flux and water content. The code uses general hydraulic property data in tabular form to simulate constant surface-flux infiltration. 10 references, 4 figures

  14. Ground-state energy for 1D (t,U,X)-model at low densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, F.D.

    1992-09-01

    In describing the properties of quasi-1D materials with a highly-screened interelectronic potential, an attractive hopping term has to be added to the Hubbard Hamiltonian. The effective interaction and the ground-state energy in ladder approximation are analyzed. At low electronic densities, the attractive part of the interaction, initially smaller than the repulsive term, can become more effective, the ground-state energy decreasing below the unperturbed value. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  15. Efficient ensemble forecasting of marine ecology with clustered 1D models and statistical lateral exchange: application to the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreano, Denis; Tsiaras, Kostas; Triantafyllou, George; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    Forecasting the state of large marine ecosystems is important for many economic and public health applications. However, advanced three-dimensional (3D) ecosystem models, such as the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), are computationally expensive, especially when implemented within an ensemble data assimilation system requiring several parallel integrations. As an alternative to 3D ecological forecasting systems, we propose to implement a set of regional one-dimensional (1D) water-column ecological models that run at a fraction of the computational cost. The 1D model domains are determined using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based clustering method and satellite chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) data. Regionally averaged Chl-a data is assimilated into the 1D models using the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter. To laterally exchange information between subregions and improve the forecasting skills, we introduce a new correction step to the assimilation scheme, in which we assimilate a statistical forecast of future Chl-a observations based on information from neighbouring regions. We apply this approach to the Red Sea and show that the assimilative 1D ecological models can forecast surface Chl-a concentration with high accuracy. The statistical assimilation step further improves the forecasting skill by as much as 50%. This general approach of clustering large marine areas and running several interacting 1D ecological models is very flexible. It allows many combinations of clustering, filtering and regression technics to be used and can be applied to build efficient forecasting systems in other large marine ecosystems.

  16. Efficient ensemble forecasting of marine ecology with clustered 1D models and statistical lateral exchange: application to the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Dreano, Denis

    2017-05-24

    Forecasting the state of large marine ecosystems is important for many economic and public health applications. However, advanced three-dimensional (3D) ecosystem models, such as the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), are computationally expensive, especially when implemented within an ensemble data assimilation system requiring several parallel integrations. As an alternative to 3D ecological forecasting systems, we propose to implement a set of regional one-dimensional (1D) water-column ecological models that run at a fraction of the computational cost. The 1D model domains are determined using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based clustering method and satellite chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) data. Regionally averaged Chl-a data is assimilated into the 1D models using the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter. To laterally exchange information between subregions and improve the forecasting skills, we introduce a new correction step to the assimilation scheme, in which we assimilate a statistical forecast of future Chl-a observations based on information from neighbouring regions. We apply this approach to the Red Sea and show that the assimilative 1D ecological models can forecast surface Chl-a concentration with high accuracy. The statistical assimilation step further improves the forecasting skill by as much as 50%. This general approach of clustering large marine areas and running several interacting 1D ecological models is very flexible. It allows many combinations of clustering, filtering and regression technics to be used and can be applied to build efficient forecasting systems in other large marine ecosystems.

  17. Activating receptor NKG2D targets RAE-1-expressing allogeneic neural precursor cells in a viral model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinger, Jason G; Plaisted, Warren C; Maciejewski, Sonia M; Lanier, Lewis L; Walsh, Craig M; Lane, Thomas E

    2014-10-01

    Transplantation of major histocompatibility complex-mismatched mouse neural precursor cells (NPCs) into mice persistently infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) results in rapid rejection that is mediated, in part, by T cells. However, the contribution of the innate immune response to allograft rejection in a model of viral-induced neurological disease has not been well defined. Herein, we demonstrate that the natural killer (NK) cell-expressing-activating receptor NKG2D participates in transplanted allogeneic NPC rejection in mice persistently infected with JHMV. Cultured NPCs derived from C57BL/6 (H-2(b) ) mice express the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early precursor transcript (RAE)-1 but expression was dramatically reduced upon differentiation into either glia or neurons. RAE-1(+) NPCs were susceptible to NK cell-mediated killing whereas RAE-1(-) cells were resistant to lysis. Transplantation of C57BL/6-derived NPCs into JHMV-infected BALB/c (H-2(d) ) mice resulted in infiltration of NKG2D(+) CD49b(+) NK cells and treatment with blocking antibody specific for NKG2D increased survival of allogeneic NPCs. Furthermore, transplantation of differentiated RAE-1(-) allogeneic NPCs into JHMV-infected BALB/c mice resulted in enhanced survival, highlighting a role for the NKG2D/RAE-1 signaling axis in allograft rejection. We also demonstrate that transplantation of allogeneic NPCs into JHMV-infected mice resulted in infection of the transplanted cells suggesting that these cells may be targets for infection. Viral infection of cultured cells increased RAE-1 expression, resulting in enhanced NK cell-mediated killing through NKG2D recognition. Collectively, these results show that in a viral-induced demyelination model, NK cells contribute to rejection of allogeneic NPCs through an NKG2D signaling pathway. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  18. 2-D Versus 3-D Cross-Correlation-Based Radial and Circumferential Strain Estimation Using Multiplane 2-D Ultrafast Ultrasound in a 3-D Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekkes, S.; Swillens, A.E.; Hansen, H.H.G.; Saris, A.E.C.M.; Nillesen, M.M.; Iannaccone, F.; Segers, P.; Korte, C.L. de

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) strain estimation might improve the detection and localization of high strain regions in the carotid artery (CA) for identification of vulnerable plaques. This paper compares 2-D versus 3-D displacement estimation in terms of radial and circumferential strain using simulated

  19. Dimensional reductions from 2-D Nb 4P 2S 21 to 1-D ANb 2PS 10 ( A=Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl) and to 0-D Tl 5[Nb 2S 4C l8]Cl using halide molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyunjin; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Seri; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2008-08-01

    We found new synthetic routes to obtain 1-D quaternary thiophosphate compounds and a 0-D molecular complex containing a Nb 2S 4 core from a 2-D ternary thiophosphate, Nb 4P 2S 21. When Nb 4P 2S 21 was reacted with alkali metal halides ( ACl; A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) or TlCl at 500-700 °C, the -S-S-S- bridges in 2-D Nb 2PS 10-S-S 10PNb 2 were excised to form a 1-D chain, and cations were inserted between the chains to form ANb 2PS 10 ( A=Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl). We also found that thallium chloride (TlCl) is an excellent reagent for further excision, and it substitutes chloride ligands for the sulfur ligands of 2-D Nb 4P 2S 21 to form the molecular complex Tl 5[Nb 2S 4Cl 8]Cl. Crystal data for TlNb 2PS 10: monoclinic, Pn, a=6.9452(11) Å, b=7.3761(12) Å, 12.873(2) Å, β=104.472(3)°, and Z=2. Crystal data for Tl 5[Nb 2S 4Cl 8]Cl: orthorhombic, Immm, a=7.001(5) Å, b=9.509(7) Å, c=15.546(11) Å, and Z=2.

  20. Towards Next Generation Ocean Models: Novel Discontinuous Galerkin Schemes for 2D Unsteady Biogeochemical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    FVCOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.7 ICOM ...coastal re- gions featured with complex irregular geometry and steep bottom topography. ICOM Imperial College Ocean Model FEM (CG and DG) using...the ICOM group. This code is written in C. Finel was also developed by the same group, and it is a three-dimensional non- hydrostatic finite element

  1. Axial turbomachine modelling with a quasi-2-D approach. Application to gas cooled reactor transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas Tauveron; Manuel Saez; Pascal Ferrand; Francis Leboeuf

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the frame of the international forum GenIV, CEA has selected two innovative concepts of High Temperature gas cooled Reactor. The first has a fast neutron spectrum, a robust refractory fuel and a direct cycle conversion. The second is a very high temperature reactor with a thermal neutron spectrum. Both concepts make use of technology derived from High Temperature Gas Reactor. Thermal hydraulic performances are a key issue for the design. For transient conditions and decay heat removal situations, the thermal hydraulic performance must remain as high as possible. In this context, all the transient situations, the incidental and accidental scenarios must be evaluated by a validated system code able to correctly describe, in particular, the thermal-hydraulics of the whole plant. With this type of reactor a special emphasis must be laid on turbomachinery modelling. A first step was to compute a HTGR concept using the steady-state characteristics of each element of the turbomachinery with the computer code CATHARE. In a hypothetical transient event (a 10 inches cold duct break of primary loop which causes a rapid depressurization and a decrease of the core mass flow rate) the results seem of great interest (as a forced convection was maintained by the compressors during the entire transient) but not sufficiently justified in the frame of 0D modelling of turbomachinery. A more precise description of the turbomachinery has been developed based on a quasi-two dimensional approach. Although this type of flow analysis is a simplification of a complex three dimensional system, it is able to describe the behaviour of a compressor or a turbine with a better understanding than the models based on component characteristics. This approach consists in the solving of 2D radially averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the hypothesis of circumferentially uniform flow. The assumption of quasi-steady behaviour is made: source terms for the lift and

  2. A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.

    2012-01-01

    A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.

  3. CR1Dmod: A Matlab program to model 1D complex resistivity effects in electrical and electromagnetic surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Baumgartner, François

    2006-01-01

    We have constructed a forward modelling code in Matlab, capable of handling several commonly used electrical and electromagnetic methods in a 1D environment. We review the implemented electromagnetic field equations for grounded wires, frequency and transient soundings and present new solutions...

  4. Mechanical Controls on Halokinesis in Layered Evaporite Sequences: Insights from 2D Geomechanical Forward Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goteti, Rajesh; Agar, Susan M.; Brown, John P.; Ball, Philip; Zuhlke, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical stratification in LES (Layered Evaporate Sequences) can have a distinct impact on structural and depositional styles in rifted margin salt tectonics. The bulk mechanical response of an LES under geological loading is dependent, among other factors, on the relative proportions of salt and sediment, salt mobility and sedimentation rate. To assess the interactions among the aforementioned factors in a physically consistent manner, we present 2D, large-strain finite element models of an LES salt minibasin and diapirs. Loading from the deposition of alternating salt and sediment layers (i.e., LES), gravity and a prescribed geothermal gradient provide the driving force for halokinesis in the models. To accurately capture the mechanical impact of stratification within the modeled LES, salt is assigned a temperature-dependent visco-plastic rheology, whereas the sediments are assigned a non-associative cap-plasticity model that supports both compaction and shear localization. Perturbations in the initial salt-sediment interface are used to initiate the salt diapirs. Model results suggest that active diapirism in the basal halite layer initiates when the pressure at the base of the incipient salt diapir exceeds that beneath the minibasin. Vertical growth of the diapir is also accompanied by its lateral expansion at higher structural levels where it preferentially intrudes the adjacent pre- and syn-kinematic salt layers. This pressure pumping of deeper salt into shallow salt layers, can result in rapid thickness changes between successive sediment layers within the LES. Caution needs to be exercised as such thickness changes observed in seismic images may not be entirely due to the shifting of depocenters but also due to the lateral pumping of salt within the LES. The presence of salt layers at multiple structural levels decouples the deformation between successive clastic layers resulting in disharmomic folding with contrasting strain histories in the sedimentary

  5. Using 2D image composition to model and evaluate soldier camouflage in the visible wavelengths

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available . The digital pattern is then re-coloured with the measured CIELAB colours. We use Photoshop to convert the CIELAB camouflage pattern to the Red, Green and Blue (RGB) colour space (under the D50 standard daylight illuminant) for use by the 2D image...

  6. DNAPL MAPPING AND WATER SATURATION MEASUREMENTS IN 2-D MODELS USING LIGHT TRANSMISSION VISUALIZATION (LTV) TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    • LTV can be used to characterize free phase PCE architecture in 2-D flow chambers without using a dye. • Results to date suggest that error in PCE detection using LTV can be less than 10% if the imaging system is optimized. • Mass balance calculations show a maximum error of 9...

  7. Boundary Conditions in 2D Numerical and 3D Exact Models for Cylindrical Bending Analysis of Functionally Graded Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tornabene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cylindrical bending condition for structural models is very common in the literature because it allows an incisive and simple verification of the proposed plate and shell models. In the present paper, 2D numerical approaches (the Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ and the finite element (FE methods are compared with an exact 3D shell solution in the case of free vibrations of functionally graded material (FGM plates and shells. The first 18 vibration modes carried out through the 3D exact model are compared with the frequencies obtained via the 2D numerical models. All the 18 frequencies obtained via the 3D exact model are computed when the structures have simply supported boundary conditions for all the edges. If the same boundary conditions are used in the 2D numerical models, some modes are missed. Some of these missed modes can be obtained modifying the boundary conditions imposing free edges through the direction perpendicular to the direction of cylindrical bending. However, some modes cannot be calculated via the 2D numerical models even when the boundary conditions are modified because the cylindrical bending requirements cannot be imposed for numerical solutions in the curvilinear edges by definition. These features are investigated in the present paper for different geometries (plates, cylinders, and cylindrical shells, types of FGM law, lamination sequences, and thickness ratios.

  8. Site-response Estimation by 1D Heterogeneous Velocity Model using Borehole Log and its Relationship to Damping Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    In the Niigata area, which suffered from several large earthquakes such as the 2007 Chuetsu-oki earthquake, geographical observation that elucidates the S-wave structure of the underground is advancing. Modeling of S-wave velocity structure in the subsurface is underway to enable simulation of long-period ground motion. The one-dimensional velocity model by inverse analysis of micro-tremors is sufficiently appropriate for long-period site response but not for short-period, which is important for ground motion evaluation at NPP sites. The high-frequency site responses may be controlled by the strength of heterogeneity of underground structure because the heterogeneity of the 1D model plays an important role in estimating high-frequency site responses and is strongly related to the damping factor of the 1D layered velocity model. (author)

  9. 1D Atmosphere Models from Inversion of Fe i 630 nm Observations with an Application to Solar Irradiance Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristaldi, Alice; Ermolli, Ilaria, E-mail: alice.cristaldi@oaroma.inaf.it [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, I-00078 (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    Present-day semi-empirical models of solar irradiance (SI) variations reconstruct SI changes measured on timescales greater than a day by using spectra computed in one dimensional atmosphere models (1D models), which are representative of various solar surface features. Various recent studies have pointed out, however, that the spectra synthesized in 1D models do not reflect the radiative emission of the inhomogenous atmosphere revealed by high-resolution solar observations. We aimed to derive observation-based atmospheres from such observations and test their accuracy for SI estimates. We analyzed spectropolarimetric data of the Fe i 630 nm line pair in photospheric regions that are representative of the granular quiet-Sun pattern (QS) and of small- and large-scale magnetic features, both bright and dark with respect to the QS. The data were taken on 2011 August 6, with the CRisp Imaging Spectropolarimeter at the Swedish Solar Telescope, under excellent seeing conditions. We derived atmosphere models of the observed regions from data inversion with the SIR code. We studied the sensitivity of results to spatial resolution and temporal evolution, and discuss the obtained atmospheres with respect to several 1D models. The atmospheres derived from our study agree well with most of the 1D models we compare our results with, both qualitatively and quantitatively (within 10%), except for pore regions. Spectral synthesis computations of the atmosphere obtained from the QS observations return an SI between 400 and 2400 nm that agrees, on average, within 2.2% with standard reference measurements, and within −0.14% with the SI computed on the QS atmosphere employed by the most advanced semi-empirical model of SI variations.

  10. Simulated radiographic bone and joint modeling from 3D ankle MRI: feasibility and comparison with radiographs and 2D MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordeck, Shaun M. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical College, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Koerper, Conrad E.; Adler, Aaron [University of Texas Southwestern Medical College, Dallas, TX (United States); Malhotra, Vidur; Xi, Yin [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, George T. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to simulate radiographs from isotropic 3D MRI data, compare relationship of angle and joint space measurements on simulated radiographs with corresponding 2D MRIs and real radiographs (XR), and compare measurement times among the three modalities. Twenty-four consecutive ankles were included, eight males and 16 females, with a mean age of 46 years. Segmented joint models simulating radiographs were created from 3D MRI data sets. Three readers independently performed blinded angle and joint space measurements on the models, corresponding 2D MRIs, and XRs at two time points. Linear mixed models and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was ascertained, with p values less than 0.05 considered significant. Simulated radiograph models were successfully created in all cases. Good agreement (ICC > 0.65) was noted among all readers across all modalities and among most measurements. Absolute measurement values differed between modalities. Measurement time was significantly greater (p < 0.05) on 2D versus simulated radiographs for most measurements and on XR versus simulated radiographs (p < 0.05) for nearly half the measurements. Simulated radiographs can be successfully generated from 3D MRI data; however, measurements differ. Good inter-reader and moderate-to-good intra-reader reliability was observed and measurements obtained on simulated radiograph models took significantly less time compared to measurements with 2D and generally less time than XR. (orig.)

  11. Modeling Turkey National 2D Geo-Data Model as a CityGML Application Domain Extension in UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Ates Aydar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the generation of the 3D national geo-data model of Turkey, which is compatible with the international OGC CityGML Encoding Standard. We prepare an ADE named CityGML-TRKBIS that is produced by extending existing thematic modules of CityGML according to TRKBIS needs. All thematic data groups in TRKBIS geo-data model have been remodeled in order to generate the national large scale 3D geodata model for Turkey. Within the concept of reference model-driven framework for modelling CityGML ADEs in UML, the first step is conceptual mapping between CityGML and national information model. To test all stages of the framework for Urban GIS Turkey, Building data theme is mapped with CityGML-Building thematic model. All classes, attributes, code lists and code list values of the TRKBIS is tried to be mapped with related CityGML concept. New classes, attributes and code list values that will be added to CityGML Building model are determined based on this conceptual mapping. Finally the new model for CityGML-TRKBIS.BI is established in UML with subclassing of the related CityGML classes. This study provides new insights into 3D applications in Turkey. The generated 3D geo-data model for building thematic class will be used as a common exchange format that meets 2D, 2.5D and 3D implementation needs at national level.

  12. Comparison of 2D and 3D modeled tumor motion estimation/prediction for dynamic tumor tracking during arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Ma, Xiangyu; Yan, Huagang; Chen, Zhe; Nath, Ravinder; Li, Haiyun

    2017-05-01

    Many real-time imaging techniques have been developed to localize a target in 3D space or in a 2D beam’s eye view (BEV) plane for intrafraction motion tracking in radiation therapy. With tracking system latency, the 3D-modeled method is expected to be more accurate even in terms of 2D BEV tracking error. No quantitative analysis, however, has been reported. In this study, we simulated co-planar arc deliveries using respiratory motion data acquired from 42 patients to quantitatively compare the accuracy between 2D BEV and 3D-modeled tracking in arc therapy and to determine whether 3D information is needed for motion tracking. We used our previously developed low kV dose adaptive MV-kV imaging and motion compensation framework as a representative of 3D-modeled methods. It optimizes the balance between additional kV imaging dose and 3D tracking accuracy and solves the MLC blockage issue. With simulated Gaussian marker detection errors (zero mean and 0.39 mm standard deviation) and ~155/310/460 ms tracking system latencies, the mean percentage of time that the target moved  >2 mm from the predicted 2D BEV position are 1.1%/4.0%/7.8% and 1.3%/5.8%/11.6% for the 3D-modeled and 2D-only tracking, respectively. The corresponding average BEV RMS errors are 0.67/0.90/1.13 mm and 0.79/1.10/1.37 mm. Compared to the 2D method, the 3D method reduced the average RMS unresolved motion along the beam direction from ~3 mm to ~1 mm, resulting in on average only  <1% dosimetric advantage in the depth direction. Only for a small fraction of the patients, when tracking latency is long, the 3D-modeled method showed significant improvement of BEV tracking accuracy, indicating potential dosimetric advantage. However, if the tracking latency is short (~150 ms or less), those improvements are limited. Therefore, 2D BEV tracking has sufficient targeting accuracy for most clinical cases. The 3D technique is, however, still important in solving the MLC blockage problem

  13. Information on the gauge principle from an N=1/2, D=2 supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, S.A.; Doria, R.M.; Valle, J.L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The gauge principle does not only work to generate interactions. It potentially yields an abundance of gauge-potential fields transforming under the same local symmetry group. In order to show evidences of this property this work gauge-covariantizes an N = 1/2, D = 2 supersymmetric theory. Then, by relaxing the so-called conventional constraint, a second gauge-potential field naturally emerges. (author) [pt

  14. An evaluation of 1D loss model collections for the off-design performance prediction of automotive turbocharger compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, P; Spence, S; Early, J; Filsinger, D; Dietrich, M

    2013-01-01

    Single-zone modelling is used to assess different collections of impeller 1D loss models. Three collections of loss models have been identified in literature, and the background to each of these collections is discussed. Each collection is evaluated using three modern automotive turbocharger style centrifugal compressors; comparisons of performance for each of the collections are made. An empirical data set taken from standard hot gas stand tests for each turbocharger is used as a baseline for comparison. Compressor range is predicted in this study; impeller diffusion ratio is shown to be a useful method of predicting compressor surge in 1D, and choke is predicted using basic compressible flow theory. The compressor designer can use this as a guide to identify the most compatible collection of losses for turbocharger compressor design applications. The analysis indicates the most appropriate collection for the design of automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressors

  15. 2D Numerical Modelling of the Resin Injection Pultrusion Process Including Experimental Resin Kinetics and Temperature Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Salling; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Larsen, Martin

    In the present study, a two-dimensional (2D) transient Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis of a carbon fibre epoxy thermosetting Resin Injection Pultrusion (RIP) process is carried out. The numerical model is implemented using the well known unconditionally stable Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI...... inside the composite profile are validated by comparison with experimental measurements and good agreement is found....

  16. MOD_FreeSurf2D: a Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Model for Rivers, Streams, and Shallow Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    The MOD_FreeSurf2D, Modular Free Surface Flow in Two-Dimensions, computer model simulates free surface fluid flow in streams, rivers, and shallow estuaries under the assumptions of a well-mixed water column, a small water depth to width ratio, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The dependent variables in the model are free surface elevation, which provides total water depth, and fluid velocity. Primary advantages of MOD_FreeSurf2D relative to other two-dimensional models are a stable and computationally efficient numerical representation and a transparent representation of wetting and drying of the simulation domain. MOD_FreeSurf2D approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian numerical representation similar to the TRIM method (Casulli, 1990; Casulli and Cheng, 1992; Casulli, 1999). The semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach is computationally efficient because time steps can exceed the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) stability criterion without significant accuracy degradation (Robert, 1982; Casulli, 1990). The rectangular, Arakawa C-grid, finite-volume layout allows flooding and drying in response to changing flow conditions without prior channel specification or closed boundary specification. Open boundary conditions available in MOD_FreeSurf2D are specified flux, specified total water depth, specified velocity, radiation free surface, and radiation velocity. MOD_FreeSurf2D requires initial topography, undisturbed water depth, and Manning's roughness coefficient. MOD_FreeSurf2D simulated results are shown to converge to the semi-empirical solution for a simple straight channel case. Two applications demonstrate the accuracy of MOD_FreeSurf2D. The first application is the evolution of water depth in the dambreak-style flume experiment of Bellos et al. (1992). In this case, MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates the changing water depth in the flume during the experiment and models the wetting of

  17. Synaptic Deficits at Neuromuscular Junctions in Two Mouse Models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Emily L; Sleigh, James N; Morelli, Kathryn H; Pinter, Martin J; Burgess, Robert W; Seburn, Kevin L

    2016-03-16

    Patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2D (CMT2D), caused by dominant mutations in Glycl tRNA synthetase (GARS), present with progressive weakness, consistently in the hands, but often in the feet also. Electromyography shows denervation, and patients often report that early symptoms include cramps brought on by cold or exertion. Based on reported clinical observations, and studies of mouse models of CMT2D, we sought to determine whether weakened synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is an aspect of CMT2D. Quantal analysis of NMJs in two different mouse models of CMT2D (Gars(P278KY), Gars(C201R)), found synaptic deficits that correlated with disease severity and progressed with age. Results of voltage-clamp studies revealed presynaptic defects characterized by: (1) decreased frequency of spontaneous release without any change in quantal amplitude (miniature endplate current), (2) reduced amplitude of evoked release (endplate current) and quantal content, (3) age-dependent changes in the extent of depression in response to repetitive stimulation, and (4) release failures at some NMJs with high-frequency, long-duration stimulation. Drugs that modify synaptic efficacy were tested to see whether neuromuscular performance improved. The presynaptic action of 3,4 diaminopyridine was not beneficial, whereas postsynaptic-acting physostigmine did improve performance. Smaller mutant NMJs with correspondingly fewer vesicles and partial denervation that eliminates some release sites also contribute to the reduction of release at a proportion of mutant NMJs. Together, these voltage-clamp data suggest that a number of release processes, while essentially intact, likely operate suboptimally at most NMJs of CMT2D mice. We have uncovered a previously unrecognized aspect of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in mouse models of CMT2D. Synaptic dysfunction contributes to impaired neuromuscular performance and disease progression. This suggests that drugs which

  18. Horizontal stratified flow model for the 1-D module of WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2: modeling and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, J.; Frepoli, C.; Ohkawa, K.

    2011-01-01

    For a two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe, the individual phases may separate by gravity. This horizontal stratification significantly impacts the interfacial drag, interfacial heat transfer and wall drag of the two phase flow. For a PWR small break LOCA, the horizontal stratification in cold legs is a highly important phenomenon during loop seal clearance, boiloff and recovery periods. The low interfacial drag in the stratified flow directly controls the time period for the loop clearance and the level of residual water in the loop seal. Horizontal stratification in hot legs also impacts the natural circulation stage of a small break LOCA. In addition, the offtake phenomenon and cold leg condensation phenomenon are also affected by the occurrence of horizontal stratification in the cold legs. In the 1-D module of the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 computer code, a horizontal stratification criterion was developed by combining the Taitel-Dukler model and the Wallis-Dobson model, which approximates the viscous Kelvin-Helmholtz neutral stability boundary. The objective of this paper is to present the horizontal stratification model implemented in the code and its assessment against relevant data. The adequacy of the horizontal stratification transition criterion is confirmed by examining the code-predicted flow regime in a horizontal pipe with the measured data in the flow regime map. The void fractions (or liquid level) for the horizontal stratified flow in cold leg or hot leg are predicted with a reasonable accuracy. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Experiments on a Twin Scroll Turbocharger Turbine for Calibration of a Complex 1-D Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žák Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the contribution is to describe the process of measurement on a twin entry turbocharger turbine, and evaluation of obtained data. A specific feature of the twin entry turbine measurement is the separation of turbine sections. It is necessary to control different conditions in each section to achieve partial admission of the turbine impeller. The results are fundamental for the calibration process of a developed physical 1-D model of a radial turbine with twin scroll.

  20. Comparing plasma fluid models of different order for 1D streamer ionization fronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Markosyan (Aram); H.J. Teunissen (Jannis); S. Dujko (Sasa); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe evaluate the performance of three plasma fluid models: the first order reaction-drift-diffusion model based on the local field approximation; the second order reaction-drift-diffusion model based on the local energy approximation and a recently developed high order fluid model by

  1. Statistical coronary motion models for 2D + t/3D registration of X-ray coronary angiography and CTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baka, N.; Metz, C. T.; Schultz, C.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate alignment of intra-operative X-ray coronary angiography (XA) and pre-operative cardiac CT angiography (CTA) may improve procedural success rates of minimally invasive coronary interventions for patients with chronic total occlusions. It was previously shown that incorporating patient...... motion models to provide constraints for the 2D+t/3D registration. We propose a methodology for building statistical motion models of the coronary arteries from a training population of 4D CTA datasets. We compare the 2D+t/3D registration performance of the proposed statistical models with other motion...... estimates, including the patient specific motion extracted from 4D CTA, the mean motion of a population, the predicted motion based on the cardiac shape. The coronary motion models, constructed on a training set of 150 patients, had a generalization accuracy of 1mm root mean square point-to-point distance...

  2. Non-stationary covariance function modelling in 2D least-squares collocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbeheshti, N.; Featherstone, W. E.

    2009-06-01

    Standard least-squares collocation (LSC) assumes 2D stationarity and 3D isotropy, and relies on a covariance function to account for spatial dependence in the observed data. However, the assumption that the spatial dependence is constant throughout the region of interest may sometimes be violated. Assuming a stationary covariance structure can result in over-smoothing of, e.g., the gravity field in mountains and under-smoothing in great plains. We introduce the kernel convolution method from spatial statistics for non-stationary covariance structures, and demonstrate its advantage for dealing with non-stationarity in geodetic data. We then compared stationary and non- stationary covariance functions in 2D LSC to the empirical example of gravity anomaly interpolation near the Darling Fault, Western Australia, where the field is anisotropic and non-stationary. The results with non-stationary covariance functions are better than standard LSC in terms of formal errors and cross-validation against data not used in the interpolation, demonstrating that the use of non-stationary covariance functions can improve upon standard (stationary) LSC.

  3. Finite element modeling and experimental characterization of crosstalk in 1-D CMUT arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Baris; Kupnik, Mario; Yaralioglu, Goksen G; Oralkan, Omer; Ergun, Arif Sanli; Lin, Der-Song; Wong, Serena H; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2007-02-01

    Crosstalk is the coupling of energy between the elements of an ultrasonic transducer array. This coupling degrades the performance of transducers in applications such as medical imaging and therapeutics. In this paper, we present an experimental demonstration of guided interface waves in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). We compare the experimental results to finite element calculations using a commercial package (LS-DYNA) for a 1-D CMUT array operating in the conventional and collapsed modes. An element in the middle of the array was excited with a unipolar voltage pulse, and the displacements were measured using a laser interferometer along the center line of the array elements immersed in soybean oil. We repeated the measurements for an identical CMUT array covered with a 4.5-microm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer. The main crosstalk mechanism is the dispersive guided modes propagating in the fluid-solid interface. Although the transmitter element had a center frequency of 5.8 MHz with a 130% fractional bandwidth in the conventional operation, the dispersive guided mode was observed with the maximum amplitude at a frequency of 2.1 MHz, and had a cut-off frequency of 4 MHz. In the collapsed operation, the dispersive guided mode was observed with the maximum amplitude at a frequency of 4.0 MHz, and had a cut-off frequency of 10 MHz. Crosstalk level was lower in the collapsed operation (-39 dB) than in the conventional operation (-24.4 dB). The coverage of the PDMS did not significantly affect the crosstalk level, but reduced the phase velocity for both operation modes. Lamb wave modes, A0 and S0, were also observed with crosstalk levels of -40 dB and -65 dB, respectively. We observed excellent agreement between the finite element and the experimental results.

  4. FireStem2D — A two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthalia K. Chatziefstratiou; Gil Bohrer; Anthony S. Bova; Ravishankar Subramanian; Renato P.M. Frasson; Amy Scherzer; Bret W. Butler; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2013-01-01

    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by...

  5. Modeling the seismic response of 2D models of asteroid 433 Eros, based on the spectral-element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Celine; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Lognonné, Philippe; Martin, Roland; Le Goff, Nicolas

    The understanding of the interior structure of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) is a fundamental issue to determine their evolution and origin, and also, to design possible mitigation techniques (Walker and Huebner, 2004). Indeed, if an oncoming Potentially Hazardous Object (PHO) were to threaten the Earth, numerous methods are suggested to prevent it from colliding our planet. Such mitigation techniques may involve nuclear explosives on or below the object surface, impact by a projectile, or concentration of solar energy using giant mirrors (Holsapple, 2004). The energy needed in such mitigation techniques highly depends on the porosity of the hazardous threatening object (asteroid or comet), as suggested by Holsapple, 2004. Thus, for a given source, the seismic response of a coherent homogeneous asteroid should be very different from the seismic response of a fractured or rubble-pile asteroid. To assess this hypothesis, we performed numerical simulations of wave propagation in different interior models of the Near Earth Asteroid 433 Eros. The simulations of wave propagation required a shape model of asteroid Eros, kindly provided by A. Cheng and O. Barnouin-Jha (personal communication). A cross-section along the longest axis has been chosen to define our 2D geometrical model, and we study two models of the interior: a homogeneous one, and a complex one characterized by fault networks below the main crosscut craters, and covered by a regolith layer of thickness ranging from 50 m to 150 m. To perform the numerical simulations we use the spectral-element method, which solves the variational weak form of the seismic wave equation (Komatitsch and Tromp, 1999) on the meshes of the 2D models of asteroid Eros. The homogeneous model is composed of an elastic material characterized by a pressure wave velocity Vp = 3000 m.s-1 , a shear wave velocity Vs = 1700 m.s-1 and a density of 2700 kg.m-3 . The fractured model possesses the same characteristics except for the presence of

  6. Evaluating 3-D and 1-D mathematical models for mass transport in heterogeneous biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Eberl, H.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

    2000-01-01

    Results from a three dimensional model for heterogeneous biofilms including the numerical solution of hydrodynamics were compared to simplified one dimensional models. A one dimensional model with a variable diffusion coefficient over the thickness of the biofilm was well suited to approximate av...... in a growing biofilm and in a mushroom type biofilm assuming different modes of detachment....

  7. 1D layered velocity models and microseismic event locations: synthetic examples for a case with a single linear receiver array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Jubran; Eaton, David W.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss various aspects of 1D velocity-model building for application to microseismic data analysis. We generate simple synthetic example data using a widely used single linear array geometry. The synthetic data contain 30 sources with known locations for a reference model based on previous studies of the Barnett shale. We investigate several key factors that should be considered, including selection of the calibration technique, inclusion of a priori information such as lateral heterogeneity and parameter ranges, and choice of algorithm for travel time computations. For the source-receiver geometry considered here, hypocenter location errors (±6 m in X and ±12 m in Z) can result from differently calibrated models only and without including the errors in picked arrival times and polarization estimates. We find that the errors in hypocenter locations are reduced (±3 m in X and ±6 m in Z) when a model calibrated with multiple shots simultaneously is used. Using four different models (vertical fault, dipping layers, channels, and these effects combined), we demonstrate that systematic errors in hypocenter locations can result when a 1D layered model is used in lieu of a laterally heterogeneous subsurface. Finally, we show that event locations from a velocity model calibrated using direct-arrival times are more stable than from a model calibrated with first-arrival times.

  8. A Coupled Model of the 1D River Network and 3D Estuary Based on Hydrodynamics and Suspended Sediment Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available River networks and estuaries are very common in coastal areas. Runoff from the upper stream interacts with tidal current from open sea in these two systems, leading to a complex hydrodynamics process. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the two systems as a whole to study the flow and suspended sediment transport. Firstly, a 1D model is established in the Pearl River network and a 3D model is applied in its estuary. As sufficient mass exchanges between the river network and its estuary, a strict mathematical relationship of water level at the interfaces can be adopted to couple the 1D model with the 3D model. By doing so, the coupled model does not need to have common nested grids. The river network exchanges the suspended sediment with its estuary by adding the continuity conditions at the interfaces. The coupled model is, respectively, calibrated in the dry season and the wet season. The results demonstrate that the coupled model works excellently in simulating water level and discharge. Although there are more errors in simulating suspended sediment concentration due to some reasons, the coupled model is still good enough to evaluate the suspended sediment transport in river network and estuary systems.

  9. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone to estimate CYP2D6 subpopulations in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Catherine M. T.; Saldaña, Shannon N.; Bies, Robert R.; Aman, Michael G.; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    AIM The study aims were to characterize risperidone and (±)-9-hydroxyrisperidone pharmacokinetic variability in children and adolescents and to evaluate covariate effects on pharmacokinetic parameters. METHODS Steady-state samples were drawn at pre-dose, 1, 2, 4, and 7 hours post-dose; CYP2D6 genotypes were available for 28 subjects. A non-linear mixed-effects model (NONMEM®) modeled the pharmacokinetics of risperidone and (±)-9-hydroxyrisperidone; covariates included age, weight, sex, and CYP2D6 phenotype. The model included 497 observations [risperidone (n=163), (+) and (−) 9-hydroxyrisperidone (n=334)] from 45 subjects aged 3–18.3 (mean 9.6±3.7) years, weighing 16.8–110 (43±20.2) kg. RESULTS A one-compartment mixture model described risperidone and (±)-9-hydroxyrisperidone clearances for three CYP2D6 metabolizer subpopulations: extensive (EM), intermediate (IM), and poor (PM). Weight significantly affected (±)-9-hydroxyrisperidone clearance. Clearance estimates in the mixture model were PM 9.38 L/h, IM 29.2 L/h, and EM 37.4 L/h. CONCLUSION Active moiety [risperidone plus (±)-9-hydroxyrisperidone] pharmacokinetic variability and the covariate effects were better explained with addition of metabolite pharmacokinetic parameters. This model may aid development of individualized risperidone dosing regimens in children and adolescents. PMID:22929407

  10. Atmospheric Nitrogen Trifluoride: Optimized emission estimates using 2-D and 3-D Chemical Transport Models from 1973-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We present optimized annual global emissions from 1973-2008 of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a powerful greenhouse gas which is not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. In the past few decades, NF3 production has dramatically increased due to its usage in the semiconductor industry. Emissions were estimated through the 'pulse-method' discrete Kalman filter using both a simple, flexible 2-D 12-box model used in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network and the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v4.5), a full 3-D atmospheric chemistry model. No official audited reports of industrial NF3 emissions are available, and with limited information on production, a priori emissions were estimated using both a bottom-up and top-down approach with two different spatial patterns based on semiconductor perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v3.2) and Semiconductor Industry Association sales information. Both spatial patterns used in the models gave consistent results, showing the robustness of the estimated global emissions. Differences between estimates using the 2-D and 3-D models can be attributed to transport rates and resolution differences. Additionally, new NF3 industry production and market information is presented. Emission estimates from both the 2-D and 3-D models suggest that either the assumed industry release rate of NF3 or industry production information is still underestimated.

  11. Quantization of Energy in 1D Model of Crystal Lattice with Local Perturbations Induced by Ion-Beam Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minárik Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose theoretical basis for investigation of dynamics of acoustic phonons in a thin layers containing nano-scale structural inhomogeneities. One-dimensional (1D model of a crystal lattice was considered to reveal specific features of the processes arising in such system of phonons in equilibrium state. Standard quantization of energy of 1D ionic chain vibrating by acoustic frequencies was carried out while the presence of foreign ions in this chain was taken into account. Since only two dimensions are dominant in thin layers, only longitudinal vibrations of the chain in the plane of the layer were considered. Results showed that foreign ions affect the energy quantization. Phonon-phonon interaction between two phonon`s modes can be expected if the mass of foreign ions implanted by ion-beam differs from the mass of ions in the initial layer.

  12. Parameter sensitivity analysis of a 1-D cold region lake model for land-surface schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, José-Luis; Pernica, Patricia; Wheater, Howard; Mackay, Murray; Spence, Chris

    2017-12-01

    Lakes might be sentinels of climate change, but the uncertainty in their main feedback to the atmosphere - heat-exchange fluxes - is often not considered within climate models. Additionally, these fluxes are seldom measured, hindering critical evaluation of model output. Analysis of the Canadian Small Lake Model (CSLM), a one-dimensional integral lake model, was performed to assess its ability to reproduce diurnal and seasonal variations in heat fluxes and the sensitivity of simulated fluxes to changes in model parameters, i.e., turbulent transport parameters and the light extinction coefficient (Kd). A C++ open-source software package, Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE), was used to perform sensitivity analysis (SA) and identify the parameters that dominate model behavior. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) was applied to quantify the fluxes' uncertainty, comparing daily-averaged eddy-covariance observations to the output of CSLM. Seven qualitative and two quantitative SA methods were tested, and the posterior likelihoods of the modeled parameters, obtained from the GLUE analysis, were used to determine the dominant parameters and the uncertainty in the modeled fluxes. Despite the ubiquity of the equifinality issue - different parameter-value combinations yielding equivalent results - the answer to the question was unequivocal: Kd, a measure of how much light penetrates the lake, dominates sensible and latent heat fluxes, and the uncertainty in their estimates is strongly related to the accuracy with which Kd is determined. This is important since accurate and continuous measurements of Kd could reduce modeling uncertainty.

  13. Simulated radiographic bone and joint modeling from 3D ankle MRI: feasibility and comparison with radiographs and 2D MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeck, Shaun M; Koerper, Conrad E; Adler, Aaron; Malhotra, Vidur; Xi, Yin; Liu, George T; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to simulate radiographs from isotropic 3D MRI data, compare relationship of angle and joint space measurements on simulated radiographs with corresponding 2D MRIs and real radiographs (XR), and compare measurement times among the three modalities. Twenty-four consecutive ankles were included, eight males and 16 females, with a mean age of 46 years. Segmented joint models simulating radiographs were created from 3D MRI data sets. Three readers independently performed blinded angle and joint space measurements on the models, corresponding 2D MRIs, and XRs at two time points. Linear mixed models and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was ascertained, with p values less than 0.05 considered significant. Simulated radiograph models were successfully created in all cases. Good agreement (ICC > 0.65) was noted among all readers across all modalities and among most measurements. Absolute measurement values differed between modalities. Measurement time was significantly greater (p 3D MRI data; however, measurements differ. Good inter-reader and moderate-to-good intra-reader reliability was observed and measurements obtained on simulated radiograph models took significantly less time compared to measurements with 2D and generally less time than XR.

  14. A 1-D model of the nonlinear dynamics of the human lumbar intervertebral disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Giacomo; Huber, Gerd; Püschel, Klaus; Ferguson, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Lumped parameter models of the spine have been developed to investigate its response to whole body vibration. However, these models assume the behaviour of the intervertebral disc to be linear-elastic. Recently, the authors have reported on the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of the human lumbar intervertebral disc. This response was shown to be dependent on the applied preload and amplitude of the stimuli. However, the mechanical properties of a standard linear elastic model are not dependent on the current deformation state of the system. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a model that is able to describe the axial, nonlinear quasi-static response and to predict the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the disc. The ability to adapt the model to an individual disc's response was a specific focus of the study, with model validation performed against prior experimental data. The influence of the numerical parameters used in the simulations was investigated. The developed model exhibited an axial quasi-static and dynamic response, which agreed well with the corresponding experiments. However, the model needs further improvement to capture additional peculiar characteristics of the system dynamics, such as the change of mean point of oscillation exhibited by the specimens when oscillating in the region of nonlinear resonance. Reference time steps were identified for specific integration scheme. The study has demonstrated that taking into account the nonlinear-elastic behaviour typical of the intervertebral disc results in a predicted system oscillation much closer to the physiological response than that provided by linear-elastic models. For dynamic analysis, the use of standard linear-elastic models should be avoided, or restricted to study cases where the amplitude of the stimuli is relatively small.

  15. Parameter sensitivity analysis of a 1-D cold region lake model for land-surface schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Guerrero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lakes might be sentinels of climate change, but the uncertainty in their main feedback to the atmosphere – heat-exchange fluxes – is often not considered within climate models. Additionally, these fluxes are seldom measured, hindering critical evaluation of model output. Analysis of the Canadian Small Lake Model (CSLM, a one-dimensional integral lake model, was performed to assess its ability to reproduce diurnal and seasonal variations in heat fluxes and the sensitivity of simulated fluxes to changes in model parameters, i.e., turbulent transport parameters and the light extinction coefficient (Kd. A C++ open-source software package, Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE, was used to perform sensitivity analysis (SA and identify the parameters that dominate model behavior. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE was applied to quantify the fluxes' uncertainty, comparing daily-averaged eddy-covariance observations to the output of CSLM. Seven qualitative and two quantitative SA methods were tested, and the posterior likelihoods of the modeled parameters, obtained from the GLUE analysis, were used to determine the dominant parameters and the uncertainty in the modeled fluxes. Despite the ubiquity of the equifinality issue – different parameter-value combinations yielding equivalent results – the answer to the question was unequivocal: Kd, a measure of how much light penetrates the lake, dominates sensible and latent heat fluxes, and the uncertainty in their estimates is strongly related to the accuracy with which Kd is determined. This is important since accurate and continuous measurements of Kd could reduce modeling uncertainty.

  16. Using a 1-D model to reproduce the diurnal variability of SST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.; Donlon, Craig J.

    2017-01-01

    preferred approach to bridge the gap between in situ and remotely sensed measurements and obtain diurnal warming estimates at large spatial scales is modeling of the upper ocean temperature. This study uses the one-dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) to resolve diurnal signals identified from...... forcing fields and is able to resolve daily SST variability seen both from satellite and in situ measurements. As such, and due to its low computational cost, it is proposed as a candidate model for diurnal variability estimates....

  17. A 2D hydrodynamic-sedimentological model for gravel-bed rivers. Part I: theory and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Kaless; Mario A. Lenzi; Luca Mao

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel 2D-depth average model especially developed for gravel-bed rivers, named Lican-Leufú (Lican=pebble and Leufu=river, in Mapuche’s language, the native inhabitants of Central Patagonia, Argentina). The model consists of three components: a hydrodynamic, a sedimentological, and a morphological model. The flow of water is described by the depth-averaged Reynolds equations for unsteady, free-surface, shallow water flows. It includes the standard k-e model for turbulence...

  18. Minimum 1D P wave velocity model for the Cordillera Volcanica de Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, Maria C.; Linkimer, Lepolt; Taylor, Waldo

    2016-01-01

    A minimum velocity model is derived from 475 local earthquakes registered by the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico Arenal Miravalles (OSIVAM) for the Cordillera Volcanica de Guanacaste, between January 2006 and July 2014. The model has consisted of six layers from the surface up to 80 km the depth. The model has presented speeds varying between 3,96 and 7,79 km/s. The corrections obtained from the seismic stations have varied between -0,28 to 0,45, and they have shown a trend of positive values on the volcanic arc and negative on the forearc, in concordance with the crustal thickness. The relocation of earthquakes have presented three main groups of epicenters that could be associated with activity in inferred failures. The minimum ID velocity model has provided a simplified idea of the crustal structure and aims to contribute with the improvement of the routine location of earthquakes performed by OSIVAM. (author) [es

  19. Interaction of a single mode field cavity with the 1D XY model: Energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonchev, H; Donkov, A A; Chamati, H

    2016-01-01

    In this work we use the fundamental in quantum optics Jaynes-Cummings model to study the response of spin 1/2chain to a single mode of a laser light falling on one of the spins, a focused interaction model between the light and the spin chain. For the spin-spin interaction along the chain we use the XY model. We report here the exact analytical results, obtained with the help of a computer algebra system, for the energy spectrum in this model for chains of up to 4 spins with nearest neighbors interactions, either for open or cyclic chain configurations. Varying the sign and magnitude of the spin exchange coupling relative to the light-spin interaction we have investigated both cases of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin chains. (paper)

  20. Analytical 1D models of the wall thermal resistance of rectangular minichannels applied in heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybiński Witold

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents four 1-dimensional models of thermal resistance of walls in a heat exchanger with rectangular minichannels. The first model is the simplest one, with a single wall separating two fluids. The second model of the so called equivalent wall takes into account total volume of intermediate walls between layers of minichannels and of side walls of minichannels. The next two more complicated models take separately into account thermal resistance of these walls. In these two models side walls are treated as fins. The results of models comparison are presented. It is shown that thermal resistance may be neglected for metal walls but it should be taken into account for the walls made of plastics. For the case of non-neglected wall thermal resistance the optimum wall thickness was derived. Minichannel heat exchangers made of plastic are larger than those built of metal, but are significantly cheaper. It makes possible to use of such exchangers in inexpensive microscale ORC installations.

  1. SU-E-T-05: A 2D EPID Transit Dosimetry Model Based On An Empirical Quadratic Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Y; Metwaly, M; Glegg, M; Baggarley, S; Elliott, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a 2D electronic portal imaging device (EPID) transit dosimetry model, based on an empirical quadratic formalism, that can predict either EPID or in-phantom dose distribution for comparisons with EPID captured image or treatment planning system (TPS) dose respectively. Methods: A quadratic equation can be used to relate the reduction in intensity of an exit beam to the equivalent path length of the attenuator. The calibration involved deriving coefficients from a set of dose planes measured for homogeneous phantoms with known thicknesses under reference conditions. In this study, calibration dose planes were measured with EPID and ionisation chamber (IC) in water for the same reference beam (6MV, 100mu, 20×20cm 2 ) and set of thicknesses (0–30cm). Since the same calibration conditions were used, the EPID and IC measurements can be related through the quadratic equation. Consequently, EPID transit dose can be predicted from TPS exported dose planes and in-phantom dose can be predicted using EPID distribution captured during treatment as an input. The model was tested with 4 open fields, 6 wedge fields, and 7 IMRT fields on homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. Comparisons were done using 2D absolute gamma (3%/3mm) and results were validated against measurements with a commercial 2D array device. Results: The gamma pass rates for comparisons between EPID measured and predicted ranged from 93.6% to 100.0% for all fields and phantoms tested. Results from this study agreed with 2D array measurements to within 3.1%. Meanwhile, comparisons in-phantom between TPS computed and predicted ranged from 91.6% to 100.0%. Validation with 2D array device was not possible for inphantom comparisons. Conclusion: A 2D EPID transit dosimetry model for treatment verification was described and proven to be accurate. The model has the advantage of being generic and allows comparisons at the EPID plane as well as multiple planes in-phantom

  2. Bone and joint modeling from 3D knee MRI: feasibility and comparison with radiographs and 2D MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Malhotra, Vidur; Xi, Yin; Nordeck, Shaun; Coyner, Katherine; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate feasibility of bone and joint segmentations from three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI). Segmented joint models from 3D MRI data set were obtained for 42 patients. Blinded angular and joint space measurements were performed on 3D MRI model, two-dimensional (2D) MRI, and radiography (XR). Medial joint space was similar on both XR and 3D MRI (P=.3). The XR measurements were statistically different but closer to 3D MRI for lateral patellar tilt angle, patellar tendon length, and lateral knee joint space, whereas 2D MRI measurements were closer to XR in terms of trochlear depth, sulcal angle, and patellar length. 3D bone and joint segmentations are feasible from isotropic MRI data sets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Partitioning of evaporation into transpiration, soil evaporation and interception: a comparison between isotope measurements and a HYDRUS-1D model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Sutanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the water fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system is crucial to improve water use efficiency in irrigated land. Many studies have tried to quantify these fluxes, but they encountered difficulties in quantifying the relative contribution of evaporation and transpiration. In this study, we compared three different methods to estimate evaporation fluxes during simulated summer conditions in a grass-covered lysimeter in the laboratory. Only two of these methods can be used to partition total evaporation into transpiration, soil evaporation and interception. A water balance calculation (whereby rainfall, soil moisture and percolation were measured was used for comparison as a benchmark. A HYDRUS-1D model and isotope measurements were used for the partitioning of total evaporation. The isotope mass balance method partitions total evaporation of 3.4 mm d−1 into 0.4 mm d−1 for soil evaporation, 0.3 mm d−1 for interception and 2.6 mm d−1 for transpiration, while the HYDRUS-1D partitions total evaporation of 3.7 mm d−1 into 1 mm d−1 for soil evaporation, 0.3 mm d−1 for interception and 2.3 mm d−1 for transpiration. From the comparison, we concluded that the isotope mass balance is better for low temporal resolution analysis than the HYDRUS-1D. On the other hand, HYDRUS-1D is better for high temporal resolution analysis than the isotope mass balance.

  4. Fast time-domain modeling of fluid-coupled cMUT cells: from the single cell to the 1-D linear array element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénégond, Nicolas; Boulmé, Audren; Plag, Camille; Teston, Franck; Certon, Dominique

    2013-07-01

    We report a fast time-domain model of fluid-coupled cMUTs developed to predict the transient response-i.e., the impulse pressure response--of an element of a linear 1-D array. Mechanical equations of the cMUT diaphragm are solved with 2-D finite-difference schemes. The time-domain solving method is a fourth--order Runge-Kutta algorithm. The model takes into account the electrostatic nonlinearity and the contact with the bottom electrode when the membrane is collapsed. Mutual acoustic coupling between cells is introduced through the numerical implementation of analytical solutions of the impulse diffraction theory established in the case of acoustic sources with rectangular geometry. Processing times are very short: they vary from a few minutes for a single cell to a maximum of 30 min for one element of an array. After a description of the model, the impact of the nonlinearity and the pull-in/pull-out phenomena on the dynamic behavior of the cMUT diaphragm is discussed. Experimental results of mechanical displacements obtained by interferometric measurements and the acoustic pressure field are compared with simulations. Different excitation signals-high-frequency bandwidth pulses and toneburst excitations of varying central frequency-were chosen to compare theory with experimental results.

  5. A new approach for assimilation of 2D radar precipitation in a high-resolution NWP model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Ulrik Smith; Petersen, Claus; Sass, Bent Hansen

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for assimilation of 2D precipitation in numerical weather prediction models is presented and tested in a case with convective, heavy precipitation. In the scheme a nudging term is added to the horizontal velocity divergence tendency equation. In case of underproduction of precipita...... precipitation rates. In this meteorological case, the usage of the nudging procedure has been shown to improve the prediction of heavy precipitation substantially....

  6. CATHARE Multi-1D Modeling of Coolant Mixing in VVER-1000 for RIA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Spasov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents validation results for multichannel vessel thermal-hydraulic models in CATHARE used in coupled 3D neutronic/thermal hydraulic calculations. The mixing is modeled with cross flows governed by local pressure drops. The test cases are from the OECD VVER-1000 coolant transient benchmark (V1000CT and include asymmetric vessel flow transients and main steam line break (MSLB transients. Plant data from flow mixing experiments are available for comparison. Sufficient mesh refinement with up to 24 sectors in the vessel is considered for acceptable resolution. The results demonstrate the applicability of such validated thermal-hydraulic models to MSLB scenarios involving thermal mixing, azimuthal flow rotation, and primary pump trip. An acceptable trade-off between accuracy and computational efficiency can be obtained.

  7. A self-consistent kinetic modeling of a 1-D, bounded, plasma in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A self-consistent kinetic treatment is presented here, where the Boltzmann equation is solved for a particle ... This paper reports on the findings of a kinetic code that retains col- lisions and sources, models ..... was used in the runs reported in this paper, the source of particles is modified from the explicit source Л(Ъ).

  8. Modeling ARRM Xenon Tank Pressurization Using 1D Thermodynamic and Heat Transfer Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Patrick; Tomsik, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    As a first step in understanding what ground support equipment (GSE) is required to provide external cooling during the loading of 5,000 kg of xenon into 4 aluminum lined composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), a modeling analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. The goals of the analysis were to predict xenon temperature and pressure throughout loading at the launch facility, estimate the time required to load one tank, and to get an early estimate of what provisions for cooling xenon might be needed while the tanks are being filled. The model uses the governing thermodynamic and heat transfer equations to achieve these goals. Results indicate that a single tank can be loaded in about 15 hours with reasonable external coolant requirements. The model developed in this study was successfully validated against flight and test data. The first data set is from the Dawn mission which also utilizes solar electric propulsion with xenon propellant, and the second is test data from the rapid loading of a hydrogen cylindrical COPV. The main benefit of this type of model is that the governing physical equations using bulk fluid solid temperatures can provide a quick and accurate estimate of the state of the propellant throughout loading which is much cheaper in terms of computational time and licensing costs than a Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis while capturing the majority of the thermodynamics and heat transfer.

  9. Modeling Physiological Systems in the Human Body as Networks of Quasi-1D Fluid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Anne

    2008-11-01

    Extensive research has been done on modeling human physiology. Most of this work has been aimed at developing detailed, three-dimensional models of specific components of physiological systems, such as a cell, a vein, a molecule, or a heart valve. While efforts such as these are invaluable to our understanding of human biology, if we were to construct a global model of human physiology with this level of detail, computing even a nanosecond in this computational being's life would certainly be prohibitively expensive. With this in mind, we derive the Pulsed Flow Equations, a set of coupled one-dimensional partial differential equations, specifically designed to capture two-dimensional viscous, transport, and other effects, and aimed at providing accurate and fast-to-compute global models for physiological systems represented as networks of quasi one-dimensional fluid flows. Our goal is to be able to perform faster-than-real time simulations of global processes in the human body on desktop computers.

  10. Breach modelling by overflow with TELEMAC 2D: comparison with largescale experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laroche Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An erosion law has been implemented in TELEMAC 2D to represent the surface erosion process to represent the breach formation of a levee. We focus on homogeneous and earth fill levee to simplify this first implementation. The first part of this study reveals the ability of this method to represent simultaneously both formations of the breach and the scour hole at the rear of the levee. The resistance or no of the levee seems consistent with the resistance of the soil material given by a standard classification. But this first part has showed that the lateral development of the breach cannot be represented. In the second part of this study, a simply widening of the breach method based on continuous surface erosion process, has been implemented. The comparison with large scale experiments which has been made, shows that both dynamics of the breach formation and the width are not correctly estimated with the only one surface erosion process. Further developments have to be done to integrate the headcut erosion process and mass failure as sliding of the sides of the breach or undercutting.

  11. Hydrogéologie en zone de socle cristallin et cristallophyllien du Sénégal oriental : application de la méthode électrique 1D et 2D à la localisation et à la caractérisation des aquifères du batholite de Saraya et ses environs

    OpenAIRE

    Diouf, Same

    1999-01-01

    Dans la zone du socle cristallin et cristallophyllien du Sénégal oriental, et plus particulièrement dans le secteur du batholite de Saraya, diverses approches conjointes ont été mises en oeuvre en vue de localiser et de caractériser les aquifères, zones favorables à des captages hydrauliques. Il s'agit de la télédétection satellitaire SPOT, de la géologie, de la géophysique (l'électrique 1D et la multiélectrode 2D), de la piézomètrie et de l'hydrochimie. Ces travaux ont permis de : localiser ...

  12. Tentative study of flow patterns in the North Aegean Sea using NOAA-AVHRR images and 2D model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zodiatis

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available A statistical technique for image processing, the maximum cross correlation (MCC method, was utilized on sequences of NOAA-AVHRR thermal data in order to explore the surface advective current dynamics at the discharge region of the Hellespont in the North Aegean Sea. A 2D numerical flow model was also used in order to simulate the barotropic flow pattern of the surface water layer. The model was forced with diurnal wind fields obtained for the same period as the satellite infrared images. The currents (magnitude and direction derived from the two methods compare satisfactorily despite the fact that some model simplifications were made.

  13. Universality for 1d Random Band Matrices: Sigma-Model Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, Mariya; Shcherbina, Tatyana

    2018-02-01

    The paper continues the development of the rigorous supersymmetric transfer matrix approach to the random band matrices started in (J Stat Phys 164:1233-1260, 2016; Commun Math Phys 351:1009-1044, 2017). We consider random Hermitian block band matrices consisting of W× W random Gaussian blocks (parametrized by j,k \\in Λ =[1,n]^d\\cap Z^d ) with a fixed entry's variance J_{jk}=δ _{j,k}W^{-1}+β Δ _{j,k}W^{-2} , β >0 in each block. Taking the limit W→ ∞ with fixed n and β , we derive the sigma-model approximation of the second correlation function similar to Efetov's one. Then, considering the limit β , n→ ∞, we prove that in the dimension d=1 the behaviour of the sigma-model approximation in the bulk of the spectrum, as β ≫ n , is determined by the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics.

  14. 1D Forward Modeling of Regional Electrical Conductivity Structure Using Mineral Physics Constraints and Seismic Observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffelmier, D. A.; Tyburczy, J. A.; Du Frane, W. L.; Roberts, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    Regional magnetotelluric (MT) studies are forward modeled to include new and relevant mineral physics constraints and seismic observations. Two MT studies; Superior Craton, Canada (Schultz et al., 1993) and the French Alps (Tarits et al., 2004) are forward modeled using recent olivine conductivity measurements made by Xu et al. (2000), and Du Frane et al. (2005) with an elevated electrical conductivity zone (-2.5 < log(σ - S/m) < -2) between approximately 200-400 km depth. The onset of this elevated conductivity zone roughly corresponds with the Lehmann seismic discontinuity and could signal a change in the deformation mechanism in major mantle minerals, or perhaps, the presence of mantle water (Karato 1992). Models have also been developed that incorporate a thin melt layer immediately above the 410 km seismic discontinuity, as proposed by Bercovici and Karato (2003). Although the exact electrical conductivity and thickness of this melt layer are quite speculative, a 10 km thick layer with a conductivity of approximately 1 order of magnitude or greater than that of the transition zone would be consistent with experimental constraints and should be detectable by long period MT measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48.

  15. Lumped mass model of a 1D metastructure for vibration suppression with no additional mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Katherine K.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2017-09-01

    The article examines the effectiveness of metastructures for vibration suppression from a weight standpoint. Metastructures, a metamaterial inspired concept, are structures with distributed vibration absorbers. In automotive and aerospace industries, it is critical to have low levels of vibrations while also using lightweight materials. Previous work has shown that metastructures are effective at mitigating vibrations, but do not consider the effects of mass. This work takes mass into consideration by comparing a structure with vibration absorbers to a structure of equal mass with no absorbers. These structures are modeled as one-dimensional lumped mass models, chosen for simplicity. Results compare both the steady-state and the transient responses. As a quantitative performance measure, the H2 norm, which is related to the area under the frequency response function, is calculated and compared for both the metastructure and the baseline structure. These results show that it is possible to obtain a favorable vibration response without adding additional mass to the structure. Additionally, the performance measure is utilized to optimize the geometry of the structure, determine the optimal ratio of mass in the absorber to mass of the host structure, and determine the frequencies of the absorbers. The dynamic response of this model is verified using a finite element analysis.

  16. PHREEQC modelling of concrete/clay interactions in a 2D geometry with explicit effect of porosity evolution on transport properties due to mineralogical changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claret, F.; Marty, N.C.M.; Tournassat, C.; Gaboreau, S.; Burnol, A.; Chiaberge, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Munier, I.; Cochepin, B.; Michau, N.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the context of deep repository for radioactive waste, significant use of concrete will be made. This material constitutes a compromise between properties, technical uses and costs. Within the French concepts, concrete will be used to build access structures, drifts as well as waste disposal cells and waste packages for Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW). With this design, concrete will be at the interface with either/both the host rock, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites in our case, and/or the clay plug built with swelling clay such as bentonite. Due to the chemical disequilibrium between concrete and clay, chemical reactions can modify both chemical and physical properties of these materials (e.g. mineralogical composition, diffusion coefficient...). In order to assess the long term behaviour of concrete/clay interfaces and the evolution of their properties with time, predictive modelling have to be performed. The high chemical contrast (e.g. pH or pe at the interface) often leads to problems of numerical convergence. Our own experience showed that PHREEQC is very successful in handling such difficulties in 1D geometry. PHREEQC is also able to handle 2D geometries as presented hereafter thanks to the MIX option as well as feedback on porosity thanks to the MCD option (multi component diffusion). Indeed, 2D simulation of a drift sealing concept developed by Andra was attempted using PHREEQC with the MIX option which allows the use of different transport properties in the different cells. A basic program was developed to generate this complex 2D mesh and another one to treat the outputs under TECPLOT R . The mesh is composed of 3081 cells with a refinement of 3 cm at each interface. Such a simulation was already conducted under ALLIANCES geochemistry transport tools, but in our cases the mesh refinement and the chemistry of the system are extended and the feedback on porosity is now considered. Furthermore, the new multi

  17. Couple stress theory of curved rods. 2-D, high order, Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zozulya V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New models for plane curved rods based on linear couple stress theory of elasticity have been developed.2-D theory is developed from general 2-D equations of linear couple stress elasticity using a special curvilinear system of coordinates related to the middle line of the rod as well as special hypothesis based on assumptions that take into account the fact that the rod is thin. High order theory is based on the expansion of the equations of the theory of elasticity into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials. First, stress and strain tensors, vectors of displacements and rotation along with body forces have been expanded into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials with respect to a thickness coordinate.Thereby, all equations of elasticity including Hooke’s law have been transformed to the corresponding equations for Fourier coefficients. Then, in the same way as in the theory of elasticity, a system of differential equations in terms of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients have been obtained. Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli theories are based on the classical hypothesis and the 2-D equations of linear couple stress theory of elasticity in a special curvilinear system. The obtained equations can be used to calculate stress-strain and to model thin walled structures in macro, micro and nano scales when taking into account couple stress and rotation effects.

  18. Nonlocal theory of curved rods. 2-D, high order, Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zozulya V.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New models for plane curved rods based on linear nonlocal theory of elasticity have been developed. The 2-D theory is developed from general 2-D equations of linear nonlocal elasticity using a special curvilinear system of coordinates related to the middle line of the rod along with special hypothesis based on assumptions that take into account the fact that the rod is thin. High order theory is based on the expansion of the equations of the theory of elasticity into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials. First, stress and strain tensors, vectors of displacements and body forces have been expanded into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials with respect to a thickness coordinate. Thereby, all equations of elasticity including nonlocal constitutive relations have been transformed to the corresponding equations for Fourier coefficients. Then, in the same way as in the theory of local elasticity, a system of differential equations in terms of displacements for Fourier coefficients has been obtained. First and second order approximations have been considered in detail. Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli theories are based on the classical hypothesis and the 2-D equations of linear nonlocal theory of elasticity which are considered in a special curvilinear system of coordinates related to the middle line of the rod. The obtained equations can be used to calculate stress-strain and to model thin walled structures in micro- and nanoscales when taking into account size dependent and nonlocal effects.

  19. Point Defects in 3D and 1D Nanomaterials: The Model Case of Titanium Dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauth, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is one of the most important oxides for applications in energy and environment, such as solar cells, photocatalysis, lithium-ion batteries. In recent years, new forms of titanium dioxide with unusual structure and/or morphology have been developed, including nanocrystals, nanotubes or nanowires. We have studied in detail the point defect chemistry in nanocrystalline TiO 2 powders and ceramics. There can be a change from predominant Frenkel to Schottky disorder, depending on the experimental conditions, e.g. temperature and oxygen partial pressure. We have also studied the local environment of various dopants with similar ion radius, but different ion charge (Zn 2+ , Y 3+ , Sn 4+ , Zr 4+ , Nb 5+ ) in TiO 2 nanopowders and nanoceramics by Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) Spectroscopy. Interfacial segregation of acceptors was demonstrated, but donors and isovalent ions do not segregate. An electrostatic 'space charge' segregation model is applied, which explains well the observed phenomena.

  20. Hyperbolic reformulation of a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model and ADER finite volume schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montecinos, Gino I.; Müller, Lucas O.; Toro, Eleuterio F.

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of ADER finite volume methods to solve hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms in the context of well-balanced and non-conservative schemes is extended to solve a one-dimensional blood flow model for viscoelastic vessels, reformulated as a hyperbolic system, via a relaxation time. A criterion for selecting relaxation times is found and an empirical convergence rate assessment is carried out to support this result. The proposed methodology is validated by applying it to a network of viscoelastic vessels for which experimental and numerical results are available. The agreement between the results obtained in the present paper and those available in the literature is satisfactory. Key features of the present formulation and numerical methodologies, such as accuracy, efficiency and robustness, are fully discussed in the paper

  1. Modeling Poroelastic Wave Propagation in a Real 2-D Complex Geological Structure Obtained via Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzá Balam, Reymundo; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Parra, Jorge O.

    2018-03-01

    Two main stages of seismic modeling are geological model building and numerical computation of seismic response for the model. The quality of the computed seismic response is partly related to the type of model that is built. Therefore, the model building approaches become as important as seismic forward numerical methods. For this purpose, three petrophysical facies (sands, shales and limestones) are extracted from reflection seismic data and some seismic attributes via the clustering method called Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), which, in this context, serves as a geological model building tool. This model with all its properties is the input to the Optimal Implicit Staggered Finite Difference (OISFD) algorithm to create synthetic seismograms for poroelastic, poroacoustic and elastic media. The results show a good agreement between observed and 2-D synthetic seismograms. This demonstrates that the SOM classification method enables us to extract facies from seismic data and allows us to integrate the lithology at the borehole scale with the 2-D seismic data.

  2. [123I]Epidepride neuroimaging of dopamine D2/D3 receptor in chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuan-Ruei; Shih, Jun-Ming; Chang, Kang-Wei; Huang, Chieh; Wu, Yu-Lung; Chen, Chia-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: [ 123 I]Epidepride is a radio-tracer with very high affinity for dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptors in brain. The importance of alteration in dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor binding condition has been wildly verified in schizophrenia. In the present study we set up a rat schizophrenia model by chronic injection of a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, to examine if [ 123 I]epidepride could be used to evaluate the alterations of dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor binding condition in specific brain regions. Method: Rats were given repeated injection of MK-801 (dissolved in saline, 0.3 mg/kg) or saline for 1 month. Afterwards, total distance traveled (cm) and social interaction changes were recorded. Radiochemical purity of [ 123 I]epidepride was analyzed by Radio-Thin-Layer Chromatography (chloroform: methanol, 9:1, v/v) and [ 123 I]epidepride neuroimages were obtained by ex vivo autoradiography and small animal SPECT/CT. Data obtained were then analyzed to determine the changes of specific binding ratio. Result: Chronic MK-801 treatment for a month caused significantly increased local motor activity and induced an inhibition of social interaction. As shown in [ 123 I]epidepride ex vivo autoradiographs, MK-801 induced a decrease of specific binding ratio in the striatum (24.01%), hypothalamus (35.43%), midbrain (41.73%) and substantia nigra (37.93%). In addition, [ 123 I]epidepride small animal SPECT/CT neuroimaging was performed in the striatum and midbrain. There were statistically significant decreases in specific binding ratio in both the striatum (P 123 I]epidepride is a useful radio-tracer to reveal the alterations of dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor binding in a rat schizophrenia model and is also helpful to evaluate therapeutic effects of schizophrenia in the future.

  3. Natural disease history of mouse models for limb girdle muscular dystrophy types 2D and 2F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putker, K.; Tanganyika-de Winter, C. L.; Boertje-van der Meulen, J. W.; van Vliet, L.; Overzier, M.; Plomp, J. J.; Aartsma-Rus, A.; van Putten, M.

    2017-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy types 2D and 2F (LGMD 2D and 2F) are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in the alpha- and delta sarcoglycan genes, respectively, leading to severe muscle weakness and degeneration. The cause of the disease has been well characterized and a number of animal models are available for pre-clinical studies to test potential therapeutic interventions. To facilitate transition from drug discovery to clinical trials, standardized procedures and natural disease history data were collected for these mouse models. Implementing the TREAD-NMD standardized operating procedures, we here subjected LGMD2D (SGCA-null), LGMD2F (SGCD-null) and wild type (C57BL/6J) mice to five functional tests from the age of 4 to 32 weeks. To assess whether the functional test regime interfered with disease pathology, sedentary groups were taken along. Muscle physiology testing of tibialis anterior muscle was performed at the age of 34 weeks. Muscle histopathology and gene expression was analysed in skeletal muscles and heart. Muscle histopathology and gene expression was analysed in skeletal muscles and heart. Mice successfully accomplished the functional tests, which did not interfere with disease pathology. Muscle function of SGCA- and SGCD-null mice was impaired and declined over time. Interestingly, female SGCD-null mice outperformed males in the two and four limb hanging tests, which proved the most suitable non-invasive tests to assess muscle function. Muscle physiology testing of tibialis anterior muscle revealed lower specific force and higher susceptibility to eccentric-induced damage in LGMD mice. Analyzing muscle histopathology and gene expression, we identified the diaphragm as the most affected muscle in LGMD strains. Cardiac fibrosis was found in SGCD-null mice, being more severe in males than in females. Our study offers a comprehensive natural history dataset which will be useful to design standardized tests and future pre

  4. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-07-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  6. 2-D Model Test Study of the Breakwater at Porto de Dande , Angola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Burcharth, Hans F.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the new breakwater at Porto de Dande, Angola. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:32. Unless otherwise specified all values given in this ......This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the new breakwater at Porto de Dande, Angola. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:32. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  7. Electro-mechanical dynamics of spiral waves in a discrete 2D model of human atrial tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brocklehurst

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of mechano-electrical feedback and atrial fibrillation induced electrical remodelling (AFER of cellular ion channel properties on the dynamics of spiral waves in a discrete 2D model of human atrial tissue. The tissue electro-mechanics are modelled using the discrete element method (DEM. Millions of bonded DEM particles form a network of coupled atrial cells representing 2D cardiac tissue, allowing simulations of the dynamic behaviour of electrical excitation waves and mechanical contraction in the tissue. In the tissue model, each cell is modelled by nine particles, accounting for the features of individual cellular geometry; and discrete inter-cellular spatial arrangement of cells is also considered. The electro-mechanical model of a human atrial single-cell was constructed by strongly coupling the electrophysiological model of Colman et al. to the mechanical myofilament model of Rice et al., with parameters modified based on experimental data. A stretch-activated channel was incorporated into the model to simulate the mechano-electrical feedback. In order to investigate the effect of mechano-electrical feedback on the dynamics of spiral waves, simulations of spiral waves were conducted in both the electromechanical model and the electrical-only model in normal and AFER conditions, to allow direct comparison of the results between the models. Dynamics of spiral waves were characterized by tracing their tip trajectories, stability, excitation frequencies and meandering range of tip trajectories. It was shown that the developed DEM method provides a stable and efficient model of human atrial tissue with considerations of the intrinsically discrete and anisotropic properties of the atrial tissue, which are challenges to handle in traditional continuum mechanics models. This study provides mechanistic insights into the complex behaviours of spiral waves and the genesis of atrial fibrillation by showing an important role of

  8. Numerical method for a 2D drift diffusion model arising in strained n ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carrier mobility dependence on the lateral and vertical electric field model is especially considered in the formulation. By using the .... effects of electric field on mobility, we use a simplified mobility model [19], see eq. (16). The effects of the .... Our simulator predicted that the drive current of strained MOSFET is higher than.

  9. The critical points of the multimatrix model as the theories of 2-d W-gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awada, M.A.; Qiu, Zongan.

    1990-03-01

    We further explore the connections between the generalized KdV hierarchy, the multimatrix model and W n -gravity. We show that the Lax-pair formulation of the generalized KdV hierarchy is nothing but the Hamiltonian equations of W-gravity. Thus we demonstrate that the multicritical points of the multimatrix model are W-gravity theories. 16 refs

  10. Comparative Analysis of Bulge Deformation between 2D and 3D Finite Element Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bulge deformation of the slab is one of the main factors that affect slab quality in continuous casting. This paper describes an investigation into bulge deformation using ABAQUS to model the solidification process. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of the slab solidification process has been first established because the bulge deformation is closely related to slab temperature distributions. Based on slab temperature distributions, a three-dimensional thermomechanical coupling model including the slab, the rollers, and the dynamic contact between them has also been constructed and applied to a case study. The thermomechanical coupling model produces outputs such as the rules of bulge deformation. Moreover, the three-dimensional model has been compared with a two-dimensional model to discuss the differences between the two models in calculating the bulge deformation. The results show that the platform zone exists in the wide side of the slab and the bulge deformation is affected strongly by the ratio of width-to-thickness. The indications are also that the difference of the bulge deformation for the two modeling ways is little when the ratio of width-to-thickness is larger than six.

  11. Ultrasonic field profile evaluation in acoustically inhomogeneous anisotropic materials using 2D ray tracing model: Numerical and experimental comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkoori, S R; Rahman, M-U; Chinta, P K; Ktreutzbruck, M; Rethmeier, M; Prager, J

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials is difficult to examine because of the directional dependency of elastic properties. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic non destructive testing techniques for the inspection of anisotropic materials particularly austenitic cladded materials, austenitic welds and dissimilar welds. In this contribution we present an adapted 2D ray tracing model for evaluating ultrasonic wave fields quantitatively in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. Inhomogeneity in the anisotropic material is represented by discretizing into several homogeneous layers. According to ray tracing model, ultrasonic ray paths are traced during its energy propagation through various discretized layers of the material and at each interface the problem of reflection and transmission is solved. The presented algorithm evaluates the transducer excited ultrasonic fields accurately by taking into account the directivity of the transducer, divergence of the ray bundle, density of rays and phase relations as well as transmission coefficients. The ray tracing model is able to calculate the ultrasonic wave fields generated by a point source as well as a finite dimension transducer. The ray tracing model results are validated quantitatively with the results obtained from 2D Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT) on several configurations generally occurring in the ultrasonic non destructive testing of anisotropic materials. Finally, the quantitative comparison of ray tracing model results with experiments on 32mm thick austenitic weld material and 62mm thick austenitic cladded material is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of 2-D sediment model to fluctuating backwater area of Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Fan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of backflow, a two-dimensional mathematical model of sediment movement was established. The complexity of the watercourse boundary at the confluence of the main stream and the tributary was dealt with using a boundary-fitting orthogonal coordinate system. The basic equation of the two-dimensional total sediment load model, the numerical calculation format, and key problems associated with using the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system were discussed. Water and sediment flow in the Chongqing reach of the Yangtze River were simulated. The calculated water level, flow velocity distribution, amount of silting and scouring, and alluvial distribution are found to be in agreement with the measured data, which indicates that the numerical model and calculation method are reasonable. The model can be used for calculation of flow in a relatively complicated river network.

  13. Hemodynamic simulation of the heart using a 2D model and MR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeler, Pernille Thorup

    2002-01-01

    . The improvements require changing the geometry, the timing, the mechanical activation of the heart musculature, and the afterload. Furthermore, we introduce a tethering of the otherwise freely floating heart. We evaluate the model from a computational and modelling point of view and find a set of reasonable...... parameter values. This is our reference model, which gives representative simulation results. We compare a simulation using our reference model with an MR velocity data set obtained from a healthy human. The comparison is carried out for the intraventricular velocity field and the velocity time curves over...... the mitral ring and across the aortic outflow tract. The comparison between elocity fields shows a reasonably fair agreement in the general flow pattern: a wide inflow jet, the formation of an anterior vortex during filling, and an outflow jet through the outflow tract. There are some disagreements...

  14. 2D Petroleum System Modeling in Support of Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage in the Northeast Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragg, E.; Van Wijk, J. W.; Balch, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    A 40 mile long 2D petroleum system model has been constructed and simulated along a 2D reflection seismic line in the western Anadarko Basin. Petroleum system models are useful for predicting carbon storage capacity, characterizing regional CO2 plume migration risks, predicting how future fields may respond to CO2-EOR via hydrocarbon compositional estimations and characterizing the petroleum system that make sites attractive for storage. This work is part of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase III large scale injection operation at Farnsworth Unit Ochiltree Co., Texas. Farnsworth Unit is a mature oil field producing from Morrowan Sandstone incised valley deposits. The project goal is to evaluate the injection and storage of 1 million metric tons of man-made CO2. Geologic carbon storage and utilization via CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations is a method under active research which aims to mitigate climate change via emission reductions while meeting current energy demands. The 2D model was constructed using 2D regional reflection seismic data, geophysical logs and core data. Simulations are forward modeled over 542 Ma of the Anadarko Basins geologic history. The research illustrates (1) in the unlikely case of CO2 leakage out of the reservoir, buoyancy driven regional migration risk is to the northwest-northeast (2) Morrowan play hydrocarbons in the Northeast Texas Panhandle dominantly migrated from the Thirteen Finger Limestone further basinward (3) the regions tectonic evolution has played an important role on the pressure and hydraulic history of reservoirs. Farnsworth's reservoir was discovered as under-pressured, the exact process(s) giving rise to this condition are not well-understood and need further investigation. Moreover, the heat flow model used in this study will aid understanding of the diagenetic evolution of the reservoir and caprocks better. The petroleum system modeling conducted here has accurately predicted 1st order

  15. Enhanced Kalman Filtering for a 2D CFD NS Wind Farm Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doekemeijer, B M; Van Wingerden, J W; Boersma, S; Pao, L Y

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbines are often grouped together for financial reasons, but due to wake development this usually results in decreased turbine lifetimes and power capture, and thereby an increased levelized cost of energy (LCOE). Wind farm control aims to minimize this cost by operating turbines at their optimal control settings. Most state-of-the-art control algorithms are open-loop and rely on low fidelity, static flow models. Closed-loop control relying on a dynamic model and state observer has real potential to further decrease wind's LCOE, but is often too computationally expensive for practical use. In this paper two time-efficient Kalman filter (KF) variants are outlined incorporating the medium fidelity, dynamic flow model “WindFarmSimulator” (WFSim). This model relies on a discretized set of Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions to predict the flow in wind farms at low computational cost. The filters implemented are an Ensemble KF and an Approximate KF. Simulations in which a high fidelity simulation model represents the true wind farm show that these filters are 10"1 —10"2 times faster than a regular KF with comparable or better performance, correcting for wake dynamics that are not modeled in WFSim (noticeably, wake meandering and turbine hub effects). This is a first big step towards real-time closed-loop control for wind farms. (paper)

  16. Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D: Modeling redshift-space power spectrum from perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Saito, Shun

    2010-09-01

    We present an improved prescription for the matter power spectrum in redshift space taking proper account of both nonlinear gravitational clustering and redshift distortion, which are of particular importance for accurately modeling baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Contrary to the models of redshift distortion phenomenologically introduced but frequently used in the literature, the new model includes the corrections arising from the nonlinear coupling between the density and velocity fields associated with two competitive effects of redshift distortion, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects. Based on the improved treatment of perturbation theory for gravitational clustering, we compare our model predictions with the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of N-body simulations, and an excellent agreement is achieved over the scales of BAOs. Potential impacts on constraining dark energy and modified gravity from the redshift-space power spectrum are also investigated based on the Fisher-matrix formalism, particularly focusing on the measurements of the Hubble parameter, angular diameter distance, and growth rate for structure formation. We find that the existing phenomenological models of redshift distortion produce a systematic error on measurements of the angular diameter distance and Hubble parameter by 1%-2% , and the growth-rate parameter by ˜5%, which would become non-negligible for future galaxy surveys. Correctly modeling redshift distortion is thus essential, and the new prescription for the redshift-space power spectrum including the nonlinear corrections can be used as an accurate theoretical template for anisotropic BAOs.

  17. From 2D to 3D: Using Illumination Cones to Build 3d Face Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, S S; Jin, M

    2006-01-01

    To solve the problem derivate by lighting condition and position of the camera, a new method using illumination cones to build 3d face model has been proposed. Due to illumination variability, the same object can show dramatic difference even as being viewed in fixed pose. To handle this variability, an object recognition system must employ a representation that is either invariant to, or can model this variability. The proposed technique presents an appearance-based method for modeling the variability due to illumination in the images of objects. The method differs from past appearance-based methods. Evenmore, a small set of training images is used to generate a representation that the illumination cone models the complete set of images of an object with Lambertian reflectance surface under a combination of arbitrary point light sources at infinity. After building up the illumination cones, researches focus on how to present the 3d model of the face. Combining illumination and texture feature to build up 3d model of the face make it easy solving the problem in recognition of face under different pose

  18. 2-D hydro-viscoelastic model for convective drying of deformable and unsaturated porous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassini, Lamine; Raja, Lamloumi; Lecompte-Nana, Gisèle Laure; Elcafsi, Mohamed Afif

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to simulate in two dimensions the spatio-temporal evolution of the moisture content, the temperature, the solid (dry matter) concentration, the dry product total porosity, the gas porosity, and the mechanical stress within a deformable and unsaturated product during convective drying. The material under study was an elongated cellulose-clay composite sample with a square section placed in hot air flow. Currently, this innovative composite is used in the processing of boxes devoted to the preservation of heritage and precious objects against fire damage and other degradation (moisture, insects, etc.). A comprehensive and rigorous hydrothermal model had been merged with a dynamic linear viscoelasticity model based on Bishop's effective stress theory, assuming that the stress tensor is the sum of solid, liquid, and gas stresses. The material viscoelastic properties were measured by means of stress relaxation tests for different water contents. The viscoelastic behaviour was described by a generalized Maxwell model whose parameters were correlated to the water content. The equations of our model were solved by means of the 'COMSOL Multiphysics' software. The hydrothermal part of the model was validated by comparison with experimental drying curves obtained in a laboratory hot-air dryer. The simulations of the spatio-temporal distributions of mechanical stress were performed and interpreted in terms of material potential damage. The sample shape was also predicted all over the drying process.

  19. 3D continuum phonon model for group-IV 2D materials

    KAUST Repository

    Willatzen, Morten

    2017-06-30

    A general three-dimensional continuum model of phonons in two-dimensional materials is developed. Our first-principles derivation includes full consideration of the lattice anisotropy and flexural modes perpendicular to the layers and can thus be applied to any two-dimensional material. In this paper, we use the model to not only compare the phonon spectra among the group-IV materials but also to study whether these phonons differ from those of a compound material such as molybdenum disulfide. The origin of quadratic modes is clarified. Mode coupling for both graphene and silicene is obtained, contrary to previous works. Our model allows us to predict the existence of confined optical phonon modes for the group-IV materials but not for molybdenum disulfide. A comparison of the long-wavelength modes to density-functional results is included.

  20. 3D continuum phonon model for group-IV 2D materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willatzen, Morten; Lew Yan Voon, Lok C; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    A general three-dimensional continuum model of phonons in two-dimensional materials is developed. Our first-principles derivation includes full consideration of the lattice anisotropy and flexural modes perpendicular to the layers and can thus be applied to any two-dimensional material. In this paper, we use the model to not only compare the phonon spectra among the group-IV materials but also to study whether these phonons differ from those of a compound material such as molybdenum disulfide. The origin of quadratic modes is clarified. Mode coupling for both graphene and silicene is obtained, contrary to previous works. Our model allows us to predict the existence of confined optical phonon modes for the group-IV materials but not for molybdenum disulfide. A comparison of the long-wavelength modes to density-functional results is included.

  1. Multitemporal SAR Data and 2D Hydrodynamic Model Flood Scenario Dynamics Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santina Scarpino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of floods and the severity of their consequences, which is caused by phenomena, such as climate change and uncontrolled urbanization, create a growing need to develop operational procedures and tools for accurate and timely flood mapping and management. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR, with its day, night, and cloud-penetrating capacity, has proven to be a very useful source of information during calibration of hydrodynamic models considered indispensable tools for near real-time flood forecasting and monitoring. The paper begins with the analysis of radar signatures of temporal series of SAR data, by exploiting the short revisit time of the images that are provided by the Cosmo-SkyMed constellation of four satellites, in combination with a Digital Elevation Model for the extraction of flood extent and spatially distributed water depth in a flat area with complex topography during a flood event. These SAR-based hazard maps were then used to perform a bi-dimensional hydraulic model calibration on the November 2010 flood event at the mouth of the Bradano River in Basilicata, Italy. Once the best fit between flood predictions of hydrodynamic models was identified and the efficacy of SAR data in correcting hydrodynamic inconsistencies with regard to reliable assessment of flood extent and water-depth maps was shown by validation with the December 2013 Bradano River event. Based on calibration and validation results, the paper aims to show how the combination of the time series of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and Digital Elevation Model (DEM derived water-depth maps with the data from the hydrodynamic model can provide valuable information for flood dynamics monitoring in a flat area with complex topography. Future research should focus on the integration and implementation of the semi-automatic proposed method in an operational system for near real-time flood management.

  2. A simple 2-D model for the evolution of an island-arc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharinov, S. E.; Demin, S. S.

    1990-07-01

    Slow seismotectonic movements along inclined deep fault planes under compressive horizontal stresses are supposed to be the principal mechanism controlling the structure and processes in island-arc systems. In order to treat the stress variations caused by this mechanism, a simple geomechanical model is investigated. We consider a shearing surface crack embedded in a homogeneous elastic half-space. The key element of the model is viscous interaction between the sides of the crack, the viscosity varying with depth. The model differs from the classical steady-state mode of subduction by nonstationary creep processes on deep faults and possibly by cyclical evolution of island-arc systems. The results of our numerical analysis are in good agreement with geological, geophysical and seismological data. (i) Vertical displacements of the free surface in the model fit well with the typical topography of a trench—arc-basement rise—back-arc basin system. (ii) The Benioff seismic zone is supposed to be formed due to the concentration of shear stresses near the fault plane. The characteristic patterns of seismicity, the fine geometry of Benioff zones, and their double-planed structure can be explained in terms of our model. (iii) A zone of considerable heat generation caused by viscous dissipation along the fault plane is found within a narrow area in the depth range 100-200 km. Moreover, the island-arc basement rise is characterized in the model by a relative tension of a few tens or even hundreds of bars, while at depths of 100-150 km below the surface, additional compression of the same order of magnitude acts. The magmatic plumbing system may be visualised as a "toothpaste tube" or a sponge filled with magma which is squeezed from the depths to the surface due to the redistribution of the tectonic stresses only. This can explain the physical origin of island-arc magmatism and the typical position of volcanic belts.

  3. An explicit formula for the interface tension of the 2D Potts model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgs, Christian; Janke, Wolfhard

    1992-11-01

    We consider the exact correlation length calculations for the two-dimensional Potts model at the transition point β_t by Klümper, Schadschneider and Zittartz, and by Buffenoir and Wallon. We argue that the correlation length calculated by the latter authors is the correlation length in the disordered phase and then combine their result with duality and the assumption of complete wetting to give an explicit formula for the order-disorder interface tension σ_od of this model. The result is used to clarify a controversy stemming from different numerical simulations of σ_od.

  4. 3D continuum phonon model for group-IV 2D materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Lew Yan Voon, Lok C.; Gandi, Appala Naidu

    2017-01-01

    . In this paper, we use the model to not only compare the phonon spectra among the group-IV materials but also to study whether these phonons differ from those of a compound material such as molybdenum disulfide. The origin of quadratic modes is clarified. Mode coupling for both graphene and silicene is obtained......, contrary to previous works. Our model allows us to predict the existence of confined optical phonon modes for the group-IV materials but not for molybdenum disulfide. A comparison of the long-wavelength modes to density-functional results is included....

  5. Bistable flow occurrence in the 2D model of a steam turbine valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Procházka; Václav, Uruba

    2017-09-01

    The internal flow inside a steam turbine valve was investigated experimentally using PIV measurement. The valve model was proposed to be two-dimensional. The model was connected to the blow-down wind tunnel. The flow conditions were set by the different position of the valve plug. Several angles of the diffuser by diverse radii were investigated concerning flow separation and flow dynamics. It was found that the flow takes one of two possible bistable modes. The first regime is characterized by a massive flow separation just at the beginning of the diffuser section on the one side. The second regime is axisymmetric and the flow separation is not detected at all.

  6. Assessment of phenol infiltration resilience in soil media by HYDRUS-1D transport model for a waste discharge site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, K; Pal, S; Chakraborty, B; Mukherjee, S N; Gangopadhyay, A

    2014-10-01

    The movement of contaminants through soil imparts a variety of geo-environmental problem inclusive of lithospheric pollution. Near-surface aquifers are often vulnerable to contamination from surface source if overlying soil possesses poor resilience or contaminant attenuation capacity. The prediction of contaminant transport through soil is urged to protect groundwater from sources of pollutants. Using field simulation through column experiments and mathematical modeling like HYDRUS-1D, assessment of soil resilience and movement of contaminants through the subsurface to reach aquifers can be predicted. An outfall site of effluents of a coke oven plant comprising of alarming concentration of phenol (4-12.2 mg/L) have been considered for studying groundwater condition and quality, in situ soil characterization, and effluent characterization. Hydrogeological feature suggests the presence of near-surface aquifers at the effluent discharge site. Analysis of groundwater of nearby locality reveals the phenol concentration (0.11-0.75 mg/L) exceeded the prescribed limit of WHO specification (0.002 mg/L). The in situ soil, used in column experiment, possess higher saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS  = 5.25 × 10(-4) cm/s). The soil containing 47 % silt, 11 % clay, and 1.54% organic carbon content was found to be a poor absorber of phenol (24 mg/kg). The linear phenol adsorption isotherm model showed the best fit (R(2) = 0.977, RMSE = 1.057) to the test results. Column experiments revealed that the phenol removal percent and the length of the mass transfer zone increased with increasing bed heights. The overall phenol adsorption efficiency was found to be 42-49%. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) predicted by HYDRUS-1D model appears to be close fitting with the BTCs derived from the column experiments. The phenol BTC predicted by the HYDRUS-1D model for 1.2 m depth subsurface soil, i.e., up to the depth of groundwater in the study area, showed that the exhaustion

  7. Semi-2D modeling of river morphological changes caused by exceptional flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Tew-Fik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of the model, MHYSER 1.0 (Model for the HYdraulics of SEdiments in Rivers, version 1.0, to study river morphological changes due to exceptional flooding. MHYSER 1.0 is a semi-two-dimensional model using the stream tubes concept to achieve lateral variations of velocity, flow stresses and sediment transport rate. Each stream tube has the same conveyance as the other ones. In MHYSER 1.0, the uncoupled approach is used to solve the set of conservation equations’. After the backwater calculation, the river is divided in a finite number of stream tubes of equal conveyances. The sediment routing and bed adjustments calculations are accomplished separately along each stream tube taking into account lateral mass exchanges. MHYSER 1.0 is applied to the Ha! Ha! River (Quebec, Canada, a tributary of the Saguenay River, for the 1996 “downpour“. The results show good correlation of with collected data. This application shows the capabilities of this model and predicts its promising role in solving complex real engineering cases.

  8. Numerical method for a 2D drift diffusion model arising in strained n ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the calculation of electron transport in metal oxide semiconductor field effects transistors (MOSFETs) with biaxially tensile strained silicon channel. The calculation is formulated based on two-dimensional drift diffusion model (DDM) including strain effects. The carrier mobility dependence on the lateral and ...

  9. Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Routing in 2D Mesh with Cracky Rectangular Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on routing in two-dimensional mesh networks. We propose a novel faulty block model, which is cracky rectangular block, for fault-tolerant adaptive routing. All the faulty nodes and faulty links are surrounded in this type of block, which is a convex structure, in order to avoid routing livelock. Additionally, the model constructs the interior spanning forest for each block in order to keep in touch with the nodes inside of each block. The procedure for block construction is dynamically and totally distributed. The construction algorithm is simple and ease of implementation. And this is a fully adaptive block which will dynamically adjust its scale in accordance with the situation of networks, either the fault emergence or the fault recovery, without shutdown of the system. Based on this model, we also develop a distributed fault-tolerant routing algorithm. Then we give the formal proof for this algorithm to guarantee that messages will always reach their destinations if and only if the destination nodes keep connecting with these mesh networks. So the new model and routing algorithm maximize the availability of the nodes in networks. This is a noticeable overall improvement of fault tolerability of the system.

  10. Point cloud data fusion for enhancing 2d urban flood modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesuk, V.

    2017-01-01

    Modelling urban flood dynamics requires proper handling of a number of complex urban features. Although high-resolution topographic data can nowadays be obtained from aerial LiDAR surveys, such top-view LiDAR data still have difficulties to represent some key components of urban features.

  11. The variational 2D Boussinesq model for wave propagation over a shoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adytia, D.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2011-01-01

    The Variational Boussinesq Model (VBM) for waves (Klopman et al. 2010) is based on the Hamiltonian structure of gravity surface waves. In its approximation, the fluid potential in the kinetic energy is approximated by the sum of its value at the free surface and a linear combination of vertical

  12. Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motions in 2D Models of Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    While slab pull is considered the dominant force controlling plate motion and speed, its magnitude is controlled by slab behavior in the mantle, where tomographic studies show a wide range of possibilities from direct penetration to folding, or stagnation directly above the lower mantle (e.g. Fukao et al., 2009). Geodynamic studies have investigated various parameters, such as plate age and two phase transitions, to recreate observed behavior (e.g. Běhounková and Cízková, 2008). However, past geodynamic models have left out known slab characteristics that may have a large impact on slab behavior and our understanding of subduction processes. Mineral experiments and seismic observations have indicated the existence of additional phase transitions in the mantle transition zone that may produce buoyancy forces large enough to affect the descent of a subducting slab (e.g. Ricard et al., 2005). The current study systematically tests different common assumptions used in geodynamic models: kinematic versus free-slip boundary conditions, the effects of adiabatic heating, viscous dissipation and latent heat, compositional layering and a more complete suite of phase transitions. Final models have a complete energy equation, with eclogite, harzburgite and pyrolite lithosphere compositional layers, and seven composition-dependent phase transitions within the olivine, pyroxene and garnet polymorph minerals. Results show important feedback loops between different assumptions and new behavior from the most complete models. Kinematic models show slab weakening or breaking above the 660 km boundary and between compositional layers. The behavior in dynamic models with a free-moving trench and overriding plate is compared to the more commonly found kinematic models. The new behavior may have important implications for the depth distribution of deep earthquakes within the slab. Though the thermodynamic parameters of certain phase transitions may be uncertain, their presence and

  13. A simple 2D SOC model for one of the main sources of geomagnetic disturbances: Flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirelles, M.C.; Dias, V.H.A.; Oliva, D.; Papa, A.R.R.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a simple model for solar flares, one of the main sources of geomagnetic disturbances. We have obtained power-laws for the probability distribution functions of some relevant physical characteristics of flares which could serve as the fingerprint of a critical state at the base of such phenomena and, given that we have not introduced a fine tune mechanism, of self-organized criticality. We compare our results with some recent experimental work on the statistics of flares and analyze the possible connection of these power laws with others already found by our group in geomagnetic disturbances distributions. We also present some limitations of our model as well as possible extensions and corrections to be taken into account in future works.

  14. A 2D Time Domain DRBEM Computer Model for MagnetoThermoelastic Coupled Wave Propagation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A numerical computer model based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM is extended to study magneto-thermoelastic coupled wave propagation problems with relaxation times involving anisotropic functionally graded solids. The model formulation is tested through its application to the problem of a solid placed in a constant primary magnetic field acting in the direction of the z-axis and rotating about this axis with a constant angular velocity. In the case of two-dimensional deformation, an implicit-explicit time domain DRBEM was presented and implemented to obtain the solution for the displacement and temperature fields. A comparison of the results is presented graphically in the context of Lord and Shulman (LS and Green and Lindsay (GL theories. Numerical results that demonstrate the validity of the proposed method are also presented graphically.

  15. Comparison Between 2D Turbulence Model ESEL and Experimental Data from AUG and Compass Tokamaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondáč, Peter; Horáček, Jan; Seidl, Jakub; Vondráček, Petr; Müller, H.W.; Adámek, Jiří; Nielsen, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2015), s. 128-135 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : turbulence * tokamak * computer model * probe measurements Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/ap/article/viewFile/2257/2816

  16. 2D and 3D Multiscale/Multicomponent Modeling of Impact Response of Heterogeneous Energetic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    MODELING OF IMPACT RESPONSE OF HETEROGENEOUS ENERGETIC COMPOSITES submitted to Dr. Douglas Allen Dalton Defense Threat Reduction Agency J9-BAS...materials from density functional theory with van der Waals, thermal, and zero-point energy corrections," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 97, Dec 20 2010...REDUCTION AGENCY 8725 JOHN J. KINGMAN ROAD STOP 6201 FORT BELVOIR, VA 22060 ATTN: A. DALTON DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER

  17. Phase diagram of 2D Hubbard model by simulated annealing mean field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaru; Kitagaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the stable magnetic structure of the Hubbard model on a square lattice, we utilize the dynamical simulated annealing method which proposed by R. Car and M. Parrinello. Results of simulations on a 10 x 10 lattice system with 80 electrons under assumption of collinear magnetic structure that the most stable state is incommensurate spin density wave state with periodic domain wall. (orig.)

  18. A hierarchical lattice spring model to simulate the mechanics of 2-D materials-based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas eBrely

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of engineering materials, strength and toughness are typically two mutually exclusive properties. Structural biological materials such as bone, tendon or dentin have resolved this conflict and show unprecedented damage tolerance, toughness and strength levels. The common feature of these materials is their hierarchical heterogeneous structure, which contributes to increased energy dissipation before failure occurring at different scale levels. These structural properties are the key to exceptional bioinspired material mechanical properties, in particular for nanocomposites. Here, we develop a numerical model in order to simulate the mechanisms involved in damage progression and energy dissipation at different size scales in nano- and macro-composites, which depend both on the heterogeneity of the material and on the type of hierarchical structure. Both these aspects have been incorporated into a 2-dimensional model based on a Lattice Spring Model, accounting for geometrical nonlinearities and including statistically-based fracture phenomena. The model has been validated by comparing numerical results to continuum and fracture mechanics results as well as finite elements simulations, and then employed to study how structural aspects impact on hierarchical composite material properties. Results obtained with the numerical code highlight the dependence of stress distributions on matrix properties and reinforcement dispersion, geometry and properties, and how failure of sacrificial elements is directly involved in the damage tolerance of the material. Thanks to the rapidly developing field of nanocomposite manufacture, it is already possible to artificially create materials with multi-scale hierarchical reinforcements. The developed code could be a valuable support in the design and optimization of these advanced materials, drawing inspiration and going beyond biological materials with exceptional mechanical properties.

  19. Simulating high ebb currents in the North Passage of the Yangtze estuary using a vertical 1-D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyang; Shen, Xiaoteng; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.; Shen, Jian

    2017-09-01

    A strong maximum ebb current (>3 m/s) in the upper water column was observed at Station CS3 in the middle of the North Passage of the Yangtze River Estuary during the wet season, which was higher than either its upstream or downstream counterparts. To better understand the mechanisms and factors causing the strong ebb current, a vertical one-dimensional (1-D) model was used to conduct a diagnostic study. The model used time series of observed tidal amplitudes, vertical salinity, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profiles to compute the density and turbulence. Two tunable parameters, the tidal amplitude attenuation coefficient (i.e., the phase lag) and the background surface pressure gradient that represents the net pressure gradient induced by the freshwater discharge and baroclinic effect, were used to determine the best match with the observed high velocity amplitudes in addition to the bottom roughness height. Three hypotheses of possible causes are tested: (1) the large freshwater discharge, (2) the bottom stratification effects (which were caused by a possible high near-bed suspended sediment gradient), and (3) the unique location of the CS3 station that was influenced by local geometry. The findings show that neither of the first two factors has much influence on the pronounced ebb velocities. Instead, the energy loss caused by the change of channel geometry and a maximum convex bathymetry in the North Passage of the Yangtze River Estuary are the main reasons behind the extremely high observed ebb current velocity profiles. The high near-bottom SSC and gradient located within 0.5 m above the bed only slightly alters the velocity profiles. This 1-D model is convenient for testing a different hypothesis and for coupling with other selected variables to account for the floc size distributions in future studies.

  20. 2D Global Attenuation Model of the Upper Mantle from Combined Analysis of Surface Wave Phase and Amplitude Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Masters, G.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a technique that uses a cluster analysis method to measure Rayleigh wave phase and amplitude anomalies. The measurements are made on the vertical components of all permanent stations recording LHZ data from IRIS. We currently consider earthquakes with Ms>5.5 between 1990 and 2007. Joint inversions for 2D phase velocity and attenuation maps are performed, allowing the coupling through physical dispersion (e.g. Zhou 2009). As demonstrated in Dalton and Ekstrom (2006), correcting the effect of focusing-defocusing is crucial in order to obtain reliable attenuation structures. Ray theory, which has been used to date, may not give reliable predictions of such effects, because it depends strongly on short wavelength velocity structures and so is very sensitive to how the phase velocity maps are smoothed. Instead, we use the 2D finite frequency amplitude kernel (Zhou et al, 2004) to model the focusing-defocusing effect. Attenuation models and evaluations of model error and resolution will be presented.

  1. Equivalent-circuit model for stacked slot-based 2D periodic arrays of arbitrary geometry for broadband analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Maria Denise; Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the transmission and reflection spectra of stacked slot-based 2D periodic structures of arbitrary geometry and the ability to devise and control their electromagnetic responses have been a matter of extensive research for many decades. The purpose of this paper is to develop an equivalent Π circuit model based on the transmission-line theory and Floquet harmonic interactions, for broadband and short longitudinal period analysis. The proposed circuit model overcomes the limits of identical and symmetrical configurations imposed by the even/odd excitation approach, exploiting both the circuit topology of a single 2D periodic array of apertures and the ABCD matrix formalism. The transmission spectra obtained through the equivalent-circuit model have been validated by comparison with full-wave simulations carried out with a finite-element commercial electromagnetic solver. This allowed for a physical insight into the spectral and angular responses of multilayer devices with arbitrary aperture shapes, guaranteeing a noticeable saving of computational resources.

  2. Assimilation of flood extent data with 2D flood inundation models for localised intense rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, J. C.; Wood, M.; Bermúdez, M.; Hostache, R.; Freer, J. E.; Bates, P. D.; Coxon, G.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing of flood inundation extent has long been a potential source of data for constraining and correcting simulations of floodplain inundation. Hydrodynamic models and the computing resources to run them have developed to the extent that simulation of flood inundation in two-dimensional space is now feasible over large river basins in near real-time. However, despite substantial evidence that there is useful information content within inundation extent data, even from low resolution SAR such as that gathered by Envisat ASAR in wide swath mode, making use of the information in a data assimilation system has proved difficult. He we review recent applications of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) and Particle Filter for assimilating SAR data, with a focus on the River Severn UK and compare these with complementary research that has looked at the internal error sources and boundary condition errors using detailed terrestrial data that is not available in most locations. Previous applications of the EnKF to this reach have focused on upstream boundary conditions as the source of flow error, however this description of errors was too simplistic for the simulation of summer flood events where localised intense rainfall can be substantial. Therefore, we evaluate the introduction of uncertain lateral inflows to the ensemble. A further limitation of the existing EnKF based methods is the need to convert flood extent to water surface elevations by intersecting the shoreline location with a high quality digital elevation model (e.g. LiDAR). To simplify this data processing step, we evaluate a method to directly assimilate inundation extent as a EnKF model state rather than assimilating water heights, potentially allowing the scheme to be used where high-quality terrain data are sparse.

  3. Modelling and Experimental Verification of a DEAP based 2-D rotational positioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskandarani, Yosef; Bilberg, Arne; Sarban, Rahimullah

    limited to 3000 V. This work will examine the ability of positioning a shaft coupled to a laser beam pointer in x-y direction which will provide insight into (a) the practicality of using the material for two dimensional rotational positioning and (b) to highlight feasible positioning applications. A test...... of the active actuators with 0.5 kV steps. For each, of the testing combinations the angle target was determined and results compared with the model of the two dimensional positioner. The feedback of positioner was not addressed in this work; through the relevant control theory which will be implemented...

  4. Flood hazard mapping of Palembang City by using 2D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohammad; Marlina, Ayu; Kusuma, Muhammad Syahril Badri

    2017-11-01

    Palembang as the capital city of South Sumatera Province is one of the metropolitan cities in Indonesia that flooded almost every year. Flood in the city is highly related to Musi River Basin. Based on Indonesia National Agency of Disaster Management (BNPB), the level of flood hazard is high. Many natural factors caused flood in the city such as high intensity of rainfall, inadequate drainage capacity, and also backwater flow due to spring tide. Furthermore, anthropogenic factors such as population increase, land cover/use change, and garbage problem make flood problem become worse. The objective of this study is to develop flood hazard map of Palembang City by using two dimensional model. HEC-RAS 5.0 is used as modelling tool which is verified with field observation data. There are 21 sub catchments of Musi River Basin in the flood simulation. The level of flood hazard refers to Head Regulation of BNPB number 2 in 2012 regarding general guideline of disaster risk assessment. The result for 25 year return per iod of flood shows that with 112.47 km2 area of inundation, 14 sub catchments are categorized in high hazard level. It is expected that the hazard map can be used for risk assessment.

  5. Competition Among Reputations in the 2D Sznajd Model: Spontaneous Emergence of Democratic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crokidakis, Nuno; Forgerini, Fabricio L.

    2012-04-01

    We propose a modification in the Sznajd sociophysics model defined on the square lattice. For this purpose, we consider reputation—a mechanism limiting the agents' persuasive power. The reputation is introduced as a time-dependent score, which can be positive or negative. This mechanism avoids dictatorship (full consensus, all spins parallel) for a wide range of model parameters. We consider two different situations: case 1, in which the agents' reputation increases for each persuaded neighbor, and case 2, in which the agents' reputation increases for each persuasion and decreases when a neighbor keeps his opinion. Our results show that the introduction of reputation avoids full consensus even for initial densities of up spins greater than 1/2. The relaxation times follow a log-normal-like distribution in both cases, but they are larger in case 2 due to the competition among reputations. In addition, we show that the usual phase transition occurs and depends on the initial concentration d of individuals with the same opinion, but the critical points d c in the two cases are different.

  6. 2-D edge modelling: convergence and results for next step devices in the high recycling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacher, H.D.; D'haeseleer, W.D.; Pacher, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work, we apply the Braams B-2 code to a next step device, with particular emphasis on convergence of the solutions and on the scaling of the peak power load per unit area on the divertor plate, f p , on the electron temperature T e,p at the point of peak power load. A double null geometry is chosen (ITER as defined, 22 MA, 6 m). The input power P to one outer divertor is 0.4 of the total power to the SOL and 0.05 of the fusion power, and f p is given without safety and peaking factors. Recycling is treated by an analytical model including atoms and molecules. The model is appropriate for the high recycling regime down to T e,p ∼5-10 eV as long as impurity radiation can be neglected, but not beyond since sideways neutral motion is not included. DT ionization and radiation losses are included. Only D-T ions are treated, but collision frequencies are corrected for impurities. Radial transport coefficients are uniform in space, with χ e =2 m 2 /s and D=χ i =χ e /3=const, for most of the cases but Bohm-like scaling is also investigated. (author) 10 refs., 7 figs

  7. Image analysis and 2D/3D modeling of the MOX fuel microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudinet, Ghislain

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure of the MOX fuel, made with UO 2 and PuO 2 , determines his 'in pile' behavior. The french companies CEA and COGEMA are highly interested in its description by image analysis, which is the object of the present work. The segmentation algorithms described here use pictures issued from a microprobe and a SEM, to analyse the plutonium and porosity distribution in the fuel pellets. They are innovating, automated and robust enough to be used with a small data set. They have been successfully tested on different fuels, before and after irradiation. Three-dimensional informations have been computed with a genetic algorithm. The obtained 3D object size distributions allowed the modeling of many different industrial and research fuels. 3D reconstruction is accurate and stable, and provides a basis for different studies among which the study of the MOX fuel 'in pile' behavior. (author)

  8. Parameterised Model of 2D Combustor Exit Flow Conditions for High-Pressure Turbine Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schneider

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm is presented generating a complete set of inlet boundary conditions for Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (RANS CFD of high-pressure turbines to investigate their interaction with lean and rich burn combustors. The method shall contribute to understanding the sensitivities of turbine aerothermal performance in a systematic approach. The boundary conditions are based on a set of input parameters controlling velocity, temperature, and turbulence fields. All other quantities are derived from operating conditions and additional modelling assumptions. The algorithm is coupled with a CFD solver by applying the generated profiles as inlet boundary conditions. The successive steps to derive consistent flow profiles are described and results are validated against flow fields extracted from combustor CFD.

  9. Finite-size effects for anisotropic 2D Ising model with various boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailian, N. Sh

    2012-12-01

    We analyze the exact partition function of the anisotropic Ising model on finite M × N rectangular lattices under four different boundary conditions (periodic-periodic (pp), periodic-antiperiodic (pa), antiperiodic-periodic (ap) and antiperiodic-antiperiodic (aa)) obtained by Kaufman (1949 Phys. Rev. 76 1232), Wu and Hu (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 5189) and Kastening (2002 Phys. Rev. E 66 057103)). We express the partition functions in terms of the partition functions Zα, β(J, k) with (α, β) = (0, 0), (1/2, 0), (0, 1/2) and (1/2, 1/2), J is an interaction coupling and k is an anisotropy parameter. Based on such expressions, we then extend the algorithm of Ivashkevich et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 5543) to derive the exact asymptotic expansion of the logarithm of the partition function for all boundary conditions mentioned above. Our result is f = fbulk + ∑∞p = 0fp(ρ, k)S-p - 1, where f is the free energy of the system, fbulk is the free energy of the bulk, S = MN is the area of the lattice and ρ = M/N is the aspect ratio. All coefficients in this expansion are expressed through analytical functions. We have introduced the effective aspect ratio ρeff = ρ/sinh 2Jc and show that for pp and aa boundary conditions all finite size correction terms are invariant under the transformation ρeff → 1/ρeff. This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.

  10. Computational study of a magnetic design to improve the diagnosis of malaria: 2D model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, Siddharth, E-mail: svyas76@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Engineering Technology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Genis, Vladimir [Department of Engineering Technology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Friedman, Gary [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of a cost effective high gradient magnetic separation based device for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a blood sample. The design utilizes magnetic properties of hemozoin present in malaria-infected red blood cells (mRBCs) in order to separate and concentrate them inside a microfluidic channel slide for easier examination under the microscope. The design consists of a rectangular microfluidic channel with multiple magnetic wires positioned on top of and underneath it along the length of the channel at a small angle with respect to the channel axis. Strong magnetic field gradients, produced by the wires, exert sufficient magnetic forces on the mRBCs in order to separate and concentrate them in a specific region small enough to fit within the microscope field of view at magnifications typically required to identify the malaria parasite type. The feasibility of the device is studied using a model where the trajectories of the mRBCs inside the channel are determined using first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) solved numerically using a multistep ODE solver available within MATLAB. The mRBCs trajectories reveal that it is possible to separate and concentrate the mRBCs in less than 5 min, even in cases of very low parasitemia (1–10 parasites/µL of blood) using blood sample volumes of around 3 µL employed today. - Highlights: • A simple and cost-effective design is presented to improve the diagnosis of malaria. • The design is studied using a computational model. • It is possible to concentrate malaria-infected cells in a small area. • This can improve slide-examination and the efficiency of microscopists. • This can improve diagnosis of low-parasitemia and asymptomatic malaria.

  11. Unsaturated hydraulic behaviour of a permeable pavement: Laboratory investigation and numerical analysis by using the HYDRUS-2D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Michele; Kodešová, Radka; Brunetti, Giuseppe; Nikodem, Antonín; Fér, Miroslav; Piro, Patrizia

    2017-11-01

    An adequate hydrological description of water flow in permeable pavement systems relies heavily on the knowledge of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the construction materials. Although several modeling tools and many laboratory methods already exist in the literature to determine the hydraulic properties of soils, the importance of an accurate materials hydraulic description of the permeable pavement system, is increasingly recognized in the fields of urban hydrology. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose techniques/procedures on how to interpret water flow through the construction system using the HYDRUS model. The overall analysis includes experimental and mathematical procedures for model calibration and validation to assess the suitability of the HYDRUS-2D model to interpret the hydraulic behaviour of a lab-scale permeable pavement system. The system consists of three porous materials: a wear layer of porous concrete blocks, a bedding layers of fine gravel, and a sub-base layer of coarse gravel. The water regime in this system, i.e. outflow at the bottom and water contents in the middle of the bedding layer, was monitored during ten irrigation events of various durations and intensities. The hydraulic properties of porous concrete blocks and fine gravel described by the van Genuchten functions were measured using the clay tank and the multistep outflow experiments, respectively. Coarse gravel properties were set at literature values. In addition, some of the parameters (Ks of the concrete blocks layer, and α, n and Ks of the bedding layer) were optimized with the HYDRUS-2D model from water fluxes and soil water contents measured during irrigation events. The measured and modeled hydrographs were compared using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) index (varied between 0.95 and 0.99) while the coefficient of determination R2 was used to assess the measured water content versus the modelled water content in the bedding layer (R2 = 0.81 ÷ 0.87) . The

  12. A global database of seismically and non-seismically triggered landslides for 2D/3D numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domej, Gisela; Bourdeau, Céline; Lenti, Luca; Pluta, Kacper

    2017-04-01

    Landsliding is a worldwide common phenomenon. Every year, and ranging in size from very small to enormous, landslides cause all too often loss of life and disastrous damage to infrastructure, property and the environment. One main reason for more frequent catastrophes is the growth of population on the Earth which entails extending urbanization to areas at risk. Landslides are triggered by a variety and combination of causes, among which the role of water and seismic activity appear to have the most serious consequences. In this regard, seismic shaking is of particular interest since topographic elevation as well as the landslide mass itself can trap waves and hence amplify incoming surface waves - a phenomenon known as "site effects". Research on the topic of landsliding due to seismic and non-seismic activity is extensive and a broad spectrum of methods for modeling slope deformation is available. Those methods range from pseudo-static and rigid-block based models to numerical models. The majority is limited to 2D modeling since more sophisticated approaches in 3D are still under development or calibration. However, the effect of lateral confinement as well as the mechanical properties of the adjacent bedrock might be of great importance because they may enhance the focusing of trapped waves in the landslide mass. A database was created to study 3D landslide geometries. It currently contains 277 distinct seismically and non-seismically triggered landslides spread all around the globe whose rupture bodies were measured in all available details. Therefore a specific methodology was developed to maintain predefined standards, to keep the bias as low as possible and to set up a query tool to explore the database. Besides geometry, additional information such as location, date, triggering factors, material, sliding mechanisms, event chronology, consequences, related literature, among other things are stored for every case. The aim of the database is to enable

  13. Analysis of 2D flow and heat transfer modeling in fracture of porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunsheng; Nian, Xianbo; Liu, Yong; Qi, Chao; Song, Jinsheng; Yu, Wenhe

    2017-08-01

    Heat and mass transfer between porous media and fluid is a complex coupling process, which is widely used in various fields of engineering applications, especially for natural and artificial fractures in oil and gas extraction. In this study, a new method is proposed to deal with the flow and heat transfer problem of steady flow in a fracture. The fluid flow in a fracture was described using the same method as Mohais, who considered a fracture as a channel with porous wall, and the perturbation method was used to solve the mathematical model. Unlike previous studies, the shear jump boundary condition proposed by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker was used at the interface between the fluid and porous media. The main methods were perturbation analysis and the application of shear jump boundary conditions. The influence of permeability, channel width, shear jump degree and effective dynamic viscosity on the flow and heat transfer in the channel was studied by analysing the analytical solution. The distribution of axial velocity in the channel with the change of the typical parameters and the sensitivity of the heat transfer was obtained.

  14. Computational study of a magnetic design to improve the diagnosis of malaria: 2D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Siddharth; Genis, Vladimir; Friedman, Gary

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of a cost effective high gradient magnetic separation based device for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a blood sample. The design utilizes magnetic properties of hemozoin present in malaria-infected red blood cells (mRBCs) in order to separate and concentrate them inside a microfluidic channel slide for easier examination under the microscope. The design consists of a rectangular microfluidic channel with multiple magnetic wires positioned on top of and underneath it along the length of the channel at a small angle with respect to the channel axis. Strong magnetic field gradients, produced by the wires, exert sufficient magnetic forces on the mRBCs in order to separate and concentrate them in a specific region small enough to fit within the microscope field of view at magnifications typically required to identify the malaria parasite type. The feasibility of the device is studied using a model where the trajectories of the mRBCs inside the channel are determined using first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) solved numerically using a multistep ODE solver available within MATLAB. The mRBCs trajectories reveal that it is possible to separate and concentrate the mRBCs in less than 5 min, even in cases of very low parasitemia (1-10 parasites/μL of blood) using blood sample volumes of around 3 μL employed today.

  15. Process Parameters Optimization of 14nm MOSFET Using 2-D Analytical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Faizah Z.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and optimization of 14nm gate length CMOS transistor which is down-scaled from previous 32nm gate length. High-k metal gate material was used in this research utilizing Hafnium Dioxide (HfO2 as dielectric and Tungsten Silicide (WSi2 and Titanium Silicide (TiSi2 as a metal gate for NMOS and PMOS respectively. The devices are fabricated virtually using ATHENA module and characterized its performance evaluation via ATLAS module; both in Virtual Wafer Fabrication (VWF of Silvaco TCAD Tools. The devices were then optimized through a process parameters variability using L9 Taguchi Method. There were four process parameter with two noise factor of different values were used to analyze the factor effect. The results show that the optimal value for both transistors are well within ITRS 2013 prediction where VTH and IOFF are 0.236737V and 6.995705nA/um for NMOS device and 0.248635 V and 5.26nA/um for PMOS device respectively.

  16. 2d Falicov-Kimball Model with Correlated Hopping in the Large U Limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtkiewicz, J.; Lemanski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional spinless Falicov-Kimball Model (FKM) with a generalized correlated hopping is studied perturbatively in the limit of large on-site Coulomb interaction U. In the half-filled case ( i.e. ρ i +ρ e = 1 , where ρ i ; ρ e are densities of ions and electrons, respectively ,) an effective Hamiltonian in spin variables is derived up to terms proportional to U -3 . Unlike the simplest FKM case, it contains odd parity terms (resulting from the correlated hopping) in addition to even parity ones. The ground-state phase diagram of the effective Hamiltonian is examined in the (a, g, h) parameter space, where a, g are parameters characterizing strength of the correlated hopping and h is a difference of chemical potentials of two sorts of particles present in the system. It appears to be asymmetric with respect to the change h→-h and a new ordered phases are found for certain values of a and g. (author)

  17. Leaf Area Index Estimation in Vineyards from Uav Hyperspectral Data, 2d Image Mosaics and 3d Canopy Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisperakis, I.; Stentoumis, Ch.; Grammatikopoulos, L.; Karantzalos, K.

    2015-08-01

    The indirect estimation of leaf area index (LAI) in large spatial scales is crucial for several environmental and agricultural applications. To this end, in this paper, we compare and evaluate LAI estimation in vineyards from different UAV imaging datasets. In particular, canopy levels were estimated from i.e., (i) hyperspectral data, (ii) 2D RGB orthophotomosaics and (iii) 3D crop surface models. The computed canopy levels have been used to establish relationships with the measured LAI (ground truth) from several vines in Nemea, Greece. The overall evaluation indicated that the estimated canopy levels were correlated (r2 > 73%) with the in-situ, ground truth LAI measurements. As expected the lowest correlations were derived from the calculated greenness levels from the 2D RGB orthomosaics. The highest correlation rates were established with the hyperspectral canopy greenness and the 3D canopy surface models. For the later the accurate detection of canopy, soil and other materials in between the vine rows is required. All approaches tend to overestimate LAI in cases with sparse, weak, unhealthy plants and canopy.

  18. Differentiating human NT2/D1 neurospheres as a versatile in vitro 3D model system for developmental neurotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, E.J.; Woehrling, E.K.; Prince, M.; Coleman, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity is a major issue in human health and may have lasting neurological implications. In this preliminary study we exposed differentiating Ntera2/clone D1 (NT2/D1) cell neurospheres to known human teratogens classed as non-embryotoxic (acrylamide), weakly embryotoxic (lithium, valproic acid) and strongly embryotoxic (hydroxyurea) as listed by European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and examined endpoints of cell viability and neuronal protein marker expression specific to the central nervous system, to identify developmental neurotoxins. Following induction of neuronal differentiation, valproic acid had the most significant effect on neurogenesis, in terms of reduced viability and decreased neuronal markers. Lithium had least effect on viability and did not significantly alter the expression of neuronal markers. Hydroxyurea significantly reduced cell viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Acrylamide reduced neurosphere viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Overall, this NT2/D1-based neurosphere model of neurogenesis, may provide the basis for a model of developmental neurotoxicity in vitro

  19. Activated sludge model 2d calibration with full-scale WWTP data: comparing model parameter identifiability with influent and operational uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vinicius Cunha; Lafuente, Javier; Baeza, Juan Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The present work developed a model for the description of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Manresa, Catalonia, Spain) for further plant upgrades based on the systematic parameter calibration of the activated sludge model 2d (ASM2d) using a methodology based on the Fisher information matrix. The influent was characterized for the application of the ASM2d and the confidence interval of the calibrated parameters was also assessed. No expert knowledge was necessary for model calibration and a huge available plant database was converted into more useful information. The effect of the influent and operating variables on the model fit was also studied using these variables as calibrating parameters and keeping the ASM2d kinetic and stoichiometric parameters, which traditionally are the calibration parameters, at their default values. Such an "inversion" of the traditional way of model fitting allowed evaluating the sensitivity of the main model outputs regarding the influent and the operating variables changes. This new approach is able to evaluate the capacity of the operational variables used by the WWTP feedback control loops to overcome external disturbances in the influent and kinetic/stoichiometric model parameters uncertainties. In addition, the study of the influence of operating variables on the model outputs provides useful information to select input and output variables in decentralized control structures.

  20. A 2D hydrodynamic-sedimentological model for gravel-bed rivers. Part I: theory and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kaless

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel 2D-depth average model especially developed for gravel-bed rivers, named Lican-Leufú (Lican=pebble and Leufu=river, in Mapuche’s language, the native inhabitants of Central Patagonia, Argentina. The model consists of three components: a hydrodynamic, a sedimentological, and a morphological model. The flow of water is described by the depth-averaged Reynolds equations for unsteady, free-surface, shallow water flows. It includes the standard k-e model for turbulence closure. Sediment transport can be divided in different size classes (sand-gravel mixture and the equilibrium approach is used for Exner’s equation. The amour layer is also included in the structure of the model and the surface grain size distribution is also allowed to evolve. The model simulates bank slides that enable channel widening. Models predictions were tested against a flume experiment where a static armour layer was developed under conditions of sediment starvations and general good agreements were found: the model predicted adequately the sediment transport, grain size of transported material, final armour grain size distribution and bed elevation.

  1. Renormalizability of the gradient flow in the 2D O(N) non-linear sigma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Hiroki; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    It is known that the gauge field and its composite operators evolved by the Yang-Mills gradient flow are ultraviolet (UV) finite without any multiplicative wave function renormalization. In this paper, we prove that the gradient flow in the 2D O(N) non-linear sigma model possesses a similar property: The flowed N-vector field and its composite operators are UV finite without multiplicative wave function renormalization. Our proof in all orders of perturbation theory uses a (2+1)-dimensional field theoretical representation of the gradient flow, which possesses local gauge invariance without gauge field. As an application of the UV finiteness of the gradient flow, we construct the energy-momentum tensor in the lattice formulation of the O(N) non-linear sigma model that automatically restores the correct normalization and the conservation law in the continuum limit.

  2. A 2D finite element procedure for magnetic field analysis taking into account a vector Preisach model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupré Luc R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to incorporate a refined hysteresis model, viz. a vector Preisach model, in 2D magnetic field computations. To this end the governing Maxwell equations are rewritten in a suitable way, which allows to take into account the proper magnetic material parameters and, moreover, to pass to a variational formulation. The variational problem is solved numerically by a FE approximation, using a quadratic mesh, followed by the time discretisation based upon a modified Cranck Nicholson algorithm. The latter includes a suitable iteration procedure to deal with the nonlinear hysteresis behaviour. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented mathematical tool has been confirmed by several numerical experiments.

  3. 2D and 3D transonic flow computation using finite volume method and model of Euler and Navier-Stokes equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialova, M.; Fuerst, J.; Horak, J.; Kozel, K. [Czech Technical Univ., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Dept. of Technical Mathematics, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    The work deals with numerical solution of 2D and 3D transonic flows using mathematical models of Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. For inviscid flows with a shock wave we tested modern TVD upwind and central methods. For computations of 2D and 3D compressible viscous laminar flows multistage Runge-Kutta methods were used. (orig.)

  4. Antarctic boundary layer parametrization in a general circulation model: 1-D simulations facing summer observations at Dome C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, Etienne; Hourdin, Frédéric; Genthon, Christophe; Gallée, Hubert; Bazile, Eric; Lefebvre, Marie-Pierre; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Van de Wiel, Bas J. H.

    2017-07-01

    The parametrization of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is critical over the Antarctic Plateau for climate modelling since it affects the climatological temperature inversion and the negatively buoyant near-surface flow over the ice-sheet. This study challenges state-of-the-art parametrizations used in general circulation models to represent the clear-sky summertime diurnal cycle of the ABL at Dome C, Antarctic Plateau. The Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique-Zoom model is run in a 1-D configuration on the fourth Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges Project Atmospheric Boundary Layers Study case. Simulations are analyzed and compared to observations, giving insights into the sensitivity of one model that participates to the intercomparison exercise. Snow albedo and thermal inertia are calibrated leading to better surface temperatures. Using the so-called "thermal plume model" improves the momentum mixing in the diurnal ABL. In stable conditions, four turbulence schemes are tested. Best simulations are those in which the turbulence cuts off above 35 m in the middle of the night, highlighting the contribution of the longwave radiation in the ABL heat budget. However, the nocturnal surface layer is not stable enough to distinguish between surface fluxes computed with different stability functions. The absence of subsidence in the forcings and an underestimation of downward longwave radiation are identified to be likely responsible for a cold bias in the nocturnal ABL. Apart from model-specific improvements, the paper clarifies on which are the critical aspects to improve in general circulation models to correctly represent the summertime ABL over the Antarctic Plateau.

  5. Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Rafii, Arash; Pasquier, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites) and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Using an appropriate system of microenvironment and tumor culture is the first step towards a better understanding of the complex interaction between cancer cells and their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D) models have been widely described recently. However, while it is claimed that they can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo, it is sometimes hard to decipher their advantage or limitation compared to classical two-dimensional (2D) cultures, especially given the broad number of techniques used. We present here a comprehensive review of the different 3D methods developed recently, and, secondly, we discuss the pros and cons of 3D culture compared to 2D when studying interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. PMID:29346265

  6. Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hoarau-Véchot

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Using an appropriate system of microenvironment and tumor culture is the first step towards a better understanding of the complex interaction between cancer cells and their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D models have been widely described recently. However, while it is claimed that they can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo, it is sometimes hard to decipher their advantage or limitation compared to classical two-dimensional (2D cultures, especially given the broad number of techniques used. We present here a comprehensive review of the different 3D methods developed recently, and, secondly, we discuss the pros and cons of 3D culture compared to 2D when studying interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment.

  7. Estimation of exhaust gas aerodynamic force on the variable geometry turbocharger actuator: 1D flow model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Fayez Shakil; Laghrouche, Salah; Mehmood, Adeel; El Bagdouri, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of aerodynamic force on variable turbine geometry vanes and actuator. • Method based on exhaust gas flow modeling. • Simulation tool for integration of aerodynamic force in automotive simulation software. - Abstract: This paper provides a reliable tool for simulating the effects of exhaust gas flow through the variable turbine geometry section of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), on flow control mechanism. The main objective is to estimate the resistive aerodynamic force exerted by the flow upon the variable geometry vanes and the controlling actuator, in order to improve the control of vane angles. To achieve this, a 1D model of the exhaust flow is developed using Navier–Stokes equations. As the flow characteristics depend upon the volute geometry, impeller blade force and the existing viscous fricti