WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling workers told

  1. Dose reconstruction modeling for medical radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yeong Chull; Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Won Jin

    2017-01-01

    Exposure information is a crucial element for the assessment of health risk due to radiation. Radiation doses received by medical radiation workers have been collected and maintained by public registry since 1996. Since exposure levels in the remote past are greater concern, it is essential to reconstruct unmeasured doses in the past using known information. We developed retrodiction models for different groups of medical radiation workers and estimate individual past doses before 1996. Reconstruction models for past radiation doses received by medical radiation workers were developed, and the past doses were estimated. Using these estimates, organ doses should be calculated which, in turn, will be used to explore a wide range of health risks of medical occupational radiation exposure. Reconstruction models for past radiation doses received by medical radiation workers were developed, and the past doses were estimated. Using these estimates, organ doses should be calculated which, in turn, will be used to explore a wide range of health risks of medical occupational radiation exposure.

  2. Dose reconstruction modeling for medical radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeong Chull; Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Exposure information is a crucial element for the assessment of health risk due to radiation. Radiation doses received by medical radiation workers have been collected and maintained by public registry since 1996. Since exposure levels in the remote past are greater concern, it is essential to reconstruct unmeasured doses in the past using known information. We developed retrodiction models for different groups of medical radiation workers and estimate individual past doses before 1996. Reconstruction models for past radiation doses received by medical radiation workers were developed, and the past doses were estimated. Using these estimates, organ doses should be calculated which, in turn, will be used to explore a wide range of health risks of medical occupational radiation exposure. Reconstruction models for past radiation doses received by medical radiation workers were developed, and the past doses were estimated. Using these estimates, organ doses should be calculated which, in turn, will be used to explore a wide range of health risks of medical occupational radiation exposure.

  3. Construction Worker Fatigue Prediction Model Based on System Dynamic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Adi Tri Joko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction accident can be caused by internal and external factors such as worker fatigue and unsafe project environment. Tight schedule of construction project forcing construction worker to work overtime in long period. This situation leads to worker fatigue. This paper proposes a model to predict construction worker fatigue based on system dynamic (SD. System dynamic is used to represent correlation among internal and external factors and to simulate level of worker fatigue. To validate the model, 93 construction workers whom worked in a high rise building construction projects, were used as case study. The result shows that excessive workload, working elevation and age, are the main factors lead to construction worker fatigue. Simulation result also shows that these factors can increase worker fatigue level to 21.2% times compared to normal condition. Beside predicting worker fatigue level this model can also be used as early warning system to prevent construction worker accident

  4. Construction Worker Fatigue Prediction Model Based on System Dynamic

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Adi Tri Joko; Ayu Ratnawinanda Lila

    2017-01-01

    Construction accident can be caused by internal and external factors such as worker fatigue and unsafe project environment. Tight schedule of construction project forcing construction worker to work overtime in long period. This situation leads to worker fatigue. This paper proposes a model to predict construction worker fatigue based on system dynamic (SD). System dynamic is used to represent correlation among internal and external factors and to simulate level of worker fatigue. To validate...

  5. A Model of Comparative Ethics Education for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2017-01-01

    Social work ethics education models have not effectively engaged social workers in practice in formal ethical reasoning processes, potentially allowing personal bias to affect ethical decisions. Using two of the primary ethical models from medicine, a new social work ethics model for education and practical application is proposed. The strengths…

  6. MEASURE FOR MEASURE: A THRICE TOLD TALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIMAH MOHAMED ALI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Measure for Measure is a difficult play to perform because it has problematic themes, especially the theme of sexuality, that clash with the way of life and thinking of contemporary society. As such, any director who chooses to stage it must consider these difficulties and how to present them in a natural manner without making the audience feel that the whole production is contrived. The directors of the two major productions discussed in this paper tried their best to present a Measure for Measure that would be acceptable to the modern society. It is evident that there are many interpretations of the Duke and Isabella's characters and also of Isabella's reaction to the Duke's proposal at the end of the play. It can be concluded that no interpretation is wrong because each actor or director brings with him his own reading of the play, and every reading has been influenced by other performances and textual criticisms. Since Measure for Measure is a thematically rich play, it should not be confined to a single interpretation. The different performances of Measure for Measure have proven that theatre is experimental as well as ageless. Because it is a brilliant play with a myriad of interpretations, Measure for Measure will not cease to be a favourite for directors in times to come. It is not wrong to predict that fans of Shakespeare in general and of Measure for Measure in particular can look forward to many more productions.For experienced Shakespeare observers all performances are thrice-told tales. The perceiving eye absorbs the performance even as the mind's eye attends to the text. Both are augmented by the inner ear buzzing with those other voices, both critical and dramatic, carried by the observer into the theatre.(Crowl, Samuel 1992: 3

  7. CERN told to start technical thinking for next collider

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    CERN has been told to begin technical design work for the successor to the LHC. A report commissioned last year, suggests that future design work should focus on developping cost-effective high-field magnets (1 page).

  8. Beyond the Model Worker: Surveying a Creative Precariat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greig de Peuter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The figure of the self-reliant, risk-bearing, non-unionised, self-exploiting, always-on flexibly employed worker in the creative industries has been positioned as a role model of contemporary capitalism. Although the notion of the model-worker is a compelling critical diagnostic of the self-management of precarity in post-Fordist times, I argue that it provides an insufficient perspective on labour and the so-called creative economy to the extent that it occludes the capacity to contest among the workforces it represents. Informed by a larger research project, this article thematises salient features of select collective responses to precarity that are emerging from workers in nonstandard employment in the arts, the media, and cultural industries. The discussion is structured in three main parts: the first, ag-gregation, identifies initiatives in which employment status - rather than a specific profession or sector - is the basis of assembly and advocacy; the second, compensation, highlights unpaid work as a growing point of contention across sectors; and the third, occupation, describes cases in which precarious cultural workers are voicing their grievances and engaging in direct action in the context of wider social movements. These dimensions of the contemporary response to precarisation in the creative industries are at risk of being overlooked if the research optic on workers’ strategies is focused upon a single sector or a particular profession. In conclusion, I emphasise that the organisations, campaigns, and proposals that are surveyed in this article are marked by tensions between and among accommodative adaption, incremental improvements, and radical reformism vis-à-vis precarity.

  9. What I Wish My Professors Had Told Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    What do you wish your undergraduate professors told you before you ever set foot in a classroom? Jennifer Collins, one such professor who prepares pre-service teachers, has a list of six "truths" she shares with her students. In this article, Collins outlines those pieces of advice, which include understanding your larger purpose,…

  10. Testing the "Work Ability House" Model in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2016-01-01

    To test the Work Ability House model, verifying the hierarchy of proposed dimensions, among a group of hospital workers. A cohort study (2009-2011) was conducted with a sample of 599 workers from a hospital in the city of São Paulo. A questionnaire including sociodemographics, lifestyle and working conditions was used. The Brazilian versions of Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance, Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury, and the Work Ability Index (WAI) were also used. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed: the independent variables were allocated into levels according to the dimensions of the theoretical model in order to evaluate the factors associated with work ability. Variables associated with impairment of work ability in each dimension were as follows: (a) sociodemographics: age work injuries (p = 0.029), (c) professional competence: low educational level (p = 0.008), (d) values : intensified in overcommitment (p work: intensification of effort-reward imbalance (p = 0.009) and high demands (p = 0.040). The results confirmed the dimensions proposed for the Work Ability House model, indicating that it is valid as a representation of a multidimensional construct of multifactorial determination and can be used in the management of work ability.

  11. Modelling information exchange in worker-queen conflict over sex allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, I.R.; Taylor, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the conflict between queen and worker over sex allocation, specifically the allocation of the queen's eggs between workers and reproductives and the allocation of the reproductive eggs between male and female. In contrast to previous models, we allow workers to observe and use

  12. Effective Employment-Based Training Models for Childcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Childcare workers play a significant role in the learning and development of children in their care. This has major implications for the training of workers. Under new reforms of the childcare industry, the Australian government now requires all workers to obtain qualifications from a vocational education and training provider (e.g. Technical and…

  13. Developing a change model for peer worker interventions in mental health services: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, S; Gibson, S L; Holley, J; Lucock, M

    2015-10-01

    A range of peer worker roles are being introduced into mental health services internationally. There is some evidence that attests to the benefits of peer workers for the people they support but formal trial evidence in inconclusive, in part because the change model underpinning peer support-based interventions is underdeveloped. Complex intervention evaluation guidance suggests that understandings of how an intervention is associated with change in outcomes should be modelled, theoretically and empirically, before the intervention can be robustly evaluated. This paper aims to model the change mechanisms underlying peer worker interventions. In a qualitative, comparative case study of ten peer worker initiatives in statutory and voluntary sector mental health services in England in-depth interviews were carried out with 71 peer workers, service users, staff and managers, exploring their experiences of peer working. Using a Grounded Theory approach we identified core processes within the peer worker role that were productive of change for service users supported by peer workers. Key change mechanisms were: (i) building trusting relationships based on shared lived experience; (ii) role-modelling individual recovery and living well with mental health problems; (iii) engaging service users with mental health services and the community. Mechanisms could be further explained by theoretical literature on role-modelling and relationship in mental health services. We were able to model process and downstream outcomes potentially associated with peer worker interventions. An empirically and theoretically grounded change model can be articulated that usefully informs the development, evaluation and planning of peer worker interventions.

  14. Proposal for intake model for workers at IPEN-CNEN/SP who handle 131 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, A.S.; Potiens Junior, A.J.; Gaburo, J.C.; Sanches, M.P.; Oliveira, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The intake model for the two groups of workers at IPEN-CNEN/SP is presented. They handle iodine compounds during the processing of irradiated targets and at labeling of radiopharmaceutical compounds. The intake model for the workers are proposed from the knowledge of the activities carried out in the plant and the internal monitoring program of the workers. In this study, the intake is considered to be taken uniformly during the days of major activities carried out by the workers. In practice, the application of this model has be shown suitable, for the studied groups

  15. Mathematical model for production of an industry focusing on worker status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalakshi, V.; kiran kumari, Sheshma

    2018-04-01

    Productivity improvement is posing a great challenge for industry everyday because of the difficulties in keeping track and priorising the variables that have significant impact on the productivity. The variation in production depends on the linguistic variables such as worker commitment, worker motivation and worker skills. Since the variables are linguistic we try to propose a model which gives an appropriate production of an industry. Fuzzy models aids the relationship between the factors and status. The model will support the industry to focus on the mentality of worker to increase the production.

  16. The Patient-Worker: A Model for Human Research Subjects and Gestational Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, Emma; Fulfer, Katy

    2017-01-13

    We propose the 'patient-worker' as a theoretical construct that responds to moral problems that arise with the globalization of healthcare and medical research. The patient-worker model recognizes that some participants in global medical industries are workers and are owed worker's rights. Further, these participants are patient-like insofar as they are beneficiaries of fiduciary relationships with healthcare professionals. We apply the patient-worker model to human subjects research and commercial gestational surrogacy. In human subjects research, subjects are usually characterized as either patients or as workers. Through questioning this dichotomy, we argue that some subject populations fit into both categories. With respect to commercial surrogacy, we enrich feminist discussions of embodied labor by describing how surrogates are beneficiaries of fiduciary obligations. They are not just workers, but patient-workers. Through these applications, the patient-worker model offers a helpful normative framework for exploring what globalized medical industries owe to the individuals who bear the bodily burdens of medical innovation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Artificial neural networks based predictive model for worker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... meet highly dynamic production conditions in terms of demand, processing times, ... network has been formulated on worker assignment for VCMS under dual ... to generate simulated datasets that drive the training process of proposed ANN ...

  18. [Are schizophrenic patients being told their diagnosis today in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Kovess-Masféty, V

    2017-04-01

    The progressive shifts in the legal and social contexts, along with major changes in information seeking habits with the development of the Internet, have placed patients' information at the core of medical practice. This has to be applied to the psychiatric fields as well, and to questions about how schizophrenic patients are being told their diagnosis nowadays in France. This paper is a national and international literature review about schizophrenia diagnosis disclosure practices, from 1972 to 2014, using French and English languages and various psychology and medical databases. The used key words were "diagnosis", "disclosure", "communication", "breaking bad news", "information", "schizophrenia" and "psychosis". Proportions of diagnosis announcement: our results show that the proportion of psychiatrists delivering schizophrenia diagnosis to their patients varies between countries. Although we must acknowledge that the questionnaires and samples are diverse, we have found that psychiatrists are in general less prone to deliver diagnosis information in France (from 13,5% to 39% given the studies), Germany (28%), Italy (30%), and Japan (30%), than in Anglo-Saxon countries. Thus, 70% of the psychiatrists in North America and 56% in Australia claim that they disclose their diagnosis to schizophrenic patients. In the United-Kingdom, a study targeting psychotic patients themselves has shown that 47% of them had been told their diagnosis by their doctor. Even in the countries where the proportion of diagnosis disclosure is the highest, there remains a substantial difference with other mental illnesses such as affective or anxiety disorders, which are almost always labeled as such in the information communicated to the patient (90% in North America). Diagnostic information about schizophrenia continues therefore to appear problematic for health professionals, which can seem a paradox given the recent social and legal evolutions, the therapeutic progress, the proved

  19. Population Density Modeling for Diverse Land Use Classes: Creating a National Dasymetric Worker Population Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, N.; Weber, E.; Moehl, J.

    2017-12-01

    Many studies invoke dasymetric mapping to make more accurate depictions of population distribution by spatially restricting populations to inhabited/inhabitable portions of observational units (e.g., census blocks) and/or by varying population density among different land classes. LandScan USA uses this approach by restricting particular population components (such as residents or workers) to building area detected from remotely sensed imagery, but also goes a step further by classifying each cell of building area in accordance with ancillary land use information from national parcel data (CoreLogic, Inc.'s ParcelPoint database). Modeling population density according to land use is critical. For instance, office buildings would have a higher density of workers than warehouses even though the latter would likely have more cells of detection. This paper presents a modeling approach by which different land uses are assigned different densities to more accurately distribute populations within them. For parts of the country where the parcel data is insufficient, an alternate methodology is developed that uses National Land Cover Database (NLCD) data to define the land use type of building detection. Furthermore, LiDAR data is incorporated for many of the largest cities across the US, allowing the independent variables to be updated from two-dimensional building detection area to total building floor space. In the end, four different regression models are created to explain the effect of different land uses on worker distribution: A two-dimensional model using land use types from the parcel data A three-dimensional model using land use types from the parcel data A two-dimensional model using land use types from the NLCD data, and A three-dimensional model using land use types from the NLCD data. By and large, the resultant coefficients followed intuition, but importantly allow the relationships between different land uses to be quantified. For instance, in the model

  20. Staging workers' use of hearing protection devices: application of the transtheoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Delbert M; Lusk, Sally L

    2006-04-01

    The threat of noise-induced hearing loss is a serious concern for many workers. This study explores use of the transtheoretical model as a framework for defining stages of workers' acceptance of hearing protection devices. A secondary analysis was performed using a cross-section of data from a randomized, controlled clinical trial of an intervention to increase use of hearing protection. Use of hearing protection devices was well distributed across the theorized stages of change. Chi-square analysis and analysis of variance revealed significant differences between stages for the variables studied. Discrete stages of hearing protection device use can be identified, laying the foundation for further work investigating use of the transtheoretical model for promoting hearing protection device use. The model can provide a framework for tailoring interventions and evaluating their effects. With further development of the transtheoretical model, nurses may be able to easily identify workers' readiness to use hearing protection devices and tailor training toward that goal.

  1. Testing a Model of Functional Impairment in Telephone Crisis Support Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that helping professionals experience functional impairment related to elevated symptoms of psychological distress as a result of frequent empathic engagement with distressed others. Whether telephone crisis support workers are impacted in a similar way is not currently reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of factors contributing to functional impairment in telephone crisis support workers. A national sample of 210 telephone crisis support workers completed an online survey including measures of emotion regulation, symptoms of general psychological distress and suicidal ideation, intentions to seek help for symptoms, and functional impairment. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the data to the hypothesized model. Goodness-of-fit indices were adequate and supported the interactive effects of emotion regulation, general psychological distress, suicidal ideation, and intentions to seek help for ideation on functional impairment. These results warrant the deliberate management of telephone crisis support workers' impairment through service selection, training, supervision, and professional development strategies. Future research replicating and extending this model will further inform the modification and/or development of strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and delivery of support to callers.

  2. Development and Application of ANN Model for Worker Assignment into Virtual Cells of Large Sized Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, R. V.; Fathi, Khalid; Puri, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an extended version of study already undertaken on development of an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for assigning workforce into virtual cells under virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMS) environments. Previously, the same authors have introduced this concept and applied it to virtual cells of two-cell configuration and the results demonstrated that ANNs could be a worth applying tool for carrying out workforce assignments. In this attempt, three-cell configurations problems are considered for worker assignment task. Virtual cells are formed under dual resource constraint (DRC) context in which the number of available workers is less than the total number of machines available. Since worker assignment tasks are quite non-linear and highly dynamic in nature under varying inputs and conditions and, in parallel, ANNs have the ability to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs and find similar patterns effectively, an attempt was earlier made to employ ANNs into the above task. In this paper, the multilayered perceptron with feed forward (MLP-FF) neural network model has been reused for worker assignment tasks of three-cell configurations under DRC context and its performance at different time periods has been analyzed. The previously proposed worker assignment model has been reconfigured and cell formation solutions available for three-cell configuration in the literature are used in combination to generate datasets for training ANNs framework. Finally, results of the study have been presented and discussed.

  3. Test of the Fishbein and Ajzen models as predictors of health care workers' glove use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, P F

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of health care workers' glove use when there is a potential for blood exposure. The study hypothesis was that an extension of the theory of planned behavior would explain more of the variance in glove use behavior than the theory of reasoned action or theory of planned behavior. A random sample of nurses and laboratory workers (N = 527) completed a 26-item questionnaire with acceptable content validity and reliability estimates. Using structural equation modeling techniques, intention, attitude, and perceived risk were significant predictors of behavior. Perceived control and attitude were the significant determinants of intention. The theory of reasoned action was the most parsimonious model, explaining 70% of the variance in glove use behavior. The theory of planned behavior extension was a viable model to study behavior related to glove use and reducing workers' risks to bloodborne diseases.

  4. Learned helplessness, discouraged workers, and multiple unemployment equilibria in a search model

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnstad, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Unemployment varies strongly between countries with comparable economic structure. Some economists have tried to explain these differences with institutional differences in the labour market. Instead, this paper focuses on a model with multiple equilibria so that the same socioeconomic structure can give rise to different levels of unemployment. Unemployed workers' search efficiency are modelled within an equilibrium search model and lay behind these results. In the model learned...

  5. Social housing for workers – A new housing model for Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    Urbanization in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam is rapidly increasing. Therefore, social housing for workers who work at industrial park and processing areas, is indispensable. There are difficulties and conflicts which still remain in developing the social housing for those people in HCMC. For example, the demand of social housing is high, however employers and/or business owners did not fully pay their attentions on social houses to support the workers. On another hand, even if they built the houses, these one seem not to be sufficient for the demands and/or unable to be competed to the rental housing market from private landlords. Building a social housing model for those workers is a vital importance, this aims to improve the quality of life for the workers; for examples, healthcare, personal safety, social relationships, emotional well-being, quality of living environment, etc. In this research, we study the investment, management, and operation of the social housing for workers in HCMC. This also seeks a new housing model which will adapt the criteria towards the sustainable economic development of HCMC.

  6. Choice Model and Influencing Factor Analysis of Travel Mode for Migrant Workers: Case Study in Xi’an, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Chen; Zuo-xian Gan; Yu-ting He

    2015-01-01

    Based on the basic theory and methods of disaggregate choice model, the influencing factors in travel mode choice for migrant workers are analyzed, according to 1366 data samples of Xi’an migrant workers. Walking, bus, subway, and taxi are taken as the alternative parts of travel modes for migrant workers, and a multinomial logit (MNL) model of travel mode for migrant workers is set up. The validity of the model is verified by the hit rate, and the hit rates of four travel modes are all great...

  7. Adaptive supervision: a theoretical model for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latting, J E

    1986-01-01

    Two models of leadership styles are prominent in the management field: Blake and Mouton's managerial Grid and Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model. Much of the research on supervisory styles in social work has been based on the former. A recent public debate between the two sets of theorists suggests that both have strengths and limitations. Accordingly, an adaptive model of social work supervision that combines elements of both theories is proposed.

  8. Modeling the effects of influenza vaccination of health care workers in hospital departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dool, C.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Hak, E.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays health care worker (HCW) vaccination is widely recommended. Although the benefits of this strategy have been demonstrated in long-term care settings, no studies have been performed in regular hospital departments. We adapt a previously developed model of influenza transmission in a

  9. Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act: Forestry contractors' model operating plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Bremer

    2007-01-01

    The Model Operating Plan for forestry contractors is a voluntary plan for compliance with the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) of 1983, with amendments passed in 1996 and 1997. This plan is designed as a guide for forestry contractors who wish to comply with all federal, state, and local rules and regulations that govern their employer/...

  10. Modeling community integration in workers with delayed recovery from mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollayeva, T.; Shapiro, C. M.; Mollayeva, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delayed recovery in persons after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is poorly understood. Community integration (CI) is endorsed by persons with neurological disorders as an important outcome. We aimed to describe CI and its associated factors in insured Ontario workers with delayed...... assessments, and insurers' referral files. Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) scores were compared using analysis of variance or Spearman's correlation tests. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations with CI. Results: Ninety-four workers with mTBI (45...

  11. Transition probabilities of health states for workers in Malaysia using a Markov chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsuddin, Shamshimah; Ismail, Noriszura

    2017-04-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate the transition probabilities of health states for workers in Malaysia who contribute to the Employment Injury Scheme under the Social Security Organization Malaysia using the Markov chain model. Our study uses four states of health (active, temporary disability, permanent disability and death) based on the data collected from the longitudinal studies of workers in Malaysia for 5 years. The transition probabilities vary by health state, age and gender. The results show that men employees are more likely to have higher transition probabilities to any health state compared to women employees. The transition probabilities can be used to predict the future health of workers in terms of a function of current age, gender and health state.

  12. A diagnostic model for the detection of sensitization to wheat allergens was developed and validated in bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarthana, Eva; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G.; de Monchy, Jan; Grobbee, Diederick; Heederik, Dick; Meijer, Evert

    Objectives: To develop and validate a prediction model to detect sensitization to wheat allergens in bakery workers. Study Design and Setting: The prediction model was developed in 867 Dutch bakery workers (development set, prevalence of sensitization 13%) and included questionnaire items (candidate

  13. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  14. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  15. Job stress and job satisfaction: home care workers in a consumer-directed model of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Wallace, Steven P; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Muntaner, Carles

    2010-08-01

    To investigate determinants of job satisfaction among home care workers in a consumer-directed model. Analysis of data collected from telephone interviews with 1,614 Los Angeles home care workers on the state payroll in 2003. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of job satisfaction using job stress model domains of demands, control, and support. Abuse from consumers, unpaid overtime hours, and caring for more than one consumer as well as work-health demands predict less satisfaction. Some physical and emotional demands of the dyadic care relationship are unexpectedly associated with greater job satisfaction. Social support and control, indicated by job security and union involvement, have a direct positive effect on job satisfaction. Policies that enhance the relational component of care may improve workers' ability to transform the demands of their job into dignified and satisfying labor. Adequate benefits and sufficient authorized hours of care can minimize the stress of unpaid overtime work, caring for multiple consumers, job insecurity, and the financial constraints to seeking health care. Results have implications for the structure of consumer-directed models of care and efforts to retain long-term care workers.

  16. The development of a model for dealing with secondary traumatic stress in mental health workers in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean D. Iyamuremye

    2015-10-01

    Aim: To develop a comprehensive model to manage the effects of STS in mental health workers operating in Rwanda. Method: An action research project was initiated to develop this model and data for the model was collected through individual interviews with mental health workers (nurses, doctors, psychologists, trauma counsellors and social workers as well as a quantitative tool measuring secondary traumatic stress (Trauma Attachment Belief Scale in these health workers. Results: The Intervention Model to Manage Secondary Traumatic Stress (IMMSTS was synthesised from these findings and includes preventive, evaluative and curative strategies to manage STS in mental health workers in Rwanda at the individual, social and organisational levels. Conclusion: The model will offer mental health professionals an effective framework for addressing the issue of STS.

  17. Canadian government's framing of ageing at work and older workers: Echoing positive ageing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé, Martine; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac; Laplante, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Public representations of ageing can influence how individuals perceive their own experience of ageing. Results of studies on the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)'s governmental messages on older workers suggest that they are mainly constructed around economic productivity and personal responsibility. The goal of this study is to examine how the Canadian government frames issues around ageing, work and older workers. Canada is facing a rapidly ageing workforce, hence the importance of examining how the government discusses ageing at work. A thematic content analysis was conducted on a total of 154 government web pages. Results revealed that predominant themes revolve around economic challenges resulting from an ageing workforce. Older workers are depicted as a key component for the (economic) management of an ageing workforce. More specifically, older workers who intend to continue working are highly valued in the government's messages which present them as productive citizens and role models for "ageing well". Canada's response to the challenges of an ageing workforce echoes the underlying standards of positive ageing models, which may generate, perhaps inadvertently, a new form of ageism by creating intra-and intergenerational divides in the workplace.

  18. Towards greater realism in inclusive fitness models: the case of worker reproduction in insect societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Helanterä, Heikki; Alves, Denise A.; Dueñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Pamilo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    The conflicts over sex allocation and male production in insect societies have long served as an important test bed for Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, but have for the most part been considered separately. Here, we develop new coevolutionary models to examine the interaction between these two conflicts and demonstrate that sex ratio and colony productivity costs of worker reproduction can lead to vastly different outcomes even in species that show no variation in their relatedness structure. Empirical data on worker-produced males in eight species of Melipona bees support the predictions from a model that takes into account the demographic details of colony growth and reproduction. Overall, these models contribute significantly to explaining behavioural variation that previous theories could not account for. PMID:24132088

  19. Dysbaric osteonecrosis in divers and caisson workers. An animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, C E; Adams, W M; Dubielzig, R R; Palta, M; Lanphier, E H

    1997-11-01

    Dysbaric osteonecrosis was induced successfully in adult sheep after 12 to 13, 24-hour exposures to compressed air (2.6-2.9 atmospheres absolute) during a 2-month period. All exposed sheep had decompression sickness and extensive bone and marrow necrosis in their long bones. Radiographic analysis of these progressive lesions showed mottled to distinct medullary opacities and endosteal thickening characteristic of dysbaric osteonecrosis. Six months after the last hyperbaric exposure, neovascularization of once ischemic fatty marrow was centripetal from the diaphyseal cortex. Proliferating endosteal new bone, fatty marrow calcification, and appositional new bone formation were widespread. Juxtaarticular osteonecrosis involved marrow fibrosis and loss of osteocytes in subchondral cortical bone. Tidemark reduplication in juxtaarticular bone and cartilage thinning suggested possible early osteoarthritis induction by recurrent episodes of transient ischemia after multiple hyperbaric exposures. Dysbaric osteonecrosis appears to involve a bone compartment syndrome of elevated intramedullary pressure initiated by decompression induced N2 bubble formation in the fatty marrow of the long bones. An animal model that can be used to investigate the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of dysbaric osteonecrosis is discussed.

  20. A model for the adoption of ICT by health workers in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimoh, Lanrewaju; Pate, Muhammad A; Lin, Li; Schulman, Kevin A

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the potential of information and communication technology (ICT) adoption among maternal and child health workers in rural Nigeria. A prospective, quantitative survey design was used to collect data from quasi-randomly selected clusters of 25 rural health facilities in 5 of the 36 states in Nigeria over a 2-month period from June to July 2010. A total of 200 maternal and child health workers were included in the survey, and the data were analyzed using a modified theory of acceptance model (TAM). There was no significant difference between ICT knowledge and attitude scores across states. There were significant differences in perceived ease of use (PICT application in health varied across worker groups and conflicted with government/employer priorities. Although the objective of this study was exploratory, the results provide insight into the intricacies involved in the deployment of ICT in low-resource settings. Use of an expanded TAM should be considered as a mandatory part of any pre-implementation study of ICT among health workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemometrics models for assessment of oxidative stress risk in chrome-electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed Vahid; Azari, Mansoor R; Hosseini, Vajihe; Mohammadi, Hamidreza

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress is the main cause of hexavalant chromium-induced damage in chrome electroplating workers. The main goal of this study is toxicity analysis and the possibility of toxicity risk categorizing in the chrome electroplating workers based on oxidative stress parameters as prognostic variables. We assessed blood chromium levels and biomarkers of oxidative stress such as lipid peroxidation, thiol (SH) groups and antioxidant capacity of plasma. Data were subjected to principle component analysis (PCA) and artificial neuronal network (ANN) to obtain oxidative stress pattern for chrome electroplating workers. Blood chromium levels increased from 4.42 ppb to 10.6 ppb. Induction of oxidative stress was observed by increased in lipid peroxidation (22.38 ± 10.47 μM versus 14.74 ± 4.82 μM, p chrome electroplaters. The result showed multivariate modeling can be interpreted as the induced biochemical toxicity in the workers exposed to hexavalent chromium. Different occupation groups were assessed on the basis of risk level of oxidative stress which could further justify proceeding engineering control measures.

  2. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): a comparison of intakes based on urine versus autopsy data from Mayak workers using the Leggett systemic model for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Dorrian, M.-D.; Suslova, K. G.; Sokolova, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System-2013 (MWDS-2013) uses a model developed by Leggett and colleagues to represent the biokinetic behaviour of plutonium after uptake to blood. Of particular importance, with regard to estimating intakes (and doses), is the distribution of activity between urine and body organs (particularly liver and skeleton). In this study, measurement data (urine and autopsy) from around 500 Mayak workers have been used to validate use of this model. A robust method has been developed and used to estimate intakes from both urine and autopsy data separately, and the ratio of these estimates has been calculated for each worker. The geometric mean ratio has been shown to lie within a range of 0.92-1.14, depending on assumptions made. Since this range includes 1, the hypothesis that the model is unbiased with regard to estimating intakes either with urine or autopsy data cannot be rejected on the basis of these data. This lends weight to the argument for increasing the MWDS-2013 cohort to include an additional 500 workers for whom only autopsy data are available, and who have previously been excluded from the cohort. Future directions in which this work could be extended are also suggested. (authors)

  3. Workshop on electronic and ionic collision cross sections needed in the modeling of radiation interactions with matter: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The term modeling in the Workship title refers to the mathematical analysis of the consequences of many collision processes for characterizing the physical stage of radiation actions. It requires as input some knowledge of collision cross sections. Traditionally, work on cross sections and work on the modeling are conducted by separate groups of scientists. It was the purpose of the Workshop to bring these two groups together in a forum that would promote effective communication. Cross-section workers described the status of their work and told what data were available or trustworthy. Modeling workers told what kind of data were needed or were most important. Twenty-two items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  4. Workshop on electronic and ionic collision cross sections needed in the modeling of radiation interactions with matter: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The term modeling in the Workship title refers to the mathematical analysis of the consequences of many collision processes for characterizing the physical stage of radiation actions. It requires as input some knowledge of collision cross sections. Traditionally, work on cross sections and work on the modeling are conducted by separate groups of scientists. It was the purpose of the Workshop to bring these two groups together in a forum that would promote effective communication. Cross-section workers described the status of their work and told what data were available or trustworthy. Modeling workers told what kind of data were needed or were most important. Twenty-two items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base.

  5. Cost Comparison Model: Blended eLearning versus traditional training of community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissine, Mysha; Segan, Robert; Taylor, Mathew; Jefferson, Bobby; Borrelli, Alice; Koehler, Mohandas; Chelvayohan, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Another one million community healthcare workers are needed to address the growing global population and increasing demand of health care services. This paper describes a cost comparison between two training approaches to better understand costs implications of training community health workers (CHWs) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our team created a prospective model to forecast and compare the costs of two training methods as described in the Dalburge Report - (1) a traditional didactic training approach ("baseline") and (2) a blended eLearning training approach ("blended"). After running the model for training 100,000 CHWs, we compared the results and scaled up those results to one million CHWs. A substantial difference exists in total costs between the baseline and blended training programs. RESULTS indicate that using a blended eLearning approach for training community health care workers could provide a total cost savings of 42%. Scaling the model to one million CHWs, the blended eLearning training approach reduces total costs by 25%. The blended eLearning savings are a result of decreased classroom time, thereby reducing the costs associated with travel, trainers and classroom costs; and using a tablet with WiFi plus a feature phone rather than a smartphone with data plan. The results of this cost analysis indicate significant savings through using a blended eLearning approach in comparison to a traditional didactic method for CHW training by as much as 67%. These results correspond to the Dalberg publication which indicates that using a blended eLearning approach is an opportunity for closing the gap in training community health care workers.

  6. Influence on dose coefficients for workers of the new metabolic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Parada, I.M.; Rojo, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently reviewed the biokinetic models used in the internal contamination dose assessment. ICRP has adopted a new model for the human respiratory tract and has updated, in ICRP Publications 56, 67 and 69, some of the biokinetic models of ICRP Publication 30. In this paper, the dose coefficients for some selected radionuclides issued in ICRP Publication 68 are compared with those obtained using the software LUPED (LUng Dose Evaluation Program). The former were calculated using the new systemic models, while the latter are based on the old metabolic models. The aim is to know to what extent the new models for systematic retention influence the dose coefficients for workers. (author) [es

  7. Work Scheduling by Use of Worker Model in Consideration of Learning by On-The-Job Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Toshitake; Shimizu, Keiko

    This paper deals with a method of scheduling manual work in consideration of learning by on-the-job training (OJT). In skilled work such as maintenance of trains and airplanes, workers must learn many tasks by OJT. While the work processing time of novice workers is longer than that of experts, the time will be reduced with repeated OJT. Therefore, OJT is important for maintaining the skill level and the long-term work efficiency of an organization. In order to devise a schedule considering OJT, the scheduler must incorporate a management function of workers to trace dynamically changing work experience. In this paper, after the relationship between scheduling problems and worker management problems is defined, a simulation method, in which a worker model and an agent-based mechanism are utilized, is proposed to derive the optimal OJT strategy toward high long-term performance. Finally, we present some case studies showing the effectiveness of OJT planning based on the simulation.

  8. THE STORY OF SUPERNOVA “REFSDAL” TOLD BY MUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Karman, W.; Caputi, K. I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Suyu, S. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Balestra, I. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Mercurio, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Lombardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Treu, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rodney, S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, 712 Main St., Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Gavazzi, R. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Universitè Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Halkola, A., E-mail: grillo@dark-cosmology.dk

    2016-05-10

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations in the core of the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223, where the first magnified and spatially resolved multiple images of supernova (SN) “Refsdal” at redshift 1.489 were detected. Thanks to a Director's Discretionary Time program with the Very Large Telescope and the extraordinary efficiency of MUSE, we measure 117 secure redshifts with just 4.8 hr of total integration time on a single 1 arcmin{sup 2} target pointing. We spectroscopically confirm 68 galaxy cluster members, with redshift values ranging from 0.5272 to 0.5660, and 18 multiple images belonging to seven background, lensed sources distributed in redshifts between 1.240 and 3.703. Starting from the combination of our catalog with those obtained from extensive spectroscopic and photometric campaigns using the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ), we select a sample of 300 (164 spectroscopic and 136 photometric) cluster members, within approximately 500 kpc from the brightest cluster galaxy, and a set of 88 reliable multiple images associated with 10 different background source galaxies and 18 distinct knots in the spiral galaxy hosting SN “Refsdal.” We exploit this valuable information to build six detailed strong-lensing models, the best of which reproduces the observed positions of the multiple images with an rms offset of only 0.″26. We use these models to quantify the statistical and systematic errors on the predicted values of magnification and time delay of the next emerging image of SN “Refsdal.” We find that its peak luminosity should occur between 2016 March and June and should be approximately 20% fainter than the dimmest (S4) of the previously detected images but above the detection limit of the planned HST /WFC3 follow-up. We present our two-dimensional reconstruction of the cluster mass density distribution and of the SN “Refsdal” host galaxy surface brightness distribution. We outline

  9. THE STORY OF SUPERNOVA “REFSDAL” TOLD BY MUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, C.; Karman, W.; Caputi, K. I.; Suyu, S. H.; Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B.; Balestra, I.; Mercurio, A.; Lombardi, M.; Treu, T.; Rodney, S. A.; Gavazzi, R.; Halkola, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations in the core of the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223, where the first magnified and spatially resolved multiple images of supernova (SN) “Refsdal” at redshift 1.489 were detected. Thanks to a Director's Discretionary Time program with the Very Large Telescope and the extraordinary efficiency of MUSE, we measure 117 secure redshifts with just 4.8 hr of total integration time on a single 1 arcmin 2 target pointing. We spectroscopically confirm 68 galaxy cluster members, with redshift values ranging from 0.5272 to 0.5660, and 18 multiple images belonging to seven background, lensed sources distributed in redshifts between 1.240 and 3.703. Starting from the combination of our catalog with those obtained from extensive spectroscopic and photometric campaigns using the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ), we select a sample of 300 (164 spectroscopic and 136 photometric) cluster members, within approximately 500 kpc from the brightest cluster galaxy, and a set of 88 reliable multiple images associated with 10 different background source galaxies and 18 distinct knots in the spiral galaxy hosting SN “Refsdal.” We exploit this valuable information to build six detailed strong-lensing models, the best of which reproduces the observed positions of the multiple images with an rms offset of only 0.″26. We use these models to quantify the statistical and systematic errors on the predicted values of magnification and time delay of the next emerging image of SN “Refsdal.” We find that its peak luminosity should occur between 2016 March and June and should be approximately 20% fainter than the dimmest (S4) of the previously detected images but above the detection limit of the planned HST /WFC3 follow-up. We present our two-dimensional reconstruction of the cluster mass density distribution and of the SN “Refsdal” host galaxy surface brightness distribution. We outline the

  10. Estimated Nutritive Value of Low-Price Model Lunch Sets Provided to Garment Workers in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Makurat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods: Exemplary lunch sets were served to female workers through a temporary canteen at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Dish samples were collected repeatedly to examine mean serving sizes of individual ingredients. Food composition tables and NutriSurvey software were used to assess mean amounts and contributions to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs or adequate intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fiber, vitamin C (VitC, iron, vitamin A (VitA, folate and vitamin B12 (VitB12. Results: On average, lunch sets provided roughly one third of RDA or adequate intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fiber. Contribution to RDA of protein was high (46% RDA. The sets contained a high mean share of VitC (159% RDA, VitA (66% RDA, and folate (44% RDA, but were low in VitB12 (29% RDA and iron (20% RDA. Conclusions: Overall, lunches satisfied recommendations of caloric content and macronutrient composition. Sets on average contained a beneficial amount of VitC, VitA and folate. Adjustments are needed for a higher iron content. Alternative iron-rich foods are expected to be better suited, compared to increasing portions of costly meat/fish components. Lunch provision at Cambodian garment factories holds the potential to improve food security of workers, approximately at costs of <1 USD/person/day at large scale. Data on quantitative total dietary intake as well as physical activity among workers are needed to further optimize the concept of staff canteens.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Workers' mental models of radiation and chemical hazards in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Blanchard, K.A.; Lundgren, R.E.; McMakin, A.H.; Mosley, M.T.; Strom, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    A pilot study was performed to test the mental models methodology regarding knowledge and perceptions of U.S. Department of Energy contractor radiation workers about ionizing radiation and hazardous chemicals. The mental models methodology establishes a target population's beliefs about risks and compares them with current scientific knowledge. The ultimate intent is to develop risk communication guidelines that address information gaps or misperceptions that could affect decisions and behavior. In this study, 15 radiation workers from the Hanford Site in Washington State were interviewed about radiation exposure processes and effects. Their beliefs were mapped onto a science model of the same topics to see where differences occurred. In general, workers' mental models covered many of the high-level parts of the science model but did not have the same level of detail. The following concepts appeared to be well understood by most interviewees: types, form, and properties of workplace radiation; administrative and physical controls to reduce radiation exposure risk; and the relationship of dose and effects. However, several concepts were rarely mentioned by most interviewees, indicating potential gaps in worker understanding. Most workers did not discuss the wide range of measures for neutralizing or decontaminating individuals following internal contamination. Few noted specific ways of measuring dose or factors that affect dose. Few mentioned the range of possible effects, including genetic effects, birth defects, or high dose effects. Variables that influence potential effects were rarely discussed. Workers rarely mentioned how basic radiation principles influenced the source, type, or mitigation of radiation risk in the workplace

  12. Preventing HIV Transmission Among Partners of HIV-Positive Male Sex Workers in Mexico City: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João Filipe G; Marshall, Brandon D L; Escudero, Daniel; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Flanigan, Timothy; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H; Lurie, Mark N; Galárraga, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Mexico has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with male sex workers constituting a key affected population. We estimated annual HIV cumulative incidence among male sex workers' partners, and then compared incidence under three hypothetical intervention scenarios: improving condom use; and scaling up HIV treatment as prevention, considering current viral suppression rates (CVS, 60.7 %) or full viral suppression among those treated (FVS, 100 %). Clinical and behavioral data to inform model parameterization were derived from a sample (n = 79) of male sex workers recruited from street locations and Clínica Condesa, an HIV clinic in Mexico City. We estimated annual HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners to be 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3-8.7). Simulation models demonstrated that increasing condom use by 10 %, and scaling up HIV treatment initiation by 50 % (from baseline values) would decrease the male sex workers-attributable annual incidence to 5.2, 4.4 % (CVS) and 3.2 % (FVS), respectively. Scaling up the number of male sex workers on ART and implementing interventions to ensure adherence is urgently required to decrease HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners in Mexico City.

  13. Salud Para Su Corazon (Health for Your Heart) Community Health Worker Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H.; Alvarado, M.; Ortiz, G.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy. PMID:21914992

  14. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Ushio, K.

    1982-05-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate. It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilized into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol and 107 mumol CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol to 120 mumol in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 0.3-2.9 mumol/kg. There were linear relationships between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale.

  15. Work-related stress according to the demand-control model and minor psychic disorders in nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete de Souza Urbanetto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study that aimed to assess the association between work-related stress according to the Demand-Control Model, and the occurrence of Minor Psychic Disorder (MPD in nursing workers. The participants were 335 professionals, out of which 245 were nursing technicians, aged predominantly between 20 and 40 years. Data were collected using the Job Stress Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. The analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The prevalence of suspected MPD was 20.6%. Workers classified in the quadrants active job and high strain of the Demand-Control Model presented higher potential for developing MPD compared with those classified in the quadrant low strain. In conclusion, stress affects the mental health of workers and the aspects related to high psychological demands and high control still require further insight in order to understand their influence on the disease processes of nursing workers.

  16. PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATIVE TOLERANCE OF STUDENTS - FUTURE MEDICAL WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Romanovna Pleshakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying the phenomenon of communicative tolerance. Possession of communicative tolerance skills has a positive effect on the success of medicine workers professional communication.Purpose. To characterize the phenomenon of communicative tolerance in terms of its structure and to present psychological model of communicative tolerance of students as future medical workers.The method and methodology of the work: the theoretical analysis of literature on the study’s issue; modeling of a diagnosis program and program of personality development of students; analysis, synthesis and systematization of data obtained during the studyResults: the author proposed his own understanding of the phenomenon of communicative tolerance. The author specifies the main psychological and pedagogical conditions conducive to the successful implementation of developmental program. There are components which are isolated and characterized in the structure of the phenomenon of communicative tolerance: motivational, cognitive, moral, emotional and volitional, the reflexive, behavioral, according to which the blocks of developmental program of communicative tolerance are emphasized, also the main goals, which have to be fulfilled within the block of the developmental program, are pointed out. The performance index of developmental program is formulated.Application of the results: data contained in the paper can be used in further studies on the issue of communicative tolerance, as well as will become the basis of creating the developmental program of communicative tolerance of students as future medical workers.

  17. Correlations of noninvasive BOLD and TOLD MRI with pO2 and relevance to tumor radiation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallac, Rami R; Zhou, Heling; Pidikiti, Rajesh; Song, Kwang; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Zhao, Dawen; Solberg, Timothy; Peschke, Peter; Mason, Ralph P

    2014-05-01

    To examine the potential use of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and tissue oxygenation level dependent (TOLD) contrast MRI to assess tumor oxygenation and predict radiation response. BOLD and TOLD MRI were performed on Dunning R3327-AT1 rat prostate tumors during hyperoxic gas breathing challenge at 4.7 T. Animals were divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n = 9), subsequent (19) F MRI based on spin lattice relaxation of hexafluorobenzene reporter molecule provided quantitative oximetry for comparison. For Group 2 rats (n = 13) growth delay following a single dose of 30 Gy was compared with preirradiation BOLD and TOLD assessments. Oxygen (100%O2 ) and carbogen (95%O2 /5%CO2 ) challenge elicited similar BOLD, TOLD and pO2 responses. Strong correlations were observed between BOLD or R2* response and quantitative (19) F pO2 measurements. TOLD response showed a general trend with weaker correlation. Irradiation caused a significant tumor growth delay and tumors with larger changes in TOLD and R1 values upon oxygen breathing exhibited significantly increased tumor growth delay. These results provide further insight into the relationships between oxygen sensitive (BOLD/TOLD) MRI and tumor pO2 . Moreover, a larger increase in R1 response to hyperoxic gas challenge coincided with greater tumor growth delay following irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assumptions to the model of managing knowledge workers in modern organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igielski Michał

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the twenty-first century are faster, suddenly appear, not always desirable for the smooth functioning of the company. This is the domain of globalization, in which new events - opportunities or threats, forcing the company all the time to act. More and more things depend on the intangible assets of the undertaking, its strategic potential. Certain types of work require more knowledge, experience and independent thinking, and custom than others. Therefore in this article the author has taken up the subject of knowledge workers in contemporary organizations. The aim of the study is to attempt to create assumptions about the knowledge management model in these organizations, based on literature analysis and empirical research. In this regard, the author describes the contemporary conditions of employee management and the skills and competences of knowledge workers. In addition, he conducted research (2016 in 100 medium enterprises in the province of Pomerania, using a tool in the form of a questionnaire and an interview. Already at the beginning of the analysis of the data collected, it turned out that for all employers it should be important to discern differences in the creation of a new category of managers who have knowledge useful for the functioning of the company. Moreover, with the experience gained in a similar research process previously carried out in companies from the Baltic Sea Region, the author knew about the positive influence of these people on creating new solutions or improving the quality of already existing products or services.

  19. Violence, stigma and mental health among female sex workers in China: A structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Xu, Jinping; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China, and it is significantly associated with mental health problems among FSWs. However, limited studies have explored the mechanisms/process by which violence affects mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among partner violence, internalized stigma, and mental health problems among FSWs. Data were collected using a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered to 1,022 FSWs in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), China during 2008-2009. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that violence perpetrated by either stable sexual partners or clients was directly and positively associated with mental health problems. Violence also had an indirect relation to mental health problems through stigma. Results highlight the need for interventions on counseling and care for FSWs who have experienced violence and for interventions to increase FSWs' coping skills and empowerment strategies.

  20. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Ushio, K

    1982-01-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA). It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilised into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol (20 mg) and 107 mumol (40 mg) CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol (0.8 mg) to 120 mumol (24.9 mg) (mean 37 mumol (7.7 mg) in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 0.3-2.9 mumol/kg (6-60 microgram/100 g) (mean 1.4 mumol/kg (29 microgram/100 g)). There were linear relationships between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale. PMID:6802167

  1. Extending a model of precarious employment: A qualitative study of immigrant workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porthé, Victoria; Ahonen, Emily; Vázquez, M Luisa; Pope, Catherine; Agudelo, Andrés Alonso; García, Ana M; Amable, Marcelo; Benavides, Fernando G; Benach, Joan

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1980s, changes in the labor market have modified power relations between capital and labor, leading to greater levels of precarious employment among workers. Globalization has led to a growth in migration, as people leave their countries in search of work. We aimed to describe the dimensions of precarious employment for immigrant workers in Spain. Qualitative study using analytic induction. Criterion sampling was used to recruit 129 immigrant workers in Spain with documented and undocumented administrative status. Data quality was ensured by triangulation. Immigrant workers reported that precarious employment is characterized by high job instability, a lack of power for negotiating employment conditions, and defenselessness against high labor demands. They described insufficient wages, long working hours, limited social benefits, and difficulty in exercising their rights. Undocumented workers reported greater defenselessness and worse employment conditions. This study allowed us to describe the dimensions of precarious employment in immigrant workers. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Using art as a self-regulating tool in a war situation: a model for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Ephrat; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie

    2010-08-01

    War poses a challenge for social workers, adding exposure to direct risk of personal harm to the general stress of social work practice. Artworks are frequently used in health care settings with people in high distress. This study had three goals: (1) to characterize the stressors of social workers living in a war zone, (2) to teach social workers in crisis situations to identify stress and resilience factors in their artworks, and (3) to develop a general self-care model for arts intervention for professionals in these situations. Common stressors experienced by participants were anxiety and fear as a result of bombs, sirens, worry over loved ones, and overexposure to media. These were layered onto professional stressors, including constant work communication on cell phones during war and dilemmas related to work-family conflicts. Allowing social workers to name and identity the sources of their stress and then change their artwork to enhance resilience helped them to gain a sense of control over diffuse sources of anxiety. The authors propose this method as an effective intervention model with social workers in high-stress situations.

  3. Core competency requirements among extension workers in peninsular Malaysia: Use of Borich's needs assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sulaiman; Man, Norsida; Nawi, Nolila Mohd; Latif, Ismail Abd; Samah, Bahaman Abu

    2017-06-01

    The study described the perceived importance of, and proficiency in core agricultural extension competencies among extension workers in Peninsular Malaysia; and evaluating the resultant deficits in the competencies. The Borich's Needs Assessment Model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. A sample of 298 respondents was randomly selected and interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Thirty-three core competency items were assessed. Instrument validity and reliability were ensured. The cross-sectional data obtained was analysed using SPSS for descriptive statistics including mean weighted discrepancy score (MWDS). Results of the study showed that on a scale of 5, the most important core extension competency items according to respondents' perception were: "Making good use of information and communication technologies/access and use of web-based resources" (M=4.86, SD=0.23); "Conducting needs assessments" (M=4.84, SD=0.16); "organizing extension campaigns" (M=4.82, SD=0.47) and "Managing groups and teamwork" (M=4.81, SD=0.76). In terms of proficiency, the highest competency identified by the respondents was "Conducting farm and home visits (M=3.62, SD=0.82) followed by 'conducting meetings effectively' (M=3.19, SD=0.72); "Conducting focus group discussions" (M=3.16, SD=0.32) and "conducting community forums" (M=3.13, SD=0.64). The discrepancies implying competency deficits were widest in "Acquiring and allocating resources" (MWDS=12.67); use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and web-based resources in agricultural extension (MWDS=12.59); and report writing and sharing the results and impacts (MWDS=11.92). It is recommended that any intervention aimed at developing the capacity of extension workers in Peninsular Malaysia should prioritize these core competency items in accordance with the deficits established in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Opportunities for Using Building Information Modeling to Improve Worker Safety Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Alomari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM enables the creation of a digital representation of a designed facility combined with additional information about the project attributes, performance criteria, and construction process. Users of BIM tools point to the ability to visualize the final design along with the construction process as a beneficial feature of using BIM. Knowing the construction process in relationship to a facility’s design benefits both safety professionals when planning worker safety measures for a project and designers when creating a project’s design. Success in using BIM to enhance safety partly depends on the familiarity of project personnel with BIM tools and the extent to which the tools can be used to identify and eliminate safety hazards. In a separate, ongoing study, the authors investigated the connection between BIM and safety to document the opportunities, barriers, and impacts. Utilizing an on-line survey of project engineers who work for construction firms together with a comprehensive literature review, the study found those who use BIM feel that it aids in communication of project information and project delivery, both of which have been found to have positive impacts on construction site safety. Further, utilizing the survey results, the authors apply the binary logistic regression econometric framework to better understand the factors that lead to safety professionals believing that BIM increases safety in the work place. In addition, according to the survey results, a large percentage of the engineers who use BIM feel that ultimately it helps to eliminate safety hazards and improve worker safety. The study findings suggest that improvements in safety performance across the construction industry may be due in part to increased use of BIM in the construction industry.

  5. A cascade model of mentorship for frontline health workers in rural health facilities in Eastern Uganda: processes, achievements and lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeani, Judith; Mangwi Ayiasi, Richard; Tetui, Moses; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Namazzi, Gertrude; Muhumuza Kananura, Ronald; Namusoke Kiwanuka, Suzanne; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly

    2017-08-01

    There is increasing demand for trainers to shift from traditional didactic training to innovative approaches that are more results-oriented. Mentorship is one such approach that could bridge the clinical knowledge gap among health workers. This paper describes the experiences of an attempt to improve health-worker performance in maternal and newborn health in three rural districts through a mentoring process using the cascade model. The paper further highlights achievements and lessons learnt during implementation of the cascade model. The cascade model started with initial training of health workers from three districts of Pallisa, Kibuku and Kamuli from where potential local mentors were selected for further training and mentorship by central mentors. These local mentors then went on to conduct mentorship visits supported by the external mentors. The mentorship process concentrated on partograph use, newborn resuscitation, prevention and management of Post-Partum Haemorrhage (PPH), including active management of third stage of labour, preeclampsia management and management of the sick newborn. Data for this paper was obtained from key informant interviews with district-level managers and local mentors. Mentorship improved several aspects of health-care delivery, ranging from improved competencies and responsiveness to emergencies and health-worker professionalism. In addition, due to better district leadership for Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH), there were improved supplies/medicine availability, team work and innovative local problem-solving approaches. Health workers were ultimately empowered to perform better. The study demonstrated that it is possible to improve the competencies of frontline health workers through performance enhancement for MNH services using locally built capacity in clinical mentorship for Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC). The cascade mentoring process needed strong external mentorship support at the start to ensure improved

  6. Analysing the relationship between family planning workers' contact and contraceptive switching in rural Bangladesh using multilevel modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mian B

    2005-09-01

    With a population of over 131 million and a fertility rate of 29.9 per 1000, population growth constitutes a primary threat to continued economic growth and development in Bangladesh. One strategy that has been used to cease further increases in fertility in Bangladesh involves using family planning outreach workers who travel throughout rural and urban areas educating women regarding contraceptive alternatives. This study uses a longitudinal database to assess the impact of family planning outreach workers' contact upon contraceptive switching and upon the risk of an unintended pregnancy. Using longitudinal data on contraceptive use from the Operations Research Project (ORP) of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B) in Bangladesh, multiple decrement life table analysis and multilevel, discrete-time competing risk hazards models were used to estimate the cumulative probabilities of switching to an alternative form of contraceptive use after a woman engaged in a discussion with an outreach worker. After controlling for the effects of socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the analysis revealed that family planning outreach workers' contact with women significantly decreases the risk of transitioning to the non-use of contraceptives. This contact also reduces the risk of an unintended pregnancy. Family planning workers' contact with women is associated with the increased risk of a woman switching from one modern method to another modern method. The study results indicate that side-effects and other method-related reasons are the two primary reasons for contraceptive discontinuation in rural Bangladesh.

  7. Proactive Personality and Training Motivation among Older Workers: A Mediational Model of Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Ilaria; Dordoni, Paola; Piccoli, Beatrice; Bellotto, Massimo; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at examining the relationship between proactive personality and training motivation among older workers (aged over 55 years) in a context characterized by the growing ageing of the global population. First, the authors hypothesized that proactive personality predicts the motivation to learn among older workers and that…

  8. Advocacy Week: A Model to Prepare Clinical Social Workers for Lobby Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, Teresa; Pryce, Julia; Hong, Philip Young P.

    2013-01-01

    Legislative advocacy is an important and long-standing skill in social work. However, this role cannot be left solely to social workers who specialize in macro and policy practice. Rather, clinical social workers who assist clients as they face "private" troubles (Mills, 1959) also need to face the structural barriers that contribute to…

  9. A Model of Supervisor Decision-Making in the Accommodation of Workers with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Kristman, Vicki; Shaw, William S; Soklaridis, Sophie; Reguly, Paula

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To explore supervisors' perspectives and decision-making processes in the accommodation of back injured workers. Methods Twenty-three semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with supervisors from eleven Canadian organizations about their role in providing job accommodations. Supervisors were identified through an on-line survey and interviews were recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo software. The initial analyses identified common units of meaning, which were used to develop a coding guide. Interviews were coded, and a model of supervisor decision-making was developed based on the themes, categories and connecting ideas identified in the data. Results The decision-making model includes a process element that is described as iterative "trial and error" decision-making. Medical restrictions are compared to job demands, employee abilities and available alternatives. A feasible modification is identified through brainstorming and then implemented by the supervisor. Resources used for brainstorming include information, supervisor experience and autonomy, and organizational supports. The model also incorporates the experience of accommodation as a job demand that causes strain for the supervisor. Accommodation demands affect the supervisor's attitude, brainstorming and monitoring effort, and communication with returning employees. Resources and demands have a combined effect on accommodation decision complexity, which in turn affects the quality of the accommodation option selected. If the employee is unable to complete the tasks or is reinjured during the accommodation, the decision cycle repeats. More frequent iteration through the trial and error process reduces the likelihood of return to work success. Conclusion A series of propositions is developed to illustrate the relationships among categories in the model. The model and propositions show: (a) the iterative, problem solving nature of the RTW process; (b) decision resources necessary

  10. Teleconference Use among Office Workers: An Interorganizational Comparison of an Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Hing Lo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From a corporate social responsibility perspective, there are many reasons to promote teleconference use as an alternative to business travel. The present study examines psychosocial and organizational factors relevant to teleconference use. We tested an extended Theory of Planned Behavior model of teleconference use among office workers of four organizations. Results indicate that intention was the strongest direct predictor of teleconference use. Habit and perceived norm, in turn, were the strongest predictors of intention to use teleconference. In contrast, attitude was only weakly predictive and perceived control not predictive at all of intention to use teleconference. We also examined how this model was influenced by the organizational context by comparing organizations from two different regions, and organizations from the private vs. the public sector. Most teleconference-related beliefs differed between regions and organizational sectors. The relevance of specific attitudinal and normative beliefs to the overall attitude and perceived norm also differed between organizational sectors. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  11. Levy flights and self-similar exploratory behaviour of termite workers: beyond model fitting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Miramontes

    Full Text Available Animal movements have been related to optimal foraging strategies where self-similar trajectories are central. Most of the experimental studies done so far have focused mainly on fitting statistical models to data in order to test for movement patterns described by power-laws. Here we show by analyzing over half a million movement displacements that isolated termite workers actually exhibit a range of very interesting dynamical properties--including Lévy flights--in their exploratory behaviour. Going beyond the current trend of statistical model fitting alone, our study analyses anomalous diffusion and structure functions to estimate values of the scaling exponents describing displacement statistics. We evince the fractal nature of the movement patterns and show how the scaling exponents describing termite space exploration intriguingly comply with mathematical relations found in the physics of transport phenomena. By doing this, we rescue a rich variety of physical and biological phenomenology that can be potentially important and meaningful for the study of complex animal behavior and, in particular, for the study of how patterns of exploratory behaviour of individual social insects may impact not only their feeding demands but also nestmate encounter patterns and, hence, their dynamics at the social scale.

  12. Worker Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucouliagos, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

  13. Three job stress models/concepts and oxidative DNA damage in a sample of workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Ishizaki, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo; Shimazu, Akihito

    2009-04-01

    Three job stress models/concepts (the job demands-control [DC] model, the effort-reward imbalance [ERI] model, and organizational justice) have been linked to coronary heart disease (CHD) at work. In recent years, oxidative DNA damage has been identified as a new risk factor for CHD. However, evidence for the association between these job stressors and oxidative DNA damage is limited. The present cross-sectional study investigated the association between these job stress models/concepts and oxidative DNA damage as a possible mediator of the adverse health effects of job stress. A total of 166 male and 51 female workers of a manufacturing factory in Japan were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire regarding job stressors and demographic, occupational, and lifestyle variables. Urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, were also measured. In male subjects, the urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG were significantly higher among the group with lower interactional justice, one of the two components of organizational justice; however, no association was observed with the DC model or the ERI model. In female subjects, high job demands/control ratio was significantly and positively associated with the urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG. Interactional justice among male workers and the DC model-based strain among female workers may be associated with increased urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG which possibly reflects oxidative DNA damage.

  14. A Real-World Community Health Worker Care Coordination Model for High-Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A; Perry-Bell, Kenita; Minier, Mark; Glassgow, Anne Elizabeth; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2018-04-01

    Health care systems across the United States are considering community health worker (CHW) services for high-risk patients, despite limited data on how to build and sustain effective CHW programs. We describe the process of providing CHW services to 5,289 at-risk patients within a state-run health system. The program includes 30 CHWs, six care coordinators, the Director of Care Coordination, the Medical Director, a registered nurse, mental health specialists, and legal specialists. CHWs are organized into geographic and specialized teams. All CHWs receive basic training that includes oral and mental health; some receive additional disease-specific training. CHWs develop individualized care coordination plans with patients. The implementation of these plans involves delivery of a wide range of social service and coordination support. The number of CHW contacts is determined by patient risk. CHWs spend about 60% of their time in an office setting. To deliver the program optimally, we had to develop multiple CHW job categories that allow for CHW specialization. We created new technology systems to manage operations. Field issues resulted in program changes to improve service delivery and ensure safety. Our experience serves as a model for how to integrate CHWs into clinical and community systems.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of infection control models in the prevention of nosocomial transmission of SARS virus to healthcare workers: implication to nosocomial viral infection control for healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Muh-Yong; Lu, Yun-Ching; Huang, Pi-Hsiang; Chen, Chen-Ming; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lin, Yusen E

    2010-07-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of acquiring emerging infections while caring for patients, as has been shown in the recent SARS and swine flu epidemics. Using SARS as an example, we determined the effectiveness of infection control measures (ICMs) by logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM), a quantitative methodology that can test a hypothetical model and validates causal relationships among ICMs. Logistic regression showed that installing hand wash stations in the emergency room (p = 0.012, odds ratio = 1.07) was the only ICM significantly associated with the protection of HCWs from acquiring the SARS virus. The structural equation modelling results showed that the most important contributing factor (highest proportion of effectiveness) was installation of a fever screening station outside the emergency department (51%). Other measures included traffic control in the emergency department (19%), availability of an outbreak standard operation protocol (12%), mandatory temperature screening (9%), establishing a hand washing setup at each hospital checkpoint (3%), adding simplified isolation rooms (3%), and a standardized patient transfer protocol (3%). Installation of fever screening stations outside of the hospital and implementing traffic control in the emergency department contributed to 70% of the effectiveness in the prevention of SARS transmission. Our approach can be applied to the evaluation of control measures for other epidemic infectious diseases, including swine flu and avian flu.

  16. Sensitivity analysis on the priority order of the radiological worker allocation model using goal programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hae Yong; Lee, Kun Jai

    1998-01-01

    In nuclear power plant, it has been the important object to reduce the occupational radiation exposure (ORE). Recently, the optimization concept of management science has been studied to reduce the ORE in nuclear power plant. In optimization of the worker allocation, the collective dose, working time, individual dose, and total number of worker must be considered and their priority orders must be thought because the main constraint is necessary for determining the constraints variable of the radiological worker allocation problem. The ultimate object of this study is to look into the change of the optimal allocation of the radiological worker as priority order changes. In this study, the priority order is the characteristic of goal programming that is a kind of multi-objective linear programming. From a result of study using goal programming, the total number of worker and collective dose of worker have changed as the priority order has changed and the collective dose limit have played an important role in reducing the ORE

  17. The scientists A history of science told through the lives of its greatest inventors

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2004-01-01

    By focusing on the scientists themselves, Gribbin has written an anecdotal narrative enlivened with stories of personal drama, success and failure. A bestselling science writer with an international reputation, Gribbin is among the few authors who could even attempt a work of this magnitude. Praised as “a sequence of witty, information-packed tales” and “a terrifi c read” by The Times upon its recent British publication, The Scientists breathes new life into such venerable icons as Galileo, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Linus Pauling, as well as lesser lights whose stories have been undeservedly neglected. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  18. Analysis of perceived risk among construction workers: a cross-cultural study and reflection on the Hofstede model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fiestas, Myriam; Rodríguez-Garzón, Ignacio; Delgado-Padial, Antonio; Lucas-Ruiz, Valeriano

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a cross-cultural study on perceived risk in the construction industry. Worker samples from three different countries were studied: Spain, Peru and Nicaragua. The main goal was to explain how construction workers perceive their occupational hazard and to analyze how this is related to their national culture. The model used to measure perceived risk was the psychometric paradigm. The results show three very similar profiles, indicating that risk perception is independent of nationality. A cultural analysis was conducted using the Hofstede model. The results of this analysis and the relation to perceived risk showed that risk perception in construction is independent of national culture. Finally, a multiple lineal regression analysis was conducted to determine what qualitative attributes could predict the global quantitative size of risk perception. All of the findings have important implications regarding the management of safety in the workplace.

  19. Development of a Logic Model for a Physical Activity–Based Employee Wellness Program for Mass Transit Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Bhibha M.; Petruzzello, Steven J.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation workers, who constitute a large sector of the workforce, have worksite factors that harm their health. Worksite wellness programs must target this at-risk population. Although physical activity is often a component of worksite wellness logic models, we consider it the cornerstone for improving the health of mass transit employees. Program theory was based on in-person interviews and focus groups of employees. We identified 4 short-term outcome categories, which provided a chain...

  20. A randomized controlled trial of a Return-to-Work Coordinator model of care in a general hospital to facilitate return to work of injured workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Heidi Siew Khoon; Yeo, Doreen Sai Ching; Giam, Joanna Yu Ting; Cheong, Florence Wai Fong; Chan, Kay Fei

    2016-04-07

    Return-to-work (RTW) programmes for injured workers have been prevalent in Western countries with established work injury management policies for decades. In recent years, more Asian countries have started to develop RTW programmes in the absence of work injury management policies. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of RTW programmes in Asia. Return-to-work coordination has been found to be an important facilitator in RTW programmes. This study seeks to determine the effectiveness of a Return-to-work coordinator (RTWC) model of care in facilitating early RTW for injured workers in Singapore. A randomized controlled trial was used. 160 injured workers in a general hospital were randomly allocated to either control (receive usual hospital standard care) or intervention (assigned a RTWC) group. The RTWC closely supported RTW arrangements and proactively liaised with employers and healthcare professionals on RTW solutions for the injured workers. At three months post injury, workers in the intervention group RTW 10 days earlier than the control group, with a higher proportion of workers in the intervention group returning to modified jobs. There were no significant differences in the quality of life measures between the two groups. The addition of a RTWC into the hospital model of care is effective in facilitating early RTW for injured workers. This could be a potential model of care for injured workers in Asian countries where work injury management policies are not yet established.

  1. A general equilibrium model of guest-worker migration: the source-country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S; Milbourne, R

    1988-11-01

    "This paper examines the problem of guest-worker migration from an economy populated by identical, utility-maximizing individuals with finite working lives. The decision to migrate, the rate of saving while abroad, as well as the length of a migrant's stay in the foreign country, are all viewed as part of a solution to an intertemporal optimization problem. In addition to studying the microeconomic aspects of temporary migration, the paper analyses the determinants of the equilibrium flow of migrants, the corresponding domestic wage, and the level of welfare enjoyed by a typical worker. Effects of an emigration tax are also investigated." excerpt

  2. PROPOSING AN INTEGRATIVE-PROGRESSIVE MODEL IN HANDLING TROUBLED INDONESIAN OVERSEAS WORKERS IN THE TRANSIT AREA (A SOCIO-LEGAL RESEARCH IN TANJUNG PINANG CITY, KEPULAUAN RIAU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanjung Pinang City of the Riau Islands Province (Provinsi Kepulauan Riau is a transit area for the troubled Indonesian overseas workers from Singapore and Malaysia. The Indonesian National Board for the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers (Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia/BNP2TKI reported that 15,105 troubled Indonesian overseas workers were deported from January to November 2014 via Tanjung Pinang City.  Previous research revealed that citizens of Tanjung Pinang City criticized the treatments given by the local government to the deported workers by reason that they were not the citizens of the Riau Islands Province, yet the local government has to provide shelters and funds prior to returning them to their home towns. The treatments for the deported workers in the transit area have also raised pros and cons among the stakeholders who are in charge of handling the deported workers. This circumstance may not occur if a special regional regulation of the Riau Islands Province has been issued to govern the troubled Indonesian overseas workers in the transit area.  Due to this vacuum of law, this research aims to establish a mechanism in handling the deported workers in the transit area by designing an integrative-progressive model which can be adopted by the stakeholders. The model is to link the legal and non- legal issues and as well as to provide the collaborative mechanisms for the stakeholders based on the approaches of the integrative and progressive legal theory.

  3. Impact of organisational characteristics on turnover intention among care workers in nursing homes in Korea: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jong Goon; Man Kim, Ji; Hwang, Won Ju; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of organisational characteristics on the turnover intention of care workers working at nursing homes in Korea. Study participants included 504 care workers working at 14 nursing homes in Korea. The variables measured were: high-performance work practices, consisting of five subfactors (official training, employment stability, autonomy, employee participation and group-based payment); organisational commitment, consisting of three subfactors (affective, normative and continuance commitment); organisational support; and turnover intention. The inter-relationship between high-performance work practices, organisational support, organisational commitment and turnover intention and the fit of the hypothetical model were analysed using structural equation modelling. According to our analysis, high-performance work practices not only had a direct effect on turnover intention, but also an indirect effect by mediating organisational support and commitment. The factor having the largest direct influence on turnover intention was organisational commitment. The results of the present study suggest that to improve health conditions for frail elderly patients at nursing homes, as well as the efficiency of nursing homes through the continuance of nursing service and enhancement of quality of service, long-term care facilities should reduce the turnover intention of care workers by increasing their organisational commitment by actively implementing high-performance work practices.

  4. Examining a Proposed Job Retention Model for Adult Workers with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    This research provides an analysis of factors predicting job retention (JR), job satisfaction (JS), and job performance (JP) of workers with mental retardation (MR). The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in influencing three important employee's outcomes, JR, JS, and JP. The intent of the study was to develop job retention…

  5. Gravity models to classify commuting vs. resident workers. An application to the analysis of residential risk in a contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The analysis of risk for the population residing and/or working in contaminated areas raises the topic of commuting. In fact, especially in contaminated areas, commuting groups are likely to be subject to lower exposure than residents. Only very recently environmental epidemiology has started considering the role of commuting as a differential source of exposure in contaminated areas. In order to improve the categorization of groups, this paper applies a gravitational model to the analysis of residential risk for workers in the Gela petrochemical complex, which began life in the early 60s in the municipality of Gela (Sicily, Italy) and is the main source of industrial pollution in the local area. Results A logistic regression model is implemented to measure the capacity of Gela "central location" to attract commuting flows from other sites. Drawing from gravity models, the proposed methodology: a) defines the probability of finding commuters from municipalities outside Gela as a function of the origin's "economic mass" and of its distance from each destination; b) establishes "commuting thresholds" relative to the origin's mass. The analysis includes 367 out of the 390 Sicilian municipalities. Results are applied to define "commuters" and "residents" within the cohort of petrochemical workers. The study population is composed of 5,627 workers. Different categories of residence in Gela are compared calculating Mortality Rate Ratios for lung cancer through a Poisson regression model, controlling for age and calendar period. The mobility model correctly classifies almost 90% of observations. Its application to the mortality analysis confirms a major risk for lung cancer associated with residence in Gela. Conclusions Commuting is a critical aspect of the health-environment relationship in contaminated areas. The proposed methodology can be replicated to different contexts when residential information is lacking or unreliable; however, a careful consideration

  6. Gravity models to classify commuting vs. resident workers. An application to the analysis of residential risk in a contaminated area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Rocca Marina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of risk for the population residing and/or working in contaminated areas raises the topic of commuting. In fact, especially in contaminated areas, commuting groups are likely to be subject to lower exposure than residents. Only very recently environmental epidemiology has started considering the role of commuting as a differential source of exposure in contaminated areas. In order to improve the categorization of groups, this paper applies a gravitational model to the analysis of residential risk for workers in the Gela petrochemical complex, which began life in the early 60s in the municipality of Gela (Sicily, Italy and is the main source of industrial pollution in the local area. Results A logistic regression model is implemented to measure the capacity of Gela "central location" to attract commuting flows from other sites. Drawing from gravity models, the proposed methodology: a defines the probability of finding commuters from municipalities outside Gela as a function of the origin's "economic mass" and of its distance from each destination; b establishes "commuting thresholds" relative to the origin's mass. The analysis includes 367 out of the 390 Sicilian municipalities. Results are applied to define "commuters" and "residents" within the cohort of petrochemical workers. The study population is composed of 5,627 workers. Different categories of residence in Gela are compared calculating Mortality Rate Ratios for lung cancer through a Poisson regression model, controlling for age and calendar period. The mobility model correctly classifies almost 90% of observations. Its application to the mortality analysis confirms a major risk for lung cancer associated with residence in Gela. Conclusions Commuting is a critical aspect of the health-environment relationship in contaminated areas. The proposed methodology can be replicated to different contexts when residential information is lacking or unreliable

  7. Destination memory in schizophrenia: "Did I told Elvis Presley about the thief?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Altman, Rosalie; Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Raffard, Stéphane

    2017-02-01

    Destination memory refers to the ability to remember to whom a piece of information was previously transmitted. Our paper assessed this ability in schizophrenia. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 25 control participants told proverbs (e.g., "send a thief to catch a thief") to pictures of celebrities (e.g., Elvis Presley). Afterward, participants had to indicate to which celebrity they had previously said the proverbs. Participants also completed a binding task in which they were required to associate letters with their corresponding context (i.e., location). Analysis revealed worse destination memory and binding in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. In both populations, destination memory was significantly correlated with performances on the binding task. Our findings suggest difficulty in the ability to attribute information to its appropriate destination in schizophrenia. This difficulty may be related to compromise in binding separate cues together to form a coherent representation of an event in memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effectiveness of Education Based on BASNEF Model Program in Promotion of Preventive Behavior of Leishmaniasis among Health Workers and Families under Health Centers Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khani Jeihooni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Intervention of educational training in order to prevent the leishmaniasis in endemic areas seems necessary. This study was implemented with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of education based on BASNEF Model program in promotion of preventive behavior of leishmaniasis among Health workers and families under the coverage of Health centers. Materials & Methods: An intervention study was carried out in rural health centers during 2009. Questionnaires were completed by 20 health- workers of two rural health centers. Also 20 families under the coverage of this health centers were randomly selected to complete the questionnaire. Then four training sessions for health workers and 2 training sessions for the influential individuals were conducted to increase the enabling factors and solving their problems, weekly meetings was held with health workers representatives. After three months of health workers training the data were collected again and analyzed via Chi- Square, T Independent, T pair, Regression and Mann- Whitney statistics. Results: The mean score for to knowledge, attitude, behavior intension, enabling factors and health workers behaviors significantly increased after educational intervention in experimental group and influential individuals. The mean scores for knowledge, attitude, behavior intension, enabling factors and the behavior of attendant families under coverage also increased significantly. Conclusion: Educational program of BASNEF Model, leads to behavior change of health workers and eventually their training behavior leads to preventive actions in families under coverage.

  9. Workers' marginal costs of commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour...

  10. Job stress and mental health of permanent and fixed-term workers measured by effort-reward imbalance model, depressive complaints, and clinic utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mariko; Tsurugano, Shinobu; Yano, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    The number of workers with precarious employment has increased globally; however, few studies have used validated measures to investigate the relationship of job status to stress and mental health. Thus, we conducted a study to compare differential job stress experienced by permanent and fixed-term workers using an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaire, and by evaluating depressive complaints and clinic utilization. Subjects were permanent or fixed-term male workers at a Japanese research institute (n=756). Baseline data on job stress and depressive complaints were collected in 2007. We followed up with the same population over a 1-year period to assess their utilization of the company clinic for mental health concerns. The ERI ratio was higher among permanent workers than among fixed-term workers. More permanent workers presented with more than two depressive complaints, which is the standard used for the diagnosis of depression. ERI scores indicated that the effort component of permanent work was associated with distress, whereas distress in fixed-term work was related to job promotion and job insecurity. Moreover, over the one-year follow-up period, fixed-term workers visited the on-site clinic for mental concerns 4.04 times more often than permanent workers even after adjusting for age, lifestyle, ERI, and depressive complaints. These contrasting findings reflect the differential workloads and working conditions encountered by permanent and fixed-term workers. The occupational setting where employment status was intermingled, may have contributed to the high numbers of mental health-related issues experienced by workers with different employment status.

  11. Bivariate Left-Censored Bayesian Model for Predicting Exposure: Preliminary Analysis of Worker Exposure during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Caroline; Banerjee, Sudipto; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Stenzel, Mark R; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron; Engel, Lawrence S; Kwok, Richard K; Stewart, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig caught fire and exploded, releasing almost 5 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over the ensuing 3 months. Thousands of oil spill workers participated in the spill response and clean-up efforts. The GuLF STUDY being conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is an epidemiological study to investigate potential adverse health effects among these oil spill clean-up workers. Many volatile chemicals were released from the oil into the air, including total hydrocarbons (THC), which is a composite of the volatile components of oil including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and hexane (BTEXH). Our goal is to estimate exposure levels to these toxic chemicals for groups of oil spill workers in the study (hereafter called exposure groups, EGs) with likely comparable exposure distributions. A large number of air measurements were collected, but many EGs are characterized by datasets with a large percentage of censored measurements (below the analytic methods' limits of detection) and/or a limited number of measurements. We use THC for which there was less censoring to develop predictive linear models for specific BTEXH air exposures with higher degrees of censoring. We present a novel Bayesian hierarchical linear model that allows us to predict, for different EGs simultaneously, exposure levels of a second chemical while accounting for censoring in both THC and the chemical of interest. We illustrate the methodology by estimating exposure levels for several EGs on the Development Driller III, a rig vessel charged with drilling one of the relief wells. The model provided credible estimates in this example for geometric means, arithmetic means, variances, correlations, and regression coefficients for each group. This approach should be considered when estimating exposures in situations when multiple chemicals are correlated and have varying degrees of censoring. © The Author 2017

  12. Community health workers speak out about the Kin KeeperSM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Shimaa M; Brooks, Emily; Dietrich, Monika; Henderson, Aisha; McLean, Casey; Patricia Williams, Karen

    2010-06-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) informed students and researcher alike on the Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention. Students interested in medicine, guided by faculty, conducted a focus group session with 13 CHWs to find out if the intervention was effective for delivering breast and cervical cancer education. Strengths reported were (1) cultural appropriateness, (2) home visits, (3) CHW resource kits, and (4) increased awareness. The barriers were privacy perceptions and scheduling home visits. Overall, the CHWs indicated that the intervention was effective and flexible enough to accommodate the African American, Latina, and Arab groups of women.

  13. 'I'm So Stressed!': A Longitudinal Model of Stress, Burnout and Engagement among Social Workers in Child Welfare Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dnika J; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work-family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work-family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement.

  14. Ethnicity, work-related stress and subjective reports of health by migrant workers: a multi-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Roberto; Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Smith, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    This study integrates different aspects of ethnicity and work-related stress dimensions (based on the Demands-Resources-Individual-Effects model, DRIVE [Mark, G. M., and A. P. Smith. 2008. "Stress Models: A Review and Suggested New Direction." In Occupational Health Psychology, edited by J. Houdmont and S. Leka, 111-144. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press]) and aims to test a multi-dimensional model that combines individual differences, ethnicity dimensions, work characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction/stress as independent variables in the prediction of subjectives reports of health by workers differing in ethnicity. A questionnaire consisting of the following sections was submitted to 900 workers in Southern Italy: for individual and cultural characteristics, coping strategies, personality behaviours, and acculturation strategies; for work characteristics, perceived job demands and job resources/rewards; for appraisals, perceived job stress/satisfaction and racial discrimination; for subjective reports of health, psychological disorders and general health. To test the reliability and construct validity of the extracted factors referred to all dimensions involved in the proposed model and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the main effects of the independent variables on the health outcomes were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded seven factors for individual and cultural characteristics (emotional/relational coping, objective coping, Type A behaviour, negative affectivity, social inhibition, affirmation/maintenance culture, and search identity/adoption of the host culture); three factors for work characteristics (work demands, intrinsic/extrinsic rewards, and work resources); three factors for appraisals (perceived job satisfaction, perceived job stress, perceived racial discrimination) and three factors for subjective reports of health (interpersonal disorders, anxious-depressive disorders, and general health). Logistic

  15. Effects of Co-Worker and Supervisor Support on Job Stress and Presenteeism in an Aging Workforce: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianan; Shen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Mingjing; Liu, Yuanling; Deng, Jianwei; Chen, Qian; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-12-23

    We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649). The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p worker support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = -0.10; p employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees.

  16. Reducing 30-Day Readmission Rates in a High-Risk Population Using a Lay-Health Worker Model in Appalachia Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Roberto; Horsley, Mary; Ray, Lisa; Maggard, Nancy; Schilling, Jennifer; Weatherford, Sarah; Feltner, Fran; Gilliam, Kayla

    2018-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to address the effectiveness of a lay-health worker (LHW) model in addressing social needs and readmissions of high-risk patients admitted in a rural community hospital. A quasi-experimental study design assessed implementation of a LHW model for assisting high-risk patients with their post-discharge social needs.…

  17. Who will have Sustainable Employment After a Back Injury? The Development of a Clinical Prediction Model in a Cohort of Injured Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Heather M; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Hayden, Jill A; Frank, John; Johnson, William G

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Our objective was to develop a clinical prediction model to identify workers with sustainable employment following an episode of work-related low back pain (LBP). Methods We used data from a cohort study of injured workers with incident LBP claims in the USA to predict employment patterns 1 and 6 months following a workers' compensation claim. We developed three sequential models to determine the contribution of three domains of variables: (1) basic demographic/clinical variables; (2) health-related variables; and (3) work-related factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop the predictive models. We constructed receiver operator curves and used the c-index to measure predictive accuracy. Results Seventy-nine percent and 77 % of workers had sustainable employment at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Sustainable employment at 1 month was predicted by initial back pain intensity, mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type (c-index = 0.77). At 6 months, sustainable employment was predicted by physical and mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type (c-index = 0.77). Adding health-related and work-related variables to models improved predictive accuracy by 8.5 and 10 % at 1 and 6 months respectively. Conclusion We developed clinically-relevant models to predict sustainable employment in injured workers who made a workers' compensation claim for LBP. Inquiring about back pain intensity, physical and mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type may be beneficial in developing programs of care. Our models need to be validated in other populations.

  18. Potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Bangalore, India: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kate M; Prudden, Holly J; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Rajaram, Subramanian P; Foss, Anna M; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In Bangalore, new HIV infections of female sex workers and men who have sex with men continue to occur, despite high condom use. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high anti-HIV efficacy for men who have sex with men. PrEP demonstration projects are underway amongst Indian female sex workers. We estimated the impact and efficiency of prioritizing PrEP to female sex workers and/or men who have sex with men in Bangalore. A mathematical model of HIV transmission and treatment for female sex workers, clients, men who have sex with men and low-risk groups was parameterized and fitted to Bangalore data. The proportion of transmission attributable (population attributable fraction) to commercial sex and sex between men was calculated. PrEP impact (infections averted, life-years gained) and efficiency (life-years gained/infections averted per 100 person-years on PrEP) were estimated for different levels of PrEP adherence, coverage and prioritization strategies (female sex workers, high-risk men who have sex with men, both female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men, or female sex workers with lower condom use), under current conditions and in a scenario with lower baseline condom use amongst key populations. Population attributable fractions for commercial sex and sex between men have declined over time, and they are predicted to account for 19% of all new infections between 2016 and 2025. PrEP could prevent a substantial proportion of infections amongst female sex workers and men who have sex with men in this setting (23%/27% over 5/10 years, with 60% coverage and 50% adherence), which could avert 2.9%/4.3% of infections over 5/10 years in the whole Bangalore population. Impact and efficiency in the whole population was greater if female sex workers were prioritized. Efficiency increased, but impact decreased, if only female sex workers with lower condom use were given PrEP. Greater impact and efficiency was predicted for the scenario with lower condom use

  19. Lay Health Worker Involvement in Evidence-Based Treatment Delivery: A Conceptual Model to Address Disparities in Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Miya L; Lau, Anna S; Miranda, Jeanne

    2018-05-07

    Mobilizing lay health workers (LHWs) to deliver evidence-based treatments (EBTs) is a workforce strategy to address mental health disparities in underserved communities. LHWs can be leveraged to support access to EBTs in a variety of ways, from conducting outreach for EBTs delivered by professional providers to serving as the primary treatment providers. This critical review provides an overview of how LHW-supported or -delivered EBTs have been leveraged in low-, middle-, and high-income countries (HICs). We propose a conceptual model for LHWs to address drivers of service disparities, which relate to the overall supply of the EBTs provided and the demand for these treatments. The review provides illustrative case examples that demonstrate how LHWs have been leveraged globally and domestically to increase access to mental health services. It also discusses challenges and recommendations regarding implementing LHW-supported or -delivered EBTs.

  20. A Community Health Worker "logic model": towards a theory of enhanced performance in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimoli, Joseph F; Frymus, Diana E; Wuliji, Tana; Franco, Lynne M; Newsome, Martha H

    2014-10-02

    There has been a resurgence of interest in national Community Health Worker (CHW) programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A lack of strong research evidence persists, however, about the most efficient and effective strategies to ensure optimal, sustained performance of CHWs at scale. To facilitate learning and research to address this knowledge gap, the authors developed a generic CHW logic model that proposes a theoretical causal pathway to improved performance. The logic model draws upon available research and expert knowledge on CHWs in LMICs. Construction of the model entailed a multi-stage, inductive, two-year process. It began with the planning and implementation of a structured review of the existing research on community and health system support for enhanced CHW performance. It continued with a facilitated discussion of review findings with experts during a two-day consultation. The process culminated with the authors' review of consultation-generated documentation, additional analysis, and production of multiple iterations of the model. The generic CHW logic model posits that optimal CHW performance is a function of high quality CHW programming, which is reinforced, sustained, and brought to scale by robust, high-performing health and community systems, both of which mobilize inputs and put in place processes needed to fully achieve performance objectives. Multiple contextual factors can influence CHW programming, system functioning, and CHW performance. The model is a novel contribution to current thinking about CHWs. It places CHW performance at the center of the discussion about CHW programming, recognizes the strengths and limitations of discrete, targeted programs, and is comprehensive, reflecting the current state of both scientific and tacit knowledge about support for improving CHW performance. The model is also a practical tool that offers guidance for continuous learning about what works. Despite the model's limitations and several

  1. Proposal for intake model for workers at IPEN-CNEN/SP who handle {sup 131} I; Proposta de um modelo de incorporacao para trabalhadores ocupacionais do IPEN-CNEN/SP que manuseiam {sup 131} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todo, A.S.; Potiens Junior, A.J.; Gaburo, J.C.; Sanches, M.P.; Oliveira, E.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The intake model for the two groups of workers at IPEN-CNEN/SP is presented. They handle iodine compounds during the processing of irradiated targets and at labeling of radiopharmaceutical compounds. The intake model for the workers are proposed from the knowledge of the activities carried out in the plant and the internal monitoring program of the workers. In this study, the intake is considered to be taken uniformly during the days of major activities carried out by the workers. In practice, the application of this model has be shown suitable, for the studied groups 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: astodo at net.ipen.br

  2. Modeling signal-to-noise ratio of otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to different industrial noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05. Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038. The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041. The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the

  3. A Study into the Motivation of Knowledge Workers: Using an adapted version of the MOCC model of motivation to explain the motivational tendencies of project managers and engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    There is a general need across organisations to better understand the motivation of knowledge workers. Based on our own empirical findings, research into early and contemporary motivation theories and use of Sharp et al.’s (2009) Motivators, Outcomes, Context, and Characteristics (MOCC) motivational model we adapted our own model. Through adapting the content of the model but keeping the framework intact, we were able to explain the various aspects of motivation in project management and engi...

  4. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  5. The effectiveness of a training method using self-modeling webcam photos for reducing musculoskeletal risk among office workers using computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taieb-Maimon, Meirav; Cwikel, Julie; Shapira, Bracha; Orenstein, Ido

    2012-03-01

    An intervention study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of an innovative self-modeling photo-training method for reducing musculoskeletal risk among office workers using computers. Sixty workers were randomly assigned to either: 1) a control group; 2) an office training group that received personal, ergonomic training and workstation adjustments or 3) a photo-training group that received both office training and an automatic frequent-feedback system that displayed on the computer screen a photo of the worker's current sitting posture together with the correct posture photo taken earlier during office training. Musculoskeletal risk was evaluated using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method before, during and after the six weeks intervention. Both training methods provided effective short-term posture improvement; however, sustained improvement was only attained with the photo-training method. Both interventions had a greater effect on older workers and on workers suffering more musculoskeletal pain. The photo-training method had a greater positive effect on women than on men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Art as a Self-Regulating Tool in a War Situation: A Model for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Ephrat; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie

    2010-01-01

    War poses a challenge for social workers, adding exposure to direct risk of personal harm to the general stress of social work practice. Artworks are frequently used in health care settings with people in high distress. This study had three goals: (1) to characterize the stressors of social workers living in a war zone, (2) to teach social workers…

  7. Effects of Co-Worker and Supervisor Support on Job Stress and Presenteeism in an Aging Workforce: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianan; Shen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Mingjing; Liu, Yuanling; Deng, Jianwei; Chen, Qian; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649). The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p Job stress had a significant direct positive effect on presenteeism (β = 0.30; p job stress (β = −0.10; p job stress (β = −0.40; p < 0.001) but not presenteeism. The findings suggest that presenteeism is reduced by increased respect and concern for employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees. PMID:26703705

  8. What Social Workers in Health Care Should Know about Lupus: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Beckerman, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a cross-sectional study (N = 378) of patients living with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The purpose of this study was to identify and clarify the unique psychosocial challenges for those living with lupus. The specific analysis will help to develop a model to determine how different factors influence SLE…

  9. The effect of safety education based on Health Belief Model (HBM on the workers practice of Borujen industrial town in using the personal protection respiratory equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasanzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Every year 50-158 million occupational diseases and job accidents occur in the world. Studies on the job injuries show that about 150000 injuries occur annually in  Iran. Unhealthy behaviors are important problems in public health. Education is one of the best ways to change unhealthy behaviors. Interventions based on model and theories have many  capacities for behavior change. Health Belief Model is one of the health education models that are  useful for behavior change. This research has been performed in order to assess the effect of health  education program based on health belief model (HBM to prevent occupational respiratory   diseases in workers.   Methods   Aquasi-experimental design was used for this interventional study, in which 88 of workers of Borujen industrial town participated, who were randomly assigned to experimental and control group. Data collecting tool were a self-administered questionnaire including 53 questions based on health belief model that was completed by the workers, in addition to the performance check list which was conducted by researcher via insensible controlling the workers' safety behaviour. Validity and reliability of the tools were examined prior to the study. Educational  intervention was conducted in the first stage following by the second data collection one month  later. The data of both experimental and control group were compared statistically before and  after the intervention.   Results   The results showed that the mean of the grade of all parts of health belief model  (HBM and performance mark of the workers about safety and use of personal respiratory  preventive equipment in experimental group after educational intervention compared to prior the  study and also compared to control group were significantly increased.   Conclusion   The results of this survey showed that by enhancement of health belief model (HBM components including

  10. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: a study amongst Malaysian workers

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Mohd A.; Dollard, Maureen F.; Winefield, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions. Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout) and ...

  11. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: A study amongst Malaysian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd A. Idris

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout and motivational pathways (i.e. work engagement. Motivation for the study: So far, integration of PSC in the JD-R model is only tested in a Western context (i.e. Australia. We tested the emerging construct of PSC in Malaysia, an Eastern developing country in the Asian region. Research design, approach and method: A random population based sample was derived using household maps provided by Department of Statistics, Malaysia; 291 employees (response rate 50.52% from the State of Selangor, Malaysia participated. Cross-sectional data were analysed using structural equation modelling. Main findings: We found that PSC was negatively related to job demands and positively related to job resources. Job demands, in turn, predicted burnout (i.e. exhaustion and cynicism, whereas job resources predicted engagement. Both burnout and engagement were associated with performance. Bootstrapping showed significant indirect effects of PSC on burnout via job demands, PSC on performance via burnout and PSC on performance via the resources-engagement pathway. Practical/managerial implications: Our findings are consistent with previous research that suggests that PSC should be a target to improve working conditions and in turn reduce burnout and improve engagement and productivity. Contribution/value-add: These findings suggest that JD-R theory may be expanded to include PSC as an antecedent and that the expanded JD-R model is largely valid in an Eastern, developing economy setting.

  12. A retrospective review of the Honduras AIN-C program guided by a community health worker performance logic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Peterson, Lauren A

    2016-05-06

    Factors that influence performance of community health workers (CHWs) delivering health services are not well understood. A recent logic model proposed categories of support from both health sector and communities that influence CHW performance and program outcomes. This logic model has been used to review a growth monitoring program delivered by CHWs in Honduras, known as Atención Integral a la Niñez en la Comunidad (AIN-C). A retrospective review of AIN-C was conducted through a document desk review and supplemented with in-depth interviews. Documents were systematically coded using the categories from the logic model, and gaps were addressed through interviews. Authors reviewed coded data for each category to analyze program details and outcomes as well as identify potential issues and gaps in the logic model. Categories from the logic model were inconsistently represented, with more information available for health sector than community. Context and input activities were not well documented. Information on health sector systems-level activities was available for governance but limited for other categories, while not much was found for community systems-level activities. Most available information focused on program-level activities with substantial data on technical support. Output, outcome, and impact data were drawn from various resources and suggest mixed results of AIN-C on indicators of interest. Assessing CHW performance through a desk review left gaps that could not be addressed about the relationship of activities and performance. There were critical characteristics of program design that made it contextually appropriate; however, it was difficult to identify clear links between AIN-C and malnutrition indicators. Regarding the logic model, several categories were too broad (e.g., technical support, context) and some aspects of AIN-C did not fit neatly in logic model categories (e.g., political commitment, equity, flexibility in implementation). The

  13. Health effects of low doses at low dose rates: dose-response relationship modeling in a cohort of workers of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz-Flamant, Camille

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the health effects of chronic external low doses of ionising radiation. This work is based on the French cohort of CEA-AREVA NC nuclear workers. The mains stages of this thesis were (1) conducting a review of epidemiological studies on nuclear workers, (2) completing the database and performing a descriptive analysis of the cohort, (3) quantifying risk by different statistical methods and (4) modelling the exposure-time-risk relationship. The cohort includes monitored workers employed more than one year between 1950 and 1994 at CEA or AREVA NC companies. Individual annual external exposure, history of work, vital status and causes of death were reconstructed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios using French national mortality rates as external reference were computed. Exposure-risk analysis was conducted in the cohort using the linear excess relative risk model, based on both Poisson regression and Cox model. Time dependent modifying factors were investigated by adding an interaction term in the model or by using exposure time windows. The cohort includes 36, 769 workers, followed-up until age 60 in average. During the 1968- 2004 period, 5, 443 deaths, 2, 213 cancers, 62 leukemia and 1, 314 cardiovascular diseases were recorded. Among the 57% exposed workers, the mean cumulative dose was 21.5 milli-sieverts (mSv). A strong Healthy Worker Effect is observed in the cohort. Significant elevated risks of pleura cancer and melanoma deaths were observed in the cohort but not associated with dose. No significant association was observed with solid cancers, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, mainly for doses received less than 15 years before and for yearly dose rates higher than 10 mSv. This PhD work contributes to the evaluation of risks associated to chronic external radiation

  14. A pilot study on the operationalization of the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy: A model for the reintegration of persons with brain injuries to their worker roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeker, Shaheed

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury causes functional limitations that can cause people to struggle to reintegrate in the workplace despite participating in work rehabilitation programmes. The aim of the study was to explore, and describe the experiences of individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury regarding returning to work through the use of the model of occupational self-efficacy. In the study 10 individuals who were diagnosed with a mild to moderate brain injury participated in the study. The research study was positioned within the qualitative paradigm specifically utilizing case study methodology. In order to gather data from the participants, individual interviews and participant observation techniques were used. Two themes emerged from the findings of the study theme one reflected the barriers related to the use of the model (i.e. Theme one: Effective participation in the model is affected by financial assistance). The second theme related to the enabling factors related to the use of the model (i.e. Theme two: A sense of normality). The findings of this study indicated that the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy (MOS) is a useful model to use in retraining the work skills of individual's who sustained a traumatic brain injury. The participants in this study could maintain employment in the open labour market for a period of at least 12 months and it improved their ability to accept their brain injury as well as adapt to their worker roles. The MOS also provides a framework for facilitating community integration.

  15. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the

  16. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  17. A theoretical model of processes of irradiation of workers in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettwoog, Pierre.

    1980-11-01

    A quantity caled mine 'irradiativity', which is the ratio of collective dose to the production of uranium 'metal', is introduced. A distinction is made between irradiativity due to external exposure and that due to radon. A mathematical model to predict irradiativity has been developed using specific data from a mine: a) amount and distribution of work in areas of access and production; b) technology of ore extraction, especially the productivity of ore extraction, which is a basic parameter; c) protection technologies, especially the ventilation system; and d) geologic conditions. A numerical example is presented [fr

  18. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, S; Ushio, K

    1982-01-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA). It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilised into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol (20 mg) and 107 mumol (40 mg) CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol (0.8 mg) to 120 mumol (24.9 mg) (mean 37 mumol...

  19. Poisson regression approach for modeling fatal injury rates amongst Malaysian workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarulzaman Ibrahim; Heng Khai Theng

    2005-01-01

    Many safety studies are based on the analysis carried out on injury surveillance data. The injury surveillance data gathered for the analysis include information on number of employees at risk of injury in each of several strata where the strata are defined in terms of a series of important predictor variables. Further insight into the relationship between fatal injury rates and predictor variables may be obtained by the poisson regression approach. Poisson regression is widely used in analyzing count data. In this study, poisson regression is used to model the relationship between fatal injury rates and predictor variables which are year (1995-2002), gender, recording system and industry type. Data for the analysis were obtained from PERKESO and Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. It is found that the assumption that the data follow poisson distribution has been violated. After correction for the problem of over dispersion, the predictor variables that are found to be significant in the model are gender, system of recording, industry type, two interaction effects (interaction between recording system and industry type and between year and industry type). Introduction Regression analysis is one of the most popular

  20. Comparison of three intervention models for promoting circumcision among migrant workers in western China to reduce local sexual transmission of HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyi Ning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China. METHODS: A cohort study was performed after an initial cross-sectional survey among migrant workers in three provincial level districts with high HIV prevalence in western China. A total of 1,670 HIV seronegative male migrants were cluster-randomized into three intervention models, in which the dissemination of promotional materials and expert- and volunteer-led discussions are conducted in one, two, and three stage interventions. Changes in knowledge of MC, acceptability of MC, MC surgery uptake, and the costs of implementation were analyzed at 6-month and 9-month follow-up visits. RESULTS: All three models significantly increased the participants' knowledge about MC. The three-stage model significantly increased the acceptability of MC among participants and led to greatest increase in MC uptake. At the end of follow-up, 9.2% (153/1,670 of participants underwent MC surgery; uptake among the one-, two-, and three-stage models were 4.9%, 9.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that three-stage model was the most effective method to scale up MC, with RR = 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1, P=0.002 compared to the on-site session model. The two-stage intervention model showed no significant difference with either the on-site session model (RR=1.5, 95% CI, 0.92-2.4, P=0.12 or three-stage model (P=0.10. CONCLUSIONS: A three-stage intervention with gradual introduction of knowledge led to the significantly increase in MC uptake among migrant workers in western China, and was also the most cost-effective method among the three models.

  1. Effects of Co-Worker and Supervisor Support on Job Stress and Presenteeism in an Aging Workforce: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianan Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649. The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p < 0.001. Job stress had a significant direct positive effect on presenteeism (β = 0.30; p < 0.001. Co-worker support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.10; p < 0.001 and presenteeism (β = −0.11; p < 0.001. Supervisor support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.40; p < 0.001 but not presenteeism. The findings suggest that presenteeism is reduced by increased respect and concern for employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees.

  2. Predicting workers' compensation claims and disciplinary actions using SecureFit®: Further support for integrative models of workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Matthew; Delgado, Kristin; Lawrence, Amie; Kung, Mavis; Tristan, Esteban

    2017-06-01

    A growing body of applied research has identified certain psychological traits that are predictive of worker safety. However, most of these studies suffer from an overreliance on common method bias caused by self-report measures of both: (a) personal factors such as personality traits; and (b) outcomes such as safety behaviors and injuries. This study utilized archival data from 796 employees at a large U.S. automobile manufacturer. Data were gathered on a pre-employment assessment, SecureFit®, that measured key personality characteristics such as conscientiousness, locus of control, and risk taking. In addition, objective measures of workers' compensation claims and disciplinary actions were also gathered. The results indicated that disciplinary actions and workers' compensation claims were strongly correlated. It also demonstrated that the pre-employment assessment was able to predict both disciplinary actions and workers' compensation claims up to 12months in the future. Screening out just 8% of the applicant sample using the assessment would have resulted in a 35% reduction in disciplinary actions and 46% in workers' compensation claims, respectively. The study found a very strong relationship between counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs), such as not following rules, and workers' compensation claims. It also found a strong relationship between a combination of personality traits that have been shown to be associated with both variables, although the current study was able to demonstrate that relationship with objective measure of both variables. Individuals who receive disciplinary actions for things such as not following rules, not coming to work on time, etc. are significantly more likely to also be involved in serious safety incidents, and vice versa. Identifying those individuals early on in the hiring process and screening them out can significantly reduce the number of CWBs as well as workers' compensation claims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and

  3. Signaling and Screening of Workers' Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a model in which workers to a certain extent like to exert effort at the workplace. We examine the implications of workers' motivation for optimal monetary incentive schemes. We show that in the optimum motivated workers work harder and are willing to work for a lower

  4. Storytelling by community-dwelling older adults: perspectives of home care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastel-Smith, Beth; Binder, Brenda; Hersch, Gayle; Davidson, Harriett A; Walsh, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, qualitative study was to investigate storytelling by home care clients to their home care workers (HCWs). Specific research questions were: (a) When does storytelling by a care recipient occur during usual care?; (b) How do HCWs engage older clients in storytelling?; (c) How do HCWs respond to the stories told by clients?; and (d) What is the perceived effect of storytelling by older clients on the relationship between the client and the HCW? Two focus groups consisting of 10 HCWs each were conducted. Verbatim transcripts of both focus groups were analyzed using the constant comparative analysis method. Categories and concepts were identified. Characteristics of the HCW and client set the stage for storytelling. The process of storytelling included context, triggers, and temporal aspects. HCWs also shared the content of stories, the impact on their relationship with the client, and the perceived effect on each individual. A visual model depicting the nature of storytelling in association with the care of older clients is presented. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Changes in Central Walker Lane Strain Accommodation near Bridgeport, California; as told by the Stanislaus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, C. W.; Pluhar, C. J.; Glen, J. M.; Farner, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    unrecognized reference site rotations, and provided an additional reference direction for determining vertical-axis rotation magnitudes. We present a kinematic model based on mean rotation magnitudes of ~30° CW for the Sweetwater Mountains and Bodie Hills that accounts for rotational-strain accommodation of dextral shear in the WCWL since the late Miocene. This model considers rotational magnitudes, paleostrain indicators, edge-effects, and strain-accommodating structures of rotating crustal blocks to represent changes in regional strain accommodation over time. The results and models presented here elucidate the complicated and evolving nature of the WCWL, and further understanding of variations in strain accommodation for the Walker Lane.

  6. What students told us about their experiences and expectations of print and e-books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Estelle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 13 years at least, many of us have participated in the debate about the development of e-books to support education. Librarians, publishers and intermediaries all have a view about the format and the business models to support it and, of course, studies and surveys of students have informed that debate. However, it is not often that information professionals have the opportunity to sit down with a group of students, listen to their perspective and ask them questions. The UKSG One-Day Conference held in London in November 2015 offered such an opportunity with a panel session of students chaired by Jeremy Upton, Director of Library & University Collections at the University of Edinburgh. The debate uncovered the continued role of print alongside emerging e-book models.  The students shared with us their frustrations in accessing the books they need, the financial challenges they face in terms of purchasing books and their expectations about library provision of books. This article is a summary for those readers who were unable to attend the session to hear for themselves the frank and eye-opening views from the student panel. As one member of the audience put it, the students provided us with gold dust.  The students who so generously gave us their time were Tess McGovern, student of English literature and Cameron Myers, a law student, from King’s College London; Saleh Ahmed and Thomas Ash, who are postgraduates in library studies from City University London; and Lucy Hensher, a geography student and Lenart Celar, a psychology student, from the University of Sussex.

  7. Globalization and workers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Ichiro

    2008-10-01

    The global integration of economies worldwide has led to increased pressure for "labor flexibility". A notable aspect of this trend has been the rise in non-standard work arrangements, which include part-time work, temporary agency-based work, fixed-term contingent work, and independent contracting. Although non-standard work arrangements are convenient for employers, they are often associated with poor pay, absence of pension and health benefits, as well as lack of protection from unions and labor laws. Studies have begun to address the question of whether these "precarious" jobs pose a health hazard for workers. The challenge for causal inference is that precarious workers are likely to differ from non-precarious workers in a variety of characteristics that also influence health outcomes, i.e. there is confounding and selection bias. However, even after taking account of these biases--through propensity score-matched analysis--there is evidence to suggest that non-standard work may be damaging to workers' health. Policies modeled after the European Union's Directive on Part-Time Work may help to mitigate some of the health hazards associated with precarious work.

  8. The Vision of "Industrie 4.0" in the Making-a Case of Future Told, Tamed, and Traded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Since industrial trade fair Hannover Messe 2011, the term "Industrie 4.0" has ignited a vision of a new Industrial Revolution and has been inspiring a lively, ongoing debate among the German public about the future of work, and hence society, ever since. The discourse around this vision of the future eventually spread to other countries, with public awareness reaching a temporary peak in 2016 when the World Economic Forum's meeting in Davos was held with the motto "Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution." How is it possible for a vision originally established by three German engineers to unfold and bear fruit at a global level in such a short period of time? This article begins with a summary of the key ideas that are discussed under the label Industrie 4.0. The main purpose, based on an in-depth discourse analysis, is to debunk the myth about the origin of this powerful vision and to trace the narrative back to the global economic crisis in 2009 and thus to the real actors, central discourse patterns, and hidden intentions of this vision of a new Industrial Revolution. In conclusion, the discourse analysis reveals that this is not a case of visioneering but one of a future told, tamed, and traded.

  9. [History lived, history told: Psychiatrists' perspectives on the development of the department of Psychiatry of the University of Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younsi, Ouanessa

    2015-01-01

    We have interviewed psychiatrists from different generations at the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal to discern the history lived and told by those who have made (and still make) the history of the Department. The goal of this approach was to grasp the past in order to enlighten the future of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal. Thirteen psychiatrists of the department have been interviewed about their perspective on the history of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal. Interviews have identified an issue in the communication of history among the Department. Indeed, most of the younger psychiatrists were not aware of some of the main events and figures which were part of the development of the Department. The older psychiatrists mention Dr Camille Laurin as an important figure of the Department's early stages. Psychotherapy, education and clinical practice appear as key aspects of the Department's history. Many aspects of the Department's history appear unknown to the younger psychiatrists. A course on History of Psychiatry, including the Department's history, would be a great addition to the psychiatry residency program.

  10. What have positron emission tomography and 'Zippy' told us about the neuropharmacology of drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Paul; Caprioli, Daniele; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2011-08-01

    Translational molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and allied technologies offer unrivalled applications in the discovery of biomarkers and aetiological mechanisms relevant to human disease. Foremost among clinical PET findings during the past two decades of addiction research is the seminal discovery of reduced dopamine D(2/3) receptor expression in the striatum of drug addicts, which could indicate a predisposing factor and/or compensatory reaction to the chronic abuse of stimulant drugs. In parallel, recent years have witnessed significant improvements in the performance of small animal tomographs (microPET) and a refinement of animal models of addiction based on clinically relevant diagnostic criteria. This review surveys the utility of PET in the elucidation of neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying drug addiction. It considers the consequences of chronic drug exposure on regional brain metabolism and neurotransmitter function and identifies those areas where further research is needed, especially concerning the implementation of PET tracers targeting neurotransmitter systems other than dopamine, which increasingly have been implicated in the pathophysiology of drug addiction. In addition, this review considers the causal effects of behavioural traits such as impulsivity and novelty/sensation-seeking on the emergence of compulsive drug-taking. Previous research indicates that spontaneously high-impulsive rats--as exemplified by 'Zippy'--are pre-disposed to escalate intravenous cocaine self-administration, and subsequently to develop compulsive drug taking tendencies that endure despite concurrent adverse consequences of such behaviour, just as in human addiction. The discovery using microPET of pre-existing differences in dopamine D(2/3) receptor expression in the striatum of high-impulsive rats suggests a neural endophenotype that may likewise pre-dispose to stimulant addiction in humans. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of

  11. Community Health Workers as Social Marketers of Injectable Contraceptives: A Case Study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidert, Karen; Gessessew, Amanuel; Bell, Suzanne; Godefay, Hagos; Prata, Ndola

    2017-03-24

    Ethiopia has made notable progress in increasing awareness and knowledge of family planning and is considered a success story among funders and program planners. Yet unmet need among rural women (28.6%) is almost double that of urban women (15.5%), with a wide gap in total fertility rate depending on urban (2.6) or rural (5.5) residence. This study investigates the impact of a service delivery model that combines community-based distribution (CBD) of contraception with social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia, to create a more sustainable approach to CBD. Between September 2011 and October 2013, 626 volunteer CHWs were recruited and trained to administer depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections and provide counseling and referrals to the health post for other methods; the project implementation period ended in June 2014. The CHWs received a supply of DMPA injections in the form of a microloan from a drug revolving fund; the CHWs charged women a minimal fee (5 birr, or US$0.29), determined based on willingness-to-pay data, for each DMPA injection; and the CHWs returned part of the fee (3 birr) to the drug revolving fund while keeping the remaining portion (2 birr). The CHWs also promoted demand for family planning through door-to-door outreach and community meetings. Existing health extension workers (HEWs) provided regular supervision of the CHWs, supplemented by in-depth supervision visits from study coordinators. Baseline and endline representative surveys of women of reproductive age, as well as of participating CHWs, were conducted. In addition, DMPA provision data from the CHWs were collected. Between October 2011 and June 2014, the CHWs served in total 8,604 women and administered an estimated 15,410 DMPA injections, equivalent to providing 3,853 couple-years of protection. There was a 25% significant increase in contraceptive use among surveyed women, from 30.1% at baseline to 37.7% at endline, with DMPA use largely responsible for this increase

  12. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Abowd, John M; Kramarz, Francis

    1995-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work-force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group, and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wag...

  13. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    John M. ABOWD; Françis KRAMARZ; Antoine MOREAU

    1996-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wage...

  14. Salud Para Su Corazon (health for your heart) community health worker model: community and clinical approaches for addressing cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanics/Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Alvarado, M; Ortiz, G

    2011-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy.

  15. Determining the effect of worker exposure conditions on the risk of hearing loss in noisy industrial workroom using Cox proportional hazard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Mohsen; Fereidan, Mohammad; Farhadian, Maryam; Tajik, Leila

    2015-01-01

    In noisy workrooms, exposure conditions such as noise level, exposure duration and use of hearing protection devices are contributory factors to hearing loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure conditions on the risk of hearing loss using the Cox model. Seventy workers, employed in a press workshop, were selected to study their hearing threshold using an audiometric test. Their noise exposure histories also were analyzed. The results of the Cox model showed that the job type, smoking and the use of protection devices were effective to induce hearing loss. The relative risk of hearing loss in smokers was 1.1 times of non-smokers The relative risk of hearing loss in workers with the intermittent use of protection devices was 3.3 times those who used these devices continuously. The Cox model could analyze the effect of exposure conditions on hearing loss and provides useful information for managers in order to improve hearing conservation programs.

  16. Who will have Sustainable Employment After a Back Injury? The Development of a Clinical Prediction Model in a Cohort of Injured Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shearer, Heather M.; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    to develop the predictive models. We constructed receiver operator curves and used the c-index to measure predictive accuracy. Results Seventy-nine percent and 77 % of workers had sustainable employment at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Sustainable employment at 1 month was predicted by initial back pain...... intensity, mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type (c-index = 0.77). At 6 months, sustainable employment was predicted by physical and mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type (c-index = 0.77). Adding health-related and work......-related variables to models improved predictive accuracy by 8.5 and 10 % at 1 and 6 months respectively. Conclusion We developed clinically-relevant models to predict sustainable employment in injured workers who made a workers’ compensation claim for LBP. Inquiring about back pain intensity, physical and mental...

  17. A Model for Art Therapy-Based Supervision for End-of-Life Care Workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan S; Chan, Faye; Ho, Andy H Y; Wang, Xiao Lu; Cheng, Carol

    2015-01-01

    End-of-life care workers and volunteers are particularly prone to burnout given the intense emotional and existential nature of their work. Supervision is one important way to provide adequate support that focuses on both professional and personal competencies. The inclusion of art therapy principles and practices within supervision further creates a dynamic platform for sustained self-reflection. A 6-week art therapy-based supervision group provided opportunities for developing emotional awareness, recognizing professional strengths, securing collegial relationships, and reflecting on death-related memories. The structure, rationale, and feedback are discussed.

  18. Preventive actions taken by workers after workers' health surveillance: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Van der Molen, H F; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate construction workers' preventive actions and occupational physician's (OPs) recommendations after a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) compared with the currently used generic WHS. After the WHS, the OPs' written recommendations were captured. At the 3-month follow-up, the workers were asked about the preventive actions they had undertaken. A generalized linear mixed model was used to compare proportions of workers. At follow-up, the proportion of workers who reported taking preventive actions was significantly higher in the intervention group (80%, 44/55) than in the control group (67%, 80 of 121), (P = 0.04). In the intervention group, the OPs provided a higher proportion of workers with written recommendations (82%, 63 of 77, vs 57%, 69 of 121; P = 0.03). The job-specific WHS aided OPs in providing workers with recommendations and workers in undertaking (job-specific) preventive actions.

  19. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  20. Development and evaluation of a Naïve Bayesian model for coding causation of workers' compensation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertke, S J; Meyers, A R; Wurzelbacher, S J; Bell, J; Lampl, M L; Robins, D

    2012-12-01

    Tracking and trending rates of injuries and illnesses classified as musculoskeletal disorders caused by ergonomic risk factors such as overexertion and repetitive motion (MSDs) and slips, trips, or falls (STFs) in different industry sectors is of high interest to many researchers. Unfortunately, identifying the cause of injuries and illnesses in large datasets such as workers' compensation systems often requires reading and coding the free form accident text narrative for potentially millions of records. To alleviate the need for manual coding, this paper describes and evaluates a computer auto-coding algorithm that demonstrated the ability to code millions of claims quickly and accurately by learning from a set of previously manually coded claims. The auto-coding program was able to code claims as a musculoskeletal disorders, STF or other with approximately 90% accuracy. The program developed and discussed in this paper provides an accurate and efficient method for identifying the causation of workers' compensation claims as a STF or MSD in a large database based on the unstructured text narrative and resulting injury diagnoses. The program coded thousands of claims in minutes. The method described in this paper can be used by researchers and practitioners to relieve the manual burden of reading and identifying the causation of claims as a STF or MSD. Furthermore, the method can be easily generalized to code/classify other unstructured text narratives. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation by the worker. Indirect participation involves employee representation, while direct participation relates to individual involvement in management’s decision-making processes. In the Framework Dir...

  2. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Mobility of Women: A Comparative Analysis of Mobility of Informal Workers in Fisheries in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Nikhila

    2016-01-01

    Mobility or freedom and ability to move is gendered in many cultural contexts. In this paper I analyse mobility associated with work from the capability approach perspective of Sen. This is an empirical paper which uses the Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to construct the measure of mobility of women for the first time in the development studies discourse. I construct a measure of mobility (latent trait) of women workers engaged in two types of informal work, namely, peeling work and fish vending, in fisheries in the cultural context of India. The scale measure enables first, to test the unidimensionality of my construct of mobility of women and second, to analyse the domains of mobility of women workers. The comparative analysis of the scale of permissibility of mobility constructed using the RSM for the informal women workers shows that women face constraints on mobility in social and personal spaces in the socially advanced state of Kerala in India. Work mobility does not expand the real freedoms, hence work mobility can be termed as bounded capability which is a capability limited or bounded by either the social, cultural and gender norms or a combination of all of these. Therefore at the macro level, growth in informal employment in sectors like fisheries which improve mobility of women through work mobility does not necessarily expand the capability sets by contributing to greater freedoms and transformational mobility. This paper has a significant methodological contribution in that it uses an innovative method for the measurement of mobility of women in the development studies discipline.

  3. Worker Sorting, Taxes and Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Lang; Hong Kang

    2007-01-01

    We develop a model in which firms hire heterogeneous workers but must offer all workers insurance benefits under similar terms. In equilibrium, some firms offer free health insurance, some require an employee premium payment and some do not offer insurance. Making the employee contribution pre-tax lowers the cost to workers of a given employee premium and encourages more firms to charge. This increases the offer rate, lowers the take-up rate, increases (decreases) coverage among high (low) de...

  4. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsumi Teraoka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression in healthcare workers.Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1 occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468, (2 occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142, and (3 occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687. Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD. Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18, study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS, and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, exploratory factor analysis (EFA, and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1, burnout syndrome (Study 2, and depression (Study 3 were also analyzed.Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  5. mutual participation in the health worker-patient relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medunsa) ... Keywords: mutual participation, health worker-patient relationship, decision ... The importance of a mutual participatory model in medical care and decision ... workers become aware of differences in opinion or in the balance of power, ...

  6. From Community Laywomen to Breast Health Workers: A Pilot Training Model to Implement Clinical Breast Exam Screening in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnik, Lily; Moses, Agnes; Stanley, Christopher; Tembo, Tapiwa; Lee, Clara; Gopal, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer burden is high in low-income countries. Inadequate early detection contributes to late diagnosis and increased mortality. We describe the training program for Malawi's first clinical breast exam (CBE) screening effort. Laywomen were recruited as Breast Health Workers (BHWs) with the help of local staff and breast cancer advocates. The four-week training consisted of lectures, online modules, role-playing, case discussions, CBE using simulators and patients, and practice presentations. Ministry of Health trainers taught health communication, promotion, and education skills. Breast cancer survivors shared their experiences. Clinicians taught breast cancer epidemiology, prevention, detection, and clinical care. Clinicians and research staff taught research ethics, informed consent, data collection, and professionalism. Breast cancer knowledge was measured using pre- and post-training surveys. Concordance between BHW and clinician CBE was assessed. Breast cancer talks by BHW were evaluated on a 5-point scale in 22 areas by 3 judges. We interviewed 12 women, and 4 were selected as BHWs including 1 breast cancer survivor. Training was dynamic with modification based on trainee response and progress. A higher-than-anticipated level of comprehension and interest led to inclusion of additional topics like breast reconstruction. Pre-training knowledge increased from 49% to 91% correct (peducational talks was 4.4 (standard deviation 0.7). Malawian laywomen successfully completed training and demonstrated competency to conduct CBE and deliver breast cancer educational talks. Knowledge increased after training, and concordance was high between BHW and clinician CBE.

  7. Selection of workers and firm heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA model based on differences between workers regarding their preferences for wage and leisure drives the heterogeneity of firms result. The more industrious workers are driven to small firms due to free riding in large firms. An industry consisting of small and large firms turns out to

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a WHO-5A model based comprehensive tobacco control program among migrant workers in Guangdong, China: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wenxin; Zou, Guanyang; Shi, Jingrong; Chen, Wen; Gong, Xiao; Wei, Xiaolin; Ling, Li

    2018-02-27

    As a vulnerable population in China, migrant workers have a higher smoking rate than the general population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a WHO-5A based comprehensive tobacco control program in workplaces aggregated with migrants. Using a controlled before and after design, four purposely selected manufacturing factories were assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention arm received adapted 5A group counseling regularly supported by social-media and traditional health education approaches. The primary outcome was the change of smoking rate based on salivary cotinine concentration at three-month follow-up as compared to the control arm. Secondary outcomes were changes in smoking-related knowledge and attitudes assessed using questionnaires. Difference-in-differences approach (DID) and generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were used to conduct the effectiveness analysis. 149 and 166 workers were enrolled in the intervention and control arm respectively. The multiple imputed and adjusted GEE models demonstrated that, compared to those in the control arm, participants in the intervention arm had nearly 2.4 times odds of improving smoking-related knowledge (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.32-4.36, P = 0.02) and three times the odds of improving smoking-related attitude (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.28-7.41, P = 0.03). However, no significant difference was found regarding the change of smoking rate between the two arms (P > 0.05). The regression analysis showed that attendance at the 5A group counseling sections was an important determinant of stopping smoking or improving smoking-related knowledge and attitudes in the intervention group. This WHO-5A comprehensive intervention was effective in improving migrant workers' knowledge of smoking and anti-smoking attitudes. A large-scale, long-term trial is recommended to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. ChiCTR-OPC-17011637 at Chinese

  9. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Mutsumi; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression) in healthcare workers. Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1) occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468), (2) occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142), and (3) occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687). Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships) as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD). Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1), burnout syndrome (Study 2), and depression (Study 3) were also analyzed. Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  10. Experimental modeling of aerosols produced by microorganisms in working area air as risk factor exerting hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dudchik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific foundation and practices in the sphere of hygienic and ecological standardization concerning biological factors of the environment have a number of peculiarities and are methodically less developed than chemical factors standardization. Efficient industrial control over maximum permissible concentrations of standardized microorganisms-producers in working area air is based on validated instrumental techniques of quantitative assessment. Our goal was to create experimental models for microorganisms-producers' aerosols of a multi-component microbe specimen in working area air as a risk factor causing impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production; another task was to work out a procedure for measuring Pseudomonas aurantiaca B-162/255.17concentration and cells and spores of Bacillus sp. BB58-3 strain in working area air. We gave grounds for a technology aimed at quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers in working area air in a modeling experiment; it was based on conventional stages and tech-niques accepted in microbiological practices, namely air samples taking via aspiration technique allowing for a volume taken; cultivation under conditions which are optimal for examined microorganisms-producers in a nutrient medium with reduced composition; calculation of evolved colonies with specific morphological features; morphologic identification of microorganisms and colonies; calculation of microorganisms' quantity on dishes with recalculation per 1 m3 of air. Bas-ing on the detected regular concentration dependences of microbe contamination dynamics in air we worked out a proce-dure for quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers; we also performed metrological estimate of opera-tional properties for assessing microorganisms-producers of a multi-component microbe specimen as a risk factor caus-ing hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production. We validated our

  11. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  12. Productivity in Knowledge Worker Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Romero, Ana María; Mahou Fernández, Ángel; Varanki, H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of Information and Communication Technologies in work pro- cesses has not brought the expected productivity improvement. Some studies even suggest that the always-on model decreases productivity. This article proposes work teams as a new unit for knowledge worker productivity analysis in organizations. Organizations? ability to adopt new analysis measures is analyzed in three case studies.

  13. Return-on-Investment (ROI) Analyses of an Inpatient Lay Health Worker Model on 30-Day Readmission Rates in a Rural Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Roberto; Bausch, Gregory; Murdock, Joan; Chyatte, Michelle Renee

    2017-07-07

    The purpose of the study was to assess the return-on-investment (ROI) of an inpatient lay health worker (LHW) model in a rural Appalachian community hospital impacting 30-day readmission rates. The Bridges to Home (BTH) study completed an evaluation in 2015 of an inpatient LHW model in a rural Kentucky hospital that demonstrated a reduction in 30-day readmission rates by 47.7% compared to a baseline period. Using the hospital's utilization and financial data, a validated ROI calculator specific to care transition programs was used to assess the ROI of the BTH model comparing 3 types of payment models including Diagnosis Related Group (DRG)-only payments, pay-for-performance (P4P) contracts, and accountable care organizations (ACOs). The BTH program had a -$0.67 ROI if the hospital had only a DRG-based payment model. If the hospital had P4P contracts with payers and 0.1% of its annual operating revenue was at risk, the ROI increased to $7.03 for every $1 spent on the BTH program. However, if the hospital was an ACO as was the case for this study's community hospital, the ROI significantly increased to $38.48 for every $1 spent on the BTH program. The BTH model showed a viable ROI to be considered by community hospitals that are part of an ACO or P4P program. A LHW care transition model may be a cost-effective alternative for impacting excess 30-day readmissions and avoiding associated penalties for hospital systems with a value-based payment model. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  14. From Community Laywomen to Breast Health Workers: A Pilot Training Model to Implement Clinical Breast Exam Screening in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Gutnik

    Full Text Available Breast cancer burden is high in low-income countries. Inadequate early detection contributes to late diagnosis and increased mortality. We describe the training program for Malawi's first clinical breast exam (CBE screening effort.Laywomen were recruited as Breast Health Workers (BHWs with the help of local staff and breast cancer advocates. The four-week training consisted of lectures, online modules, role-playing, case discussions, CBE using simulators and patients, and practice presentations. Ministry of Health trainers taught health communication, promotion, and education skills. Breast cancer survivors shared their experiences. Clinicians taught breast cancer epidemiology, prevention, detection, and clinical care. Clinicians and research staff taught research ethics, informed consent, data collection, and professionalism. Breast cancer knowledge was measured using pre- and post-training surveys. Concordance between BHW and clinician CBE was assessed. Breast cancer talks by BHW were evaluated on a 5-point scale in 22 areas by 3 judges.We interviewed 12 women, and 4 were selected as BHWs including 1 breast cancer survivor. Training was dynamic with modification based on trainee response and progress. A higher-than-anticipated level of comprehension and interest led to inclusion of additional topics like breast reconstruction. Pre-training knowledge increased from 49% to 91% correct (p<0.0001. Clinician and BHW CBE had 88% concordance (kappa 0.43. The mean rating of BHW educational talks was 4.4 (standard deviation 0.7.Malawian laywomen successfully completed training and demonstrated competency to conduct CBE and deliver breast cancer educational talks. Knowledge increased after training, and concordance was high between BHW and clinician CBE.

  15. The Role of the Fear-avoidance Model in Female Workers With Neck-shoulder Pain related to Computer Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: This study explores the fear-avoidance model in a sample of women with neck-shoulder pain related to computer work who were still functioning at the workplace. Exploring this model in this population could produce starting points for new treatment approaches in occupational health.

  16. Heuristic for Task-Worker Assignment with Varying Learning Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawee Tharmmaphornphilas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fashion industry has variety products, so the multi-skilled workers are required to improve flexibility in production and assignment. Generally the supervisor will assign task to the workers based on skill and skill levels of worker. Since in fashion industry new product styles are launched more frequently and the order size tends to be smaller, the workers always learn when the raw material and the production process changes. Consequently they require less time to produce the succeeding units of a task based on their learning ability. Since the workers have both experience and inexperience workers, so each worker has different skill level and learning ability. Consequently, the assignment which assumed constant skill level is not proper to use. This paper proposes a task-worker assignment considering worker skill levels and learning abilities. Processing time of each worker changes along production period due to a worker learning ability. We focus on a task-worker assignment in a fashion industry where tasks are ordered in series; the number of tasks is greater than the number of workers. Therefore, workers can perform multiple assignments followed the precedence restriction as an assembly line balancing problem. The problem is formulated in an integer linear programming model with objective to minimize makespan. A heuristic is proposed to determine the lower bound (LB and the upper bound (UB of the problem and the best assignment is determined. The performance of the heuristic method is tested by comparing quality of solution and computational time to optimal solutions.

  17. Social interaction, co-worker altruism, and incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dur, R.; Sol, J.

    2010-01-01

    Social interaction with colleagues is an important job attribute for many workers. To attract and retain workers, managers therefore need to think about how to create and preserve high-quality co-worker relationships. This paper develops a principal-multi-agent model where agents do not only engage

  18. Identification of a leadership competency model for use in the development, recruitment & retention of intermodal transportation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the competencies that predict highly effective : performance in intermodal transportation managers and that will pave the way for development : of a core competency model that can be used to recruit, trai...

  19. Occupational Stress Among Home Healthcare Workers: Integrating Worker and Agency-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeckler, Jeanette M

    2018-02-01

    Home healthcare work is physically and emotionally exhausting. In addition, home healthcare workers frequently work under precarious work arrangements for low wages and in poor work conditions. Little is known about how sources of job strain for home healthcare workers might be reduced. This research examines the occupational stressors among paid home care workers by analyzing home healthcare agency characteristics and individual home healthcare workers' experiences in upstate New York agencies (n = 9). The study augments existing theoretical models and describes new sources of stress arising from the nature of agency-based caregiving. Results feature the analysis of both agency executives' (n = 20) and home healthcare workers' narratives (n = 25) to make the agency's inner workings more transparent. Agency structures and culture are implicated in the lack of progress to address home care workers' health problems. Policy change should focus on compensation, healthier work conditions, and training requirements.

  20. Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: a model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E S; Zhou, Y; Sall, M; Faramawi, M El; Shah, N; Christopher, A; Lewis, N

    2007-12-01

    Current research efforts have mainly concentrated on evaluating the role of substances present in animal food in the aetiology of chronic diseases in humans, with relatively little attention given to evaluating the role of transmissible agents that are also present. Meat workers are exposed to a variety of transmissible agents present in food animals and their products. This study investigates mortality from non-malignant diseases in workers with these exposures. A cohort mortality study was conducted between 1949 and 1989, of 8520 meat workers in a union in Baltimore, Maryland, who worked in manufacturing plants where animals were killed or processed, and who had high exposures to transmissible agents. Mortality in meat workers was compared with that in a control group of 6081 workers in the same union, and also with the US general population. Risk was estimated by proportional mortality and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative SMR. A clear excess of mortality from septicaemia, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chronic nephritis, acute and subacute endocarditis, functional diseases of the heart, and decreased risk of mortality from pre-cerebral, cerebral artery stenosis were observed in meat workers when compared to the control group or to the US general population. The authors hypothesise that zoonotic transmissible agents present in food animals and their products may be responsible for the occurrence of some cases of circulatory, neurological and other diseases in meat workers, and possibly in the general population exposed to these agents.

  1. EVALUATIVE LANGUAGE IN SPOKEN AND SIGNED STORIES TOLD BY A DEAF CHILD WITH A COCHLEAR IMPLANT: WORDS, SIGNS OR PARALINGUISTIC EXPRESSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Takkinen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the use and quality of the evaluative language produced by a bilingual child in a story-telling situation is analysed. The subject, an 11-year-old Finnish boy, Jimmy, is bilingual in Finnish sign language (FinSL and spoken Finnish.He was born deaf but got a cochlear implant at the age of five.The data consist of a spoken and a signed version of “The Frog Story”. The analysis shows that evaluative devices and expressions differ in the spoken and signed stories told by the child. In his Finnish story he uses mostly lexical devices – comments on a character and the character’s actions as well as quoted speech occasionally combined with prosodic features. In his FinSL story he uses both lexical and paralinguistic devices in a balanced way.

  2. Animal Models in Studies of Cardiotoxicity Side Effects from Antiblastic Drugs in Patients and Occupational Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Lamberti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxicity is an important side effect of cytotoxic drugs and may be a risk factor of long-term morbidity for both patients during therapy and also for staff exposed during the phases of manipulation of antiblastic drugs. The mechanism of cardiotoxicity studied in vitro and in vivo essentially concerns the formation of free radicals leading to oxidative stress, with apoptosis of cardiac cells or immunologic reactions, but other mechanisms may play a role in antiblastic-induced cardiotoxicity. Actually, some new cytotoxic drugs like trastuzumab and cyclopentenyl cytosine show cardiotoxic effects. In this report we discuss the different mechanisms of cardiotoxicity induced by antiblastic drugs assessed using animal models.

  3. Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers in Nuclear Power Plants: Development of a Model of Procedure Usage and Identification of Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been looking at replacing the current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedure systems. The concept of computer-based procedures is not new by any means; however most research has focused on procedures used in the main control room. Procedures reviewed in these efforts are mainly emergency operating procedures and normal operating procedures. Based on lessons learned for these previous efforts we are now exploring a more unknown application for computer based procedures - field procedures, i.e. procedures used by nuclear equipment operators and maintenance technicians. The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. commercial nuclear industry are collaborating in an applied research effort with the objective of developing requirements and specifications for a computer-based procedure system to be used by field workers. The goal is to identify the types of human errors that can be mitigated by using computer-based procedures and how to best design the computer-based procedures to do so. This paper describes the development of a Model of Procedure Use and the qualitative study on which the model is based. The study was conducted in collaboration with four nuclear utilities and five research institutes. During the qualitative study and the model development requirements and for computer-based procedures were identified.

  4. Increasing knowledge, skills, and empathy among direct care workers in elder care: a preliminary study of an active-learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L; Cheang, Michael; Shigeta, Dennis

    2005-02-01

    We describe the development of a 24-hr curriculum for nonclinical direct care workers in elder care that features active-learning strategies and consumer-directed approaches. Our curricular design was based on adult education theory and a survey of 70% of the community's service providers. Training was completed by 88 participants, 90% of whom had no prior formal training in elder care. Questionnaires measured participant knowledge, attitudes, and perceived improvements in understanding, empathy, and skills. A subgroup of participants and employers provided additional feedback through focus groups. Participants significantly improved their scores on knowledge and attitude measures. In addition, direct care workers and employers gave the training high marks and identified ways in which the course helped increase workers' competence, empathy toward elders, and self-esteem. Lack of time and funds for training were two major barriers to broader participation. This active-learning curriculum represents a frugal yet effective way to train current and future direct care workers.

  5. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration

  6. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  7. Workers' Education in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  8. What makes workers happy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.H.; Wielers, R.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article answers the question what makes workers happy? It does so by combining insights from micro-economics, sociology and psychology. Basis is the standard utility function of a worker that includes income and hours of work and is elaborated with job characteristics. In this way it is

  9. Conservatism amongst Nigerian workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Waterman (Peter)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn a recent paper (Waterman 1974) I discussed the debate that has been taking place, largely amongst socialists, over the role of workers and unions in Africa. I identified three major positions that have emerged. One was the traditional Communist position that the workers and unions are

  10. Temporary work and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Kim, T-H; Lee, T-H; Ju, Y J; Chun, S Y; Park, E-C

    2017-08-01

    In many countries, including South Korea, labour market changes have led to an increase in unstable, temporary jobs. There is evidence that workers in such jobs may experience poorer mental health than those in more stable employment. To investigate the association between temporary employment and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers. We analysed data from the 2010-2014 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS). Employment type was categorized into workers paid per day of labour (day labourers), those on short-term contracts (fixed-term workers) and permanent workers. The association between employment type and depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D 11), was examined using the generalized estimating equation model. A total of 3756 workers aged 20-59 were included in the 2010 baseline population. Day labourers had the highest mean CES-D 11 score, followed by fixed-term workers and permanent workers. With the day labourer group as reference, fixed-term workers (β: -1.5027, P < 0.001) and permanent workers (β: -2.1848, P < 0.001) showed statistically significant decreases in depression scores. Compared with day labourers, fixed-term workers and permanent workers had progressively lower depression scores. The findings of this study suggest that mental health inequalities based on employment type exist in South Korea. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Information, Technology, and Information Worker Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Aral, Sinan; Brynjolfsson, Erik; Van Alstyne, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    We econometrically evaluate information worker productivity at a midsize executive recruiting firm and assess whether the knowledge that workers accessed through their electronic communication networks enabled them to multitask more productively. We estimate dynamic panel data models of multitasking, knowledge networks, and productivity using several types of micro-level data: (a) direct observation of more than 125,000 email messages over a period of 10 months; (b) detailed accounting data o...

  12. Soft And Hard Skills of Social Worker

    OpenAIRE

    HANTOVÁ, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with soft and hard skills relevant to the profession of social worker. The theoretical part at first evaluates and analyzes important soft and hard skills necessary for people working in the field of social work. Then these skills are compared. The practical part illustrates the use of soft and hard skills in practice by means of model scenes and deals with the preferences in three groups of people ? students of social work, social workers and people outside the sphere, namely ...

  13. The Union Health Center: a working model of clinical care linked to preventive occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, R; Plattus, B; Kellogg, L; Luo, J; Marcus, M; Mascolo, A; Landrigan, P J

    1997-03-01

    As health care provision in the United States shifts to primary care settings, it is vital that new models of occupational health services be developed that link clinical care to prevention. The model program described in this paper was developed at the Union Health Center (UHC), a comprehensive health care center supported by the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (now the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees) serving a population of approximately 50,000 primarily minority, female garment workers in New York City. The objective of this paper is to describe a model occupational medicine program in a union-based comprehensive health center linking accessible clinical care with primary and secondary disease prevention efforts. To assess the presence of symptoms suggestive of occupational disease, a health status questionnaire was administered to female workers attending the UHC for routine health maintenance. Based on the results of this survey, an occupational medicine clinic was developed that integrated direct clinical care with worker and employer education and workplace hazard abatement. To assess the success of this new approach, selected cases of sentinel health events were tracked and a chart review was conducted after 3 years of clinic operation. Prior to initiation of the occupational medicine clinic, 64% (648) of the workers surveyed reported symptoms indicative of occupational illnesses. However, only 42 (4%) reported having been told by a physician that they had an occupational illness and only 4 (.4%) reported having field a workers' compensation claim for an occupational disease. In the occupational medicine clinic established at the UHC, a health and safety specialist acts as a case manager, coordinating worker and employer education as well as workplace hazard abatement focused on disease prevention, ensuring that every case of occupational disease is treated as a potential sentinel health event. As examples of the success

  14. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  15. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  16. Ward social workers' views of what facilitates or hinders collaboration with specialist palliative care team social workers: A grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Janice; Preston, Nancy; Walshe, Catherine

    2017-07-14

    Inpatient, generalist social workers in discharge planning roles work alongside specialist palliative care social workers to care for patients, often resulting in two social workers being concurrently involved in the same patient's care. Previous studies identifying components of effective collaboration, which impacts patient outcomes, care efficiency, professional job satisfaction, and healthcare costs, were conducted with nurses and physicians but not social workers. This study explores ward social workers' perceptions of what facilitates or hinders collaboration with palliative care social workers. Grounded theory was used to explore the research aim. In-depth qualitative interviews with masters trained ward social workers (n = 14) working in six hospitals located in the Midwest, United States were conducted between February 2014 and January 2015. A theoretical model of ward social workers' collaboration with palliative care social workers was developed. The emerging model of collaboration consists of: 1) trust, which is comprised of a) ability, b) benevolence, and c) integrity, 2) information sharing, and 3) role negotiation. Effective collaboration occurs when all elements of the model are present. Collaboration is facilitated when ward social workers' perceptions of trust are high, pertinent information is communicated in a time-sensitive manner, and a flexible approach to roles is taken. The theoretical model of collaboration can inform organisational policy and social work clinical practice guidelines, and may be of use to other healthcare professionals, as improvements in collaboration among healthcare providers may have a positive impact on patient outcomes.

  17. Workplace violence against homecare workers and its relationship with workers health outcomes: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Ginger C; Perrin, Nancy A; Moss, Helen; Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Consumer-driven homecare models support aging and disabled individuals to live independently through the services of homecare workers. Although these models have benefits, including autonomy and control over services, little evidence exists about challenges homecare workers may face when providing services, including workplace violence and the negative outcomes associated with workplace violence. This study investigates the prevalence of workplace violence among homecare workers an...

  18. Retention of tritium in reference persons: a metabolic model. Derivation of parameters and application of the model to the general public and to workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A

    2010-01-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen that is ubiquitous in environmental and biological systems. Following debate on the human health risk from exposure to tritium, there have been claims that the current biokinetic model recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may underestimate tritium doses. A new generic model for tritium in mammals, based on energy metabolism and body composition, together with all its input data, has been described in a recent paper and successfully tested for farm and laboratory mammals. That model considers only dietary intake of tritium and was extended to humans. This paper presents the latest development of the human model with explicit consideration of brain energy metabolism. Model testing with human experimental data on organically bound tritium (OBT) in urine after tritiated water (HTO) or OBT intakes is presented. Predicted absorbed doses show a moderate increase for OBT intakes compared with doses recommended by the ICRP. Infants have higher tritium retention-a factor of 2 longer than the ICRP estimate. The highest tritium concentration is in adipose tissue, which has a very low radiobiological sensitivity. The ranges of uncertainty in retention and doses are investigated. The advantage of the new model is its ability to be applied to the interpretation of bioassay data.

  19. Retention of tritium in reference persons: a metabolic model. Derivation of parameters and application of the model to the general public and to workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A, E-mail: galdan@ifin.nipne.r, E-mail: dangaler@yahoo.co [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Life and Environmental Physics, 407 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest-Magurele, POB MG-6, RO-077125 (Romania)

    2010-09-15

    Tritium ({sup 3}H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen that is ubiquitous in environmental and biological systems. Following debate on the human health risk from exposure to tritium, there have been claims that the current biokinetic model recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may underestimate tritium doses. A new generic model for tritium in mammals, based on energy metabolism and body composition, together with all its input data, has been described in a recent paper and successfully tested for farm and laboratory mammals. That model considers only dietary intake of tritium and was extended to humans. This paper presents the latest development of the human model with explicit consideration of brain energy metabolism. Model testing with human experimental data on organically bound tritium (OBT) in urine after tritiated water (HTO) or OBT intakes is presented. Predicted absorbed doses show a moderate increase for OBT intakes compared with doses recommended by the ICRP. Infants have higher tritium retention-a factor of 2 longer than the ICRP estimate. The highest tritium concentration is in adipose tissue, which has a very low radiobiological sensitivity. The ranges of uncertainty in retention and doses are investigated. The advantage of the new model is its ability to be applied to the interpretation of bioassay data.

  20. Burnout and young workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Batista Chaves Azevedo de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article intends to conduct an analysis of the dimensions of the a model about the burnout syndrome, from the reality of young workers who are doing some vocational courses in the city of Recife/PE. Objective: Description of characteristics of a predetermined population. Still, the research is in a field of research and using content analysis method to discuss the data obtained through interviews that had their questions based on the original questionnaire that were validity (Maslach Burnout Inventory. Method: The study is characterized as exploratory and descriptive, given the need to provide greater familiarity with the relationship between the phenomenon to be studied and the target audience that was wanted to interview. Results: The results indicated that the size of the professional fulfillment is committed to moderate level, the size of depersonalization is not compromised and emotional exhaustion is present in youth work routine. Thus, although not found the burnout itself, there are remarkable risk behaviors that could be generate the syndrome on the future. Conclusion: The results may indicate the need for intervention in the company, in order to allow greater enrichment activities developed by young learners, as well as prevent the emergence of situations that may lead to suffering at work .

  1. Occupational health care of radiation exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Rahman Hamzah

    1995-01-01

    The medical problems encountered by the earlier pioneer workers in radiation at the turn of the century are well known. In the 1928, the ICRP (International Committee for Radiological Protection) was instituted and the ALARA principle of radiation protection was evolved. Occupational health care is about maintaining the health and safety of workers in their workplaces. This involves using medical, nursing and engineering practices to achieve its objectives. In certain occupations, including those where workers are exposed to ionising radiation, some of these principles are enshrined in the legislation and would require statutory compliance. Occupational health care of radiation workers seek to prevent ill health arising from exposure to radiation by consolidating the benefits of exposures control and dosimetry. This is via health surveillance for spillages, contamination and exposures to unsealed sources of radiation. It is unlikely that can plan and hope to cater for a Chernobyl type of disaster. However, for the multitude of workers in industry exposed to radiation, control models are available. These are from the more in industrialize countries with a nuclear based energy industry, and where radioactive gadgetry are used in places ranging from factories and farms to construction sites. These models involve statutory requirements on the standard of work practices, assessment of fitness to work and the monitoring of both the worker and the workplace. A similar framework of activity is present in Malaysia. This will be further enhanced with the development of her general health and safety at work legislation. (author)

  2. Stress in Humanitarian Workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    recognized as one of the most serious occupational health hazards reducing workers' satisfaction and productivity,. 1-3 ... Using a self- ... Kan D, Yu X. Occupational Stress, Work-Family. Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese.

  3. Risks for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection; methods for determining dose limits to workers; use of data from survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for estimating risk factors; use of data from survivors of nuclear explosions in Marshall Islands, uranium miners, and patients exposed to diagnostic and therapeutic radiation; risk factors for radioinduced malignancies; evidence that risk factors for persons exposed to partial-body radiation and Japanese survivors are too low; greater resistance of A-bomb survivors to radiation; and radiation doses received by U.K. medical workers and by U.K. fuel reprocessing workers. It is suggested that the dose limit for radiation workers should be reduced by a factor of 5

  4. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  5. Social Workers Versus Bureaucracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Wilbur A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on the conflict between professional autonomy and bureaucratic controls is extensive. The author examines this literature in detail and concludes that the trend is toward further intrusions on worker autonomy.

  6. Health of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1979-11-01

    Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

  7. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  8. My mother told me: the roles of maternal messages, body image, and disordered eating in maladaptive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Haidee J; Doley, Joanna R; Bond, Malcolm J

    2016-09-01

    The current study examined the relevance of familial environment (negative maternal messages) to the phenomenon of maladaptive (obligatory) exercise, defined as exercise fixation. Weight/shape concerns and exercise frequency were examined as potential mediators, evaluated both with and without eating disorder symptoms as a covariate. Self-report data comprising sociodemographic details and measures of parental weight messages, body image, obligatory exercise, and disordered eating symptoms were completed by 298 young female attendees of health and fitness centres. The frequency of negative maternal messages demonstrated significant associations with all of weight/shape concerns, exercise frequency, exercise fixation, and eating disorder symptoms. In the initial model, partial mediation of maternal messages to exercise fixation was evident as negative maternal messages continued to have a direct effect on exercise fixation. In the second model, with the inclusion of eating disorder symptoms as a covariate, this direct effect was maintained while mediation was no longer evident. The data provide further support for the association between disordered eating symptoms and maladaptive exercise, as defined by exercise fixation. Nevertheless, the importance of negative maternal messages as a key environmental enabler of exercise fixation has been demonstrated, even after the effects of weight/shape concerns and exercise frequency were accounted for. Clinically, addressing weight-related talk in the family home may reduce the incidence of problematic cognitions and behaviours associated with both maladaptive exercise and disordered eating symptoms.

  9. Worker in nuclear activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes Fischer, M.D. de; Associacao Brasileira de Direito Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro)

    1984-01-01

    Juridical aspects with respect to the workers in nuclear activity are presented. Special emphasis is given to the clauses of the statute of workers (Consolidacao das Leis do Trabalho) the rules of the Ministerio do Trabalho and the rules of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. The performance of the international authorities is also emphasized such as the International Labour Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Radiological Protection Commission. (Author) [pt

  10. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  11. Radiation haunts shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrey, L.

    1978-01-01

    The apparent link recently found by Dr. Najarian between cancer among workers at a US Naval dockyard where up to 5000 civilian employees have been exposed to low dose irradiation while servicing nuclear ships and their radiation exposure is discussed. The study has revealed that 38.4% of the deaths of nuclear workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in New Hampshire were caused by cancer while the comparable rate for non-nuclear shipyard workers was 21.7% and the national average in the United States is 18%. The Portsmouth study, launched in October 1977, was based on a survey of 1722 death certificates of shipyard employees and interviews with 592 next-of-kin. In addition the results show that the rate of leukaemia of the shipyard workers was 450% higher than that of the general population, and the incidence of lymph gland cancers was 125% higher than the national rate. The most startling statistics compared mortality among workers aged 60 to 69. In this age group nearly 60% of the nuclear employees had died of cancer, while the cancer death rate among non-nuclear workers was only 26%. If these results are confirmed present ideas concerning the effects of low doses of radiation must be challenged. (U.K.)

  12. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment

  13. Teaching a Model of Social Skills Training to Child Care Workers at a Group Home for Adolescents, for Improvement of Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramling, Lyle T.

    This practicum study implemented a training program in the teaching of social skills for 4 child care workers at a group home for 12 adolescents having moderate to severe emotional and behavioral problems. The inservice training program involved teaching concepts, techniques, and social skills terminology during the first four sessions, with…

  14. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Specialist Liaison Worker Model for Young People with Intellectual Disabilities with Challenging Behaviour and Mental Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, R.; Newell, R.; Waseem, F.; Small, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Twenty-six young people with intellectual disabilities and mental health needs from Pakistani and Bangladeshi communities were recruited as part of a bigger study to examine the effectiveness of a liaison worker in helping young people and their families access appropriate intellectual disabilities and mental health services. Method:…

  16. What have positron emission tomography and ‘Zippy’ told us about the neuropharmacology of drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Paul; Caprioli, Daniele; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2011-01-01

    Translational molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and allied technologies offer unrivalled applications in the discovery of biomarkers and aetiological mechanisms relevant to human disease. Foremost among clinical PET findings during the past two decades of addiction research is the seminal discovery of reduced dopamine D2/3 receptor expression in the striatum of drug addicts, which could indicate a predisposing factor and/or compensatory reaction to the chronic abuse of stimulant drugs. In parallel, recent years have witnessed significant improvements in the performance of small animal tomographs (microPET) and a refinement of animal models of addiction based on clinically relevant diagnostic criteria. This review surveys the utility of PET in the elucidation of neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying drug addiction. It considers the consequences of chronic drug exposure on regional brain metabolism and neurotransmitter function and identifies those areas where further research is needed, especially concerning the implementation of PET tracers targeting neurotransmitter systems other than dopamine, which increasingly have been implicated in the pathophysiology of drug addiction. In addition, this review considers the causal effects of behavioural traits such as impulsivity and novelty/sensation-seeking on the emergence of compulsive drug-taking. Previous research indicates that spontaneously high-impulsive rats – as exemplified by ‘Zippy’– are pre-disposed to escalate intravenous cocaine self-administration, and subsequently to develop compulsive drug taking tendencies that endure despite concurrent adverse consequences of such behaviour, just as in human addiction. The discovery using microPET of pre-existing differences in dopamine D2/3 receptor expression in the striatum of high-impulsive rats suggests a neural endophenotype that may likewise pre-dispose to stimulant addiction in humans. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a

  17. Assessing the effect of public policy on worker absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Per; Palme, Mårten

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the effect of economic incentives on worker absenteeism, using panel data on work absence for 1990 and 1991 with a sample of 1,396 Swedish blue-collar workers. During this period Sweden implemented major reforms of both its national income replacement program for short-term sickness and income taxes. Both affected the worker's cost of missing work. Our econometric model allows for state-dependent dynamic behavior and control for unobserved heterogeneity. The latter proves to be an ...

  18. Hanford radiation study III: a cohort study of the cancer risks from radiation to workers at Hanford (1944-77 deaths) by the method of regression models in life-tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.; Stewart, A.M.; Mancuso, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented from the study initiated by Mancuso into the health risks from low-level radiation in workers engaged in plutonium manufacture at Hanford Works, Washington State, USA, and attempts to answer criticisms of previous reports by an in-depth study. Previous reports have aroused much controversy because the reported risk per unit radiation dose for cancers of radiosensitive tissues was much greater than the risk generally accepted on the basis of other studies and widely used in setting safety levels for exposure to low-level radiation. The method of regression models in life-tables isolates the effect of radiation after statistically controlling for a wide range of possible interfering factors. Like the risk of lung cancer for uranium miners the dose-response relation showed a significant downward curve at about 10 rem. There may, therefore, be better agreement with other studies, conducted at higher doses, than is widely assumed. The findings on cancer latency (of about 25 years) and the effect of exposure age (increasing age increases the risk) are in general agreement with other studies. An unexplained finding is a significantly higher dose for all workers than for workers who developed cancers in tissues that are supposed to have low sensitivity to cancer induction by radiation. (author)

  19. Radiation monitoring of uranium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    In order to manage radiological hazards in the workplace, it is necessary to have reliable measurements of workplace radiation levels and estimates of exposures and doses to workers. Over the past several years there have been many changes not only to the science of monitoring and dose assessment, but also to the regulatory framework. New International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations on dose in ICRP Publication 60 (1991) and the implications of the ICRP's new respiratory tract model in ICRP Publication 66 (1994) are of particular importance. In addition, triggered by the act establishing the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which will replace the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), there is considerable activity in the review and development of regulatory guidance. Concurrent with these activities is the introduction of innovative mining procedures in Saskatchewan in order to extract uranium ore of particularly high grade. In view of these developments, the ACRP considered that a formal review of current monitoring practices would benefit both the CNSC and its licensees. In this report, 'uranium workers' refers to workers at uranium mines and mills, and workers at natural-uranium refineries, conversion, and fuel fabrication facilities; issues relating to long-term tailings management and to the handling of enriched materials are not addressed in this document. The report will have some relevance to workers in non-uranium mines and in industries handling naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) since, in some circumstances, these activities can present similar workplace radiation hazards. The report outlines the radiological hazards encountered in the Canadian uranium industry, and reviews current radiological monitoring practices and options; appendices include a glossary, a more technical discussion of monitoring methods, and an examination of errors and uncertainties in measurements of radon progeny and long

  20. Increasing worker and community awareness of toxic hazards in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    In November 1984, the Governing Council of the American Public Health Association (APHA) released this position paper on disclosure of occupational health hazards. The Council's action was prompted by the Occupational Health and Safety Administration's (OSHA's) promulgation of a national right-to-know standard that would pre-empt stronger state and local laws protecting an employee's right to be told about hazardous materials in the workplace. The APHA document outlines the dimensions of the toxic substances problem in the United States; argues the need for right-to-know laws; defines the roles of OSHA, unions, and local coalitions for workplace safety; and criticizes the Federal Hazard Communication Standard. Lists of ten essential components of a national right-to-know policy and of four actions the APHA will take to further the worker's right-to-know conclude the paper.

  1. Workplace violence against homecare workers and its relationship with workers health outcomes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ginger C; Perrin, Nancy A; Moss, Helen; Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy

    2015-01-17

    Consumer-driven homecare models support aging and disabled individuals to live independently through the services of homecare workers. Although these models have benefits, including autonomy and control over services, little evidence exists about challenges homecare workers may face when providing services, including workplace violence and the negative outcomes associated with workplace violence. This study investigates the prevalence of workplace violence among homecare workers and examines the relationship between these experiences and homecare worker stress, burnout, depression, and sleep. We recruited female homecare workers in Oregon, the first US state to implement a consumer driven homecare model, to complete an on-line or telephone survey with peer interviewers. The survey asked about demographics and included measures to assess workplace violence, fear, stress, burnout, depression and sleep problems. Homecare workers (n = 1,214) reported past-year incidents of verbal aggression (50.3% of respondents), workplace aggression (26.9%), workplace violence (23.6%), sexual harassment (25.7%), and sexual aggression (12.8%). Exposure was associated with greater stress (p workplace aggression buffered homecare workers against negative work and health outcomes. To ensure homecare worker safety and positive health outcomes in the provision of services, it is critical to develop and implement preventive safety training programs with policies and procedures that support homecare workers who experience harassment and violence.

  2. Informed consent and placebo effects: a content analysis of information leaflets to identify what clinical trial participants are told about placebos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity L Bishop

    Full Text Available Placebo groups are used in randomised clinical trials (RCTs to control for placebo effects, which can be large. Participants in trials can misunderstand written information particularly regarding technical aspects of trial design such as randomisation; the adequacy of written information about placebos has not been explored. We aimed to identify what participants in major RCTs in the UK are told about placebos and their effects.We conducted a content analysis of 45 Participant Information Leaflets (PILs using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. PILs were obtained from trials on a major registry of current UK clinical trials (the UKCRN database. Eligible leaflets were received from 44 non-commercial trials but only 1 commercial trial. The main limitation is the low response rate (13.5%, but characteristics of included trials were broadly representative of all non-commercial trials on the database. 84% of PILs were for trials with 50:50 randomisation ratios yet in almost every comparison the target treatments were prioritized over the placebos. Placebos were referred to significantly less frequently than target treatments (7 vs. 27 mentions, p<001 and were significantly less likely than target treatments to be described as triggering either beneficial effects (1 vs. 45, p<001 or adverse effects (4 vs. 39, p<001. 8 PILs (18% explicitly stated that the placebo treatment was either undesirable or ineffective.PILs from recent high quality clinical trials emphasise the benefits and adverse effects of the target treatment, while largely ignoring the possible effects of the placebo. Thus they provide incomplete and at times inaccurate information about placebos. Trial participants should be more fully informed about the health changes that they might experience from a placebo. To do otherwise jeopardises informed consent and is inconsistent with not only the science of placebos but also the fundamental rationale underpinning placebo controlled

  3. Skin cancer in rural workers: nursing knowledge and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo identify the exposure of rural workers to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and pesticides; to identify previous cases of skin cancer; and to implement clinical and communicative nursing actions among rural workers with a previous diagnosis of skin cancer.METHODObservational-exploratory study conducted with rural workers exposed to ultraviolet radiation and pesticides in a rural area in the extreme south of Brazil. A clinical judgment and risk communication model properly adapted was used to develop interventions among workers with a previous history of skin cancer.RESULTSA total of 123 (97.7% workers were identified under conditions of exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and pesticides; seven (5.4% were identified with a previous diagnosis of skin cancer; four (57.1% of these presented potential skin cancer lesions.CONCLUSIONThis study's results enabled clarifying the combination of clinical knowledge and risk communication regarding skin cancer to rural workers.

  4. 现代远程教育背景下劳模教学模式的探索%Exploration of Model Workers Teaching Mode under the Condition of Modern Long--distance Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃凤梅

    2012-01-01

    Exploring model workers teaching mode in modern long--distance education has profound significance. In this paper, we explore its construction style from theory support,mode selection and strategy application according to its main characteris- tics.%探索现代远程教育劳模教学模式意义深远,我们根据它的主要特点,从理论支撑、模式选择、策略运用等三个方面认真探索其构建方式。

  5. Modelo operário e percepção de riscos ocupacionais e ambientais: o uso exemplar de estudo descritivo The "worker model" and perception of environmental and occupational risks: the optimal use of a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Facchini

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar os riscos resultantes da exposição a produtos químicos, de trabalhadores de indústria química e farmacêutica. Realizou-se estudo descritivo, através do modelo operário (MO, onde o acesso aos trabalhadores significava uma parte essencial do método e a única forma de neutralizar a impossibilidade de acesso ao local de trabalho. Reconstruíam-se as atividades dos setores de trabalho e identificaram-se as principais substâncias químicas utilizadas, as queixas mais referidas, os danos potenciais e os principais riscos ambientais, concluindo pela precariedade das condições gerais de trabalho. Com os resultados confirmados, ficou evidenciada a importância do MO e sua utilidade metodológica, levando trabalhadores a conseguir das autoridades que a empresa fosse vistoriada. A mobilização dos trabalhadores, através de denúncias nos meios de comunicação, ajudou a formar uma consciência popular dos riscos ocupacionais e ambientais daquela atividade produtiva.An attempt was made to identify the risks resulting from exposure to the chemicals to which workers are exposed as well as from the poor working conditions to which they are subject in a chemical and pharmaceutical factory. A descriptive study based on the "workers model" - a methodological approach developed in Italy in the 60's, was carried out. Such a study requires direct contact with the workers and has the advantage of overcoming the difficulty of gaining access to their work-place. The activities of the different departments of the plant were reconstructed and the main chemicals used, the main physical complaints, the potencial harms and the main environmental risks identified. The repon on the harmful working conditions produced was used by the workers as a means of pressing the authorities into carrying out an inspection of the plant concerned to verify its accuracy. The report's findings have been confirmed and demonstrate the usefulness of the

  6. Working Hours Flexibility and Older Workers' Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the presence of hours constraints on the UK labor market and its effect on older workers labor supply, both at the extensive and the intensive margin. Using panel data for the period 1991-2004, the results from a competing risks model show that over-employed male workers can

  7. Safety of Workers in Indian Mines: Study, Analysis, and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Verma

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Unsafe acts of the worker are the most critical human factors identified to be controlled on priority basis. A significant association of factors (namely age, experience of the worker, and shift of work with unsafe acts performed by the operator is identified based upon which the FRA-based accident prediction model is proposed.

  8. Dislocated Worker Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988

    Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…

  9. Rescue workers and trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romano, Eugenia; Elklit, Ask

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates which factors had the biggest impact on developing distress in rescue workers who were involved in a firework factory explosion. Method: Four hundred sixty-five rescuers were assessed using items investigating demographic factors, organizational variables, so...

  10. Women Workers' History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

    This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

  11. Innovative Older-Worker Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Denise; Greenberg, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Describes program innovations to keep older workers employed: retraining, job sharing, flexible working hours, job redesign, and phased retirement. Addresses costs and savings, disincentives for workers and employers, and future trends. (SK)

  12. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... for More Information Resources for Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to ...

  13. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  14. Workers Education Programme in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansarkar, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    The philosophy of Workers Education in India is that strong and enlightened trade unions could be of great value in the rapid industrialization of the country. The Central Board for Workers Education has devised a number of training programs, the most important of which are training of education officers, worker-teachers training, and training…

  15. Dermatologic Diseases in Silk Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 112 workers of a silk facory near Bangalore, for dermatologic diseases revealed (1 a characteristic wearing off of the medial halves of the distal free edges of the finger nail plates in 10 of the 15 cocoonsorters, (2 maceration of the palms in 58 workers of the boiling and reeling section, and (3 pitted keratolysis of the palms, in 42 workers, also from the boiling and reeling section. There was no clinical evidence of contact dermatitis, and patch tests with the silk thread from the cocoons in 25 workers showed a very mild reaction in 2 workers and a doubtful reaction in another two. In addition, one worker from the skeining section had crisscross superficial fissures on the finger tips caused by friction, two workers had paronychia ′of the fingers and four workers had dermatophytFNx01t fingers webs. As in the previous survey, these workers also had a high incidence of ichthyosis (92 workers and hyperketatosis of the palms (62 workers and soles (110 workers.

  16. Pattern of the rational worker incentive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopytova A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of rational incentive system with the structure consisting of three blocks. The first block (financial incentives provides monetary compensation to a worker. The second block (stimulating by comfortable living conditions is aimed to regulate the quality of a worker’s life in and outside the place he works. The third block (non-financial incentives takes into account cultural and social worker’s needs. The proposed structure of incentive system provides the most comprehensive coverage to the employee’s needs and organizes them in the way accessible both for specialists of labor economics and human resource management and for ordinary workers.

  17. Abordaje de los trabajadores con trastornos físicos y psíquicos en salud laboral: un modelo Approach of workers with physical and mentaldisorders in occupational health: a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mansilla Izquierdo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone un modelo de abordaje en salud laboral de los trabajadores con trastornos físicos o psíquicos, utilizando la entrevista motivacional y el apoyo social como ejes del modelo. La atención se realiza en tres fases: contención, valoración y orientación. Este modelo puede favorecer la disminución de los problemas o dificultades en el contexto laboral, adaptando o cambiando su puesto de trabajo.This article proposes a model approach to occupational health of workers with physical or mental disorders, using motivational interviewing and social support model axis. Attention is done in three phases: containment, assessment and guidance. This model may help to decrease the problems or difficulties in the employment context, adapting or changing their jobs.

  18. Haiti. Educating factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H

    1990-04-01

    There are approximately 50,000 workers employed in the light assembly industry in Haiti. About 70% are women, the majority of whom are aged between 25 and 34 years, and are either single or in a nonpermanent relationship with the father of their children. Many live and work in appalling conditions, surviving on very low wages to support several children and an extended family. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a visible problem in many factories. In October 1988, the Center for the Promotion of Women Workers (Centre de Promotion des Femmes Ouvriers/CPFO) launched a pilot AIDS education program for factory women. The Center, based in a large industrial zone near the airport, runs a health clinic and courses in literacy, communications skills, health promotion and family planning. The new AIDS program allowed CPFO staff to gain entry into factories for the 1st time. Other courses were held outside working hours and outside factory premises. Staff contacted manages by telephone to arrange a meeting to discuss AIDS and to ask permission to hold educational "round tables" with workers. Of 18 managers in the factories approached over a 12-month period, only 2 refused entry to CPFO staff. Almost all managers reported they had registered between 2 and 5 deaths from AIDS among their employees over the past couple of years. A total of 85 educational sessions, each lasting about 2 hours, were held within 28 different factories, community or labor organizations reaching 3063 workers (male and female). In each session, the presentation was carried out by 2 CPFO trained monitors and included a slide show, flip charts, and the video "Met ko," originally produced for Haitian immigrants in New York. The most important aspect of the program was the training of 38 volunteer factory-based health promoters. These promoters attended the round table sessions, where they facilitated discussion and distributed condoms and were subsequently available for counseling co-workers

  19. Preferred strategies for workforce development: feedback from aged care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sarojni; Henderson, Amanda

    2016-11-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate how aged care workers prefer to learn and be supported in continuing education and training activities. Methods Fifty-one workers in aged care facilities from metropolitan and rural settings across two states of Australia participated in a survey and interviews. Survey responses were analysed for frequencies and interview data provided explanations to the survey findings. Results The three most common ways workers were currently learning and prefer to continue to learn are: (1) everyday learning through work individually; (2) everyday learning through work individually assisted by other workers; and (3) everyday learning plus group training courses at work from the employer. The three most common types of provisions that supported workers in their learning were: (1) working and sharing with another person on the job; (2) direct teaching in a group (e.g. a trainer in a classroom at work); and (3) direct teaching by a workplace expert. Conclusions A wholly practice-based continuing education and training model is best suited for aged care workers. Two variations of this model could be considered: (1) a wholly practice-based model for individual learning; and (2) a wholly practice-based model with guidance from coworkers or other experts. Although the model is preferred by workers and convenient for employers, it needs to be well resourced. What is known about the topic? Learning needs for aged care workers are increasing significantly because of an aging population that demands more care workers. Workforce development is largely 'episodic', based on organisational requirements rather than systematic life-long learning. This study is part of a larger 3-year Australian research to investigate models of continuing education training. What does this paper add? Based on an analysis of survey and interview data from 51 workers, the present study suggests effective models of workforce development for aged care

  20. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  1. Advanced Worker Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs

  2. Workers in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Michael

    1995-01-01

    After Central and Eastern European and Central Asian economies abandoned central planning, nearly 195 million workers had to adjust to new rules of work and life. Most transition economies have not yet fully committed themselves to the rules of the market place. A few that have are already enjoying growth in wages and employment; in other countries, labor income growth is still to come. Reform has not been so well accepted in countries that were forced to enter the transition. Transition brou...

  3. Delivering migrant workers' remittances

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2004-01-01

    As globalization has led to ever higher levels of labour mobility, so the volume of funds remitted to their families by workers employed in countries far distant from their homes has increased by leaps and bounds. The total volume of such transfers currently amounts to over $100 billion per annum, the greater part of which flows from economically advanced regions in the West and North to developing countries in the East and South. Delivering those funds swiftly, reliably and cheaply to relati...

  4. Worker and public safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1984-09-01

    Nuclear regulatory controls have been in place for many years in Canada to ensure that the risk for the safety of workers and members of the public is as low as reasonably possible. The Atomic Energy Control Board implements these controls by virtue of a broadly based Act of Parliament, rigorous regulations and compliance procedures. The Canadian experience with nuclear practices involves about 1 million person-years at risk without a fatality due to acute exposure to radiation

  5. A Model to Determine the Level of Serum Aldosterone in the Workers Attributed to the Combined Effects of Sound Pressure Level, Exposure Time and Serum Potassium Level: A Field-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Occupational exposure to excessive noise is one of the biggest work-related challenges in the world. This phenomenon causes the release of stress-related hormones, which in turn, negatively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives The current study study aimed to determine the level of workers’ serum aldosterone in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 45 workers of Gol-Gohar Mining and Industrial Company in the fall of 2014. The subjects were divided into three groups (one control and two case groups, each including 15 workers. Participants in the control group were selected from workers with administrative jobs (exposure to the background noise. On the other hand, participants in the case groups were selected from the concentrator and pelletizing factories exposed to excessive noise. Serum aldosterone and potassium levels of participants were assessed at three different time intervals: at the beginning of the shift and before exposure to noise (7:30 - 8:00 AM, during exposure to noise (10:00 - 10:30 AM, and during continuous exposure (1:30 - 2:00 PM. The obtained data were transferred into SPSS ver. 18. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to develop the statistical model of workers’ aldosterone level in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time, and serum potassium level. Results The results of the final statistical model to determine the level of serum aldosterone based on the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level indicated that the sound pressure level had a significant influence on the human’s serum aldosterone level (P = 0.04. In addition, the effects of exposure time and serum potassium on aldosterone level were statistically significant with P-values of 0.008 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions

  6. Addressing Workers' Rights in the Textile and Apparel Industries: Consequences for the Bangladesh Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a CGE model to analyze the effects of better addressing worker¿s rights in Bangladesh¿s textile and apparel industries. Results show that an increased minimum wage for unskilled, low-, and medium-skilled workers has negative impacts for these workers in aggregate and also for the

  7. Policy programmes only for a few? Participation in labour market programmes among Swedish disabled workers

    OpenAIRE

    Melkersson, Maria

    1999-01-01

    In a large sample of Swedish unemployed disabled workers, the workers participate in between zero and ten policy programmes during their unemployment spell. Clustering of programmes to about half of the sample is prominent. The number of programmes is modelled as a standard count data model, as a zero-inflated model and as a hurdle model. The most important question is whether disadvantaged workers are more or less probable to participate in programmes. The empirical analysis shows that part...

  8. Work-Life Balance and Ideal Worker Expectations for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the work-life experiences of administrators as well as whether and how the ideal worker model affects those experiences. Departmental and supervisory differences and technology complicate administrators' work-life experiences.

  9. Health and Occupational Outcomes Among Injured, Nonstandard Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M

    2015-11-01

    This study compares health and occupational outcomes following a work-related injury for nonstandard and day-shift workers. National Population Health Survey data were used to explore outcomes 2 years post-work injury. Retrospective-matched cohort analyses examined main effects and interactions of shift schedule and work injury with changes in health, shift schedule, and labor force status. Models were adjusted for respondent characteristics, baseline health status, and occupational strength requirements. Injured nonstandard shift workers reported lower health utility index scores, compared with uninjured and injured daytime workers and uninjured nonstandard-shift workers. No significant interactions between shift and injury were found with schedule change and leaving the labor force. Injured nonstandard-shift workers are as likely to remain employed as other groups, but may be vulnerable in terms of diminished health.

  10. Predicting Worker Exposure from a Glovebox Leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, H.; Gordon, D. J.; Whicker, J. J.; Wannigman, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    It is difficult to predict immediate worker radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident. This is recognized in DOE safety analysis guidance and the reason such guidance does not call for quantitative determinations of such consequences. However, it would be useful to at least have a means of systematically and formally quantifying worker dose to be able to identify the relative risks of various processes and to provide an order-of-magnitude impression of absolute consequences. In this report, we present such a means in the form of a simple calculation model that is easily applied and generates reasonable, qualitative dose predictions. The model contains a scaling parameter whose value was deduced from extensive laboratory ventilation flow rate measurements performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) over the last several years and from recent indoor radioactive contamination dispersion measurements, also at LANL. Application of the model is illustrated with the aid of two example calculations

  11. "But I wasn't told to": lack of education and workplace policy as barriers in the provision of family planning information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Access to family planning has been identified as critical to public health. Improving the linkage between medical and social services could result in improved access to care for those most at risk of unintended pregnancy. This study used a survey based on Alfred Bandura's social cognitive theory (1986) to increase the understanding of the barriers social workers confront in the provision of family planning information to clients. Although moral disagreement with family planning presented a barrier for some, workplace policy, participation in family planning trainings, and working in an urban setting were of greater value in understanding barriers.

  12. Radiological worker training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  13. Radiological worker training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance

  14. Long work hours and obesity in Korean adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as 60 hours per week. In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.

  15. Are transition economy workers underpaid?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamchik, Vera A.; Brada, Josef C.; King, Arthur E.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the extent to which workers in transition and developed market economies are able to obtain wages that fully reflect their skills and labor force characteristics. We find that workers in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Poland, are able to better attain the maximum wage available than are workers in a sample of developed market economies. This greater wage-setting efficiency in the transition economies ap-pears to be more the result of social and demographic charact...

  16. A primer for workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Spengler, Dan M; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-07-01

    A physician's role within a workers' compensation injury extends far beyond just evaluation and treatment with several socioeconomic and psychological factors at play compared with similar injuries occurring outside of the workplace. Although workers' compensation statutes vary among states, all have several basic features with the overall goal of returning the injured worker to maximal function in the shortest time period, with the least residual disability and shortest time away from work. To help physicians unfamiliar with the workers' compensation process accomplish these goals. Review. Educational review. The streamlined review addresses the topics of why is workers' compensation necessary; what does workers' compensation cover; progression after work injury; impairment and maximum medical improvement, including how to use the sixth edition of American Medical Association's (AMA) Guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment (Guides); completion of work injury claim after impairment rating; independent medical evaluation; and causation. In the "no-fault" workers' compensation system, physicians play a key role in progressing the claim along and, more importantly, getting the injured worker back to work as soon as safely possible. Physicians should remain familiar with the workers' compensation process, along with how to properly use the AMA Guides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Value Preferences of Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

  18. The Impact of a Participatory Care Model on Work Satisfaction of Care Workers and the Functionality, Connectedness, and Mental Health of Community-Dwelling Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernoth, Maree; Burmeister, Oliver K; Morrison, Mark; Islam, Md Zahidul; Onslow, Fiona; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    This study describes and evaluates an innovative program designed to reduce functional decline among seniors, using a participatory care approach and integrated health teams. The evaluation provides older people and community support workers (CSWs) with the opportunity to share their experiences of being involved with an innovative program to reduce functional decline (mobility, skin integrity, nutrition, mental health, continence) of older, community dwelling adults implemented by a Nursing Service in a major capital city in Australia. As part of the program, CSWs were trained to provide care that aimed to reduce functional decline, and improve the quality of life for the care recipients. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with older people receiving care and a focus group (FG) was conducted with CSWs. Seven themes emerged during data analysis: 1) functionality/independence; 2) prevention; 3) confidence; 4) connection; 5) the approach; 6) care plans; and 7) the role of the CSWs. The relationship built between care giver and receiver and the mutual respect facilitated through adopting a participatory care approach was crucial. This relationship-focused care contributed to improved functionality and consequently quality of life for the older person, and for the CSW professional it contributed to their development, improved satisfaction with their role, and increased pride in the difference they make in the lives of their clients. Opportunities for improvement of the program included ensuring that participants understood the rationale for all aspects of the program, including regular reminders, as well as the use of regular reviews of individual outcomes.

  19. Tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaya, Janet; Nnadi, Chimeremma D; Odhiambo, Joseph; Obonyo, Charles; Obiero, Vincent; Lipke, Virginia; Okeyo, Elisha; Cain, Kevin; Oeltmann, John E

    2015-12-01

    To assess prevalence and occupational risk factors of latent TB infection and history of TB disease ascribed to work in a healthcare setting in western Kenya. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among healthcare workers in western Kenya in 2013. They were recruited from dispensaries, health centres and hospitals that offer both TB and HIV services. School workers from the health facilities' catchment communities were randomly selected to serve as the community comparison group. Latent TB infection was diagnosed by tuberculin skin testing. HIV status of participants was assessed. Using a logistic regression model, we determined the adjusted odds of latent TB infection among healthcare workers compared to school workers; and among healthcare workers only, we assessed work-related risk factors for latent TB infection. We enrolled 1005 healthcare workers and 411 school workers. Approximately 60% of both groups were female. A total of 22% of 958 healthcare workers and 12% of 392 school workers tested HIV positive. Prevalence of self-reported history of TB disease was 7.4% among healthcare workers and 3.6% among school workers. Prevalence of latent TB infection was 60% among healthcare workers and 48% among school workers. Adjusted odds of latent TB infection were 1.5 times higher among healthcare workers than school workers (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.0). Healthcare workers at all three facility types had similar prevalence of latent TB infection (P = 0.72), but increasing years of employment was associated with increased odds of LTBI (P Kenya which offer TB and HIV services are at increased risk of latent TB infection, and the risk is similar across facility types. Implementation of WHO-recommended TB infection control measures are urgently needed in health facilities to protect healthcare workers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  1. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-01-01

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  2. Mobile Applications for Knowledge Workers and Field Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieglitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the diffusion of mobile applications (mobile apps has risen significantly. Nowadays, mobile business apps are strongly emerging in business, enhancing productivity and employees’ satisfaction, whilst the usage of customized individual enterprise apps is still an exception. Standardized business apps enable basic functionalities, for example, mobile data storage and exchange (e.g., Dropbox, communication (e.g., Skype, and other routine processes, which support mobile workers. In addition, mobile apps can, for example, increase the flexibility of mobile workers by easing the access to firm’s information from outside the enterprise and by enabling ubiquitous collaboration. Hence, mobile apps can generate competitive advantages and can increase work efficiency on a broad scale. But mobile workers form no coherent group. Our research reveals, based on two case studies, that they can be clustered into two groups: knowledge workers and field workers. Knowledge workers and field workers fulfill different tasks and work in different environments. Hence, they have different requirements for mobile support. In this paper we conclude that standardized mobile business apps cannot meet the different requirements of various groups of mobile workers. Task- and firm-specific (individualized requirements determine the specification, implementation, and application of mobile apps.

  3. Towards improving workers' health by matching work and workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.

    2014-01-01

    From an occupational health perspective, the match between work and workers was the central topic in this thesis. The term ‘work’ was used to encompass a combination of physical, mental and psychosocial work demands. The term ‘workers’ represents the resources of workers, in terms of physical,

  4. Part I. Emergency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This monograph deals with assessment of radiological health effects of the Chernobyl accident for emergency workers (part 1) and the population of the contaminated areas in Russia (part 2). The Chernobyl emergency workers and people living in the contaminated areas of Russia received much lower doses than the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was unclear whether risks of radiation-induced cancers derived with the Japanese data could be extrapolated to the low dose range However, it was predicted as early as in 1990 that the thyroid cancer incidence might be increasing due to incorporated 131 irradiation. What conclusions can be drawn from regarding cancer incidence among emergency workers and residents of the contaminated areas in Russia and the role of the radiation factor on the basis of the registry data? Leukemia incidence. Leukemia incidence is known to be one of principal indications of radiation effects. The radiation risk for leukemias is 3-4 times higher that for solid cancers and its latent period is estimated to be 2-3 years after exposure. Results of the radiation epidemiological studies discussed in this book show that in the worst contaminated Bryansk region the leukemia incidence rate is not higher than in the country in general. Even though some evidence exists for the dose response relationship, the radiation risks appear to be not statistically significant. Since risks of leukemia are known to be higher for those who were children at exposure, long-term epidemiological studies need to be continued. The study of leukemias among emergency workers strongly suggest the existence of dose response relationship. In those who received external doses more than 0.15 Gy the leukemia incidence rate is two time higher and these emergency workers should be referred to as a group of increased radiation risk. Solid cancers. The obtained results provide no evidence to a radiation-induced increase in solid cancers among residents of the contaminated areas

  5. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H. Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed betwe...

  6. A little bird told me : Twitter may be growing at 700 per cent a week, but is it a valuable tool for the patch, or a distraction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P

    2009-10-15

    The social networking tool Twitter may soon be adopted by petroleum industry workers as a means of ensuring increased communications. Comprised of social networks, link sharing, and live searching, the tool can be used to conduct subject searchers as well as to link to quarterly reports and press releases. Twitter is also being used to manage crisis communications as well as to monitor activities on the Internet. Twitter may also provide a means for oil and gas operators to follow influential industry bloggers as well as to develop effective communications strategies. It was concluded that Twitter may offer an opportunity for companies to participate in non-traditional communications approaches such as online forums, and other media-sharing tools. 1 fig.

  7. Economic Globalization and Workers: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-J. Visser (Evert-Jan); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis dossier deals with the impact of economic globalisation on workers, especially in developing nations: their employment opportunities, wage income, job security and other aspects of decent work (ILO 1999, 2002). This is a highly relevant theme. Not only do workers in the EU, the

  8. A Profile of Contingent Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Based on data from the supplement to the February 1995 Current Population Survey, contingent workers were more likely to be female, black, young, enrolled in school, and employed in services and construction industries than were noncontingent workers. More than 10% were teachers. (Author)

  9. Meet the local policy workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla L.; Vallgårda, Signild; Jensen, Anja MB

    2018-01-01

    Reporting on an interview and observation based study in Danish municipalities, this article deals with local policy workers, and takes departure in the great variation we observed in implementation of centrally issued health promotion guidelines. We present five types of local policy workers, ea...

  10. Medical supervision of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santani, S.B.; Nandakumar, A.N.; Subramanian, G.

    1982-01-01

    The basic elements of an occupational medical supervision programme for radiation workers are very much the same as those relevant to other professions with some additional special features. This paper cites examples from literature and recommends measures such as spot checks and continuance of medical supervision even after a radiation worker leaves this profession. (author)

  11. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-04-01

    Radiation exposures at Hanford have been deliberately limited as a protection to the worker. This means that if current estimates of radiation risks, which have been determined by national and international groups, are correct, it's highly unlikely that noticeable radiation-induced health effects will be identified among Hanford workers. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated

  13. Radiation and stillbirths in Sellafield workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In The Lancet (23 October 1999), Dr Louise Parker and colleagues from the Departments of Child Health and Statistics, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, report the findings of a new study on stillbirths among offspring of male radiation workers at Sellafield. By linking the birth registration and stillbirth records in Cumbria from 1950 to 1989 to the database of workers at Sellafield, Dr Parker's team examined the stillbirth risk according to the father's exposure to radiation before conception of the child. From the birth documents of 248 097 livebirths and 3715 stillbirths, the team identified 130 stillbirths and 9078 livebirths to wives and partners of male radiation workers employed at Sellafield. Lifetime exposure, and that in the 90 days before conception, was derived from annual-exposure summaries for each worker. Exposures recorded on individual film badges for the fathers of each stillborn child and for four matched controls were also examined. The researchers found that although, as a group, babies of radiation workers were not more likely to be stillborn than babies of other Cumbrian fathers, there was an increased risk of stillbirth with increasing exposure of a father to external radiation. Although confounding factors also associated with stillbirth, such as whether the mother smoked, cannot be completely excluded, the researchers state that 'extensive checks confirmed that the statistical models were a good fit to the data and there was no statistical evidence of unmeasured factors'. However, the researchers are cautious in drawing any conclusions regarding causality. In the Commentary given in The Lancet, Hazel Inskip from the University of Southampton advises that the possible risk of stillbirth should be kept in perspective, and comments that 'there is no obvious mechanism for the association', but does concede that 'the greater increase in risk for stillbirths with neural-tube defects is at least focused on a more specific disorder

  14. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  15. Radiological Worker Training: Radiological Worker 2 study guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable

  16. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  17. Common understanding of Emergency Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    While the protection of Emergency Workers is regulated in most countries, national definitions, respectively interpretations differ. The prevailing regulatory frameworks are: - Basic Safety Standards (2013/59/EURATOM) The Basis Safety Standards (BSS) are binding for members of the EU. The BSS give a definition of Emergency Workers. - IAEA General Safety Requirements Part 7 (Draft). The Agency's definition is consistent with the BSS-definition. In addition, the Helper is defined. - The Nordic Flag-book. The Nordic Flag-book's Emergency Worker is consistent with the BSS-definition. In addition, workers are defined. Flag-book-Workers (FBW) are neither coterminous with GSR-P-7-helpers nor with BSS-workers. The possible need for harmonization was assessed by the means of a questionnaire, asking members of the Working Group Emergencies to attribute regulatory categories to different roles that might arise in an emergency. While showing a rich variation in interpretations, there is general agreement for the most important roles. Wherever differences are found, the bilateral impact is deemed to be marginal at worst. Therefore, no need for harmonisation with respect to the concept of Emergency Workers is seen

  18. Exploring workplace violence among home care workers in a consumer-driven home health care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaishi, Lindsay; Moss, Helen; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy; Rose, Linda; Anger, W Kent; Hanson, Ginger C; Christian, Mervyn; Glass, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    Nominal research has examined sexual harassment and workplace violence against home care workers within consumer-driven home care models such as those offered in Oregon. This study examined home care workers' experiences of violence while providing care to consumer employers, the patients who hire and manage home care workers. Focus groups and interviews were conducted in Oregon with 83 home care workers, 99 Oregon Department of Human Services (DHS) employees, and 11 consumer employers. Home care workers reported incidents of workplace physical violence (44%), psychological abuse (65%), sexual harassment (41%), and sexual violence (14%). Further, three themes were identified that may increase the risk of workplace violence: (1) real and perceived barriers to reporting violence; (2) tolerance of violence; and (3) limited training to prevent violence. To ensure worker safety while maintaining quality care, safety policies and training for consumer employers, state DHS employees, and home care workers must be developed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Risk of WMSDs in monofunctional and multifunctional workers in a Brazilian footwear company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilza Karla dos Santos Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the risk of musculoskeletal disorders in monofunctional and multifunctional workers in a footwear company. The sample comprised 114 workers in the shoe production sector. The method Occupational Repetitive Actions was used to assess the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs. Proportional odds models were constructed, relating the risk of WMSDs to the type of work and the worker’s level of multifunctionality. For monofunctional workers, exposure to the higher risk was related to cycle time and the technical actions within their activities, whereas for multifunctional workers, it was related to the range of motion, use of gloves and precision needed in activities. For monofunctional workers, greater risks were associated with a short activity cycle, whereas for multifunctional workers, they were associated with complementary and organizational factors. Moreover, workers whose intracellular activities were less than 30% of the total appeared to be less exposed to the risk of WMSDs.

  20. Cyclical absenteeism among private sector, public sector and self-employed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2013-03-01

    This research note analyzes differences in the number of absent working days and doctor visits and in their cyclicality between private sector, public sector and self-employed workers. For this purpose, I used large-scale German survey data for the years 1995 to 2007 to estimate random effects negative binomial (count data) models. The main findings are as follows. (i) Public sector workers have on average more absent working days than private sector and self-employed workers. Self-employed workers have fewer absent working days and doctor visits than dependent employed workers. (ii) The regional unemployment rate is on average negatively correlated with the number of absent working days among private and public sector workers as well as among self-employed men. The correlations between regional unemployment rate and doctor visits are only significantly negative among private sector workers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Interviewing media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.

  2. The worker profile autocontrolled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Omar Delgado Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This document is part of two deliveries. In this first paper is to make an approach to the concept of self-control from the very beginning with Sakichi Toyoda, founder of what the industry Toyota Motor Company, additionally taking some excerpts of the concept issued by teachers and the psychologist Henry Murray, a professor at the university Harvard precursor test TAT personality test creator, pen applied world wide by psychologists David McCllelan, also a psychologist and a pioneer in the study of human needs and the concept of competence; Professor Jeffrey Pfeffer of Stanford University organizational behavior and theory, Frederick Hertzberg, Psychologist and strong influential in business management, Kronfly Cruz, lawyer and investigator of social and administrative sciences, Charles Perrow, a sociologist at Yale University and Stanford , who studies the impact of large organizations in society, among others. The study reflects the need to meet organizational objectives related to the physicochemical characteristics of the finished product in a plant of the company’s main beers in the country. In this paper, we intend to make an approximation of worker self -controlled, which when compared with the powers, generic, specific and technical area established by the brewery, will allow generating a methodology to adjust these competencies and to obtain the target profile drawn. This comparison and development of the methodology proposed is the subject of the second work planned.

  3. Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth

    2002-04-01

    Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms

  4. Hearing loss among older construction workers: Updated analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, John; Welch, Laura S; Ringen, Knut; Cranford, Kim; Quinn, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    A prior study of this construction worker population found significant noise-associated hearing loss. This follow-up study included a much larger study population and consideration of additional risk factors. Data included audiometry, clinical chemistry, personal history, and work history. Qualitative exposure metrics for noise and solvents were developed. Analyses compared construction workers to an internal reference group with lower exposures and an external worker population with low noise exposure. Among participants (n = 19 127) an overall prevalence of hearing loss of 58% was observed, with significantly increased prevalence across all construction trades. Construction workers had significantly increased risk of hearing loss compared to reference populations, with increasing risk by work duration. Noise exposure, solvent exposure, hypertension, and smoking were significant risk factors in multivariate models. Results support a causal relationship between construction trades work and hearing loss. Prevention should focus on reducing exposure to noise, solvents, and cigarette smoke. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ethical Issues in Integrated Health Care: Implications for Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Frederic G

    2018-05-01

    Integrated health care has come of age. What began modestly in the 1930s has evolved into a mature model of health care that is quickly becoming the standard of care. Social workers are now employed in a wide range of comprehensive integrated health care organizations. Some of these settings were designed as integrated health care delivery systems from their beginning. Others evolved over time, some incorporating behavioral health into existing primary care centers and others incorporating primary care into existing behavioral health agencies. In all of these contexts, social workers are encountering complex, sometimes unprecedented, ethical challenges. This article identifies and discusses ethical issues facing social workers in integrated health care settings, especially related to informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, boundaries, dual relationships, and conflicts of interest. The author includes practical resources that social workers can use to develop state-of-the-art ethics policies and protocols.

  6. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  7. Mental health workers. Graduation daze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol

    2003-09-11

    PCTs are likely to miss the national target on employment of graduate mental health workers. Pilots are showing success in reducing referrals. Managers must address career progression problems and define roles more clearly.

  8. Radiation protection optimization of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

  9. Work values among Lebanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Y M; Gardner, W L

    2000-10-01

    On the basis of a review of the existing literature, the authors tested 4 hypotheses to determine the applicability of work values in Arab societies to employees in Lebanese organizations. Only 1 hypothesis was supported: Organizational policies that ran counter to the worker's religious values had an adverse effect on job satisfaction. There was no support for the hypotheses (a) that workers' religiosity in inversely related to positive attitudes toward women's involvement at work, (b) that employee satisfaction is related to a mechanistic organizational design, or (c) that workers with an internal locus of control experience higher job satisfaction. The Lebanese workers, thus, did not appear to share some of the attributes claimed to exist in Arab societies.

  10. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-03-01

    The relationships of cancer mortality with radiation exposure as influenced by age, sex, follow-up time length of employment, and job category are discussed in relation to workers at the Hanford facilities

  11. Facts about Hospital Worker Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics show that hospitals are still relatively hazardous workplaces, and they have much room to improve. OSHA has developed this factbook to help hospital safety managers and other stakeholders understand the challenges of worker ...

  12. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  13. Decompression sickness in caisson workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawabi, Samir H. El; Mansour, Mohamed B.; Youssef, Fatma L.; Ghawabi, Mohamed H. El; Latif, Mohamed M. Abd El

    1971-01-01

    El Ghawabi, S. H., Mansour, M. B., Youssef, F. L., El Ghawabi, M. H., and Abd El Latif, M. M. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 323-329. Decompression sickness in caisson workers. An investigation of 55 bridge construction workers is reported. The overall bends rate was 0·97%. (The term `bends' as used in this study is defined in the paper.) Chokes were encountered in 67·27% of workers. A clinical, haematological, and radiological study was performed. Definite bony changes were found in 43·6% of all workers; 91·6% of these had lesions around the elbow. The presence of dense areas in the neck of the scapula is reported in two cases for the first time. The relatively high haematocrit value is thought to play a part in the pathogenesis of bone infarction through its relation with blood viscosity. Images PMID:5124832

  14. Internal Dosimetric Calculations for Occupationally Exposed Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.T.; Farag, H.I.

    2005-01-01

    The Internal radiation dosimetry calculations are very important to estimate the benefit and the risk of radiation in nuclear medicine field for both patient and worker. MIRD scheme and ICRP model have valid methods in this type of calculations. In this work, a new program called WIRDST the Workers Internal Radiation Dosimetry Simulation for Thyroid gland has been built up by using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate the internal exposure of sodium iodide by inhalation for workers. The working conditions have been taken as the same as found in the hot laboratory of nuclear medicine unit in the National Cancer Institute in Cairo University. The point source equivalent model as a parameterization equation has developed newly by using the fitting model of MC method for uniform distribution of radioactive sodium iodide in the thyroid gland. This model is used for the first time in this type of calculation, and then applied on 3 D coordinates of mathematical geometry for the adult phantom of the reference man. The latest parameters (anatomical data and inhalation metabolic data) of ICRP pamphlets and recommendations have been used in this purpose. Moreover, the latest scheme for iodine decay mode and the latest geometry model for thyroid gland are used also. The results showed that the specific effective energy and the effective dose decrease from the thyroid gland to the nearest organs then decrease gradually until terminated in the organs that have large distance from the thyroid. The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) has been calculated for a wide range of thyroid uptake (5%, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45%, and 55%) in addition to change of the working time order per week in one year. The results showed that the critical point of intake limits are decreased when the thyroid uptake is increased and/or the number of working time in the hot laboratory per week is increased

  15. The battle over workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, J N

    2000-01-01

    Faced with lower profits and rapidly increasing premium costs in the 1980s, insurers and employer organizations cleverly parlayed the public perception of worker fraud and abuse in the workers' compensation system (that they helped to create) into massive legislative changes. Over the last decade, state legislators and governors, Republican and Democrat alike, have jumped on this bandwagon, one that workers and their allies have dubbed the workers' compensation "deform" movement. Alleging a "game plan" and a calculated campaign on the part of insurers and employers, the author looks at the major components of changes that were made, examines the elements of workers' compensation over which employers and insurers have gained control, and discusses Newt Gingrich's efforts to capitalize on employer and insurer fervor over the system. This campaign whistled through the country until it goaded the labor movement, injured workers, the trial bar, and others in Ohio in 1997 to organize themselves to stand up to employers by defeating the deform law through a ballot initiative. The article details that battle and suggests that similar voices can be achieved through a return to grassroots organizing and mobilization.

  16. Health effects of low doses at low dose rates: dose-response relationship modeling in a cohort of workers of the nuclear industry; Effets sanitaires des faibles doses a faibles debits de dose: modelisation de la relation dose-reponse dans une cohorte de travailleurs du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz-Flamant, Camille

    2011-09-19

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the health effects of chronic external low doses of ionising radiation. This work is based on the French cohort of CEA-AREVA NC nuclear workers. The mains stages of this thesis were (1) conducting a review of epidemiological studies on nuclear workers, (2) completing the database and performing a descriptive analysis of the cohort, (3) quantifying risk by different statistical methods and (4) modelling the exposure-time-risk relationship. The cohort includes monitored workers employed more than one year between 1950 and 1994 at CEA or AREVA NC companies. Individual annual external exposure, history of work, vital status and causes of death were reconstructed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios using French national mortality rates as external reference were computed. Exposure-risk analysis was conducted in the cohort using the linear excess relative risk model, based on both Poisson regression and Cox model. Time dependent modifying factors were investigated by adding an interaction term in the model or by using exposure time windows. The cohort includes 36, 769 workers, followed-up until age 60 in average. During the 1968- 2004 period, 5, 443 deaths, 2, 213 cancers, 62 leukemia and 1, 314 cardiovascular diseases were recorded. Among the 57% exposed workers, the mean cumulative dose was 21.5 milli-sieverts (mSv). A strong Healthy Worker Effect is observed in the cohort. Significant elevated risks of pleura cancer and melanoma deaths were observed in the cohort but not associated with dose. No significant association was observed with solid cancers, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, mainly for doses received less than 15 years before and for yearly dose rates higher than 10 mSv. This PhD work contributes to the evaluation of risks associated to chronic external radiation

  17. The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaDou Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor.

  18. Aplicação do modelo de crenças em saúde na adesão do trabalhador hipertenso ao tratamento Application of the model of health beliefs in the worker's compliance with hypertension treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karine de Figueiredo Moreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo e qualitativo que objetivou analisar as mudanças comportamentais em trabalhadores hipertensos na adesão ao tratamento, após aplicação de uma tecnologia em saúde embasada no Modelo de Crença em Saúde. O cenário da pesquisa foi uma instituição filantrópica e, após a proposta de educação em saúde, os participantes foram entrevistados. Selecionamos as seguintes categorias temáticas: percepção da severidade da HAS, percepção dos benefícios da adesão, percepção dos custos da mudança, identificação das mudanças visando à adesão e motivação para o estabelecimento de metas para a mudança. Os dados alcançados reforçam a educação em saúde do trabalhador hipertenso como estratégia de mudança de hábitos e valores pela aquisição de novos conhecimentos e adoção de atitudes favoráveis à saúde, através de uma educação crítica e transformadora, em que o sujeito assume participação ativa no processo de aprendizagem.Qualitative and descriptive study aiming to examine the behavioral changes in hypertensive workers in the compliance with treatment after application of a health technology based on the Health Belief Model. The scenario of the research was a philanthropic institution, and after presenting health education issues, the participants were interviewed. Then we selected the following theme categories: perception of the severity of hypertension, awareness of the benefits of compliance, awareness of change costs, identification of the changes aiming the compliance and motivation for the establishment of objectives for the change. The data obtained reinforce the health education of hypertensive worker as a changing strategy of habits and values for the acquisition of new knowledge and adoption of positive attitudes towards health, through a critical and changing education, in which the subject actively participates in the learning process.

  19. Workers and the ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbib, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    In both the preparation and the application of the recommendations presented by the ICRP one important voice has been absent: that of the workers in the nuclear industry. A large number of specialists are studying their situation from all points of view, in their different capacities as workers, consumers and male or female members of the public, but this extensive study is being done without consulting them, without their opinion even being asked for. The paper discusses such deficiencies, in particular all those aspects which distinguish these recommendations from a legal text. The lack of conciseness in the definition of the limit which the average annual dose to a large group of workers must not exceed (500 mrad) is considered. The possibility of a large number of workers being exposed for a long period is not acceptable if the decision is left to the manager of a nuclear facility alone. Cost-benefit analysis, as it is described in the ICRP text, cannot be considered to provide credible protection from the point of view of workers. Moreover, the various ICRP recommendations fail to mention such important matters as allowance for low-dose effects, disparities in the social security coverage offered to various categories of workers in the event of occupational illness, and the increasing use of migrant workers for difficult decontamination and maitenance tasks. At a time when it is thought that nuclear technology can be standardized, the French Democratic Labour Confederation (CFDT) expresses its fears concerning the practical application of the ICRP recommendations; for example, the text of ICRP Publication 26 has not yet been translated into French, but Euratom has already proposed directives for its application in Member States

  20. Protective equipment of radiological protection and the worker wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassia, Flor Rita de; Huhn, Andrea; Lima, Gelbcke Francine

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research with workers of seven hemodynamic service of Santa Catarina, Brazil aimed to analyze the use of radiological protection equipment (RPE), as well as wear to the health of workers who use these causes. The study was conducted between March 2010 and November 2010, totaling approximately 30 hours of observations. Results showed resistance to the use of RPE and also showed wear to workers' health, mainly due to the weight and discomfort they cause, as may weigh 7-9 pounds, depending on the model used. Evidenced also the absence of workers due herniated disc, back pain, and other musculo skeletal problems. These complaints, in addition to being related to the use of these protective gear also related with the time that workers remain standing for long periods on certain procedures, such as angioplasty. Given these results, the research recommended the use of these devices with materials, that are already being produced, making lighter aprons, thus avoiding fatigue and back pain and also provide greater comfort by reducing workers' resistance to its use and its adverse consequences

  1. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning

  2. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning.

  3. [Factors associated with influenza immunization in primary care health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-Capdevila, Josep; Godoy, Pere; Marsal, Josep Ramon; Barbé-Illa, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    To identify the influenza vaccination coverage in healthcare workers in primary care and to determine the factors associated with vaccination (2013-2014 season). A cross-sectional study was carried out among 287 healthcare workers who completed a questionnaire that included questions about knowledge, beliefs and attitudes to influenza and vaccination. We estimated the vaccine coverage and identified the variables associated with vaccination of healthcare workers by using non-conditional logistic regression models. The participation rate was 47.2%. Vaccination coverage was 60.3% and was higher in workers older than 55 years, women and pediatricians. The factors associated with healthcare worker vaccination were the perception that vaccination confers protection (aOR: 11.1; 95%CI: 3.41-35.9) and the perception that it is effective (aOR: 7.5; 95%CI: 0.9-59.3). No association was found between receiving the vaccine and knowledge of influenza or vaccination. However, an association was found with prescribing vaccination to pregnant women, to persons older than 65 years, and to immunosuppressed individuals. Strategies should be designed to increase coverage, based on changing negative attitudes of healthcare workers to vaccination. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Tianan Yang; Yina Guo; Mingxu Ma; Yaxin Li; Huilin Tian; Jianwei Deng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. Methods: To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment o...

  5. Modifiers of the healthy worker effect and expression of the internal healthy worker effect in a female nuclear worker cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jacques Guy

    Though well-documented among numerous cohorts of male workers, little is known about how the healthy worker effect (HWE) and the internal HWE is expressed among cohorts of female workers. This investigation examines characteristics of the HWE and the internal HWE in a cohort of 12,668 female nuclear workers. The HWE, which was estimated by assessing SMRs for all causes of death combined, was found to be modified by race, occupational class and length of follow-up. Smaller variations in the HWE were observed for age at hire, occupational class, length of employment, monitored status, and interruption of monitoring. Examination of SMRs for all cancers combined revealed that the HWE was modified by race, occupational class, monitored status, interruption of monitoring, and length of follow-up. Smaller variations were observed for age at hire and length of employment. Investigators often try to circumvent the HWE by employing internal comparisons; that is, by directly comparing the mortality of subgroups within a defined occupational cohort with one another. However, internal comparisons are not necessarily free from certain biases related to the HWE. If employees are selected on the basis of health into subgroups which serve as the basis for internal comparisons, then a form of internal comparison bias, called the internal healthy worker effect (Stewart et al, 1991; Wilkinson, 1992) may occur. In this investigation, the expression of the internal HWE was examined by estimating the extent to which survival time was modified by the variables under study. Using the Cox PH model, time to death from all causes was found to be modified by occupational class and length of employment but not by race, age at hire, monitored status, or interruption of monitoring. Time to death from all cancers was found to be modified by race and interruption of monitoring but not by age at hire, occupational class, length of employment, or monitored status. These results are important because

  6. Compensation patterns for healthcare workers in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, H; Siow, S; Yu, S; Ngan, K; Guzman, J

    2009-06-01

    This report examines relationships between the acceptance of compensation claims, and employee and workplace characteristics for healthcare workers in British Columbia, Canada to determine suitability of using only accepted claims for occupational epidemiology research. A retrospective cohort of full-time healthcare workers was constructed from an active incident surveillance database. Incidents filed for compensation over a 1-year period were examined for initial claim decision within a 6-month window relative to sub-sector of employment, age, sex, seniority, occupation of workers, and injury category. Compensation costs and duration of time lost for initially accepted claims were also investigated. Multiple logistic regression models with generalised estimating equations (GEEs) were used to calculate adjusted relative odds (ARO) of claims decision accounting for confounding factors and clustering effects. Employees of three health regions in British Columbia filed 2274 work-related claims in a year, of which 1863 (82%) were initially accepted for compensation. Proportion of claims accepted was lowest in community care (79%) and corporate office settings (79%) and highest in long-term care settings (86%). Overall, 46% of claims resulting from allergy/irritation were accepted, in contrast to 98% acceptance of claims from cuts and puncture wounds. Licensed practical nurses had the lowest odds of claims not accepted compared with registered nurses (ARO (95% CI) = 0.55 (0.33 to 0.91)), whereas management/administrative staff had the highest odds (ARO = 2.91 (1.25 to 6.79)) of claims not accepted. A trend was observed with higher seniority of workers associated with lower odds of non-acceptance of claims. Analysis from British Columbia's healthcare sector suggests variation in workers' compensation acceptance exists across sub-sectors, occupations, seniority of workers, and injury categories. The patterns observed, however, were independent of age and sex of workers

  7. The development of a model to predict the effects of worker and task factors on foot placements in manual material handling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David W; Reed, Matthew P; Chaffin, Don B

    2010-11-01

    Accurate prediction of foot placements in relation to hand locations during manual materials handling tasks is critical for prospective biomechanical analysis. To address this need, the effects of lifting task conditions and anthropometric variables on foot placements were studied in a laboratory experiment. In total, 20 men and women performed two-handed object transfers that required them to walk to a shelf, lift an object from the shelf at waist height and carry the object to a variety of locations. Five different changes in the direction of progression following the object pickup were used, ranging from 45° to 180° relative to the approach direction. Object weights of 1.0 kg, 4.5 kg, 13.6 kg were used. Whole-body motions were recorded using a 3-D optical retro-reflective marker-based camera system. A new parametric system for describing foot placements, the Quantitative Transition Classification System, was developed to facilitate the parameterisation of foot placement data. Foot placements chosen by the subjects during the transfer tasks appeared to facilitate a change in the whole-body direction of progression, in addition to aiding in performing the lift. Further analysis revealed that five different stepping behaviours accounted for 71% of the stepping patterns observed. More specifically, the most frequently observed behaviour revealed that the orientation of the lead foot during the actual lifting task was primarily affected by the amount of turn angle required after the lift (R(2) = 0.53). One surprising result was that the object mass (scaled by participant body mass) was not found to significantly affect any of the individual step placement parameters. Regression models were developed to predict the most prevalent step placements and are included in this paper to facilitate more accurate human motion simulations and ergonomics analyses of manual material lifting tasks. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study proposes a method for parameterising the steps

  8. On-site monitoring of plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Richardson, C.K.; Paulka, S.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: As part of the Maralinga rehabilitation program it is necessary to implement a system of on-site monitoring for the workers in order to ensure that they do not exceed recommended dose limits. The main problem in the rehabilitation work is the inhalation of dusts which contain micron sized plutonium particles. Using the new ICRP lung model and available data derived from measurements on contaminated soils, the intake for a dose of 20 mSv was calculated to be 1200 Bq. Four methods are available for direct measurements on workers; nasal swabs, faecal analysis, urine analysis and lung monitoring. The first two techniques are sensitive but will give varying results depending of the time interval between exposure and sampling. They are also difficult to implement on a routine basis. For the second two techniques, the activity in the lungs and the activity excreted per day in the urine remain relatively constant for several years following an intake, making more accurate dose estimates possible. The ICRP lung model predicts deposition in the lung of the order of 5% of intake and urinary excretion models predict approximately 10 -5 of this will be excreted daily in the urine. Lung monitoring of workers will be performed routinely at Maralinga in a partly enclosed room constructed from 10cm of steel, using two 50 mm diameter germanium detectors shielded with lead collimators. The detectors will measure 241 Am, which has grown in following the decay of 241 Pu, and the minimum detectable activity will be 15 - 20 Bq depending on the chest thickness and chest wall thickness of the individual being measured. Urine will be collected routinely and selected samples will be measured. The minimum detectable activity will be 2001μBq of 239 Pu in a daily urine sample

  9. Application of Karasek's demand/control model a Canadian occupational setting including shift workers during a period of reorganization and downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, J; Green, L W; Olsen, L; Kruse, K; Cargo, M

    1997-01-01

    To apply Karasek's Job Content Model to an analysis of the relationships between job type and perceived stress and stress behaviors in a large company during a period of reorganization and downsizing. Cross-sectional mail-out, mail-back survey. A large Canadian telephone/telecommunications company. Stratified random sample (stratified by job category) of 2200 out of 13,000 employees with a response rate of 48.8%. Responses to 25 of Karasek's core questions were utilized to define four job types: low-demand and high control = "relaxed"; high demand and high control = "active"; low demand and low control = "passive", and high demand and low control = "high strain." These job types were compared against self-reported stress levels, perceived general level of health, absenteeism, alcohol use, exercise level, and use of medications and drugs. Similar analyses were performed to assess the influence of shift work. Employees with "passive" or "high strain" job types reported higher levels of stress (trend test p Karasek and Theorell was validated in this setting with respect to stress and some stress-associated attitudes and behaviors.

  10. Mortality study of lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W C; Gaffey, W R

    1975-01-01

    The mortality of 7,032 men employed for one or more years in lead production facilities or battery plants was followed over a 23-year period, 1947-70. Lead absorption in many of these men was greatly in excess of currently accepted standards based upon urinary and blood lead concentrations available for a portion of the group. There were 1,356 deaths reported. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes was 107 for smelter workers and 99 for battery plant workers. Death from neoplasms were in slight excess in smelters, but not significantly increased in battery plants. There were no excess deaths from kidney tumors. The SMR for cardiovascular-renal disease was 96 for smelter workers and 101 for battery plant workers. There was definitely no excess in deaths from either stroke or hypertensive heart disease; however, deaths classified as other hypertensive disease and unspecified nephritis or renal sclerosis were higher than expected. The life expectancy of lead workers was calculated to be approximately the same as that of all U.S. males.

  11. Health management of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Naoki; Igari, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    People in Japan have expressed great anxiety about possible radiation and radioactivity after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO), due to the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. A large number of workers were engaged in response and recovery operations, and they were possibly exposed to high doses of radiation as compared to the general population. In the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, high doses of radiation to 134 plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which proved fatal for 28 of them. In the Fukushima accident, six workers were exposed to more than 250 mSv of radiation during the initial response phase, but no one showed ARS. It is necessary to continue registration of radiation doses for all workers who were exposed to radiation to facilitate suitable healthcare management in the future. In addition to radiation exposure, a group of workers were also exposed to other health hazards. Frequent occurrence of heat disorders has been a concern for the workers wearing protective clothing with poor ventilation. A comprehensive program to prevent heat illness was implemented by TEPCO under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. It is important to provide effective systems not only for prevention of radiation exposure but also for general management of other health risks including heat disorders and infection. (author)

  12. Micronucleus assay for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasem, A.N.; Ali, A.S.K.

    1997-01-01

    Micronucleus assay was performed on 49 radiation workers and 22 healthy volunteers. Radiation workers were subdivided into two groups according to their employments durations in the radiation field. Group a consisted of 18 radiation workers who have been in this work between 5 and 22 years. Group b included 31 employees who have been classified as radiation workers for 1 to 4.5 years. Statistical analysis showed significant variations between the yields of micronuclei in groups A and B as well as between group A and a group of healthy controls. Meanwhile no significant difference was noticed between the yields of micronuclei in group B and the corresponding values in the healthy controls. The possible effect of age in the induction of micronuclei was discussed and a comparison with the yield of chromosomal aberrations was described. It seems that cytokinesis- blocking method may be used to detect the radiation-induced micronuclei in workers exposed occupationally to ionizing radiation in levels below the maximum permissible limit of 0.05 Sv per year

  13. Musculoskeletal diseases in forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slađana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Knowledge Workers at R&D department in Outsourcing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akhavan Kharazian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the focus of industries is changed from efficiency of workers to efficiency of knowledge workers. Thus, the performance appraisal process of the knowledge workers is important. A basic drawback of previous methods for performance evaluation is their biased results due to influence of rater's personal motivations. In this study, by developing a Result Base Method (RBM approach, the criteria of performance appraisal of knowledge workers in outsourcing conditions is identified in Hedayat-e-Farhikhtegan-e-Javan Institution (HFJ. Different models of data envelopment analysis (DEA are validated on 25 knowledge workers working at the research and development department at the institution. The DEA was able to classify knowledge workers into efficient and inefficient ones. Based on project career development plans, a set of efficient knowledge workers was used to establish an internal best practice benchmark for improving the performance of other inefficient knowledge workers. The findings show that 4 knowledge workers are efficient. Our findings indicate that the non-radial model of data envelopment analysis owns more separation power comparing with other radial models.

  15. Contributing to the wellbeing of primary health care workers in PNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how organisational frames of reference, which are neither not appropriately communicated nor supported, affect the wellbeing of workers. A review of the literature is used to develop a new model linking ambiguous frames of reference with reduced levels of workers' wellbeing. This is then tested using data collected in a study involving primary health care workers in Papua New Guinea (PNG). This paper finds that, for these particular workers, the model linking ambiguous frames of reference and reduced worker wellbeing is valid. The paper shows that there is a need for further research into a variety of areas including the importance of frames of reference to worker wellbeing, the significance of reference groups to organisational frames of reference and the consequences of reduced worker wellbeing in developing countries. In this paper, recommendations for changes to current PNG primary health care management practices, including ensuring the support for as well as communicating the organisational frame of reference, are discussed. The paper shows that the experiences of these particular primary health care workers not only demonstrates the validity of the new model but also brings a unique perspective to the field of worker wellbeing, which up until now has been dominated by research conducted in western countries.

  16. Social Workers' Perceptions of Job Satisfaction, Interdisciplinary Collaboration, and Organizational Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmo, Suzanne; Berkman, Cathy

    2018-01-01

    To address job satisfaction, and therefore employment retention, of hospice social workers, this study examined how relationships with other members of the interdisciplinary hospice team and perceptions of hospice leadership may be associated with job satisfaction of hospice social workers. The sample of 203 hospice social workers was recruited by e-mailing invitations to hospice social workers identified by hospice directors in three states, use of online social media sites accessed by hospice social workers, and snowball sampling. Study measures included professional experience, hospice characteristics, interdisciplinary collaboration, perception of servant leadership, and intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Variables significant in the model for intrinsic satisfaction were perception of servant leadership, interdisciplinary collaboration, and feeling valued by the hospice physician. Variables significant in the model for extrinsic satisfaction were perception of servant leadership, interdisciplinary collaboration, feeling valued by the hospice physician, and number of social workers at the hospice. Interdisciplinary collaboration was more important for intrinsic job satisfaction and leadership style was more important for extrinsic job satisfaction. Profit status of the hospice, experience of the social worker, caseload size, and other variables were not significant in either model. These results support previous findings that leadership style of the hospice director and relationships with hospice colleagues are important for hospice social workers' job satisfaction. Such low-cost modifications to the hospice work environment, albeit not simple, may improve job satisfaction of hospice social workers.

  17. Relationships among Safety Climate, Safety Behavior, and Safety Outcomes for Ethnic Minority Construction Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainan Lyu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, it is common practice to attract and employ ethnic minority (EM or migrant workers in the construction industry. This primarily occurs in order to alleviate the labor shortage caused by an aging workforce with a lack of new entrants. Statistics show that EM construction workers are more likely to have occupational fatal and nonfatal injuries than their local counterparts; however, the mechanism underlying accidents and injuries in this vulnerable population has been rarely examined. This study aims to investigate relationships among safety climate, safety behavior, and safety outcomes for EM construction workers. To this end, a theoretical research model was developed based on a comprehensive review of the current literature. In total, 289 valid questionnaires were collected face-to-face from 223 Nepalese construction workers and 56 Pakistani construction workers working on 15 construction sites in Hong Kong. Structural equation modelling was employed to validate the constructs and test the hypothesized model. Results show that there were significant positive relationships between safety climate and safety behaviors, and significant negative relationships between safety behaviors and safety outcomes for EM construction workers. This research contributes to the literature regarding EM workers by providing empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which safety climate affects safety behaviors and outcomes. It also provides insights in order to help the key stakeholders formulate safety strategies for EM workers in many areas where numerous EM workers are employed, such as in the U.S., the UK, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, and the Middle East.

  18. Relationships among Safety Climate, Safety Behavior, and Safety Outcomes for Ethnic Minority Construction Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Sainan; Hon, Carol K H; Chan, Albert P C; Wong, Francis K W; Javed, Arshad Ali

    2018-03-09

    In many countries, it is common practice to attract and employ ethnic minority (EM) or migrant workers in the construction industry. This primarily occurs in order to alleviate the labor shortage caused by an aging workforce with a lack of new entrants. Statistics show that EM construction workers are more likely to have occupational fatal and nonfatal injuries than their local counterparts; however, the mechanism underlying accidents and injuries in this vulnerable population has been rarely examined. This study aims to investigate relationships among safety climate, safety behavior, and safety outcomes for EM construction workers. To this end, a theoretical research model was developed based on a comprehensive review of the current literature. In total, 289 valid questionnaires were collected face-to-face from 223 Nepalese construction workers and 56 Pakistani construction workers working on 15 construction sites in Hong Kong. Structural equation modelling was employed to validate the constructs and test the hypothesized model. Results show that there were significant positive relationships between safety climate and safety behaviors, and significant negative relationships between safety behaviors and safety outcomes for EM construction workers. This research contributes to the literature regarding EM workers by providing empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which safety climate affects safety behaviors and outcomes. It also provides insights in order to help the key stakeholders formulate safety strategies for EM workers in many areas where numerous EM workers are employed, such as in the U.S., the UK, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, and the Middle East.

  19. Community-based blood pressure measurement by non-health workers using electronic devices: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Reidpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers using mercury sphygmomanometers. Method: Fifty-six adult volunteers participated in the research. Data were collected by five qualified health workers, and six non-health workers. Participants were randomly allocated to have their blood pressure measured on four consecutive occasions by alternating a qualified health worker with a non-health worker. Descriptive statistics and graphs, and mixed effects linear models to account for the repeated measurement were used in the analysis. Results: Blood pressure readings by non-health workers were more reliable than those taken by qualified health workers. There was no significant difference between the readings taken by qualified health workers and those taken by non-health workers for systolic blood pressure. Non-health workers were, on average, 5–7 mmHg lower in their measures of blood pressure than the qualified health workers (95%HPD: −2.9 to −10.0 for diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: The results provide empirical evidence that supports the practice of non-health workers using electronic devices for BP measurement in community-based research and screening. Non-health workers recorded blood pressures that differed from qualified health workers by no more than 10 mmHg. The approach is promising, but more research is needed to establish the generalisability of the results.

  20. A follow-up comparison of blood lead levels between foreign and native workers of battery manufacturing in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, H.-Y.; Cheng, W.-C.; Chen, C.-Y.; Yang, Y.-H.; Sung, F.-C.; Yang, C.-Y.; Wu, T.-N.

    2008-01-01

    Foreign workers employed in industries in Taiwan have been found at elevated risk of injuries. Less well known is whether the elevated risk persists in chemical exposure such as lead exposure at battery manufacturing. A cohort of 70 Thai workers and 55 native workers employed at a battery plant were followed up, after an education of job safety, from 2000 until 2002. This study compared the change of blood lead levels (BLLs) between these two groups of workers. With informed consent, BLLs were measured annually for participants and compared. The average baseline BLLs were approximately at similarly high levels between Thai workers and native workers with means ± standard deviations of 36.9 ± 16.4 and 36.2 ± 12.4 μg/dl, respectively (p = 0.79). At the end of 2002, the average concentration was higher in Thai workers than in native workers. Using mixed models, Thai workers had an average of 5.95 μg/dl increase in BLLs over native workers during the 3-year study. Further measurements revealed that the average BLL for workers in the assembly department was 3.57 ± 1.83 μg/dl in excess, compared with workers in the plate engineering department. Thai workers were more likely to drink alcohol but less likely to wear gloves at work and wash hands before meals. The BLL disparities between Thai workers and native workers can partly be explained by differences in risk-taking behaviors. Higher BLLs in Thai workers suggest the need of language appropriate health education to improve their personal hygiene. Workplace smoking ceasing program may be needed both in Thai and native workers

  1. [Assessment of the validity and reliability of the processes of change scale based on the transtheoretical model of vegetable consumption behavior in Japanese male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Osamu; Murayama, Nobuko

    2012-12-01

    A core construct of the Transtheoretical model is that the processes and stages of change are strongly related to observable behavioral changes. We created the Processes of Change Scale of vegetable consumption behavior and examined the validity and reliability of this scale. In September 2009, a self-administered questionnaire was administered to male Japanese employees, aged 20-59 years, working at 20 worksites in Niigata City in Japan. The stages of change (precontempration, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance stage) were measured using 2 items that assessed participants' current implementation of the target behavior (eating 5 or more servings of vegetables per day) and their readiness to change their habits. The Processes of Change Scale of vegetable consumption behavior comprised 10 items assessing 5 cognitive processes (consciousness raising, emotional arousal, environmental reevaluation, self-reevaluation, and social liberation) and 5 behavioral processes (commitment, rewards, helping relationships, countering, and environment control). Each item was selected from an existing scale. Decisional balance (pros [2 items] and cons [2 items]), and self-efficacy (3 items) were also assessed, because these constructs were considered to be relevant to the processes of change. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was examined using Cronbach's alpha. Its construct validity was examined using a factor analysis of the processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy variables, while its criterion-related validity was determined by assessing the association between the scale scores and the stages of change. The data of 527 (out of 600) participants (mean age, 41.1 years) were analyzed. Results indicated that the Processes of Change Scale had sufficient internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha: cognitive processes=0.722, behavioral processes=0.803). The processes of change were divided into 2 factors: "consciousness raising

  2. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems

  3. Radiation worker: the ALARA key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weedon, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is a simple concept that has come to be a complicated and expensive regulatory goal. There are essentially three factors that can be manipulated to achieve ALARA: (1) radionuclide inventory (source), (2) physical arrangement (primarily distance and shielding); (3) radiation worker performance (radiation safety responsibilities and functions). Of these three elements, item 3 is utilized the least and yet has the greatest potential for reducing exposure per dollar expended. By establishing a relationship with radiation workers consisting of credible leadership and expecting the radiation workers to be responsible for specific elements of radiological safety. Health Physics can gain a degree of cooperation and performance that will provide significant ALARA gains at a very small expense

  4. Scientific literacy in hospital workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerci, Alba M.; Pinero, Adalberto; Zubiria, M. Guillermina; Sanz, Vanesa; Larragueta, Nicolas; Puntigliano, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Previous studies realized by our group have demonstrated radio-induction of genotoxic damage in peripheral blood of hospital workers exposed to chronic X-ray. The cytogenetic and cytomolecular damage was significant in the radiologists evaluated. Accordingly, we have researched the knowledge of risk radiation in 57 workers to different health centres, private and public, in La Plata city. Most of respondents (96.4%) answered to know the risk of working with radiation ionizing, but a large portion do not carry out with the appropriate safety rules. The workers have not interest in this rules, it is evidenced by negligence in the use of protective clothing and personal dosimeters. These results suggested that individuals could be sensitising to minimize their risk. For this purpose we are working in scientific literacy conferences which are organized by 'Asociacion de Tecnicos Radiologos y de Diagnostico por Imagenes de La Plata (ASTEDIRLP)'. (author)

  5. Nuclear: a world without worker?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Pierre; Maziere, M.

    2014-01-01

    After having recalled some characteristics of the electro-nuclear sector in terms of employment (direct and indirect jobs, average age, number of persons controlled on the radiological level, exposure with respect to work location), the author outlines that workers of this sector are seldom evoked whereas investments, incidents and accidents are generally the main evoked and commented topics. He proposes some explanations about this image of the nuclear sector. He reports an incident which occurred in Marcoule and outlines how a set of imperfectly managed events resulted in this incident. He also outlines the importance of the role of workers and the difficulty to make the right choice in such situations. As a conclusion, the author draws some lessons, and particularly outlines that the commitment of workers should be put forward

  6. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Essential information on the health protection of radiation workers which has accumulated since the advent of nuclear fission thirty years ago is presented in simple terms. Basic facts on ionizing radiation, its measurement, and dosimetry are presented. Acute and chronic somatic and genetic effects are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Radiation protection standards and regulations are outlined, and methods for maintaining these standards are described. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury from external radiation and/or internally deposited radionuclides is considered generally as well as specifically for each radioisotope. The medical supervision of radiation workers, radiation accidents, atomic power plants, and medicolegal problems is also covered. (853 references) (U.S.)

  7. CONTACT DERMATITIS AMONG CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Diah Purnama Sari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is a form of skin inflammation with spongiosis or intercellular edema of the epidermis due to the interaction of irritants and allergens. While occupational contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin due to exposure to irritants or allergens in the workplace. One of the jobs that have a high risk of the disease are construction workers. Although the disease is rarely-threatening but can cause high morbidity and suffering for workers, so it can affect the economy and quality of life of patients.

  8. Standardization and workers' protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliesch, G.

    1979-01-01

    There are distinct laws guaranteeing the protection of workers in the social and medical field, but the protection of workers in the technical field is based on a simple, general clause relating to technical standards, i.e. to a confusing variety of regulations. The author therefore asks for DIN standards to be set up in order to achieve a consistent and uniform set of rules and regulations. He furthermore points out that it is up to the government to initiate appropriate procedures within the framework of constitutional law towards solving the essential problem, namely that of directly incorporating technical expert knowledge in legal provisions. (HSCH) [de

  9. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug.  This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude.  The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation.  Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise.  These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw

  10. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  11. "We Were Told We're Not Teachers... It Gets Difficult to Draw the Line": Negotiating Roles in Peer-Assisted Study Sessions (PASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kim; Nairn, Karen; van der Meer, Jacques; Scott, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Peer learning models in pre-service teacher education are in the early stages of implementation. In this article, we evaluated a pilot Peer-Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) program that supplemented a course for pre-service teachers at one New Zealand university. PASS participants discussed experiences of the program, revealing tensions between what…

  12. Suicide among agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman

    2018-01-01

    appropriate model to combine the subgroups of a single study. Moreover, for the assessment of publication bias, it is not appropriate to include several subsamples of a single study in a funnel plot. Using estimates of subgroups can change a large study into several smaller studies. Fifth, some of the included studies compared agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers with a specific occupational group. The reviewers could calculate a risk estimate using all other occupational groups as a comparison group and exclude those studies that did not provide sufficient data for estimating such a risk estimate. In some studies, the excess risk for agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers disappears after comparing with other occupational groups [eg, adjusted risk ratios (RR) for Kposowa (3) = 1.02, 95% CI 0.41-2.54]. This is a main reason for observed higher excess risk in Japanese workers. Wada et al (5) compared Japanese agricultural workers with sales workers and Suzuki et al (6) compared Japanese agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers with production process and related workers. Using all other occupational groups as a reference group, age-adjusted RR dropped from 3.53 (95% CI 2.84-4.38) to 2.61 (95% CI 2.10-3.25) for Wada et al (5) and from 3.24 (CI 2.95-3.57, both sexes combined) to 1.31 (CI 1.27-1.35 age-adjusted OR after excluding unemployed people) for Suzuki et al (6). The pooled estimate of these two register-based studies was 1.33 (95% CI 1.29-1.37) using a fixed model and 1.83 (95% CI 0.93-3.60) using a random model. Sixth, most of the included studies used register data, which had little information on the background characteristics of the participants. A majority of these studies controlled the estimates for age and sex only. Moreover, in this review, prospective cohort studies did not support the observed association. A meta-analysis of 11 case-control and prospective cohort studies shows no significant excess risk of suicide for agricultural, forestry, and

  13. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory

  14. Intention to stay and intention to leave: are they two sides of the same coin? A cross-sectional structural equation modelling study among health and social care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan; Bradbury, Joanne; Pit, Sabrina Winona; Ariss, Steven

    2014-01-01

    "Intention to leave" (ITL) has been used interchangeably with the more positive construct "intention to stay" (ITS). The implicit assumption appears to be that both constructs represent different sides of the same coin. This study challenges this assumption. The objectives were (i) to test whether these constructs were similar measures of the same construct, and (ii) to assess the strength of the relationships between ITL and ITS with work-related outcomes. The Workforce Dynamics Questionnaire (WDQ) was administered to 298 staff. The WDQ included two items on ITL and was supplemented with three items on ITS. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used. The response rate was 43%. The correlation between the two constructs was negative and quite high (r=-0.84), indicating potential issues with discriminant validity. However, the constructs behaved differently in relation to job satisfaction and job integration. ITS was a strong predictor (0.95, p<0.001), whereas ITL was not significantly related (0.34, p=0.195) to JS. The direct effects of JI on ITS was 0.30 and on ITL was -0.42. The indirect effects of JI were more contrasting, being 0.56 for ITS and -0.30 for ITL, via job satisfaction. This is the first study amongst British health and social care workers that has demonstrated that ITS and ITL are not measuring the same construct. While there is overlap, care should be taken when using these constructs interchangeably, particularly when measuring these concepts in organizations and when developing retention programs, policies, or activities to modify ITS and ITL.

  15. Workers of Acromyrmex echinatior leafcutter ants police worker-laid eggs, but not reproductive workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Michiel B.; van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Dirchsen, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Nonreproductive workers of many eusocial Hymenoptera 'police' the colony, that is, they attack reproductive sister workers or destroy their eggs (unfertilized; developing into haploid males). Several ultimate causes of policing have been proposed, including (1) an increase in colony productivity,...... reproductive workers. We infer that relatedness incentives are the most likely ultimate cause of the evolutionary maintenance of worker-egg policing in A. echinatior. (C) 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  16. Comparison of urinary thallium levels in non-occupationally exposed people and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, James F; Cotton, Richard J; Warren, Nicholas D; Morton, Jackie

    2014-04-01

    To determine a reference background urinary thallium level; to compare urinary thallium data from workers to this background level; to investigate factors affecting these levels and whether creatinine correction is appropriate. Urine samples from non-occupationally exposed people (n = 273, from 113 individuals) and workers (n = 896, from 447 individuals) were analysed for thallium by ICP-MS. A reference background level was calculated, defined as the 95th percentile value of a non-occupationally exposed population. Worker data were divided into two subsets: thallium workers (those who work directly with thallium or its compounds) and general workers; and compared to the background level. Bayesian linear mixed effects modelling was used to investigate factors affecting urinary thallium concentration and the efficacy of creatinine correction for the determination of urinary thallium. The reference background urinary thallium level is 0.27 μmol/mol creatinine (creatinine-corrected) or 0.40 μg/l (uncorrected). Median values were 0.11 μmol/mol creatinine or 0.17 μg/l for non-occupationally exposed people, 0.12 μmol/mol creatinine or 0.20 μg/l for general workers and 0.19 μmol/mol creatinine or 0.41 μg/l for thallium workers. Variation was lower in creatinine-corrected models. Nine per cent of samples from general workers and 39 % of samples from thallium workers exceeded the creatinine-corrected background level. By 2010, 90 % of all workers had urinary thallium levels below the 95th percentile reference background level. Urinary thallium concentrations were higher in thallium workers than non-occupationally exposed people and general workers. Creatinine correction is appropriate.

  17. Poles apart: The processing and consequences of mixed media stereotypes of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, A.C.; van Selm, M.; ter Hoeven, C.L.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the Stereotype Content Model to examine how mixed-media stereotypes about older workers affect the implicit activation and application of competence and warmth stereotypes among employees. By means of a 2 × 2 experiment, we show that a newspaper article portraying older workers in a

  18. Training Child Welfare Workers from an Intersectional Cultural Humility Perspective: A Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Robert M.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2011-01-01

    The increasing diversity of the populations encountered and served by child welfare workers challenges cultural competence models. Current concerns focus on the unintentional over-emphasis on shared group characteristics, undervaluing unique differences of individuals served, and privileging worker expertise about the client's culture, thereby…

  19. [Burnout in volunteer health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentero, P; Bonfiglio, N S; Pasero, R

    2006-01-01

    While diverse studies carried out in nursing and medical personnel have demonstrated that health workers can be subject to burnout, little effort has been focused on investigating burnout in volunteer hospital workers. The aim of the present study was to verify if burnout exists with volunteer auxiliary personnel and investigate what organizational conditions may favour it. The study was carried out on 80 volunteer workers of the Red Cross of Mortara (PV), subdivided into two categories: those performing emergency interventions and those performing routine services. For the evaluation of burnout, the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, together with a qualitative type of methodology. A 5-factor multivariate analysis (sex x shift x team x seniority x role), having as dependent variables the three scales of the MBI, showed that the highest values of depersonalization and fulfillment are found in the emergency team, and that subjects with least seniority are those who are least satisfied or fulfilled. The category of team-leader resulted as that with the highest values of emotional burnout, while sex- and shift-based differences were restricted to routine service workers. Despite these differences, findings showed that subjects are minimally affected by problems linked to burnout, although some relational and organizational difficulties emerged with the medical staff that underlie a certain degree of professional dissatisfaction.

  20. Active Strategies for Older Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This report is also to be published by ETUI (Euruopean Trade Unions' Institute) in a book on Active Strategies for Older Workers. It is the National report for Denmark and contains a short section on characteristics of the Danish labour market, with a special focus on the situation of the elderly...

  1. Medical standards for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, S.

    1977-01-01

    The Council of the European Communities in its Directive of June 1, 1976 has laid down revised basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the danger of ionising radiation. The Directive requires each Member State of the Community 'for the guidance of medical practitioners.....to draw up a list, which need not be exhaustive, of the criteria which should be taken into account when judging a worker's fitness to be exposed to ionising radiation'. Medical officers with current responsibility for radiation workers in the U.K. therefore met recently for informal exploratory discussion at the National Radiological Protection Board's headquarters, and an account is given of the views expressed there about the composition of the required 'list', and the possibility of standardizing the procedure adopted. Consideration was given to the objectives of medical examinations, the form of examination, and specific conditions which may give rise to difficulty in making a fitness assessment. These conditions are skin abnormalities, blood abnormalities, cataract, pregnancy, and psychological and psychiatric conditions. It was concluded that the medical examination of radiation workers, including blood examinations, are of value to the extent that they form part of any good general occupational health practice. The promulgation of the Euratom Directive has provided an opportunity for reviewing and standardising procedures for medical surveillance in the light of current knowledge concerning average occupational radiation doses and dose-response relationships. (U.K.)

  2. Labor Rights of Health Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bonilla-Medina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim of health workers to the way they are outraged in the exercise of their profession has become reiterative. Let's start with the inadequate input of supplies to care agencies. Because of the dreadful 100 law, the poor working conditions in the different hospitals, especially public hospitals, are well known.

  3. Healthcare Workers and Workplace Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Pinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326

  4. The Migration of Technical Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Sorenson, Olav

    2010-01-01

    Using panel data on the Danish population, we estimated the revealed preferences of scientists and engineers for the places in which they choose to work. Our results indicate that these technical workers exhibit substantial sensitivity to differences in wages but that they have even stronger...

  5. Workers' Objectives in Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Michel

    1990-01-01

    A case study of quality circles in an appliance factory found that circle members and nonmembers obtained better working conditions by improving quality through the direct impact of their work on the company's market position. The study of the quality improvement process shows that workers seek more than psychological rewards for their…

  6. Respiratory Disorders Among Workers in Slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Kasaeinasab

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory disorders was significantly higher among workers in slaughterhouses. Thus, the significant reduction in the percentage predicted lung function among workers in slaughterhouses might be associated with exposure to bioaerosols in their work environment.

  7. The Politics of Workers' Education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omole, M. A. Lanre

    1998-01-01

    Provides background on the concept and history of workers' education and opposition to it. States that workers' education should be targeted also to employers, government, media, and the general public. (SK)

  8. Brucella serology in abattoir workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, F.; Kokab, F.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is an occupational hazard with those particularly at risk either living in close proximity with animals or handling them. It is a public health problem in developing countries with adverse health implications both for animals and human beings as well as economic implications for individuals and communities. The Objectives were to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among abattoir workers of Lahore District and to determine the association of brucellosis with nature of job of the workers. Data was collected in April 2008. It was a cross-sectional study in which four main slaughterhouses in Lahore were included. The slaughterhouse workers were divided into seven strata based on their nature of job: meat sellers, slaughterers, animal keepers, drivers, cleaners, loaders and vets/paravets. A total of 360 such workers were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Sampling frames for different strata were prepared and from each frame, proportionate numbers, were selected through simple random method using random number tables. Data was obtained using a questionnaire. Additionally blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-Brucella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The seroprevalence of anti-Brucella IgG was found to be 21.7%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the immune status of the respondents and their nature of job (p=0.005), age groups (p=0.013), and duration of job (p=0.003). The disease is an important public health problem in Pakistan. The disease can be prevented in the slaughterhouse workers through the use of personal protective devices. Public health authorities should educate the general public regarding prevention of the disease with specific emphasis on people working in slaughterhouses. (author)

  9. Ionizing radiation risks to satellite power systems (SPS) workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment were examined. For ionizing radiation, the major concern will be late or delayed health effects, particularly the increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. The estimated lifetime risk for cancer is 0.8 to 5.0 excess deaths per 10,000 workers per rad of exposure. Thus, for example, in 10,000 workers who completed ten missions with an exposure of 40 rem per mission, 320 to 2000 additional deaths in excess of the 1640 deaths from normally occurring cancer, would be expected. These estimates would indicate a 20 to 120% increase in cancer deaths in the worker-population. The wide range in these estimates stems from the choice of the risk-projection model and the dose-response relationsip. The choice between a linear and a linear-quadratic dose-response model may alter the risk estimate by a factor of about two. The method of analysis (e.g., relative vs absolute risk model) can alter the risk estimate by an additional factor of three. Choosing different age and sex distributions can further change the estimate by another factor of up to three. The potential genetic consequences could be of significance, but at the present time, sufficient information on the age and sex distribution of the worker population is lacking for precise estimation of risk. The potential teratogenic consequences resulting from radiation are considered significant. Radiation exposure of a pregnant worker could result in developmental abnormalities

  10. Ionizing radiation risks to satellite power systems (SPS) workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, J.T.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Alpen, E.L.; Bond, V.; Curtis, S.B.; Fry, R.J.M.; Jackson, K.L.; Nachtwey, S.; Sondhaus, C.; Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment were examined. For ionizing radiation, the major concern will be late or delayed health effects, particularly the increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. The estimated lifetime risk for cancer is 0.8 to 5.0 excess deaths per 10,000 workers per rad of exposure. Thus, for example, in 10,000 workers who completed ten missions with an exposure of 40 rem per mission, 320 to 2000 additional deaths in excess of the 1640 deaths from normally occurring cancer, would be expected. These estimates would indicate a 20 to 120% increase in cancer deaths in the worker-population. The wide range in these estimates stems from the choice of the risk-projection model and the dose-response relationsip. The choice between a linear and a linear-quadratic dose-response model may alter the risk estimate by a factor of about two. The method of analysis (e.g., relative vs absolute risk model) can alter the risk estimate by an additional factor of three. Choosing different age and sex distributions can further change the estimate by another factor of up to three. The potential genetic consequences could be of significance, but at the present time, sufficient information on the age and sex distribution of the worker population is lacking for precise estimation of risk. The potential teratogenic consequences resulting from radiation are considered significant. Radiation exposure of a pregnant worker could result in developmental abnormalities.

  11. Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Robert T.; Barnes, John M.; Azmy, Yousry Y.; Kerr, George D.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Cullings, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the factory workers represent about 25% of the Nagasaki survivors with DS86 doses in excess of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), systematic errors in their dose estimates can have a major impact on the risk coefficients from RERF studies. The factory worker doses may have been overestimated for a number of reasons. The calculation techniques, including the factory building modeling, weapon source spectra and cross-section data used in the DS86 shielding calculations were not detailed enough to replicate actual conditions. The models used did not take into account local shielding provided by machinery, tools, and the internal structure in the buildings. In addition, changes in the disposition of shielding following collapse of the building by the blast wave were not considered. The location of large factory complexes may be uncertain, causing large numbers of factory survivors, correctly located relative to each other, to be uniformly too close to the hypocenter. Any or all of these reasons are sufficient to result in an overestimate of the factory worker doses. During the DS02 studies, factory worker doses have been reassessed by more carefully modeling the factory buildings, incorporating improved radiation transport methods and cross-section data and using the most recent bomb leakage spectra (Chapter 2). Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations were carried out initially to estimate the effects of workbenches and tools on worker doses to determine if the inclusion of these components would, in fact, reduce the dose by amounts consistent with the RERF observations (Kodama et al. 2001). (author)

  12. Obesity and health problems among South African healthcare workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally. In South Africa, 56% of white men, 49% of black men and 75% of black women have been reported to be overweight or obese. The focus of this study is on South African healthcare workers (HCW), because they are considered role models for health for ...

  13. Incentives and Workers' Motivation in the Public Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCivil servants have a bad reputation of being lazy. However, citizens' personal experiences with civil servants appear to be significantly better. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive

  14. Worker Morale and Effort : Is the Relationship Causal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.; Fernandez, Roberto M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a unique setting which enables us to distinguish between two theories of work performance. A standard labor supply framework implies a negative effect of the nonpecuniary cost of work on the employee’s effort. In contrast, a model of worker morale that is consistent with a widely used

  15. Doing the right thing without being told: joint effects of initiative climate and general self-efficacy on employee proactive customer service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Steffen; Liao, Hui

    2012-05-01

    We developed and tested a cross-level model of the antecedents and outcomes of proactive customer service performance. Results from a field study of 900 frontline service employees and their supervisors in 74 establishments of a multinational hotel chain located in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia demonstrated measurement equivalence and suggested that, after controlling for service climate, initiative climate at the establishment level and general self-efficacy at the individual level predicted employee proactive customer service performance and interacted in a synergistic way. Results also showed that at the establishment level, controlling for service climate and collective general service performance, initiative climate was positively and indirectly associated with customer service satisfaction through the mediation of aggregated proactive customer service performance. We discuss important theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Productivity Strategies Ranking of Knowledge Workers | Najafi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is commonly recognized that knowledge is the only source of core competence in the knowledge based companies, but the productivity rate of Knowledge Workers is always Low. Based on Knowledge Workers' characteristics, in this paper, we seek to identify factors influencing the Productivity of Knowledge Workers, and ...

  17. Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

  18. Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

  19. Psychological attitudes of nuclear industry workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faes, M.; Stoppie, J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was carried out within the frame of occupational medicine on the psychological attitudes of workers in the nuclear industry towards ionizing radiations. Three aspects were considered: awareness of the danger; feeling of safety in the working environment; workers' feelings following incidents or accidents; satisfaction level felt by the workers in the plant [fr

  20. School Social Workers' Intent to Stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselman, Tonia D.; Brandt, Mary D.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents findings from a survey that examined school social workers' intent to stay in the field of school social work. Forty-eight school social workers from a midwestern state participated in the study. Effect size estimates were used to examine the relationship between social workers' intent to stay and years of experience,…

  1. Managing IT Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łubieńska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the issue of motivation in software engineers. It bases on the experiences of one of the authors, and on preliminary results of qualitative and quantitative research gathered from 300 software engineers working in the IT financial service sector in Poland. It reviews main approaches to software specialist motivation found in the scientific and practical literature. It critiques some approaches to motivation of software specialists for the long-term consequences of using the motivators that they focus on. It shows that research based on P. Glen’s model (2003a analyses only hygienic factors (as described by Herzberg that can hinder the state of flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1975, which is characteristic of internally motivated software specialists. There are no analyses which would show how to secure long-term hygienic factors in the management of IT specialist motivation. Recommendations on long-term hygienic factors form a significant part of the text.

  2. Contribution of individual, workplace, psychosocial and physiological factors to neck pain in female office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Venerina; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Jull, Gwendolen; Souvlis, Tina

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of individual, workplace, psychosocial and physiological features associated with neck pain in female office workers towards developing appropriate intervention programs. Workers without disability (Neck Disability Index (NDI) score workers with neck pain and disability (NDI > or = 9/100, n=52) and 22 controls (women who did not work and without neck pain) participated in this study. Two logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between various measures in (1) workers with and without disability, and (2) workers without disability and controls. Measures included those found to be significantly associated with higher NDI in our previous studies: psychosocial domains; individual factors; task demands; quantitative sensory measures and measures of motor function. In the final model, higher score on negative affectivity scale (OR=4.47), greater activity in the neck flexors during cranio-cervical flexion (OR=1.44), cold hyperalgesia (OR=1.27) and longer duration of symptoms (OR=1.19) remained significantly associated with neck pain in workers. Workers without disability and controls could only be differentiated by greater muscle activity in the cervical flexors and extensors during a typing task. No psychosocial domains remained in either regression model. These results suggest that impairments in the sensory and motor system should be considered in any assessment of the office worker with neck pain and may have stronger influences on the presenting symptoms than workplace and psychosocial features.

  3. Doses to railroad workers from shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Cottrell, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fissile and high-level radioactive wastes are currently transported over long distances by truck and by rail transportation systems. The primary form of fissile material is spent reactor fuel. Transportation operations within DOE are controlled through the Transportation Operations and Management System. DOE projected increases in the rate of shipments have generated concern by railroad companies that railroad workers may be exposed to levels of radiation sufficiently high that a radiation protection program may need to be implemented. To address railroad company concerns, the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has estimated doses to railroad workers for two exposure scenarios that were constructed using worker activity data obtained from CSX Transportation for crew and maintenance workers. This characterization of railroad worker activity patterns includes a quantitative evaluation of the duration and rate of exposure. These duration and exposure rate values were evaluated using each of three exposure rate vs. distance models to generate exposure estimates. 14 refs., 1 tab

  4. Sickness absence among health workers in belo horizonte, brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Benavides, Fernando G; Ubalde-Lopez, Monica

    2016-05-25

    To describe the prevalence of sickness absence and to analyze factors associated with the outcome according to gender in a sample of healthcare workers at the Belo Horizonte Health Department. This study was based on a Belo Horizonte Health Department survey carried out between September 2008 and January 2009. From a randomly selected sample of 2,205 workers, 1,808 agreed to participate. Workers were classified into Health Staff or Health Care. Other explanatory variables were social and demographic data, work characteristics, and personal health. The Poisson regression was applied to analyze factors associated with sickness absence by the prevalence ratio (PR). The overall prevalence of sickness absence was 31.5% (23.8% for men and 34.6% for women). In the final model, we found higher rates of sickness absence in both male and female workers involved in tasks with high psychosocial demands (PR=1.86 men; PR=1.38 women) and in those that reported using medication for treating chronic diseases (PR=1.96 men; PR=1.50 women). Women having a permanent job contract had a higher prevalence of sickness absence than those having a temporary job contract (PR=1.71). Our findings suggest a paradox in how healthcare is organized: good results in terms of its global objective of providing healthcare for citizens contrast with lack of effective measures for protecting healthcare workers.

  5. Prevalence of job strain among Indian foundry shop floor workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, G Madhan; Elangovan, S; Prasad, P S S; Krishna, P Rama; Mokkapati, Anil Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Global competition in manufacturing sector demand higher productivity levels. In this context, workers in this sector are set with high output targets, leading to job strain. In addition to the strain, hazardous conditions also prevail in some of the manufacturing processes like foundry activities. This paper attempts to appraise the prevalence of job strain among foundry shop floor workers in India with the help of Demands-Control model [8]. In this study, data was collected through a survey using 49-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) [9], a widely used and well-validated test for job strain. Then the data was subjected to statistical analysis after ascertaining the reliability. This survey has revealed that 25% of workers in foundry were experiencing high job strain. Hazardous working conditions, limited decision making authority, etc. appear to be the main contributing factors for the higher levels of strain.

  6. Lay Worker Health Literacy: A Concept Analysis and Operational Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, Kathleen Paco

    2017-10-01

    The concept of lay worker health literacy is created by concurrently analyzing and synthesizing two intersecting concepts, lay workers and health literacy. Articulation of this unique intersection is the result of implementing a simplified Wilson's Concept Analysis Procedure. This process incorporates the following components: a) selecting a concept, b) determining the aims/purposes of analysis, c) identifying all uses of the concept, d) determining defining attributes, e) identifying a model case, f) identifying borderline, related, contrary, and illegitimate cases, g) identifying antecedents and consequences, and h) defining empirical referents. Furthermore, as current literature provides no operational definition for lay worker health literacy, one is created to contribute cohesion to the concept. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Occupational physical activity and mortality among Danish workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Burr, Hermann; Hansen, Jørgen V

    2012-01-01

    in a representative sample of 5,839 Danish workers aged 18-59 years at baseline. A 19-year follow-up on mortality was assessed by linkage with the national death registry. Gender-stratified Cox regression models were used to determine the effect of high OPA on all-cause mortality while controlling for age, BMI...... occupational physical activity increases the risk for all-cause mortality among male workers. Future studies need to further examine gender differences in the effects of OPA on mortality.......PURPOSE: The relationship between occupational physical activity (OPA) and mortality has mainly been studied among males and shows conflicting results. This study examines this relationship in a cohort of both male and female workers. METHODS: OPA was determined by 4 self-reported questions...

  8. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  9. Unitizing worker expertise and maximizing the brain reward centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Anthony Bert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and

  10. Job Satisfaction Among Gerontological Social Workers in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Kelsey; An, Sofiya

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about job satisfaction among Canada's social work workforce in aging, although social workers remain a key component of interdisciplinary care in health and social service settings. This study begins to address this gap in knowledge by examining individual, interpersonal, and job-design factors influencing the job satisfaction of gerontological social workers in Ontario. Data were collected via two online surveys with a sample drawn from the Ontario Association of Social Workers' membership list (N = 104). A multiple regression model explained 37% of the variance in job satisfaction, F = 5.47[10, 93], p social work clinicians, and providing educational and clinical supports to clinicians.

  11. [Selective internationalization: foreign workers and Japanese society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, R

    1990-01-01

    and medium sized enterprises in search of inexpensive unskilled labor. The trend in Japanese society has become less egalitarian in recent years than it was in the years of rapid growth. Changes in mid-career, contractual employment, and other diversified practices are encroaching on the model of lifetime employment by and loyalty to a single enterprise. Introduction of foreign workers will be 1 more factor contributing to diversification. The new policy of selective internationalization will have some impact on the status of the existing Korean and Chinese communities in Japan, but by itself it does little to end social, economic, and legal discrimination against members of these groups.

  12. Psychosocial working conditions and well-being among immigrant and German low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Annekatrin

    2011-04-01

    Despite a steady increase of immigrant workers in Germany in the past decades, occupational health research has only peripherally addressed psychosocial working conditions and immigrant worker well-being. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate differences in psychosocial stressors and resources between immigrant and German low-wage workers, and (2) to examine group differences in their association with well-being using a structural equation modeling multiple group analysis approach. Eighty-nine immigrant and 146 German postmen of a German mail service company were surveyed. Results reveal more stressors in the social work environment for the immigrant workers than for their German coworkers but similar levels of task-related stressors in both groups. Stressors are more strongly associated with psychological distress among the German workers. In terms of resources, job control serves as a resource only among German workers, whereas supervisor and coworker support are more important for immigrant workers. These differences suggest that cultural factors, previous work experiences, and expectations influence the worker's experience of psychosocial working conditions and have a direct impact on worker health.

  13. ‘Face’ and psychological processes of laid-off workers in transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to explore the psychological experiences of laid-off workers in contemporary transitional China and to formulate a theoretical model of these. Methods: In-depth interviews of 26 laid-off workers were conducted and analysed using grounded theory techniques. Results: Four themes underline the psychological processes of these laid-off workers – feeling of loss, feeling of physical pain, feeling of fatalism, and final acceptance. These are characterized by Chinese culture and its philosophy – feeling of loss is dominated by their loss of face (diu mianzi, physical pain is a somatization of their mental painfulness, their fatalism is traced back to the Chinese ancient theocratic concept of Tian Ming, and their acceptance of reality to their final making face (zheng mianzi is sourced from both Confucianism and Daoism. Conclusion: The psychological experience of laid-off workers (or unemployed workers is likely to have varied manifestations in different cultural contexts. The psychological processes of Chinese laid-off workers (or unemployed workers might be different from those of laid-off workers in Western countries. A therapeutic intervention to cater for the needs of laid-off workers derived from the four themes might be effective.

  14. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  15. Computer-based training (CBT) intervention reduces workplace violence and harassment for homecare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger C; Anger, W Kent; Laharnar, Naima; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy

    2017-07-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of a workplace violence and harassment prevention and response program with female homecare workers in a consumer driven model of care. Homecare workers were randomized to either; computer based training (CBT only) or computer-based training with homecare worker peer facilitation (CBT + peer). Participants completed measures on confidence, incidents of violence, and harassment, health and work outcomes at baseline, 3, 6 months post-baseline. Homecare workers reported improved confidence to prevent and respond to workplace violence and harassment and a reduction in incidents of workplace violence and harassment in both groups at 6-month follow-up. A decrease in negative health and work outcomes associated with violence and harassment were not reported in the groups. CBT alone or with trained peer facilitation with homecare workers can increase confidence and reduce incidents of workplace violence and harassment in a consumer-driven model of care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Estimating Worker Risk Levels Using Accident/Incident Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenoyer, Judson L.; Stenner, Robert D.; Andrews, William B.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2000-09-26

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to identify methods that are currently being used in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to identify and control hazards/risks in the workplace, evaluate them in terms of their effectiveness in reducing risk to the workers, and to develop a preliminary method that could be used to predict the relative risks to workers performing proposed tasks using some of the current methodology. This report describes some of the performance indicators (i.e., safety metrics) that are currently being used to track relative levels of workplace safety in the DOE complex, how these fit into an Integrated Safety Management (ISM) system, some strengths and weaknesses of using a statistically based set of indicators, and methods to evaluate them. Also discussed are methods used to reduce risk to the workers and some of the techniques that appear to be working in the process of establishing a condition of continuous improvement. The results of these methods will be used in future work involved with the determination of modifying factors for a more complex model. The preliminary method to predict the relative risk level to workers during an extended future time period is based on a currently used performance indicator that uses several factors tracked in the CAIRS. The relative risks for workers in a sample (but real) facility on the Hanford site are estimated for a time period of twenty years and are based on workforce predictions. This is the first step in developing a more complex model that will incorporate other modifying factors related to the workers, work environment and status of the ISM system to adjust the preliminary prediction.

  17. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): determination of the individual scenario of inhaled plutonium intake in the Mayak workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, A. B.; Efimov, A. V.; Vostrotin, V. V.; Birchall, A.; Dorrian, M.-D.

    2017-01-01

    In order to estimate doses of workers exposed to plutonium, it is necessary to make assumptions about both the route and the time course of intake. The objective of this study was to determine a time course for the inhalation rate for plutonium (intake regime) useful for biokinetic modeling. Records from workplace air sampling, personnel biophysical examinations and autopsy data from former Mayak Production Association (MPA) workers were used. Plutonium accumulation strongly correlated with the volumetric activity of plutonium in workplace air. Using data from activity in air at MPA workplaces over time, a three-step function of intake was adopted. The adequacy of this three-step function was tested by comparing predicted doses using more complicated intake regimes. Uncertainties on the three-step function were also characterized based on air sampling data. The three-step function was assumed to be common to all workers, but an individual intake regime for each worker was calculated by convoluting it with the worker's actual employment history. (authors)

  18. Share capitalism and worker wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E; Freeman, Richard B; Green, Colin P

    2016-10-01

    We show that worker wellbeing is determined not only by the amount of compensation workers receive but also by how compensation is determined. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been preoccupied with individual performance-related pay, we find that the receipt of a range of group-performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) is associated with higher job satisfaction. This holds conditional on wage levels, so that pay methods are associated with greater job satisfaction in addition to that coming from higher wages. We use a variety of methods to control for unobserved individual and job-specific characteristics. We suggest that half of the share-capitalism effect is accounted for by employees reciprocating for the "gift"; we also show that share capitalism helps dampen the negative wellbeing effects of what we typically think of as "bad" aspects of job quality.

  19. Accommodation training in foreign workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masumi; Miyao, Masaru; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    By relaxing the contracted focus-adjustment muscles around the eyeball, known as the ciliary and extraocular muscles, the degree of pseudomyopia can be reduced. This understanding has led to accommodation training in which a visual target is presented in stereoscopic video clips. However, it has been pointed out that motion sickness can be induced by viewing stereoscopic video clips. In Measurement 1 of the present study, we verified whether the new 3D technology reduced the severity of motion sickness in accordance with stabilometry. We then evaluated the short-term effects of accommodation training using new stereoscopic video clips on foreign workers (11 females) suffering from eye fatigue in Measurement 2. The foreign workers were trained for three days. As a result, visual acuity was statistically improved by continuous accommodation training, which will help promote ciliary muscle stretching.

  20. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.

  1. Training for hazardous waste workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favel, K.

    1990-10-26

    This implementation plan describes the system and provides the information and schedules that are necessary to comply with the Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) Memorandum, Reference EPD dated September 11, 1990, Training for Hazardous Waste Workers. The memo establishes the need for identifying employees requiring environmental training, ensuring that the training is received, and meeting documentation and recordkeeping requirements for the training.

  2. Medical supervision of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The first part of this volume describes the effects of radiation on living organism, both at the overall and at the molecular level. Special attention is paid to the metabolism and toxicity of radioactivity substances. The second part deals with radiological exposure, natural, medical and occupational. The third part provides data on radiological protection standards, and the fourth part addresses the health supervision of workers exposed to ionizing radiation, covering both physical and medical control.

  3. World Council of Nuclear Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisseu, Andre

    2007-01-01

    WONUC is an association of Trade Unions, Scientific Societies and Social Organizations of the employees, workers and professionals of the nuclear energy related industries and technologies; integrated by 35 Countries and 1.8 millions members. This paper expose the products and services that WONUC provide for the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the result of their work around all the world

  4. Foreign workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Lim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.

  5. Workers moving the industry forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Power Workers' Union represents workers at Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations and AECL operators at Chalk River. Although labour relations are far from perfect, the union does its best to protect the industry. Avoiding confrontation as much as possible, this union is happy to be regarded as a partner in the business. The union is impressed by the consultants' report on Ontario Hydro's nuclear operations. Whatever the future may bring, the present is not really pleasant for nuclear workers generally, in that the work itself is very demanding technically, and must be performed with great diligence because the responsibility for safety is enormous. Considering the actual safety record, some caricatures or ''cheap shots'' from antinuclear politicians and special interest groups seem quite offensive. As a partner in public relations, the union has produced draft fact sheets on topics such as: transporting radioactive material; the burning of plutonium from dismantled weaponry; deep geological storage of nuclear waste; the sale of Candu reactors to China. The author closes with some advice on how to improve industrial relations, based on the union's experience

  6. [Relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M Y; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H M; Che, C L; Lu, Y; Cong, L X; Gao, X J; Liu, Y J; Yuan, J X; Li, X M; Hu, B; Chen, Y P

    2016-11-10

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the male steel workers selected during health examination in Tangshan Steel Company from March 2015 to March 2016. The relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers were analyzed by using logistic regression model and restricted cubic splinemodel. Results: A total of 7 262 male steel workers were surveyed, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesitywas 64.5% (4 686/7 262), the overweight rate was 34.3% and the obesity rate was 30.2%, respectively. After adjusting for age, educational level and average family income level per month by multivariable logistic regression analysis, shift work was associated with overweight/obesity and obesity in the male steel workers. The OR was 1.19(95% CI : 1.05-1.35) and 1.15(95% CI : 1.00-1.32). Restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that the relationship between shift work years and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ 2 =7.43, P shift work years and obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ 2 =10.48, P Shift work was associated with overweight and obesity in the male steel workers, and shift work years and overweight/obesity had a nonlinear relationship.

  7. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Residential location choice of knowledge-workers in a "startup metropolis": the role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle...

  9. A National Study Predicting Licensed Social Workers' Levels of Political Participation: The Role of Resources, Psychological Engagement, and Recruitment Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    The social work literature is replete with studies evaluating social workers' direct practice interventions, but strikingly few have assessed how well social workers are faring in the political arena. This study tests a major theoretical model, the civic voluntarism model, developed to explain why some citizens become involved in politics, whereas…

  10. Predictors of Onset of Wheezing in Grain Elevator Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punam Pahwa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study of Canadian grain elevator workers over a 12-year period was conducted. Data on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests were collected once every three years as part of the Grain Dust Medical Surveillance Program started by Labour Canada in 1978; each three-year interval was called a 'cycle'. Of workers who had two or more observations, 1848 subjects (67.2% were free of respiratory symptoms (wheeze, dyspnea, cough or sputum at the baseline (cycle II. Predictors of first episode of wheezing were examined in these symptoms-free grain workers. Baseline mean age ± SD of the grain workers was 34.0±11.4 years and mean duration of work in the industry was 9.9±8.7 years. Of the 1848 symptoms-free grain workers at cycle II, 203 (11.0% subsequently reported wheezing during the study. Cox's proportional hazards model for analysis of survival data was used to determine significant predictors of first episode of wheezing. Significant predictors for first episode of wheezing were current smoking (relative risk [RR] 2.33; 95% CI 1.63 to 3.33; P<0.0001 and baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity ratio [RR 0.02; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.20; P<0.0001. Baseline pulmonary function measurements and smoking habits appear to be important predictors of future development of asthma-like symptoms in grain elevator workers.

  11. Factors associated with worker slipping in limited-service restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Li, Kai Way; Filiaggi, Alfred J

    2010-02-01

    Slips, trips and falls (STF) are responsible for a substantial injury burden in the global workplace. Restaurant environments are challenged by STF. This study assessed individual and work environment factors related to slipping in US limited-service restaurant workers. Workers in 10 limited-service restaurants in Massachusetts were recruited to participate. Workers' occupational slip and/or fall history within the past 4 weeks was collected by multilingual written questionnaires. Age, gender, job tenure, work hours per week and work shift were also collected. Shoe type, condition and gross shoe contamination were visually assessed. Floor friction was measured and each restaurant's overall mean coefficient of friction (COF) was calculated. The logistic generalised estimating equations model was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (OR). Of 125 workers, 42 reported one or more slips in the past 4 weeks with two reporting a resultant fall. Results from multivariable regression showed that higher restaurant mean COF was significantly associated with a decreased risk of self-reported slipping (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.82). From the highest to the lowest COF restaurant, the odds of a positive slip history increased by a factor of more than seven. Younger age, male gender, lower weekly work hours and the presence of gross contamination on worker's shoe sole were also associated with increased odds of slip history. Published findings of an association between friction and slipping and falling in actual work environments are rare. The findings suggest that effective intervention strategies to reduce the risk of slips and falls in restaurant workers could include increasing COF and improving housekeeping practices.

  12. Measuring and controlling the mining environment for worker health and safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the health and safety of Mine Workers Stress Physical Strain Fatigue Ergono- mics Silica/ Dust NIHL Heat Accidents Planisa 1. HFACS: Accident Analysis ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 Swiss-Cheese Model illustrates how accidents...

  13. Vaccination Games with Peer Effects in a Heterogeneous Hospital Worker Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Tassier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a game theoretic model to analyze the Nash equilibrium of vaccine decisions in a hospital population with heterogeneous contacts. We use the model in conjunction with person-to-person contact data within a large university hospital. We simulate, using agent-based models, the probability of infection for various worker types in the data and use these probabilities to identify the Nash equilibrium vaccine choices of hospital workers. The analysis suggests that there may be large differences in vaccination rates among hospital worker groups. We extend the model to include peer effects within the game. The peer effects may create additional equilibria or may further cement existing equilibria depending on parameter values. Further, depending on the magnitude of the peer effects and the costs of infection and vaccination, peer effects may increase or decrease differences in worker group vaccination rates within the hospital.

  14. Trade reforms, mark-ups and bargaining power of workers: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Economics ... workers between 1996 and 2007, a model of mark-up with labor bargaining power was estimated using random effects and LDPDM. ... Keywords: Trade reform, mark-up, bargaining power, rent, trade unions ...

  15. An anthropometric study of Serbian metal industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omić, S; Brkić, V K Spasojevic; Golubović, T A; Brkić, A D; Klarin, M M

    2017-01-01

    There are recent studies using new industrial workers' anthropometric data in different countries, but for Serbia such data are not available. This study is the first anthropometric study of Serbian metal industry workers in the country, whose labor force is increasingly employed both on local and international markets. The metal industry is one of Serbia's most important economic sectors. To this end, we collected the basic static anthropometric dimensions of 122 industrial workers and used principal components analysis (PCA) to obtain multivariate anthropometric models. To confirm the results, the dimensions of an additional 50 workers were collected. The PCA methodology was also compared with the percentile method. Comparing both data samples, we found that 96% of the participants are within the tolerance ellipsoid. According to this study, multivariate modeling covers a larger extent of the intended population proportion compared to percentiles. The results of this research are useful for the designers of metal industry workstations. This information can be used in dimensioning the workplace, thus increasing job satisfaction, reducing the risk of injuries and fatalities, and consequently increasing productivity and safety.

  16. Ancient loons stories Pingree told me

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of short stories, small anecdotes in the life of some historical characters. More concretely, it focuses on the oddities and singularities of some well-known historical figures, not only in science, but also in arts, politics and social sciences. … the book shows the fascination for ancient history, the treasures hidden in original sources and the importance of exploring unusual connections.-Javier Martinez, The European Mathematical Society, January 2013… a rambling, illuminating and thoroughly enjoyable bio/autobiographical and historical sketch, setting Pingree's immense erudition in its professional and intellectual context. Besides a string of amusing and intriguing anecdotes plentifully sprinkled with photos and sketches, this small volume supplies a valuable reminder of how complex, surprising and just plain strange the history of the exact sciences can be.-Kim Plofker, MAA Reviews, October 2012.

  17. Lies your science columnist told you

    CERN Multimedia

    Cole, K C

    2000-01-01

    Discovering the Higgs boson is often quoted as the way to discover the origin of mass. This article explains that the Higgs is actually responsible for the 'rest mass' of fundamental particles but the general concept of mass is still poorly understood (2 pages).

  18. 'As I told Henning the other day'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Møller

    2008-01-01

    En analyse af sætningen 'Som jeg også sagde til Henning forleden dag' ud fra henholdsvis en klassisk argumentationsanalytisk synsvinkel, en sproghandlingsanalytisk synsvinkel og en dialogisk sysnvinkel (BAchtin)......En analyse af sætningen 'Som jeg også sagde til Henning forleden dag' ud fra henholdsvis en klassisk argumentationsanalytisk synsvinkel, en sproghandlingsanalytisk synsvinkel og en dialogisk sysnvinkel (BAchtin)...

  19. Who Told you that you were Analogue?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, A

    2017-01-01

    Before breakfast, my social media newsfeed drew my attention to two features on the wet collodion process: one article about lumen prints; two articles about World Cyanotype Day; and a video about Daguerrotypes. Somewhere, an algorithm is channelling digital representations of early photographic techniques towards me. \\ud Welcome to the future.

  20. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  1. Factors associated with blue-collar workers' risk perception of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won Ju; Hong, Oisaeng; Kim, Mi Ja

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as well as, individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors as predictors of CVD risk perception among Korean blue-collar workers. The participants were 238 Korean blue-collar workers who worked in small companies. Data were collected through a survey; anthropometric and blood pressure measures; and blood sampling for lipid levels. Blue-collar workers had high actual CVD risk and low CVD risk perception. The significant predictors of risk perception included perceived health status, alcohol consumption, knowledge of CVD risk, actual CVD risk, decision latitude, and shift work. The model explained 26% of the variance in CVD risk perception. The result suggests when occupational health nurses are giving routine health examination in small companies, they can enhance CVD risk perception in blue-collar workers by providing essential information about CVD risk factors and personal counseling on the individual worker's CVD risk status.

  2. Mortality among California highway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Beaumont, J; Singleton, J

    1988-01-01

    Standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMR) were computed for a population of highway workers. Hazards of highway maintenance work include exposure to solvents, herbicides, asphalt and welding fumes, diesel and auto exhaust, asbestos, abrasive dusts, hazardous material spills, and moving motor vehicles. Underlying cause of death was obtained for 1,570 workers who separated from the California Department of Transportation between 1970 and 1983, and who died in California between 1970 and 1983 (inclusive). Among 1,260 white males, the major findings were statistically significant excesses of cancers of digestive organs (PMR = 128), skin (PMR = 218), lymphopoietic cancer (PMR = 157), benign neoplasms (PMR = 343), motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 141), and suicide (PMR = 154). Black males (N = 66) experienced nonsignificant excesses of cancer of the digestive organs (PMR = 191) and arteriosclerotic heart disease (PMR = 143). Among 168 white females, deaths from lung cancer (PMR = 189) and suicide (PMR = 215) were elevated. White male retirees, a subgroup with 5 or more years of service, experienced excess mortality due to cancers of the colon (PMR = 245), skin (PMR = 738), brain (PMR = 556), and lymphosarcomas and reticulosarcomas (PMR = 514). Deaths from external causes (PMR = 135) and cirrhosis of the liver (PMR = 229) were elevated among white males with a last job in landscape maintenance. White males whose last job was highway maintenance experienced a deficit in mortality from circulatory diseases (PMR = 83) and excess mortality from emphysema (PMR = 250) and motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 196). Further epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies are needed to confirm the apparent excess mortality and to quantify occupational and nonoccupational exposures. However, reduction of recognized hazards among highway maintenance workers is a prudent precautionary measure.

  3. Industrial screening programs for workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    Industrial screening efforts to identify classes of workers who are more susceptible to workplace hazards, by virtue of their fertility, genetic, or lifestyle characteristics, represent a relatively new approach to reducing workplace risks. Screening has already raised some important economic, legal, social, medical, and moral questions. Employers, employees, administrative agencies, and the courts are offering different, often conflicting answers. Ultimately the acceptability of various screening schemes rests upon judgments about how a society justifies the distribution of risk. The questions that industrial screening programs raise are only partially answered by empirical evidence; the rest is a matter of values

  4. The adaptive significance of inquiline parasite workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2003-01-01

    Social parasites exploit the socially managed resources of their host's society. Inquiline social parasites are dependent on their host throughout their life cycle, and so many of the traits inherited from their free-living ancestor are removed by natural selection. One trait that is commonly lost...... is the worker caste, the functions of which are adequately fulfilled by host workers. The few inquiline parasites that have retained a worker caste are thought to be at a transitional stage in the evolution of social parasitism, and their worker castes are considered vestigial and non-adaptive. However...... a vital role in ensuring the parasite's fitness. We show that the presence of these parasite workers has a positive effect on the production of parasite sexuals and a negative effect on the production of host sexuals. This suggests that inquiline workers play a vital role in suppressing host queen...

  5. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  6. Reexamining workers' compensation: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Leslie I

    2012-06-01

    Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a human rights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Importance of Ergonomics in Desk Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Gönültaş, Tülin; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Therapid development of today's technology has led to an increase in office-styledesk workers, especially in the use of computers, in every sector andworkplace.At desk workers; the continuity of repetitive movements, the fixed orinappropriate position of the body, the loading of small parts of the body suchas hands and wrists, and the speed and continuity of movements threaten thehealth of workers in mid-long term. Especially problems related tomusculoskeletal diseases are seen. The prev...

  8. Voices of Māori Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Escaravage, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Aotearoa (New Zealand) is the only country in the world to have decriminalized sex work. The Prostitution Reform Act (PRA henceforth) was enacted in 2003 with the aim to safeguard the human rights of sex workers, and create a framework that is conducive to public health. Skeptics of this policy argue that the law reform was targeting indoor workers while the livelihood of street-based sex workers did not see significant improvements (Justice Acts, 2014). It is known that Māori sex workers are...

  9. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  10. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  11. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida. PMID:22367261

  12. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  13. Classic or Modern? Enhancement of Job Satisfaction Scale for Green Job Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Basol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Green jobs, in environmental and eco-friendly sectors, are defined as jobs where decent work conditions are presented. The green jobs, significantly increasing all over the world, support the protection of natural resources and also provide high quality work life for workers. The goal of this research is to improve the job satisfaction scale for green job workers by using the Structural Equation Model with model development strategy. Within this research SPSS 21 has been used for internal consistency rate and exploratory factor analysis and smartPLS 2.0 has been used for Structural Equation Model. Analysis results show that contingent reward, supervision, co-workers and communication effect job satisfaction of green job workers.

  14. Cyborgs and Knowledge Workers? Gendered Constructions of Workers in Vocational Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connole, Helen

    1996-01-01

    Discussions of knowledge workers are gender blind and ignore or devalue women's work. A more useful conception of the worker as cyborg illuminates questions of ownership of skills and knowledge and the blurring of boundaries between humans and technologies. (SK)

  15. Cancer mortality in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    Personnel and radiation exposure data for past and present employees of the Hanford plant have been collected and analysed for a possible relationship of exposure to mortality. The occurrence of death in workers was established by the Social Security Administration and the cause of death obtained from death certificates. Mortality from all causes, all cancer cases and specific cancer types was related to the population at risk. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated for white males, using age- and calendar year-specific mortality rates for the U.S. population in the calculation of expected deaths. This analysis showed a substantial 'healthy worker effect' and no significantly high standardized mortality ratios for specific disease categories. A test for association of mortality with levels of radiation exposure revealed no correlation for all causes and all cancer. In carrying out this test, adjustment was made for age and calendar year of death, length of employment and occupational category. A statistically significant test for trend was obtained for multiple myeloma and carcinoma of the pancreas. However, in view of the absence of such a correlation for diseases more commonly associated with radiation exposure such as myeloid leukaemia, as well as the small number of deaths in higher exposure groups, the results cannot be considered definitive. Any conclusions based on these associations should be viewed in relation to the results of other studies. These results are compared with those of other investigators who have analysed the Hanford data. (author)

  16. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

  17. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Montero-Simó

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08. The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.

  18. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering

  19. Weapons workers: Ruin or revival?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A.

    1995-01-01

    The formidable task of restructuring the former Soviet Union's economic system depends largely on it success in converting a defense industry that once employed 11 million Soviet workers to peaceful pursuits, says Artiom Ustinov, a researcher in the U.S. and Canada Institute in Moscow. open-quotes Governments could convert defense facilities into those that develop and manufacture products that people desperately need and want,close quotes says Ustinov. Unfortunately, such a transformation cannot happen quickly because the former Soviet Union lacks a high-tech sector into which former weapons workers can migrate. An even more serious problem stems from a traditional isolation from world markets. Civilian manufacturing in the former Soviet Union, which was never forced to meet international standards for quality and performance, has been marked by inferior products. open-quotes With financial support, a well-defined program, incentives, and retraining, the military research labs could find themselves in a better position to release their huge potential for creative rather than destructive purposes,close quotes Ustinov concludes

  20. Hearing protection use in manufacturing workers: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational noise is a significant contributor to disabling hearing loss worldwide. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL has resulted in huge human and economic consequences costing New Zealand approximately $53M annually and rising. A high proportion of hearing loss claims are made by workers in the manufacturing sector. Hearing protection devices (HPDs are used together with engineering and administrative controls to minimize noise exposure and to prevent hearing loss. Unfortunately, inconsistent and improper use of HPDs has hindered efforts to prevent NIHL. The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence the use of HPDs amongst a group of manufacturing workers in New Zealand. A purposive sample of twenty-five workers was recruited to take part in semi-structured interviews. The open-ended questions were aimed at exploring the participants′ knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and behavior towards noise and HPDs. The data were analyzed using conventional content analysis and key themes emerged in relation to HPD use. Themes that emerged from the interviews either supported good hearing protection behavior or acted as barriers against it. Five major themes, (perception of noise, hearing preservation, reluctance to use HPDs, workplace interaction, and value of hearing and sub-themes described various factors that influence hearing protection use. Both personal and environmental factors influence the use of HPDs. Based on this study, personal and environmental factors need to be targeted for further research using ecological models to develop interventions that promote HPD use amongst workers.

  1. Long-term respiratory health effects in textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Peggy S; Christiani, David C

    2013-03-01

    Over 60 million people worldwide work in the textile or clothing industry. Recent studies have recognized the contribution of workplace exposures to chronic lung diseases, in particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Early studies in textile workers have focused on the relationship between hemp or cotton dust exposure and the development of a syndrome termed byssinosis. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure to organic dust in textile workers on chronic respiratory disease in the broader context of disease classifications, such as reversible or irreversible obstructive lung disease (i.e. asthma or COPD), and restrictive lung disease. Cessation of exposure to cotton dust leads to improvement in lung function. Recent animal models have suggested a shift in the lung macrophage:dendritic cell population ratio as a potential mechanistic explanation for persistent inflammation in the lung due to repeated cotton dust-related endotoxin exposure. Other types of textile dust, such as silk, may contribute to COPD in textile workers. Textile dust-related obstructive lung disease has characteristics of both asthma and COPD. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of chronic lung disease due to organic dust exposure in textile workers.

  2. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J.S.; van der Molen, H.F.; van Duivenbooden, C.; Sluiter, J.K.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the

  3. Healthy worker survivor analysis in an occupational cohort study of Dutch agricultural workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, E. A. J.; Smit, L. A. M.; Heederik, D.; Robbe, P.; Hylkema, M. N.; Wouters, I. M.

    High microbial exposures in farmers and agricultural workers are associated with less atopy. Although it has been speculated that healthy worker survival could be an explanation, this has not been studied so far. Therefore, we investigated the presence of healthy worker survival in a five-year

  4. Productivity Gains from Worker Mobility and their Distribution between Workers and Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Stoyanov (Andrey); N.V. Zubanov (Nick)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractUsing data from the universe of Danish manufacturing firms and workers over the period 1995-2007, we estimate output gains linked to productivity spillovers through worker mobility, and calculate the shares in these gains accrued to firms, to the workers who bring spillovers, and to the

  5. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An investigation into psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang desert oil workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to investigate psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang field oil workers. Specifically, we aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying psychological stress by comprehensively and quantitatively evaluating the processes involved in psychological stress, the factors which influence it, and their relationship. The participants were 1200 field oil workers in Xinjiang who had been in service for at least 1 year. A structural equation model based on data from the symptom checklist, social support research scale, personality questionnaire, occupational burnout questionnaire, and occupational stress questionnaire was constructed to investigate the social (environmental) factors that influence physiological stress and the interplay among these factors. The positive incidence of psychological stress in the field oil workers in Xinjiang was 12.54%. The structural equation model indicated that the main factors that influenced psychological stress in these workers included social support (0.077), occupational role (0.165), personal strain response (0.139), personality (0.189), and occupational burnout (0.380). Among these factors, occupational role, personality, and occupational burnout had a relatively strong predictive power for psychological stress reactions. The cortisol level in workers with positive psychological stress was significantly higher than that in workers with negative psychological stress. Occupational stress, personality, and occupational burnout exert an impact on psychological stress in field oil workers. Therefore, interventions to address these factors should be taken to reduce the incidence of psychological stress. PMID:29642166

  7. The analysis of annual dose distributions for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mill, A.J.

    1984-05-01

    The system of dose limitation recommended by the ICRP includes the requirement that no worker shall exceed the current dose limit of 50mSv/a. Continuous exposure at this limit corresponds to an annual death rate comparable with 'high risk' industries if all workers are continuously exposed at the dose limit. In practice, there is a distribution of doses with an arithmetic mean lower than the dose limit. In its 1977 report UNSCEAR defined a reference dose distribution for the purposes of comparison. However, this two parameter distribution does not show the departure from log-normality normally observed for actual distributions at doses which are a significant proportion of the annual limit. In this report an alternative model is suggested, based on a three parameter log-normal distribution. The third parameter is an ''effective dose limit'' and such a model fits very well the departure from log-normality observed in actual dose distributions. (author)

  8. Temporal polyethism, life expectancy, and entropy of workers of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi Almeida, 1987 (Formicidae: Ectatomminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Vieira, Alexsandro; Desidério Fernandes, Wedson; Fernando Antonialli-Junior, William

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the changes in the behavioral repertoire over the course of life and determined the life expectancy and entropy of workers of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi. Newly emerged ants were individually marked with model airplane paint for observation of behaviors and determination of the age and life expectancy. Ants were divided into two groups: young and old workers. The 36 behaviors observed were divided into eight categories. Workers exhibit a clear division of tasks throughout their lives, with young workers performing more tasks inside the colony and old workers, outside, unlike species that have small colonies. This species also exhibits an intermediate life expectancy compared to workers of other species that are also intermediary in size. This supports the hypothesis of a relationship between size and maximum life expectancy, but it also suggests that other factors may also be acting in concert. Entropy value shows a high mortality rate during the first life intervals.

  9. Expression analysis of vitellogenins in the workers of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Hawkings

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitellogenin has been proposed to regulate division of labor and social organization in social insects. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta harbors four distinct, adjacent vitellogenin genes (Vg1, Vg2, Vg3, and Vg4. Contrary to honey bees that have a single Vg ortholog as well as potentially fertile nurses, and to other ant species that lay trophic eggs, S. invicta workers completely lack ovaries or the ability to lay eggs. This provides a unique model to investigate whether Vg duplication in S. invicta was followed by subfunctionalization to acquire non-reproductive functions and whether Vg was co-opted to regulate behavior within the worker caste. To investigate these questions, we compared the expression patterns of S. invicta Vg genes among workers from different morphological subcastes or performing different tasks. RT-qPCRs revealed higher relative expression of Vg1 in major workers compared to both medium and minor workers, and of Vg2 in major workers when compared to minor workers. Relative expression of Vg1 was also higher in carbohydrate foragers when compared to nurses and protein foragers. By contrast, the level of expression of Vg2, Vg3, and Vg4 were not significantly different among the workers performing the specific tasks. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between the expression of the Vg genes and S-hydroprene, a juvenile hormone analog. No changes in Vg expression were recorded in workers 12 h after application of the analog. Our results suggest that in S. invicta the Vg gene underwent subfunctionalization after duplication to new functions based on the expression bias observed in these data. This may suggest an alternative and still unknown function for Vg in the workers that needs to be investigated further.

  10. Effort-reward imbalance and its association with health among permanent and fixed-term workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikitani Mariko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, the changing labor market seems to have rejected the traditional standards employment and has begun to support a variety of non-standard forms of work in their place. The purpose of our study was to compare the degree of job stress, sources of job stress, and association of high job stress with health among permanent and fixed-term workers. Methods Our study subjects were 709 male workers aged 30 to 49 years in a suburb of Tokyo, Japan. In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional study to compare job stress using an effort-reward imbalance (ERI model questionnaire. Lifestyles, subjective symptoms, and body mass index were also observed from the 2008 health check-up data. Results The rate of job stress of the high-risk group measured by ERI questionnaire was not different between permanent and fixed-term workers. However, the content of the ERI components differed. Permanent workers were distressed more by effort, overwork, or job demand, while fixed-term workers were distressed more by their job insecurity. Moreover, higher ERI was associated with existence of subjective symptoms (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.42-3.03 and obesity (OR = 2.84, 95% CI:1.78-4.53 in fixed-term workers while this tendency was not found in permanent workers. Conclusions Our study showed that workers with different employment types, permanent and fixed-term, have dissimilar sources of job stress even though their degree of job stress seems to be the same. High ERI was associated with existing subjective symptoms and obesity in fixed-term workers. Therefore, understanding different sources of job stress and their association with health among permanent and fixed-term workers should be considered to prevent further health problems.

  11. Factors shaping interactions among community health workers in rural Ethiopia: rethinking workplace trust and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Michelle M; Stephenson, Rob; Hadley, Craig; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, a shortage of skilled health workers has prompted a shift toward community-based health workers taking on greater responsibility in the provision of select maternal and newborn health services. Research in mid- and high-income settings suggests that coworker collaboration increases productivity and performance. A major gap in this research, however, is the exploration of factors that influence teamwork among diverse community health worker cadres in rural, low-resource settings. The purpose of this study is to examine how sociodemographic and structural factors shape teamwork among community-based maternal and newborn health workers in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with health extension workers, community health development agents, and traditional birth attendants in 3 districts of the West Gojam Zone in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Communities were randomly selected from Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) sites; health worker participants were recruited using a snowball sampling strategy. Fractional logit modeling and average marginal effects analyses were carried out to identify the influential factors for frequency of work interactions with each cadre. One hundred and ninety-four health workers participated in the study. A core set of factors-trust in coworkers, gender, and cadre-were influential for teamwork across groups. Greater geographic distance and perception of self-interested motivations were barriers to interactions with health extension workers, while greater food insecurity (a proxy for wealth) was associated with increased interactions with traditional birth attendants. Interventions that promote trust and gender sensitivity and improve perceptions of health worker motivations may help bridge the gap in health services delivery between low- and high-resource settings. Inter-cadre training may be one mechanism to increase trust and respect among diverse health workers, thereby increasing

  12. [Analysis of changes in characteristics of arterial hypertension occupational risk in workers of nonferrous metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, E M; Shliapnikov, D M; Lebedeva, T M

    2015-01-01

    The article covers changes in occupational cardiovascular risk for workers of nonferrous,metallurgy. Findings are that exposure to noise up to 94 dB with length of service increases possible atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. With 5 years of service, risk of the predicted conditions increases by 40.5%. When occupational exposure lasts over 5 years, risk of arterial hypertension increases. A group of workers without exposure to occupational factors appeared to have no connection between length of service and metabolic syndrome and arterial hypertension. Risk evolution modelling proved that risk of functional disorders in nonferrous metallurgy workers becomes unacceptable after 5 years of service (cardiovascular disorders are critical).

  13. 75 FR 23561 - Workers Memorial Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... anniversary of both the Occupational Safety and Health Act and the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, which promise American workers the right to a safe workplace and require employers to provide safe... ensure the safety of American workers. The families of the 29 coal miners who lost their lives on April 5...

  14. National nanotechnology partnership to protect workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir

    2009-10-01

    Nanotechnology is predicted to improve many aspects of human life. By 2015, it is estimated to represent 3.1 trillion in manufactured goods. Data is emerging that exposure to nanomaterials may pose a health risk to workers. If the economic promise of nanotechnology is to be achieved, ways need to be found to protect nanotechnology workers now. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHAct) gave the responsibility to protect workers to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) through research, standards adoption, and standards enforcement. Since 1980, adopting new occupational health standards has grown more complex. The increased complexity has greatly slowed efforts to adopt protective standards for toxic agents that are well-known to pose significant risks. The likelihood of rapidly adopting standards to protect workers from nanomaterials, whose risks are just emerging, seems even more unlikely. Use of the OSHAct's general duty clause to protect workers also seems uncertain at this time. In the interim, a national partnership led by NIOSH involving nanotech manufacturers and downstream users, workers, academic researchers, safety, and health practitioners is proposed. A National Nanotechnology Partnership would generate knowledge about the nature and the extent of worker risk, utilize that knowledge to develop risk control strategies to protect nanotechnology workers now, and provide an evidence base for NIOSH recommendations to OSHA for a nanotechnology program standard at a future date.

  15. Workplace Education for Low-Wage Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrand, Amanda L.; Bassi, Laurie J.; McMurrer, Daniel P.

    The training being provided to low-wage workers, factors affecting the availability and effectiveness of such training, and training outcomes were examined. The major research activities were as follows: (1) identification of 192 employers that invested most heavily in training for low-wage workers; (2) telephone interviews with 40 of the 192…

  16. Matching New Jobs to Rural Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, William R.; Shaffer, Ron E.

    1987-01-01

    Written to help communities boost their economies by attracting new industries best suited for local workers, this guide discusses the kinds of employees used by different kinds of industry and highlights specific industry hiring preferences, attributes of various industries, and worker characteristics. (JHZ)

  17. Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Margaret E.

    Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

  18. The Professional Social Worker in a Bureaucracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    In this article the author describes how the bureaucratic structure of a large public agency manipulates the professional social workers to preserve the status quo. Struggling on behalf of his clients from a position of powerlessness, the social worker, burdened by large caseloads and structural restraints, is often driven from meaningful contacts…

  19. Migrant Workers and the Changing Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…

  20. Healthy worker effect in hairdressing apprentices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    potential healthy worker effect. Methods. During the first 2 weeks of training, 382 hairdressing apprentices were enrolled in this study. All apprentices completed a self-administered questionnaire, including previously validated questions regarding, for example, previous and present hand eczema, eczema...... and by 11.9% of the controls (p worker effect, as there was a lower reported incidence of hand eczema and eczema...

  1. Keys to Successful Community Health Worker Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Patricia; Hahn, Janet S.; Philippi, Evelyn; Sanchez, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    For many years community health workers (CHW) have been important to the implementation of many of our health system's community health interventions. Through this experience, we have recognized some unique challenges in community health worker supervision and have highlighted what we have learned in order to help other organizations effectively…

  2. Assessing the psychological factors predicting workers' output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated job security, communication skills, interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence as correlates of workers' output among local government employees in Oyo State. The research adopted descriptive design of an expose facto type. The research instruments used includes Workers' output scale, ...

  3. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  4. Mortality of Hanford radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Mortality from all causes for white males employed at Hanford for at least two years is 75 percent of that expected on the basis of US vital statistics. Mortality from cancer is 85 percent of that expected. These results are typical of a working population. Neither death from all causes nor death from all cancer types shows a positive correlation with external radiation exposures. Myeloid leukemia, the disease that several studies have found to be associated most strongly with radiation exposure, is not correlated with external radiation exposure of Hanford workers. Two specific cancers, multiple myeloma and to a lesser extent cancer of the pancreas, were found to be positively correlated with radiation exposure. The correlations identified result entirely from a small number of deaths (3 each for multiple myeloma and cancer of the pancreas) with cumulative exposure greater than 15 rem

  5. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  6. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  7. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  8. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-01-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  9. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  10. Wage discrimination against foreign workers in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vakulenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We try to determine with the help of the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition technique whether foreign workers are discriminated against in Russia. We use the Russian Ministry of Labor (Rostrud data on migrants’ applications and the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS, provided by the Higher School of Economics for the period 2009–2013. We show that there is significant discrimination against foreign workers. The average salary of Russian workers with the same level of productivity as migrants exceeds migrants’ average salary by 40%. The industries in which the workers are employed have made most substantial contribution to the discrimination gap. Moreover, there is evidence that the lower salaries of foreign workers do not reduce the salaries of Russians employed in similar positions.

  11. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...

  12. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Megan L; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A; Pollack, Keshia M; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice.

  13. Assessing the skills of home care workers in helping older people take their prescribed medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Elizabeth E J

    2015-08-01

    The Southern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland applied a modified version of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the skills of home care workers in assisting older people taking prescribed medications. In Northern Ireland, home care workers are care workers employed by health and social care trusts or private agencies. The application of the model has developed the skills of this staff group, improved the relationship between the commissioner and provider, significantly reduced the time spent by community nurses in individual training and assessment, and enhanced the patient experience for those taking medication. Overall, the application of this model has provided assurances to the Trust board, the executive director of nursing, and operational directors that home care workers are competent in assisting older people in this high-risk activity.

  14. Estimating the number of unvaccinated Chinese workers against yellow fever in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Massad, E

    2018-04-17

    A yellow fever epidemic occurred in Angola in 2016 with 884 laboratory confirmed cases and 373 deaths. Eleven unvaccinated Chinese nationals working in Angola were also infected and imported the disease to China, thereby presenting the first importation of yellow fever into Asia. In Angola, there are about 259,000 Chinese foreign workers. The fact that 11 unvaccinated Chinese workers acquired yellow fever suggests that many more Chinese workers in Angola were not vaccinated. We applied a previously developed model to back-calculate the number of unvaccinated Chinese workers in Angola in order to determine the extent of lack of vaccine coverage. Our models suggest that none of the 259,000 Chinese had been vaccinated, although yellow fever vaccination is mandated by the International Health Regulations. Governments around the world including China need to ensure that their citizens obtain YF vaccination when traveling to countries where such vaccines are required in order to prevent the international spread of yellow fever.

  15. Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; Parshall B. Bush

    1992-01-01

    Occupational safety and health concerns have been raised in a number of southern states by workers conducting prescribed burns on forested lands treated with herbicides. Modeling assessments coupled with laboratory experiments have shown that the risk of airborne herbicide residues to workers is insignificant, even if the fire occurs immediately after herbicide...

  16. Contingency, Employment Intentions, and Retention of Vulnerable Low-Wage Workers: An Examination of Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Janette S.; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Marshall, Victor W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: While theories of job turnover generally assume a strong correlation between job satisfaction, intention, and retention, such models may be limited in explaining turnover of low-wage health care workers. Low-wage workers likely have a lower ability to act on their employment intentions or plans due to a lack of resources that…

  17. The Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Latino Poultry Processing Workers and Other Latino Manual Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Michael S.; Walker, Francis O.; Blocker, Jill N.; Schulz, Mark R.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Mora, Dana; Chen, Haiying; Marín, Antonio J.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in Latino poultry processing workers. Methods Symptoms and nerve conduction studies were used to prospectively assess 287 Latino poultry processing workers and 226 Latinos in other manual labor occupations. Results The prevalence of CTS was higher in poultry processing (8.7%) compared to non-poultry manual workers (4.0%, p poultry workers was 2.51 (95% CI of 1.80 to 3.50) compared to non-poultry workers. Within the poultry workers, those who performed packing, sanitation, and chilling had a trend toward less CTS than those who performed tasks requiring more repetitive and strenuous hand movements. Discussion Latino poultry processing workers have a high prevalence of CTS, which likely results from the repetitive and strenuous nature of the work. PMID:22258161

  18. Prevalence of needle stick injuries among healthcare workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abe Olugbenga

    stick injury among healthcare workers at the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Owerri. Materials and ... health workers when exposed to work .... factors and prevention of Health care workers at .... software called Statistical Package for Social.

  19. zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cswserver

    commercial 4.0 International License. ZIMBABWEAN FOURTH SOCIAL WORKERS CONFERENCE AND WINTER. SCHOOL. Noah Mudenda. The Council of Social Workers (CSW or Council) was established under the Social Workers Act 27:21 ...

  20. Awareness Of HIV / AIDS Among Hospital Workers | Ugochukwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness Of HIV / AIDS Among Hospital Workers. ... HIV /AIDS among workers in a teaching Hospital, b) risk of HIV infection among hospital workers ... pathogenesis, prevention, spread and risk of occupational transmission of HIV infection.

  1. Comparative Assessment of Health Workers Performance and The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Assessment of Health Workers Performance and The Performance ... had very high significant effect on performance of health workers which was independent of ... Keywords: Health Worker Performance Factors Hospitals Nigeria ...

  2. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  3. Effect of shift work on mental state of factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shin-Ya; Maeda, Takafumi; Sasaki, Akihiko; Sato, Akihiko; Tanaka, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2004-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of shift work on the mental state of factory workers. As an indicator of the workers' mental condition, the authors used a scoring system (referred to below as the 'depression tendency score') based on the SRQ-D investigative report. The depression tendency score of the men was higher among the shift worker group than among the regular day worker group (p workers was higher than that of the male regular day workers among skilled workers (p worker group and the shift worker group. However, the depression tendency score of the female two-shift workers was higher than that of the female regular day workers among skilled workers (p work and that of women is affected by two-shift work because of the difference in modern societal/home role between man and woman.

  4. Internal dose evaluation of workers involved in radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals handling for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, R.B.P.; Mesquita, C.H. de

    1987-01-01

    The internal dose levels of IPEN workers, involved in the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical use are surveyed. In this production, the workers were splited in six group: research and development, routine production, quality control, packaging, radiological protection and maintenance. The internal dose was evaluated according to the models described by ICRP-30, from the results obtained in the whole body counters monitoring. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Measuring work engagement among community health workers in Sierra Leone: Validating the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vallières, Frédérique; McAuliffe, Eilish; Hyland, Philip; Galligan, Marie; Ghee, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the concept of volunteer work engagement in a sample of 334 community health workers in Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Structural equation modelling was used to validate both the 9-item and the 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and UWES-17, respectively). Results assessing the UWES-17 invalidated the three-factor structure within this cohort of community health workers, as high correlations were found between latent factors. Findings for the validity of the UWE...

  6. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  7. Perceived safety climate, job demands, and coworker support among union and nonunion injured construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Marion; Baltz, Davis; Gassel, Margy; Kirsch, Luz; Vaccaro, Diane

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated injured construction workers' perceptions of workplace safety climate, psychological job demands, decision latitude, and coworker support, and the relationship of these variables to the injury severity sustained by the workers. Injury severity was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), which evaluates functional limitations. Worker perceptions of workplace variables were determined by two instruments: (a) the Safety Climate Measure for Construction Sites and (b) the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The overall model explained 23% of the variance in injury severity, with unique contributions provided by union status, the Safety Climate Score, and Psychological Job Demands. A positive significant correlation was found between injury severity and the Safety Climate Scores (r = .183, P = .003), and between the Safety Climate Scores and union status (r = .225, P safety climate on 5 of the 10 safety climate items. Union workers were more likely than nonunion workers to: (a) perceive their supervisors as caring about their safety; (b) be made aware of dangerous work practices; (c) have received safety instructions when hired; (d) have regular job safety meetings; and (e) perceive that taking risks was not a part of their job. However, with regard to the 49-item JCQ, which includes Coworker Support, the responses between union and nonunion workers were very similar, indicating an overall high degree of job satisfaction. However, workers who experienced their workplace as more safe also perceived the level of management (r = -.55, P demands, need to be identified.

  8. Ongoing child welfare services: Understanding the relationship of worker and organizational characteristics to service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Kristen; Fluke, John; Trocmé, Nico; Fallon, Barbara; Mishna, Faye

    2018-06-01

    Ongoing child welfare services are put in place after completion of the initial maltreatment investigation when there is a perceived need to mitigate the risk of future harm. The knowledge of how clinical, worker, and organizational characteristics interact with this decision to provide ongoing child welfare services is not well integrated in the research literature. Using secondary data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008, this study's primary objective is to understand the relationship of clinical, worker, and organizational characteristics to the decision to transfer a case to ongoing child welfare services and their relative contribution to the transfer decision in Canada. Findings indicate that several clinical level variables are associated with families receiving ongoing services. Additionally, organizational factors, such as type of services offered by the organization and the number of employee support programs available to workers, significantly predicted the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services. While no worker factors, such as education, amount of training, experience, or caseload, were associated with ongoing service receipt, the intraclass correlation coefficient of the final three-level parsimonious model indicated substantial clustering at the worker level. Results indicate that Canadian child welfare workers make decisions differently based on factors not available in the current study and that what would be deemed as important worker characteristics do not necessarily predict this outcome. Findings and implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Job satisfaction and turnover intent among hospital social workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L

    2016-08-01

    Feelings of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among social workers affect work quality for both social workers and the people for whom they provide services. Existing literature on job satisfaction among hospital social workers is limited, and is overly focused on issues of compensation. There is job satisfaction research with hospital nurses available for comparison. Other informative social work research on job satisfaction and turnover exists in mental health and generally, across settings. Research on turnover intent in social work is primarily from child welfare settings and may not generalize. The literature notes gaps and contradictions about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intent. Using a large national dataset of hospital social workers, this research clarifies and fills gaps regarding hospital social workers, and explores how Herzberg's theory of work can clarify the difference between sources of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. Findings include hospital social workers reporting high job satisfaction and that demographics do not contribute to the predictive models. The findings do support centralized social work departments and variety in the job functions of hospital social workers, and are consistent with the theoretical framework.

  10. Global health worker salary estimates: an econometric analysis of global earnings data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serje, Juliana; Bertram, Melanie Y; Brindley, Callum; Lauer, Jeremy A

    2018-01-01

    Human resources are consistently cited as a leading contributor to health care costs; however the availability of internationally comparable data on health worker earnings for all countries is a challenge for estimating the costs of health care services. This paper describes an econometric model using cross sectional earnings data from the International Labour Organization (ILO) that the World Health Organizations (WHO)-Choosing Interventions that are Cost-effective programme (CHOICE) has used to prepare estimates of health worker earnings (in 2010 USD) for all WHO member states. The ILO data contained 324 observations of earnings data across 4 skill levels for 193 countries. Using this data, along with the assumption that data were missing not at random, we used a Heckman two stage selection model to estimate earning data for each of the 4 skill levels for all WHO member states. It was possible to develop a prediction model for health worker earnings for all countries for which GDP data was available. Health worker earnings vary both within country due to skill level, as well as across countries. As a multiple of GDP per capita, earnings show a negative correlation with GDP-that is lower income countries pay their health workers relatively more than higher income countries. Limited data on health worker earnings is a limiting factor in estimating the costs of global health programmes. It is hoped that these estimates will support robust health care intervention costings and projections of resources needs over the Sustainable Development Goal period.

  11. Aversive conditioning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): a comparison of drones and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Christopher W; Avalos, Arian; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Austin, Zoe M; Varnon, Christopher A; Dal, Fatima Nur; Giray, Tugrul; Wells, Harrington

    2013-11-01

    Honey bees provide a model system to elucidate the relationship between sociality and complex behaviors within the same species, as females (workers) are highly social and males (drones) are more solitary. We report on aversive learning studies in drone and worker honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica) in escape, punishment and discriminative punishment situations. In all three experiments, a newly developed electric shock avoidance assay was used. The comparisons of expected and observed responses were performed with conventional statistical methods and a systematic randomization modeling approach called object oriented modeling. The escape experiment consisted of two measurements recorded in a master-yoked paradigm: frequency of response and latency to respond following administration of shock. Master individuals could terminate an unavoidable shock triggered by a decrementing 30 s timer by crossing the shuttlebox centerline following shock activation. Across all groups, there was large individual response variation. When assessing group response frequency and latency, master subjects performed better than yoked subjects for both workers and drones. In the punishment experiment, individuals were shocked upon entering the shock portion of a bilaterally wired shuttlebox. The shock portion was spatially static and unsignalled. Only workers effectively avoided the shock. The discriminative punishment experiment repeated the punishment experiment but included a counterbalanced blue and yellow background signal and the side of shock was manipulated. Drones correctly responded less than workers when shock was paired with blue. However, when shock was paired with yellow there was no observable difference between drones and workers.

  12. Informal worker phenomenon in housing construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayaningtyas, Maranatha; Sipan, Ibrahim; Lukiyanto, Kukuh

    2017-11-01

    The informal workers phenomenon on housing construction projects in Indonesia is different from workers in other sectors who would always request as permanent employees. Substantively, the informal workers are disinclined to be bound as permanent employees which different from the general labor paradigm. Hence, the objective of this study is to find out how the labour selection process, the factors that affected their performance, and the suitable wage system to achieve the target completion of housing construction project. The qualitative method is used to uncover and understand the meaning behind the phenomena (numina) of informal workers action and their influence on housing construction project which called phenomenological approach. Five informal workers and two project managers were selected as informants based on predetermined criteria with in-depth interviews. The results showed that the informal worker were more satisfied with the wage based on unit price while working in the housing construction project for the flexibility in working hours. In addition, the developer was also relieved because they only control the quality and the achievement of the project completion time which supported by informal worker leader. Therefore, these findings are beneficial for both of developer and government as policy maker to succeed the housing program in Indonesia.

  13. Patient aggression perceived by community support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Christopher; Hannah, Annette; Swain, Nicola; Gray, Andrew; Coverdale, John; Oud, Nico

    2009-12-01

    Objective: Aggression by patients is a known risk factor for hospital workers. Within New Zealand, the bulk of ongoing care for physical and mental disabilities and health issues is not hospital based, but contracted to various non-governmental agencies. The rate of client aggression towards care workers from these organizations, to our knowledge, has not been assessed. Method: Two hundred and forty-two support workers in non-governmental agencies caring for people with disabilities responded to an anonymous mailed survey on client aggression, personal distress, and communication style. Results: Most support workers did experience verbal forms of aggression or destructive behaviour, fewer experienced physical aggression, and a minority were injured, sexually harassed, stalked or harassed by means of formal complaint. The median total violence score was five (interquartile range 12.25). A higher total violence score (using the POPAS-NZ) was associated with age and gender, the primary disability of clients, and the numbers of hours worked. The length of time worked was not associated with total violence risk. Communication style, after correcting for other factors, was a predictor of aggression. Almost 6% of care workers reported distress symptoms at a level associated with clinically significant stress reactions. Conclusions: Patient aggression is common among care workers, and can cause distress in the minority. We suggest that further research to clarify risk factors and develop interventions for care workers is needed.

  14. Respiratory risks in broiler production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many situations that involve health risks to the Brazilian rural worker, and animal production is just one of them. Inhalation of organic dust, which has many microorganisms, leads in general to respiratory allergic reactions in some individuals, "asthma-like syndrome", and mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, that is a complex of nasal, eye, and throat complaints. Furthermore, workers might have farmer's hypersensitivity pneumonia, that is a respiratory health risk along the years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential pulmonary health risks in poultry production workers in the region of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Interviews using a pre-elaborated questionnaire with 40 questions were made with 37 broiler production workers, which were submitted to a pulmonary function test. Results of restrictive function with lower FEV1 (the maximum respiratory potential, the forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation and FVC (forced vital capacity represented 24.32% of the total of workers, and severe obstruction represented 2.70%. Other symptoms were found in 67.57% of the workers as well. The results showed that those who work more than 4 years and within more than one poultry house, exceeding 5 hours per day of work, presented higher pulmonary health risks. It is concluded that the activities within broiler houses may induce allergic respiratory reaction in workers. The use of IPE (individual protection equipment besides special attention to the air quality inside the housing may be advised in a preventive way.

  15. Respiratory symptoms and functions in barn workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Gulec Balbay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim. The presented study was undertaken to investigate the respiratory health problems in family barns with one or more cows and at least one family member working in the barn. Methods. 150 workers (128 female, 22 male from 4 villages of Yığılca district near the city of Düzce in north-west Turkey were enrolled in this study between October – December 2011. An Occupational and Environmental Chest Diseases questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society, pulmonary function test, physical examination and investigation for nasal eosinophil were performed in all subjects. Results. The mean age of workers was 47.7 ± 14.2 years. Cough was present in 24% of subjects. The rates of phlegm, wheezing, chest tightness and dyspnea were 13.3%, 6%, 6% and 27.3%, respectively. Obstructive ventilatory pattern was observed in 37 workers (24.6%. 43 workers (28.6% showed restrictive ventilatory pattern. Nasal eosinophilia was detected in 47.3% (71/150 of the subjects. Pulmonary functions of workers with nasal eosinophilia did not differ from the other workers. There were statistically significant negative correlations between the duration of working in barns and respiratory functions. Conclusions. Pulmonary functions of barn workers have been found to be decreased related to the duration of barn working. Furthermore, respiratory symptoms increased in relation with both barn working and biomass consumption. Precautions should therefore be taken to ventilate both barns and houses.

  16. A worker perspective on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeau, T.

    2000-01-01

    The majority of the 15,000 members of the Power Workers Union (PWU) are employed in electricity production at Ontario Power Generation's nuclear generating stations and in nuclear technology research at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Our members therefore have an obvious vested interest in any discussion related to their jobs. Workers in nuclear power plants have a clearly defined responsibility to ensure a safe working environment for themselves and their fellow workers. They have an overwhelming vested interest in ensuring that the plants are constructed, maintained, and operated safely. As will be detailed in the presentation to the CNS, all workers are required to learn and demonstrate knowledge of the hazards as an integral part of employment initiation and subsequent training. As their union, the PWU has a responsibility to ensure conditions of employment that not only permit workers to refuse work they perceive to be unsafe but require them to bring safety concerns forward for resolution to the satisfaction of both management and workers' representatives. The PWU has accomplished this through the development of workplace structures to ensure worker input is sought and acted on. The paper will describe the next steps required to improve workplace safety at Ontario Power Generation, which could be adapted to other facilities and workgroups. (author)

  17. Contact dermatitis in cement workers in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to recent industrialization and inadequately protected workers or in other words poor supervision on constructive workers habits in our large city of Isfahan cement contact dermatitis is relatively high especially among cement factory workers and constructive personnel. PURPOSES: To investigate the prevalence rate of cement contact dermatitis in cement factory workers in Isfahan. METHODS: A case-control clinical study was carried out by randomly selecing 150 factory workders and 150 official clerks in a cement factory in Isfahan in 2001. After a complete physical examination, data was recorded in observational checklists. FINDINGS: The percentages of contact dermatitis prevalences in the first and the second groups were 22% and 5.3% respectively. About 60% of cement workers with contact dermatitis were between 30-40 years of age. There was a direct relationship with age in both groups of the workers. In the high-exposure group, the hand eczema along was 70% but in the other group the percentage of involvement was the same in exposed and unexposed anatomical areas. CONCLUSIONS: There was a direct relationship between occurrence and the severity of involvement and duration of contact in the first group. Cent percent of cement workers had contact dermatitis after 10 or less years, but the percentage among the other group was 35%. LIMITATION: Irritant contact dermatitis to cement has not been detected.

  18. Thyroid measurements of Iodine-125 workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Peggie, J.R.

    1979-02-01

    The accumulation of 125 I in the thyroid presents real hazards to workers who use this radionuclide. Recent assessments of the maximum permissible thyroid burden for 125 I have tended to be lower than those previously adopted. Workers using 125 I may receive small doses to a film badge monitor from external radiation while accumulating significant doses to the thyroid from internal contamination. It is therefore necessary to perform some form of thyroid monitoring on such workers. In the past two years the Australian Radiation Laboratory has monitored 125 I workers from six different institutations in the Melbourne area to determine the activity of 125 I in their thyroids. Most of the levels monitored were less than one tenth of the most recently recommended thyroid burden of 400 nanocurie. The highest levels were measured in workers who actually perform iodinations. Workers who handle the iodinate generally had lower levels than those performing the iodinations. Only a very small number of the workers measured were below the detectable limit of the system indicating that even when low activities of 125 I are handled in relatively stable forms it is still possible to accumulate 125 I in the thyroid

  19. An examination of nervios among Mexican seasonal farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Margaret; Mysyk, Avis; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory descriptive study was to examine a process model of the nervios experience of 30 Mexican seasonal farm workers. Focused interviews were conducted in Spanish to determine the workers' perspectives on their experiences of nervios while residing in rural, southwest Ontario. Data for analysis originated from variables created to represent key themes that had emerged from open coding of the interviews. Simultaneous entry, multiple regression analyses revealed that provocation, control salience, and cognitive sensory motor distress directly explained 67.2% of the variation in worker expressions of negative affectivity. The combination fear, feeling trapped, and giving in mediated the relationship of provocation, control salience and cognitive sensory motor distress to expressions of negative affectivity (R(2) = 88.1%). Control salience and its dampening effect on other elements of the nervios experience, however, appeared to be key to whether subjects experienced negative reactions to being provoked or distressed. This evidence points to nervios being a powerful, holistic idiom of distress with at least six variables contributing to its affective negativity. This information is important to our understanding of how nervios unfolds and for accurate specification of a nervios model for clinical practice and research. It also sets the stage for improved therapeutic alliances with nervios sufferers, and social action to reduce factors that provoke nervios.

  20. Relationships between temperaments, occupational stress, and insomnia among Japanese workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Deguchi

    Full Text Available Insomnia among workers reduces the quality of life, contributes toward the economic burden of healthcare costs and losses in work performance. The relationship between occupational stress and insomnia has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperament in occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between temperament, occupational stress, and insomnia. The subjects were 133 Japanese daytime local government employees. Temperament was assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A. Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ. Insomnia was assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that the higher subdivided stress group by "role conflict" (OR = 5.29, 95% CI, 1.61-17.32 and anxious temperament score (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19-1.49 was associated with the presence of insomnia using an adjusted model, whereas other factors were excluded from the model. The study limitations were the sample size and the fact that only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. This study demonstrated the relationships between workers' anxious temperament, role conflict, and insomnia. Recognizing one's own anxious temperament would lead to self-insight, and the recognition of anxious temperament and reduction of role conflict by their supervisors or coworkers would reduce the prevalence of insomnia among workers in the workplace.

  1. Hospital Social Work and Spirituality: Views of Medical Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Samta P

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a study of 1,389 medical social workers in 108 hospitals across 12 countries, on their views on spirituality and spiritually sensitive interventions in hospital settings. Results of the logistic regression analyses and structural equation models showed that medical social workers from European countries, United States of America, Canada, and Australia, those had undergone spiritual training, and those who had higher self-reported spiritual experiences scale scores were more likely to have the view that spirituality in hospital settings is for facilitating integral healing and wellness of patients and were more likely to prefer spiritual packages of New Age movements as the form of spiritual program, understand spiritual assessment as assessing the patients' spiritual starting point, to then build on further interventions and were likely to attest the understanding of spiritual techniques as mindfulness techniques. Finally they were also likely to understand the spiritual goals of intervention in a holistic way, that is, as that of integral healing, growth of consciousness and promoting overall well-being of patients vis-à-vis only coping and coming to terms with health adversities. Results of the structural equation models also showed covariances between religion, spirituality training, and scores on the self-reported spiritual experiences scale, having thus a set of compounding effects on social workers' views on spiritual interventions in hospitals. The implications of the results for health care social work practice and curriculum are discussed.

  2. Relationships between temperaments, occupational stress, and insomnia among Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Koichiro; Fukuda, Yuichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Mitake, Tomoe; Nogi, Yukako; Inoue, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia among workers reduces the quality of life, contributes toward the economic burden of healthcare costs and losses in work performance. The relationship between occupational stress and insomnia has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperament in occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between temperament, occupational stress, and insomnia. The subjects were 133 Japanese daytime local government employees. Temperament was assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Insomnia was assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that the higher subdivided stress group by "role conflict" (OR = 5.29, 95% CI, 1.61-17.32) and anxious temperament score (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19-1.49) was associated with the presence of insomnia using an adjusted model, whereas other factors were excluded from the model. The study limitations were the sample size and the fact that only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. This study demonstrated the relationships between workers' anxious temperament, role conflict, and insomnia. Recognizing one's own anxious temperament would lead to self-insight, and the recognition of anxious temperament and reduction of role conflict by their supervisors or coworkers would reduce the prevalence of insomnia among workers in the workplace.

  3. Latex sensitisation in healthcare workers in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M B Y; Leow, Y H; Ng, V; Koh, D; Goh, C L

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiological data on latex sensitisation among Asian healthcare workers is lacking. The aim of the study is to determine the rate of latex sensitisation in our healthcare workers. We recruited 313 healthcare workers, of which 46.6% were operating theatre staff and 53.4% were non-operating theatre staff. Seventy-one administrative staff served as controls. All participants answered a self-administered questionnaire relating to latex exposure and glove-related symptoms. Latex sensitisation was determined by skin prick testing to latex and latex-specific IgE detection. The prevalence of latex sensitisation among healthcare workers was 9.6%, with no difference between operating theatre and nonoperating theatre staff. Glove-related symptoms were reported in 13.7% of all healthcare workers, of which 22.9% were sensitised to latex. Only 26.7% of latex-sensitised healthcare workers had glove-related symptoms while the rest were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were itch and hand eczema but the most important discriminating symptom was contact urticaria. Personal history of atopy was more common in sensitised healthcare workers (40.0%) compared to non-sensitised workers (31.8%). Only 1 out of 9 (11.2%) symptomatic latex-sensitised subjects had sought previous medical attention for the problem. Latex sensitisation among healthcare workers in Singapore should be considered a significant occupational health risk, as it is in the West. Increased screening and awareness of this problem is essential to identify those at risk.

  4. Influence of PDCA Cycle Management Model in Hand Hygiene Compliance of Health Care Workers in a Hospital in Wuhan City%PDCA循环管理模式对武汉市某医院工作人员手卫生依从性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红艳; 赖晓全; 谭莉

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To improve the hand hygiene compliance of health care workers.Methods: PDCA cycle management model was employed to continuously improve the quality of hand hygiene compliance and constantly discover problems and summa-rize improvements.The hand hygiene compliances before and after the implementation of PDCA cycle were compared.The statistical analysis was applied by SPSS 18.0, and the chi-square test was adopted.Results:After the implementation of PDCA cycle, the to-tal hand hygiene compliance rate was increased from 48.89%to 65.57%(P<0.05).In addition to cleaning workers, the hand hy-giene compliance rate of other members of the medical staff , and each department "five moments" were all significantly improved ( P<0.05) .Conclusion: Application of PDCA cycle in continuous quality improvement could effectively improve the hand hygiene compliance of health care workers.The training and education of cleaning workers could be used as one of the key points of the next PDCA cycle.%目的:提高医院工作人员手卫生依从性.方法:应用PDCA循环管理模式,对手卫生依从性进行持续质量改进督导.比较PDCA循环管理模式实施前后手卫生依从性的变化,应用SPSS18.0进行统计分析,采用χ2检验进行手卫生依从率的比较.结果:实施PDCA循环管理模式后,总的手卫生依从率从48.89%上升至65.57%(P<0.05);除保洁员外,其他岗位医院工作人员、各科室以及"5个时刻"的手卫生依从率均明显提高(均P<0.05).结论:应用PDCA循环管理模式进行持续质量改进,可有效提高医院工作人员的手卫生依从性,保洁员的培训教育可作为下一次PDCA循环的重点之一.

  5. Creativity-Relevant Personal Characteristics among Indonesia Creative Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho J. Setiadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify Creativity-relevant Personal Characteristics among creative workers in Indonesia’s creative industry. Identification of the constituent elements of the nature of the changes needs to be measured. Researchers have advocated replacing creativity-relevant personal characteristics based on the five-factor model to investigate how individual differences stimulate creativity. This study presents data supporting reliability (internal consistency and validity (criterion and construct of the instrument. Validity of the instrument is based on the content validity involving art and design experts. The 220 creative workers from several creative industry firms in Indonesia participated as samples in this research. Results of a factor analysis indicated a five factor solution of creative characteristics and behavior. Discussion of findings and the most important ways in which individuals differ in their enduring emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, and motivational styles for stimulating creativity are presented.

  6. Catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Upfal, Mark J; Russell, Jim; Luborsky, Mark; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Judith E

    2015-09-01

    To identify common catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospital settings. Worker-to-worker violence and incivility are prevalent forms of mistreatment in healthcare workplaces. These are forms of counterproductive work behaviour that can lead to negative outcomes for employees, patients and the organisation overall. Identifying the factors that lead to co-worker mistreatment is a critical first step in the development of interventions targeting these behaviours. Retrospective descriptive study. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on the total sample (n = 141) of employee incident reports of worker-to-worker violence and incivility that were documented in 2011 at a large American hospital system. More than 50% of the incidents involved nurses, and the majority of incidents did not involve physical violence. Two primary themes emerged from the analysis: Work Behaviour and Work Organisation. Incidents in the Work Behaviour category were often sparked by unprofessional behaviour, disagreement over responsibilities for work tasks or methods of patient care, and dissatisfaction with a co-worker's performance. Incidents in the Work Organisation category involved conflicts or aggression arising from failure to following protocol, patient assignments, limited resources and high workload. Incidents of worker-to-worker violence and incivility stemmed from dissatisfaction with employee behaviour or from organisational practices or work constraints. These incident descriptions reflect worker dissatisfaction and frustration, resulting from poor communication and collaboration between employees, all of which threaten work productivity. Violence and incivility between hospital employees can contribute to turnover of top performers, hinder effective teamwork and jeopardise the quality of patient care. Identification of common catalysts for worker-to-worker violence and incivility informs the development of mistreatment prevention programmes that can be

  7. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  8. [Workplace accomodations for two workers with narcolepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico Garcerán, Belén; Monzó Salas, Monserrat; Cuenca Esteve, Francisco; Luis Domingo, José

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of two workers evaluated in our occupational health unit. The first worker was a kitchen aide; the second was a primary care physician. Both had been diagnosed with narcolepsy and had obvious disability.We assessed occupational hazards related to their jobs, analysed their tasks, and performed medical examinations. Afterwards, we offered recommendations to the patients, consisting of avoidance of situations involving a risk of work accidents and improving their sleep habits. Narcolepsy is a rare disorder, but it has important social and occupational consequences. A better understanding of the disease and some work accommodations can help improve the quality of life of affected workers.

  9. Sleep, immunity and shift workers: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Oliveira de Almeida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, shift workers represent between 15% and 25% of the modern day workforce. Work time poses a great challenge to workers as it requires that they balance productivity and sleep time between shifts. As a result, these workers experience chronic sleep deprivation with increased fatigue and drowsiness due to this sleep deprivation. The impact of this kind of work on the immune system is not yet known. We conducted a literature review with the aim of evaluating articles on this specific type of work's effects on sleep and immunity.

  10. Epidemiological studies on radiation workers in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo Yong Choi; Hai Won Chung

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyze the occupational exposure for external radiation and to evaluate radiation effects on Korean radiation workers. Methods: The National Dose Registry contains radiation exposure records for all monitored radiation workers since its creation in 1983. We are carrying out epidemiological survey for radiation workers. The items of information included personal identification, employment and dose data. The frequencies of various types of chromosome aberrations in radiation workers were compared with controls. The data were analyzed according to year, sex, age, duration of occupation, exposure dose, etc. using SPSS statistical package(version 15.0). The goodness-of-fit test for Poisson assumption and dispersion test for detecting heterogeneity for Poisson distribution were done with chromosomal aberrations among study subjects. Results: The total number of workers registered from 1983 to 2005 was 61,610. The number of workers steadily increased and the accumulated dose somewhat increased. The collective annual dose of radiation workers was 345.823 man Sv and the mean annual dose was 1.34mSv. The frequencies of chromosome aberrations in 102 workers were compared with those in 42 controls. The frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations in the exposed subjects were higher than those in the control group. Poisson regression analysis showed that there was significant association of chromosome aberrations with radiation dose, duration of work, age and alcohol intake. We started to survey radiation workers in order to evaluate radiation effects, collected epidemiological data for 9,157 workers at present and analyzed their lifetime radiation exposure doses. Follow-up is carrying out using the Korean Mortality Data, Cancer Registry and individual investigation. Among study patients, 11 of 38 deaths were identified with cancer. Conclusions: The data on occupational doses shows that

  11. Radiation exposure of uranium mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Giridhar; Saha, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The uranium mill workers at Jaduguda were covered by a regular film badge service from 1969 onwards. Since the log normal plot is useful in interpreting occupational exposure, a statistical analysis of the radiation exposure data was attempted. Exposure data for each year has been plotted as cumulative percentage and worker's population with exposure levels in different class intervals. The plot for each of the year under investigation shows an occupational exposure distribution more or less consistent with the log normal distribution function. The analysis shows that more than 98% of radiation workers received less than 200 mrem (2 mSv). (author)

  12. Real-time assessment of exposure dose to workers in radiological environments during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, ByungSeon; Moon, JeiKwon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok; Jeong, SeongYoung; Lee, JungJun; Song, HaeSang; Lee, SangWha; Son, BongKi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The method of exposure dose assessment to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. • The environments of simulation were designed under a virtual reality. • To assess exposure dose to workers, human model was developed within a virtual reality. - Abstract: This objective of this paper is to develop a method to simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. To simulate several scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed using virtual reality. To assess exposure dose to workers, a human model was also developed using virtual reality. The exposure dose was measured and assessed under the principle of ALARA in accordance with radiological environmental change. This method will make it possible to plan for the exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  13. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site.

  14. Study of insomnia in rotating shift-workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Chatterjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shift-workers commonly suffer from insomnia. This study evaluates different domains of insomnia. Aim: This study was aimed to study sleep and insomnia in rotating shift-workers and compare with day-workers. Materials and Methods: This was case–control study. The sleep of rotating shift-workers is compared with day workers using Athens Insomnia Scale. Results: Rotating shift-workers had significantly higher scores on Athens insomnia scale on domains of initial, intermediate and terminal insomnia than day workers. Duration and quality of sleep and sense of well-being are lower in rotating shift-workers. Rotating shift-workers also experienced more day-time sleepiness than day workers. However, there was no difference in perceived physical and mental functioning between the two groups. Conclusion: Individuals working in rotating shifts for more than 15 days have significantly higher prevalence of insomnia than day-workers.

  15. Work engagement in cancer care: The power of co-worker and supervisor support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Michael G; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Poulsen, Emma E; Khan, Shanchita R; Poulsen, Anne A

    2016-04-01

    Co-worker and supervisor support can provide knowledge, advice and expertise which may improve motivation, confidence and skills. This exploratory study aimed to examine the association of co-worker and supervisor support, and other socio-demographic and practice variables with work engagement for cancer workers. The study surveyed 573 cancer workers in Queensland (response rate 56%). Study participants completed surveys containing demographics and psychosocial questionnaires measuring work engagement, co-worker and supervisor support. Of these respondents, a total of 553 responded to the items measuring work engagement and this forms the basis for the present analyses. Oncology nurses represented the largest professional group (37%) followed by radiation therapists (22%). About 54% of the workforce was aged >35 years and 81% were female. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify explanatory variables independently associated with work engagement for cancer workers. After adjusting for the effects of other factors, co-worker and supervisor support were both significantly associated with work engagement. Having 16 years or more experience, being directly involved in patient care, having children and not being a shift worker were positively associated with work engagement. Annual absenteeism of six days or more was associated with low work engagement. The fitted model explained 23% of the total variability in work engagement. This study emphasises that health care managers need to promote co-worker and supervisor support in order to optimise work engagement with special attention to those who are not directly involved in patient care. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Impact of work-related musculoskeletal disorders on work ability among workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Huang, Chunping; Lan, Yajia; Wang, Mianzhen; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Wenhui; Yu, Long; Yao, Shengcai; Liao, Yunhua

    2015-04-01

    To assess the impact of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) on work ability among workers. A total of 1686 workers in various occupations, such as administration and education, were enrolled as subjects using the random cluster sampling method. The WRMDs and work ability of all subjects were evaluated using standardized Nordic questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms and the Work Ability Index (WAI) scale, respectively. Comparison of work ability and its classification between the disease group and the non-disease group was performed by paired t test, RxC table χ2 test, and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The relationship between work duration and work ability was analyzed by the Spearman correlation test and a multi-level model. (1). The work ability of workers in the disease group was significantly lower than that in the non-disease group (Pwork ability between workers with different work durations (work duration, the work ability of workers declined in both groups, and the work ability of workers in the disease group (Spearman coefficient rs=-0. 172, Pfactors for the decrease in work ability among workers. (3) There were significant differences in constituent ratios and levels of work ability classification between the disease group and the non-disease group (χ2=121.097, Ppoor and medium work ability in the disease group were significantly higher than those in the non-disease group, while the proportion of works with excellent work ability in the disease group was significantly lower than that in the non-disease group. The similar characteristics in constituent ratios and levels of work ability classification could be found between the disease group and the non- disease group in various occupations (Pwork ability of workers, and the work ability of workers substantially declines with the increase in exposure time (work duration).

  17. Occupational Hearing Loss among Chinese Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewei; Wang, Haijiao; Weng, Shaofan; Su, Wenjin; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yanfei; Yu, Dan; Du, Lili; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Weihong; Shi, Tingming

    2015-01-01

    Occupational hearing loss is an increasingly prevalent occupational condition worldwide, and has been reported to occur in a wide range of workplaces; however, its prevalence among workers from municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) remains less clear. This study aimed to investigate the occupational hearing loss among Chinese MSWL workers. A cross-sectional study of 247 workers from 4 Chinese MSWLs was conducted. Noise and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) levels at worksites were determined. We conducted hearing examinations to determine hearing thresholds. A worker was identified as having hearing loss if the mean threshold at 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in either ear was equal to or greater than 25 dB. Prevalence of occupational hearing loss was then evaluated. Using unconditional Logistic regression models, we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of MSWL work associated with hearing loss. According to the job title for each worker, the study subjects were divided into 3 groups, including group 1 of 63 workers without MSWL occupational hazards exposure (control group), group 2 of 84 workers with a few or short-period MSWL occupational hazards exposure, and group 3 of 100 workers with continuous MSWL occupational hazards exposure. Both noise and TVOCs levels were significantly higher at worksites for group 3. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds at frequencies of 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz were found in group 3, compared with that in group 1 and group 2. The overall prevalence rate of hearing loss was 23.5%, with the highest in group 3 (36.0%). The OR of MSWL work associated with hearing loss was 3.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-8.96). The results of this study suggest significantly higher prevalence of hearing loss among MSWL workers. Further studies are needed to explore possible exposure-response relationship between MSWL occupational hazards exposure and hearing loss.

  18. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed between condom use skilled and unskilled groups and level of condom use skills between African Americans and Hispanics. African Americans showed better skills in using condoms, and participants in the condom-use skilled group used condoms more frequently. Finally, a logistic regression was conducted to find predictors of condom use skills. Significant predictors were ethnicity, language, and assistance-related social support (obtaining advice from people who could provide tangible assistance). Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Organizational culture of a psychiatric hospital and resilience of nursing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Gaioli, Cheila Cristina Leonardo de Oliveira; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques; Mininel, Vivian Aline; Vegro, Thamiris Cavazzani

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the organizational culture of a psychiatric hospital and identify the capacity of resilience of nursing workers. quantitative research. For data collection, were used the Brazilian Instrument for Evaluation of Organizational Culture (IBACO - Instrumento Brasileiro para Avaliação da Cultura Organizacional) and the Resilience Scale (RS). participants reported the existence of centralization of power and devaluation of workers, despite recognizing the existence of collaboration at work and practices for improving interpersonal relations. In relation to the capacity of resilience, 50% of workers showed high level, and 42.9% a medium level of resilience. The correlation tests revealed negative values between the IBACO and RS domains, indicating that the lower the appreciation of individuals in the institution, the greater their capacity of resilience. the organizational values reflect the work organization model in the institution that devalues the workers' needs and requires greater capacity of resilience.

  20. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  1. [The contribution of indigenous community health workers to special healthcare for Brazilian indigenous peoples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Eliana Elisabeth; Langdon, Esther Jean; Dias-Scopel, Raquel Paiva

    2012-05-01

    Indigenous community health workers are part of a strategy developed by Brazil in the last two decades to promote a special healthcare model for indigenous peoples. Their role is designed to deal with various aspects of the special health policy, including the link between the heath team and the community and mediation between scientific and indigenous medical knowledge. Despite a significant increase in the number of indigenous community health workers in recent years, an evaluation of their responsibilities and contributions to the success of special care had not been conducted previously. This article, based on a literature review and original research by the authors, analyzes the role of the indigenous community health workers vis-à-vis their training and participation in health teams in different contexts in Brazil. Considering the importance assigned to the role of indigenous community health workers, this analysis reveals various ambiguities and contradictions that hinder both their performance and their potential contribution to the special health services.

  2. Longitudinal and Cross-sectional Analyses of Lung Function in Toluene Diisocyanate Production Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei Lin; Storey, Eileen; Cassidy, Laura D; Doney, Brent; Conner, Patrick R; Collins, James J; Carson, Michael; Molenaar, Don

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate lung function among toluene diisocyanate (TDI) production workers. One hundred ninety-seven U.S workers performed spirometry from 2006 through 2012. Results were compared within the study cohort and with U.S. population measures. A mixed-effects model assessed factors affecting repeated forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) measurements. The cohort's mean FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) percent reference values, although greater than 90%, were significantly lower and the prevalence of abnormal spirometry (predominantly restrictive pattern) was significantly higher than in the U.S. Differences in lung function among workers with higher cumulative TDI exposure were in the direction of an exposure effect, but not significant. We found little evidence of an adverse effect of TDI exposure on longitudinal spirometry in these workers. The association between TDI exposure and the increasing prevalence of a restrictive pattern needs further exploration.

  3. "That Is So Common Everyday . . . Everywhere You Go": Sexual Harassment of Workers in Assisted Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Elisabeth O; Barmon, Christina; Moorhead, James R; Perkins, Molly M; Bender, Alexis A

    2018-04-01

    In assisted living (AL) facilities, workers are intimately involved in the lives of residents. Existing research on AL demonstrates the imbalance of this environment, which is a personal home for the residents and a workplace for staff. Using observational and interview data collected from six AL facilities, this grounded theory project analyzes how AL staff define, understand, and negotiate sexual comments, joking, and physical touch. We developed a conceptual model to describe how such harassment was perceived, experienced by AL workers, and how they responded. Sexualized behavior or harassment was experienced by workers of every status. We found that words and actions were contextualized based on resident and worker characteristics and the behavior. Staff members refused to engage residents, redirected them, or reframed the words and gestures to get the job done. Reporting the incidents was less common. We conclude by discussing implications for policy and research.

  4. Properties of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia across Workers with Different Pain Experiences and Cultural Backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M B; Damsgård, E; Holtermann, A

    2015-01-01

    kinesiophobia by TSK (13 statement version) and number of days with pain during the past year (less than 8 days, less than 90 days and greater than 90 days). A Rasch analysis was used to evaluate the measurement properties of the TSK in the workers across pain levels, ages, genders and ethnicities. The TSK did...... not fit the Rasch model, but removing one item solved the poorness of fit. Invariance was found across the pain levels, ages and genders. Thus, with a few modifications, the TSK was shown to capture a unidimensional construct of fear of movement in workers with different pain levels, ages, and genders.......The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether the construct validity of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) is consistent with respect to its scaling properties, unidimensionality and targeting among workers with different levels of pain. The 311 participating Danish workers reported...

  5. Mayak Film Dosimeter Response Studies Part III: Application to Worker Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanin, Mikhail; Vasilenko, E. K.; Scherpelz, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to convert individual dosimeter readings for workers to obtain estimates of worker doses received in Mayak facilities. Film dosimeters were used at Mayak PA for worker monitoring from 1948 until 1992. The method requires a determination of the relationship between the absorbed dose in film emulsion and the dose in air under calibration conditions, then an extension of this relationship to exposures in the actual radiation fields of the workplace. Corrections needed to account for actual workplace exposure conditions were determined by modeling with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP. Correction factors were developed to convert from dosimeter reading to a realistic worker dose. The method was applied as a basis for individual dose reconstruction using film dosimeters in realistic photon spectra and geometries at Mayak PA work areas

  6. Mental Health Expenditures: Association with Workplace Incivility and Bullying Among Hospital Patient Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Williams, Jessica A R; Boden, Leslie I; Tempesti, Tommaso; Wagner, Gregory R; Hopcia, Karen; Hashimoto, Dean; Sorensen, Glorian

    2018-03-13

    Bullied workers have poor self-reported mental health; monetary costs of bullying exposure are unknown. We tested associations between bullying and health plan claims for mental health diagnoses. We used data from 793 hospital workers who answered questions about bullying in a survey and subscribed to the group health plan. We used two-part models to test associations between types of incivility/bullying and mental health expenditures. Workers experiencing incivility or bullying had greater odds of any mental health claims. Among claimants, unexposed workers spent $792, those experiencing one type of incivility or bullying spent $1,557 (p for difference from unexposed=0.016), those experiencing two types spent $928 (p = 0.503), and those experiencing three types spent $1,446 (p = 0.040). Workplace incivility and bullying may carry monetary costs to employers, which could be controlled through work environment modification.

  7. Potential Indoor Worker Exposure From Handling Area Leakage: Dose Calculation Methodology and Example Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nes, Razvan; Benke, Roland R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently considering design options for preclosure facilities in a license application for a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) developed the PCSA Tool Version 3.0.0 software for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to aid in the regulatory review of a potential DOE license application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate PCSA Tool modeling capabilities (i.e., a generic two-compartment, mass-balance model) for estimating radionuclide concentrations in air and radiological dose consequences to indoor workers in a control room from potential leakage of radioactively contaminated air from an adjacent handling area. The presented model computes internal and external worker doses from inhalation and submersion in a finite cloud of contaminated air in the control room and augments previous capabilities for assessing indoor worker dose. As a complement to the example event sequence frequency analysis in the companion paper, example consequence calculations are presented in this paper for the postulated event sequence. In conclusion: this paper presents a model for estimating radiological doses to indoor workers for the leakage of airborne radioactive material from handling areas. Sensitivity of model results to changes in various input parameters was investigated via illustrative example calculations. Indoor worker dose estimates were strongly dependent on the duration of worker exposure and the handling-area leakage flow rate. In contrast, doses were not very sensitive to handling-area exhaust ventilation flow rates. For the presented example, inhalation was the dominant radiological dose pathway. The two companion papers demonstrate independent analysis capabilities of the regulator for performing confirmatory calculations of frequency and consequence, which assist the assessment of worker

  8. Combination HIV prevention for female sex workers: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Linda-Gail; Johnson, Leigh; Cowan, Frances; Overs, Cheryl; Besada, Donela; Hillier, Sharon; Cates, Willard

    2015-01-03

    Sex work occurs in many forms and sex workers of all genders have been affected by HIV epidemics worldwide. The determinants of HIV risk associated with sex work occur at several levels, including individual biological and behavioural, dyadic and network, and community and social environmental levels. Evidence indicates that effective HIV prevention packages for sex workers should include combinations of biomedical, behavioural, and structural interventions tailored to local contexts, and be led and implemented by sex worker communities. A model simulation based on the South African heterosexual epidemic suggests that condom promotion and distribution programmes in South Africa have already reduced HIV incidence in sex workers and their clients by more than 70%. Under optimistic model assumptions, oral pre-exposure prophylaxis together with test and treat programmes could further reduce HIV incidence in South African sex workers and their clients by up to 40% over a 10-year period. Combining these biomedical approaches with a prevention package, including behavioural and structural components as part of a community-driven approach, will help to reduce HIV infection in sex workers in different settings worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Problems of Younger Workers in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Alexander

    1974-01-01

    Young workers, persons from sixteen to thirty years old, have problems relating to occupational choice, vocational guidance, vocational training and other educational opportunities, job satisfaction, and housing, complicating their search for an occupational and social identity. (AG)

  10. Russian oil workers seek employment abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that American oil workers discouraged by bleak employment opportunities in the U.S. petroleum industry face increasing competition abroad from Russians seeking a living wage. Moscow's Zagrantrud (Foreign Labor) firm believes millions of Russian skilled and unskilled workers in many occupations will try to find jobs in other countries. The Russian enterprise says it is selecting a group of construction workers to build a refinery in Columbia. Kuwait also wants Russian construction personnel. Russia is especially eager to find overseas work for petroleum industry workers who have lost their jobs in Viet Nam and Cuba. The number of specialists from the former U.S.S.R. in Cuba, many of them engaged in oil exploration and production or pipeline and refinery construction, has fallen from several thousand 2 years ago to 250 at present as Moscow's relations with Havana cooled

  11. 216 ORGANISATIONA L CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND WORKERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    touches deeply at the very heart of the organisational structures and processes. Such a change ... machinery and obsolescence of skills and abilities of workers. However .... This is based on the principle of extinction; behaviour will stop ...

  12. Contact Allergy in Danish Healthcare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Sommerlund, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in healthcare workers is a pan-European problem. We conducted a retrospective observational study of the patch-test results of 1402 healthcare workers and 1402 matched controls with contact dermatitis who were treated at 3 hospitals departments in Denmark between 2007 and 2014....... The primary objective was to determine whether healthcare work was associated with contact allergy to thiuram mix. Unadjusted univariate analyses revealed that healthcare work was significantly associated with occupational contact dermatitis and hand dermatitis. Contact allergy to thiuram mix was more common...... in healthcare workers was significantly associated with having occupational contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis and older age. In conclusion, we report here a potential problem of contact allergy to thiurams in healthcare workers with contact dermatitis. Legislative authorities may in the future focus...

  13. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  14. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  15. Radiation exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujnova, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is an interdisciplinary department that deals with diagnosis and therapy using open sources. Therefore workers in nuclear medicine are in daily contact with ionizing radiation and thus it is essential to monitor a radiation load. Each work must therefore carry out monitoring of workers. It monitors compliance with the radiation limits set by law, allows an early detection of deviations from normal operation and to demonstrate whether the radiation protection at the workplace is optimized. This work describes the principles of monitoring of workers in nuclear medicine and monitoring methods for personal dosimetry. In the next section the author specifically deals with personal dosimetry at the Department of Nuclear Medicine St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute, Bratislava (KNM-Ba-OUSA). The main part of the work is to evaluate the results of a one-year monitoring of radiation workers KNM-Ba-OUSA. (author)

  16. The Great Recession and Workers' Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kanghyock

    2018-03-01

    During a recession, cost-sharing of employer-sponsored health benefits could increase to reduce labor costs in the U.S. Using a variation in the severity of recession shocks across industries, I find evidence that the enrollment rate of high deductible health plans (HDHPs) among workers covered by employer-sponsored health benefits increased more among firms in industries that experienced severe recession shocks. As potential mechanisms, I study employer-side and worker-side mechanisms. I find that employers changed health benefit offerings to force or incentivize workers to enroll in HDHPs. But I find little evidence of an increase in workers' demand for HDHPs due to a reduction in income. These results suggest that the HDHP enrollment rate increased during the Great Recession, as employers tried to save costs of offering health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Introduction to ergonomics for healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare workers who handle and move patients as part of their jobs suffer a disproportionately high number of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The majority of reported work-related MSDs are back pain cases that result in significant numbers of lost work days. It is likely that these lost workdays have a substantial impact on the quality and cost of health care. Patient care ergonomics can reduce the risk of work-related MSDs by helping safety experts design the work so it can be safely performed by most workers. This article provides a general overview of ergonomics--what it is, how it can be used to help design safe work, and why all healthcare workers and administrators should know and understand how excessive work demands can lead to increased risk of work-related MSDs. The article will also explain technological solutions that can be implemented to reduce the risk of work-related MSDs for healthcare workers.

  18. Factors influencing healthcare worker's participation in physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... in one public hospital in South Africa: Do healthcare workers have barriers to exercise? ... Binary logistic regression was used to determine the association between barriers, attitude, ...

  19. Continuing study of mortality in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1979-10-01

    The mortality of workers at the Hanford Plant in southeastern Washington who have been exposed to penetrating external ionizing radiation is studied. Deaths are analyzed statistically and compared to standardized mortality ratios. Cancer deaths in particular are examined

  20. Integrated open source mine workers compensation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Mine Workers Compensation System developed by the CSIR and Molepe Consulting for the South African Department of Health. Mining activities increase the risk of certain occupational lung diseases. South African legislation...