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Sample records for modelling pitch accents

  1. Accent phrase segmentation using transition probabilities between pitch pattern templates.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Nakai, Mitsuru

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for segmenting continuous speech into accent phrases by using a prosodic feature 'pitch pattern'. The pitch pattern extracted from input speech signals is divided into the accent segments automatically by using the One-Stage DP algorithm, in which reference templates representing various types of accent patterns and connectivity between them are used to find out the optimum sequence of accent segments. In case of making the reference templates from a large n...

  2. Training English Listeners to Identify Pitch-Accent Patterns in Tokyo Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shport, Irina A.

    2016-01-01

    The high-variability training paradigm (multiple words, phonetic contexts, and talkers) has been successful for perceptual learning of tone contrasts. Here, it is extended to training native English listeners on Tokyo Japanese pitch-accent contrasts. Participants had no previous experience with lexically contrastive pitch patterns. They learned to…

  3. Pitch accent alignment in romance: primary and secondary associations with metrical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Fivela, Barbara Gili

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the contrastive possibilities of alignment of high accents in three Romance varieties, namely, Central Catalan, Neapolitan Italian, and Pisa Italian. The Romance languages analyzed in this article provide crucial evidence that small differences in alignment in rising accents should be encoded phonologically. To account for such facts within the AM model, the article develops the notion of "phonological anchoring" as an extension of the concept of secondary association originally proposed by Pierrehumbert and Beckman (1988), and later adopted by Grice (1995), Grice, Ladd, and Arvaniti (2000), and others to explain the behavior of edge tones. The Romance data represent evidence that not only peripheral edge tones seek secondary associations. We claim that the phonological representation of pitch accents should include two independent mechanisms to encode alignment properties with metrical structure: (1) encoding of the primary phonological association (or affiliation) between the tone and its tone-bearing unit; and (2), for some specific cases, encoding of the secondary phonological anchoring of tones to prosodic edges (moras, syllables, and prosodic words). The Romance data described in the article provide crucial evidence of mora-edge, syllable-edge, and word-edge H tonal associations.

  4. The Effects of Lexical Pitch Accent on Infant Word Recognition in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiko Ota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learners of lexical tone languages (e.g., Mandarin develop sensitivity to tonal contrasts and recognize pitch-matched, but not pitch-mismatched, familiar words by 11 months. Learners of non-tone languages (e.g., English also show a tendency to treat pitch patterns as lexically contrastive up to about 18 months. In this study, we examined if this early-developing capacity to lexically encode pitch variations enables infants to acquire a pitch accent system, in which pitch-based lexical contrasts are obscured by the interaction of lexical and non-lexical (i.e., intonational features. Eighteen 17-month-olds learning Tokyo Japanese were tested on their recognition of familiar words with the expected pitch or the lexically opposite pitch pattern. In early trials, infants were faster in shifting their eyegaze from the distractor object to the target object than in shifting from the target to distractor in the pitch-matched condition. In later trials, however, infants showed faster distractor-to-target than target-to-distractor shifts in both the pitch-matched and pitch-mismatched conditions. We interpret these results to mean that, in a pitch-accent system, the ability to use pitch variations to recognize words is still in a nascent state at 17 months.

  5. Individual differences in the perception of melodic contours and pitch-accent timing in speech: Support for domain-generality of pitch processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin; Dilley, Laura C; Hambrick, David Z

    2015-08-01

    Do the same mechanisms underlie processing of music and language? Recent investigations of this question have yielded inconsistent results. Likely factors contributing to discrepant findings are use of small samples and failure to control for individual differences in cognitive ability. We investigated the relationship between music and speech prosody processing, while controlling for cognitive ability. Participants (n = 179) completed a battery of cognitive ability tests, the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) to assess music perception, and a prosody test of pitch peak timing discrimination (early, as in insight vs. late, incite). Structural equation modeling revealed that only music perception was a significant predictor of prosody test performance. Music perception accounted for 34.5% of variance on prosody test performance; cognitive abilities and music training added only about 8%. These results indicate musical pitch and temporal processing are highly predictive of pitch discrimination in speech processing, even after controlling for other possible predictors of this aspect of language processing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Accent modulates access to word meaning: Evidence for a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenguang G; Gilbert, Rebecca A; Davis, Matthew H; Gaskell, M Gareth; Farrar, Lauren; Adler, Sarah; Rodd, Jennifer M

    2017-11-01

    Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect. Critically, neutral-accent speech items, created by morphing British- and American-accented recordings, were interpreted in a similar way to accented words when embedded in a context of accented words (Experiment 2). This finding indicates that listeners do not use accent to guide meaning retrieval on a word-by-word basis; instead they use accent information to determine the dialectic identity of a speaker and then use their experience of that dialect to guide meaning access for all words spoken by that person. These results motivate a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition in which comprehenders determine key characteristics of their interlocutor and use this knowledge to guide word meaning access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching of Japanese Simplex Accent Patterns based on the Verbotonal Method

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, ChunFu; Yoshida, Mitsunobu

    2007-01-01

    Different accent types of Chinese and Japanese are a major source of accent errors for Chinese learning Japanese. Chinese has four tonal accents in which the pitch continuously changes in a syllable. In contrast, Japanese accents mark relative pitch differences between moras and once the pitch falls it can never rise. Due to this difference, learners sometimes produce wrong accent patterns. Therefore, a more effective instruction for Japanese prosody must be developed. In this paper, we inves...

  8. The Accent-protocol: a framework for benchmarking and model evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Builtjes, P.J.H.; Grewe, V.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Borrego, C.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Volz-Thomas, A.

    2011-01-01

    We summarise results from a workshop on “Model Benchmarking and Quality Assurance” of the EU-Network of Excellence ACCENT, including results from other activities (e.g. COST Action 732) and publications. A formalised evaluation protocol is presented, i.e. a generic formalism describing the procedure

  9. Stochastic wind turbine modeling for individual pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    and a simplified description of the aerodynamics with sufficient detail to design model-based individual pitch controllers. Combined with a simplified model of the wind turbine, we exemplify how to use the model elements to systematically design an individual pitch controller. The design is investigated...

  10. Investigations in Satellite MIMO Channel Modeling: Accent on Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiannidis George K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the much different environment in satellite and terrestrial links, possibilities in and design of MIMO systems are rather different as well. After pointing out these differences and problems arising from them, two MIMO designs are shown rather well adapted to satellite link characteristics. Cooperative diversity seems to be applicable; its concept is briefly presented without a detailed discussion, leaving solving particular satellite problems to later work. On the other hand, a detailed discussion of polarization time-coded diversity (PTC is given. A physical-statistical model for dual-polarized satellite links is presented together with measuring results validating the model. The concept of 3D polarization is presented as well as briefly describing compact 3D-polarized antennas known from the literature and applicable in satellite links. A synthetic satellite-to-indoor link is constructed and its electromagnetic behavior is simulated via the FDTD (finite-difference time-domain method. Previous result of the authors states that in 3D-PTC situations, MIMO capacity can be about two times higher than SIMO (single-input multiple-output capacity while a diversity gain of nearly is further verified via extensive FDTD computer simulation.

  11. Investigations in Satellite MIMO Channel Modeling: Accent on Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Horváth

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the much different environment in satellite and terrestrial links, possibilities in and design of MIMO systems are rather different as well. After pointing out these differences and problems arising from them, two MIMO designs are shown rather well adapted to satellite link characteristics. Cooperative diversity seems to be applicable; its concept is briefly presented without a detailed discussion, leaving solving particular satellite problems to later work. On the other hand, a detailed discussion of polarization time-coded diversity (PTC is given. A physical-statistical model for dual-polarized satellite links is presented together with measuring results validating the model. The concept of 3D polarization is presented as well as briefly describing compact 3D-polarized antennas known from the literature and applicable in satellite links. A synthetic satellite-to-indoor link is constructed and its electromagnetic behavior is simulated via the FDTD (finite-difference time-domain method. Previous result of the authors states that in 3D-PTC situations, MIMO capacity can be about two times higher than SIMO (single-input multiple-output capacity while a diversity gain of nearly 2×3 is further verified via extensive FDTD computer simulation.

  12. A New Approach to Model Pitch Perception Using Sparse Coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Barzelay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our acoustical environment abounds with repetitive sounds, some of which are related to pitch perception. It is still unknown how the auditory system, in processing these sounds, relates a physical stimulus and its percept. Since, in mammals, all auditory stimuli are conveyed into the nervous system through the auditory nerve (AN fibers, a model should explain the perception of pitch as a function of this particular input. However, pitch perception is invariant to certain features of the physical stimulus. For example, a missing fundamental stimulus with resolved or unresolved harmonics, or a low and high-level amplitude stimulus with the same spectral content-these all give rise to the same percept of pitch. In contrast, the AN representations for these different stimuli are not invariant to these effects. In fact, due to saturation and non-linearity of both cochlear and inner hair cells responses, these differences are enhanced by the AN fibers. Thus there is a difficulty in explaining how pitch percept arises from the activity of the AN fibers. We introduce a novel approach for extracting pitch cues from the AN population activity for a given arbitrary stimulus. The method is based on a technique known as sparse coding (SC. It is the representation of pitch cues by a few spatiotemporal atoms (templates from among a large set of possible ones (a dictionary. The amount of activity of each atom is represented by a non-zero coefficient, analogous to an active neuron. Such a technique has been successfully applied to other modalities, particularly vision. The model is composed of a cochlear model, an SC processing unit, and a harmonic sieve. We show that the model copes with different pitch phenomena: extracting resolved and non-resolved harmonics, missing fundamental pitches, stimuli with both high and low amplitudes, iterated rippled noises, and recorded musical instruments.

  13. Neural bases of accented speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti eAdank

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of unfamiliar regional and foreign accents represents a challenging task for the speech perception system (Adank, Evans, Stuart-Smith, & Scott, 2009; Floccia, Goslin, Girard, & Konopczynski, 2006. Despite the frequency with which we encounter such accents, the neural mechanisms supporting successful perception of accented speech are poorly understood. Nonetheless, candidate neural substrates involved in processing speech in challenging listening conditions, including accented speech, are beginning to be identified. This review will outline neural bases associated with perception of accented speech in the light of current models of speech perception, and compare these data to brain areas associated with processing other speech distortions. We will subsequently evaluate competing models of speech processing with regards to neural processing of accented speech. See Cristia et al. (2012 for an in-depth overview of behavioural aspects of accent processing.

  14. Modeling unsteady forces and pressures on a rapidly pitching airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Nicole K.; Dawson, Scott T. M.; Rowley, Clarence W.; Williams, David R.

    2014-11-01

    This work develops models to quantify and understand the unsteady aerodynamic forces arising from rapid pitching motion of a NACA0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50 000. The system identification procedure applies a generalized DMD-type algorithm to time-resolved wind tunnel measurements of the lift and drag forces, as well as the pressure at six locations on the suction surface of the airfoil. Models are identified for 5-degree pitch-up and pitch-down maneuvers within the overall range of 0-20 degrees. The identified models can accurately capture the effects of flow separation and leading-edge vortex formation and convection. We demonstrate that switching between different linear models can give accurate prediction of the nonlinear behavior that is present in high-amplitude maneuvers. The models are accurate for a wide-range of motions, including pitch-and-hold, sinusoidal, and pseudo-random pitching maneuvers. Providing the models access to a subset of the measured data channels can allow for improved estimates of the remaining states via the use of a Kalman filter, suggesting that the modeling framework could be useful for aerodynamic control applications. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under Award No. FA9550-12-1-0075.

  15. The ACCENT-protocol: a framework for benchmarking and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, V.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Builtjes, P.; Borrego, C.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Volz-Thomas, A.

    2012-05-01

    We summarise results from a workshop on "Model Benchmarking and Quality Assurance" of the EU-Network of Excellence ACCENT, including results from other activities (e.g. COST Action 732) and publications. A formalised evaluation protocol is presented, i.e. a generic formalism describing the procedure of how to perform a model evaluation. This includes eight steps and examples from global model applications which are given for illustration. The first and important step is concerning the purpose of the model application, i.e. the addressed underlying scientific or political question. We give examples to demonstrate that there is no model evaluation per se, i.e. without a focused purpose. Model evaluation is testing, whether a model is fit for its purpose. The following steps are deduced from the purpose and include model requirements, input data, key processes and quantities, benchmark data, quality indicators, sensitivities, as well as benchmarking and grading. We define "benchmarking" as the process of comparing the model output against either observational data or high fidelity model data, i.e. benchmark data. Special focus is given to the uncertainties, e.g. in observational data, which have the potential to lead to wrong conclusions in the model evaluation if not considered carefully.

  16. The ACCENT-protocol: a framework for benchmarking and model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Grewe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We summarise results from a workshop on "Model Benchmarking and Quality Assurance" of the EU-Network of Excellence ACCENT, including results from other activities (e.g. COST Action 732 and publications. A formalised evaluation protocol is presented, i.e. a generic formalism describing the procedure of how to perform a model evaluation. This includes eight steps and examples from global model applications which are given for illustration. The first and important step is concerning the purpose of the model application, i.e. the addressed underlying scientific or political question. We give examples to demonstrate that there is no model evaluation per se, i.e. without a focused purpose. Model evaluation is testing, whether a model is fit for its purpose. The following steps are deduced from the purpose and include model requirements, input data, key processes and quantities, benchmark data, quality indicators, sensitivities, as well as benchmarking and grading. We define "benchmarking" as the process of comparing the model output against either observational data or high fidelity model data, i.e. benchmark data. Special focus is given to the uncertainties, e.g. in observational data, which have the potential to lead to wrong conclusions in the model evaluation if not considered carefully.

  17. Rising accents in Castilian Spanish: a revision of Sp_ToBI

    OpenAIRE

    Face, Timothy L.; Prieto Vives, Pilar, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    This paper employs Castilian Spanish data to examine the issue of rising pitch accents and their phonological analysis. The preliminary Sp_ToBI annotation conventions are shown to be inadequate for representing the Castilian Spanish data, and therefore a revision is proposed. Through an examination of data on Castilian Spanish rising accents in a variety of sentence types, two primary contributions are made in this paper. First, new empirical data on the inventory of rising pitch accents in C...

  18. Learning Pitch with STDP: A Computational Model of Place and Temporal Pitch Perception Using Spiking Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Erfanian Saeedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pitch perception is important for understanding speech prosody, music perception, recognizing tones in tonal languages, and perceiving speech in noisy environments. The two principal pitch perception theories consider the place of maximum neural excitation along the auditory nerve and the temporal pattern of the auditory neurons' action potentials (spikes as pitch cues. This paper describes a biophysical mechanism by which fine-structure temporal information can be extracted from the spikes generated at the auditory periphery. Deriving meaningful pitch-related information from spike times requires neural structures specialized in capturing synchronous or correlated activity from amongst neural events. The emergence of such pitch-processing neural mechanisms is described through a computational model of auditory processing. Simulation results show that a correlation-based, unsupervised, spike-based form of Hebbian learning can explain the development of neural structures required for recognizing the pitch of simple and complex tones, with or without the fundamental frequency. The temporal code is robust to variations in the spectral shape of the signal and thus can explain the phenomenon of pitch constancy.

  19. Pitch Gestures in Generative Modeling of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Generative models of music are in need of performance and gesture additions, i.e. inclusions of subtle temporal and dynamic alterations, and gestures so as to render the music musical. While much of the research regarding music generation is based on music theory, the work presented here is based...... on the temporal perception, which is divided into three parts, the immediate (subchunk), the short-term memory (chunk), and the superchunk. By review of the relevant temporal perception literature, the necessary performance elements to add in the metrical generative model, related to the chunk memory...

  20. Using Bona Adaptation to Improve Accent Defects as a Voice Training Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycan, Kivanc

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, it is observed that if solfeggio syllables, consonants, and vowels are spoken properly, voice intensity (accent), duration, pitch (high pitch-low pitch) and intonation (the ability to carry a musical voice) related to proper pitch level. In this study, it is observed that rhythmic structures do not form without…

  1. A rule-based backchannel prediction model using pitch and pause information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    We manually designed rules for a backchannel (BC) prediction model based on pitch and pause information. In short, the model predicts a BC when there is a pause of a certain length that is preceded by a falling or rising pitch. This model was validated against the Dutch IFADV Corpus in a

  2. Accent Attribution in Speakers with Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jo; De Pauw, Guy; Pettinato, Michele; Hirson, Allen; Van Borsel, John; Marien, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this experiment was to investigate the perception of Foreign Accent Syndrome in comparison to speakers with an authentic foreign accent. Method: Three groups of listeners attributed accents to conversational speech samples of 5 FAS speakers which were embedded amongst those of 5 speakers with a real foreign accent and 5…

  3. Transient foreign accent syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Hanul Srinivas

    2011-11-08

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a poorly understood and studied syndrome as it is indeed a rare entity. Since its first description in 1907 by French neurologist Pierre Marie involving a patient who presented with an Alsatian accent, there are approximately only 60 cases reported in the literature. The majority of such cases of FAS have been secondary to cerebrovascular accidents. Of the cases in the literature, none report such a transitory nature of FAS. In this particular case, a 55-year-old male presented with a foreign accent. This FAS was triggered by ischemia and was reversed after a seizure, the first reported in the literature.

  4. Focus, accent, and argument structure: effects on language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, S; Clifton, C

    1995-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the effect of syntactic argument structure on the evaluation and comprehension of utterances with different patterns of pitch accents. Linguistic analyses of the relation between focus and prosody note that it is possible for certain accented constituents within a broadly focused phrase to project focus to the entire phrase. We manipulated focus requirements and accent in recorded question-answer pairs and asked listeners to make linguistic judgments of prosodic appropriateness (Experiments 1 and 3) or to make judgments based on meaningful comprehension (Experiments 2 and 4). Naive judgments of prosodic appropriateness were generally consistent with the linguistic analyses, showing preferences for utterances in which contextually new noun phrases received accent and old noun phrases did not, but suggested that an accented new argument NP was not fully effective in projecting broad focus to the entire VP. However, the comprehension experiments did demonstrate that comprehension of a sentence with broad VP focus was as efficient when only a lexical argument NP received accent as when both NP and verb received accent. Such focus projection did not occur when the argument NP was an "independent quantifier" such as nobody or everything. The results extend existing demonstrations that the ease of understanding spoken discourse depends on appropriate intonational marking of focus to cases where certain structurally-defined words can project focus-marking to an entire phrase.

  5. TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED FORMAL MODEL OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rounding off” the ... respect to what (pitch accent as opposed to time), what constitutes an utterance, what causes the decline, what .... In the latter case, according to LP, the stronger accent governs the fall of the succeeding peak accents; that.

  6. Discrete Element Method Modeling of the Rheological Properties of Coke/Pitch Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Majidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of pitch and pitch/coke mixtures at temperatures around 150 °C are of great interest for the carbon anode manufacturing process in the aluminum industry. In the present work, a cohesive viscoelastic contact model based on Burger’s model is developed using the discrete element method (DEM on the YADE, the open-source DEM software. A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR is used to measure the viscoelastic properties of pitch at 150 °C. The experimental data obtained is then used to estimate the Burger’s model parameters and calibrate the DEM model. The DSR tests were then simulated by a three-dimensional model. Very good agreement was observed between the experimental data and simulation results. Coke aggregates were modeled by overlapping spheres in the DEM model. Coke/pitch mixtures were numerically created by adding 5, 10, 20, and 30 percent of coke aggregates of the size range of 0.297–0.595 mm (−30 + 50 mesh to pitch. Adding up to 30% of coke aggregates to pitch can increase its complex shear modulus at 60 Hz from 273 Pa to 1557 Pa. Results also showed that adding coke particles increases both storage and loss moduli, while it does not have a meaningful effect on the phase angle of pitch.

  7. Accent attribution in speakers with Foreign Accent Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, J.; De Pauw, G.; Pettinato, M.; Hirson, A.; Van Borsel, J.; Marien, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this experiment was to establish the extent to which the impression of foreignness in speakers with Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS) is in any way comparable to the impression of foreignness in speakers with a real foreign accent.\\ud \\ud Method: Three groups of listeners attributed accents to conversational speech samples of 5 FAS speakers which were embedded amongst those of 5 speakers with a real foreign accent and 5 native speaker controls. The listener groups differe...

  8. Melodic Accent as an Emergent Property of Tonal Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ammirante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous continuation tapping study (Ammirante, Thompson, & Russo, in press, each tap triggered a discrete tone in a sequence randomly varying in pitch height and contour. Although participants were instructed to ignore the tones, pitch distance and pitch contour influenced intertap interval (ITI and tap velocity (TV. The current study replicated these findings with original melodies. Results were interpreted as an effect of apparent tonal motion, with deviation in ITI and TV mirroring implied tonal acceleration. Due to overlapping perceptual and motor representations, participants may have failed to disambiguate acceleration implied by tonal motion from the acceleration of their finger trajectory. Dissociative effects of pitch distance on ITI and pitch contour on TV implied that pitch distance influences the initial finger extension while pitch contour influences later finger flexion. Acceleration in ITI and TV were also both correlated with melodic accent strength values from perceptual data (Thomassen, 1982, suggesting that perception and production of melodic accent emerge from shared action associations.

  9. A Dynamical Model of Pitch Memory Provides an Improved Basis for Implied Harmony Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Chul

    2017-01-01

    Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies. We model short-term pitch memory as a gradient frequency neural network, which is a biologically realistic model of auditory neural processing. The model is a dynamical system consisting of a network of tonotopically tuned nonlinear oscillators driven by audio signals. The oscillators interact with each other through nonlinear resonance and lateral inhibition, and the pattern of oscillatory traces emerging from the interactions is taken as a measure of pitch salience. We test the model with a collection of unaccompanied tonal melodies to evaluate it as a feature extractor for chord estimation. We show that chord tones are selectively enhanced in the response of the model, thereby increasing the accuracy of implied harmony estimation. We also find that, like other existing features for chord estimation, the performance of the model can be improved by using segmented input signals. We discuss possible ways to expand the present model into a full chord estimation system within the dynamical systems framework. PMID:28522983

  10. Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model

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    Stanislav Rockel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnel experiments were performed, where the development of the wake of a model wind turbine was measured using stereo Particle Image Velocimetry to observe the influence of platform pitch motion. The wakes of a classical bottom fixed turbine and a streamwise oscillating turbine are compared. Results indicate that platform pitch creates an upward shift in all components of the flow and their fluctuations. The vertical flow created by the pitch motion as well as the reduced entrainment of kinetic energy from undisturbed flows above the turbine result in potentially higher loads and less available kinetic energy for a downwind turbine. Experimental results are compared with four wake models. The wake models employed are consistent with experimental results in describing the shapes and magnitudes of the streamwise velocity component of the wake for a fixed turbine. Inconsistencies between the model predictions and experimental results arise in the floating case particularly regarding the vertical displacement of the velocity components of the flow. Furthermore, it is found that the additional degrees of freedom of a floating wind turbine add to the complexity of the wake aerodynamics and improved wake models are needed, considering vertical flows and displacements due to pitch motion.

  11. Japanese Attitudes toward English Accents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Reiko; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…

  12. Language Learners' Perceptions of Accent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Julie; Wennerstrom, Ann; Richard, Dara; Wu, Su Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed the accent perceptions of a group of 37 English language learners and 10 American undergraduate students. Each subject listened to a one-minute passage read by four speakers with different accents of English: General American, British English, Chinese English, and Mexican English. Participants then attempted to identify the…

  13. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    the perception and production. We hypothesize that the phonological system and the variation in the pronunciation of in Danish is responsible for the production difficulty and will in a production and a perception experiment where lie the categorical boundaries of the students between tai and cai in a series...... of experiments. Further we will investigate the perception and production of tone among Danish students, as well as the tone perception of Chinese native speakers (with and without exposure to Danish) when they perceive Danish accented Chinese. Of special interest is the neutral tone: without particular...

  14. Adaptive control of a jet turboshaft engine driving a variable pitch propeller using multiple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Narjes; Khosravi, Alireza; Sarhadi, Pouria

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a multiple model adaptive control (MMAC) method is proposed for a gas turbine engine. The model of a twin spool turbo-shaft engine driving a variable pitch propeller includes various operating points. Variations in fuel flow and propeller pitch inputs produce different operating conditions which force the controller to be adopted rapidly. Important operating points are three idle, cruise and full thrust cases for the entire flight envelope. A multi-input multi-output (MIMO) version of second level adaptation using multiple models is developed. Also, stability analysis using Lyapunov method is presented. The proposed method is compared with two conventional first level adaptation and model reference adaptive control techniques. Simulation results for JetCat SPT5 turbo-shaft engine demonstrate the performance and fidelity of the proposed method.

  15. Validation of Hydrodynamic Numerical Model of a Pitching Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Maria del Pilar Heras; Thomas, Sarah; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2017-01-01

    Validation of numerical model is essential in the development of new technologies. Commercial software and codes available simulating wave energy converters (WECs) have not been proved to work for all the available and upcoming technologies yet. The present paper presents the first stages...... of the validation process of a hydrodynamic numerical model for a pitching wave energy converter. The development of dry tests, wave flume and wave basin experiments are going to be explained, lessons learned shared and results presented....

  16. Business Model Canvas & Elevator pitch : 29-10-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelco Bakker

    2013-01-01

    Presentatie bij de Workshop Business Model Canvas: de bouwstenen en het gebouw van de onderneming - workshopprogramma ViB050. In het kader van het programma Teach the Teacher. Gehouden op 29-10-2013..

  17. Bilingual children's social preferences hinge on accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Hwang, Hyesung G; Dautel, Jocelyn B; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2017-12-01

    Past research finds that monolingual and bilingual children prefer native speakers to individuals who speak in unfamiliar foreign languages or accents. Do children in bilingual contexts socially distinguish among familiar languages and accents and, if so, how do their social preferences based on language and accent compare? The current experiments tested whether 5- to 7-year-olds in two bilingual contexts in the United States demonstrate social preferences among the languages and accents that are present in their social environments. We compared children's preferences based on language (i.e., English vs. their other native language) and their preferences based on accent (i.e., English with a native accent vs. English with a non-native [yet familiar] accent). In Experiment 1, children attending a French immersion school demonstrated no preference between English and French speakers but preferred American-accented English to French-accented English. In Experiment 2, bilingual Korean American children demonstrated no preference between English and Korean speakers but preferred American-accented English to Korean-accented English. Across studies, bilingual children's preferences based on accent (i.e., American-accented English over French- or Korean-accented English) were not related to their own language dominance. These results suggest that children from diverse linguistic backgrounds demonstrate social preferences for native-accented speakers. Implications for understanding the potential relation between social reasoning and language acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Repetitive model predictive approach to individual pitch control of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbines are inherently exposed to nonuniform wind fields with of wind shear, tower shadow, and possible wake contributions. Asymmetrical aerodynamic rotor loads are a consequence of such periodic, repetitive wind disturbances experienced by the blades. A controller may estimate and use this....... A simulation comparison betweeen the proposed controller and an industry-standard PID controller shows better mitigation of drive-train, blade and tower loads.......Wind turbines are inherently exposed to nonuniform wind fields with of wind shear, tower shadow, and possible wake contributions. Asymmetrical aerodynamic rotor loads are a consequence of such periodic, repetitive wind disturbances experienced by the blades. A controller may estimate and use...... this peculiar disturbance pattern to better attenuate loads and regulate power by controlling the blade pitch angles individually. A novel model predictive (MPC) approach for individual pitch control of wind turbines is proposed in this paper. A repetitive wind disturbance model is incorporated into the MPC...

  19. Perception and Modeling of Affective Qualities of Musical Instrument Sounds across Pitch Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Stephen; Douglas, Chelsea; Vempala, Naresh N

    2017-01-01

    Composers often pick specific instruments to convey a given emotional tone in their music, partly due to their expressive possibilities, but also due to their timbres in specific registers and at given dynamic markings. Of interest to both music psychology and music informatics from a computational point of view is the relation between the acoustic properties that give rise to the timbre at a given pitch and the perceived emotional quality of the tone. Musician and nonmusician listeners were presented with 137 tones produced at a fixed dynamic marking (forte) playing tones at pitch class D# across each instrument's entire pitch range and with different playing techniques for standard orchestral instruments drawn from the brass, woodwind, string, and pitched percussion families. They rated each tone on six analogical-categorical scales in terms of emotional valence (positive/negative and pleasant/unpleasant), energy arousal (awake/tired), tension arousal (excited/calm), preference (like/dislike), and familiarity. Linear mixed models revealed interactive effects of musical training, instrument family, and pitch register, with non-linear relations between pitch register and several dependent variables. Twenty-three audio descriptors from the Timbre Toolbox were computed for each sound and analyzed in two ways: linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) and nonlinear artificial neural net modeling. These two analyses converged in terms of the importance of various spectral, temporal, and spectrotemporal audio descriptors in explaining the emotion ratings, but some differences also emerged. Different combinations of audio descriptors make major contributions to the three emotion dimensions, suggesting that they are carried by distinct acoustic properties. Valence is more positive with lower spectral slopes, a greater emergence of strong partials, and an amplitude envelope with a sharper attack and earlier decay. Higher tension arousal is carried by brighter sounds

  20. Handling Qualities of Model Reference Adaptive Controllers with Varying Complexity for Pitch-Roll Coupled Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Hanson, Curt; Johnson, Marcus A.; Nguyen, Nhan

    2011-01-01

    Three model reference adaptive controllers (MRAC) with varying levels of complexity were evaluated on a high performance jet aircraft and compared along with a baseline nonlinear dynamic inversion controller. The handling qualities and performance of the controllers were examined during failure conditions that induce coupling between the pitch and roll axes. Results from flight tests showed with a roll to pitch input coupling failure, the handling qualities went from Level 2 with the baseline controller to Level 1 with the most complex MRAC tested. A failure scenario with the left stabilator frozen also showed improvement with the MRAC. Improvement in performance and handling qualities was generally seen as complexity was incrementally added; however, added complexity usually corresponds to increased verification and validation effort required for certification. The tradeoff between complexity and performance is thus important to a controls system designer when implementing an adaptive controller on an aircraft. This paper investigates this relation through flight testing of several controllers of vary complexity.

  1. Interference in memory for tonal pitch: implications for a working-memory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, T; Mohr, G

    1992-05-01

    The degree of interference caused by different kinds of stimuli on memory for tonal pitch was studied. Musically trained and untrained subjects heard a sequence of two tones separated by an interval of 5 sec. The tones were either identical in pitch or differed by a semitone. Subjects had to decide whether the tones were identical or not. The interval was filled with tonal, verbal, or visual material under attended and unattended conditions. The results revealed clear group differences. Musically trained subjects' retention of the first test tone was only affected by the interposition of other tones. In contrast, the performance of musically untrained subjects was also affected by verbal and visual items. The findings are discussed in the framework of Baddeley's (1986) working-memory model.

  2. Modeling of tangential synthetic jet actuators used for pitching control on an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Omar; Moser, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Pitching moment control in an airfoil can be achieved by trapping concentrations of vorticity close to the trailing edge. Experimental work has shown that synthetic jet actuators can be used to manipulate and control this trapped vorticity. Two different approaches are used to model the action of tangential-blowing synthetic jet actuators mounted near the trailing edge of the airfoil: a detailed model and Reynolds stress synthetic jet (RSSJ) model. The detailed model resolves the synthetic jet dynamics in time while the RSSJ model tries to capture the major effects of the synthetic jet by modeling the changes in the Reynolds stress induced by the actuator, based on experimental PIV data and numerical results from the detailed model. Both models along with the CFD computations in which they are embedded are validated against experimental data. The synthetic jet models have been developed to simulate closed loop flow control of the pitching and plunging of the airfoil, and to this end the RSSJ model is particularly useful since it reduces (by an order of magnitude) the cost of simulating the long-term evolution of the system under control.

  3. A Pilot Model for the NASA Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) (Single-Axis Pitch Task)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Patrick Mark

    This thesis defines, tests, and validates a descriptive pilot model for a single-axis pitch control task of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER). SAFER is a small propulsive jetpack used by astronauts for self-rescue. Pilot model research supports development of improved self-rescue strategies and technologies through insights into pilot behavior.This thesis defines a multi-loop pilot model. The innermost loop controls the hand controller, the middle loop controls pitch rate, and the outer loop controls pitch angle. A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to gather data from a human pilot. Quantitative and qualitative metrics both indicate that the model is an acceptable fit to the human data. Fuel consumption was nearly identical; time to task completion matched very well. There is some evidence that the model responds faster to initial pitch rates than the human, artificially decreasing the model's time to task completion. This pilot model is descriptive, not predictive, of the human pilot. Insights are made into pilot behavior from this research. Symmetry implies that the human responds to positive and negative initial conditions with the same strategy. The human pilot appears indifferent to pitch angles within 0.5 deg, coasts at a constant pitch rate 1.09 deg/s, and has a reaction delay of 0.1 s.

  4. FOREIGN ACCENT PERCEPTION IN PROFESSIONAL DISCOURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Tyurina, S.Yu.; Staroverova, E.B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the attitude to the accent in professional discourse. The paper focuses on linguistic approach to accent, thus, the communicative effect of accent in professional discourse is evaluated. Discourse is considered as one of the key concepts of contemporary thinking. The key goal is to study how native speaking and non-native speaking people evaluate the accents in professional sphere. The study is considered to have important implications due to academic and professional mobi...

  5. Accent Identification by Adults with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Caroline; Burns, Rebecca; Bruce, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The UK is a diverse society where individuals regularly interact with speakers with different accents. Whilst there is a growing body of research on the impact of speaker accent on comprehension in people with aphasia, there is none which explores their ability to identify accents. This study investigated the ability of this group to identify the…

  6. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic...

  7. Intercultural Processes in Accented English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Damian J.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudinal responses of 48 Japanese university students towards 10 accented English speech samples across nine evaluative criteria. Of the 10 samples, one was a Japanese-English speech sample (the intracultural familiar), seven were non-native-English samples originating from a variety of Asian countries (intercultural…

  8. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Bergami, Leonardo; Andersen, Peter Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model...

  9. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model...

  10. The Triple Spar Campaign: Implementation and Test of a Blade Pitch Controller on a Scaled Floating Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wenye; Lemmer, F.; Bredmose, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this project by the University of Stuttgart, DTU Wind Energy and CENER, a real-time blade-pitch control system was implemented on a scaled model in a combined wind-and-wave tank. A simplified low-order simulation model including aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, mooring dynamics and structural dyna...

  11. The Triple Spar campaign: Model tests of a 10MW floating wind turbine with waves, wind and pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Lemmer, F.; Borg, Michael Borg

    2017-01-01

    Results of a test campaign for a floating wind turbine in simultaneous wind and wave forcing at scale 1:60 are presented. The floater is the Triple Spar floater, a hybrid between a spar buoy and a semi submersible tri-floater, tested here for the first time. The turbine is a model scale version...... of the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine, which, also for the first time, is tested with active blade pitch control. The tests focus on the effects of aerodynamic damping and interaction effects between the wind forcing, wave forcing and the blade pitch control algorithm. Special focus is devoted...... to the instability of the platform pitch natural mode, that can occur if a standard land-based controller is applied....

  12. Problems of ancient and modern greek accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article are the accen­ tual features of ancient and modern Greek. The first part discusses the prob­ lems of the position of the Greek accent at the earliest stages of development and the accentual rules of Ionic-Attic, Lesbic and Doric dialect. The second and the third part present the questions of the phonetics of the ancient Greek accent and the process in which the modern Greek accent appeared.

  13. Problems of ancient and modern greek accent

    OpenAIRE

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2000-01-01

    The subject of the article are the accen­ tual features of ancient and modern Greek. The first part discusses the prob­ lems of the position of the Greek accent at the earliest stages of development and the accentual rules of Ionic-Attic, Lesbic and Doric dialect. The second and the third part present the questions of the phonetics of the ancient Greek accent and the process in which the modern Greek accent appeared.

  14. Accent on communication: the impact of regional and foreign accent on comprehension in adults with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Carolyn; To, Cinn-Teng; Newton, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether an unfamiliar non-native accent, differing in both segmental and prosodic features was more difficult for individuals with aphasia to understand than an unfamiliar native accent, which differed in segmental features only. Comprehension, which was determined by accuracy judgments on true/false sentences, and speed of response were assessed in the following three conditions: a familiar Southern Standard British English (SSBE) accent, an unfamiliar native Grimsby accent, and an unfamiliar non-native Chinese accent. Thirty-four English speaking adults (17 people with and 17 people without aphasia) served as listeners for this study. All listeners made significantly more errors in the unfamiliar non-native accent, although this difficulty was more marked for those with aphasia. While there was no affect of speaker accent on the response times of listeners with aphasia, listeners without aphasia were significantly slower with the unfamiliar non-native accent. The results indicate that non-native accented speech affects comprehension even on simple tasks in ideal listening conditions. The findings suggest that speaker accent, especially accents varying in both segmental and prosodic features, can be a barrier to successful interactions between non-native accented speakers and native listeners, particularly those with aphasia.

  15. The common denominator in the perception of accents in cases with foreign accent syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Roel; van der Scheer, Fennetta; Gilbers, Dicky

    2017-01-01

    Background: Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a rare speech disorder leading to a perceived presence of a new accent in a speaker’s speech. Until now, around 100 cases of FAS have been reported. It is striking that in most cases the perception of the accent is in one consistent direction, namely from

  16. Nonnative accent discrimination with words and sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Background Accent detection studies have shown native listeners to be highly sensitive to the presence of nonnative accents. This study examined the robustness of this sensitivity. Methods We evaluated listeners’ accent discrimination performance when presented with a stimulus set consisting of multiple nonnative accents, as well as words and sentences that were unique in each trial. Listeners heard pairs of talkers reading the same word or sentence and indicated whether the talkers’ native languages were the same or different. Talkers included two native talkers and six nonnative talkers from three native language backgrounds. Results Listeners were highly sensitive to the difference between native and nonnative accents, confirming earlier findings, but were much less sensitive to the difference between two nonnative accents. Furthermore, while stimulus length affected listeners’ sensitivity to the difference between native and nonnative accents, this factor had a minimal effect on their sensitivity to the difference between two nonnative accents. Conclusion The findings suggest that task and stimulus characteristics have a significant effect on the degree of sensitivity to nonnative accents. PMID:28268232

  17. A Development of reliability evaluation model for power plant fan pitch blade control actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Tae Ha; Huh, Jun Young

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the proceedings of creating countermeasures after analysis and maintenance to be able to conduct operation safely in a power plant. In order to operate the power plant in a stable and reliable way, the best condition of the governor system can be maintained through the response characteristic analysis of the control device for the pitch blade control hydraulic actuator. The fan pitch blade control hydraulic actuator of a 500MW large-scale boiler is frequently operated under normal operation conditions. Common problems or malfunctions of the pitch blade control hydraulic actuators leads to the decline of boiler thermal efficiency and unexpected power plant trip. The inlet and outlet gas can be controlled by using the fan pitch blade control hydraulic actuators in order to regulate the internal pressure of the furnace and control the frequency in the power plant facility which utilizes soft coals as a power sources

  18. Pitch control for ships with diesel mechanical and hybrid propulsion : Modelling, validation and performance quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, R.D.; Negenborn, R.R.; Visser, K.; Loonstijn, M.A.; Hopman, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ships, in particular service vessels, need to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and cavitation noise while maintaining manoeuvrability and preventing engine overloading. Diesel mechanical propulsion with controllable pitch propellers can provide high fuel efficiency with good manoeuvrability.

  19. Mathematical modeling and design parameters of crushing machines with variable-pitch helix of the screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelenko V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of the effectiveness of the top cutting unit, the helix angle in the end portion of the screw is the most important and characteristic parameter, as it determines the pressure of the meat material in the zone of interaction of a knife and grate. The importance of solving the problem of mathematical modeling of geometry is due to the need to address the problem of minimizing the reverse flow of the food material when injecting into the cutting zone, as the specified effect of "locking" significantly reduces the performance of the transfer process, increases energy consumption of the equipment and entails the deterioration of the quality of the raw materials output. The problem of determining the length of the helix variable pitch for screw chopper food materials has been formulated and solved by methods of differential geometry. The task of correct description of the law of changing the angle of helix inclination along its length has been defined in this case as a key to provide the required dependence of this angle tangent on the angle of the radius-vector of the circle. It has been taken into account that the reduction in the pitch of the screw in the direction of the product delivery should occur at a decreasing rate. The parametric equation of the helix has been written in the form of three functional dependencies of the corresponding cylindrical coordinates. Based on the wide range analysis and significant number of models of tops from different manufacturers the boundaries of possible changes in the angles of inclination of the helical line of the first and last turns of the screw have been identified. The auger screw length is determined mathematically in the form of an analytical relationship and both as a function of the variable angle of its rise, and as a function of the rotation angle of the radius-vector of the circle generatrix, which makes it possible to expand the design possibilities of this node. Along

  20. Dynamic wake model with coordinated pitch and torque control of wind farms for power tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Carl; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles; Gayme, Dennice

    2017-11-01

    Control of wind farm power production, where wind turbines within a wind farm coordinate to follow a time-varying power set point, is vital for increasing renewable energy participation in the power grid. Previous work developed a one-dimensional convection-diffusion equation describing the advection of the velocity deficit behind each turbine (wake) as well the turbulent mixing of the wake with the surrounding fluid. Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrated that a receding horizon controller built around this time-dependent model can effectively provide power tracking services by modulating the thrust coefficients of individual wind turbines. In this work, we extend this model-based controller to include pitch angle and generator torque control and the first-order dynamics of the drive train. Including these dynamics allows us to investigate control strategies for providing kinetic energy reserves to the grid, i.e. storing kinetic energy from the wind in the rotating mass of the wind turbine rotor for later use. CS, CM, and DG are supported by NSF (ECCS-1230788, CMMI 1635430, and OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project). JM is supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, 306471). This research was conducted using computational resources at MARCC.

  1. The weight of phonological vs. phonetic accent in teaching pronunciation : Implications and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Y. Odisho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching pronunciation especially in Second Language (L2 and Foreign Language (FL learning situations has traditionally involved some haphazard practices and procedures such as dealing with it mechanically and exclusively through modeling by the instructor and repetition by the learner as if speech is a mechanical skill and the exclusive function of the auditory sense. Moreover, teaching pronunciation in those situations has often failed to focus on aspects that are more important for effective and efficient communication and comprehension. Generally speaking, this paper is an attempt at shifting the pedagogy of teaching pronunciation in the cognitive direction since speech is physical only at its surface structure, but distinctly cognitive at its deep structure with the brain being at the helm of the efficient process of speech. This pedagogical shift is premised on two major principles. First, it promotes a multisensory (auditory, visual, tactile-kinesthetic and multicognitive (think, associate, analyze, synthesize etc… approach (MMA to replace the exclusively auditory one and build sets of teaching and learning strategies based on those three senses to function jointly whenever relevant. Second, to respond to the failure to secure effi cient pronunciation with no or with minimum accent, the dichotomy of phonological accent vs. phonetic accent is introduced. Phonological accent results from mispronunciations that lead to radical semantic (meaning change, whereas phonetic accent rarely interferes with meaning. From a didactic perspective, priority in teaching L2 or FL pronunciation should be geared in the direction of overcoming phonological accent first and then work on phonetic accent.

  2. Pitch Fork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pitch Fork is a prototype of an alternate, actuated digital musical instrument (DMI). It uses 5 infra-red and 4 piezoelectric sensors to control an additive synthesis engine. Iron bars are used as the physical point of contact in interaction with the aim of using this materials natural acoustic...

  3. Intonation in Neurogenic Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschmann, Anja; Lowit, Anja; Miller, Nick; Mennen, Ineke

    2012-01-01

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a motor speech disorder in which changes to segmental as well as suprasegmental aspects lead to the perception of a foreign accent in speech. This paper focuses on one suprasegmental aspect, namely that of intonation. It provides an in-depth analysis of the intonation system of four speakers with FAS with the aim…

  4. Foreign Accent Syndrome: A Neurolinguistic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, Stefanie Agnes Marino Theo

    2017-01-01

    Foreign Accent Syndrome, in het Nederlands ook wel het "buitenlandsaccentsyndroom" genoemd, is een motorische spraakstoornis waardoor patiënten hun moedertaal gaan spreken met een accent dat buitenlands klinkt in de oren van luisteraars. In dit proefschrift geven we een duidelijke neurolinguïstische

  5. Hydraulic pitch control system for wind turbines: Advanced modeling and verification of an hydraulic accumulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irizar, Victor; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic pitch systems provide robust and reliable control of power and speed of modern wind turbines. During emergency stops, where the pitch of the blades has to be taken to a full stop position to avoid over speed situations, hydraulic accumulators play a crucial role. Their efficiency...... and capability of providing enough energy to rotate the blades is affected by thermal processes due to the compression and decompression of the gas chamber. This paper presents an in depth study of the thermodynamical processes involved in an hydraulic accumulator during operation, and how they affect the energy...

  6. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    We consider a static wind model for a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, pitch-controlled wind turbine. When placed in a wind field, the turbine experiences several mechanical loads, which generate power but also create structural fatigue. We address the problem of finding blade pitch profiles......% compared to any constant pitch profile while sacrificing at most 7% of the maximum attainable output power. Using iterative learning, we show that very similar performance can be achieved by using only load measurements, with no knowledge of the wind field or wind turbine model....... for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  7. Pitch the niche - taking responsibility for the concepts we use in ecology and species distribution modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInerny, Greg J.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2012-01-01

    In a discussion it is often easier to staunchly reject or offer resolute support for an idea. This third paper on the niche concept aims to develop a balanced argument by exploring general principles for determining an appropriate level for pitching the niche concept that will guide better use and

  8. Assessing the efficacy of benchmarks for automatic speech accent recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Bock; Lior Shamir

    2015-01-01

    Speech accents can possess valuable information about the speaker, and can be used in intelligent multimedia-based human-computer interfaces. The performance of algorithms for automatic classification of accents is often evaluated using audio datasets that include recording samples of different people, representing different accents. Here we describe a method that can detect bias in accent datasets, and apply the method to two accent identification datasets to reveal the existence of dataset ...

  9. Accent on communication: the impact of regional and foreign accent on comprehension in adults with aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, C.; To, C-T; Newton, C.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study explored whether an unfamiliar non-native accent, differing in both segmental and prosodic features was more difficult for individuals with aphasia to understand than an unfamiliar native accent, which differed in segmental features only. METHOD: Comprehension, which was determined by accuracy judgments on true/false sentences, and speed of response were assessed in the following three conditions: a familiar Southern Standard British English (SSBE) accent, an unfamiliar na...

  10. Simulation model of a wind turbine pitch controller for grid frequency stabilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, Clemens; Cronin, Tom

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes a pitch angle controller that enables an active-stall wind turbine to dampen actively grid frequency oscillations. This builds on previous work in the area of the transient stability control of active-stall turbines. The phenomenon of grid frequency oscillations is explained briefly and then the task for the wind turbine controller defined. The pitch controller that acts as a grid frequency stabiliser is explained in terms of its layout, control sequence and parameters. Finally, a transient fault situation with subsequent grid frequency oscillations is simulated and it is shown how the grid frequency stabiliser works. The performance of the controller is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that grid frequency stabilisation with an active-stall turbine is possible under certain conditions. (Author)

  11. The relationship between cultural identity and accent

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Ahu Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 65-75. This study investigates the relationship between cultural identity and accent. The focus is on the relationship between the identity perceptions of 20 native speakers of English, who have been living in Turkey for a long period of time, and their Turkish accent in terms of nativelikeness...

  12. Perceptions of World Englishes Accents in English Phonetics Instruction of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Pei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the notion of World Englishes (WE accepted in the academia, the past decade has witnessed ten studies or so conducted to scrutinize how English learners of China perceptually evaluate English varieties. Those studies, however, seldom explore the juncture between learners’ attitudes toward accent varieties of English and their expectations of English phonetics instruction. Additionally, they primarily draw quantitative data from surveys of large samples without providing in-depth viewpoints from learners themselves. This study aimed to investigate Chinese tertiary-level English learners’ attitudes toward WE accents and how they view accents situated in English phonetics instruction with cross-validated research methods including an accent recognition test, an attitudinal experiment, a questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interviews. Its participants were 64 sophomore English majors at a Chinese university; the accents examined were American English (AmE, British English (BrE, China English (ChE, Australian English, Indian English, and Korean English. Results indicate that students could recognize AmE and BrE better than other accents and that they identified with BrE most, but preferred to imitate AmE and welcome Americans as their phonetics teachers. Results also show students’ propensity for setting a native speaker norm, rather than adopting ChE as a model, at phonetics class. Based on the findings, the study concluded that nowadays teachers for English majors in China still need to adhere to the native speaker model in English phonetics instruction, and meanwhile, expose their students to various WE accents in order to facilitate their English phonetics learning and cultivate their awareness of WE.

  13. A Comparison of Sana’ani Accent to Eloquent Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Mohammad Beigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify some phonetic characteristics of Sana’ani accent and to compare them with the Standard Arabic language. Sana'a dialect or accent Sana’aniye is the accent of Sana’a people, the capital city of Yemen. Perhaps by the influence of the accent of capital city on the other accents, this accent also is known as Yamani accent, too. Data were collected through methods informal interviews by students of Sana’a university and other native people of Sana’a as Yemen’s spokespersons, and direct observation, collective discussions, analyses of personal documents produced within the group, self-analysis and other methods of field research. And in this article authours’ focuse is on the phonetic changes in pronouns and verbs in this accent.

  14. PERCEPTION OF ACCENTS AND DIALECTS IN ADULTS AND INFANTS

    OpenAIRE

    BUTLER, JOSEPH PATRICK

    2010-01-01

    This thesis has been undertaken with the purpose of investigating how adult speech processing systems are affected by. and how they cope with, the presence of different regional and foreign accents in speech, and to investigate the developmental origins of adult accent perception capabilities. Experiments 1 to 4 were designed to investigate the long term effects of exposure to different accents, and whether short term adaptation to an accent was possible, using a lexical dec...

  15. Analysis of the distribution of pitch angles in model galactic disks - Numerical methods and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William S.; Roberts, William W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An automated mathematical method capable of successfully isolating the many different features in prototype and observed spiral galaxies and of accurately measuring the pitch angles and lengths of these individual features is developed. The method is applied to analyze the evolution of specific features in a prototype galaxy exhibiting flocculent spiral structure. The mathematical-computational method was separated into two components. Initially, the galaxy was partitioned into dense regions constituting features using two different methods. The results obtained using these two partitioning algorithms were very similar, from which it is inferred that no numerical biasing was evident and that capturing of the features was consistent. Standard least-squares methods underestimated the true slope of the cloud distribution and were incapable of approximating an orientation of 45 deg. The problems were overcome by introducing a superior fit least-squares method, developed with the intention of calculating true orientation rather than a regression line.

  16. Handling Qualities Evaluations of Low Complexity Model Reference Adaptive Controllers for Reduced Pitch and Roll Damping Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Johnson, Marcus; Nguyen, Nhan

    2011-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) researchers have conducted a series of flight experiments designed to study the effects of varying levels of adaptive controller complexity on the performance and handling qualities of an aircraft under various simulated failure or damage conditions. A baseline, nonlinear dynamic inversion controller was augmented with three variations of a model reference adaptive control design. The simplest design consisted of a single adaptive parameter in each of the pitch and roll axes computed using a basic gradient-based update law. A second design was built upon the first by increasing the complexity of the update law. The third and most complex design added an additional adaptive parameter to each axis. Flight tests were conducted using NASA s Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed, a highly modified F-18 aircraft that contains a research flight control system capable of housing advanced flight controls experiments. Each controller was evaluated against a suite of simulated failures and damage ranging from destabilization of the pitch and roll axes to significant coupling between the axes. Two pilots evaluated the three adaptive controllers as well as the non-adaptive baseline controller in a variety of dynamic maneuvers and precision flying tasks designed to uncover potential deficiencies in the handling qualities of the aircraft, and adverse interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controllers. The work was completed as part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program.

  17. Pitch and Plasticity: Insights from the Pitch Matching of Chords by Musicians with Absolute and Relative Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. McLachlan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is a form of sound recognition in which musical note names are associated with discrete musical pitch categories. The accuracy of pitch matching by non-AP musicians for chords has recently been shown to depend on stimulus familiarity, pointing to a role of spectral recognition mechanisms in the early stages of pitch processing. Here we show that pitch matching accuracy by AP musicians was also dependent on their familiarity with the chord stimulus. This suggests that the pitch matching abilities of both AP and non-AP musicians for concurrently presented pitches are dependent on initial recognition of the chord. The dual mechanism model of pitch perception previously proposed by the authors suggests that spectral processing associated with sound recognition primes waveform processing to extract stimulus periodicity and refine pitch perception. The findings presented in this paper are consistent with the dual mechanism model of pitch, and in the case of AP musicians, the formation of nominal pitch categories based on both spectral and periodicity information.

  18. Harmonic Training and the Formation of Pitch Representation in a Neural Network Model of the Auditory Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Higgins, Irina; Walker, Kerry M M; Stringer, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Attempting to explain the perceptual qualities of pitch has proven to be, and remains, a difficult problem. The wide range of sounds which elicit pitch and a lack of agreement across neurophysiological studies on how pitch is encoded by the brain have made this attempt more difficult. In describing the potential neural mechanisms by which pitch may be processed, a number of neural networks have been proposed and implemented. However, no unsupervised neural networks with biologically accurate cochlear inputs have yet been demonstrated. This paper proposes a simple system in which pitch representing neurons are produced in a biologically plausible setting. Purely unsupervised regimes of neural network learning are implemented and these prove to be sufficient in identifying the pitch of sounds with a variety of spectral profiles, including sounds with missing fundamental frequencies and iterated rippled noises.

  19. Harmonic Training and the formation of pitch representation in a neural network model of the auditory brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to explain the perceptual qualities of pitch has proven to be, and remains, a difficult problem. The wide range of sounds which illicit pitch and a lack of agreement across neurophysiological studies on how pitch is encoded by the brain have made this attempt more difficult. In describing the potential neural mechanisms by which pitch may be processed, a number of neural networks have been proposed and implemented. However, no unsupervised neural networks with biologically accurate cochlear inputs have yet been demonstrated. This paper proposes a simplified system in which pitch representing neurons are easily produced under a highly biological setting. Purely unsupervised regimes of neural network learning are implemented and these prove to be sufficient in identifying the pitch of sounds with a variety of spectral profiles, including missing fundamental sounds.

  20. d = 2 transverse-field Ising model under the screw-boundary condition: an optimization of the screw pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    A length-N spin chain with the √N(=v)th neighbor interaction is identical to a two-dimensional (d = 2) model under the screw-boundary (SB) condition. The SB condition provides a flexible scheme to construct a d ≥ 2 cluster from an arbitrary number of spins; the numerical diagonalization combined with the SB condition admits a potential applicability to a class of systems intractable with the quantum Monte Carlo method due to the negative-sign problem. However, the simulation results suffer from characteristic finite-size corrections inherent in SB. In order to suppress these corrections, we adjust the screw pitch v(N) so as to minimize the excitation gap for each N. This idea is adapted to the transverse-field Ising model on the triangular lattice with N ≤ 32 spins. As a demonstration, the correlation-length critical exponent ν is analyzed in some detail

  1. Comparative Study on Impacts of Power Curve Model on Capacity Factor Estimation of Pitch-Regulated Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Albadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount of energy produced by a turbine depends on the characteristics of both wind speed at the site under investigation and the turbine's power performance curve. The capacity factor (CF of a wind turbine is commonly used to estimate the turbine's average energy production. This paper investigates the effect of the accuracy of the power curve model on CF estimation. The study considers three CF models. The first CF model is based on a power curve model that underestimates the turbine output throughout the ascending segment of the power curve. To compensate for the aforementioned discrepancy, the Weibull parameters, c and k, which are used to describe wind profile, are calculated based on cubic mean wind speed (CMWS. The second CF model is based on the most accurate generic power curve model available in open literature. The third CF model is based on a new model of power performance curve which mimics the behavior of a typical pitch-regulated turbine curve. As the coefficients of this power curve model are based on a general estimation of the turbine output at different wind speeds, they can be further tuned to provide a more accurate fit with turbine data from a certain manufacturer.

  2. Where are you from? Preschoolers infer background from accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Drew; White, Katherine S; Friedman, Ori

    2016-03-01

    For adults, accent is an obvious indicator of a speaker's geographical background. The current study investigated whether preschoolers are sensitive to the relationship between background and accent. Experiment 1 shows that 3- to 5-year-olds believe that two speakers who share the same accent live in the same place but do not share the same personal preferences. Experiment 2 demonstrates that 4- and 5-year-olds believe that two speakers with the same accent share cultural norms associated with a particular place, but that two speakers with different accents have different cultural norms. As in Experiment 1, children did not think that personal preferences were related to accent. These findings show early awareness of the relationship between accent and geographical background. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Responses to Dutch-accented English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejjari, W.; Gerritsen, M.; Haagen, M.J. van der; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study into the reactions of ‘native’ speakers of British English to Dutch-English pronunciations in the onset of a telephone sales talk. In an experiment 144 highly educated British professionals who were either familiar or not familiar with Dutch-accented English responded

  4. Effect of Accent and Dialect on Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Holly K.; McHenry, Monica A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine how ethnicity, the amount of perceived accent or dialect, and comprehensibility affect a speaker's employability. Sixty human resource specialists judged 3 female potential applicants. The applicants represented speakers of Spanish-influenced English, Asian-influenced English, and African American Vernacular…

  5. Psychogenic Foreign Accent Syndrome: a new case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eKeulen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the case of a 33-year-old, right-handed, French-speaking Belgian lady who was involved in a car accident as a pedestrian. Six months after the incident she developed a German/Flemish-like accent. The patient’s medical history, the onset of the FAS and the possible psychological causes of the accent change are analyzed. Relevant neuropsychological, neurolinguistic and psychodiagnostic test results are presented and discussed. The psychodiagnostic interview and testing will receive special attention, because these have been underreported in previous FAS case reports. Furthermore, an accent rating experiment was carried out in order to assess the foreign quality of the patient’s speech. Pre- and post-morbid spontaneous speech samples were analyzed phonetically to identify the pronunciation characteristics associated with this type of FAS. Several findings were considered essential in the diagnosis of psychogenic FAS: the psychological assessments as well as the clinical interview confirmed the presence of psychological problems, while neurological damage was excluded by means of repeated neuroimaging and neurological examinations. The type and nature of the speech symptoms and the accent fluctuations associated with the patient's psychological state cannot be explained by a neurological disorder. Moreover, the indifference of the patient towards her condition may also suggest a psychogenic etiology, as the opposite is usually observed in neurogenic FAS patients.

  6. Psychogenic Foreign Accent Syndrome: A New Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, Stefanie; Verhoeven, Jo; De Page, Louis; Jonkers, Roel; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Mariën, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a 33-year-old, right-handed, French-speaking Belgian lady who was involved in a car accident as a pedestrian. Six months after the incident she developed a German/Flemish-like accent. The patient's medical history, the onset of the FAS and the possible psychological causes of the accent change are analyzed. Relevant neuropsychological, neurolinguistic, and psychodiagnostic test results are presented and discussed. The psychodiagnostic interview and testing will receive special attention, because these have been underreported in previous FAS case reports. Furthermore, an accent rating experiment was carried out in order to assess the foreign quality of the patient's speech. Pre- and post-morbid spontaneous speech samples were analyzed phonetically to identify the pronunciation characteristics associated with this type of FAS. Several findings were considered essential in the diagnosis of psychogenic FAS: the psychological assessments as well as the clinical interview confirmed the presence of psychological problems, while neurological damage was excluded by means of repeated neuroimaging and neurological examinations. The type and nature of the speech symptoms and the accent fluctuations associated with the patient's psychological state cannot be explained by a neurological disorder. Moreover, the indifference of the patient toward her condition may also suggest a psychogenic etiology, as the opposite is usually observed in neurogenic FAS patients. PMID:27148003

  7. Adaptive back-stepping pitch angle control for wind turbine based on a new electro-hydraulic pitch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiu-xing; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Gu, Ya-jing; Lei, Peng-fei; Liu, Hong-wei

    2015-11-01

    A new electro-hydraulic pitch system is proposed to smooth the output power and drive-train torque fluctuations for wind turbine. This new pitch system employs a servo-valve-controlled hydraulic motor to enhance pitch control performances. This pitch system is represented by a state-space model with parametric uncertainties and nonlinearities. An adaptive back-stepping pitch angle controller is synthesised based on this state-space model to accurately achieve the desired pitch angle control regardless of such uncertainties and nonlinearities. This pitch angle controller includes a back-stepping procedure and an adaption law to deal with such uncertainties and nonlinearities and hence to improve the final pitch control performances. The proposed pitch system and the designed pitch angle controller have been validated for achievable and efficient power and torque regulation performances by comparative experimental results under various operating conditions.

  8. What makes a rhythm complex? The influence of musical training and accent type on beat perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, F.L.; Burgoyne, J.A.; Odijk, D.; Honing, H.; Grahn, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    Perception of a regular beat in music is inferred from different types of accents. For example, increases in loudness cause intensity accents, and the grouping of time intervals in a rhythm creates temporal accents. Accents are expected to occur on the beat: when accents are “missing” on the beat,

  9. Accent detection and social cognition: evidence of protracted learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C

    2018-03-01

    How and when do children become aware that speakers have different accents? While adults readily make a variety of subtle social inferences based on speakers' accents, findings from children are more mixed: while one line of research suggests that even infants may be acutely sensitive to accent unfamiliarity, other studies suggest that 5-year-olds have difficulty identifying accents as different from their own. In an attempt to resolve this paradox, the current study assesses American children's sensitivity to American vs. Dutch accents in two situations. First, in an eye-tracked sentence processing paradigm where children have previously shown sensitivity to a salient social distinction (gender) from voice cues, 3-5-year-old children showed no sensitivity to accent differences. Second, in a social decision-making task where accent sensitivity has been found in 5-year-olds, an age gradient appeared, suggesting that familiar accent preferences emerge slowly between 3 and 7 years. Counter to claims that accent is an early, salient signal of social group, results are more consistent with a protracted learning hypothesis that children need extended exposure to native-language sound patterns in order to detect that an accent deviates from their own. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BQAgy3IFYXA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Accented EFL Teacher: Classroom Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argemiro Arboleda Arboleda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a research study on how significant having a foreign accent is for non-native English as a foreign language teachers and learners at university level. It points out the perceptions that teachers and students have about the most relevant issues in the teaching and learning processes. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire answered by thirty-two participants: eight Colombian teachers, eight foreign teachers, eight Colombian students, and eight foreign students. The findings show that although both teachers and students recognize the importance of having a native or native-like accent, they do not see this as the most relevant qualification to teach a language, nor the sole criterion positively affecting learning.

  11. A sociolinguistic study of accent use in Irish films

    OpenAIRE

    Lyngstad, Tore

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the use of accent in thirteen Irish films from the last 25 years. It aims to investigate possible correlations between accent use (standard and non-standard Irish English) and the independent variables genre, gender and social status. It was expected that there would be systematic correlations between accent use and these variables, which can be interpreted in terms of language attitudes. More specifically, it was hypothesised that drama films, female characters and high-s...

  12. Fuzzy Model-based Pitch Stabilization and Wing Vibration Suppression of Flexible Wing Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Mohammad A.; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy nonlinear controller to regulate the longitudinal dynamics of an aircraft and suppress the bending and torsional vibrations of its flexible wings. The fuzzy controller utilizes full-state feedback with input constraint. First, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy linear model is developed which approximates the coupled aeroelastic aircraft model. Then, based on the fuzzy linear model, a fuzzy controller is developed to utilize a full-state feedback and stabilize the system while it satisfies the control input constraint. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are employed to solve the fuzzy control problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM).

  13. What makes a rhythm complex? The influence of musical training and accent type on beat perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, J. Ashley; Odijk, Daan; Honing, Henkjan; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2018-01-01

    Perception of a regular beat in music is inferred from different types of accents. For example, increases in loudness cause intensity accents, and the grouping of time intervals in a rhythm creates temporal accents. Accents are expected to occur on the beat: when accents are “missing” on the beat, the beat is more difficult to find. However, it is unclear whether accents occurring off the beat alter beat perception similarly to missing accents on the beat. Moreover, no one has examined whether intensity accents influence beat perception more or less strongly than temporal accents, nor how musical expertise affects sensitivity to each type of accent. In two experiments, we obtained ratings of difficulty in finding the beat in rhythms with either temporal or intensity accents, and which varied in the number of accents on the beat as well as the number of accents off the beat. In both experiments, the occurrence of accents on the beat facilitated beat detection more in musical experts than in musical novices. In addition, the number of accents on the beat affected beat finding more in rhythms with temporal accents than in rhythms with intensity accents. The effect of accents off the beat was much weaker than the effect of accents on the beat and appeared to depend on musical expertise, as well as on the number of accents on the beat: when many accents on the beat are missing, beat perception is quite difficult, and adding accents off the beat may not reduce beat perception further. Overall, the different types of accents were processed qualitatively differently, depending on musical expertise. Therefore, these findings indicate the importance of designing ecologically valid stimuli when testing beat perception in musical novices, who may need different types of accent information than musical experts to be able to find a beat. Furthermore, our findings stress the importance of carefully designing rhythms for social and clinical applications of beat perception, as

  14. Implementation of internal model based control and individual pitch control to reduce fatigue loads and tower vibrations in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah; Moschopoulos, Gerry

    2018-05-01

    Vibration control and fatigue loads reduction are important issues in large-scale wind turbines. Identifying the vibration frequencies and tuning dampers and controllers at these frequencies are major concerns in many control methods. In this paper, an internal model control (IMC) method with an adaptive algorithm is implemented to first identify the vibration frequency of the wind turbine tower and then to cancel the vibration signal. Standard individual pitch control (IPC) is also implemented to compare the performance of the controllers in term of fatigue loads reduction. Finally, the performance of the system when both controllers are implemented together is evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that using only IMC or IPC alone has advantages and can reduce fatigue loads on specific components. IMC can identify and suppress tower vibrations in both fore-aft and side-to-side directions, whereas, IPC can reduce fatigue loads on blades, shaft and yaw bearings. When both IMC and IPC are implemented together, the advantages of both controllers can be used. The aforementioned analysis and comparisons were not studied in literature and this study fills this gap. FAST, AreoDyn and Simulink are used to simulate the mechanical, aerodynamic and electrical aspects of wind turbine.

  15. Modeling of a pitching and plunging airfoil using experimental flow field and load measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshin, Victor; Seifert, Avraham

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the current paper is to outline a low-order modeling procedure of a heaving airfoil in a still fluid using experimental measurements. Due to its relative simplicity, the proposed procedure is applicable for the analysis of flow fields within complex and unsteady geometries and it is suitable for analyzing the data obtained by experimentation. Currently, this procedure is used to model and predict the flow field evolution using a small number of low profile load sensors and flow field measurements. A time delay neural network is used to estimate the flow field. The neural network estimates the amplitudes of the most energetic modes using four sensory inputs. The modes are calculated using proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field data obtained experimentally by time-resolved, phase-locked particle imaging velocimetry. To permit the use of proper orthogonal decomposition, the measured flow field is mapped onto a stationary domain using volume preserving transformation. The analysis performed by the model showed good estimation quality within the parameter range used in the training procedure. However, the performance deteriorates for cases out of this range. This situation indicates that, to improve the robustness of the model, both the decomposition and the training data sets must be diverse in terms of input parameter space. In addition, the results suggest that the property of volume preservation of the mapping does not affect the model quality as long as the model is not based on the Galerkin approximation. Thus, it may be relaxed for cases with more complex geometry and kinematics.

  16. Asphalt Volcanism as a Model to Understand the Geochemical Nature of Pitch Lake, a Planetary Analog for Titan and the Implications towards Methane Flux into Earth's Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Pitch Lake is located in the southwest peninsula of the island near La Brea in Trinidad and Tobago, covering an area of approximately 46 hectares. It was discovered in the year 1595 and is the largest of three natural asphalt lakes that exist on Earth. Pitch Lake is a large oval shaped reservoir composed of dominantly hydrocarbon compounds, but also includes minor amounts of clay and muddy water. It is a natural liquid asphalt desert, which is nourished by a form of petroleum consisting of mostly asphaltines from the surrounding oil-rich region. The hydrocarbons mix with mud and gases under high pressure during upward seepage, and the lighter portion evaporates or is volatilized, which produces a high-viscosity liquid asphalt residue. The residue on and near the surface is a hydrocarbon matrix, which poses extremely challenging environmental conditions to microorganisms characterized by an average low water activity in the range of 0.49 to 0.75, recalcitrant carbon substrates, and toxic chemical compounds. Nevertheless, an active microbial community of archaea and bacteria, many of them novel strains, was found to inhabit the liquid hydrocarbon matrix of Pitch Lake. Geochemical analyses of minerals, done by our team, which revealed sulfates, sulfides, silicates, and metals, normally associated with deep-water hydrothermal vents leads to our new hypothetical model to describe the origins of Pitch Lake and its importance to atmospheric and earth sciences. Pitch Lake is likely the terrestrial equivalent of an offshore submarine asphalt volcano just as La Brea Tar Pits are in some ways an on-land version of the asphalt volcanoes discovered off shore of Santa Barbara by Valentine et al. in 2010. Asphalt volcanism possibly also creates the habitat for chemosynthetic life that is widespread in this lake, as reported by Schulze-Makuch et al. in 2011 and Meckenstock et al. in 2014.

  17. Individual Pitch Control Using LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    In this work the problem of individual pitch control of a variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. However as the plant is nonlinear and time varying, a new approach is proposed to simplify...

  18. Accents in the workplace: their effects during a job interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez-Sims, Anne-Sophie; Morris, Scott B

    2010-12-01

    As the workplace becomes increasingly global, organizations are more likely to employ persons from other countries whose accents clearly identify them as different from the local workforce. Understanding the impact of accents in the workplace is important because accents can be salient in the same way as ethnicity, age, gender, and skin color and may be a source of employment discrimination. The present study looked at the influence of accents on the evaluation of job applicants during an interview for a human resource manager position. Participants from the US were asked to evaluate an applicant with one of three accents (Midwestern US, French, Colombian) by listening to an audiofile. The results showed that the applicant with the Midwestern US accent was evaluated more positively than the applicant with the French accent; however, the applicant with the Colombian accent did not receive an evaluation that differed significantly from those given to the applicants with either the French or the Midwestern US accent. Analyses of process variables indicated that the bias against the French-accented applicant was mediated by perceived lower similarity. These results are consistent with the similarity-attraction hypothesis, which states that demographic variables will impact judgments to the extent to which they make the decision-maker view the applicant as similar or dissimilar. The ability of accent to trigger bias highlights the importance of considering the full array of characteristics that can lead to discrimination in employment settings. Research on employment discrimination has traditionally focused on visual cues such as gender and ethnicity, but in an interview situation, the way the applicant speaks is also important.

  19. An Analytical Model of Thermal Conductivity for Carbon/Carbon Composites with Pitch-Based Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hai Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon/carbon (C/C composites are composed of carbon fibers, carbon matrix, and pores and cracks, which have been successfully used in various aerospace applications. In this paper, nanoscale submodel is proposed to describe the thermal conductivity of the matrix based on its microscopic structure, and then the submodel is incorporated into a microscale model to analytically predict the equivalent thermal conductivities of the composites by equivalent circuit approach. The results predicted by the present model agree well with those from the experimental measurements. Based on the model, the effects of the composite porosity as well as the thickness and porosity of the interface phase on the thermal performance of five composites are studied. It is found that the thermal conductivities show decreasing trends in responding to an increase in each of the three parameters. The composite porosity has a significant effect on the thermal conductivities both parallel and transverse to the fiber axis, while the thickness and the porosity of the interface phase remarkably affect the thermal conductivity only transverse to the fiber axis.

  20. How To Speak Standard American English without a Foreign Accent. Pygmalion Edition (All Accents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catran, Jack

    This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…

  1. Scandinavian Accents in Their Relation to One Another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is concerned with four Scandinavian prosodemes: accent 1, accent 2, stoed, and no stoed. The aim is to establish the function of each of them, i.e., the role they play in the system of each Scandinavian language. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (Author/TL)

  2. Automatically identifying characteristic features of non-native English accents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, Jelke; Wieling, Martijn; Nerbonne, John; Côté, Marie-Hélène; Knooihuizen, Remco; Nerbonne, John

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the application of statistical measures from dialectometry to the study of accented English speech. This new methodology enables a more quantitative approach to the study of accents. Studies on spoken dialect data have shown that a combination of representativeness (the

  3. Mobility, contact and an accent norm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will focus on various facets of RP as an accent norm. In the first part of the paper I will set the stage for a renewed sociolinguistic view of RP, and examine some of the effects of social and geographical mobility and contact on RP. At the same time, one of my concerns will be to bring....... The phonetic data have been gleaned from sociolinguistic interviews, while the attitudinal data derive from interviews, subjective evaluation questionnaires and the popular press. By thus exploring the current and changing status of RP in the wider sociolinguistic landscape of Britain, the discussion will also...

  4. Linguistic Processing of Accented Speech Across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina eCristia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In most of the world, people have regular exposure to multiple accents. Therefore, learning to quickly process accented speech is a prerequisite to successful communication. In this paper, we examine work on the perception of accented speech across the lifespan, from early infancy to late adulthood. Unfamiliar accents initially impair linguistic processing by infants, children, younger adults, and older adults, but listeners of all ages come to adapt to accented speech. Emergent research also goes beyond these perceptual abilities, by assessing links with production and the relative contributions of linguistic knowledge and general cognitive skills. We conclude by underlining points of convergence across ages, and the gaps left to face in future work.

  5. 78 FR 14005 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR... with pitch and roll limiting functions, specifically an electronic flight control system which contains fly-by-wire control laws, including envelope protections. The applicable airworthiness regulations do...

  6. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  7. Accent imitation positively affects language attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Stewart, Andrew J; Connell, Louise; Wood, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian) of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating) the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants). After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers' perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.

  8. Accent Imitation Positively Affects Language Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti eAdank

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other’s speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else’s speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants. After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers’ perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.

  9. Two French-Speaking Cases of Foreign Accent Syndrome: An Acoustic-Phonetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Macoir, Joel; Martel-Sauvageau, Vincent; Boudreault, Carol-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is an acquired neurologic disorder in which an individual suddenly and unintentionally speaks with an accent which is perceived as being different from his/her usual accent. This study presents an acoustic-phonetic description of two Quebec French-speaking cases. The first speaker presents a perceived accent shift to…

  10. Malaysian University Students' Attitudes towards Six Varieties of Accented Speech in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zainab Thamer; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah; Heng, Chan Swee

    2014-01-01

    Previous language attitude studies indicated that in many countries all over the world, English language learners perceived native accents, either American or British, more positively than the non-native accents such as the Japanese, Korean, and Austrian accents. However, in Malaysia it is still unclear which accent Malaysian learners of English…

  11. Fujisaki Model Based Intonation Modeling for Korean TTS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongchang; Lee, Jinsik; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    One of the enduring problems in developing high-quality TTS (text-to-speech) system is pitch contour generation. Considering language specific knowledge, an adjusted Fujisaki model for Korean TTS system is introduced along with refined machine learning features. The results of quantitative and qualitative evaluations show the validity of our system: the accuracy of the phrase command prediction is 0.8928; the correlations of the predicted amplitudes of a phrase command and an accent command are 0.6644 and 0.6002, respectively; our method achieved the level of "fair" naturalness (3.6) in a MOS scale for generated F0 curves.

  12. Developing automatic articulation, voice quality and accent assessment techniques for speakers treated for advanced head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapham, R.; Middag, C.; Hilgers, F.; Martens, J-P.; van den Brekel, M.; van Son, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop automatic assessment models for assessing the articulation, phonation and accent of speakers with head and neck cancer (Experiment 1) and to investigate whether the models can track changes over time (Experiment 2). Method Several speech analysis methods for extracting a compact

  13. Consonance and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil; Marco, David; Light, Maria; Wilson, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    To date, no consensus exists in the literature as to theories of consonance and dissonance. Experimental data collected over the last century have raised questions about the dominant theories that are based on frequency relationships between the harmonics of music chords. This study provides experimental evidence that strongly challenges these theories and suggests a new theory of dissonance based on relationships between pitch perception and recognition. Experiment 1 shows that dissonance does not increase with increasing numbers of harmonics in chords as predicted by Helmholtz's (1863/1954) roughness theory, nor does it increase with fewer pitch-matching errors as predicted by Stumpf's (1898) tonal fusion theory. Dissonance was strongly correlated with pitch-matching error for chords, which in turn was reduced by chord familiarity and greater music training. This led to the proposition that long-term memory templates for common chords assist the perception of pitches in chords by providing an estimate of the chord intervals from spectral information. When recognition mechanisms based on these templates fail, the spectral pitch estimate is inconsistent with the period of the waveform, leading to cognitive incongruence and the negative affect of dissonance. The cognitive incongruence theory of dissonance was rigorously tested in Experiment 2, in which nonmusicians were trained to match the pitches of a random selection of 2-pitch chords. After 10 training sessions, they rated the chords they had learned to pitch match as less dissonant than the unlearned chords, irrespective of their tuning, providing strong support for a cognitive mechanism of dissonance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Mining the ACCENT database: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Lindsay A; Shi, Qian; Sargent, Daniel J

    2013-06-01

    The database of the Adjuvant Colon Cancer End Points (ACCENT) Group was assembled to address questions in early stage colon cancer that could be best answered by information pooled across many similar trials. Today, the ACCENT database contains individual patient-level data from over 33,000 patients enrolled onto 25 adjuvant colon cancer trials conducted between 1977 and 2008. Since its flagship analysis of 3-year disease-free survival as a surrogate endpoint for 5-year overall survival in 2005, the ACCENT group has produced many noteworthy scientific findings addressing a variety of clinical questions, which we describe here. Additionally, we provide an overview of the history, collaboration, construction, principles, and future of the ACCENT database, as it has set a precedent for multi-trial database creation in other types of cancer.

  15. A Foreign Speech Accent in a Case of Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Verhoeven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to report the psychiatric, neuroradiological and linguistic characteristics in a native speaker of Dutch who developed speech symptoms which strongly resemble Foreign Accent Syndrome. Background: Foreign Accent Syndrome is a rare speech production disorder in which the speech of a patient is perceived as foreign by speakers of the same speech community. This syndrome is generally related to focal brain damage. Only in few reported cases the Foreign Accent Syndrome is assumed to be of psychogenic and/or psychotic origin. Method: In addition to clinical and neuroradiological examinations, an extensive test battery of standardized neuropsychological and neurolinguistic investigations was carried out. Two samples of the patient's spontaneous speech were analysed and compared to a 500,000-words reference corpus of 160 normal native speakers of Dutch. Results: The patient had a prominent French accent in her pronunciation of Dutch. This accent had persisted over the past eight years and has become progressively stronger. The foreign qualities of her speech did not only relate to pronunciation, but also to the lexicon, syntax and pragmatics. Structural as well as functional neuroimaging did not reveal evidence that could account for the behavioural symptoms. By contrast psychological investigations indicated conversion disorder. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of a foreign accent like syndrome in conversion disorder.

  16. A Foreign Speech Accent in a Case of Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; D’Haenen, Hugo; De Deyn, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to report the psychiatric, neuroradiological and linguistic characteristics in a native speaker of Dutch who developed speech symptoms which strongly resemble Foreign Accent Syndrome. Background: Foreign Accent Syndrome is a rare speech production disorder in which the speech of a patient is perceived as foreign by speakers of the same speech community. This syndrome is generally related to focal brain damage. Only in few reported cases the Foreign Accent Syndrome is assumed to be of psychogenic and/or psychotic origin. Method: In addition to clinical and neuroradiological examinations, an extensive test battery of standardized neuropsychological and neurolinguistic investigations was carried out. Two samples of the patient's spontaneous speech were analysed and compared to a 500,000-words reference corpus of 160 normal native speakers of Dutch. Results: The patient had a prominent French accent in her pronunciation of Dutch. This accent had persisted over the past eight years and has become progressively stronger. The foreign qualities of her speech did not only relate to pronunciation, but also to the lexicon, syntax and pragmatics. Structural as well as functional neuroimaging did not reveal evidence that could account for the behavioural symptoms. By contrast psychological investigations indicated conversion disorder. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of a foreign accent like syndrome in conversion disorder. PMID:16518013

  17. Interpreting English Pitch Contours in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Schloeder, Julian; Lascarides, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model of how pitch contours influence the illocutionary and perlocutionary effects of utterances in conversation. Our account is grounded in several insights from the prior literature. Our distinctive contribution is to replace earlier informal claims about the implicatures arising from intonation with logical derivations: we validate inferences in the SDRT framework that resolve the partial meaning we associate with a pitch contour to different specific interpretations ...

  18. Analysis of pitch system data for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; van de Pieterman, René P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of pitch motor torque and current give indirect information about the condition of the pitch system and can therefore potentially be used for condition-based maintenance. This paper presents an analysis of these measurements for a wind turbine, and the measurements are compared...... at a constant pitch velocity, but the 10 min maximum values are only approximately proportional, because the maximum values occur during acceleration and not simultaneously. These findings are important to consider, if using the pitch motor current or torque as an indicator for the pitch system health...... with a theoretical model based on aeroelastic simulations. The blade moment is found to have only minor influence on the friction in the blade bearing. The main factors affecting the static friction are the temperature and time after the latest pitch movement. Pitch motor current and torque are proportional...

  19. Modeling of gas-liquid mass transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor agitated by a Rushton turbine or a new pitched blade impeller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelves, Ricardo; Dietrich, A; Takors, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    A combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and population balance model (PBM) approach has been applied to simulate hydrodynamics and mass transfer in a 0.18 m(3) gas-liquid stirred bioreactor agitated by (1) a Rushton turbine, and (2) a new pitched blade geometry with rotating cartridges. The operating conditions chosen were motivated by typical settings used for culturing mammalian cells. The effects of turbulence, rotating flow, bubbles breakage and coalescence were simulated using the k-ε, multiple reference frame (MRF), Sliding mesh (SM) and PBM approaches, respectively. Considering the new pitched blade geometry with rotating aeration microspargers, [Formula: see text] mass transfer was estimated to be 34 times higher than the conventional Rushton turbine set-up. Notably, the impeller power consumption was modeled to be about 50 % lower. Independent [Formula: see text] measurements applying the same operational conditions confirmed this finding. Motivated by these simulated and experimental results, the new aeration and stirring device is qualified as a very promising tool especially useful for cell culture applications which are characterized by the challenging problem of achieving relatively high mass transfer conditions while inserting only low stirrer energy.

  20. Pitch features of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A number of soundscape studies have suggested the need for suitable parameters for soundscape measurement, in addition to the conventional acoustic parameters. This paper explores the applicability of pitch features that are often used in music analysis and their algorithms to environmental sounds. Based on the existing alternative pitch algorithms for simulating the perception of the auditory system and simplified algorithms for practical applications in the areas of music and speech, the applicable algorithms have been determined, considering common types of sound in everyday soundscapes. Considering a number of pitch parameters, including pitch value, pitch strength, and percentage of audible pitches over time, different pitch characteristics of various environmental sounds have been shown. Among the four sound categories, i.e. water, wind, birdsongs, and urban sounds, generally speaking, both water and wind sounds have low pitch values and pitch strengths; birdsongs have high pitch values and pitch strengths; and urban sounds have low pitch values and a relatively wide range of pitch strengths.

  1. Pitch memory and exposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eitan, Zohar; Chajut, Eran

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to represent absolute pitch values in long-term memory, long believed to be the possession of a small minority of trained musicians endowed with "absolute pitch," is in fact shared to some extent by a considerable proportion of the population. The current study examined whether this newly discovered ability affects aspects of music and auditory cognition, particularly pitch learning and evaluation. Our starting points are two well-established premises: (1) frequency of occurrence has an influence on the way we process stimuli; (2) in Western music, some pitches and musical keys are much more frequent than others. Based on these premises, we hypothesize that if absolute pitch values are indeed represented in long-term memory, pitch frequency of occurrence in music would significantly affect cognitive processes, in particular pitch learning and evaluation. Two experiments were designed to test this hypothesis in participants with no absolute pitch, most with little or no musical training. Experiment 1 demonstrated a faster response and a learning advantage for frequent pitches over infrequent pitches in an identification task. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated infrequent pitches as more pleasing than frequent pitches when presented in isolation. These results suggest that absolute pitch representation in memory may play a substantial, hitherto unacknowledged role in auditory (and specifically musical) cognition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  3. Does seeing an Asian face make speech sound more accented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Samuel, Arthur G

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have reported that seeing an Asian face makes American English sound more accented. The current study investigates whether this effect is perceptual, or if it instead occurs at a later decision stage. We first replicated the finding that showing static Asian and Caucasian faces can shift people's reports about the accentedness of speech accompanying the pictures. When we changed the static pictures to dubbed videos, reducing the demand characteristics, the shift in reported accentedness largely disappeared. By including unambiguous items along with the original ambiguous items, we introduced a contrast bias and actually reversed the shift, with the Asian-face videos yielding lower judgments of accentedness than the Caucasian-face videos. By changing to a mixed rather than blocked design, so that the ethnicity of the videos varied from trial to trial, we eliminated the difference in accentedness rating. Finally, we tested participants' perception of accented speech using the selective adaptation paradigm. After establishing that an auditory-only accented adaptor shifted the perception of how accented test words are, we found that no such adaptation effect occurred when the adapting sounds relied on visual information (Asian vs. Caucasian videos) to influence the accentedness of an ambiguous auditory adaptor. Collectively, the results demonstrate that visual information can affect the interpretation, but not the perception, of accented speech.

  4. Contending with foreign accent in early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Rachel; Hollich, George; Seidl, Amanda

    2011-11-01

    By their second birthday, children are beginning to map meaning to form with relative ease. One challenge for these developing abilities is separating information relevant to word identity (i.e. phonemic information) from irrelevant information (e.g. voice and foreign accent). Nevertheless, little is known about toddlers' abilities to ignore irrelevant phonetic detail when faced with the demanding task of word learning. In an experiment with English-learning toddlers, we examined the impact of foreign accent on word learning. Findings revealed that while toddlers aged 2 ; 6 successfully generalized newly learned words spoken by a Spanish-accented speaker and a native English speaker, success of those aged 2 ; 0 was restricted. Specifically, toddlers aged 2 ; 0 failed to generalize words when trained by the native English speaker and tested by the Spanish-accented speaker. Data suggest that exposure to foreign accent in training may promote generalization of newly learned forms. These findings are considered in the context of developmental changes in early word representations.

  5. Foreign accents: suggested competencies for improving communicative pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Lorna D

    2005-05-01

    In the past 20 years, many speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have joined their English as a Second Language (ESL) colleagues to address the pronunciation skills of second language speakers of English. This paper introduces SLPs to the ESL term "communicative pronunciation" as the underpinning for the commonly accepted terms "accent modification" or "accent reduction." Initially, professionals in both speech pathology and ESL felt that accent intervention was outside the scope of speech pathology practice, though that stance is softening. If an essential part of our mission as speech pathologists is to improve communicative competence for all persons, then making pronunciation more intelligible falls under that heading. This article on foreign accents limits discussion to: (1) the rationale for intervening with foreign accented adults; (2) an outline of a broader scope and definition of effective instruction for this population; (3) suggestions for trainer preparation; (4) recommendations for productive literature searches; and (5) a brief discussion of principles guiding assessment and instruction planning. The article includes relevant research and references outside the field of speech pathology that should stimulate future productive research efforts as well as more in-depth papers on specific instruction and assessment issues. While this article is intended to stand alone, readers may benefit from the content and references in another article in this issue by the same author.

  6. Algorithmically-generated Corpora that use Serial Compositional Principles Can Contribute to the Modeling of Sequential Pitch Structure in Non-tonal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Thornton Dean

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether pitch sequences in non-tonal music can be modeled by an information-theoretic approach using algorithmically-generated melodic sequences, made according to 12-tone serial principles, as the training corpus. This is potentially useful, because symbolic corpora of non-tonal music are not readily available. A non-tonal corpus of serially-composed melodies was constructed algorithmically using classic principles of 12-tone music, including prime, inversion, retrograde and retrograde inversion transforms. A similar algorithm generated a tonal melodic corpus of tonal transformations, in each case based on a novel tonal melody and expressed in alternating major keys. A cognitive model of auditory expectation (IDyOM was used first to analyze the sequential pitch structure of the corpora, in some cases with pre-training on established tonal folk-song corpora (Essen, Schaffrath, 1995. The two algorithmic corpora can be distinguished in terms of their information content, and they were quite different from random corpora and from the folk-song corpus. We then demonstrate that the algorithmic serial corpora can assist modeling of canonical non-tonal compositions by Webern and Schoenberg, and also non-tonal segments of improvisations by skilled musicians. Separately, we developed the process of algorithmic melody composition into a software system (the Serial Collaborator capable of generating multi-stranded serial keyboard music. Corpora of such keyboard compositions based either on the non-tonal or the tonal melodic corpora were generated and assessed for their information-theoretic modeling properties.

  7. Phonological and Phonetic Marking of Information Status in Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschmann, Anja; Lowit, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS) is a motor speech disorder in which a variety of segmental and suprasegmental errors lead to the perception of a new accent in speech. Whilst changes in intonation have been identified to contribute considerably to the perceived alteration in accent, research has rarely focused on how these changes impact…

  8. Malaysian University Students’ Attitudes towards Six Varieties of Accented Speech in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Thamer Ahmed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous language attitude studies indicated that in many countries all over the world, English language learners perceived native accents either American or British, more positively than the non-native accents such as the Japanese, Korean, and Austrian accents. However, in Malaysia it is still unclear which accent Malaysian learners of English tend to perceive more positively (Pillai 2009. The verbal-guise technique and accent recognition item were adopted as indirect and direct instruments in gathering data to obtain data to clarify the inquiry. The sample includes 120 Malaysian university students and they were immersed in several speech accent situations to elicit feedback on their perceptions. Essentially two research questions are addressed: 1 What are Malaysian university students’ attitudes toward native and non-native English accents? 2 How familiar are students with accents?  The results indicated that the students had a bias towards in-group accent, meaning that they evaluated non-native lecturers’ accents more positively. These results supported the ‘social identity theory’ consistent with many previous language attitude studies of this nature. The Malaysian students were seen to be able to distinguish between native and non-native accents although there was much confusion between British and American accents.

  9. A Neural Marker for Social Bias Toward In-group Accents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Patricia E.G.; Belin, Pascal; Ladd, D. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Accents provide information about the speaker's geographical, socio-economic, and ethnic background. Research in applied psychology and sociolinguistics suggests that we generally prefer our own accent to other varieties of our native language and attribute more positive traits to it. Despite the widespread influence of accents on social interactions, educational and work settings the neural underpinnings of this social bias toward our own accent and, what may drive this bias, are unexplored. We measured brain activity while participants from two different geographical backgrounds listened passively to 3 English accent types embedded in an adaptation design. Cerebral activity in several regions, including bilateral amygdalae, revealed a significant interaction between the participants' own accent and the accent they listened to: while repetition of own accents elicited an enhanced neural response, repetition of the other group's accent resulted in reduced responses classically associated with adaptation. Our findings suggest that increased social relevance of, or greater emotional sensitivity to in-group accents, may underlie the own-accent bias. Our results provide a neural marker for the bias associated with accents, and show, for the first time, that the neural response to speech is partly shaped by the geographical background of the listener. PMID:25452578

  10. Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kulshreshtha, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study discusses the subject of forensic voice identification and speaker profiling. Specifically focusing on speaker profiling and using dialects of the Hindi language, widely used in India, the authors have contributed to the body of research on speaker identification by using accent feature as the discriminating factor. This case study contributes to the understanding of the speaker identification process in a situation where unknown speech samples are in different language/dialect than the recording of a suspect. The authors' data establishes that vowel quality, quantity, intonation and tone of a speaker as compared to Khariboli (standard Hindi) could be the potential features for identification of dialect accent.

  11. The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C

    2009-03-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability.

  12. A Multi-Perspective Investigation of Attitudes towards English Accents in Hong Kong: Implications for Pronunciation Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jim Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    The study reported in this article examined Hong Kong students' attitudes towards English accents from three interrelated perspectives: (1) their awareness of accents, (2) their perception of accents in relation to the dimensions of status and solidarity, and (3) their choice of accents in various local language-using contexts. By means of the…

  13. L2-Accented Speech in L3 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrembel, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating the sources of cross-linguistic influence in the third language (L3) phonology, and, particularly, the impact of the second language (L2) on the phonological acquisition of another foreign language. The study consisted in foreign accent judgements performed by a group of expert judges who were presented with…

  14. Accent, Identity, and a Fear of Loss? ESL Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrocklin, Shannon; Link, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Because many theorists propose a connection between accent and identity, some theorists have justifiably been concerned about the ethical ramifications of L2 pronunciation teaching. However, English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students often state a desire to sound like native speakers. With little research into ESL students' perceptions of links…

  15. Bilingual and monolingual children prefer native-accented speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, André L; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler et al., 2007). Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld and Lambert, 1964), which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children's reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  16. Computational Approaches to Exploring Persian-Accented English

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Corey

    2015-01-01

    Methods involving phonetic speech recognition are discussed for detecting Persian-accented English. These methods offer promise for both the identification and mitigation of L2 pronunciation errors. Pronunciation errors, both segmental and suprasegmental, particular to Persian speakers of English are discussed.

  17. How to Speak English without a Foreign Accent. Hispanic Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catran, Jack

    This transcript and guide of a two-cassette course is designed to assist Hispanic immigrants erase their foreign accents. The course is appropriate for either individual or group study. The guide includes narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties and provide…

  18. Indian accent text-to-speech system for web browsing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Incorporation of speech and Indian scripts can greatly enhance the accessibility of web information among common people. This paper describes a 'web reader' which 'reads out' the textual contents of a selected web page in Hindi or in English with Indian accent. The content of the page is downloaded and parsed into ...

  19. The Foundations of Accent and Intelligibility in Pronunciation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Murray J.; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal in developing this timeline was to trace the empirical bases of current approaches to L2 pronunciation teaching, with particular attention to the concepts of "accent" and "intelligibility". The process of identifying suitable works for inclusion challenged us in several ways. First, the number of empirical studies of pronunciation…

  20. Lung studies with spiral CT. pitch 1 versus pitch 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartoni Galloni, S.; Miceli, M.; Lipparino, M.; Burzi, M.; Gigli, F.; Rossi, M.S.; Santoli, G.; Guidarelli, G.

    1999-01-01

    In Spiral CT, the pitch is the ratio of the distance to tabletop travels per 360 degrees rotation to nominal slice width, expressed in mm. Performing Spiral CT examination with pitch 2 allows to reduce examination time, exposure and contrast dose, and X-ray tube overload. The authors investigated the yield of pitch 2 in lung parenchyma studies, particular relative to diagnostic image quality [it

  1. Pitch memory and exposure effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eitan, Zohar; Chajut, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to represent absolute pitch values in long-term memory (LTM), long believed to be the possession of a small minority of trained musicians endowed with "absolute pitch" (AP), is in fact shared to some extent by a considerable proportion of the population. The current study examined whether this newly-discovered ability affects aspects of music and auditory cognition, particularly pitch learning and evaluation. Our starting points are two well establishe...

  2. H-Darrieus Wind Turbine with Blade Pitch Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paraschivoiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for computing the optimal variation of the blades' pitch angle of an H-Darrieus wind turbine that maximizes its torque at given operational conditions is proposed and presented along with the results obtained on a 7 kW prototype. The CARDAAV code, based on the “Double-Multiple Streamtube” model developed by the first author, is used to determine the performances of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine. This was coupled with a genetic algorithm optimizer. The azimuthal variation of the blades' pitch angle is modeled with an analytical function whose coefficients are used as variables in the optimization process. Two types of variations were considered for the pitch angle: a simple sinusoidal one and one which is more general, relating closely the blades' pitch to the local flow conditions along their circular path. A gain of almost 30% in the annual energy production was obtained with the polynomial optimal pitch control.

  3. The effect of different speaker accents on sentence comprehension in children with speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Jennifer; Frizelle, Pauline; Gibbon, Fiona

    2017-12-26

    There is substantial evidence that a speaker's accent, specifically an unfamiliar accent, can affect the listener's comprehension. In general, this effect holds true for both adults and children as well as those with typical and impaired language. Previous studies have investigated the effect of different accents on individuals with language disorders, but children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) have received little attention. The current study aims to learn more about the ability of children with SSD to process different speaker accents. Fifteen children with SSD aged between 4;01 and 5;11 years, and 16 typically developing children matched on language ability, age, socioeconomic status, gender and cognitive ability participated in the current study. A sentence comprehension task was carried out with each child, requiring them to follow instructions of increasing length spoken in three different accents - (i) a local Irish (Cork) accent, (ii) a regional North American accent and (iii) a non-native Indian English accent. Results showed no significant group difference and speaker accent did not significantly impact children's performance on the task. The results are discussed in relation to factors that influence accent comprehension, and their implications for children's underlying phonological representations.

  4. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  5. Airfoil Pitch Control Using Trapped Vorticity Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Daniel; Culp, John; Glezer, Ari

    2007-11-01

    Closed-loop feedback control of the attitude of a free pitching airfoil is effected without moving control surfaces by alternate actuation of nominally-symmetric trapped vorticity concentrations on the suction and pressure surfaces near the trailing edge. The pitching moment is varied with minimal lift and drag penalties over a broad range of angles of attack when the baseline flow is fully attached. Accumulation (trapping) and regulation of vorticity is managed by integrated hybrid actuators (each comprised of a miniature [O(0.01c)] obstruction and a synthetic jet actuator). In the present work, the model is trimmed using a position feedback loop and a servo motor actuator. Once the model is trimmed, the position feedback loop is opened and the servo motor acts like an inner loop control to alter the model's dynamic characteristics. Position control of the model is achieved using a reference model-based outer loop controller.

  6. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    ) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones...... discrimination to that of NH listeners. In the second part of this work, behavioral and objective measures of pitch discrimination were carried out in musicians and non-musicians. Musicians showed an increased pitch-discrimination performance relative to non-musicians for both resolved and unresolved harmonics...... for the individual pitch-discrimination abilities, the musically trained listeners still allocated lower processing effort than did the non-musicians to perform the task at the same performance level. This finding suggests an enhanced pitch representation along the auditory system in musicians, possibly as a result...

  7. Towards a sustainable society: a profile of social accents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pelser

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the pending global environmental crisis, this article argues that the solutions to the crisis are as much part of the sociopolitical field as they are of the technological and scientific fields. Consequently a number of social accents that should be addressed in the attempt to achieve a sustainable society are elucidated. These accents include revision of current value systems characterized mainly by economic variables, the curbing of population growth rates, expansion of human rights, alleviation of poverty, universal access to education, health sen’ices and family planning. The redistribution of and access to natural resources, community involvement and the fostering of a political will to address these issues should also be reflected on

  8. 77 FR 69569 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... owner operations. The aircraft has a conventional configuration with a low wing and T-tail empennage. The primary structure is metal with composite empennage and control surfaces. The Model EMB-550..., Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98057-3356; telephone 425-227-2011...

  9. An Empirical Study of University Students’ Attitude Toward English Accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chien Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available English as a lingua franca (ELF for international communication has become a heated issue for discussions among educators of English in recent years. As scholars find it essential for teachers to encourage their students to acquire the ability of using English in real-life conversations, they also wonder about the necessity of requiring students to speak in an accent approximate to that of native speakers of English. With the purpose of encouraging non-English majors at technological universities to speak English and directing English majors’ attention to things other than the so-called ‘standard norms of English accent,’ this study involved 85 freshmen from two technological universities at southern Taiwan. The researchers ask the following questions: What are the students’ attitudes toward native speaker norms of English? After a semester of teaching interventions, do the students’ attitudes change? Do the students’ majors affect their attitudes? Do the students’ genders affect their attitudes? The teaching interventions included providing students with teaching materials covering varieties of spoken English and assisting students to prepare three three-minute group conversation video clips. The results gained from both quantitative and qualitative methods indicate that the students appreciated the accent of the native speakers most. However, after the interventions, the students could appreciate other accents as well. Moreover, the students did not find it so important to speak like a native speaker, and their self-evaluation of English speaking ability and confidence in speaking English with others were significantly boosted after the implementation of the project.

  10. A study of the surfacing bubbles speed in a physical model representing a layer of liquid coal pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begunov, A.I.; Yakovleva, A.A. [Irkutsk State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    The authors investigated the motion characteristics of the gas bubbles originating in the baked part of Soderberg anodes and barbotating through the liquid layer of the anodic paste. This study was conducted sing a physical model with paraffin representing the column of anodic paste. The column height of the model liquid was changed from 0.2 to 0.5 m, which corresponds to the liquid layer heights in a real anode. The dependence of the vertical gas bubble speed on the liquid layer height above the level on which the bubble was formed was studied and an empirical equation was found to describe this dependence in terms of mathematical powers. The numerical values of the hydrodynamic resistance coefficients for surfacing bubbles were determined, which vary from 1 {center_dot} 10{sup {minus}5} to 6 {center_dot} 10{sup {minus}5}.

  11. The pitch-heave dynamics of transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, L. M.; Richardson, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis and design of suspensions for vehicles of finite length using pitch-heave models is presented. Dynamic models for the finite length vehicle include the spatial distribution of the guideway input disturbance over the vehicle length, as well as both pitch and heave degrees-of-freedom. Analytical results relate the vehicle front and rear accelerations to the pitch and heave natural frequencies, which are functions of vehicle suspension geometry and mass distribution. The effects of vehicle asymmetry and suspension contact area are evaluated. Design guidelines are presented for the modification of vehicle and suspension parameters to meet alternative ride quality criteria.

  12. Fault Detection and Isolation for Wind Turbine Electric Pitch System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection and isolation scheme applied on electric pitch system of wind turbines. Pitch system is one of the most critical components due to its effect on the operational safety and the dynamics of wind turbines. Faults in this system should be precisely...... detected to prevent failures and decrease downtime. To detect faults of electric pitch actuators and sensors, an extended kalman filter (EKF) based multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) designed to estimate the states of the system. The proposed method is demonstrated in case studies. The simulation...... results show that the proposed method detects different fault scenarios of wind turbines under the stochastic external condition....

  13. Pitch perception beyond the traditional existence region of pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Micheyl, Christophe; Keebler, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    Humans’ ability to recognize musical melodies is generally limited to pure-tone frequencies below 4 or 5 kHz. This limit coincides with the highest notes on modern musical instruments and is widely believed to reflect the upper limit of precise stimulusdriven spike timing in the auditory nerve. We...... tested the upper limits of pitch and melody perception in humans using pure and harmonic complex tones, such as those produced by the human voice and musical instruments, in melody recognition and pitchmatching tasks. We found that robust pitch perception can be elicited by harmonic complex tones...... with fundamental frequencies below 2 kHz, even when all of the individual harmonics are above 6 kHz—well above the currently accepted existence region of pitch and above the currently accepted limits of neural phase locking. The results suggest that the perception of musical pitch at high frequencies...

  14. Energy and pitch-angle dispersions of LLBL/cusp ions seen at middle altitudes: predictions by the open magnetosphere model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are presented of the ion distribution functions seen by middle-altitude spacecraft in the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL and cusp regions when reconnection is, or has recently been, taking place at the equatorial magnetopause. From the evolution of the distribution function with time elapsed since the field line was opened, both the observed energy/observation-time and pitch-angle/energy dispersions are well reproduced. Distribution functions showing a mixture of magnetosheath and magnetospheric ions, often thought to be a signature of the LLBL, are found on newly opened field lines as a natural consequence of the magnetopause effects on the ions and their flight times. In addition, it is shown that the extent of the source region of the magnetosheath ions that are detected by a satellite is a function of the sensitivity of the ion instrument . If the instrument one-count level is high (and/or solar-wind densities are low, the cusp ion precipitation detected comes from a localised region of the mid-latitude magnetopause (around the magnetic cusp, even though the reconnection takes place at the equatorial magnetopause. However, if the instrument sensitivity is high enough, then ions injected from a large segment of the dayside magnetosphere (in the relevant hemisphere will be detected in the cusp. Ion precipitation classed as LLBL is shown to arise from the low-latitude magnetopause, irrespective of the instrument sensitivity. Adoption of threshold flux definitions has the same effect as instrument sensitivity in artificially restricting the apparent source regionKey words. Low-latitude boundary layer · Cusp regions · Open magnetosphere model · Mid-altitudes

  15. Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term Pitcher Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013. The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114. With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.

  16. Series pid pitch controller of large wind turbines generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micić Aleksandar D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For this stable process with oscillatory dynamics, characterized with small damping ratio and dominant transport delay, design of the series PID pitch controller is based on the model obtained from the open-loop process step response, filtered with the second-order Butterworth filter Fbw. Performance of the series PID pitch controller, with the filter Fbw, is analyzed by simulations of the set-point and input/output disturbance responses, including simulations with a colored noise added to the control variable. Excellent performance/robustness tradeoff is obtained, compared to the recently proposed PI pitch controllers and to the modified internal model pitch controller, developed here, which has a natural mechanism to compensate effect of dominant transport delay. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47016

  17. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  18. The importance of a near-native accent. : Do the Dutch speak English or Double Dutch?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Frans Hermans

    2014-01-01

    The importance of a near-native accent. This talk will discuss whether or not it is important for EFL-teachers to try and achieve a near-native generally accepted accent for their students. The focus will be on the credibility of non-native speakers of English while speaking English in a

  19. "THE BACON" Not "the Bacon": How Children and Adults Understand Accented and Unaccented Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4- and 5-year-old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., "the bacon") with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less…

  20. Effects of Speaker Variability on Learning Foreign-Accented English for EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Low, Renae; Jin, Putai; Sweller, John

    2013-01-01

    Using a cognitive load theory approach, we investigated the effects of speaker variability when individuals are learning to understand English as a foreign language (EFL) spoken by foreign-accented speakers. The use of multiple, Indian-accented speakers was compared to that of a single speaker for Chinese EFL learners with a higher or lower…

  1. Measuring foreign accent strength in English: Validating Levenshtein Distance as a Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, M.; Bloem, J.; Mignella, K.; Timmermeister, M.; Nerbonne, J.

    2014-01-01

    With an eye toward measuring the strength of foreign accents in American English, we evaluate the suitability of a modified version of the Levenshtein distance for comparing (the phonetic transcriptions of) accented pronunciations. Although this measure has been used successfully inter alia to study

  2. A Short Note on Accent-Bias, Social Identity and Ethnocentrism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the interrelations among accent-based biases, social identity and ethnocentrism. Construction of social identity creates a set of ethnocentric values within a person, which indirectly or directly plays a pivotal role in generating accent related biases. Starting with Tajfel's (1959) social identity theory and then the…

  3. Children's Use of Semantic Context in Perception of Foreign-Accented Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Bent, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate children's use of semantic context to facilitate foreign-accented word recognition in noise. Method: Monolingual American English speaking 5- to 7-year-olds (n = 168) repeated either Mandarin- or American English-accented sentences in babble, half of which contained final words that were highly…

  4. The effect of accent evaluation and evidence on a suspect's perceived guilt and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John A; Mahoney, Berenice

    2004-02-01

    The authors investigated the effect of accent evaluation, evidence, and crime type on participants' perceptions of guilt and criminality. British student raters (n = 199) listened to a tape-recorded exchange between a male criminal suspect and a male policeman. The authors manipulated this exchange to produce a 2 (accent type: English regional or standard) x 2 (evidence type: strong or weak) x 2 (crime type: blue collar or white collar) factorial design. Dependent measures consisted of participants' ratings of the suspect's guilt and criminality. Contrary to previous research, accent did not significantly influence attributions of guilt either as a main effect or in interaction with the contextual variables. However, independent of evidence presented and crime type, the regional-accented suspect was evaluated as more typically criminal and more likely to be reaccused of a crime than the standard-accented suspect.

  5. Relative Difficulty of Understanding Foreign Accents as a Marker of Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; van Heugten, Marieke; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2017-05-01

    Foreign-accented speech is generally harder to understand than native-accented speech. This difficulty is reduced for non-native listeners who share their first language with the non-native speaker. It is currently unclear, however, how non-native listeners deal with foreign-accented speech produced by speakers of a different language. We show that the process of (second) language acquisition is associated with an increase in the relative difficulty of processing foreign-accented speech. Therefore, experiencing greater relative difficulty with foreign-accented speech compared with native speech is a marker of language proficiency. These results contribute to our understanding of how phonological categories are acquired during second language learning. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  7. Accentedness and intelligibility of Mandarin-accented English for Chinese, Koreans and Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardman, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    , American listeners still performed better. Analyses of mistranscribed Mandarin-accented English words revealed different areas of difficulty by listener L1. While front vowels and diphthongs were problematic for all listeners, Chinese listeners found different consonants in different word positions...... accuracy and listener L1 and word familiarity. Participants included 6 male graduate students (Chinese & American) as talkers and 64 male and female graduate students (Chinese, Korean, & American) as listeners. In a counter balanced word-recognition-in-noise experiment, listeners were presented with 60...... sentences with 3 to 4 key words each which they were asked to transcribe. Intelligibility was determined by the accuracy of the key word transcriptions. Listeners then rated their familiarity with known key words on an increasing 5-point Likert scale. A series of logistic regression mixed effects models...

  8. Foreign Accent Syndrome Secondary to Medication Withdrawal: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Schuh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate a possible alternative etiology related to dopamine may exist for foreign accent syndrome (FAS. Methods: A 79-year-old, 205 pound, Caucasian woman originally presented to the department of Neurology for treatment and subsequently to the pharmacist pharmacotherapy service for evaluation of bilateral upper extremity tremor of high amplitude but was found to also exhibit FAS. Discussion: This case report contributes to the limited literature regarding foreign accent syndrome and adds to the few case reports of psychogenic origin, as opposed to the majority, which are of neurogenic origin. This also represents the first case that seems related to withdrawal of medication rather than psychotic exacerbation and ranks a six on the Naranjo algorithm. Conclusion: FAS is a rare disorder and little is understood about it. This case presentation also suggests that chronic use of high-dose dopamine and/or anticholinergic agents may alter pathways in the brain, which in this case, may have potentially contributed to the development of FAS. There remain many unanswered questions regarding FAS, but hopefully more clarity may be found as more cases are discovered and published. Conflict of Interest I declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Case Study

  9. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  10. Difficulties with Pitch Discrimination Influences Pitch Memory Performance: Evidence from Congenital Amusia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K.; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P.

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to crea...

  11. Reliable Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The key objectives of wind turbine manufactures and buyers are to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership and Total Cost of Energy. Among others, low downtime of a wind turbine is important to increase the amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Historical data indicate that pitch systems...... accounts for a substantial part of the downtime of wind turbines. With a focus on fluid power pitch systems; this paper presents an overview of methods relevant to assessing and increasing the reliability and availability of such systems. Four major areas are identified and covered; failure analysis...

  12. Second-language experience and speech-in-noise recognition: effects of talker-listener accent similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Melanie; Iverson, Paul; Huckvale, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Previous work has shown that the intelligibility of speech in noise is degraded if the speaker and listener differ in accent, in particular when there is a disparity between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) accents. This study investigated how this talker-listener interaction is modulated by L2 experience and accent similarity. L1 Southern British English, L1 French listeners with varying L2 English experience, and French-English bilinguals were tested on the recognition of English sentences mixed in speech-shaped noise that was spoken with a range of accents (French, Korean, Northern Irish, and Southern British English). The results demonstrated clear interactions of accent and experience, with the least experienced French speakers being most accurate with French-accented English, but more experienced listeners being most accurate with L1 Southern British English accents. An acoustic similarity metric was applied to the speech productions of the talkers and the listeners, and significant correlations were obtained between accent similarity and sentence intelligibility for pairs of individuals. Overall, the results suggest that L2 experience affects talker-listener accent interactions, altering both the intelligibility of different accents and the selectivity of accent processing. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  13. The Role of Prosodic Breaks and Pitch Accents in Grouping Words during On-line Sentence Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.; Schriefers, H.J.; Vonk, W.; Chwilla, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses the question whether accentuation and prosodic phrasing can have a similar function, namely, to group words in a sentence together. Participants listened to locally ambiguous sentences containing object-and subject-control verbs while ERPs were measured. In Experiment 1,

  14. Perceptual Accent Rating and Attribution in Psychogenic FAS: Some Further Evidence Challenging Whitaker's Operational Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, Stefanie; Verhoeven, Jo; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Mariën, Peter; Jonkers, Roel; Mavroudakis, Nicolas; Paquier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old, non-aphasic, right-handed, and polyglot (L1: French, L2: Dutch, and L3: English) woman with a 12-year history of addiction to opiates and psychoactive substances, and clear psychiatric problems, presented with a foreign accent of sudden onset in L1. Speech evolved toward a mostly fluent output, despite a stutter-like behavior and a marked grammatical output disorder. The psychogenic etiology of the accent foreignness was construed based on the patient's complex medical history and psychodiagnostic, neuropsychological, and neurolinguistic assessments. The presence of a foreign accent was affirmed by a perceptual accent rating and attribution experiment. It is argued that this patient provides additional evidence demonstrating the outdatedness of Whitaker's (1982) definition of foreign accent syndrome, as only one of the four operational criteria was unequivocally applicable to our patient: her accent foreignness was not only recognized by her relatives and the medical staff but also by a group of native French-speaking laymen. However, our patient defied the three remaining criteria, as central nervous system damage could not conclusively be demonstrated, psychodiagnostic assessment raised the hypothesis of a conversion disorder, and the patient was a polyglot whose newly gained accent was associated with a range of foreign languages, which exceeded the ones she spoke.

  15. The neural processing of foreign-accented speech and its relationship to listener bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Gyol eYi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign-accented speech often presents a challenging listening condition. In addition to deviations from the target speech norms related to the inexperience of the nonnative speaker, listener characteristics may play a role in determining intelligibility levels. We have previously shown that an implicit visual bias for associating East Asian faces and foreignness predicts the listeners’ perceptual ability to process Korean-accented English audiovisual speech (Yi et al., 2013. Here, we examine the neural mechanism underlying the influence of listener bias to foreign faces on speech perception. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, native English speakers listened to native- and Korean-accented English sentences, with or without faces. The participants’ Asian-foreign association was measured using an implicit association test (IAT, conducted outside the scanner. We found that foreign-accented speech evoked greater activity in the bilateral primary auditory cortices and the inferior frontal gyri, potentially reflecting greater computational demand. Higher IAT scores, indicating greater bias, were associated with increased BOLD response to foreign-accented speech with faces in the primary auditory cortex, the early node for spectrotemporal analysis. We conclude the following: (1 foreign-accented speech perception places greater demand on the neural systems underlying speech perception; (2 face of the talker can exaggerate the perceived foreignness of foreign-accented speech; (3 implicit Asian-foreign association is associated with decreased neural efficiency in early spectrotemporal processing.

  16. Pitch and roll hydrodynamics of a pericell hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, David D.

    1986-12-01

    Pitch and roll responses of hovercraft have been extremely difficult to predict due to the complexity of hydrodynamic analyses on one hand and the difficulties of appropriate cushion scale modeling on the other. The paper presents comparisons of pitch and roll stiffness coefficients for overwater and overland operations. Data are presented from model-scale and full-scale trials and analytic-numerical modeling. The effects of model-scale on the cushion dynamics relative to rotational responses are presented and the important characteristics of overwater and overland responses are discussed.

  17. Absolute pitch--electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, A; Granot, R; Pratt, H

    1994-02-01

    People who have the ability to label or to produce notes without any reference are considered to possess Absolute Pitch (AP). Others, who need a reference in order to identify the notes, possess Relative Pitch (RP). The AP ability is assumed to reflect a unique, language-like representation of non-lexical musical notes in memory. The purpose of this study was to examine this assumption by comparing Event Related Potentials (ERP) of musicians with and without AP, to lexical and non-lexical representation of musical material. Subjects were eighteen young adult musicians. Seven were AP and eleven RP. Auditory stimuli, presented through earphones, were piano notes (non-lexical) or a voice saying the note's name (lexical). Visual stimuli, presented on a computer display were note symbols (non-lexical) or letters (lexical). Subjects performed a number of tasks, combining the two modalities (visual and auditory) and stimulus types (lexical and non-lexical), and reaction times (RT), performance accuracy and evoked potentials were recorded. The tasks forced the subjects to transfer mental representations of musical material from one mode to another. Our most important findings were the differences, between groups, in the scalp distribution of P300 amplitudes. We conclude that absolute pitch possessors use the same internal language as relative pitch possessors, when possible, but the distribution of the underlying brain activity is different between AP and RP subjects.

  18. A Different Pitch to Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, William

    2017-01-01

    The query "When are we ever going to use this?" is easily answered when discussing the slope of a line. The pitch of a roof, the grade of a road, and stair stringers are three applications of slope that are used extensively. The concept of slope, which is introduced fairly early in the mathematics curriculum has hands-on applications…

  19. Development of a Mechanical Passive Pitch System for a 500W Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poryzala, Tomek; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Kim, Taeseong

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, manufacture, and test a mechanical passive pitch mechanism for a small horizontal axis wind turbine. Several pitching concepts were investigated in the wind industry and related fields before ultimately deciding on a centrifugal governor design concept...... in a pitch-to-stall configuration. Inertial and aerodynamic models were developed in order to predict steady-state performance and an optimization routine was created to optimize the pitch mechanism configuration subject to manufacturing constraints. Dynamic modeling in HAWC2 validated the steady......-state design code, aeroelastic simulations were performed in turbulent wind conditions to simulate the pitch system dynamics. Physical testing of the full turbine was not completed, however the hub sub-assembly was tested on its own to validate the passive pitch characteristics and showed good agreement...

  20. Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Lloyd H., III

    Coupling a Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite (F2MC) to an air-pressurized fluid port produces a fundamentally new class of tunable vibration isolator. This fluidlastic device provides significant vibration reduction at an isolation frequency that can be tuned over a broad frequency range. The material properties and geometry of the F2MC element, as well as the port inertance, determine the isolation frequency. A unique feature of this device is that the port inertance depends on pressure so the isolation frequency can be adjusted by changing the air pressure. For constant port inertance, the isolation frequency is largely independent of the isolated mass so the device is robust to changes in load. A nonlinear model is developed to predict isolator length and port inertance. The model is linearized and the frequency response calculated. Experiments agree with theory, demonstrating a tunable isolation range from 9 Hz to 36 Hz and transmitted force reductions of up to 60 dB at the isolation frequency. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with coupled fluidic devices has the potential to reduce the aerodynamic blade loads transmitted through the pitch links to the swashplate. Analytical models of two fluidic devices coupled with three different fluidic circuits are derived. These passive fluidlastic systems are tuned, by varying the fluid inertances and capacitances of each fluidic circuit, to reduce the transmitted pitch-link loads. The different circuit designs result in transmitted pitch link loads reduction at up to three main rotor harmonics. The simulation results show loads reduction at the targeted out-of-phase and in-phase harmonics of up to 88% and 93%, respectively. Experimental validation of two of the fluidic circuits demonstrates loads reduction of up to 89% at the out-of-phase isolation frequencies and up to 81% at the in-phase isolation frequencies. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with fluidic pitch links changes the blade torsional

  1. Analysis of Pitch Gear Deterioration using Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    of the damage, and can be used for Bayesian updating of a damage model used for risk-based decision making. For this decision problem, the risk of failure should be compared to the cost of preventive maintenance. The hypothesis that the maximum pitch motor torque is an indicator of the damage size is supported...... by results from a measurement campaign where measurements are available both before and after maintenance was performed. The loads dramatically decreased after the maintenance. However, after a few more months of measurements, and by including data from the SCADA system, it became obvious that seasonal...

  2. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  3. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  4. Global distribution of the pitch canker fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell

    1998-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, causes diseases of pines in the United States, Haiti, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and South Africa. Pitch canker was first reported in Virginia pine in North Carolina in 1946. Although the disease was reported in Haitian pine in 1953, pitch canker was generally considered a...

  5. The role of planum temporale in processing accent variation in spoken language comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, P.M.; Noordzij, M.L.; Hagoort, P.

    2012-01-01

    A repetitionsuppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variationspeaker and accentduring spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and a

  6. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here, I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred fr...

  7. ACCENT-BIAFLUX workshop 2005, trace gas and aerosol flux measurement and techniques. Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, A.; Soerensen, L.L. (eds.)

    2005-04-01

    The woorkshop trace gas and aerosol flux measurement techniques in the second meeting within the Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange of Pollutions (BIAFLUX) group in the EU-network project Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT). The goal of the workshop is to obtain an overview of techniques for measurements of gas and aerosol fluxes and to gather the knowledge of uncertainties in flux measurements and calculations. The workshop is funded by ACCENT. The abstract book presents abstracts of 21 oral presentations and 26 poster presentations. (LN)

  8. Carbon fibers from SRC pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greskovich, Eugene J.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method of manufacturing carbon fibers from a coal derived pitch. The improvement resides in the use of a solvent refined coal which has been hydrotreated and subjected to solvent extraction whereby the hetero atom content in the resulting product is less than 4.0% by weight and the softening point is between about 100.degree.-250.degree. F.

  9. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Diagnosis of Conversion Disorder in a Patient with Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison N. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple reports have described patients with disordered articulation and prosody, often following acute aphasia, dysarthria, or apraxia of speech, which results in the perception by listeners of a foreign-like accent. These features led to the term foreign accent syndrome (FAS, a speech disorder with perceptual features that suggest an indistinct, non-native speaking accent. Also correctly known as psuedoforeign accent, the speech does not typically match a specific foreign accent, but is rather a constellation of speech features that result in the perception of a foreign accent by listeners. The primary etiologies of FAS are cerebrovascular accidents or traumatic brain injuries which affect cortical and subcortical regions critical to expressive speech and language production. Far fewer cases of FAS associated with psychiatric conditions have been reported. We will present the clinical history, neurological examination, neuropsychological assessment, cognitive-behavioral and biofeedback assessments, and motor speech examination of a patient with FAS without a known vascular, traumatic, or infectious precipitant. Repeated multidisciplinary examinations of this patient provided convergent evidence in support of FAS secondary to conversion disorder. We discuss these findings and their implications for evaluation and treatment of rare neurological and psychiatric conditions.

  10. The way you say it, the way I feel it: emotional word processing in accented speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzidaki, Anna; Baus, Cristina; Costa, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether processing words with affective connotations in a listener's native language may be modulated by accented speech. To address this question, we used the Event Related Potential (ERP) technique and recorded the cerebral activity of Spanish native listeners, who performed a semantic categorization task, while listening to positive, negative and neutral words produced in standard Spanish or in four foreign accents. The behavioral results yielded longer latencies for emotional than for neutral words in both native and foreign-accented speech, with no difference between positive and negative words. The electrophysiological results replicated previous findings from the emotional language literature, with the amplitude of the Late Positive Complex (LPC), associated with emotional language processing, being larger (more positive) for emotional than for neutral words at posterior scalp sites. Interestingly, foreign-accented speech was found to interfere with the processing of positive valence and go along with a negativity bias, possibly suggesting heightened attention to negative words. The manipulation employed in the present study provides an interesting perspective on the effects of accented speech on processing affective-laden information. It shows that higher order semantic processes that involve emotion-related aspects are sensitive to a speaker's accent. PMID:25870577

  11. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  12. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as "tone deafness," has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  13. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success.

  14. The Effects of Language Experience and Speech Context on the Phonetic Accommodation of English-accented Spanish Voicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Fernando; Francis, Alexander L

    2017-03-01

    Native speakers of Spanish with different amounts of experience with English classified stop-consonant voicing (/b/ versus /p/) across different speech accents: English-accented Spanish, native Spanish, and native English. While listeners with little experience with English classified target voicing with an English- or Spanish-like voice onset time (VOT) boundary, predicted by contextual VOT, listeners familiar with English relied on an English-like VOT boundary in an English-accented Spanish context even in the absence of clear contextual cues to English VOT. This indicates that Spanish listeners accommodated English-accented Spanish voicing differently depending on their degree of familiarization with the English norm.

  15. Heroes and Villains: The Relationship between Pitch Tessitura and Sociability of Operatic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shanahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in speech prosody and ethology suggests that pitch height indexes positive and negative social affects, in the sense that higher pitched voices are used to convey friendliness, whereas lower pitched voices are used to convey aggression (Bolinger, 1964. Research concerning animal calls suggests that this association generalizes to many species. In a study of the calls for 56 species, Morton (1977, 1994 proposed a sound-size model in which large size (and low pitch is associated with aggression, whereas small size (and high pitch is associated with friendliness, fear, or appeasement. We examine whether this association can be observed in music. Specifically, the results of three studies are reported in which the pitch-height of various voices is related to estimates of the sociability of the corresponding operatic characters. Results indeed indicate an association between lower-pitched voices and less sociable characters, in contrast to higher-pitched voices being associated with more sociable characters. In addition, older male characters tend to exhibit lower-pitched voices, consistent with known physiological changes (Linville, 2004; Reubold, Harrington & Kleber, 2010.

  16. Pitch Correlogram Clustering for Fast Speaker Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jhanwar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian mixture models (GMMs are commonly used in text-independent speaker identification systems. However, for large speaker databases, their high computational run-time limits their use in online or real-time speaker identification situations. Two-stage identification systems, in which the database is partitioned into clusters based on some proximity criteria and only a single-cluster GMM is run in every test, have been suggested in literature to speed up the identification process. However, most clustering algorithms used have shown limited success, apparently because the clustering and GMM feature spaces used are derived from similar speech characteristics. This paper presents a new clustering approach based on the concept of a pitch correlogram that captures frame-to-frame pitch variations of a speaker rather than short-time spectral characteristics like cepstral coefficient, spectral slopes, and so forth. The effectiveness of this two-stage identification process is demonstrated on the IVIE corpus of 110 speakers. The overall system achieves a run-time advantage of 500% as well as a 10% reduction of error in overall speaker identification.

  17. Numerical Prediction of Hydromechanical Behaviour of Controllable Pitch Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Tarbiat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research described in this paper was carried out to predict hydrodynamic and frictional forces of controllable pitch propeller (CPP that bring about fretting problems in a blade bearing. The governing equations are Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS and are solved by OpenFOAM solver for hydrodynamic forces behind the ship’s wake. Frictional forces are calculated by practical mechanical formulae. Different advance velocities with constant rotational speed for blades are used to achieve hydrodynamic coefficients in open water and the wake behind the propeller. Results are compared at four different pitches. Detailed numerical results of 3D modelling of the propeller, hydrodynamic characteristics, and probability of the fretting motion in the propeller are presented. Results show that the probability of the fretting movement is related to the pitch.

  18. Speaker and Accent Variation Are Handled Differently: Evidence in Native and Non-Native Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Terry, Josephine; Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are able to cope with between-speaker variability in speech that stems from anatomical sources (i.e. individual and sex differences in vocal tract size) and sociolinguistic sources (i.e. accents). We hypothesized that listeners adapt to these two types of variation differently because prior work indicates that adapting to speaker/sex variability may occur pre-lexically while adapting to accent variability may require learning from attention to explicit cues (i.e. feedback). In Experiment 1, we tested our hypothesis by training native Dutch listeners and Australian-English (AusE) listeners without any experience with Dutch or Flemish to discriminate between the Dutch vowels /I/ and /ε/ from a single speaker. We then tested their ability to classify /I/ and /ε/ vowels of a novel Dutch speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change only), or vowels of a novel Flemish speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change plus accent change). We found that both Dutch and AusE listeners could successfully categorize vowels if the change involved a speaker/sex change, but not if the change involved an accent change. When AusE listeners were given feedback on their categorization responses to the novel speaker in Experiment 2, they were able to successfully categorize vowels involving an accent change. These results suggest that adapting to accents may be a two-step process, whereby the first step involves adapting to speaker differences at a pre-lexical level, and the second step involves adapting to accent differences at a contextual level, where listeners have access to word meaning or are given feedback that allows them to appropriately adjust their perceptual category boundaries.

  19. Project accent: graphite irradiated creep in a materials test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooking, M.

    2014-01-01

    Atkins manages a pioneering programme of irradiation experiments for EDF Energy. One of these projects is Project ACCENT, designed to obtain evidence of a beneficial physical property of the graphite, which may extend the life of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs). The project team combines the in-house experience of EDF Energy with two supplier organisations (providing the material test reactors and testing facilities) and supporting consultancies (Atkins and an independent technical expert). This paper describes: - Brief summary of the Project; - Discussion of the challenges faced by the Project; and - Conclusion elaborating on the aims of the Project. These challenging experiments use bespoke technology and both un-irradiated (virgin) and irradiated AGR graphite. The results will help to better understand graphite irradiation-induced creep (or stress modified dimensional change) properties and therefore more accurately determine lifetime and safe operating envelopes of the AGRs. The first round of irradiation has been completed, with a second round about to commence. This is a key step to realising the full lifetime ambition for AGRs, demonstrating the relaxation of stresses within the graphite bricks. (authors)

  20. Automatic sociophonetics: Exploring corpora with a forensic accent recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Georgina; Wormald, Jessica

    2017-07-01

    This paper demonstrates how the Y-ACCDIST system, the York ACCDIST-based automatic accent recognition system [Brown (2015). Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, UK], can be used to inspect sociophonetic corpora as a preliminary "screening" tool. Although Y-ACCDIST's intended application is to assist with forensic casework, the system can also be exploited in sociophonetic research to begin unpacking variation. Using a subset of the PEBL (Panjabi-English in Bradford and Leicester) corpus, the outputs of Y-ACCDIST are explored, which, it is argued, efficiently and objectively assess speaker similarities across different linguistic varieties. The ways these outputs corroborate with a phonetic analysis of the data are also discovered. First, Y-ACCDIST is used to classify speakers from the corpus based on language background and region. A Y-ACCDIST cluster analysis is then implemented, which groups speakers in ways consistent with more localised networks, providing a means of identifying potential communities of practice. Additionally, the results of a Y-ACCDIST feature selection task that indicates which specific phonemes are most valuable in distinguishing between speaker groups are presented. How Y-ACCDIST outputs can be used to reinforce more traditional sociophonetic analyses and support qualitative interpretations of the data is demonstrated.

  1. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones) differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  2. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmei Jiang

    Full Text Available Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  3. Joint Pitch and DOA Estimation Using the ESPRIT method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yuntao; Amir, Leshem; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of joint multi-pitch and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for multi-channel harmonic sinusoidal signals is considered. A spatio-temporal matrix signal model for a uniform linear array is defined, and then the ESPRIT method based on subspace techniques that exploits...

  4. The musical environment and auditory plasticity: Hearing the pitch of percussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Mclachlan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although musical skills clearly improve with training, pitch processing has generally been believed to be biologically determined by the behavior of brain stem neural mechanisms. Two main classes of pitch models have emerged over the last 50 years. Harmonic template models have been used to explain cross-channel integration of frequency information, and waveform periodicity models have been used to explain pitch discrimination that is much finer than the resolution of the auditory nerve. It has been proposed that harmonic templates are learnt from repeated exposure to voice, and so it may also be possible to learn inharmonic templates from repeated exposure to inharmonic music instruments. This study investigated whether pitch-matching accuracy for inharmonic percussion instruments was better in people who have trained on these instruments and could reliably recognize their timbre. We found that adults who had trained with Indonesian gamelan instruments were better at recognizing and pitch-matching gamelan instruments than people with similar levels of music training, but no prior exposure to these instruments. These findings suggest that gamelan musicians were able to use inharmonic templates to support accurate pitch processing for these instruments. We suggest that recognition mechanisms based on spectrotemporal patterns of afferent auditory excitation in the early stages of pitch processing allow rapid priming of the lowest frequency partial of inharmonic timbres, explaining how music training can adapt pitch processing to different musical genres and instruments.

  5. The musical environment and auditory plasticity: hearing the pitch of percussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil M; Marco, David J T; Wilson, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    Although musical skills clearly improve with training, pitch processing has generally been believed to be biologically determined by the behavior of brain stem neural mechanisms. Two main classes of pitch models have emerged over the last 50 years. Harmonic template models have been used to explain cross-channel integration of frequency information, and waveform periodicity models have been used to explain pitch discrimination that is much finer than the resolution of the auditory nerve. It has been proposed that harmonic templates are learnt from repeated exposure to voice, and so it may also be possible to learn inharmonic templates from repeated exposure to inharmonic music instruments. This study investigated whether pitch-matching accuracy for inharmonic percussion instruments was better in people who have trained on these instruments and could reliably recognize their timbre. We found that adults who had trained with Indonesian gamelan instruments were better at recognizing and pitch-matching gamelan instruments than people with similar levels of music training, but no prior exposure to these instruments. These findings suggest that gamelan musicians were able to use inharmonic templates to support accurate pitch processing for these instruments. We suggest that recognition mechanisms based on spectrotemporal patterns of afferent auditory excitation in the early stages of pitch processing allow rapid priming of the lowest frequency partial of inharmonic timbres, explaining how music training can adapt pitch processing to different musical genres and instruments.

  6. Automatic Prosodic Segmentation by F0 Clustering Using Superpositional Modeling.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Mitsuru; Harald, Singer; Sagisaka, Yoshinori; Shimodaira, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automatic method for detecting accent phrase boundaries in Japanese continuous speech by using F0 information. In the training phase, hand labeled accent patterns are parameterized according to a superpositional model proposed by Fujisaki, and assigned to some clusters by a clustering method, in which accent templates are calculated as centroid of each cluster. In the segmentation phase, automatic N-best extraction of boundaries is performe...

  7. Estudio piloto del modelo técnico de ejecución del pitch a captura de pies en gimnasia acrobática. (A pilot study of technical model during a simulated toe pitch to catch in gymnastics acrobatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio León-Prados

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En Gimnasia Acrobática (GA el Toe Pitch to Catch (TPC es una acción técnica muy usual, lo que motiva la necesidad de proporcionar un modelo técnico del movimiento que permita facilitar la compresión de los factores relacionados con su ejecución. Se analizaron 12 ejecuciones sin penalizaciones técnicas realizadas por una pareja mixta de GA utilizando técnicas de fotogrametría y dinamometría. Para el análisis se dividió el movimiento en tres fases: Impulsión, Vuelo y Recepción. Los resultados indicaron que el valor máximo de fuerza en la Fase de Impulsión fue de 2,67 ± 0,06 BW (PC: Peso Corporal, BW: Body Weigth mientras que en la de Recepción fue de 2,78 ± 0,30 PC: Peso Corporal. En el modelo técnico individual analizado se destaca cómo en la Fase de Impulsión es más importante optimizar el impulso aplicado que la fuerza máxima. Durante la Fase de Vuelo, sobresale la alta reproducibilidad en los intentos satisfactorios de la altura alcanzada por el Top para facilitar su posterior recepción. Finalmente durante la Fase de Recepción, se destaca la acción de frenado del Base con el fin de minimizar las fuerzas de reacción verticales del suelo en los movimientos de recepción del Top.AbstractIn acrobatic gymnastics Toe Pitch to Catch (TPC is one of the most traditional skill. The aim of the study was to provide a technical model of the skill to facilitate the understanding of the principal factors associated with the execution. In order to elaborate the model, 12 tryouts without technical deductions performed by a mixed pair of gymnasts were analyzed using techniques of photogrammetric and dynamometry. The movement was divided into three different phases for analysing purposes: Propulsion, Flight and Reception. Results indicated that maximum value of the force during the Propulsion Phase was 2,67 ± 0,06 BW, whereas during the Reception Phase the value obtained was 2,78 ± 0,30 BW. In the technical model analyzed highlights

  8. Lexically Guided Phonetic Retuning of Foreign-Accented Speech and Its Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners use lexical knowledge to retune phoneme categories. When hearing an ambiguous sound between /s/ and /f/ in lexically unambiguous contexts such as gira[s/f], listeners learn to interpret the sound as /f/ because gira[f] is a real word and gira[s] is not. Later, they apply this learning even in lexically ambiguous contexts (perceiving knife rather than nice). Although such retuning could help listeners adapt to foreign-accented speech, research has focused on single phonetic contrasts artificially manipulated to create ambiguous sounds; however, accented speech varies along many dimensions. It is therefore unclear whether analogies to adaptation to accented speech are warranted. In the present studies, the to-be-adapted ambiguous sound was embedded in a global foreign accent. In addition, conditions of cross-speaker generalization were tested with focus on the extent to which perceptual similarity between 2 speakers’ fricatives is a condition for generalization to occur. Results showed that listeners retune phoneme categories manipulated within the context of a global foreign accent, and that they generalize this short-term learning to the perception of phonemes from previously unheard speakers. However, generalization was observed only when exposure and test speakers’ fricatives were sampled across a similar perceptual space. PMID:24059846

  9. Facilitation of creative performance by using blue and red accent lighting in work and learning areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombeiz, Olga; Steidle, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Research has shown that colours influence motivation and cognitive performance. In achievement contexts, red evokes avoidance motivation that hinders creativity, while blue elicits an approach motivation that facilitates creativity. However, due to their position and mode of presentation, colours may convey a different message. Red accent lighting creates a cosy, friendly room atmosphere that may, even in an achievement context, elicit an approach rather than an avoidance motivation. Results (N = 146) showed that both blue and red accent light increased strategic approach motivation compared to white accent light. Moreover, through the heightened approach motivation, colourful accent light indirectly improved creative performance. Implications for future research on colour and practical implications for colour usage are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Designing work environments for creativity is a new topic in ergonomics research and practice. The present study demonstrates indirect effects of coloured accent light on creativity providing interesting possibilities for the design of workplaces for knowledge workers, classrooms and all other rooms in which people work on new ideas.

  10. How native-like can you possibly get: fMRI evidence for processing accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi-Saidi, Ladan; Dash, Tanya; Ansaldo, Ana I

    2015-01-01

    If ever attained, adopting native-like accent is achieved late in the learning process. Resemblance between L2 and mother tongue can facilitate L2 learning. In particular, cognates (phonologically and semantically similar words across languages), offer the opportunity to examine the issue of foreign accent in quite a unique manner. Twelve Spanish speaking (L1) adults learnt French (L2) cognates and practiced their native-like pronunciation by means of a computerized method. After consolidation, they were tested on L1 and L2 oral picture- naming during fMRI scanning. The results of the present study show that there is a specific impact of accent on brain activation, even if L2 words are cognates, and belong to a pair of closely related languages. Results point that the insula is a key component of accent processing, which is in line with reports from patients with foreign accent syndrome following damage to the insula (e.g., Katz et al., 2012; Moreno-Torres et al., 2013; Tomasino et al., 2013), and healthy L2 learners (Chee et al., 2004). Thus, the left insula has been consistently related to the integration of attentional and working memory abilities, together with fine-tuning of motor programming to achieve optimal articulation.

  11. Shhh… I Need Quiet! Children's Understanding of American, British, and Japanese-accented English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2018-02-01

    Children's ability to understand speakers with a wide range of dialects and accents is essential for efficient language development and communication in a global society. Here, the impact of regional dialect and foreign-accent variability on children's speech understanding was evaluated in both quiet and noisy conditions. Five- to seven-year-old children ( n = 90) and adults ( n = 96) repeated sentences produced by three speakers with different accents-American English, British English, and Japanese-accented English-in quiet or noisy conditions. Adults had no difficulty understanding any speaker in quiet conditions. Their performance declined for the nonnative speaker with a moderate amount of noise; their performance only substantially declined for the British English speaker (i.e., below 93% correct) when their understanding of the American English speaker was also impeded. In contrast, although children showed accurate word recognition for the American and British English speakers in quiet conditions, they had difficulty understanding the nonnative speaker even under ideal listening conditions. With a moderate amount of noise, their perception of British English speech declined substantially and their ability to understand the nonnative speaker was particularly poor. These results suggest that although school-aged children can understand unfamiliar native dialects under ideal listening conditions, their ability to recognize words in these dialects may be highly susceptible to the influence of environmental degradation. Fully adult-like word identification for speakers with unfamiliar accents and dialects may exhibit a protracted developmental trajectory.

  12. When it matters how you pronounce it: the influence of regional accents on job interview outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Tamara; Steffens, Melanie C; Mummendey, Amélie

    2011-11-01

    The visual dimension has featured prominently in person perception in the last 25 years. Alone, this dimension cannot give the complete 'picture' of others because language and speech (i.e., the auditory dimension) are also highly informative. Social-cognition research investigates the role of auditory information for impression formation. In a series of experiments, we tested perceived competence, hirability, and socio-intellectual status of different targets based on their regional accents. Given identical content of statements in different conditions of an alleged job interview, regional German accents (Saxon, Bavarian, and Berlin) resulted in lower perceived competence and hirability than standard German, even though the Bavarian accent at the same time resulted in higher ratings of socio-intellectual status compared to other regional accents (Experiment 1). These findings were confirmed when using a broader population sample and a 'matched guise' technique (Experiment 2). Our findings indicate that regional accents, similar to faces, can be very powerful in creating differentiated pictures of individuals. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Overview and Design of self-acting pitch control mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine using multi body simulation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2014-01-01

    mechanism is given. A pitch control linkage mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine is modeled by multi-body approach using MSC Software. Aerodynamic loads are predicted from a mathematical model based on double multiple stream tube method. An appropriate airfoil which works at low Reynolds number...... is selected for blade design. It is also focused on commercialization of the vertical axis wind turbine which incorporates the self-acting pitch control system. These aerodynamic load model will be coupled with the multi-body model in future work for optimization of the pitch control linkage mechanism. A 500...... problem of self-start inability and has low power coefficient as compare to the horizontal axis wind turbine. These two problems can be eliminated by incorporating the blade pitching mechanism. So, in this paper overview of various pitch control systems is discussed and design of self-acting pitch...

  14. Pitch perception in the first year of life: A comparison of lexical tones and musical pitch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Stevens, Catherine; Kager, R.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Pitch variation is pervasive in speech, regardless of the language to which infants are exposed. Lexical tone is influenced by general sensitivity to pitch. We examined whether the development in lexical tone perception may develop in parallel with perception of pitch in other cognitive domains

  15. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates.

  16. Numeric aspects in pitch identification: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenzer Michael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pitch identification had yielded unique response patterns compared to other auditory skills. Selecting one out of numerous pitches distinguished this task from detecting a pitch ascent. Encoding of numerous stimuli had activated the intraparietal sulcus in the visual domain. Therefore, we hypothesized that numerosity encoding during pitch identification activates the intraparietal sulcus as well. Methods To assess pitch identification, the participants had to recognize a single pitch from a set of four possible pitches in each trial. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI disentangled neural activation during this four-pitch-choice task from activation during pitch contour perception, tone localization, and pitch discrimination. Results Pitch identification induced bilateral activation in the intraparietal sulcus compared to pitch discrimination. Correct responses in pitch identification correlated with activation in the left intraparietal sulcus. Pitch contour perception activated the superior temporal gyrus conceivably due to the larger range of presented tones. The differentiation between pitch identification and tone localization failed. Activation in an ACC-hippocampus network distinguished pitch discrimination from pitch identification. Conclusion Pitch identification is distinguishable from pitch discrimination on the base of activation in the IPS. IPS activity during pitch identification may be the auditory counterpart of numerosity encoding in the visual domain.

  17. Effects of Noise and Speech Intelligibility on Listener Comprehension and Processing Time of Korean-Accented English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erin O'Brien; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of noise and speech intelligibility on the processing of speech produced from native English; high-intelligibility, Korean-accented English; and moderate-intelligibility, Korean-accented English speakers. Method: Both listener comprehension, determined by accuracy judgment on true/false sentences, and…

  18. The Posterior Fossa and Foreign Accent Syndrome : Report of Two New Cases and Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, Stefanie; Mariën, Peter; van Dun, Kim; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Manto, Mario; Verhoeven, Jo

    Foreign accent syndrome is a rare motor speech disorder that causes patients to speak their language with a non-native accent. In the neurogenic condition, the disorder develops after lesions in the language dominant hemisphere, often affecting Broca's area, the insula, the supplementary motor area

  19. An Advantage for Age? Self-Concept and Self-Regulation as Teachable Foundations in Second Language Accent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Alene

    2018-01-01

    Age of onset has long been assumed to predict outcomes in second/foreign language accent. Yet beyond early childhood, acquiring a new accent has much to do with social-affective factors such as learner identity and motivation, as well as cognitive factors such as learning strategies (Pfenninger, 2017). Newer perspectives acknowledge this…

  20. Integrating science and soft skills in training courses for early-career scientists in ACCENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepbach, E.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists receive little training in communicating to non-scientists. Yet, both stakeholders and politicians increasingly see scientists as an important part of their world. Scientists feel, however, often uncomfortable with a socio-political role, especially, as discussion frequently moves away from the area of their expertise. The European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT; www.accent- network.org) has thus started to integrate both science (disciplinary, interdisciplinary approaches) and soft skills (e.g., communicating to non-scientists) in training courses for early-career scientists. In doing so, the Training and Education Task in ACCENT attempts to respond to a need expressed by many early-career scientists in Europe. There are different ways how scientific material can be brought into the public and political arenas. This contribution will share experiences in integrated training for early-career scientists, incorporating both science and outreach to the general public and politicians.

  1. Self-optimizing Pitch Control for Large Scale Wind Turbine Based on ADRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Anjun; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Zheng; Huang, Dongxiao; Wang, Fengxiang

    2018-01-01

    Since wind turbine is a complex nonlinear and strong coupling system, traditional PI control method can hardly achieve good control performance. A self-optimizing pitch control method based on the active-disturbance-rejection control theory is proposed in this paper. A linear model of the wind turbine is derived by linearizing the aerodynamic torque equation and the dynamic response of wind turbine is transformed into a first-order linear system. An expert system is designed to optimize the amplification coefficient according to the pitch rate and the speed deviation. The purpose of the proposed control method is to regulate the amplification coefficient automatically and keep the variations of pitch rate and rotor speed in proper ranges. Simulation results show that the proposed pitch control method has the ability to modify the amplification coefficient effectively, when it is not suitable, and keep the variations of pitch rate and rotor speed in proper ranges

  2. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. Perceptual limitations may be characterized by measuring an observer’s change in performance when introducting...... external noise in the physical stimulus (Lu and Dosher, 2008). The present study used this approach to attempt to quantify the “internal noise” involved in pitch coding of harmonic complex tones by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required to impair pitch discrimination performance. It remains...... a matter of debate whether pitch perception of natural complex sounds mostly relies on either spectral excitation-based information or temporal periodicity information. Comparing the way internal noise affects the internal representations of such information to how it affects pitch discrimination...

  3. We Care for Clean Air! The Contribution of ACCENT to Education and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepbach, Eva; Brimblecombe, Peter; Gross, Krisjanis; Jacobs, Mark J.; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Slini, Theodora; Übelis, Arnolds; Uherek, Elmar

    2010-05-01

    A new booklet on: "We Care for Clean Air! Motivating the Next Generation of Atmospheric Scientists" (ISBN 978-88-95665-01-6) as recently published by the education community in ACCENT (www.accent-network.org/portal/education) is presented. Promoting creative and innovative researchers and teachers and encouraging the next generation to move into the field were among the key issues in ACCENT "Training and Education" (T&E). During the 5-year programme, a wealth of educational events (e.g., workshops) and programmes (e.g., "ACCENT FAR EAST") were organized and tools developed for teachers and learners at Universities and Schools around the globe. Activities such as National ACCENT Days or Cafés Scientifiques also targeted stakeholders, policy makers and the general public to increase the expertise in atmospheric composition change to a common level across Europe. The volume introduces the integrated learning environment, high-quality tools and methods for air quality and climate change science education created by ACCENT T&E, and provides an overview on the unbiased scientific information that has been didactically translated based on knowledge available from ongoing research projects.The core messages are that (i) the translation of complex issues in atmospheric composition and climate change science to non-scientists should be scientifically acceptable and that (ii) scientists should stay in control of the translation process. After the publication of the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007, ACCENT intensified its efforts to reach greater visibility and distribute the body of know-how, skills and competencies within the networked community of atmospheric scientists in the World Wide Web. For example, a Special Issue of the "Global Change Magazine for Schools" on IPCC 2007 contains a compact introduction to the basics of global warming for direct application in the classroom, also focusing on uncertainties and

  4. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)) and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces) on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p lower limbs during baseball pitching. Key pointsHigh-ball-velocity pitchers are characterized by greater momentum of the lower limbs during pitching motion.For high-pitched-ball velocity, stabilizing lower limbs during pitching plays an important role in order to increase the rotation and forward motion of the trunk.Computation of the lower-extremity kinetics and measurement of lower-extremity strength may help clarify the role of muscle strength in determining knee and hip function in baseball pitching.

  5. Pitch memory, labelling and disembedding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela

    2003-05-01

    Autistic musical savants invariably possess absolute pitch ability and are able to disembed individual musical tones from chords. Enhanced pitch discrimination and memory has been found in non-savant individuals with autism who also show superior performance on visual disembedding tasks. These experiments investigate the extent that enhanced disembedding ability will be found within the musical domain in autism. High-functioning children with autism, together with age- and intelligence-matched controls, participated in three experiments testing pitch memory, labelling and chord disembedding. The findings from experiment 1 showed enhanced pitch memory and labelling in the autism group. In experiment 2, when subjects were pre-exposed to labelled individual tones, superior chord segmentation was also found. However, in experiment 3, when disembedding performance was less reliant on pitch memory, no group differences emerged and the children with autism, like controls, perceived musical chords holistically. These findings indicate that pitch memory and labelling is superior in autism and can facilitate performance on musical disembedding tasks. However, when task performance does not rely on long-term pitch memory, autistic children, like controls, succumb to the Gestalt qualities of chords.

  6. Timing matters: The processing of pitch relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeise

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms, impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone of a pair higher than pitch of 1st tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs. We measured the Mismatch Negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations to 2nd tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone lower. A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms. In the Long Gap condition the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms, but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms. Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing.

  7. ACCENT-based web calculators to predict recurrence and overall survival in stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Lindsay A; Grothey, Axel; Xue, Yuan; Saltz, Leonard B; André, Thierry; Twelves, Chris; Labianca, Roberto; Allegra, Carmen J; Alberts, Steven R; Loprinzi, Charles L; Yothers, Greg; Sargent, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    Current prognostic tools in colon cancer use relatively few patient characteristics. We constructed and validated clinical calculators for overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) for stage III colon cancer and compared their performance against an existing tool (Numeracy) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) version 7 staging. Data from 15936 stage III patients accrued to phase III clinical trials since 1989 were used to construct Cox models for TTR and OS. Variables included age, sex, race, body mass index, performance status, tumor grade, tumor stage, ratio of positive lymph nodes to nodes examined, number and location of primary tumors, and adjuvant treatment (fluoropyrimidine single agent or in combination). Missing data were imputed, and final models internally validated for optimism-corrected calibration and discrimination and compared with AJCC. External validation and comparisons against Numeracy were performed using stage III patients from NSABP trial C-08. All statistical tests were two-sided. All variables were statistically and clinically significant for OS prediction, while age and race did not predict TTR. No meaningful interactions existed. Models for OS and TTR were well calibrated and associated with C-indices of 0.66 and 0.65, respectively, compared with C-indices of 0.58 and 0.59 for AJCC. These tools, available online, better predicted patient outcomes than Numeracy, both overall and within patient subgroups, in external validation. The proposed ACCENT calculators are internally and externally valid, better discriminate patient risk than AJCC version 7 staging, and better predict patient outcomes than Numeracy. These tools have replaced Numeracy for online clinical use and will aid prognostication and patient/physician communication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  9. Perceptual Accent Rating and Attribution in Psychogenic FAS : Some Further Evidence Challenging Whitaker's Operational Definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, Stefanie; Verhoeven, Jo; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Mariën, Peter; Jonkers, Roel; Mavroudakis, Nicolas; Paquier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old, non-aphasic, right-handed, and polyglot (L1: French, L2: Dutch, and L3: English) woman with a 12-year history of addiction to opiates and psychoactive substances, and clear psychiatric problems, presented with a foreign accent of sudden onset in L1. Speech evolved toward a mostly

  10. Stronger Accent Following a Stroke: The Case of a Trilingual with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II

    2011-01-01

    This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English. Recordings…

  11. International Students' Accented English-Communication Difficulties and Developed Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunjae; Klieve, Helen; Tsurutani, Chiharu; Harte, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to explore the communication challenges caused by accented English along with strategies of international students in the Australian context. A quantitative approach was employed in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the linguistic experience of the students. Participants comprised 182…

  12. Neural Correlates of Infant Accent Discrimination: An fNIRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Egorova, Natalia; Gervain, Judit; Filippin, Luca; Cabrol, Dominique; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of infant discrimination of very similar linguistic varieties (Quebecois and Parisian French) using functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy. In line with previous behavioral and electrophysiological data, there was no evidence that 3-month-olds discriminated the two regional accents, whereas…

  13. Age Matters, and so May Raters: Rater Differences in the Assessment of Foreign Accents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Becky H.; Jun, Sun-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research on the age of learning effect on second language learners' foreign accents utilizes human judgments to determine speech production outcomes. Inferences drawn from analyses of these ratings are then used to inform theories. The present study focuses on rater differences in the age of learning effect research. Three groups of raters who…

  14. The Effect of Vocal Training Methods on Improving Turkish Accent Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycan, Kivanc; Evren, Gul Fahriye

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Despite analyses of how vocal training methods can correct or improve Turkish-language accent defects, for most voice educators, the most important methods continue to be breathe management control and correct vocalization exercises. We therefore sought to demonstrate the relationship of song lyrics to breathe control, accent…

  15. Effects of Strength of Accent on an L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.; Papageorgiou, Spiros; French, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study which aimed to determine the effect of strength of accent on listening comprehension of interactive lectures. Test takers (N = 21,726) listened to an interactive lecture given by one of nine speakers and responded to six comprehension items. The test taker responses were analyzed with the Rasch computer program…

  16. Effects of regiolects on the perception of developmental foreign accent syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Wim; Neimeijer, Silke; Mariën, Peter

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a relatively rare speech motor disorder in which the pro- nunciation of an affected speaker is perceived as distinctly foreign by listeners of the same language community. Because of various close semiological resemblances with apraxia of speech, FAS has been

  17. The role of planum temporale in processing accent variation in spoken language comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, P.M.; Noordzij, M.L.; Hagoort, P.

    2012-01-01

    A repetition–suppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variation—speaker and accent—during spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and

  18. How To Speak Standard American English without a Foreign Accent. Irish Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catran, Jack

    This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Irish immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…

  19. How To Speak Standard American English without a Foreign Accent. Chinese Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catran, Jack

    This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Chinese immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…

  20. How To Speak Standard American English without a Foreign Accent. Japanese Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catran, Jack

    This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Japanese immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…

  1. How To Speak Standard American English without a Foreign Accent. Italian Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catran, Jack

    This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Italian immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…

  2. How To Speak Standard American English without a Foreign Accent. Scandinavian Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catran, Jack

    This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Swedish and Norwegian immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's…

  3. How To Speak Standard American English without a Foreign Accent. Korean Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catran, Jack

    This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Korean immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…

  4. Visual Enhancement of Illusory Phenomenal Accents in Non-Isochronous Auditory Rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huang Su

    Full Text Available Musical rhythms encompass temporal patterns that often yield regular metrical accents (e.g., a beat. There have been mixed results regarding perception as a function of metrical saliency, namely, whether sensitivity to a deviant was greater in metrically stronger or weaker positions. Besides, effects of metrical position have not been examined in non-isochronous rhythms, or with respect to multisensory influences. This study was concerned with two main issues: (1 In non-isochronous auditory rhythms with clear metrical accents, how would sensitivity to a deviant be modulated by metrical positions? (2 Would the effects be enhanced by multisensory information? Participants listened to strongly metrical rhythms with or without watching a point-light figure dance to the rhythm in the same meter, and detected a slight loudness increment. Both conditions were presented with or without an auditory interference that served to impair auditory metrical perception. Sensitivity to a deviant was found greater in weak beat than in strong beat positions, consistent with the Predictive Coding hypothesis and the idea of metrically induced illusory phenomenal accents. The visual rhythm of dance hindered auditory detection, but more so when the latter was itself less impaired. This pattern suggested that the visual and auditory rhythms were perceptually integrated to reinforce metrical accentuation, yielding more illusory phenomenal accents and thus lower sensitivity to deviants, in a manner consistent with the principle of inverse effectiveness. Results were discussed in the predictive framework for multisensory rhythms involving observed movements and possible mediation of the motor system.

  5. Instructor Accents in Online Education and Their Effect on Learning and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, C. A.; Khan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Reductions in perceptual fluency have been shown to negatively impact attitudes towards learning material, but not learning itself. The current study extends this work to spoken presentations and examines whether the presence of a foreign accent negatively affects learners' experience in an online learning environment. Results indicate that the…

  6. The Influence of Semantic Context on the Perception of Spanish-Accented American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Alison; Akhund, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine (a) the effect of semantic context on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility of Spanish-accented American English (AE) as judged by monolingual AE listeners and (b) the interaction of semantic context and accentedness on comprehensibility and intelligibility. Method: Twenty adult native…

  7. Second Language Accent and Pronunciation Teaching: A Research-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical studies are essential to improving our understanding of the relationship between accent and pronunciation teaching. However, the study of pronunciation has been marginalized within the field of applied linguistics. As a result, teachers are often left to rely on their own intuitions with little direction. Although some instructors can…

  8. The Teaching and Learning of Spelling in the Spanish Heritage Language Classroom: Mastering Written Accent Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrie, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    Spanish spelling, especially the use of written accent marks, is a major stumbling block for Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners (Carreira 2002). In fact, Mikulski (2006) found that most SHL learners ranked bettering their spelling and grammar as a very important learning goal. Despite its importance in literacy development and its perceived…

  9. Perceptual Accent Rating and Attribution in Psychogenic FAS: Some Further Evidence Challenging Whitaker’s Operational Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, Stefanie; Verhoeven, Jo; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Mariën, Peter; Jonkers, Roel; Mavroudakis, Nicolas; Paquier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old, non-aphasic, right-handed, and polyglot (L1: French, L2: Dutch, and L3: English) woman with a 12-year history of addiction to opiates and psychoactive substances, and clear psychiatric problems, presented with a foreign accent of sudden onset in L1. Speech evolved toward a mostly fluent output, despite a stutter-like behavior and a marked grammatical output disorder. The psychogenic etiology of the accent foreignness was construed based on the patient’s complex medical history and psychodiagnostic, neuropsychological, and neurolinguistic assessments. The presence of a foreign accent was affirmed by a perceptual accent rating and attribution experiment. It is argued that this patient provides additional evidence demonstrating the outdatedness of Whitaker’s (1982) definition of foreign accent syndrome, as only one of the four operational criteria was unequivocally applicable to our patient: her accent foreignness was not only recognized by her relatives and the medical staff but also by a group of native French-speaking laymen. However, our patient defied the three remaining criteria, as central nervous system damage could not conclusively be demonstrated, psychodiagnostic assessment raised the hypothesis of a conversion disorder, and the patient was a polyglot whose newly gained accent was associated with a range of foreign languages, which exceeded the ones she spoke. PMID:26973488

  10. Perceptual accent rating and attribution in psychogenic FAS: some further evidence challenging Whitaker’s operational definition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eKeulen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old, non-aphasic, right-handed, and polyglot (L1: French, L2: Dutch, L3: English woman with a 12 year history of addiction to opiates and psychoactive substances, and clear psychiatric problems, presented with a foreign accent of sudden onset in L1. Speech evolved towards a mostly fluent output, despite a stutter-like behavior and a marked grammatical output disorder. The psychogenic etiology of the accent foreignness was construed based upon the patient’s complex medical history, and psychodiagnostic, neuropsychological, and neurolinguistic assessments. The presence of a foreign accent was affirmed by a perceptual accent rating and attribution experiment. It is argued that this patient provides additional evidence demonstrating the outdatedness of Whitaker’s (1982 definition of Foreign Accent Syndrome, as only one of the four operational criteria was unequivocally applicable to our patient: her accent foreignness was not only recognized by her relatives and the medical staff, but also by a group of native French-speaking laymen. However, our patient defied the three remaining criteria, as central nervous system damage could not conclusively be demonstrated, psychodiagnostic assessment raised the hypothesis of a conversion disorder, and the patient was a polyglot whose newly gained accent was associated with a range of foreign languages, which exceeded the ones she spoke.

  11. Perception of contrastive bi-syllabic lexical stress in unaccented and accented words by younger and older listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Yeni-Komshian, Grace H.; Pickett, Erin J.; Fitzgibbons, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the ability of older and younger listeners to perceive contrastive syllable stress in unaccented and Spanish-accented cognate bi-syllabic English words. Younger listeners with normal hearing, older listeners with normal hearing, and older listeners with hearing impairment judged recordings of words that contrasted in stress that conveyed a noun or verb form (e.g., CONduct/conDUCT), using two paradigms differing in the amount of semantic support. The stimuli were spoken by four speakers: one native English speaker and three Spanish-accented speakers (one moderately and two mildly accented). The results indicate that all listeners showed the lowest accuracy scores in responding to the most heavily accented speaker and the highest accuracy in judging the productions of the native English speaker. The two older groups showed lower accuracy in judging contrastive lexical stress than the younger group, especially for verbs produced by the most accented speaker. This general pattern of performance was observed in the two experimental paradigms, although performance was generally lower in the paradigm without semantic support. The findings suggest that age-related difficulty in adjusting to deviations in contrastive bi-syllabic lexical stress produced with a Spanish accent may be an important factor limiting perception of accented English by older people. PMID:27036250

  12. Development of carbon-carbon composites from solvent extracted pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-24

    There are several methods used to fabricate carbon-carbon composites. One used extensively in the fabrication of aerospace components such as rocket nozzles and reentry vehicle nosetips, as well as commercial components for furnace fixturing and glass manufacturing, is the densification of a woven preform with molten pitch, and the subsequent conversion of the pitch to graphite through heat treatment. Two types of pitch are used in this process; coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch. The objective of this program was to determine if a pitch produced by the direct extraction of coal could be used as a substitute for these pitches in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composites. The program involved comparing solvent extracted pitch with currently accepted pitches and rigidizing a carbon-carbon preform with solvent extracted pitch for comparison with carbon-carbon fabricated with currently available pitch.

  13. Phonology competes with syntax: experimental evidence for the interaction of word order and accent placement in the realization of Information Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, F; Alexopoulou, T

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the interaction of phonological and syntactic constraints on the realization of Information Structure in Greek, a free word order language. We use magnitude estimation as our experimental paradigm, which allows us to quantify the influence of a given linguistic constraint on the acceptability of a sentence. We present results from two experiments. In the first experiment, we focus on the interaction of word order and context. In the second experiment, we investigate the additional effect of accent placement and clitic doubling. The results show that word order, in contrast to standard assumptions in the theoretical literature, plays only a secondary role in marking the Information Structure of a sentence. Order preferences are relatively weak and can be overridden by constraints on accent placement and clitic doubling. Our experiments also demonstrate that a null context shows the same preference pattern as an all focus context, indicating that 'default' word order and accent placement (in the absence of context) can be explained in terms of Information Structure. In the theoretical part of this paper, we formalize the interaction of syntactic and phonological constraints on Information Structure. We argue that this interaction is best captured using a notion of grammatical competition, such as the one developed by Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993, Optimality theory: constraint interaction in generative grammar (Technical Report No. 2). Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ; Science 275 (1997) 1604). In particular, we exploit the optimality theoretic concept of constraint ranking to account for the fact that some constraint violations are more serious than others. We extend standard Optimality Theory to obtain a grammar model that predicts not only the optimal (i.e. grammatical) realization of a given input, but also makes predictions about the relative grammaticality of suboptimal structures. This

  14. Pitch Synchronous Segmentation of Speech Signals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pitch Synchronous Segmentation (PSS) that accelerates speech without changing its fundamental frequency method could be applied and evaluated for use at NASA....

  15. Objective correlates of pitch salience using pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Santurette, Sébastien; Wendt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    the frequency region and F 0 , were considered. Pupil size was measured for each condition, while the subjects’ task was to detect the deviants by pressing a response button. The expected trend was that pupil size would increase with decreasing salience. Results for musically trained listeners showed......Although objective correlates of pitch salience have been investigated in several neuroimaging studies, the results remain controversial. In the present study, a novel approach to objectively estimate pitch salience was used. Pupil dilation was measured as an indicator of the required effort...... in performing a pitch discrimination task for complex tones of varying pitch salience. It has been shown that cognitive processing demands of the task can be reflected in the pupil response, whereby pupil size dilates when cognitive load increases. The hypothesis was that pupil size would increase...

  16. The role of training structure in perceptual learning of accented speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Christina Y; Alexander, Jessica E D; Sidaras, Sabrina K; Nygaard, Lynne C

    2016-11-01

    Foreign-accented speech contains multiple sources of variation that listeners learn to accommodate. Extending previous findings showing that exposure to high-variation training facilitates perceptual learning of accented speech, the current study examines to what extent the structure of training materials affects learning. During training, native adult speakers of American English transcribed sentences spoken in English by native Spanish-speaking adults. In Experiment 1, training stimuli were blocked by speaker, sentence, or randomized with respect to speaker and sentence (Variable training). At test, listeners transcribed novel English sentences produced by unfamiliar Spanish-accented speakers. Listeners' transcription accuracy was highest in the Variable condition, suggesting that varying both speaker identity and sentence across training trials enabled listeners to generalize their learning to novel speakers and linguistic content. Experiment 2 assessed the extent to which ordering of training tokens by a single factor, speaker intelligibility, would facilitate speaker-independent accent learning, finding that listeners' test performance did not reliably differ from that in the no-training control condition. Overall, these results suggest that the structure of training exposure, specifically trial-to-trial variation on both speaker's voice and linguistic content, facilitates learning of the systematic properties of accented speech. The current findings suggest a crucial role of training structure in optimizing perceptual learning. Beyond characterizing the types of variation listeners encode in their representations of spoken utterances, theories of spoken language processing should incorporate the role of training structure in learning lawful variation in speech. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Major League Baseball pitch velocity and pitch type associated with risk of ulnar collateral ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Guest, John-Michael; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Jung, Edward K; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-04-01

    The number of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers requiring ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions is increasing. Recent literature has attempted to correlate specific stresses placed on the throwing arm to risk for UCL injury, with limited results. Eighty-three MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction were evaluated. Pitching velocity and percent of pitch type thrown (fastball, curve ball, slider, and change-up) were evaluated 2 years before and after surgery. Data were compared with control pitchers matched for age, position, size, innings pitched, and experience. The evaluation of pitch velocity compared with matched controls found no differences in pre-UCL reconstruction pitch velocities for fastballs (91.5 vs. 91.2 miles per hour [mph], P = .69), curveballs (78.2 vs. 77.9 mph, P = .92), sliders (83.3 vs. 83.5 mph, P = .88), or change-ups (83.9 vs. 83.8 mph, P = .96). When the percentage of pitches thrown was evaluated, UCL reconstructed pitchers pitch significantly more fastballs than controls (46.7% vs. 39.4%, P = .035). This correlated to a 2% increase in risk for UCL injury for every 1% increase in fastballs thrown. Pitching more than 48% fastballs was a significant predictor of UCL injury, because pitchers over this threshold required reconstruction (P = .006). MLB pitchers requiring UCL reconstruction do not pitch at higher velocities than matched controls, and pitch velocity does not appear to be a risk factor for UCL reconstruction. However, MLB pitchers who pitch a high percentage of fastballs may be at increased risk for UCL injury because pitching a higher percent of fastballs appears to be a risk factor for UCL reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Wavelet Scattering on the Pitch Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Lostanlen, Vincent; Mallat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    We present a new representation of harmonic sounds that linearizes the dynamics of pitch and spectral envelope, while remaining stable to deformations in the time-frequency plane. It is an instance of the scattering transform, a generic operator which cascades wavelet convolutions and modulus nonlinearities. It is derived from the pitch spiral, in that convolutions are successively performed in time, log-frequency, and octave index. We give a closed-form approximation of spiral scattering coe...

  19. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively. Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages. This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population, we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of

  20. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  1. Improved Methods for Pitch Synchronous Linear Prediction Analysis of Speech

    OpenAIRE

    劉, 麗清

    2015-01-01

    Linear prediction (LP) analysis has been applied to speech system over the last few decades. LP technique is well-suited for speech analysis due to its ability to model speech production process approximately. Hence LP analysis has been widely used for speech enhancement, low-bit-rate speech coding in cellular telephony, speech recognition, characteristic parameter extraction (vocal tract resonances frequencies, fundamental frequency called pitch) and so on. However, the performance of the co...

  2. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; Nan, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  3. Determination of football pitch locations from video footage and official pitch markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Alison; Hunter, Adam; Brown, Nicholas

    2009-06-01

    The ability to determine a specific location on a football (soccer) pitch from television footage would provide a cost-effective method of obtaining competition-specific information on many professional and international teams. This study presents the accuracy and reliability of a new method of calculating ball location from simulated television coverage and known pitch markings. The coordinates of 99 markers of known location on a football pitch were digitized from video. An intersection point was determined from the equations of two lines that form pitch markings and the relationship from this point to other known pitch coordinates was calculated using a curve-fitting based method. Average error between known and reconstructed measures was 0.21 m for pitch width and 0.11 m for pitch length from a view simulating television coverage. Inter- and intra-rater reliability analyses showed researchers could consistently reconstruct pitch locations to within less than half a metre. The accuracy and reliability of this method will be sufficient for most practical uses in an applied sport environment, although the level of accuracy required will depend on the specific application. This method could be applied to other sports to determine specific locations on a pitch or court or to improve current competition analysis systems.

  4. Perceptual Pitch Deficits Coexist with Pitch Production Difficulties in Music but Not Mandarin Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-xia eYang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics. To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, 8 amusics, 8 tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  5. Familiarity and preference for pitch probability profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Anja-Xiaoxing; Collett, Meghan J; Troje, Niko F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2015-05-01

    We investigated familiarity and preference judgments of participants toward a novel musical system. We exposed participants to tone sequences generated from a novel pitch probability profile. Afterward, we either asked participants to identify more familiar or we asked participants to identify preferred tone sequences in a two-alternative forced-choice task. The task paired a tone sequence generated from the pitch probability profile they had been exposed to and a tone sequence generated from another pitch probability profile at three levels of distinctiveness. We found that participants identified tone sequences as more familiar if they were generated from the same pitch probability profile which they had been exposed to. However, participants did not prefer these tone sequences. We interpret this relationship between familiarity and preference to be consistent with an inverted U-shaped relationship between knowledge and affect. The fact that participants identified tone sequences as even more familiar if they were generated from the more distinctive (caricatured) version of the pitch probability profile which they had been exposed to suggests that the statistical learning of the pitch probability profile is involved in gaining of musical knowledge.

  6. Characterization of pitches by liquid chromatography using cellulose 3,5-dinitrobenzoate as the packing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K.; Judo, R.; Ota, E. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-08-01

    Characterization of coal tar, petroleum and PVC pitches by a liquid chromatography using cellulose 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (DNB-cellulose) as the packing material was investigated. Separation mechanism based on charge-transfer interaction between the dinitrobenzoyl group and polyaromatic compounds was expected to be useful for separation of the constituents of the pitches. First, 26 model polyaromatic compounds were tested to examine the characteristic feature of the packing material by liquid chromatography. The compounds were found to be classified roughly into four groups with different retention volume, principally according to the number of condensed rings. The nonplanar structure and aliphatic side chain of the polyaromatic compounds also affected the separation behavior. Both benzene soluble-hexane soluble and benzene soluble-hexane insoluble fractions of the three pitches were separated on DNB-cellulose. It was found that coal tar pitch contains relatively large amounts of some highly condensed polyaromatic compounds with condensed rings of 4 to 5; petroleum pitch has small amounts of such specific highly condensed polyaromatic compounds, while PVC pitch has large amounts of less condensed polyaromatic compounds and there is no significant amount of highly condensed compound in it. Thus DNB-cellulose was useful as the convenient packing material for liquid chromatography to characterize pitches.

  7. Control and Optimization of a Variable-Pitch Quadrotor with Minimum Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a rapid growth of interest in quadrotors with electric variable-pitch propellers. The control and optimization of such propellers are important factors for improving the flight performance of the vehicles. Therefore, the steady-state identification method to estimate the parameters of the mathematical model of the electric variable-pitch propeller is developed. The steady-state control and optimization scheme with minimum power consumption and the adaptive compensation scheme for the variable-pitch propeller are then proposed, based on which the response performance of the lift force produced by the variable-pitch propeller can be greatly improved by using a cascade compensation scheme. Furthermore, the direct lift-based flight control strategy is presented, which can significantly contribute to the improvement of the flight performance, precisely because the roll, pitch, yaw and vertical channels of the variable-pitch quadrotor are approximately linearized and completely decoupled from each other in this case. The experimental results demonstrate that both the endurance performance and the positioning accuracy of the variable-pitch quadrotor are improved simultaneously by using the proposed method with minimum power consumption.

  8. Study on transient stability of wind turbine with induction generator based on variable pitch control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, B.; Li, H.; Han, L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance and improve the transient stability of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system under the power grid fault, based on typical pitch control strategy of wind turbine, considering the wind turbine system oscillation caused by the drive-train shaft flexibility, Based on Matlab....../Simulink, electromagnetic transient state models of the wind tubine generator system and the pitch control models were presented, and the transient behaviors of the wind turbine genarator system using the typical and the proposed pitch control strategies were analyzed and compared when the power grid was subjected...... to a three-phase short-circuit fault. Also the results were compared with using reactive compensation device. The simulation results show that the proposed pitch control strategy can effectively improve the transient stability of wind turbine generator system....

  9. Study on transient stability of wind turbine with induction generator based on variable pitch control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, B.; Li, H.; Han, L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance and improve the transient stability of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system under the power grid fault, based on typical pitch control strategy of wind turbine, considering the wind turbine system oscillation caused by the drive-train shaft flexibility, Based on Matlab...... to a three-phase short-circuit fault. Also the results were compared with using reactive compensation device. The simulation results show that the proposed pitch control strategy can effectively improve the transient stability of wind turbine generator system......./Simulink, electromagnetic transient state models of the wind tubine generator system and the pitch control models were presented, and the transient behaviors of the wind turbine genarator system using the typical and the proposed pitch control strategies were analyzed and compared when the power grid was subjected...

  10. Compliance effects on dynamically pitching wind turbine airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magstadt, Andrew S.

    The effects of elastic compliance in dynamically pitching wind turbine blades have been investigated. A numerical model guided wind tunnel testing, which used unsteady surface pressure measurements and phase-locked Particle Imaging Velocimetry to gather aerodynamic information. Using a torsionally compliant member, aeroelastic effects on the unsteady aerodynamics were compared against the results from a corresponding rigidly pitching airfoil to isolate the effects of compliance. The novel experimental apparatus and data acquisition techniques developed at the University of Wyoming showed that the presence of compliance can alter flow-field structures and increase dynamic loading. The high sensitivity of this nonlinear system suggests the formation of fluid-structure instabilities in large-scale turbines and demonstrates the potential for aerodynamic control as a means to mitigate adverse loading effects and improve wind turbine efficiency.

  11. Spatial Rack Drives Pitch Configurations: Essence and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadjieva, Emilia; Abadjiev, Valentin; Naganawa, Akihiro

    2018-03-01

    The practical realization of all types of mechanical motions converters is preceded by solving the task of their kinematic synthesis. In this way, the determination of the optimal values of the constant geometrical parameters of the chosen structure of the created mechanical system is achieved. The searched result is a guarantee of the preliminary defined kinematic characteristics of the synthesized transmission and in the first place, to guarantee the law of motions transformation. The kinematic synthesis of mechanical transmissions is based on adequate mathematical modelling of the process of motions transformation and on the object, realizing this transformation. Basic primitives of the mathematical models for synthesis upon a pitch contact point are geometric and kinematic pitch configurations. Their dimensions and mutual position in space are the input parameters for the processes of design and elaboration of the synthesized mechanical device. The study presented here is a brief review of the theory of pitch configurations. It is an independent scientific branch of the spatial gearing theory (theory of hyperboloid gears). On this basis, the essence and content of the corresponding primitives, applicable to the synthesis of spatial rack drives, are defined.

  12. Polyphonic pitch detection and instrument separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Mert; Beauchamp, James W.

    2005-09-01

    An algorithm for polyphonic pitch detection and musical instrument separation is presented. Each instrument is represented as a time-varying harmonic series. Spectral information is obtained from a monaural input signal using a spectral peak tracking method. Fundamental frequencies (F0s) for each time frame are estimated from the spectral data using an Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm with a Gaussian mixture model representing the harmonic series. The method first estimates the most predominant F0, suppresses its series in the input, and then the EM algorithm is run iteratively to estimate each next F0. Collisions between instrument harmonics, which frequently occur, are predicted from the estimated F0s, and the resulting corrupted harmonics are ignored. The amplitudes of these corrupted harmonics are replaced by harmonics taken from a library of spectral envelopes for different instruments, where the spectrum which most closely matches the important characteristics of each extracted spectrum is chosen. Finally, each voice is separately resynthesized by additive synthesis. This algorithm is demonstrated for a trio piece that consists of 3 different instruments.

  13. The efficiency, energy intensity and visual impact of the accent lighting in the retail grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, topics of displaying, presentation, lighting, energy saving and issues related to the environment while selling the fresh food (fruits, vegetable, bakery products, meat are becoming an important matter among traders. However, just bigger companies with transnational capital have devoted their attention to this issue yet. Generally, the energy costs make up 70% of operating costs in retail stores where the cooling system and lighting are the most energy consuming. Accent lighting in modern retails is largely involved in the overall design and atmosphere in shops and plays a crucial role in presenting the goods as well. Using of accent lighting can draw the customer's attention to a specific part of the sales area and achieve the overall harmonization in the store. With the rational using of combination of energy saving and effective accent lighting retailers can achieve not only attractive presentation of displayed products but also appreciable savings in the operation of their stores. It is the only factor that can be exactly measured and controlled. Using a Colour and Lux Meters we found out the intensity and color temperature of accent lighting used in domestic and foreign retail chains for the different kinds of fresh food products. Based on the obtained values we have compiled graphs, which are showing visual comfort. We also identified different types of accent lighting, which we assigned to their impact on emotional involvement of consumers. The starting points were the tests we conducted in simulated laboratory conditions. While searching of a compromise between effective and energy efficient accent lighting we take into consideration consumers' emotional response as well as the annual electricity consumption of different types of light sources. At the end we recommend options for energy-efficient, effective and spectacular lighting while using the optimal number of light sources and their logical organization

  14. Pitch-verticality and pitch-size cross-modal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on cross-modal matching between pitch and sound source localization on the vertical axis, and pitch and size. In the first study 100 Hz, 200 Hz, 600 Hz, and 800 Hz tones were emitted by a loudspeaker positioned 60 cm above or below to the participant’s ear level. Using...

  15. Processing of pitch and location in human auditory cortex during visual and auditory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Suvi; Ovaska, Noora; Rinne, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between stimulus-dependent and task-dependent activations in human auditory cortex (AC) during pitch and location processing is not well understood. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the processing of task-irrelevant and task-relevant pitch and location during discrimination, n-back, and visual tasks. We tested three hypotheses: (1) According to prevailing auditory models, stimulus-dependent processing of pitch and location should be associated with enhanced activations in distinct areas of the anterior and posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG), respectively. (2) Based on our previous studies, task-dependent activation patterns during discrimination and n-back tasks should be similar when these tasks are performed on sounds varying in pitch or location. (3) Previous studies in humans and animals suggest that pitch and location tasks should enhance activations especially in those areas that also show activation enhancements associated with stimulus-dependent pitch and location processing, respectively. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found stimulus-dependent sensitivity to pitch and location in anterolateral STG and anterior planum temporale (PT), respectively, in line with the view that these features are processed in separate parallel pathways. Further, task-dependent activations during discrimination and n-back tasks were associated with enhanced activations in anterior/posterior STG and posterior STG/inferior parietal lobule (IPL) irrespective of stimulus features. However, direct comparisons between pitch and location tasks performed on identical sounds revealed no significant activation differences. These results suggest that activations during pitch and location tasks are not strongly affected by enhanced stimulus-dependent activations to pitch or location. We also found that activations in PT were strongly modulated by task requirements and that areas in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) showed

  16. GENDER AND ACCENT IN THE PERCEPTION OF ENGLISH SYLLABIC CONSONANTS VS. SCHWA GENDER AND ACCENT IN THE PERCEPTION OF ENGLISH SYLLABIC CONSONANTS VS. SCHWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada de Jesús Arboleda Guirao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study on the perception of English syllabic consonants vs. schwa in word fi nal position at discourse level. Our aim is to fi nd out whether gender and accent play a signifi cant role in the pereception of potential syllabic consonants, a topic which needs further research (see Takefuta & Black 1966; Bloom, Moore-Schoenmakers & Masataka 1999. Three females indentifi ed a schwa/syllabic consonant in 800 words uttered in specifi c contextx by 80 non-rhotic native newsreaders (40m/40f from the BBC Learning English Website. The statistical procedures used were the contingency table analysis and Kendall's correlation coeffi cient. The study reveals that gender and accent do not perform a signifi cant role in the perception of this alternation. They were found not to infl uence the referees' perception, their degree of agreement being quite similar in the categories of each variable. The exploration of the schwa vs. syllabic consonant perception in terms of word position (within an utterance and word emphasis is suggested.This paper reports a study on the perception of English syllabic consonants vs. schwa in word final position at discourse level. Our aim is to find out whether gender and accent play a significant role in the perception of potential syllabic consonants, a topic which needs further research (see Takefuta & Black 1966; Bloom, Moore-Schoenmakers & Masataka 1999. Three females indentified a schwa/syllabic consonant in 800 words uttered in specific contextx by 80 non-rhotic native newsreaders (40m/40f from the BBC Learning English Website. The statistical procedures used were the contingency table analysis and Kendall's correlation coefficient. The study reveals that gender and accent do not perform a significant role in the perception of this alternation. They were found not to influence the referees' perception, their degree of agreement being quite similar in the categories of each variable. The exploration of the

  17. Memory for pitch in congenital amusia: beyond a fine-grained pitch discrimination problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria Jane; Stewart, Lauren

    2010-08-01

    Congenital amusia is a disorder that affects the perception and production of music. While amusia has been associated with deficits in pitch discrimination, several reports suggest that memory deficits also play a role. The present study investigated short-term memory span for pitch-based and verbal information in 14 individuals with amusia and matched controls. Analogous adaptive-tracking procedures were used to generate tone and digit spans using stimuli that exceeded psychophysically measured pitch perception thresholds. Individuals with amusia had significantly smaller tone spans, whereas their digits spans were a similar size to those of controls. An automated operation span task was used to determine working memory capacity. Working memory deficits were seen in only a small subgroup of individuals with amusia. These findings support the existence of a pitch-specific component within short-term memory and suggest that congenital amusia is more than a disorder of fine-grained pitch discrimination.

  18. Method of producing pitch (distillation residue)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, M.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Krysin, V.P.

    1979-08-15

    A method is proposed for producing pitch by mixing hard coal pitch with anthracene fraction and thermal treatment of the mixture. The method is distinguished in that in order to increase the quality of the pitch, the anthracene fraction is subjected to thermal treatment at 250-300/sup 0/ for 10-13 hours in the presence of air. This duration of heat treatment allows one to build up in the anthracene fraction up to 20-24% of material which is not soluble and toluene, without the formation of products which are not soluble in quinoline. The fraction prepared in this manner is inserted into the initial pitch in the ratio 1:2 up to 1:9, the mixture is subject to heat treatment at temperature 360-380/sup 0/ and air consumption 7-91/kgX hours until the production of pitch with softening temperature of 85-90/sup 0/. As the initial raw material we used pitch with softening temperature of 60/sup 0/, content of substances which are not soluble in quinoline, 2.0% which are not soluble and toluene 20.6% and coking residue of 49.2%. Example. 80 grams of anthracene fraction is added to 320 grams of pitch. The anthracene fraction is subjected previously to heat treatment at 300/sup 0/ for 13 hours in the presence of air, supplied in the amount of 9 liters per hour. As a result of the heat treatment of the content of materials which are not soluble in toluence in the anthracene fraction is 24.0%, in quinoline it is 0.1%. The ratio of a pitch and thermally treated anthracene fraction in the mixture was 4:l. The produced mixture was subjected to heat treatment at 360/sup 0/ for 1.5 hours with air supply in the amount of 7 liters/ kilograms/hours. Pitch is produced with the following characteristics: softening temperature 88/sup 0/, content of substances which are not soluble in toluene 32.5%, in quinilone, 6.0%, coking residue, 56.7%. The invention can be used in the chemical coking and petrochemical industry.

  19. Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J

    2016-12-01

    The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The relationship between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, H; Degeest, S; Dhooge, I

    2017-11-01

    Chronic tinnitus is associated with reduced auditory input, which results in changes in the central auditory system. This study aimed to examine the relationship between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. For audiometry, the parameters represented the edge frequency of hearing loss, the frequency of maximum hearing loss and the frequency range of hearing loss. For distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the parameters were the frequency of lowest distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes and the frequency range of reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Sixty-seven patients (45 males, 22 females) with subjective chronic tinnitus, aged 18 to 73 years, were included. No correlation was found between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. However, tinnitus pitch fell mostly within the frequency range of hearing loss. The current study seems to confirm the relationship between tinnitus pitch and the frequency range of hearing loss, thus supporting the homeostatic plasticity model.

  1. Pitching effects of buoyancy during four competitive swimming strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Harrison, Simon M; Mason, Bruce R; Pease, David L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pitching effects of buoyancy during all competitive swimming strokes--freestyle, backstroke, butterfly, and breaststroke. Laser body scans of national-level athletes and synchronized multiangle swimming footage were used in a novel markerless motion capture process to produce three-dimensional biomechanical models of the swimming athletes. The deforming surface meshes were then used to calculate swimmer center-of-mass (CoM) positions, center-of-buoyancy (CoB) positions, pitch buoyancy torques, and sagittal plane moments of inertia (MoI) throughout each stroke cycle. In all cases the mean buoyancy torque tended to raise the legs and lower the head; however, during part of the butterfly stroke the instantaneous buoyancy torque had the opposite effect. The swimming strokes that use opposing arm and leg strokes (freestyle and backstroke) had smaller variations in CoM positions, CoB positions, and buoyancy torques. Strokes with synchronized left-right arm and leg movement (butterfly and breaststroke) had larger variations in buoyancy torques, which impacts the swimmer's ability to maintain a horizontal body pitch for these strokes. The methodology outlined in this paper enables the rotational effects of buoyancy to be better understood by swimmers, allowing better control of streamlined horizontal body positioning during swimming to improve performance.

  2. Relative Salience of Speech Rhythm and Speech Rate on Perceived Foreign Accent in a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskaya, Leona; Ordin, Mikhail; Busa, Maria Grazia

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the independent contribution of speech rate and speech rhythm to perceived foreign accent. To address this issue we used a resynthesis technique that allows neutralizing segmental and tonal idiosyncrasies between identical sentences produced by French learners of English at different proficiency levels and maintaining the idiosyncrasies pertaining to prosodic timing patterns. We created stimuli that (1) preserved the idiosyncrasies in speech rhythm while controlling for the differences in speech rate between the utterances; (2) preserved the idiosyncrasies in speech rate while controlling for the differences in speech rhythm between the utterances; and (3) preserved the idiosyncrasies both in speech rate and speech rhythm. All the stimuli were created in intoned (with imposed intonational contour) and flat (with monotonized, constant F0) conditions. The original and the resynthesized sentences were rated by native speakers of English for degree of foreign accent. We found that both speech rate and speech rhythm influence the degree of perceived foreign accent, but the effect of speech rhythm is larger than that of speech rate. We also found that intonation enhances the perception of fine differences in rhythmic patterns but reduces the perceptual salience of fine differences in speech rate.

  3. Mechanisms underlying accent accommodation in early word learning: evidence for general expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Rachel; Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2015-07-01

    Previous work reveals that toddlers can accommodate a novel accent after hearing it for only a brief period of time. A common assumption is that children, like adults, cope with nonstandard pronunciations by relying on words they know (e.g. 'this person pronounces sock as sack, therefore by black she meant block'). In this paper, we assess whether toddlers might additionally use a general expansion strategy, whereby they simply accept non-standard pronunciations when variability is expected. We exposed a group of 24-month-old English-learning toddlers to variability in indexical cues (very diverse voices from native English talkers), and another to variability in social cues (very diverse-looking silent actors); neither group was familiarized with the target novel accent. At test, both groups succeeded in recognizing a novel word when spoken in the novel accent. Thus, even when no lexical cues are available, variability can prepare young children for non-standard pronunciations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Pitch modelling for the Nguni languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available , French and isiZulu. In the French and English databases, each (acoustic) utterance is accompanied by a laryngograph trace. The laryngograph measures the electrical resis- tance between electrodes on either side of the throat, and therefore provides a... fairly accurate measurement of the fundamental frequency that was actually pro- duced by the speaker. Hence, F0 as determined from the laryngograph data is used as ground truth when comparing the algorithms on the French and English databases. Both...

  5. Pitch-class distribution modulates the statistical learning of atonal chord sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Tatsuya; Yatomi, Yutaka; Yumoto, Masato

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated whether neural responses could demonstrate the statistical learning of chord sequences and how the perception underlying a pitch class can affect the statistical learning of chord sequences. Neuromagnetic responses to two chord sequences of augmented triads that were presented every 0.5s were recorded from fourteen right-handed participants. One sequence was a series of 360 chord triplets, each of which consisted of three chords in the same pitch class (clustered pitch-classes sequences). The other sequence was a series of 360 chord triplets, each of which consisted of three chords in different pitch classes (dispersed pitch-classes sequences). The order of the triplets was constrained by a first-order Markov stochastic model such that a forthcoming triplet was statistically defined by the most recent triplet (80% for one; 20% for the other two). We performed a repeated-measures ANOVA with the peak amplitude and latency of the P1m, N1m and P2m. In the clustered pitch-classes sequences, the P1m responses to the triplets that appeared with higher transitional probability were significantly reduced compared with those with lower transitional probability, whereas no significant result was detected in the dispersed pitch-classes sequences. Neuromagnetic significance was concordant with the results of familiarity interviews conducted after each learning session. The P1m response is a useful index for the statistical learning of chord sequences. Domain-specific perception based on the pitch class may facilitate the domain-general statistical learning of chord sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Pitching Phase on the Vortex Circulation for a Flapping Wing During Stroke Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Matthew; Ringuette, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    We study the effect of pitching-phase on the circulation behavior for the 3D flow structures produced during stroke reversal for a 2-degree-of-freedom flapping wing executing hovering kinematics. Previous research has related the choice in pitching-phase with respect to the wing rotation during stroke reversal (advanced vs. symmetric pitch-timing) to a lift peak preceding stroke reversal. However, results from experiments on the time-varying circulation contributions from the 3D vortex structures across the span produced by both rotation and pitching are lacking. The objective of this research is to quantitatively examine how the spanwise circulation of these structures is affected by the pitching-phase for several reduced pitching frequencies. We employ a scaled wing model in a glycerin-water mixture and measure the time-varying velocity using multiple planes of stereo digital particle image velocimetry. Data-plane positions along the wing span are informed by the unsteady behavior of the 3D vortex structures found in our prior flow visualization movies. Individual vortices are identified to calculate their circulation. This work is aimed at understanding how the behavior of the vortex structures created during stroke reversal vary with key motion parameters. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, Award Number 1336548, supervised by Dr. Ronald Joslin.

  7. Auditory-nerve responses predict pitch attributes related to musical consonance-dissonance for normal and impaired hearinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Heinz, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Human listeners prefer consonant over dissonant musical intervals and the perceived contrast between these classes is reduced with cochlear hearing loss. Population-level activity of normal and impaired model auditory-nerve (AN) fibers was examined to determine (1) if peripheral auditory neurons exhibit correlates of consonance and dissonance and (2) if the reduced perceptual difference between these qualities observed for hearing-impaired listeners can be explained by impaired AN responses. In addition, acoustical correlates of consonance-dissonance were also explored including periodicity and roughness. Among the chromatic pitch combinations of music, consonant intervals∕chords yielded more robust neural pitch-salience magnitudes (determined by harmonicity∕periodicity) than dissonant intervals∕chords. In addition, AN pitch-salience magnitudes correctly predicted the ordering of hierarchical pitch and chordal sonorities described by Western music theory. Cochlear hearing impairment compressed pitch salience estimates between consonant and dissonant pitch relationships. The reduction in contrast of neural responses following cochlear hearing loss may explain the inability of hearing-impaired listeners to distinguish musical qualia as clearly as normal-hearing individuals. Of the neural and acoustic correlates explored, AN pitch salience was the best predictor of behavioral data. Results ultimately show that basic pitch relationships governing music are already present in initial stages of neural processing at the AN level. PMID:21895089

  8. Auditory-nerve responses predict pitch attributes related to musical consonance-dissonance for normal and impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Heinz, Michael G

    2011-09-01

    Human listeners prefer consonant over dissonant musical intervals and the perceived contrast between these classes is reduced with cochlear hearing loss. Population-level activity of normal and impaired model auditory-nerve (AN) fibers was examined to determine (1) if peripheral auditory neurons exhibit correlates of consonance and dissonance and (2) if the reduced perceptual difference between these qualities observed for hearing-impaired listeners can be explained by impaired AN responses. In addition, acoustical correlates of consonance-dissonance were also explored including periodicity and roughness. Among the chromatic pitch combinations of music, consonant intervals/chords yielded more robust neural pitch-salience magnitudes (determined by harmonicity/periodicity) than dissonant intervals/chords. In addition, AN pitch-salience magnitudes correctly predicted the ordering of hierarchical pitch and chordal sonorities described by Western music theory. Cochlear hearing impairment compressed pitch salience estimates between consonant and dissonant pitch relationships. The reduction in contrast of neural responses following cochlear hearing loss may explain the inability of hearing-impaired listeners to distinguish musical qualia as clearly as normal-hearing individuals. Of the neural and acoustic correlates explored, AN pitch salience was the best predictor of behavioral data. Results ultimately show that basic pitch relationships governing music are already present in initial stages of neural processing at the AN level. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  9. Pitch Angle Scattering of Energetic Electrons by Plasmaspheric Hiss Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, M.; Omura, Y.; Summers, D.

    2017-12-01

    We study scattering of energetic electrons in pitch angles and kinetic energies through their resonance with plasmaspheric hiss emissions consisting of many coherent discrete whistler-mode wave packets with rising and falling frequencies [1,2,3]. Using test particle simulations, we evaluate the efficiency of scattering, which depends on the inhomogeneity ratio S of whistler mode wave-particle interaction [4]. The value of S is determined by the wave amplitude, frequency sweep rate, and the gradient of the background magnetic field. We first modulate those parameters and observe variations of pitch angles and kinetic energies of electrons with a single wave under various S values so as to obtain basic understanding. We then include many waves into the system to simulate plasmaspheric hiss emissions. As the wave packets propagate away from the magnetic equator, the nonlinear trapping potential at the resonance velocity is deformed, making a channel of gyrophase for untrapped electrons to cross the resonance velocity, and causing modulations in their pitch angles and kinetic energies. We find efficient scattering of pitch angles and kinetic energies because of coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction, resulting in electron precipitations into the polar atmosphere. We compare the results with the bounce averaged pitch angle diffusion coefficient based on quasi-linear theory, and show that the nonlinear wave model with many coherent packets can cause scattering of resonant electrons much faster than the quasi-linear diffusion process. [1] Summers, D., Omura, Y., Nakamura, S., and C. A. Kletzing (2014), Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 9134-9149. [2] Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562. [3] Nakamura, S., Y

  10. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...

  11. Control Engineering Analysis of Mechanical Pitch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernicke, Olaf; Gauterin, Eckhard; Schulte, Horst; Zajac, Michal

    2014-12-01

    With the help of a local stability analysis the coefficient range of a discrete damper, used for centrifugal forced, mechanical pitch system of small wind turbines (SWT), is gained for equilibrium points. - By a global stability analysis the gained coefficient range can be validated. An appropriate approach by Takagi-Sugeno is presented in the paper.

  12. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  13. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathryn E [Boulder, CO; Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

    2012-05-08

    An adaptive method for adjusting blade pitch angle, and controllers implementing such a method, for achieving higher power coefficients. Average power coefficients are determined for first and second periods of operation for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is larger than for the first, a pitch increment, which may be generated based on the power coefficients, is added (or the sign is retained) to the nominal pitch angle value for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is less than for the first, the pitch increment is subtracted (or the sign is changed). A control signal is generated based on the adapted pitch angle value and sent to blade pitch actuators that act to change the pitch angle of the wind turbine to the new or modified pitch angle setting, and this process is iteratively performed.

  14. Contour identification with pitch and loudness cues using cochlear implants

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xin; Masterson, Megan E.; Wu, Ching-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Different from speech, pitch and loudness cues may or may not co-vary in music. Cochlear implant (CI) users with poor pitch perception may use loudness contour cues more than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Contour identification was tested in CI users and NH listeners; the five-note contours contained either pitch cues alone, loudness cues alone, or both. Results showed that NH listeners' contour identification was better with pitch cues than with loudness cues; CI users performed similarly w...

  15. Fuzzy maintenance costs of a wind turbine pitch control device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of estimation maintenance costs for the case of the pitch controls system of wind farms turbines. Previous investigations have estimated these costs as (traditional “crisp” values, simply ignoring the uncertainty nature of data and information available. This paper purposes an extended version of the estimation model by making use of the Fuzzy Set Theory. The results alert decision-makers to consequent uncertainty of the estimations along with their overall level, thus improving the information given to the mainte-nance support system.

  16. Unsteady Surface Pressure Measurements on a Pitching Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-12

    through 8 Dynamics 7512B amplifiers. The pitching motions of the airfoil were generated by 6°jN\\! 920O/_ a PDP 11/03 computer controlling a Control...acquisition system. The pressure data were used to calculate pressure 2 coefficients which were in turn integrated to compute lift coefficients. Both...Airfoils," AIAA J., Vol. 13, No. 1, 17. Gormont, R.E., "A Mathenatical Model pp 71-79, Jan 1975. of Unsteady Aerodynamics and Radial 4. McAlister, K.W

  17. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. II - Pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The dynamic pitching characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which have a stability curtain are investigated analytically and experimentally. The measured values of moment, lift and cushion pressure are compared with numerical results noting applicability to the pitching motion. The response of ACV to the sinusoidal pitching oscillation of the ground is also studied.

  18. Characterization of Graphitization in Coal Tar and Petroleum Pitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    oven gas," composed mainly of hydrogen and methane. Some organic material still remains in the coal after the coke - oven gas is - driven off. Further...we will be concentrating on coal -tar and petroleum pitch sources (1). Pyrolysis Pyrolyzation, or pitch-to- coke transformation, takes place very...4 Pitch...........................6 Pyrolysis ..................................... 7 Coke ..........................................17 Carbonization

  19. The Effect of Clear Speech on Temporal Metrics of Rhythm in Spanish-Accented Speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Alison; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus; Akhund, Ali; Moeyaert, Mariola

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of temporal rhythm in native American English talkers and Spanish-accented English talkers producing clear (hyperarticulated) speech and typical, conversational-style speech. Five acoustic measures of comparative vocalic and consonantal interval duration ("temporal metrics") were obtained from speech samples of 40 adult men and women (half native and half Spanish-accented talkers). In conversational-style speech, vocalic-based metrics differed significantly between native and Spanish-accented talkers, consistent with phonotactic differences between the two native languages. In clear speech, however, all metric values from the Spanish-accented talkers became more English-like and no longer differed significantly from those observed in the native English talkers. Post-hoc analysis revealed that native English talkers increased the duration of both weak and strong vowels in clear speech, whereas the Spanish-accented talkers increased the duration of strong vowels without changing the duration of weak vowels. Listener ease of understanding, as perceived by monolingual English speakers, was significantly improved in clear- compared with conversational-style speech for all talkers. The acoustic data help to explain the changes that result from use of clear speech in nonnative speakers. Together with the improved listener ease of understanding, these data strongly support the further exploration of clear speech as a clinical tool to improve prosody and hence, interpersonal communication, in nonnative speakers.

  20. Early processing of pitch in the human auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Kimmo; Grimm, Sabine; Mateo-León, Sabina; Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Escera, Carles

    2012-10-01

    Middle-latency auditory evoked potentials, indicating early cortical processing, elicited by pitch changes and repetitions in pure tones and by complex tones with a missing-fundamental pitch were recorded in healthy adults ignoring the sounds while watching a silenced movie. Both for the pure and for the missing-fundamental tones, the Nb middle-latency response was larger for pitch changes (tones preceded by tones of different pitch) than for pitch repetitions (tones preceded by tones of the same pitch). This Nb enhancement was observed even for missing-fundamental tones preceded by repeated tones that had a different missing-fundamental pitch but included all harmonics of the subsequent tone with another missing-fundamental pitch. This finding rules out the possibility that the Nb enhancement in response to a change in missing-fundamental pitch was simply attributable to the activity of auditory cortex neurons responding specifically to the harmonics of missing-fundamental tones. The Nb effect presumably indicates pitch processing at or near the primary auditory cortex, and it was followed by a change-related enhancement of the N1 response, presumably generated in the secondary auditory cortex. This N1 enhancement might have been caused by a mismatch negativity response overlapping with the N1 response. Processing of missing-fundamental pitch was also reflected by the distribution of Nb responses. Tones with a higher missing-fundamental pitch elicited more frontally dominant Nb responses than tones with a lower missing-fundamental pitch. This effect of pitch, not seen for the pure tones, might indicate that the exact location of the Nb generator source in the auditory cortex depends on the missing-fundamental pitch of the eliciting tone. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Attending to pitch information inhibits processing of pitch information: the curious case of amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Robitaille, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-03-04

    In normal listeners, the tonal rules of music guide musical expectancy. In a minority of individuals, known as amusics, the processing of tonality is disordered, which results in severe musical deficits. It has been shown that the tonal rules of music are neurally encoded, but not consciously available in amusics. Previous neurophysiological studies have not explicitly controlled the level of attention in tasks where participants ignored the tonal structure of the stimuli. Here, we test whether access to tonal knowledge can be demonstrated in congenital amusia when attention is controlled. Electric brain responses were recorded while asking participants to detect an individually adjusted near-threshold click in a melody. In half the melodies, a note was inserted that violated the tonal rules of music. In a second task, participants were presented with the same melodies but were required to detect the tonal deviation. Both tasks required sustained attention, thus conscious access to the rules of tonality was manipulated. In the click-detection task, the pitch deviants evoked an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) in both groups. In the pitch-detection task, the pitch deviants evoked an ERAN and P600 in controls but not in amusics. These results indicate that pitch regularities are represented in the cortex of amusics, but are not consciously available. Moreover, performing a pitch-judgment task eliminated the ERAN in amusics, suggesting that attending to pitch information interferes with perception of pitch. We propose that an impaired top-down frontotemporal projection is responsible for this disorder. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353815-10$15.00/0.

  2. The functional origin of the foreign accent: evidence from the syllable-frequency effect in bilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F-Xavier; Goslin, Jeremy; Michel, Violaine; Laganaro, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Individuals who speak more than one language often do so with a foreign accent in their second language. Previous investigations have focused on the acoustic phonetic properties of speech, showing how language-learning history shapes the occurrence of accent. By contrast, little is known about the phonological and phonetic representations that allow the production of each language within one speaker. We investigated this issue via the syllable-frequency effect, thought to index the retrieval of syllable-size representations during speech production. We tested French-Spanish early and late bilinguals in a task in which the materials' syllabic frequency in both languages was manipulated. The frequency of syllables in the nonspoken language affected performance only with late bilinguals. This is interpreted as evidence that syllabic representations are shared across languages in late bilinguals but are separate in early bilinguals. One of the functional origins of foreign accent in late bilinguals may be the retrieval of syllabic representations shared across languages.

  3. Examining differences in nurses' language, accent, and comprehensibility in nursing home settings based on birth origin and country of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura M; Brush, Barbara L; Castle, Nicholas G; Eaton, Michelle; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    As nursing homes turn abroad to fill vacancies, the diverse linguistic backgrounds of nurse hires are creating new challenges in comprehensibility between nurses, providers, and residents. Accents are a natural part of spoken language that may present difficulty even when the parties involved are speaking the same language. We surveyed 1,629 nurses working in 98 nursing homes (NHs) in five U.S. states to determine if and how language difficulties were perceived by nurses and others (e.g. physicians, residents and family members). We found that when participants were asked how often other care team members and residents/families had difficulty understanding them due to language use or accent, foreign born nurses were significantly more likely to report that they experienced difficulty at least some of the time across all groups. This study supports an assessment of nurses' language, accents, and comprehensibility in these settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here, I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Jarvis (2004) proposed the hypothesis that as in songbirds there are two pathways in humans: one for learning speech (the striatal vocal learning pathway), and one for production of previously learnt speech (the motor pathway). Learning new motor sequences necessary for accurate non-native pronunciation is challenging and I argue that in late learners of a foreign language the vocal learning pathway becomes inactive prematurely. The motor pathway is engaged once again and learners maintain their original native motor patterns for producing speech, resulting in speaking with a foreign accent. Further, I argue that variability in neural activity within vocal motor circuitry generates vocal variability that supports accurate non-native pronunciation. Recent theoretical and experimental work on motor learning suggests that variability in the motor movement is necessary for the development of expertise. I propose that there is little trial-by-trial variability when using the motor pathway. When using the vocal learning pathway variability gradually increases, reflecting an exploratory phase in which learners try out different ways of pronouncing words, before decreasing and stabilizing once the "best" performance has been identified. The hypothesis proposed here could be tested using behavioral interventions that optimize variability and engage the vocal learning pathway for longer, with the prediction that this would allow learners to develop new motor

  5. Estimation of Multiple Pitches in Stereophonic Mixtures using a Codebook-based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Weiss; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2017-01-01

    on the extended invariance principle (EXIP), and a codebook of realistic amplitude vectors. For each fundamental frequency candidate in each of the sources, the amplitude estimates are mapped to entries in the codebook, and the pitch and model order are estimated jointly. The performance of the proposed method......In this paper, a method for multi-pitch estimation of stereophonic mixtures of multiple harmonic signals is presented. The method is based on a signal model which takes the amplitude and delay panning parameters of the sources in a stereophonic mixture into account. Furthermore, the method is based...

  6. Voice pitch influences perceptions of sexual infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R

    2011-02-28

    Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  7. Voice Pitch Influences Perceptions of Sexual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian J.M. O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  8. A perceptual pitch boundary in a non-human primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pitch is an auditory percept critical to the perception of music and speech, and for these harmonic sounds, pitch is closely related to the repetition rate of the acoustic wave. This paper reports a test of the assumption that non-human primates and especially rhesus monkeys perceive the pitch of these harmonic sounds much as humans do. A new procedure was developed to train macaques to discriminate the pitch of harmonic sounds and thereby demonstrate that the lower limit for pitch perception in macaques is close to 30 Hz, as it is in humans. Moreover, when the phases of successive harmonics are alternated to cause a pseudo-doubling of the repetition rate, the lower pitch boundary in macaques decreases substantially, as it does in humans. The results suggest that both species use neural firing times to discriminate pitch, at least for sounds with relatively low repetition rates.

  9. Indian accent text-to-speech system for web browsing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    and the control parameters of the model are varied usually by context-dependent rules. 'Formant' synthesizer is a ... context-dependent rules, suitable for Indian pronunciation and (b) conversion of the generated .... which generates a 'score', depending on the position of the word in the sentence (first or not), whether the ...

  10. From the Cover: Correct tonotopic representation is necessary for complex pitch perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Bernstein, Joshua G. W.; Penagos, Hector

    2004-02-01

    The ability to extract a pitch from complex harmonic sounds, such as human speech, animal vocalizations, and musical instruments, is a fundamental attribute of hearing. Some theories of pitch rely on the frequency-to-place mapping, or tonotopy, in the inner ear (cochlea), but most current models are based solely on the relative timing of spikes in the auditory nerve. So far, it has proved to be difficult to distinguish between these two possible representations, primarily because temporal and place information usually covary in the cochlea. In this study, "transposed stimuli" were used to dissociate temporal from place information. By presenting the temporal information of low-frequency sinusoids to locations in the cochlea tuned to high frequencies, we found that human subjects displayed poor pitch perception for single tones. More importantly, none of the subjects was able to extract the fundamental frequency from multiple low-frequency harmonics presented to high-frequency regions of the cochlea. The experiments demonstrate that tonotopic representation is crucial to complex pitch perception and provide a new tool in the search for the neural basis of pitch.

  11. Control of Pitching Airfoil Aerodynamics by Vorticity Flux Modification using Active Bleed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari

    2014-11-01

    Distributed active bleed driven by pressure differences across a pitching airfoil is used to regulate the vorticity flux over the airfoil's surface and thereby to control aerodynamic loads in wind tunnel experiments. The range of pitch angles is varied beyond the static stall margin of the 2-D VR-7 airfoil at reduced pitching rates up to k = 0.42. Bleed is regulated dynamically using piezoelectric louvers between the model's pressure side near the trailing edge and the suction surface near the leading edge. The time-dependent evolution of vorticity concentrations over the airfoil and in the wake during the pitch cycle is investigated using high-speed PIV and the aerodynamic forces and moments are measured using integrated load cells. The timing of the dynamic stall vorticity flux into the near wake and its effect on the flow field are analyzed in the presence and absence of bleed using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). It is shown that bleed actuation alters the production, accumulation, and advection of vorticity concentrations near the surface with significant effects on the evolution, and, in particular, the timing of dynamic stall vortices. These changes are manifested by alteration of the lift hysteresis and improvement of pitch stability during the cycle, while maintaining cycle-averaged lift to within 5% of the base flow level with significant implications for improvement of the stability of flexible wings and rotor blades. This work is supported by the Rotorcraft Center (VLRCOE) at Georgia Tech.

  12. Beat processing is pre-attentive for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur L Bouwer

    Full Text Available The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN, an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespective of whether subjects are attending to the stimuli. Both musicians and non-musicians were presented with a varying rhythm with a clear accent structure in which occasionally a sound was omitted. We compared the MMN response to the omission of identical sounds in different metrical positions. Most importantly, we found that omissions in strong metrical positions, on the beat, elicited higher amplitude MMN responses than omissions in weak metrical positions, not on the beat. This suggests that the detection of a beat is pre-attentive when highly beat inducing stimuli are used. No effects of musical expertise were found. Our results suggest that for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents beat processing does not require attention or musical expertise. In addition, we discuss how the use of acoustically varying stimuli may influence ERP results when studying beat processing.

  13. GENDER AND ACCENT IN THE PERCEPTION OF ENGLISH SYLLABIC CONSONANTS VS. SCHWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada de Jesús Arboleda Guirao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study on the perception of English syllabic consonants vs. schwa in word final position at discourse level. Our aim is to find out whether gender and accent play a significant role in the perception of potential syllabic consonants, a topic which needs further research (see Takefuta & Black 1966; Bloom, Moore-Schoenmakers & Masataka 1999. Three females indentified a schwa/syllabic consonant in 800 words uttered in specific contextx by 80 non-rhotic native newsreaders (40m/40f from the BBC Learning English Website. The statistical procedures used were the contingency table analysis and Kendall's correlation coefficient. The study reveals that gender and accent do not perform a significant role in the perception of this alternation. They were found not to influence the referees' perception, their degree of agreement being quite similar in the categories of each variable. The exploration of the schwa vs. syllabic consonant perception in terms of word position (within an utterance and word emphasis is suggested.

  14. [Factors influencing the pitch and loudness of tinnitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, S; Asoh, S; Watanabe, Y

    1992-11-01

    Pitch match and loudness balance tests were given to 397 cases with tinnitus. The factors which influenced tinnitus pitch and loudness were analyzed statistically from the clinical point of view. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Onomatopoeia of tinnitus, either [Keeeen] or [Jeeeen], were observed in a majority of cases. 2) Significantly sharp sounding onomatopoeia such as [Keeeen] or [Meeeen] had high pitches, over 4kHz, and dull sounds like [Gooooh] or [Buuuun] had low pitches, below 500Hz. 3) Acute stage tinnitus, within one month of onset, had a significantly depressed pitch and walked loudness, above 6dB. 4) The pitches observed in cases with Meniere's disease and chronic otitis media were distributed evenly from low frequencies to high. In other cases, especially presbyacusis and noise deafness, high pitch tinnitus (above 4kHz) was frequently noted. The loudness of tinnitus without hearing loss was significantly greater than in other diseases. 5) As a rule the more deteriorated the hearing level was, the lower the frequency of the pitch, and the smaller the loudness in tinnitus. 6) A high pitch of tinnitus nearly corresponded with hearing type, that is, the pitch of tinnitus was also in accordance with the disturbed frequency in the hearing threshold.

  15. DAC with LQR Control Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammad; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    and 5MW National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind turbine is used in this research. We have shown comparison of results relating to pitch angle, drive train torsion and generator speed obtained by a PID controller and DAC. Simulations are performed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results are compared...... with PID controller for a step wind and also for turbulent wind disturbance. DAC method shows better regulation in output power and less fatigue of drive train in the presence of pitch actuator limits. Proposed controller tested on wind turbine shows better robustness and stability as compared to PID......Disturbance Accommodation Control (DAC) is used to model and simulate a system with known disturbance waveform. This paper presents a control scheme to mitigate the effect of disturbances by using collective pitch control for the aboverated wind speed (Region III) for a variable speed wind turbine...

  16. Absolute Pitch in Oral Transmission of Folk Tunes as Constrained Random Walks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Frieler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, I would like to add a few of our own, still unpublished, empirical observations concerning the possible role of absolute pitch memory (APM in the oral transmission of folksongs. This empirical data poses some questions about the likelihood of the observed inter-recording tonic pitch consistency of Olthof, Janssen & Honing (2015 and how these observations could come about. Based on simulations of absolute pitch class of tonics during oral transmission of folk songs, I argue that the interplay of melodic range and vocal range might actually be the main reason for the observed non-uniformity, in contrast to the conclusions presented in Olthof et al. (2015. However, this does not invalidate the therein-presented evidence, but makes the case more puzzling, consequently calling for more empirical research on the interaction of melodic and vocal range and latent APM as well as for more detailed modeling of oral transmission of folk songs.

  17. Individual Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    the rated wind speed conditions. Three pitch angles are adjusted separately according to the generator output power and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The IPC strategy scheme is proposed and the individual pitch controller is designed. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable......Grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations during continuous operation due to wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects. This paper presents an individual pitch control (IPC) strategy to mitigate the wind turbine power fluctuation at both above and below...... Energy Laboratory) 1.5MW upwind reference wind turbine model. The simulation results are presented and discussed to show the validity of the proposed control method....

  18. Tuning the pitch of a wine glass by playing with the liquid inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Matthieu; Guirao, Boris; Fort, Emmanuel

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that the pitch of the sound produced by an excited glass shell can be tuned by adding some liquid in it. In this paper, it will be proved that the distribution of the liquid inside the shell plays a crucial role in this frequency shift. Thus it provides another way to tune the pitch of the sound by modifying the liquid distribution inside the glass. Both adding a cylinder in the liquid or rotating it results in a pitch lowering. A simple model based on energy conservation is in good agreement with the measured experimental results. This paper assumes some basic knowledge about mechanics and hydrodynamics. It addresses instructors of physics at the undergraduate and advanced secondary school level as well as their students.

  19. Pitch angle resolved measurements of escaping charged fusion products in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the flux of charged fusion products escaping from the TFTR plasma have been made with a new type of detector which can resolve the particle flux vs. pitch angle, energy, and time. The design of this detector is described, and results from the 1987 TFTR run are presented. These results are roughly consistent with predictions from a simple first-orbit particle loss model with respect to the pitch angle, energy, time, and plasma current dependence of the signals. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Kinematics of a vertical axis wind turbine with a variable pitch angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Mateusz; Starosta, Roman; Fritzkowski, Pawel

    2018-01-01

    A computational model for the kinematics of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented. A H-type rotor turbine with a controlled pitch angle is considered. The aim of this solution is to improve the VAWT productivity. The discussed method is related to a narrow computational branch based on the Blade Element Momentum theory (BEM theory). The paper can be regarded as a theoretical basis and an introduction to further studies with the application of BEM. The obtained torque values show the main advantage of using the variable pitch angle.

  1. Finger forces in fastball baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi; Nasu, Daiki; Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2017-08-01

    Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball. Data were collected from 11 pitchers who placed the fingertip of their index, middle, ring, or thumb on the transducer, and threw four-seam fastballs to a target cage from a flat mound. For the index and middle fingers, resultant ball reaction force exhibited a bimodal pattern with initial and second peaks at 38-39ms and 6-7ms before ball release, and their amplitudes were around 97N each. The ring finger and thumb produced single-peak forces of approximately 50 and 83N, respectively. Shear forces for the index and middle fingers formed distinct peak at 4-5ms before release, and the peaks summed to 102N; a kinetic source for backspin on the ball. An additional experiment with submaximal pitching effort showed a linear relationship of peak forces with ball velocity. The peak ball reaction force for fastballs exceeded 80% of maximum finger strength measured, suggesting that strengthening of the distal muscles is important both for enhancing performance and for avoiding injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. How to pitch a brilliant idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbach, Kimberly D

    2003-09-01

    Coming up with creative ideas is easy; selling them to strangers is hard. Entrepreneurs, sales executives, and marketing managers often go to great lengths to demonstrate how their new concepts are practical and profitable--only to be rejected by corporate decision makers who don't seem to understand the value of the ideas. Why does this happen? Having studied Hollywood executives who assess screenplay pitches, the author says the person on the receiving end--the "catcher"--tends to gauge the pitcher's creativity as well as the proposal itself. An impression of the pitcher's ability to come up with workable ideas can quickly and permanently overshadow the catcher's feelings about an idea's worth. To determine whether these observations apply to business settings beyond Hollywood, the author attended product design, marketing, and venture-capital pitch sessions and conducted interviews with executives responsible for judging new ideas. The results in those environments were similar to her observations in Hollywood, she says. Catchers subconsciously categorize successful pitchers as showrunners (smooth and professional), artists (quirky and unpolished), or neophytes (inexperienced and naive). The research also reveals that catchers tend to respond well when they believe they are participating in an idea's development. As Oscar-winning writer, director, and producer Oliver Stone puts it, screen-writers pitching an idea should "pull back and project what he needs onto your idea in order to make the story whole for him." To become a successful pitcher, portray yourself as one of the three creative types and engage your catchers in the creative process. By finding ways to give your catchers a chance to shine, you sell yourself as a likable collaborator.

  3. Tiles CMUT dies with pitch uniformity

    OpenAIRE

    Sudol, W.; Dirksen, P.; Henneken, V.A.; Dekker, R.; Louwerse, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    A large aperture CMUT transducer array is formed of a plurality of adjacently located tiles of CMUT cells. The adjacent edges of the tiles are formed by an anisotropic etch process, preferably a deep reactive ion etching process which is capable of cutting through the die and its substrate while maintaining vertical edges in close proximity to the CMUT cells at the edge of the tile. This enables the CMUT cells of continuous rows or columns to exhibit a constant pitch over multiple CMUT cell t...

  4. Left-hemisphere activation is associated with enhanced vocal pitch error detection in musicians with absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A; Larson, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The ability to process auditory feedback for vocal pitch control is crucial during speaking and singing. Previous studies have suggested that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) develop specialized left-hemisphere mechanisms for pitch processing. The present study adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm combined with ERP recordings to test the hypothesis whether the neural mechanisms of the left-hemisphere enhance vocal pitch error detection and control in AP musicians compared with relative pitch (RP) musicians and non-musicians (NM). Results showed a stronger N1 response to pitch-shifted voice feedback in the right-hemisphere for both AP and RP musicians compared with the NM group. However, the left-hemisphere P2 component activation was greater in AP and RP musicians compared with NMs and also for the AP compared with RP musicians. The NM group was slower in generating compensatory vocal reactions to feedback pitch perturbation compared with musicians, and they failed to re-adjust their vocal pitch after the feedback perturbation was removed. These findings suggest that in the earlier stages of cortical neural processing, the right hemisphere is more active in musicians for detecting pitch changes in voice feedback. In the later stages, the left-hemisphere is more active during the processing of auditory feedback for vocal motor control and seems to involve specialized mechanisms that facilitate pitch processing in the AP compared with RP musicians. These findings indicate that the left hemisphere mechanisms of AP ability are associated with improved auditory feedback pitch processing during vocal pitch control in tasks such as speaking or singing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceptual Accent Rating and Attribution in Psychogenic FAS : Some Further Evidence Challenging Whitaker’s Operational Definition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, Stefanie; Verhoeven, Jo; Bastiaanse, Yvonne; Marien, P.; Jonkers, Roel; Mavroudakis, Nicolas; Paquier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old, non-aphasic, right-handed, and polyglot (L1: French, L2: Dutch, and L3: English) woman with a 12-year history of addiction to opiates and psychoactive substances, and clear psychiatric problems, presented with a foreign accent of sudden onset in L1. Speech evolved toward a mostly

  6. Perceived Foreign Accent in First Language Attrition and Second Language Acquisition: The Impact of Age of Acquisition and Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger; Schmid, Monika S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates constraints on ultimate attainment in second language (L2) pronunciation in a direct comparison of perceived foreign accent of 40 late L2 learners and 40 late first language (L1) attriters of German. Both groups were compared with 20 predominantly monolingual controls. Contrasting participants who acquired the target…

  7. Perceived foreign accent in first language attrition and second language acquisition : The impact of age of acquisition and bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopp, Holger; Schmid, Monika S.

    This study investigates constraints on ultimate attainment in second language (L2) pronunciation in a direct comparison of perceived foreign accent of 40 late L2 learners and 40 late first language (L1) attriters of German. Both groups were compared with 20 predominantly monolingual controls.

  8. The Relevance of Accent in L2 Pronunciation Instruction: A Matter of Teaching Cultures or Language Ideologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkert, Anika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a critical discussion of the role of native and foreign accents in L2 pronunciation teaching. Several studies concluded that classroom practices of grammar instruction are strongly influenced by teaching cultures. We will examine whether this is also the case for pronunciation teaching. While the CEFR…

  9. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  10. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception...... was linked to a specific deficit, the auditory profiles of the individual listeners were characterized using measures of loudness perception, cognitive ability, binaural processing, temporal fine structure processing, and frequency selectivity, in addition to common audiometric measures. Two of the listeners...... sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural...

  11. Robust Pitch Estimation Using an Optimal Filter on Frequency Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch of such sig......In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch...... against different noise situations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed MVDR method outperforms the state-of-the-art weighted least squares (WLS) pitch estimator in colored noise and has robust pitch estimates against missing harmonics in some time-frames....

  12. Target pitch angle for the microburst escape maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Recovery performance of a commuter-type aircraft in a microburst encounter is studied using a constant-pitch-attitude strategy and flight path optimization. Results obtained indicate that the pitch attitude which maximized climb rate in a wind shear condition is strongly dependent on whether the aircraft is subjected to a horizontal shear or a downdraft. The pitch attitude which maximizes ground clearance depends on the altitude of the encounter, the strength of the microburst, and the initial position of the aircraft with respect to the downburst core. Best results are obtained at relatively low target pitch angles, in severe wind shear encounters at very low altitudes. A technique for maximizing ground clearance involves maintaining a low pitch attitude early in the encounter, followed by a gradual pitch-up that ceases when the wind shear has been excited.

  13. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. III - Coupling motion of heaving and pitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The paper presents the dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which has two degrees of freedom, i.e., heaving and pitching motion. The experiments are carried out for an ACV model, noting that the experimental results agree considerably with the analytical values. Furthermore, the response characteristics of ACV induced by the ground board oscillations of various modes are also investigated.

  14. Wake visualization of a heaving and pitching foil in a soap film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Lentink, D.

    2007-01-01

    Many fish depend primarily on their tail beat for propulsion. Such a tail is commonly modeled as a two-dimensional flapping foil. Here we demonstrate a novel experimental setup of such a foil that heaves and pitches in a soap film. The vortical flow field generated by the foil correlates with

  15. Pitch Motion Stabilization by Propeller Speed Control Using Statistical Controller Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakatani, Toshihiko; Blanke, Mogens; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes dynamics analysis of a small training boat and a possibility of ship pitch stabilization by control of propeller speed. After upgrading the navigational system of an actual small training boat, in order to identify the model of the ship, the real data collected by sea trials...

  16. Analysis of the Pendular and Pitch Motions of a Driven Three-Dimensional Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, T.; Yoshida, S.; Norwood, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional pendulum, modelled after the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory's suspended optics, was constructed to investigate the pendulum's dynamics due to suspension point motion. In particular, we were interested in studying the pendular-pitch energy coupling. Determination of the pendular's Q value (the quality factor…

  17. Teaching of Intonation Patterns to the Deaf Using the Instantaneous Pitch-Period Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolansky, Ladislav; And Others

    The research was concerned with the experimental use of Model II of the Instantaneous Pitch-Period Indicator (IPPI) with deaf subjects, and with the design and construction of a portable unit. Deaf adults and deaf children participated in training programs designed to develop more effective patterns of speech using the IPPI for visual monitoring…

  18. Cyclic pitch for the control of wind turbine noise amplitude modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    that can model the different aerodynamic and aeroacoustic aspects of the study is presented. Parameters controlling the cyclic pitch are optimized in order to reduce amplitude modulation and/or fatigue load to a minimum. It is shown that such a minimum can be found and that benefit may be achieved...

  19. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzella, Patr?cia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP poss...

  20. Pitch-Responsive Cortical Regions in Congenital Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman-Haignere, Sam V; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; McDermott, Josh H; Kanwisher, Nancy G; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-03-09

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong deficit in music perception thought to reflect an underlying impairment in the perception and memory of pitch. The neural basis of amusic impairments is actively debated. Some prior studies have suggested that amusia stems from impaired connectivity between auditory and frontal cortex. However, it remains possible that impairments in pitch coding within auditory cortex also contribute to the disorder, in part because prior studies have not measured responses from the cortical regions most implicated in pitch perception in normal individuals. We addressed this question by measuring fMRI responses in 11 subjects with amusia and 11 age- and education-matched controls to a stimulus contrast that reliably identifies pitch-responsive regions in normal individuals: harmonic tones versus frequency-matched noise. Our findings demonstrate that amusic individuals with a substantial pitch perception deficit exhibit clusters of pitch-responsive voxels that are comparable in extent, selectivity, and anatomical location to those of control participants. We discuss possible explanations for why amusics might be impaired at perceiving pitch relations despite exhibiting normal fMRI responses to pitch in their auditory cortex: (1) individual neurons within the pitch-responsive region might exhibit abnormal tuning or temporal coding not detectable with fMRI, (2) anatomical tracts that link pitch-responsive regions to other brain areas (e.g., frontal cortex) might be altered, and (3) cortical regions outside of pitch-responsive cortex might be abnormal. The ability to identify pitch-responsive regions in individual amusic subjects will make it possible to ask more precise questions about their role in amusia in future work. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362986-09$15.00/0.

  1. Perception of words and pitch patterns in song and speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerrill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words, pitch and rhythm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the brain activity patterns of six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; as well as the pure musical or speech rhythm.Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and intraparietal sulcus (IPS in processing song and speech. The left IFG was involved in word- and pitch-related processing in speech, the right IFG in processing pitch in song.Furthermore, the IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the activity of IFG and IPS.

  2. Context effects on pitch perception in musicians and nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, E; Naatanen, R; Tervaniemi, M

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that musical context facilitates pitch discrimination. In the present study, we sought to determine whether pitch context and its familiarity might affect brain responses to pitch change even at the preattentive level. Ten musicians and 10 nonmusicians, while...... concentrating on reading a book, were presented with sound stimuli that had an infrequent (p = 15 %) pitch shift of 144 Hz. In the familiar condition, the infrequent third-position deviant changed the mode (major vs. minor) of the five-tone pattern. In the unfamiliar condition, patterns were formed from five...

  3. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-03-13

    Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech.

  5. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S809 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, R.F.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An S809 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20, to +40 {degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord. In general, the unsteady maximum lift coefficient was from 4% to 86% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient, and variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient magnitude was from {minus}83% to 195% relative to steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation to obtain accurate load estimates.

  6. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the LS(1)-0421MOD airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, R.L.; HOffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An LS(1)-0421 MOD airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. In order to study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) pattern was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, and 1.25 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}10{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data was acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For this report, unsteady conditions refer to the model in pitch oscillation. In general, the maximum unsteady lift coefficient was from 10% to 50% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient. Variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient was nearly two times greater than steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation for accurate load estimates.

  7. Endoscopic laryngeal web formation for pitch elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer

    2007-02-01

    Endoscopic laryngeal web formation has been used to elevate the speaking voice, primarily in male to female transsexuals as part of gender reassignment intervention. The goal of this article is to review the literature regarding surgical treatment for pitch elevation and to describe a novel method of laryngeal web formation. The results of this technique are also reported in a series of six patients. All patients were assessed and treated at the St. Michael's Hospital Voice Disorders Clinic, a tertiary referral centre for voice disorders. Pre- and postoperative voice recordings, acoustic analysis, and videostroboscopic examinations were performed in this series. The acoustic data collected included isolated vowel samples, a reading task, and a modified voice range profile. The patients all underwent successful endoscopic web formation with a Gelfoam augmentation technique. The voice results collected at least 6 months after vocal fold web formation demonstrate a dramatic increase in the habitual speaking fundamental frequency. This new modification for endoscopic web formation has been shown to be a successful procedure for permanent elevation of pitch with little or no morbidity.

  8. Representational momentum in memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyd, J J; Kelly, M H; DeKay, M L

    1990-11-01

    When a visual pattern is displayed at successively different orientations such that a rotation or translation is implied, an observer's memory for the final position is displaced forward. This phenomenon of representational momentum shares some similarities with physical momentum. For instance, the amount of memory shift is proportional to the implied velocity of the inducing display; representational momentum is specifically proportional to the final, not the average, velocity; representational momentum follows a continuous stopping function for the first 250 ms or so of the retention interval. In a previous paper (Kelly & Freyd, 1987) we demonstrated a forward memory asymmetry using implied changes in pitch, for subjects without formal musical training. In the current paper we replicate our earlier finding and show that the forward memory asymmetry occurs for subjects with formal musical training as well (Experiment 1). We then show the structural similarity between representational momentum in memory for pitch with previous reports of parametric effects using visual stimuli. We report a velocity effect for auditory momentum (Experiment 2), we demonstrate specifically that the velocity effect depends on the implied acceleration (Experiment 3), and we show that the stopping function for auditory momentum is qualitatively the same as that for visual momentum (Experiment 4). We consider the implications of these results for theories of mental representation.

  9. The influence of music-elicited emotions and relative pitch on absolute pitch memory for familiar melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Levitin's findings that nonmusicians could produce from memory the absolute pitches of self-selected pop songs have been widely cited in the music psychology literature. These findings suggest that latent absolute pitch (AP) memory may be a more widespread trait within the population than traditional AP labelling ability. However, it has been left unclear what factors may facilitate absolute pitch retention for familiar pieces of music. The aim of the present paper was to investigate factors that may contribute to latent AP memory using Levitin's sung production paradigm for AP memory and comparing results to the outcomes of a pitch labelling task, a relative pitch memory test, measures of music-induced emotions, and various measures of participants' musical backgrounds. Our results suggest that relative pitch memory and the quality and degree of music-elicited emotions impact on latent AP memory.

  10. Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Zatorre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory configural learning by training ten human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music. We measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch-interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature of interest. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a two-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed before and after training showed significant learning on the trained stimuli, and generalization to other frequencies and tasks; no learning occurred in an untrained control group. Before training the functional MRI data showed the expected systematic increase in activity in auditory cortices as a function of increasing micromelody pitch-interval size. This function became shallower after training, with the maximal change observed in the right posterior auditory cortex. Global decreases in activity in auditory regions, along with global increases in frontal cortices also occurred after training. Individual variation in learning rate was related to the hemodynamic slope to pitch-interval size, such that those who had a higher sensitivity to pitch-interval variation prior to learning achieved the fastest learning. We conclude that configural auditory learning entails modulation in the response of auditory cortex specifically to the trained stimulus feature. Reduction in blood oxygenation response to increasing pitch-interval size suggests that fewer computational resources, and hence lower neural recruitment, is associated with learning, in accord with models of auditory cortex function, and with data from other modalities.

  11. Enhancement of micro-grid performance during islanding mode using storage batteries and new fuzzy logic pitch angle controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, Rashad M.; Chaouachi, A.; Nagasaka, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Novel fuzzy pitch angle controller is proposed for smoothing wind fluctuation. → Storage batteries are used for performance improve of MG in islanding mode. → Those new techniques are compared with conventional PI pitch angle controller. -- Abstract: Power system deregulation, shortage of transmission capacities and needing to reduce green house gas have led to increase interesting in distributed generations (DGs) especially renewable sources. This study developed a complete model able to analysis and simulates in details the transient dynamic performance of the Micro-Grid (MG) during and subsequent islanding process. Wind speed fluctuations cause high fluctuations in output power of wind turbine which lead to fluctuations of frequency and voltages of the MG during the islanding mode. In this paper a new fuzzy logic pitch angle controller is proposed to smooth the output power of wind turbine to reduce MG frequency and voltage fluctuations during the islanding mode. The proposed fuzzy logic pitch controller is compared with the conventional PI pitch angle controller which usually used for wind turbine power control. Results proved the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy controller in improvement of the MG performance. Also, this paper proposed using storage batteries technique to reduce the frequency deviation and fluctuations originated from wind power solar power fluctuations. Results indicate that the storage batteries technique is superior than fuzzy logic pitch controller in reducing frequency deviation, but with more expensive than the fuzzy controller. All models and controllers are built using Matlab (registered) Simulink (registered) environment.

  12. Dynamic Stability Analysis of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles Using Time-Lagged Aftbody Pitching Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemba, Cole D.; Braun, Robert D.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Clark, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis defines an analytic model for the pitching motion of blunt bodies during atmospheric entry. The proposed model is independent of the pitch damping sum coefficient present in the standard formulation of the equations of motion describing pitch oscillations of a decelerating blunt body, instead using the principle of a time-lagged aftbody moment as the forcing function for oscillation divergence. Four parameters, all with intuitive physical relevance, are introduced to fully define the aftbody moment and the associated time delay. It is shown that the dynamic oscillation responses typical to blunt bodies can be produced using hysteresis of the aftbody moment in place of the pitch damping coefficient. The approach used in this investigation is shown to be useful in understanding the governing physical mechanisms for blunt body dynamic stability and in guiding vehicle and mission design requirements. A validation case study using simulated ballistic range test data is conducted. From this, parameter identification is carried out through the use of a least squares optimizing routine. Results show good agreement with the limited existing literature for the parameters identified, suggesting that the model proposed could be validated by an experimental ballistic range test series. The trajectories produced by the identified parameters were found to match closely those from the MER ballistic range tests for a wide array of initial conditions and can be identified with a reasonable number of ballistic range shots and computational effort.

  13. Pitch link loads reduction of variable speed rotors by variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the pitch link loads of variable speed rotors, variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators are proposed. This isolator utilizes the variation of centrifugal force due to the change of rotor speed to change the tuning port area ratio, which can change the tuning frequency of the isolator. A rotor model including the model of fluidlastic isolator is coupled with a fuselage model to predict the steady responses of the rotor system in forward flight. The aeroelastic analyses indicate that distinct performance improvement in pitch link load control can be achieved by the utilization of variable frequency isolators compared with the constant tuning frequency isolators. The 4/rev (per revolution pitch link load is observed to be reduced by 87.6% compared with the increase of 56.3% by the constant frequency isolator, when the rotor speed is reduced by 16.7%. The isolation ability at different rotor speeds in different flight states is investigated. To achieve overall load reduction within the whole range of rotor speed, the strategy of the variation of tuning frequency is adjusted. The results indicate that the 4/rev pitch link load within the whole rotor speed range is decreased.

  14. Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Giuliano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. ERPs were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.

  15. Auditory deficits in amusia extend beyond poor pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia is a music perception disorder believed to reflect a deficit in fine-grained pitch perception and/or short-term or working memory for pitch. Because most measures of pitch perception include memory and segmentation components, it has been difficult to determine the true extent of pitch processing deficits in amusia. It is also unclear whether pitch deficits persist at frequencies beyond the range of musical pitch. To address these questions, experiments were conducted with amusics and matched controls, manipulating both the stimuli and the task demands. First, we assessed pitch discrimination at low (500Hz and 2000Hz) and high (8000Hz) frequencies using a three-interval forced-choice task. Amusics exhibited deficits even at the highest frequency, which lies beyond the existence region of musical pitch. Next, we assessed the extent to which frequency coding deficits persist in one- and two-interval frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation (AM) detection tasks at 500Hz at slow (f m =4Hz) and fast (f m =20Hz) modulation rates. Amusics still exhibited deficits in one-interval FM detection tasks that should not involve memory or segmentation. Surprisingly, amusics were also impaired on AM detection, which should not involve pitch processing. Finally, direct comparisons between the detection of continuous and discrete FM demonstrated that amusics suffer deficits in both coding and segmenting pitch information. Our results reveal auditory deficits in amusia extending beyond pitch perception that are subtle when controlling for memory and segmentation, and are likely exacerbated in more complex contexts such as musical listening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent versatility exhibited in the various writing genres of talented linguist, Rosina Lippi-Green, is as remarkable as her seemingly random interest in quilting. Her ability to make connections with many things, in addition to fabric, is neither coincidental nor haphazard. It is far from surprising, therefore, that this independent scholar claiming “mixed European ancestry” utilizes three authorial guises: two for penning historical fiction and a third for academic writing endeavors, the most recent being English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States.Extensive documentation and factual data are but two persuasive means of support she utilizes to focus on and convince readers that the power of language upon social structures, especially in the discrimination and subordination of others, remains more strongly embedded than most people realize.

  17. Adaptive pitch control for load mitigation of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Tang, J.

    2015-04-01

    In this research, model reference adaptive control is examined for the pitch control of wind turbines that may suffer from reduced life owing to extreme loads and fatigue when operated under a high wind speed. Specifically, we aim at making a trade-off between the maximum energy captured and the load induced. The adaptive controller is designed to track the optimal generator speed and at the same time to mitigate component loads under turbulent wind field and other uncertainties. The proposed algorithm is tested on the NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine, and its performance is compared with that those of the gain scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) control and the disturbance accommodating control (DAC). The results show that the blade root flapwise load can be reduced at a slight expense of optimal power output. The generator speed regulation under adaptive controller is better than DAC.

  18. Relativistic Electron Pitch Angle Distributions in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Reiner; Zhao, Hong; Reeves, Geoff; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Mike; Kanekal, Shri; Baker, Dan; Jaynes, Allison

    2017-04-01

    Relativistic electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) in the trapped inner region of the magnetosphere are a sensitive measure of many processes that govern the dynamics of these particles. We report here on statistical observations of relativistic electron PADs from the REPT (Relativistic Electron/Proton Telescope) instrument aboard the Van Allen Probes mission, which show an unexpected dawn/dusk asymmetry that seems to be a persistent feature during quiet times of Dst > -20 nT. The observed PADs show a more peaked pancake distribution at dusk compared to dawn for energies above 1.8 MeV only. Energies from a few 100 KeV to 1 m,eV do NOT show these asymmetries, ruling out magnetic field model effects. These observations hint at persistent processes that can act on relativistic electrons on timescales on the order of the outer radiation belt drift period (10 minutes).

  19. Listening to accented speech in a second language: First language and age of acquisition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraza, Saioa; Samuel, Arthur G; Oñederra, Miren Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    Bilingual speakers must acquire the phonemic inventory of 2 languages and need to recognize spoken words cross-linguistically; a demanding job potentially made even more difficult due to dialectal variation, an intrinsic property of speech. The present work examines how bilinguals perceive second language (L2) accented speech and where accommodation to dialectal variation takes place. Dialectal effects were analyzed at different levels: An AXB discrimination task tapped phonetic-phonological representations, an auditory lexical-decision task tested for effects in accessing the lexicon, and an auditory priming task looked for semantic processing effects. Within that central focus, the goal was to see whether perceptual adjustment at a given level is affected by 2 main linguistic factors: bilinguals' first language and age of acquisition of the L2. Taking advantage of the cross-linguistic situation of the Basque language, bilinguals with different first languages (Spanish or French) and ages of acquisition of Basque (simultaneous, early, or late) were tested. Our use of multiple tasks with multiple types of bilinguals demonstrates that in spite of very similar discrimination capacity, French-Basque versus Spanish-Basque simultaneous bilinguals' performance on lexical access significantly differed. Similarly, results of the early and late groups show that the mapping of phonetic-phonological information onto lexical representations is a more demanding process that accentuates non-native processing difficulties. L1 and AoA effects were more readily overcome in semantic processing; accented variants regularly created priming effects in the different groups of bilinguals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Overview and Design of self-acting pitch control mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine using multi body simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Awareness about wind energy is constantly growing in the world. Especially a demand for small scale wind turbine is increasing and various products are available in market. There are mainly two types of wind turbines, horizontal axis wind turbine and vertical axis wind turbines. Horizontal axis wind turbines are suitable for high wind speed whereas vertical axis wind turbines operate relatively low wind speed area. Vertical axis wind turbines are cost effective and simple in construction as compared to the horizontal axis wind turbine. However, vertical axis wind turbines have inherent problem of self-start inability and has low power coefficient as compare to the horizontal axis wind turbine. These two problems can be eliminated by incorporating the blade pitching mechanism. So, in this paper overview of various pitch control systems is discussed and design of self-acting pitch mechanism is given. A pitch control linkage mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine is modeled by multi-body approach using MSC Software. Aerodynamic loads are predicted from a mathematical model based on double multiple stream tube method. An appropriate airfoil which works at low Reynolds number is selected for blade design. It is also focused on commercialization of the vertical axis wind turbine which incorporates the self-acting pitch control system. These aerodynamic load model will be coupled with the multi-body model in future work for optimization of the pitch control linkage mechanism. A 500 Watt vertical axis wind turbine is designed and it is planned to implement the self-acting pitch control mechanism in real model

  1. Smart pitch control strategy for wind generation system using doubly fed induction generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Syed Ahmed

    A smart pitch control strategy for a variable speed doubly fed wind generation system is presented in this thesis. A complete dynamic model of DFIG system is developed. The model consists of the generator, wind turbine, aerodynamic and the converter system. The strategy proposed includes the use of adaptive neural network to generate optimized controller gains for pitch control. This involves the generation of controller parameters of pitch controller making use of differential evolution intelligent technique. Training of the back propagation neural network has been carried out for the development of an adaptive neural network. This tunes the weights of the network according to the system states in a variable wind speed environment. Four cases have been taken to test the pitch controller which includes step and sinusoidal changes in wind speeds. The step change is composed of both step up and step down changes in wind speeds. The last case makes use of scaled wind data collected from the wind turbine installed at King Fahd University beach front. Simulation studies show that the differential evolution based adaptive neural network is capable of generating the appropriate control to deliver the maximum possible aerodynamic power available from wind to the generator in an efficient manner by minimizing the transients.

  2. Decoding the dynamic representation of musical pitch from human brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, N; Thompson, W F; Carlile, S; Carlson, T A

    2018-01-16

    In music, the perception of pitch is governed largely by its tonal function given the preceding harmonic structure of the music. While behavioral research has advanced our understanding of the perceptual representation of musical pitch, relatively little is known about its representational structure in the brain. Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded evoked neural responses to different tones presented within a tonal context. Multivariate Pattern Analysis (MVPA) was applied to "decode" the stimulus that listeners heard based on the underlying neural activity. We then characterized the structure of the brain's representation using decoding accuracy as a proxy for representational distance, and compared this structure to several well established perceptual and acoustic models. The observed neural representation was best accounted for by a model based on the Standard Tonal Hierarchy, whereby differences in the neural encoding of musical pitches correspond to their differences in perceived stability. By confirming that perceptual differences honor those in the underlying neuronal population coding, our results provide a crucial link in understanding the cognitive foundations of musical pitch across psychological and neural domains.

  3. Numerical study of effect of pitch angle on performance characteristics of a HAWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhamshu A.R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the clean renewable forms of energy that can handle the existing global fossil fuel crisis. Although it contributes to 2.5% of the global electricity demand, with diminishing fossil fuel sources, it is important that wind energy is harnessed to a greater extent to meet the energy crisis and problem of pollution. The present work involves study of effect of pitch angle on the performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT, NREL Phase VI. The wind velocities considered for the study are 7, 15.1 and 25.1 m/s. The simulations are performed using a commercial CFD code Fluent. A frozen rotor model is used for simulation, wherein the governing equations are solved in the moving frame of reference rotating with the rotor speed. The SST k-ω turbulence model has been used. It is seen that the thrust increases with increase in wind velocity, and decreases with increase in pitch angle. For a given wind velocity, there is an optimum pitch angle where the power generated by the turbine is maximum. The observed effect of pitch angle on the power produced has been correlated to the stall characteristics of the airfoil blade.

  4. The Association Between Pitch Conditions and the Incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Environmental conditions have been shown to influence incidence of rugby injuries. Harsh weather conditions and detrimental effect on poor Kenyan rugby pitches create a unique environment for injury exposure. We conducted a whole population prospective cohort study to determine the association of pitch ...

  5. Pixel size and pitch measurements of liquid crystal spatial light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 2. Pixel size and pitch ... Liquid crystal displays; spatial light modulator; optical diffraction. Abstract. We present a simple technique for the determination of pixel size and pitch of liquid crystal (LC) based spatial light modulator (SLM). The proposed method is ...

  6. Global and Local Pitch Perception in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated global versus local pitch pattern perception in children with dyslexia aged between 8 and 11 years. Children listened to two consecutive 4-tone pitch sequences while performing a same/different task. On the different trials, sequences either preserved the contour (local condition) or they violated the contour (global…

  7. The Association Between Pitch Conditions and the Incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shown to influence incidence of rugby injuries. Harsh weather conditions and detrimental effect on poor Kenyan rugby pitches create a unique environment for injury exposure. We conducted a whole population prospective cohort study to determine the association of pitch conditions with injury incidence and severity.

  8. Pitch Systems and Curwen Hand Signs: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey-Clark, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Learning to sing from notation is a complex task, and accurately performing pitches without an external reference can be particularly challenging. As such, the use of mnemonic devices to reinforce tonal relationships is a long-standing practice among musicians. Chief among these mnemonic devices are pitch syllable systems and Curwen hand signs.…

  9. Pitch Perception, Working Memory, and Second-Language Phonological Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posedel, James; Emery, Lisa; Souza, Benjamin; Fountain, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that training on a musical instrument is associated with improvements in working memory and musical pitch perception ability. Good working memory and musical pitch perception ability, in turn, have been linked to certain aspects of language production. The current study examines whether working memory and/or pitch…

  10. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, we present detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) based investigation of wake structure of a pitching airfoil. PIV measurements have been carried out for NACA0015 airfoil at Re = 2900 with reduced frequency range of 1.82–10.92 and pitching angle of 5°. Two different wake structures (reverse Kármán ...

  11. Shoulder joint velocity during fastball pitching in baseball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasparutto, X.; van der Graaff, E; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Colloud, F.; Domalain, M.; Monnet, T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the rotation and translation velocity of the shoulder complex during fastball pitching in baseball. 8 pitchers from the Dutch AAA team performed each 3 fastball pitches. Their motion was recorded by an opto-electronic device. Kinematic computation was

  12. Mathematical Precision of Pitch Gaps in Tribal Tonal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOCIAL PATHOLOGY OF CLEFT PALATE IN THE AFRICAN: MATHEMATICAL PRECISION OF PITCH GAPS IN TRIBAL TONAL ... with Tonic Solfa precision. I have done this both in tribal tonal linguistics and in ... in English. My native ear enables me to hear 4 pitches in the word “Agriculture” in Queen's English [high.

  13. Contamination of Pine Seeds by the Pitch Canker Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; S.W. Fraedrich

    1999-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, has been identified as a significant problem in man pine seed orchards and nursuries in the South. THe fungus causes strobilus mortality, seed deterioation, and cankers on the main stem, branches, and shoots of pines Dwinell and others 1985). The pitche canker fungus...

  14. Pitch height modulates visual and haptic bisection performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta eLega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence suggests that pitch height may be represented in a spatial format, having both a vertical and an horizontal representation. The spatial representation of pitch height results into response compatibility effects for which high pitch tones are preferentially associated to up-right responses, and low pitch tones are preferentially associated to down-left responses (i.e., the SMARC effect, with the strength of these associations depending on individuals’ musical skills. In this study we investigated whether listening to tones of different pitch affects the representation of external space, as assessed in a visual and haptic line bisection paradigm, in musicians and non musicians. Low and high pitch tones affected the bisection performance in musicians differently, both when pitch was relevant and irrelevant for the task, and in both the visual and the haptic modality. No effect of pitch height was observed on the bisection performance of non musicians. Moreover, our data also show that musicians present a (supramodal rightward bisection bias in both the visual and the haptic modality, extending previous findings limited to the visual modality, and consistent with the idea that intense practice with musical notation and bimanual instrument training affects hemispheric lateralization.

  15. Estimates of pitch strength for musicians and nonmusicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Marsha G.; Zettler, Cynthia M.; Follmer, Michelle J.; Faulk, Margaret; Takagi, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    To measure the strength of the pitch of iterated rippled noise (IRN), 19 adults were tested in an operant conditioning procedure. Seven adults had music training and currently played an instrument; 12 adults had no training and did not currently play an instrument. To generate IRN, a 500-ms Gaussian noise stimulus was delayed by 5 or 6 ms (pitches of 200 or 166 Hz) and added to the original for 16 iterations. IRN stimuli having one delay were presented repeatedly. On signal trials the delay changed for 6 s. Stimulus level roved from 63-67 dBA (background of 28 dBA). Adults learned to press a button when the stimulus changed. Testing started with IRN stimuli having 0-dB attenuation (i.e., maximal pitch strength). Stimuli having weaker pitches (i.e., progressively greater attenuation applied to the delayed noise) followed. Strength of pitch was quantified as the maximum attenuation for which pitch was discerned. For each subject, threshold attenuation for pitch strength was extrapolated as the 71% point on a psychometric function depicting percent correct performance as a function of attenuation. Mean thresholds revealed that the pitch percept was similar for both nonmusically trained (18.70 dB) and musically trained adults (18.73 dB).

  16. Pitch Ability as an Aptitude for Tone Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Anita R.; Chang, Charles B.; Karuzis, Valerie P.

    2016-01-01

    Tone languages such as Mandarin use voice pitch to signal lexical contrasts, presenting a challenge for second/foreign language (L2) learners whose native languages do not use pitch in this manner. The present study examined components of an aptitude for mastering L2 lexical tone. Native English speakers with no previous tone language experience…

  17. Autistic Traits and Enhanced Perceptual Representation of Pitch and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary E.; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Grube, Manon

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced basic perceptual discrimination has been reported for pitch in individuals with autism spectrum conditions. We test whether there is a correlational pattern of enhancement across the broader autism phenotype and whether this correlation occurs for the discrimination of pitch, time and loudness. Scores on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient…

  18. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-19

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint.

  19. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint. (paper)

  20. Pulping Variables, Storage Time and Pitch Deposit | Ogunwusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulp resin is also influenced by effective alkali concentration of the pulping medium. With increase in effective alkali concentration from 13% to 15%, pulp pitch is reduced. The interaction effect of storage and effective alkali concentration was not significant indicating that reduction in pulp pitch caused by effective alkali ...

  1. Sparse Multi-Pitch and Panning Estimation of Stereophonic Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronvall, Ted; Jakobsson, Andreas; Hansen, Martin Weiss

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multi-pitch estimator for stereophonic mixtures, allowing for pitch estimation on multi-channel audio even if the amplitude and delay panning parameters are unknown. The presented method does not require prior knowledge of the number of sources present in the mix...

  2. Wind turbine pitch control using ICPSO-PID algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Tian, Qiangqiang; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    , a pitch controller was designed based on power and wind speed and by considering the inertia and delay characteristics of a pitch-control system to achieve a constant power output when a wind speed was beyond the rated one. A novel ICPSO-PID control algorithm was proposed based on a combination...... of improved cooperative particle swarm optimization (ICPSO) and PID, subsequently, it was used to tune the pitch controller parameters; thus the difficulty in PID tuning was removed when a wind speed was above the rated speed. It was indicated that the proposed optimization algorithm can tune the pitch...... controller parameters quickly; and the feed-forward controller for wind speed can improve dynamics of a pitch-control system; additionally the power controller can allow a wind turbine to have a constant power output as a wind speed is over the rated one. Compared with a conventional PID, the controller...

  3. Two LQRI based Blade Pitch Controls for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsu Nam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As the wind turbine size has been increasing and their mechanical components are built lighter, the reduction of the structural loads becomes a very important task of wind turbine control in addition to maximum wind power capture. In this paper, we present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI, and utilize Kalman filters to estimate system states and wind speed. Compared to previous works in this area, our pitch control algorithms can control rotor speed and blade bending moments at the same time to improve the trade-off between rotor speed regulation and load reduction, while both collective and individual pitch controls can be designed separately. Simulation results show that the proposed collective and individual pitch controllers achieve very good rotor speed regulation and significant reduction of blade bending moments.

  4. Studies in the Phonology of Asian Languages IX: Word Accent in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Raymond S.

    This study, the ninth in the series "Studies in the Phonology of Asian Languages," aims to analyze the phonological properties of the accentual system of Standard Colloquial Japanese on the basis of acoustic-phonetic data, especially data obtained through use of the sound spectrograph and pitch extractor. Chapters deal with functional distinctions…

  5. Task-dependent activations of human auditory cortex during pitch discrimination and pitch memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Teemu; Koistinen, Sonja; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2009-10-21

    The functional organization of auditory cortex (AC) is still poorly understood. Previous studies suggest segregation of auditory processing streams for spatial and nonspatial information located in the posterior and anterior AC, respectively (Rauschecker and Tian, 2000; Arnott et al., 2004; Lomber and Malhotra, 2008). Furthermore, previous studies have shown that active listening tasks strongly modulate AC activations (Petkov et al., 2004; Fritz et al., 2005; Polley et al., 2006). However, the task dependence of AC activations has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, we applied high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging of the AC and adjacent areas to compare activations during pitch discrimination and n-back pitch memory tasks that were varied parametrically in difficulty. We found that anterior AC activations were increased during discrimination but not during memory tasks, while activations in the inferior parietal lobule posterior to the AC were enhanced during memory tasks but not during discrimination. We also found that wide areas of the anterior AC and anterior insula were strongly deactivated during the pitch memory tasks. While these results are consistent with the proposition that the anterior and posterior AC belong to functionally separate auditory processing streams, our results show that this division is present also between tasks using spatially invariant sounds. Together, our results indicate that activations of human AC are strongly dependent on the characteristics of the behavioral task.

  6. Speech Motor Brain Regions are Differentially Recruited During Perception of Native and Foreign-Accented Phonemes for First and Second Language Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eCallan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain imaging studies indicate that speech motor areas are recruited for auditory speech perception, especially when intelligibility is low due to environmental noise or when speech is accented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of brain regions to the processing of speech containing phonetic categories from one’s own language, speech with accented samples of one’s native phonetic categories, and speech with unfamiliar phonetic categories. To that end, native English and Japanese speakers identified the speech sounds /r/ and /l/ that were produced by native English speakers (unaccented and Japanese speakers (foreign-accented while functional magnetic resonance imaging measured their brain activity. For native English speakers, the Japanese accented speech was more difficult to categorize than the unaccented English speech. In contrast, Japanese speakers have difficulty distinguishing between /r/ and /l/, so both the Japanese accented and English unaccented speech were difficult to categorize. Brain regions involved with listening to foreign-accented productions of a first language included primarily the right cerebellum, left ventral inferior premotor cortex PMvi, and Broca’s area. Brain regions most involved with listening to a second-language phonetic contrast (foreign-accented and unaccented productions also included the left PMvi and the right cerebellum. Additionally, increased activity was observed in the right PMvi, the left and right ventral superior premotor cortex PMvs, and the left cerebellum. These results support a role for speech motor regions during the perception of foreign-accented native speech and for perception of difficult second-language phonetic contrasts.

  7. Do Korean L2 learners have a "foreign accent" when they speak French? Production and perception experiments on rhythm and intonation

    OpenAIRE

    Grandon , Bénédicte; Yoo , Hiyon

    2014-01-01

    International audience; French and Korean are two languages with similar prosodic characteristics as far as rhythm and intonation are concerned. In this paper, we present the results of production and perception tests where we describe the prosodic characteristics of Korean L2 learners of French. Our aim is to analyze the impression of "foreign accent" for two prosodic components (intonation and rhythm) of speech produced by Korean L2 learners of French and the perception of this "accent" by ...

  8. Rolling and pitching oscillating foil propulsion in ground effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew D; Elles, Dane; Badlissi, George; Mivehchi, Amin; Dahl, Jason; Licht, Stephen

    2017-09-04

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of operating near a solid boundary on the forces produced by harmonically oscillating thrust generating foils. A rolling and pitching foil was towed in a freshwater tank in a series of experiments with varying kinematics. Hydrodynamic forces and torques were measured in the free stream and at varying distances from a solid boundary, and changes in mean lift and thrust were found when the foil approached the boundary. The magnitude of this ground effect exhibited a strong nonlinear dependence on the distance between the foil and the boundary. Significant effects were found within three chord lengths of the boundary, and ground effect can be induced at greater distances from the boundary by biasing the tip of the foil toward the boundary. Lift coefficients changed by as much as 0.2 at the closest approach to the ground, with changes ≥0.05 for all cases across Strouhal number ranging from 0.3 to 0.6, and nominal maximum angle of attack ranging from 20° to 40°. The ubiquity of the ground effect in high thrust kinematics suggests that the ground effect can provide a passive obstacle avoidance capability for foil propelled vehicles. By comparison to previous experimental work, we find that the ground effect experienced by a high-aspect ratio rolling and pitching foil is a fully three-dimensional phenomenon, as it is not accurately predicted when two-dimensional flow and/or two-dimensional kinematics are enforced. While two dimensional foil kinematics are more easily modeled for numerical studies, three-dimensional foil kinematics may be more practical for real world implementation in underwater vehicles. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Cross-linguistic comparison of frequency-following responses to voice pitch in American and Chinese neonates and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Hu, Jiong; Dickman, Brenda; Montgomery-Reagan, Karen; Tong, Meiling; Wu, Guangqiang; Lin, Chia-Der

    2011-01-01

    Cross-language studies, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch, have shown the influence of dominant linguistic environments on the encoding of voice pitch at the brainstem level in normal-hearing adults. Research questions that remained unanswered included the characteristics of the FFR to voice pitch in neonates during their immediate postnatal period and the relative contributions of the biological capacities present at birth versus the influence of the listener's postnatal linguistic experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of FFR to voice pitch in neonates during their first few days of life and to examine the relative contributions of the "biological capacity" versus "linguistic experience" influences on pitch processing in the human brainstem. Twelve American neonates (five males, 1-3 days old) and 12 Chinese neonates (seven males, 1-3 days old) were recruited to examine the characteristics of the FFRs during their immediate postnatal days of life. Twelve American adults (three males; age: mean ± SD = 24.6 ± 3.0 yr) and 12 Chinese adults (six males; age: mean ± SD = 25.3 ± 2.6 yr) were also recruited to determine the relative contributions of biological and linguistic influences. A Chinese monosyllable that mimics the English vowel /i/ with a rising pitch (117-166 Hz) was used to elicit the FFR to voice pitch in all participants. Two-way analysis of variance (i.e., the language [English versus Chinese] and age [neonate versus adult] factors) showed a significant difference in Pitch Strength for language (p = 0.035, F = 4.716). A post hoc Tukey-Kramer analysis further demonstrated that Chinese adults had significantly larger Pitch Strength values than Chinese neonates (p = 0.024). This finding, coupled with the fact that American neonates and American adults had comparable Pitch Strength values, supported the linguistic experience model. On the other hand, Pitch Strength

  10. Aerodynamics power consumption for mechanical flapping wings undergoing flapping and pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, N. A.; Dimitriadis, G.; Razaami, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Lately, due to the growing interest in Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV), interest in flapping flight has been rekindled. The reason lies in the improved performance of flapping wing flight at low Reynolds number regime. Many studies involving flapping wing flight focused on the generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces such as lift and thrust. There is one aspect of flapping wing flight that received less attention. The aspect is aerodynamic power consumption. Since most mechanical flapping wing aircraft ever designed are battery powered, power consumption is fundamental in improving flight endurance. This paper reports the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings under going active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the pitch angle oscillations and wing profile on the power consumption of flapping wings via generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces. The experiments were repeated for different airspeeds, flapping and pitching kinematics, geometric angle of attack and wing sections with symmetric and cambered airfoils. A specially designed mechanical flapper modelled on large migrating birds was used. It will be shown that, under pitch leading conditions, less power is required to overcome the unsteady aerodnamics forces. The study finds less power requirement for downstroke compared to upstroke motion. Overall results demonstrate power consumption depends directly on the unsteady lift force.

  11. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  12. Propulsive performance of pitching foils with variable chordwise flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith; Lehigh University Team

    2017-11-01

    Many swimming and flying animals propel themselves efficiently through water by oscillating flexible fins. These fins are not homogeneously flexible, but instead their flexural stiffness varies along their chord and span. Here we seek to evaluate the effect stiffness profile on the propulsive performance of pitching foils. Stiffness profile characterizes the variation in the local fin stiffness along the chord. To this aim, we developed a low order model of a functionally-graded material where the chordwise flexibility is modeled by two torsional springs along the chordline and the stiffness and location of the springs can be varied arbitrarily. The torsional spring structural model is then strongly coupled to a boundary element fluid model to simulate the fluid-structure interactions. Keeping the leading edge kinematics unchanged, we alter the stiffness profile of the foil and allow it to swim freely in response to the resulting hydrodynamic forces. We then detail the dependency of the hydrodynamic performance and the wake structure to the variations in the local structural properties of the foil.

  13. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  14. Mismatch negativity to pitch pattern deviants in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Sarah M; Matteis, Mario De; Coffman, Brian A; Murphy, Timothy K; Butera, Christiana D; Ward, Kayla L; Leiter-McBeth, Justin R; Salisbury, Dean F

    2017-09-01

    Simple mismatch negativity (MMN) to infrequent pitch deviants is impaired in individuals with long-term schizophrenia (Sz). The complex MMN elicited by pattern deviance often manifes is cut from here]->ts later after deviant onset than simple MMN and can ascertain deficits in abstracting relationships between stimuli. Sz exhibit reduced complex MMN, but so far this has only been measured when deviance detection relies on a grouping rule. We measured MMN to deviants in pitch-based rules to see whether MMN is also abnormal in Sz under these conditions. Three experiments were conducted. Twenty-seven Sz and 28 healthy matched controls (HC) participated in Experiments 1 and 2, and 24 Sz and 26 HC participated in Experiment 3. Experiment 1 was a standard pitch MMN task, and Sz showed the expected MMN reduction (~ 115 ms) in the simple pitch deviant compared to HC. Experiment 2 comprised standard groups of six tones that ascended in pitch, and deviant groups where the last tone descended in pitch. Complex MMN was late (~ 510 ms) and significantly blunted in Sz. Experiment 3 comprised standard groups of 12 tones (six tones ascending in pitch followed by six tones descending in pitch, like a scale), and deviant groups containing two repetitions of six ascending tones (the scale restarted midstream). Complex MMN was also late (~ 460 ms) and significantly blunted in Sz. These results identify a late pitch pattern deviance-related MMN that is deficient in schizophrenia. This suggests specific deficits in later more complex deviance detection in schizophrenia for abstract patterns. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Posterior Fossa and Foreign Accent Syndrome: Report of Two New Cases and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, Stefanie; Mariën, Peter; van Dun, Kim; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Manto, Mario; Verhoeven, Jo

    2017-08-01

    Foreign accent syndrome is a rare motor speech disorder that causes patients to speak their language with a non-native accent. In the neurogenic condition, the disorder develops after lesions in the language dominant hemisphere, often affecting Broca's area, the insula, the supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex. Here, we present two new cases of FAS after posterior fossa lesions. The first case is a 44-year-old, right-handed, Dutch-speaking man who suffered motor speech disturbances and a left hemiplegia after a pontine infarction. Quantified SPECT showed a bilateral hypoperfusion in the inferior lateral prefrontal and medial inferior frontal regions as well as a significant left cerebellar hypoperfusion. Further clinical investigations led to an additional diagnosis of brainstem cognitive affective syndrome which closely relates to Schmahmann's syndrome. The second patient was a 72-year-old right-handed polyglot English man who suffered a stroke in the vascular territory of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and developed a foreign accent in his mother tongue (English) and in a later learnt language (Dutch). In this paper, we discuss how the occurrence of this peculiar motor speech disorder can be related to a lesion affecting the posterior fossa structures.

  16. Classification and Detection of Wind Turbine Pitch Faults Through SCADA Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of wind turbine pitch faults leads to increased mechanical component degradation, severe reduction of asset performance, and a direct increase in annual maintenance costs for the operator. This paper presents a highly accurate data driven classification system for the diagnosis of wind turbine pitch faults. Early diagnosis of these faults can enable operators to move from traditional corrective or time based maintenance towards a predictive or proactive maintenance strategy, whilst simultaneously mitigating risks and requiring no further capital expenditure. Our approach provides transparent, human-readable rules for maintenance operators which have been validated by an independent domain expert. Data from 8 wind turbines was collected every 10 minutes over a period of 28 months with 10 attributes utilised to diagnose pitch faults. Three fault classes are identified, each represented by 6000 instances in each of the testing and training sets. Of the turbines, 4 are used to train the system with a further 4 for validation. Repeated random sampling of the majority fault class was used to reduce computational overheads whilst retaining information content and balancing the training and validation sets to remove majority class bias. A classification accuracy of 85.50% was achieved with 14 human readable rules generated via the RIPPER inductive rule learner. Of these, 11 were described as “useful and intuitive” by an independent domain-expert. An expert system was developed utilising the model along with domain knowledge, resulting in a pitch fault diagnostic accuracy of 87.05% along with a 42.12% reduction in pitch fault alarms.

  17. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Binaural pitch is a tonal sensation produced by introducing a frequency-dependent interaural phase shift in binaurally presented white noise. As no spectral cues are present in the physical stimulus, binaural pitch perception is assumed to rely on accurate temporal fine structure coding and intact...... level differences and binaural intelligibility level differences than subjects from group 1, but did not necessarily show reduced scores in a lexical decision task and a reading span test. Overall, these findings confirm that binaural pitch perception is either immediate or absent in hearing...

  18. Context effects on pitch perception in musicians and nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, E; Naatanen, R; Tervaniemi, M

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that musical context facilitates pitch discrimination. In the present study, we sought to determine whether pitch context and its familiarity might affect brain responses to pitch change even at the preattentive level. Ten musicians and 10 nonmusicians, while...... is generally enhanced in a familiar context. Moreover, the latency of the mismatch negativity was shorter for musicians than for nonmusicians in both the familiar and unfamiliar conditions, whereas no difference between groups was observed in the no-context condition. This finding indicates that, in response...

  19. Tonal Scales and Minimal Simple Pitch Class Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have explored the special mathematical properties of the diatonic set. However, much less attention has been paid to the sets associated with the other scales that play an important rôle in Western tonal music, such as the harmonic minor scale and ascending melodic minor scale....... This paper focuses on the special properties of the class, T, of sets associated with the major and minor scales (including the harmonic major scale). It is observed that T is the set of pitch class sets associated with the shortest simple pitch class cycles in which every interval between consecutive pitch...

  20. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the LS(1)-0417MOD airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculations of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation caused by surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. An LS(l)-0417MOD airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used, {plus_minus} 5.5%{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions foil model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.

  1. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S801 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculation of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. A S801 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3x5 subsonic wind tunnel (3x5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers used for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used, {plus_minus} 5.5 {degrees}and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees} 14{degrees} and 20{degrees} For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means that the airfoil model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.

  2. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S815 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss Ramsay, R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculation of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are cause by the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. A S815 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 x 5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers used for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20{degree} to +40{degree}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {+-}5.5{degree} and {+-}10{degree}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degree}, 14{degree}, and 20{degree}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means that the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.

  3. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S814 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the design of new rotor airfoils. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can also be used to validate analytical computer codes. An S814 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 X 5) under steady flow with both stationary model conditions and pitch oscillations. To study the extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. While the model underwent pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions {+-}5.5{degrees} and {+-}10{degrees}, were used; at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation.

  4. Do Musicians with Perfect Pitch Have More Autism Traits than Musicians without Perfect Pitch? An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Heaton, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased...... (APs), 18 musicians without AP (non-APs), and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly...

  5. Design of a wind turbine pitch angle controller for power system stabilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Islam, Syed M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Bak Jensen, Birgitte [Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstraede 101, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    The design of a PID pitch angle controller for a fixed speed active-stall wind turbine, using the root locus method is described in this paper. The purpose of this controller is to enable an active-stall wind turbine to perform power system stabilisation. For the purpose of controller design, the transfer function of the wind turbine is derived from the wind turbine's step response. The performance of this controller is tested by simulation, where the wind turbine model with its pitch angle controller is connected to a power system model. The power system model employed here is a realistic model of the North European power system. A short circuit fault on a busbar close to the wind turbine generator is simulated, and the dynamic responses of the system with and without the power system stabilisation of the wind turbines are presented. Simulations show that in most operating points the pitch controller can effectively contribute to power system stabilisation. (author)

  6. Flicker Mitigation by Individual Pitch Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines With DFIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    Due to the wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects, grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a model of an MW-level variable-speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction...... generatorto investigate the flicker emission and mitigation issues. An individual pitch control (IPC) strategy is proposed to reduce the flicker emission at different wind speed conditions. The IPC scheme is proposed and the individual pitch controller is designed according to the generator active power...... and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 1.5-MW upwind reference wind turbine model. Simulation results show that damping the generator active power by IPC is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind...

  7. A Computationally Efficient Method for Polyphonic Pitch Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohua Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computationally efficient method for polyphonic pitch estimation. The method employs the Fast Resonator Time-Frequency Image (RTFI as the basic time-frequency analysis tool. The approach is composed of two main stages. First, a preliminary pitch estimation is obtained by means of a simple peak-picking procedure in the pitch energy spectrum. Such spectrum is calculated from the original RTFI energy spectrum according to harmonic grouping principles. Then the incorrect estimations are removed according to spectral irregularity and knowledge of the harmonic structures of the music notes played on commonly used music instruments. The new approach is compared with a variety of other frame-based polyphonic pitch estimation methods, and results demonstrate the high performance and computational efficiency of the approach.

  8. Investors prefer entrepreneurial ventures pitched by attractive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison Wood; Huang, Laura; Kearney, Sarah Wood; Murray, Fiona E

    2014-03-25

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur's business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs.

  9. Determination of pitch rotation in a spherical birefringent microparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Basudev; Ramaiya, Avin; Schäffer, Erik

    2018-03-01

    Rotational motion of a three dimensional spherical microscopic object can happen either in pitch, yaw or roll fashion. Among these, the yaw motion has been conventionally studied using the intensity of scattered light from birefringent microspheres through crossed polarizers. Up until now, however, there is no way to study the pitch motion in spherical microspheres. Here, we suggest a new method to study the pitch motion of birefringent microspheres under crossed polarizers by measuring the 2-fold asymmetry in the scattered signal either using video microscopy or with optical tweezers. We show a couple of simple examples of pitch rotation determination using video microscopy for a microsphere attached with a kinesin molecule while moving along a microtubule and of a particle diffusing freely in water.

  10. Thermal transformations of pitch and its compositions with thermoanthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Ulanovskii, M.L.; Krysin, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatogrphy is used to investigate the character of thermal transformations of hard coal pitch in compositions with thermoanthracite. It was shown that losses in mass during thermal transformations of hard coal pitch in the temperature interval 200-1000 C occur in two stages, at a varying rate in the 200-600 C range and at a constant rate in the 600-1000 C range. The rate of loss in the 200-600 C range is determined primarily by the rate of diffusion of volatile components and products of pitch conversion and in the 600-1000 C range mainly by the rate of the elemental chemical event. The thermal transformation is essentially unchanged in the presence of thermoanthracite. Silica intensifies the synthesis and increases the solid residue yield. Increasing the rate of heating of the pitch-thermoanthracite brings about incomplete separation of volatile products and a corresponding increase in the solid residue yield. (9 refs.)

  11. Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with grass hosts in commercial pine production areas of South Africa. Cassandra L Swett, Bernice Porter, Gerda Fourie, Emma T Steenkamp, Thomas R Gordon, Michael J Wingfield ...

  12. Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Börner, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Scheffel, M., & Börner, D. (2013, 31 May). Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research. Workshop presentation at the 9th Joint European Summer School on Technology Enhanced Learning, Limassol, Cyprus.

  13. A Method for Low-Delay Pitch Tracking and Smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    . In the second step, a Kalman filter is used to smooth the estimates and separate the pitch into a slowly varying component and a rapidly varying component. The former represents the mean pitch while the latter represents vibrato, slides and other fast changes. The method is intended for use in applica- tions...... that require fast and sample-by-sample estimates, like tuners for musical instruments, transcription tasks requiring details like vi- brato, and real-time tracking of voiced speech....

  14. Pitch perception in musical chords for cochlear implant users

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    Many people with severe or profound hearing loss are able to benefit from electronic hearing provided by a cochlear implant (CI); however, perception of music is often reported to be unsatisfactory. Due to the sound processing restrictions and current spread, CI users do not always perceive accurate pitch information, which adversely affects their ability to perceive and enjoy music. This thesis examines the factors affecting pitch perception in musical contexts for CI recipients. A questionn...

  15. A Mozart is not a Pavarotti: singers outperform instrumentalists on foreign accent imitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eChristiner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have shown that people with higher musical aptitude were also better in oral language imitation tasks. However, whether singing capacity and instrument playing contribute differently to the imitation of speech has been ignored so far. Research has just recently started to understand that instrumentalists develop quite distinct skills when compared to vocalists. In the same vein the role of the vocal motor system in language acquisition processes has poorly been investigated as most investigations (neurobiological and behavioral favor to examine speech perception. We set out to test whether the vocal motor system can influence an ability to learn, produce and perceive new languages by contrasting instrumentalists and vocalists. Therefore, we investigated 96 participants, twenty-seven instrumentalists, thirty-three vocalists and thirty-six non-musicians/non-singers. They were tested for their abilities to imitate foreign speech: unknown language (Hindi, second language (English and their musical aptitude. Results revealed that both instrumentalists and vocalists have a higher ability to imitate unintelligible speech and foreign accents than non-musicians/non-singers. Within the musician group, vocalists outperformed instrumentalists significantly. Conclusion: first, adaptive plasticity for speech imitation is not reliant on audition alone but also on vocal-motor induced processes. Second, vocal flexibility of singers goes together with higher speech imitation aptitude. Third, vocal motor training, as of singers, may speed up foreign language acquisition processes.

  16. A Mozart is not a Pavarotti: singers outperform instrumentalists on foreign accent imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that people with higher musical aptitude were also better in oral language imitation tasks. However, whether singing capacity and instrument playing contribute differently to the imitation of speech has been ignored so far. Research has just recently started to understand that instrumentalists develop quite distinct skills when compared to vocalists. In the same vein the role of the vocal motor system in language acquisition processes has poorly been investigated as most investigations (neurobiological and behavioral) favor to examine speech perception. We set out to test whether the vocal motor system can influence an ability to learn, produce and perceive new languages by contrasting instrumentalists and vocalists. Therefore, we investigated 96 participants, 27 instrumentalists, 33 vocalists and 36 non-musicians/non-singers. They were tested for their abilities to imitate foreign speech: unknown language (Hindi), second language (English) and their musical aptitude. Results revealed that both instrumentalists and vocalists have a higher ability to imitate unintelligible speech and foreign accents than non-musicians/non-singers. Within the musician group, vocalists outperformed instrumentalists significantly. Conclusion: First, adaptive plasticity for speech imitation is not reliant on audition alone but also on vocal-motor induced processes. Second, vocal flexibility of singers goes together with higher speech imitation aptitude. Third, vocal motor training, as of singers, may speed up foreign language acquisition processes. PMID:26379537

  17. Indexical and linguistic processing by 12-month-olds: Discrimination of speaker, accent and vowel differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Mulak

    Full Text Available Infants preferentially discriminate between speech tokens that cross native category boundaries prior to acquiring a large receptive vocabulary, implying a major role for unsupervised distributional learning strategies in phoneme acquisition in the first year of life. Multiple sources of between-speaker variability contribute to children's language input and thus complicate the problem of distributional learning. Adults resolve this type of indexical variability by adjusting their speech processing for individual speakers. For infants to handle indexical variation in the same way, they must be sensitive to both linguistic and indexical cues. To assess infants' sensitivity to and relative weighting of indexical and linguistic cues, we familiarized 12-month-old infants to tokens of a vowel produced by one speaker, and tested their listening preference to trials containing a vowel category change produced by the same speaker (linguistic information, and the same vowel category produced by another speaker of the same or a different accent (indexical information. Infants noticed linguistic and indexical differences, suggesting that both are salient in infant speech processing. Future research should explore how infants weight these cues in a distributional learning context that contains both phonetic and indexical variation.

  18. Accent and television journalism: evidence for the practice of speech language pathologists and audiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Lima, Ivonaldo Leidson Barbosa; Silva, Eveline Gonçalves; Almeida, Larissa Nadjara Alves de; Almeida, Anna Alice Figueiredo de

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the preferences and attitudes of listeners in relation to regional (RA) and softened accents (SA) in television journalism. Three television news presenters recorded carrier phrases and a standard text using RA and SA. The recordings were presented to 105 judges who listened to the word pairs and answered whether they perceived differences between the RA and SA, and the type of pronunciation that they preferred in the speech of television news presenters. Afterwards, they listened to the sentences and judged seven attributes in the contexts of RA and SA using a semantic differential scale. The listeners perceived the difference between the regional and softened pronunciation (p<0.0001). They preferred the SA in the presenters' speech in all variants studied (p<0.0001). There was an association between linguistic variants and the judgment of attitudes (p=0.002). The listeners regarded the presence of SA in the presenters' speech as positive in all variants studied (p<0.0001). The listeners prefer and assign positive values to the SA in the speech of television journalists in all linguistic variants studied.

  19. A Mozart is not a Pavarotti: singers outperform instrumentalists on foreign accent imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that people with higher musical aptitude were also better in oral language imitation tasks. However, whether singing capacity and instrument playing contribute differently to the imitation of speech has been ignored so far. Research has just recently started to understand that instrumentalists develop quite distinct skills when compared to vocalists. In the same vein the role of the vocal motor system in language acquisition processes has poorly been investigated as most investigations (neurobiological and behavioral) favor to examine speech perception. We set out to test whether the vocal motor system can influence an ability to learn, produce and perceive new languages by contrasting instrumentalists and vocalists. Therefore, we investigated 96 participants, 27 instrumentalists, 33 vocalists and 36 non-musicians/non-singers. They were tested for their abilities to imitate foreign speech: unknown language (Hindi), second language (English) and their musical aptitude. Results revealed that both instrumentalists and vocalists have a higher ability to imitate unintelligible speech and foreign accents than non-musicians/non-singers. Within the musician group, vocalists outperformed instrumentalists significantly. First, adaptive plasticity for speech imitation is not reliant on audition alone but also on vocal-motor induced processes. Second, vocal flexibility of singers goes together with higher speech imitation aptitude. Third, vocal motor training, as of singers, may speed up foreign language acquisition processes.

  20. Penentuan Added Mass Hycat Akibat Gerakan Couple Heaving Pitching Pada Gelombang Reguler

    OpenAIRE

    Murtedjo, Mas

    2003-01-01

    . An experimental study has been performed at the Indonesia Hydrodynamics Laboratory to measure the added mass of a HYCAT model due to couple heave-pitch mode of motion. A series of tests were conducted by settingthe model draft at 0,278 m, in the 0,1 m wave height, three different model speed of 4.432 m/sec, 4.77 m/sec, and 5.144 m/sec, with variation in wave period ranging from 0.8 to 1.4 sec, for each model speed. Results of the experiment show that at 4.432 m/sec model speed, the added ma...

  1. Intelligent Control for the Variable-Speed Variable-Pitch Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of multi-variable compensation control method for the wind energy conversion systems (WECS is presented. Based on wind energy conversion systems, combining artificial neural network (ANN control and PID, a new type of PID NN intelligent controller for steady state torque of the wind generator is designed, by which the steady state torque output is regulated to track the optimal curve of wind power factor and the blade pitch angle is regulated to keep the stable power output. Also, the LPV model of the WECS, LPV compensator for the wind generator is designed to effectively compensate output of the wind generator torque and the blade pitch angle. Finally, simulation models of the control system based on a realistic model of a 8kw wind turbines are built up based on the Dspace platform. The results show that the proposed method can reduce interferences caused by disturbed parameters of the WECS, mechanical shocks of the wind generator speed are reduced while capturing the largest wind energyfluctuation range of wind generator power output is reduced, and the working efficiency of the variable pitch servo system is improved.

  2. Enhancing propulsive efficiency through proper design of bending patterns of a flexible pitching foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith

    2016-11-01

    Many aquatic animals propel themselves efficiently through water by oscillating flexible fins. These fins are, however, not homogeneously flexible, but instead their flexural rigidity varies along their chord and span. To detail the flow structures and propulsive performance of these functionally-graded propulsors a simple model of an unsteady pitching airfoil with a flexible hinge of varying location is examined. This acts as a first-order model of a functionally-graded fin by varying both the flexibility and bending pattern of the propulsor. Recent experiments have shown that adding a flexible 'tail' with the proper stiffness to a rigid pitching foil can effectively delay/suppress the formation of a deflected wake thereby enhancing the cycle-averaged wake momentum in the swimming direction. To extend these observations, we investigate the dependency of the wake pattern of a hinged pitching airfoil to the location and flexibility of the hinge by employing a fast boundary element method solver that is strongly coupled with a torsional spring structural model. The observed wake patterns are further connected to the thrust production and propulsive efficiency with the goal of determining the proper combinations of parameters that yields the maximum gain in efficiency. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  3. Optimal pitching axis location of flapping wings for efficient hovering flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q.; Goosen, J.F.L.; van Keulen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Flapping wings can pitch passively about their pitching axes due to their flexibility, inertia, and aerodynamic loads. A shift in the pitching axis location can dynamically alter the aerodynamic loads, which in turn changes the passive pitching motion and the flight efficiency. Therefore, it is of

  4. Spirality: A Noval Way to Measure Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Henderson, Casey L.; Hartley, Matthew; Davis, Benjamin L.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the MATLAB code Spirality, a novel method for measuring spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. For a given pitch angle template, the mean pixel value is found along each of typically 1000 spiral axes. The fitting function, which shows a local maximum at the best-fit pitch angle, is the variance of these means. Error bars are found by varying the inner radius of the measurement annulus and finding the standard deviation of the best-fit pitches. Computation time is typically on the order of 2 minutes per galaxy, assuming at least 8 GB of working memory. We tested the code using 128 synthetic spiral images of known pitch. These spirals varied in the number of spiral arms, pitch angle, degree of logarithmicity, radius, SNR, inclination angle, bar length, and bulge radius. A correct result is defined as a result that matches the true pitch within the error bars, with error bars no greater than ±7°. For the non-logarithmic spiral sample, the correct answer is similarly defined, with the mean pitch as function of radius in place of the true pitch. For all synthetic spirals, correct results were obtained so long as SNR > 0.25, the bar length was no more than 60% of the spiral's diameter (when the bar was included in the measurement), the input center of the spiral was no more than 6% of the spiral radius away from the true center, and the inclination angle was no more than 30°. The synthetic spirals were not deprojected prior to measurement. The code produced the correct result for all barred spirals when the measurement annulus was placed outside the bar. Additionally, we compared the code's results against 2DFFT results for 203 visually selected spiral galaxies in GOODS North and South. Among the entire sample, Spirality's error bars overlapped 2DFFT's error bars 64% of the time. For those galaxies in which Source code is available by email request from the primary author.

  5. “Gallia and Gaul, French and Welsh” (MWW, 3.1.89: Transposing Shakespeare’s ‘Favourite’ Foreign Accents into French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Mylène

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Merry Wives of Windsor has long been compared to a great babel of languages. The play contains a smattering of Spanish, Italian and Dutch and even a whole scene dedicated to the mistranslation of Latin. A large part of the play’s humour also heavily relies on the foreign accents of two characters: the French Doctor Caius and the Welsh parson Sir Hugh Evans. If Christopher Luscombe’s 2008/2010 production of The Merry Wives at Shakespeare’s Globe theatre in London bears testimony to the success of cross-language and accent-based comedy as a source of laughter on today’s English stage, it seems rather implausible, at first sight, that French translations, adaptations and stagings of these accents and linguistic idiosyncrasies should be greeted with the same degree of hilarity. Indeed, how should the Welsh and French accents, both representing real stumbling blocks for French-speaking translators of the play, be transposed into French? What translation strategies can the latter devise? And to what extent can some of those strategies be said to be politically correct? Focusing on Shakespeare’s ‘favorite’ (predominant accents and the significance and impact of such linguistic comedy, I shall examine the question of their problematic translation through the analysis and comparison of a number of translations and stagings of The Merry Wives of Windsor into French.

  6. Effects of fin pitch and array of the frost layer growth on extended surface of a heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Keun; Lee, Kwan Soo [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the effects of the fin array and pitch on the frost layer growth of a heat exchanger. The numerical results are compared with experimental data of a cold plate to validate the present model, and agree well with experimental data within a maximum error of 8%. The characteristics of the frost formation on staggered fin array are somewhat different from those of in-line array. For fin pitch below 10 mm, the frost layer growth of second fin in the staggered array is affected by that of first fin. The heat transfer of single fin deteriorate with decreasing fin pitch regardless of fin array, however, the thermal performance of a heat exchanger, considering increase of heat surface area, becomes better.

  7. Optimal Tuning of Multivariable Disturbance-Observer-Based Control for Flicker Mitigation Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Multivariable disturbance accommodated observer based control (DOBC) scheme is presented to mitigate loads generated due to wind shear and tower shadow using individual blade pitch for above-rated wind speed condition of wind turbine. Wind shear and tower shadow add flickers as 1p, 3p, 6p and so on......, (p is the rotor rotational frequency) for three-bladed wind turbine. Novel DOBC with individual pitch control (IPC) to mitigate the flickers is presented and linear state-space model of wind turbine with tower dynamics is developed. The proposed controller is tuned using optimal control theory...... density of generator speed, drive-train torsion and tower fore-aft moment shows better mitigation to the flickers by proposed controller as compared with proportional–integral (PI) and disturbance accommodation control (DAC) with collective pitch control. Furthermore, it shows less degradation...

  8. Output Power Control of Wind Turbine Generator by Pitch Angle Control using Minimum Variance Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sakamoto, Ryosei; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Higa, Hiroki; Uezato, Katsumi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    In recent years, there have been problems such as exhaustion of fossil fuels, e. g., coal and oil, and environmental pollution resulting from consumption. Effective utilization of renewable energies such as wind energy is expected instead of the fossil fuel. Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, which cause the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) to fluctuate. In order to reduce fluctuating components, there is a method to control pitch angle of blades of the windmill. In this paper, output power leveling of wind turbine generator by pitch angle control using an adaptive control is proposed. A self-tuning regulator is used in adaptive control. The control input is determined by the minimum variance control. It is possible to compensate control input to alleviate generating power fluctuation with using proposed controller. The simulation results with using actual detailed model for wind power system show effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  9. Particle pitch angle diffusion due to nonadiabatic effects in the plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.C.; Lee, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to understand certain aspects of the plasma sheet dynamics, a numerical study of the nonadiabatic behavior of particles in a model field geometry is performed. The particle's magnetic moment as a function of time is calculated for various initial parameters, corresponding to various particle energies and degrees of field curvature. It is shown that the magnetic moment changes as the particle passes through the plasma sheet and that the magnitude of the change is related to the curvature of the field at the middle of the plasma sheet. The relation of the magnitude of the change in magnetic moment to the particle's pitch and phase angles as it passes through the sheet is numerically resolved. The nature of the change may be considered as a mechanism for pitch angle diffusion, and the diffusion coefficient is calculated. This scattering mechanism is significant for plasma sheet ions (1--10 keV) as well as energetic electrons (>100 keV)

  10. Control design for a pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.H.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Larsen, Torben J.

    2005-01-01

    The three different controller designs presented herein are similar and all based on PI-regulation of rotor speed and power through the collective blade pitch angle and generator moment. The aeroelastic and electrical modelling used for the time-domainanalysis of these controllers are however...... different, which makes a directly quantitative comparison difficult. But there are some observations of similar behaviours should be mentioned: • Very similar step responses in rotor speed, pitch angle, and powerare seen for simulations with steps in wind speed. • All controllers show a peak in power...... for wind speed step-up over rated wind speed, which can be almost removed by changing the parameters of the frequency converter. • Responses of rotor speed, pitchangle, and power for different simulations with turbulent inflow are similar for all three controllers. Again, there seems to be an advantage...

  11. Material and fin pitch effect on frosting CO2 in a fin-and-tube heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassila, Joseph; Toubassy, Joseph; Danlos, Amélie; Descombes, Georges; Clodic, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Cryo Pur technology uses cryogenic separation to remove water vapor and carbon dioxide from biogas, in order to obtain bio-methane. To cool down the biogas at a very low temperature, a fin-and-tube heat exchanger is designed. In order to improve the fin-and-tube heat exchanger performance, a model is developed to investigate the material and fin pitch on frosting carbon dioxide. This paper will study the effect of the tubes and the fins material, and the fin pitch effect. The purpose is to extend the duration of a frosting cycle.

  12. Facial expression and vocal pitch height: Evidence of an intermodal association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, David; Dahl, Sofia; Johnson, Randolph

    2009-01-01

    region, judges still rated the high-pitch faces friendlier than the low-pitch faces. These results are consistent with prior research showing that vocal pitch height is used to signal aggression (low pitch) or appeasement (high pitch). An analysis of the facial features shows a strong correlation between...... eyebrow position and sung pitch—consistent with the role of eyebrows in signaling aggression and appeasement. Overall, the results are consistent with an inter-modal linkage between vocal and facial expressions....

  13. Influence of Pitch Height on the Perception of Submissiveness and Threat in Musical Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Bolinger, Ohala, Morton and others have established that vocal pitch height is perceived to be associated with social signals of dominance and submissiveness: higher vocal pitch is associated with submissiveness, whereas lower vocal pitch is associated with social dominance. An experiment was carried out to test this relationship in the perception of non-vocal melodies. Results show a parallel situation in music: higher-pitched melodies sound more submissive (less threatening than lower-pitched melodies.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Transient Flows around a 3D Pitching Hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of the transient flows around a 3D pitching hydrofoil via numerical studies, where the effects of tunnel wall boundary layer and gap flows are considered. Simulations are performed using an unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes solver and the k-ω SST turbulence model, coupled with a two-equation γ-Reθ transition model. Hydrodynamic forces and flow structures are compared to the results with the equivalent 2D computations. During the upward pitching stage, the transition phenomenon is accurately captured by both the 2D and 3D simulations. The slightly lower lift and suction side loading coefficients predicted by the 3D simulation are due to the pressure effects caused by the tip gap flow. During the dynamic stall stage, the 2D case exhibits a clear overshoot on the hydrodynamic force coefficients and the 3D simulation results better agree with the experimental results. During the downward pitching stage, the flow transitions back to laminar. As for the effect of gap flow and the wall boundary condition, the gap flow causes disturbances to the formation and development of the vortex structures, resulting in the complex distribution of the three-dimensional streamlines and the particle path.

  15. Pre- and Postseason Dynamic Ultrasound Evaluation of the Pitching Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Bey, Michael J; Ahmed, Hafeez; Scher, Courtney E; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-09-01

    To use ultrasound imaging to document changes over time (i.e., preseason v postseason) in the pitching elbow of high school baseball pitchers. Twenty-two high school pitchers were prospectively followed. Pitchers were evaluated after a 2-month period of relative arm rest via preseason physical exams, dynamic ultrasound imaging of their throwing elbow, and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) assessment. Players were reevaluated within 1 week of their last game. Dynamic ultrasound images were then randomized, blinded to testing time point, and evaluated by 2 fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Average pitcher age was 16.9 years. Average pitches thrown was 456.5, maximum velocity 77.7 mph, games pitched 7.3, and days off between starts 6.6. From preseason to postseason, there were significant increases in ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) thickness (P = .02), ulnar nerve cross-sectional area (P = .001), UCL substance heterogeneity (P = .001), and QuickDASH scores (P = .03). In addition, there was a nonsignificant increase in loaded ulnohumeral joint space (P = .10). No pitchers had loose bodies on preseason exam, while 3 demonstrated loose bodies postseason. The increase in UCL thickness was significantly associated with the number of bullpen sessions per week (P = .01). The increase in ulnar nerve cross-sectional area was significantly associated with the number of pitches (P = .04), innings pitched (P = .01), and games pitched (P = .04). The stresses placed on the elbow during only one season of pitching create adaptive changes to multiple structures about the elbow including UCL heterogeneity and thickening, increased ulnohumeral joint space laxity, and enlarged ulnar nerve cross-sectional area. Level II prospective observational study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural mechanisms underlying melodic perception and memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, R J; Evans, A C; Meyer, E

    1994-04-01

    The neural correlates of music perception were studied by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes with positron emission tomography (PET). Twelve volunteers were scanned using the bolus water method under four separate conditions: (1) listening to a sequence of noise bursts, (2) listening to unfamiliar tonal melodies, (3) comparing the pitch of the first two notes of the same set of melodies, and (4) comparing the pitch of the first and last notes of the melodies. The latter two conditions were designed to investigate short-term pitch retention under low or high memory load, respectively. Subtraction of the obtained PET images, superimposed on matched MRI scans, provides anatomical localization of CBF changes associated with specific cognitive functions. Listening to melodies, relative to acoustically matched noise sequences, resulted in CBF increases in the right superior temporal and right occipital cortices. Pitch judgments of the first two notes of each melody, relative to passive listening to the same stimuli, resulted in right frontal-lobe activation. Analysis of the high memory load condition relative to passive listening revealed the participation of a number of cortical and subcortical regions, notably in the right frontal and right temporal lobes, as well as in parietal and insular cortex. Both pitch judgment conditions also revealed CBF decreases within the left primary auditory cortex. We conclude that specialized neural systems in the right superior temporal cortex participate in perceptual analysis of melodies; pitch comparisons are effected via a neural network that includes right prefrontal cortex, but active retention of pitch involves the interaction of right temporal and frontal cortices.

  17. Learning for pitch and melody discrimination in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2018-03-23

    Congenital amusia is currently thought to be a life-long neurogenetic disorder in music perception, impervious to training in pitch or melody discrimination. This study provides an explicit test of whether amusic deficits can be reduced with training. Twenty amusics and 20 matched controls participated in four sessions of psychophysical training involving either pure-tone (500 Hz) pitch discrimination or a control task of lateralization (interaural level differences for bandpass white noise). Pure-tone pitch discrimination at low, medium, and high frequencies (500, 2000, and 8000 Hz) was measured before and after training (pretest and posttest) to determine the specificity of learning. Melody discrimination was also assessed before and after training using the full Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, the most widely used standardized test to diagnose amusia. Amusics performed more poorly than controls in pitch but not localization discrimination, but both groups improved with practice on the trained stimuli. Learning was broad, occurring across all three frequencies and melody discrimination for all groups, including those who trained on the non-pitch control task. Following training, 11 of 20 amusics no longer met the global diagnostic criteria for amusia. A separate group of untrained controls (n = 20), who also completed melody discrimination and pretest, improved by an equal amount as trained controls on all measures, suggesting that the bulk of learning for the control group occurred very rapidly from the pretest. Thirty-one trained participants (13 amusics) returned one year later to assess long-term maintenance of pitch and melody discrimination. On average, there was no change in performance between posttest and one-year follow-up, demonstrating that improvements on pitch- and melody-related tasks in amusics and controls can be maintained. The findings indicate that amusia is not always a life-long deficit when using the current standard

  18. Faster decline of pitch memory over time in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J; McDonald, Claire; Deutsch, Diana; Griffiths, Timothy D; Stewart, Lauren

    2010-04-26

    Congenital amusia (amusia, hereafter) is a developmental disorder that impacts negatively on the perception of music. Psychophysical testing suggests that individuals with amusia have above average thresholds for detection of pitch change and pitch direction discrimination; however, a low-level auditory perceptual problem cannot completely explain the disorder, since discrimination of melodies is also impaired when the constituent intervals are suprathreshold for perception. The aim of the present study was to test pitch memory as a function of (a) time and (b) tonal interference, in order to determine whether pitch traces are inherently weaker in amusic individuals. Memory for the pitch of single tones was compared using two versions of a paradigm developed by Deutsch (1970a). In both tasks, participants compared the pitch of a standard (S) versus a comparison (C) tone. In the time task, the S and C tones were presented, separated in time by 0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 s (blocked presentation). In the interference task, the S and C tones were presented with a fixed time interval (5 s) but with a variable number of irrelevant tones in between 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 tones (blocked presentation). In the time task, control performance remained high for all time intervals, but amusics showed a performance decrement over time. In the interference task, controls and amusics showed a similar performance decrement with increasing number of irrelevant tones. Overall, the results suggest that the pitch representations of amusic individuals are less stable and more prone to decay than those of matched non-amusic individuals.

  19. Lagrangian-based investigation of the transient flow structures around a pitching hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Huang, Biao; Wang, Guoyu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the transient flow structures around a pitching hydrofoil by combining physical and numerical studies. In order to predict the dynamic behavior of the flow structure effectively, the Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) defined by the ridges of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) are utilized under the framework of Navier-Stokes flow computations. In the numerical simulations, the k-ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model, coupled with a two-equation γ {-Re}_θ transition model, is used for the turbulence closure. Results are presented for a NACA66 hydrofoil undergoing slowly and rapidly pitching motions from 0° to 15° then back to 0° at a moderate Reynolds number Re=7.5× 105. The results reveal that the transient flow structures can be observed by the LCS method. For the slowly pitching case, it consists of five stages: quasi-steady and laminar, transition from laminar to turbulent, vortex development, large-scale vortex shedding, and reverting to laminar. The observation of LCS and Lagrangian particle tracers elucidates that the trailing edge vortex is nearly attached and stable during the vortex development stage and the interaction between the leading and trailing edge vortex caused by the adverse pressure gradient forces the vortexes to shed downstream during the large-scale vortex shedding stage, which corresponds to obvious fluctuations of the hydrodynamic response. For the rapidly pitching case, the inflection is hardly to be observed and the stall is delayed. The vortex formation, interaction, and shedding occurred once instead of being repeated three times, which is responsible for just one fluctuation in the hydrodynamic characteristics. The numerical results also show that the FTLE field has the potential to identify the transient flows, and the LCS can represent the divergence extent of infinite neighboring particles and capture the interface of the vortex region.

  20. The Significance of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Pitch Memory in Non-musicians Depends on Baseline Pitch Memory Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Schaal, Nora K.; Kretschmer, Marina; Keitel, Ariane; Krause, Vanessa; Pfeifer, Jasmin; Pollok, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Pitch memory is a resource which is shared by music and language. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is activated during pitch memory processes. The present study investigated the causal significance of this brain area for pitch memory in non-musicians by applying cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right DLPFC and examining the impact on offline pitch and visual memory span performances. On the overall s...

  1. Pitch contour identification with combined place and temporal cues using cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Padilla, Monica; Landsberger, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the integration of place- and temporal-pitch cues in pitch contour identification (PCI), in which cochlear implant (CI) users were asked to judge the overall pitch-change direction of stimuli. Falling and rising pitch contours were created either by continuously steering current between adjacent electrodes (place pitch), by continuously changing amplitude modulation (AM) frequency (temporal pitch), or both. The percentage of rising responses was recorded as a function of current steering or AM frequency change, with single or combined pitch cues. A significant correlation was found between subjects’ sensitivity to current steering and AM frequency change. The integration of place- and temporal-pitch cues was most effective when the two cues were similarly discriminable in isolation. Adding the other (place or temporal) pitch cues shifted the temporal- or place-pitch psychometric functions horizontally without changing the slopes. PCI was significantly better with consistent place- and temporal-pitch cues than with inconsistent cues. PCI with single cues and integration of pitch cues were similar on different electrodes. The results suggest that CI users effectively integrate place- and temporal-pitch cues in relative pitch perception tasks. Current steering and AM frequency change should be coordinated to better transmit dynamic pitch information to CI users. PMID:22352506

  2. Study of Pumping Capacity of Pitched Blade Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fořt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the pumping capacity of pitched blade impellers in a cylindrical pilot plant vessel with four standard radial baffles at the wall under a turbulent regime of flow. The pumping capacity was calculated from the radial profile of the axial flow, under the assumption of axial symmetry of the discharge flow. The mean velocity was measured using laser Doppler anemometry in a transparent vessel of diameter T = 400 mm, provided with a standard dished bottom. Three and six blade pitched blade impellers (the pitch angle varied within the interval a Îá24°; 45°ń of impeller/vessel diameter ratio D/T = 0.36, as well as a three blade pitched blade impeller with folded blades of the same diameter, were tested. The calculated results were compared with the results of experiments mentioned in the literature, above all in cylindrical vessels with a flat bottom. Both arrangements of the agitated system were described by the impeller energetic efficiency, i.e, a criterion including in dimensionless form both the impeller energy consumption (impeller power input and the impeller pumping effect (impeller pumping capacity. It follows from the results obtained with various geometrical configurations that the energetic efficiency of pitched blade impellers is significantly lower for configurations suitable for mixing solid-liquid suspensions (low impeller off bottom clearances than for blending miscible liquids in mixing (higher impeller off bottom clearances.

  3. American model of a plea bargaining in criminal proceedings, with accent on some negative aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feješ Ištvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the subject in this paper divided into introduction, five chapters and conclusion. In the introduction author gives a brief discussion on the possibilities and negative aspects of a settlement in a criminal proceeding. The first chapter deals with a brief history of origin 'plea bargaining' in judicial practice and legislation of United States. The second chapter deals with the issue of choice of form of procedure and types of settlement. The third chapter presents arguments which justify the plea bargaining. The fourth chapter is devoted to criticism of the plea bargaining. The fifth chapter deals with the evaluation of the settlement and the prospects for reform of the institute. In a brief conclusion the author raises concerns about the danger of an uncritical acceptance of the plea bargaining and its restoration in other legal systems. Author emphases that the acceptance of this institute is possible only with caution and adjustment to given legal system.

  4. Theoretical analysis of Sloshing effect on Pitch Angel to optimize quick dive on litoral submarine 22 M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, L. T. P.

    2016-11-01

    This study considers the analytic theoretical model. The Submarine was considered to be rigid body are free sailing model with various angle of attack to be quick dive as pitching motion. By using Floating Body Mechanism supported by analytic model to describe the theoretical model analisys test. For the case of fluid level on 30% of the front balast tank and various angle of pitch. The paper describes a study on Analytic theoretical and modeling in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). For Analyzing at special care of sloshing on free surce ballast tank after peak and fore peak were taken into consideration. In general, both methods (analytic model and CFD model) demonstrated such a good agreement, particularly in the consistent trend of RAO.

  5. Vortex wake interactions and energy harvesting from tandem pitching and heaving hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yunxing; Cardona, Jennifer; Miller, Michael; Mandre, Shreyas; Breuer, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of flow structure and power extraction by tandem pitching and heaving hydrofoils are conducted in a flume. The leading and trailing hydrofoils are synchronized and aligned parallel to the oncoming flow. Force measurements and time-resolved PIV are used to characterize the system. The system efficiency of tandem foils with the same kinematics is quantified as a function of the phase difference between the foils and there exist favorable and unfavorable phase angles and that system efficiencies can be as large as 0.45. For unfavorable phase angles, PIV indicates that the leading edge vortex generated by the trailing foil, which is critical to good energy harvesting, is weakened by the oncoming wake from the leading foil. Conversely, at a favorable phase, the vortex shed from the leading foil enhances the performance of the trailing foil, compensating for the otherwise negative aspects of operating in the wake. A model, combining frequency, separation distance and a characteristic convection velocity, is introduced to predict the optimal phase region and is validated over a range of parameters. By changing the pitching amplitude and phase angle in trailing foil we show that relatively larger pitching amplitudes can further improve the system efficiency. ARPA-e.

  6. Control of Variable Speed Variable Pitch Wind Turbine at Above and Below Rated Wind Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanakumar Rajendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a nonlinear approach to wind turbine (WT using two-mass model. The main aim of the controller in the WT is to maximize the energy output at varying wind speed. In this work, a combination of linear and nonlinear controllers is adapted to variable speed variable pitch wind turbines (VSVPWT system. The major operating regions of the WT are below (region 2 and above rated (region 3 wind speed. In these regions, generator torque control (region 2 and pitch control (region 3 are used. The controllers in WT are tested for below and above rated wind speed for step and vertical wind speed profile. The performances of the controllers are analyzed with nonlinear FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence WT dynamic simulation. In this paper, two nonlinear controllers, that is, sliding mode control (SMC and integral sliding mode control (ISMC, have been applied for region 2, whereas for pitch control in region 3 conventional PI control is used. In ISMC, the sliding manifold makes use of an integral action to show effective qualities of control in terms of the control level reduction and sliding mode switching control minimization.

  7. Bridging the gap between perceptual and cognitive perspectives on absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Rogenmoser, Lars; Kühnis, Jürg; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-01-07

    Absolute pitch (AP) refers to the rare ability to identify the chroma of a tone or to produce a specific pitch without reference to keyality (e.g., G or C). Previously, AP has been proposed to rely on the distinctive functional-anatomical architecture of the left auditory-related cortex (ARC), this specific trait possibly enabling an optimized early "categorical perception". In contrast, currently prevailing models of AP postulate that cognitive rather than perceptual processes, namely "pitch labeling" mechanisms, more likely constitute the bearing skeleton of AP. This associative memory component has previously been proposed to be dependent, among other mechanisms, on the recruitment of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as well as on the integrity of the left arcuate fasciculus, a fiber bundle linking the posterior supratemporal plane with the DLPFC. Here, we attempted to integrate these two apparently conflicting perspectives on AP, namely early "categorical perception" and "pitch labeling". We used electroencephalography and evaluated resting-state intracranial functional connectivity between the left ARC and DLPFC in a sample of musicians with and without AP. Results demonstrate significantly increased left-hemispheric theta phase synchronization in AP compared with non-AP musicians. Within the AP group, this specific electrophysiological marker was predictive of absolute-hearing behavior and explained ∼30% of variance. Thus, we propose that in AP subjects the tonal inputs and the corresponding mnemonic representations are tightly coupled in such a manner that the distinctive electrophysiological signature of AP can saliently be detected in only 3 min of resting-state measurements. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350366-06$15.00/0.

  8. Wing-pitch modulation in maneuvering fruit flies is explained by an interplay between aerodynamics and a torsional spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2015-08-01

    While the wing kinematics of many flapping insects have been well characterized, understanding the underlying sensory, neural, and physiological mechanisms that determine these kinematics is still a challenge. Two main difficulties in understanding the physiological mechanisms arise from the complexity of the interaction between a flapping wing and its own unsteady flow, as well as the intricate mechanics of the insect wing hinge, which is among the most complicated joints in the animal kingdom. These difficulties call for the application of reduced-order approaches. Here this strategy is used to model the torques exerted by the wing hinge along the wing-pitch axis of maneuvering fruit flies as a damped torsional spring with elastic and damping coefficients as well as a rest angle. Furthermore, we model the air flows using simplified quasistatic aerodynamics. Our findings suggest that flies take advantage of the passive coupling between aerodynamics and the damped torsional spring to indirectly control their wing-pitch kinematics by modulating the spring parameters. The damped torsional-spring model explains the changes measured in wing-pitch kinematics during roll correction maneuvers through modulation of the spring damping and elastic coefficients. These results, in conjunction with the previous literature, indicate that flies can accurately control their wing-pitch kinematics on a sub-wing-beat time scale by modulating all three effective spring parameters on longer time scales.

  9. Electrically tuned photoluminescence in large pitch cholesteric liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middha, Manju; Kumar, Rishi; Raina, K. K.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals are known as 1-D photonic band gap materials due to their periodic helical supramolecular structure and larger birefringence. Depending upon the helical twisted pitch length, they give the characteristic contrast due to selective Bragg reflections when viewed through the polarizing optical microscope and hence affect the electro-optic properties. So the optimization of chiral dopant concentration in nematic liquid crystal leads to control the transmission of polarized light through the microscope. Hence transmission based polarizing optical microscope is used for the characterization of helical pitch length in the optical texture. The unwinding of helical pitch was observed with the application of electric field which affects the intensity of photoluminescence

  10. Demonstration of partial pitch 2-bladed wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Zahle, Frederik; Troldborg, Niels

    This is the final report for the EUDP project performed from January 2012 to December 2015. The main objective for the project was to demonstrate the potential of the partial pitch two-bladed (PP-2B) technology. DTU Wind Energy took a responsibility for three workpackages (WPs) among 6 WPs which...... were aerodynamic evaluation of partial pitch technology (WP2), aeroelastic analysis of two-bladed turbine (WP3) and On-site testing (WP4). For the WP2, a comprehensive set of 3D CFD simulations including the gap between inner and outer part of the blade and vortex generators (VGs) of both cross...... pitch concept and detailed load analyses were performed. Also the comparison studies between numerical results and experimental results were performed. Moreover stability analyses for the PP- 2B turbine have been performed with HAWC2 and modal analysis using Hill’s method was performed to calculate...

  11. Pitching stability analysis of half-rotating wing air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Wu, Yang; Li, Qian; Li, Congmin; Qiu, Zhizhen

    2017-06-01

    Half-Rotating Wing (HRW) is a new power wing which had been developed by our work team using rotating-type flapping instead of oscillating-type flapping. Half-Rotating Wing Air Vehicle (HRWAV) is similar as Bionic Flapping Wing Air Vehicle (BFWAV). It is necessary to guarantee pitching stability of HRWAV to maintain flight stability. The working principle of HRW was firstly introduced in this paper. The rule of motion indicated that the fuselage of HRWAV without empennage would overturn forward as it generated increased pitching movement. Therefore, the empennage was added on the tail of HRWAV to balance the additional moment generated by aerodynamic force during flight. The stability analysis further shows that empennage could weaken rapidly the pitching disturbance on HRWAV and a new balance of fuselage could be achieved in a short time. Case study using numerical analysis verified correctness and validity of research results mentioned above, which could provide theoretical guidance to design and control HRWAV.

  12. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerit, Francois Marie Louis Paul; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien

    practice. Behavioral pitch matching between the two ears has also been suggested, but has been shown to be tedious and unreliable. Here, an alternative method using two-formant vowels was developed and tested with a vocoder system simulating different CI insertion depths. The hypothesis was that patients...... may more easily identify vowels than perform a classical pitch-matching task. A spectral shift is inferred by comparing vowel spaces, measured by presenting the first formant in the HA and the second either in the HA or the CI. Preliminary results suggest that pitch mismatches can be derived from...... such vowel spaces. In order to take auditory adaptation in individual patients into account, the method will be tested with CI patients with contralateral residual hearing....

  13. Mapping Relational Operations onto Hypergraph Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    :LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid"/> Accent 1"/> Accent 1"/> Accent 1"/> Accent 1"/> Accent 1"/> Boosting pitch encoding with audiovisual interactions in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Lévêque, Yohana; Hyde, Krista L; Bouchet, Patrick; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The combination of information across senses can enhance perception, as revealed for example by decreased reaction times or improved stimulus detection. Interestingly, these facilitatory effects have been shown to be maximal when responses to unisensory modalities are weak. The present study investigated whether audiovisual facilitation can be observed in congenital amusia, a music-specific disorder primarily ascribed to impairments of pitch processing. Amusic individuals and their matched controls performed two tasks. In Task 1, they were required to detect auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli as rapidly as possible. In Task 2, they were required to detect as accurately and as rapidly as possible a pitch change within an otherwise monotonic 5-tone sequence that was presented either only auditorily (A condition), or simultaneously with a temporally congruent, but otherwise uninformative visual stimulus (AV condition). Results of Task 1 showed that amusics exhibit typical auditory and visual detection, and typical audiovisual integration capacities: both amusics and controls exhibited shorter response times for audiovisual stimuli than for either auditory stimuli or visual stimuli. Results of Task 2 revealed that both groups benefited from simultaneous uninformative visual stimuli to detect pitch changes: accuracy was higher and response times shorter in the AV condition than in the A condition. The audiovisual improvements of response times were observed for different pitch interval sizes depending on the group. These results suggest that both typical listeners and amusic individuals can benefit from multisensory integration to improve their pitch processing abilities and that this benefit varies as a function of task difficulty. These findings constitute the first step towards the perspective to exploit multisensory paradigms to reduce pitch-related deficits in congenital amusia, notably by suggesting that audiovisual paradigms are effective in an appropriate

  14. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-04

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots.

  15. Flare evaluation for 32-nm half pitch using SFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hajime; Tanaka, Yuusuke; Kamo, Takashi; Iriki, Nobuyuki; Arisawa, Yukiyasu; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    2008-03-01

    Flare degrades critical-dimension (CD) control in EUVL, a promising technology for the 32-nm half-pitch node. To deal with flare, high-quality projection optics in the exposure tool and flare variation compensation (FVC) technology with proper mask resizing are needed. Selete has installed a small-field exposure tool (SFET) with the goal of assessing resist performance. Due to the high-quality optics, the SFET allowed us to determine the required flare specification to be 6.1% or 6.6%, as calculated from the residual part of the low- or middle-frequency region, respectively. The flare level was confirmed through experimental results and from calculations using the power spectral density (PSD) obtained from the mirror roughness by the disappearing-resist method. The lithographic performance was evaluated using 32-nm-halfpitch patterns in a new resist. The resist characteristics can be explained by modeling blur as a Gaussian function with a σ of 8.8 nm and using a very accurate CD variation (area or not, there was no difference in CD as a function of distance up to a distance of 20 µm. In addition, CD degradation was observed at distances not far (area. In a 60-nm neighborhood of the open area, an 8-nm variation in CD appeared up to the distance at which the CD leveled off. When the influences of resist blur and flare on patterns was taken into account in the calculation, it was found that aerial simulations based on a rigorous 3D model of a mask structure matched the experimental results. These results yield the appropriate mask resizing and the range in which flare has an influence, which is needed for FVC. This research was supported in part by NEDO.

  16. Automatic pitch detection for a computer game interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Solis, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    A software able to recognize notes played by musical instruments is created through automatic pitch recognition. A pitch recognition algorithm is embedded into a software project, using the C implementation of SWIPEP. A memory game is chosen for project. A sequence of notes is listened and played by user to the computer, using a soprano recorder flute. The basic concepts to understand the acoustic phenomena involved are explained. The paper is aimed for all students with basic programming knowledge and want to incorporate sound processing to their projects. (author) [es

  17. Electric Control Substituting Pitch Control for Large Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Kjellin

    2013-01-01

    turbine has fixed pitch and is only controlled electrically accommodated by passive stall of the blades. By electrically controlling the generator rotational speed with the inverter, passive stall regulation is enabled. The first results on experimental verification of stall regulation in gusty wind speeds are presented. The experiments show that the control system can keep the turbine rotational speed constant even at very gusty winds. It is concluded that electrical control accommodated by passive stall is sufficient as control of the wind turbine even at high wind speeds and can substitute mechanical control such as blade pitch.

  18. Adaptive sliding mode back-stepping pitch angle control of a variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system for wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiu-xing; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Liu, Hong-wei; Gu, Ya-jing

    2015-09-01

    A variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system is proposed to mitigate generator power and flap-wise load fluctuations for wind turbines. The pitch system mainly consists of a variable-displacement hydraulic pump, a fixed-displacement hydraulic motor and a gear set. The hydraulic motor can be accurately regulated by controlling the pump displacement and fluid flows to change the pitch angle through the gear set. The detailed mathematical representation and dynamic characteristics of the proposed pitch system are thoroughly analyzed. An adaptive sliding mode pump displacement controller and a back-stepping stroke piston controller are designed for the proposed pitch system such that the resulting pitch angle tracks its desired value regardless of external disturbances and uncertainties. The effectiveness and control efficiency of the proposed pitch system and controllers have been verified by using realistic dataset of a 750 kW research wind turbine. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of Nano-Grating Pitch Evaluation Method Based on Line Edge Roughness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitch uncertainty and line edge roughness are among the critical quality attributes of a pitch standard and normally the analyses of these two parameters are separate. The analysis of self-traceable Cr atom lithography nano-gratings shows a positive relevance and sensitivity between LER and evaluated standard deviation of pitch. Therefore, LER can be used as an aided pre-evaluation parameter for the pitch calculation method, such as the gravity center method or the zero-crossing points method. The optimization of the nano-grating evaluation method helps to obtain the accurate pitch value with fewer measurements and provide a comprehensive characterization of pitch standards.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Experiencing Platform Pitching Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanhtoan Tran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to illustrate the unsteady aerodynamic effects of a floating offshore wind turbine experiencing the prescribed pitching motion of a supporting floating platform as a sine function. The three-dimensional, unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear-stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model were applied. Moreover, an overset grid approach was used to model the rigid body motion of a wind turbine blade. The current simulation results are compared to various approaches from previous studies. The unsteady aerodynamic loads of the blade were demonstrated to change drastically with respect to the frequency and amplitude of platform motion.

  2. The influence of lexical characteristics and talker accent on the recognition of English words by speakers of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kiyoko; Munson, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Whether or not the influence of listeners' language proficiency on L2 speech recognition was affected by the structure of the lexicon was examined. This specific experiment examined the effect of word frequency (WF) and phonological neighborhood density (PND) on word recognition in native speakers of English and second-language (L2) speakers of English whose first language was Japanese. The stimuli included English words produced by a native speaker of English and English words produced by a native speaker of Japanese (i.e., with Japanese-accented English). The experiment was inspired by the finding of Imai, Flege, and Walley [(2005). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 896-907] that the influence of talker accent on speech intelligibility for L2 learners of English whose L1 is Spanish varies as a function of words' PND. In the currently study, significant interactions between stimulus accentedness and listener group on the accuracy and speed of spoken word recognition were found, as were significant effects of PND and WF on word-recognition accuracy. However, no significant three-way interaction among stimulus talker, listener group, and PND on either measure was found. Results are discussed in light of recent findings on cross-linguistic differences in the nature of the effects of PND on L2 phonological and lexical processing.

  3. Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria.

  4. Changes in pitch height elicit both language-universal and language-dependent changes in neural representation of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Suresh, Chandan H; Gandour, Jackson T

    2017-03-27

    Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on (i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, (ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and (iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure. Stimuli were three nonspeech homologs of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in pitch height only. The frequency-following response (FFR) and the cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) were recorded concurrently. At the Fz-linked T7/T8 site, peak latency of Na, Pb, and Nb decreased with increasing pitch height for both groups. Peak-to-peak amplitude of Na-Pb and Pb-Nb increased with increasing pitch height across groups. A language-dependent effect was restricted to Na-Pb; the Chinese had larger amplitude than the English group. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the Chinese group had larger amplitude, as compared to English, across stimuli, but also limited to the Na-Pb component and right temporal site. In the brainstem, F0 magnitude decreased with increasing pitch height; Chinese had larger magnitude across stimuli. A comparison of CPR and FFR responses revealed distinct patterns of relative changes in magnitude common to both groups. CPR amplitude increased and FFR amplitude decreased with increasing pitch height. Experience-dependent effects on CPR components vary as a function of neural sensitivity to pitch height within a particular temporal window (Na-Pb). Differences between the auditory brainstem and cortex imply distinct neural mechanisms for pitch extraction at both levels of brain structure. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in pitch height elicit both language universal and language dependent changes in neural representation of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Suresh, Chandan H.; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2017-01-01

    Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure. Stimuli were three nonspeech homologs of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in pitch height only. The frequency-following response (FFR) and the cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) were recorded concurrently. At the Fz-linked T7/T8 site, peak latency of Na, Pb, and Nb decreased with increasing pitch height for both groups. Peak-to-peak amplitude of Na–Pb and Pb–Nb increased with increasing pitch height across groups. A language-dependent effect was restricted to Na-Pb; the Chinese had larger amplitude than the English group. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the Chinese group had larger amplitude, as compared to English, across stimuli, but also limited to the Na-Pb component and right temporal site. In the brainstem, F0 magnitude decreased with increasing pitch height; Chinese had larger magnitude across stimuli. A comparison of CPR and FFR responses revealed distinct patterns of relative changes in magnitude common to both groups. CPR amplitude increased and FFR amplitude decreased with increasing pitch height. Experience-dependent effects on CPR components vary as a function of neural sensitivity to pitch height within a particular temporal window (Na–Pb). Differences between the auditory brainstem and cortex imply distinct neural mechanisms for pitch extraction at both levels of brain structure. PMID:28108254

  6. The ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere-atmosphere interactions in a Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S.; Mereu, S.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.; Vitale, M.; Manes, F.; Frattoni, M.; Ciccioli, P.; Loreto, F.

    2009-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere interactions were investigated on a sandy dune Mediterranean ecosystem in a field campaign held in 2007 within the frame of the European Projects ACCENT and VOCBAS. The campaign was carried out in the Presidential estate of Castelporziano, a peri-urban park close to Rome where several investigations on the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in Mediterranean area were performed in the past 15 years. While specific aspects of the campaign will be discussed in companion papers, the general climatic and physiological aspects will be presented here together with information regarding BVOC emission from the most common plants present in this ecosystem. During the campaign regular air movements were observed, dominated by moderate nocturnal land breeze and diurnal sea breeze. A regular daily increase of ozone concentration in the air was also observed, but daily peaks of ozone were much lower than those measured downwind of the Rome conurbation. The site was ideal as a natural photochemical reactor to observe reaction, transport and deposition processes occurring in the Mediterranean basin, where a sea-land breeze circulation system allows a strong mixing between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions and secondary pollutants. The campaign investigated emissions from a poorly studied and largely biodiverse ecosystem, often subjected to a combination of environmental stresses and to anthropogenic pollution. Measurements were run in May, when plant physiological conditions were still optimal, in absence of severe drought and heat stress. Foliar rates of photosynthesis and transpiration were as high as generally recorded in unstressed Mediterranean sclerophyllous plants. Most of the plant species emitted high level of monoterpenes, despite measurements being made in a period in which emissions of volatile isoprenoids could be restrained by developmental and environmental factors, such as leaf age and relatively low air temperature. No

  7. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    . This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  8. Long-term pitch memory for music recordings is related to auditory working memory precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon Lm; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2018-04-01

    Most individuals have reliable long-term memories for the pitch of familiar music recordings. This pitch memory (1) appears to be normally distributed in the population, (2) does not depend on explicit musical training and (3) only seems to be weakly related to differences in listening frequency estimates. The present experiment was designed to assess whether individual differences in auditory working memory could explain variance in long-term pitch memory for music recordings. In Experiment 1, participants first completed a musical note adjustment task that has been previously used to assess working memory of musical pitch. Afterward, participants were asked to judge the pitch of well-known music recordings, which either had or had not been shifted in pitch. We found that performance on the pitch working memory task was significantly related to performance in the pitch memory task using well-known recordings, even when controlling for overall musical experience and familiarity with each recording. In Experiment 2, we replicated these findings in a separate group of participants while additionally controlling for fluid intelligence and non-pitch-based components of auditory working memory. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that participants could not accurately judge the pitch of unfamiliar recordings, suggesting that our method of pitch shifting did not result in unwanted acoustic cues that could have aided participants in Experiments 1 and 2. These results, taken together, suggest that the ability to maintain pitch information in working memory might lead to more accurate long-term pitch memory.

  9. A theoretical analysis of pitch stability during gliding in flying snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Farid; Ross, Shane D; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Socha, John J

    2014-06-01

    Flying snakes use their entire body as a continuously morphing 'wing' to produce lift and shallow their glide trajectory. Their dominant behavior during gliding is aerial undulation, in which lateral waves are sent posteriorly down the body. This highly dynamic behavior, which is unique among animal gliders, should have substantial effects on the flight dynamics and stability of the snakes, resulting from the continuous redistribution of mass and aerodynamic forces. In this study, we develop two-dimensional theoretical models to assess the stability characteristics of snakes in the pitch direction. Previously measured force coefficients are used to simulate aerodynamic forces acting on the models, and undulation is simulated by varying mass. Model 1 is a simple three-airfoil representation of the snake's body that possesses a passively stable equilibrium solution, whose basin of stability contains initial conditions observed in experimental gliding trajectories. Model 2 is more sophisticated, with more degrees of freedom allowing for postural changes to better represent the snake's real kinematics; in addition, a restoring moment is added to simulate potential active control. The application of static and dynamic stability criteria show that Model 2 is passively unstable, but can be stabilized with a restoring moment. Overall, these models suggest that undulation does not contribute to stability in pitch, and that flying snakes require a closed-loop control system formed around a passively stable dynamical framework.

  10. A theoretical analysis of pitch stability during gliding in flying snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, Farid; Ross, Shane D; Socha, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2014-01-01

    Flying snakes use their entire body as a continuously morphing ‘wing’ to produce lift and shallow their glide trajectory. Their dominant behavior during gliding is aerial undulation, in which lateral waves are sent posteriorly down the body. This highly dynamic behavior, which is unique among animal gliders, should have substantial effects on the flight dynamics and stability of the snakes, resulting from the continuous redistribution of mass and aerodynamic forces. In this study, we develop two-dimensional theoretical models to assess the stability characteristics of snakes in the pitch direction. Previously measured force coefficients are used to simulate aerodynamic forces acting on the models, and undulation is simulated by varying mass. Model 1 is a simple three-airfoil representation of the snake’s body that possesses a passively stable equilibrium solution, whose basin of stability contains initial conditions observed in experimental gliding trajectories. Model 2 is more sophisticated, with more degrees of freedom allowing for postural changes to better represent the snake’s real kinematics; in addition, a restoring moment is added to simulate potential active control. The application of static and dynamic stability criteria show that Model 2 is passively unstable, but can be stabilized with a restoring moment. Overall, these models suggest that undulation does not contribute to stability in pitch, and that flying snakes require a closed-loop control system formed around a passively stable dynamical framework. (papers)

  11. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    For bimodal patients, with a hearing aid (HA) in one ear and a cochlear implant (CI) in the opposite ear, usually a default frequency-to-electrode map is used in the CI. This assumes that the human brain can adapt to interaural place-pitch mismatches. This “one-size-fits-all” method might be part...

  12. Children's Identification of Questions from Rising Terminal Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Mathieu R.; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Young children are slow to master conventional intonation patterns in their "yes/no" questions, which may stem from imperfect understanding of the links between terminal pitch contours and pragmatic intentions. In Experiment 1, five to ten-year-old children and adults were required to judge utterances as questions or statements on the…

  13. Distraction by novel and pitch-deviant sounds in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Wetzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of attention is an important part of our executive functions and enables us to focus on relevant information and to ignore irrelevant information. The ability to shield against distraction by task-irrelevant sounds is suggested to mature during school age. The present study investigated the developmental time course of distraction in three groups of children aged 7 – 10 years. Two different types of distractor sounds that have been frequently used in auditory attention research – novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds – were presented within an oddball paradigm while children performed a visual categorization task. Reaction time measurements revealed decreasing distractor-related impairment with age. Novel environmental sounds impaired performance in the categorization task more than pitch-deviant sounds. The youngest children showed a pronounced decline of novel-related distraction effects throughout the experimental session. Such a significant decline as a result of practice was not observed in the pitch-deviant condition and not in older children. We observed no correlation between cross-modal distraction effects and performance in standardized tests of concentration and visual distraction. Results of the cross-modal distraction paradigm indicate that separate mechanisms underlying the processing of novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds develop with different time courses and that these mechanisms develop considerably within a few years in middle childhood.

  14. Periodic Burning In Table Mountain-Pitch Pine Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell B. Randles; David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of multiple, low intensity burns on vegetation and wildlife habitat in Table Mountain (Pinus pungens Lamb.)-pitch (Pinus rigida Mill.) pine communities were studied in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Treatments consisted of areas burned from one to four times at 3-4 year...

  15. Wear and Friction in a Controllable Pitch Propeller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godjevac, M.

    2010-01-01

    The author is a naval architect and this book is his PhD thesis. In this research the author focuses on friction in a controllable pitch propeller (CPP), formation of wear in a CPP system, and their mutual dependence. Instead of going deeply only in tribology aspects, the author tries to get an

  16. Pitch organisation in Hendrik Hofmeyr's Alleenstryd | May | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hendrik Hofmeyr's Alleenstryd is of seminal importance in the evolution of the composer's musical language. Emerging ideas of types of pitch organisation in earlier works are here for the first time organised into a fully integrated system and the principles applied here later became some of the most important hallmarks of ...

  17. Shoulder muscle firing patterns during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffet, M W; Jobe, F W; Pink, M M; Brault, J; Mathiyakom, W

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the activity of eight shoulder muscles during the windmill fast-pitch softball throw. Ten collegiate female pitchers were analyzed with intramuscular electromyography, high-speed cinematography, and motion analysis. The supraspinatus muscle fired maximally during arm elevation from the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, centralizing the humeral head within the glenoid. The posterior deltoid and teres minor muscles acted maximally from the 3 to 12 o'clock position phase to continue arm elevation and externally rotate the humerus. The pectoralis major muscle accelerated the arm from the 12 o'clock position to ball release phase. The serratus anterior muscle characteristically acted to position the scapula for optimal glenohumeral congruency, and the subscapularis muscle functioned as an internal rotator and to protect the anterior capsule. Although the windmill softball pitch is overtly different from the baseball pitch, several surprising similarities were revealed. The serratus anterior and pectoralis major muscles work in synchrony and seem to have similar functions in both pitches. Although the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are both posterior cuff muscles, they are characteristically uncoupled during the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, with the infraspinatus muscle acting more independently below 90 degrees. Subscapularis muscle activity seems important in dynamic anterior glenohumeral stabilization and as an internal rotator in both the baseball and softball throws.

  18. Pitch perception in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.; Williams, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of musical pitch detection in children with autistic spectrum disorders as compared with typically developing children. Seventeen children on the autistic spectrum (Mage=9.34, SDage=1.12) and 13 typically developing, chronological age-matched children (Mage=9.13,

  19. Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…

  20. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  1. Multilingual evaluation of voice disability index using pitch rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Shinohara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose the use of the pitch rate of free-form speech recorded by smartphones as an index of voice disability. This research compares the effectiveness of pitch rate, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR as indices of voice disability in English, German, and Japanese. Normally, the evaluation of these indices is performed using long-vowel sounds; however, this study included the recitation of a set passage, which is more similar to free-form speech. The results showed that for English, the jitter, shimmer, and HNR were very effective indices for long-vowel sounds, but the shimmer and HNR for read speech were considerably worse. Although the effectiveness of jitter as an index was maintained for read speech, the pitch rate was better in distinguishing between healthy individuals and patients with illnesses affecting their voice. The read speech results in German, Japanese, and English were similar, and the pitch rate showed the greatest efficiency for identification. Nevertheless, compared to English, the identification efficiency for the other two languages was lower.

  2. The thermal transformations of pitch and its compositions with thermoanthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Krysin, V.P.; Ulanovskii, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The loss of mass in the thermal transformations of a hard-coal pitch and its compositions with thermoanthracite in the temperature interval of 200-1000/sup 0/C takes place in two main stages: with a variable rate in the 200-600/sup 0/C interval and at a constant rate in the 600-1000/sup 0/C interval. The rate of the mass loss process in the 200-600/sup 0/C interval is determined mainly by the rate of diffusion of the volatile components and also of the light products of the thermal transformations of the pitch from the bulk to the phase separation boundary, and in the 600-1000/sup 0/C interval predominantly by the rate of the actual elementary chemical reaction. In the presence of thermoanthracite, the nature of the thermal transformations of the pitch does not change appreciably, while in the presence of silica synthetic reactions are intensified, which leads to an increase in the yield of solid residue by approximately 4 mass %. (A rise in the rate of heating of pitch-thermoanthracite compositions leads to the incomplete elimination of volatile products in the first stage, which has a favorable action on the increase in the yield of solid residue.)

  3. Diseases of pines caused by the pitch canker fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; Stephen W. Fraedrich; D. Adams

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, the pitch canker fungus, causes a number of serious diseases of Pinus species. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at different stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. When the pathogen infects the woody vegetative...

  4. Pitch, Tempo, and Timbral Preferences in Recorded Piano Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnick, Joel

    1980-01-01

    Subjects (96 undergraduate music students) were given freedom to alter pitch levels, tempos, and timbral qualities of tape recordings of 12 familiar and unfamiliar piano solos. Subject responses were analyzed for accuracy, as well as for preference directions. (Author/SJL)

  5. Pitch and Loudness Tinnitus in Individuals with Presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Bruna Macangnin; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Leticia Petersen Schmidt; Flores, Leticia Sousa; Pappen, Carlos Henrique; Dall'igna, Celso

    2016-10-01

    Introduction  Tinnitus is a symptom that is often associated with presbycusis. Objective  This study aims to analyze the existence of association among hearing thresholds, pitch, and loudness of tinnitus in individuals with presbycusis, considering the gender variable. Methods  Cross-sectional, descriptive, and prospective study, whose sample consisted of individuals with tinnitus and diagnosis of presbycusis. For the evaluation, we performed anamnesis along with otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, and acuphenometry to analyze the psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus individuals. Results  The sample consisted of 49 subjects, with a mean age of 69.57 ± 6.53 years, who presented unilateral and bilateral tinnitus, therefore, a sample of 80 ears. In analyzing the results, as for acuphenometry, the loudness of tinnitus was more present at 0dB and the pitch was 6HKz and 8HKz. Regarding the analysis of the association between the frequency of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus pitch, no statistical significance ( p  = 0.862) was found. As for the association between the intensity of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus loudness, no statistical significance ( p  = 0.115) was found. Conclusion  There is no significant association between the hearing loss of patients with presbycusis and the pitch and loudness of tinnitus.

  6. Pitch and Loudness Tinnitus in Individuals with Presbycusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seimetz, Bruna Macangnin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tinnitus is a symptom that is often associated with presbycusis. Objective This study aims to analyze the existence of association among hearing thresholds, pitch, and loudness of tinnitus in individuals with presbycusis, considering the gender variable. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and prospective study, whose sample consisted of individuals with tinnitus and diagnosis of presbycusis. For the evaluation, we performed anamnesis along with otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, and acuphenometry to analyze the psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus individuals. Results The sample consisted of 49 subjects, with a mean age of 69.57 ± 6.53 years, who presented unilateral and bilateral tinnitus, therefore, a sample of 80 ears. In analyzing the results, as for acuphenometry, the loudness of tinnitus was more present at 0dB and the pitch was 6HKz and 8HKz. Regarding the analysis of the association between the frequency of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus pitch, no statistical significance (p = 0.862 was found. As for the association between the intensity of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus loudness, no statistical significance (p = 0.115 was found. Conclusion There is no significant association between the hearing loss of patients with presbycusis and the pitch and loudness of tinnitus.

  7. The Relationship between Pitch and Space in Congenital Amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Cocchini, Gianna; Stewart, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia manifests as a lifelong difficulty in making sense of musical sound. The extent to which this disorder is accompanied by deficits in visuo-spatial processing is an important question, bearing on the issue of whether pitch processing draws on supramodal spatial representations. The present study assessed different aspects of…

  8. LQG Controller Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammed; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Variable speed wind turbine is a complex and nonlinear system, a sophisticated control is required to meet the challenges posed by these systems. This paper is presenting a pitch regulation strategy based on LQG (Linear Quadratic Gaussian) to regulate turbine at its rated power and to reject...

  9. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch propellers. 35.21 Section 35.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and...

  10. Pitch jnd and the tritone paradox: The linguistic nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Kourosh

    2002-11-01

    Previous research has shown a connection between absolute pitch (the ability to name a specific pitch in the absence of any reference) and native competence in a tone language (Deutsch, 1990). In tone languages, tone is one of the features which determines the lexical meaning of a word. This study investigates the relationship between native competence in a tone language and the just noticeable difference of pitch. Furthermore, the tritone paradox studies have shown that subjects hear two tritones (with bell-shaped spectral envelopes) as either ascending or descending depending on their linguistic backgrounds (Deutsch, 1987). It is hypothesized that the native speakers of tone languages have a higher JND for pitch, and hear the two tones of the tritone paradox as ascending, whereas, native speakers of nontone languages hear them as descending. This study will indicate the importance of early musical training for the development of acute tone sensitivity. It will also underline the importance of language and culture in the way it shapes our musical understanding. The significance of this study will be in the areas of music education and pedagogy.

  11. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... not a sufficient condition for the generation of thrust. The vortex strength is found to be invariant of the pitching frequency. Certain differences from the reported results are noted, which may be because of difference in the airfoil shape. These results can help improve understanding of the flow behavior as the low Reynolds ...

  12. Current Sociopolitical, Sociocultural, and Sociolinguistic Issues of Latino Immigrants in Julia Álvarez's Novel "How the García Girls Lost Their Accents"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Naar, José

    2016-01-01

    The sociopolitical, sociocultural, and sociolinguistic issues many Latino immigrants face as they embark on the process of adjusting to American society have been depicted by many Hispanic American writers in the United States. Julia Álvarez's "How the García Girls Lost Their Accents" attempts to raise awareness of these issues through…

  13. The Accented EFL Teacher: Classroom Implications (El acento del profesor de inglés como lengua extranjera: implicaciones pedagógicas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Arboleda, Argemiro; Castro Garcés, Ángela Yicely

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research study on how significant having a foreign accent is for non-native English as a foreign language teachers and learners at university level. It points out the perceptions that teachers and students have about the most relevant issues in the teaching and learning processes. Data were collected by means…

  14. The function of sentence accents and given/new information in speech processing: different strategies for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donselaar, W; Lentz, J

    1994-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate how the correspondence between sentence accentuation and distribution of information is used in human word processing. A forced-choice task with target words embedded in sentences was employed for this purpose. Target words provided either 'given' or 'new' information, and were either accented or unaccented. The subjects had to choose between two words that differed in the last consonant by one phonetic feature (e.g., mouth/mouse). The first experiment involved both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. A fixed amount of noise was used to reduce the quality of speech for normal-hearing listeners, in order to enable a comparison between the two listener groups. The results of the first experiment showed different processing patterns for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. The hearing-impaired listeners were more accurate with words that were properly accented for their information value, whereas the normal-hearing subjects were more accurate with accented than unaccented words regardless of their information value. A new group of normal-hearing subjects was tested in a second experiment with speech of more severely reduced quality. The results indicated that, under these circumstances, the normal-hearing listeners changed their strategy and also showed an interaction between information value and accent. It seems that, as speech becomes less intelligible, listeners depend increasingly on linguistic expectations stemming from the correlation between information value and accentuation.

  15. What do we need to hear a beat? The influence of attention, musical abilities, and accents on the perception of metrical rhythm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, F.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine beat perception, the process that allows us to make music together. I explore the effects of attention, musical abilities, and accents on beat perception. Additionally, I address several methodological issues that arise when probing beat perception with event-related

  16. "I like the Americans...but I Certainly Don't Aim for an American Accent": Language Attitudes, Vitality and Foreign Language Learning in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladegaard, Hans J.; Sachdev, Itesh

    2006-01-01

    The power and status of America in the world today are undeniable. This paper presents some empirical data about the attitudes and perceptions Danish learners of EFL have about British and American English. Ninety-six EFL learners participated in a verbal-guise experiment that involved rating different accents of English: American, Australian,…

  17. Not lost in translation: generalization of the primary systems hypothesis to Japanese-specific language processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru; Saito, Akie; Tanida, Yuki; Patterson, Karalyn; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    The emergentist-connectionist approach assumes that language processing reflects interaction between primary neural systems (Primary Systems Hypothesis). This idea offers an overarching framework that generalizes to various kinds of (English) language and nonverbal cognitive activities. The current study advances this approach with respect to language in two new and important ways. The first is the provision of a neuroanatomically constrained implementation of the theory. The second is a test of its ability to generalize to a language other than English (in this case Japanese) and, in particular, to a feature of that language (pitch accent) for which there is no English equivalent. A corpus analysis revealed the presence and distribution of typical and atypical accent forms in Japanese vocabulary, forming a quasiregular domain. Consequently, according to the Primary Systems Hypothesis, there should be a greater semantic impact on the processing of words with an atypical pitch accent. In turn, when word meaning is intrinsically less rich (e.g., abstract words), speakers should be prone to regularization errors of pitch accent. We explored these semantic-phonological interactions, first, in a neuroanatomically constrained, parallel-distributed processing model of spoken language processing. This model captured the accent typicality effect observed in nonword repetition in Japanese adults and children and exhibited the predicted semantic impact on repetition of words with atypical accent patterns. Second, also as predicted, in word repetition and immediate serial recall of spoken words, human participants exhibited reduced pitch-accent accuracy and/or slower RT for low imageability words with atypical accent patterns, and they generated accent errors reflecting the more typical accent patterns found in Japanese.

  18. Pitch, roll, and yaw variations in patient positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Adeel; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.; Smith, David D.; Han, Chunhui; Vora, Nayana L.; Pezner, Richard D.; Chen Yijen; Radany, Eric H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To use pretreatment megavoltage-computed tomography (MVCT) scans to evaluate positioning variations in pitch, roll, and yaw for patients treated with helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate and 15 head-and-neck cancer patients were selected. Pretreatment MVCT scans were performed before every treatment fraction and automatically registered to planning kilovoltage CT (KVCT) scans by bony landmarks. Image registration data were used to adjust patient setups before treatment. Corrections for pitch, roll, and yaw were recorded after bone registration, and data from fractions 1-5 and 16-20 were used to analyze mean rotational corrections. Results: For prostate patients, the means and standard deviations (in degrees) for pitch, roll, and yaw corrections were -0.60 ± 1.42, 0.66 ± 1.22, and -0.33 ± 0.83. In head-and-neck patients, the means and standard deviations (in degrees) were -0.24 ± 1.19, -0.12 ± 1.53, and 0.25 ± 1.42 for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. No significant difference in rotational variations was observed between Weeks 1 and 4 of treatment. Head-and-neck patients had significantly smaller pitch variation, but significantly larger yaw variation, than prostate patients. No difference was found in roll corrections between the two groups. Overall, 96.6% of the rotational corrections were less than 4 deg. Conclusions: The initial rotational setup errors for prostate and head-and-neck patients were all small in magnitude, statistically significant, but did not vary considerably during the course of radiotherapy. The data are relevant to couch hardware design for correcting rotational setup variations. There should be no theoretical difference between these data and data collected using cone beam KVCT on conventional linacs

  19. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vanzella

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names, it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP.A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation, which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age.Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  20. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2010-11-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.