WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling workers told

  1. Career Development and Older Workers: Study Evaluating Adaptability in Older Workers Using Hall's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Merwyn L.; Torraco, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative case study described the development of adaptive competence in older workers using a Model of Adaptability and Adaptation developed by Dr. Douglas T. Hall (2002). Few studies have focused on the development of adaptability in workers when faced with change and no studies have focused on the development of adaptability in older…

  2. Modeling the predictors of safety behavior in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Phil; Gwak, Han-Seong; Lee, Dong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model that quantifies the causal relations among safety variables (latent variables) and workers' safety behavior (indicator) using statistical data and hypotheses obtained from construction workers and existing literatures, respectively. The safety variables that affect workers' safety behaviors are identified from existing studies and operationalized to measure their causal relations with the workers' behaviors. The model identifies the directions and degrees of the effect of every latent variable on the other latent variables and the indicator. Survey questionnaires were administered to construction workers in South Korea. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, Cronbach's α and structural equation modeling were performed to test the causal hypotheses using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. This study provides the theoretical model that predicts construction workers' safety behavior on construction sites using path diagram and analysis.

  3. Random walk models of worker sorting in ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Van Lent, Jan

    2002-07-21

    Sorting can be an important mechanism for the transfer of information from one level of biological organization to another. Here we study the algorithm underlying worker sorting in Leptothorax ant colonies. Worker sorting is related to task allocation and therefore to the adaptive advantages associated with an efficient system for the division of labour in ant colonies. We considered four spatially explicit individual-based models founded on two-dimensional correlated random walk. Our aim was to establish whether sorting at the level of the worker population could occur with minimal assumptions about the behavioural algorithm of individual workers. The behaviour of an individual worker in the models could be summarized by the rule "move if you can, turn always". We assume that the turning angle of a worker is individually specific and negatively dependent on the magnitude of an internal parameter micro which could be regarded as a measure of individual experience or task specialization. All four models attained a level of worker sortedness that was compatible with results from experiments onLeptothorax ant colonies. We found that the presence of a sorting pivot, such as the nest wall or an attraction force towards the centre of the worker population, was crucial for sorting. We make a distinction between such pivots and templates and discuss the biological implications of their difference.

  4. HOLISTIC MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE WORKER AND MARKET KNOWLEDGE VENTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telemtaev Marat Makhmetovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the creation of model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise and the concept of the market of knowledge of the enterprise and the market of knowledge of a society of knowledge. To purpose achievement it is applied complete-approach of Telemtaev M.M. The contradiction between the market in environment of the enterprise and absence of the market in the internal environment of the enterprise is shown. The role of capitalization of knowledge is shown. A number of new results is received. The general model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise, and three private models of knowledge of the worker entering into it are developed. The Principle of complete-thinking and practice of the worker and the Principle of the organic replenishments of knowledge of the worker are formulated. It is established that a kernel of complete model of knowledge of the worker is set «ability and skill». The concept of technology of the market of knowledge of the enterprise is developed. As a methodological basis of technology of the market of knowledge the Law of industrialization of knowledge, the Law of mechanization of knowledge, the Law technologization knowledge, the Principle of enrichment of knowledge are formulated. Conditions of interaction of the worker and knowledge - PMK-literacy of the worker and FPI-availability of knowledge are established. The received results are sufficient for construction of base models of knowledge of workers and the concept of the market of knowledge of the concrete enterprise that allows the enterprise to create strategy of effective application of knowledge of workers and to develop advancing strategy of occurrence in the market of a society of knowledge.

  5. A Model of Comparative Ethics Education for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2017-01-01

    Social work ethics education models have not effectively engaged social workers in practice in formal ethical reasoning processes, potentially allowing personal bias to affect ethical decisions. Using two of the primary ethical models from medicine, a new social work ethics model for education and practical application is proposed. The strengths…

  6. MEASURE FOR MEASURE: A THRICE TOLD TALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIMAH MOHAMED ALI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Measure for Measure is a difficult play to perform because it has problematic themes, especially the theme of sexuality, that clash with the way of life and thinking of contemporary society. As such, any director who chooses to stage it must consider these difficulties and how to present them in a natural manner without making the audience feel that the whole production is contrived. The directors of the two major productions discussed in this paper tried their best to present a Measure for Measure that would be acceptable to the modern society. It is evident that there are many interpretations of the Duke and Isabella's characters and also of Isabella's reaction to the Duke's proposal at the end of the play. It can be concluded that no interpretation is wrong because each actor or director brings with him his own reading of the play, and every reading has been influenced by other performances and textual criticisms. Since Measure for Measure is a thematically rich play, it should not be confined to a single interpretation. The different performances of Measure for Measure have proven that theatre is experimental as well as ageless. Because it is a brilliant play with a myriad of interpretations, Measure for Measure will not cease to be a favourite for directors in times to come. It is not wrong to predict that fans of Shakespeare in general and of Measure for Measure in particular can look forward to many more productions.For experienced Shakespeare observers all performances are thrice-told tales. The perceiving eye absorbs the performance even as the mind's eye attends to the text. Both are augmented by the inner ear buzzing with those other voices, both critical and dramatic, carried by the observer into the theatre.(Crowl, Samuel 1992: 3

  7. CERN told to start technical thinking for next collider

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    CERN has been told to begin technical design work for the successor to the LHC. A report commissioned last year, suggests that future design work should focus on developping cost-effective high-field magnets (1 page).

  8. Beyond the Model Worker: Surveying a Creative Precariat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greig de Peuter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The figure of the self-reliant, risk-bearing, non-unionised, self-exploiting, always-on flexibly employed worker in the creative industries has been positioned as a role model of contemporary capitalism. Although the notion of the model-worker is a compelling critical diagnostic of the self-management of precarity in post-Fordist times, I argue that it provides an insufficient perspective on labour and the so-called creative economy to the extent that it occludes the capacity to contest among the workforces it represents. Informed by a larger research project, this article thematises salient features of select collective responses to precarity that are emerging from workers in nonstandard employment in the arts, the media, and cultural industries. The discussion is structured in three main parts: the first, ag-gregation, identifies initiatives in which employment status - rather than a specific profession or sector - is the basis of assembly and advocacy; the second, compensation, highlights unpaid work as a growing point of contention across sectors; and the third, occupation, describes cases in which precarious cultural workers are voicing their grievances and engaging in direct action in the context of wider social movements. These dimensions of the contemporary response to precarisation in the creative industries are at risk of being overlooked if the research optic on workers’ strategies is focused upon a single sector or a particular profession. In conclusion, I emphasise that the organisations, campaigns, and proposals that are surveyed in this article are marked by tensions between and among accommodative adaption, incremental improvements, and radical reformism vis-à-vis precarity.

  9. Incorporating Worker-Specific Factors in Operations Management Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Larco Martinelli (Jose)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo add value, manufacturing and service operations depend on workers to do the job. As a result, the performance of these operations is ultimately dependent on the performance of individual workers. Simultaneously, workers are major stakeholders of the firm. Workers spend a considerabl

  10. Utilizing verbally told stories for informal knowledge management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukosch, S.G.; Klebl, M.; Buttler, T.

    2011-01-01

    In knowledge management, the act of telling stories is utilized to capture and convey knowledge. Spoken language is the basis for telling stories. Collaborative audio-based storytelling uses the act of verbally telling stories in groups. In this paper, we explore how to utilize verbally told stories

  11. What I Wish My Professors Had Told Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    What do you wish your undergraduate professors told you before you ever set foot in a classroom? Jennifer Collins, one such professor who prepares pre-service teachers, has a list of six "truths" she shares with her students. In this article, Collins outlines those pieces of advice, which include understanding your larger purpose,…

  12. A theoretical model of co-worker responses to work reintegration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Debra A; Maceachen, Ellen

    2014-06-01

    Emerging research has shown that co-workers have a significant influence on the return-to-work outcomes of partially fit ill or injured employees. By drawing on theoretical findings from the human resource and wider behavioral sciences literatures, our goal was to formulate a theoretical model of the influences on and outcomes of co-worker responses within work reintegration. From a search of 15 data bases covering the social sciences, business and medicine, we identified articles containing models of the factors that influence co-workers' responses to disability accommodations; and, the nature and impact of co-workers' behaviors on employee outcomes. To meet our goal, we combined identified models to form a comprehensive model of the relevant factors and relationships. Internal consistency and externally validity were assessed. The combined model illustrates four key findings: (1) co-workers' behaviors towards an accommodated employee are influenced by attributes of that employee, the illness or injury, the co-worker themselves, and the work environment; (2) the influences-behaviour relationship is mediated by perceptions of the fairness of the accommodation; (3) co-workers' behaviors affect all work reintegration outcomes; and (4) co-workers' behaviours can vary from support to antagonism and are moderated by type of support required, the social intensity of the job, and the level of antagonism. Theoretical models from the wider literature are useful for understanding the impact of co-workers on the work reintegration process. To achieve optimal outcomes, co-workers need to perceive the arrangements as fair. Perceptions of fairness might be supported by co-workers' collaborative engagement in the planning, monitoring and review of work reintegration activities.

  13. Establishment of Comprehensive Evaluation Model of the New Generation Migrant Workers' Employability

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, Jianli; ZHANG, Tongquan

    2013-01-01

    Through literature research and expert interviews, we extract 10 variables influencing the new generation migrant workers' employability, and establish the comprehensive evaluation model of the new generation migrant workers' employability. Using factor analysis, we derive that the model includes three factors: skill literacy, relationship literacy and basic literacy. The weights of each factor are 0.580, 0.244 and 0.174 8, respectively. Skill literacy is affected by skill level, learning abi...

  14. Wage Differentials among Workers in Input-Output Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Luigi

    1981-01-01

    Using an input-output framework, the author derives hypotheses on wage differentials based on the assumption that human capital (in this case, education) will explain workers' wage differentials. The hypothetical wage differentials are tested on data from the Italian economy. (RW)

  15. Testing a Model of Functional Impairment in Telephone Crisis Support Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2016-11-21

    It is well known that helping professionals experience functional impairment related to elevated symptoms of psychological distress as a result of frequent empathic engagement with distressed others. Whether telephone crisis support workers are impacted in a similar way is not currently reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of factors contributing to functional impairment in telephone crisis support workers. A national sample of 210 telephone crisis support workers completed an online survey including measures of emotion regulation, symptoms of general psychological distress and suicidal ideation, intentions to seek help for symptoms, and functional impairment. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the data to the hypothesized model. Goodness-of-fit indices were adequate and supported the interactive effects of emotion regulation, general psychological distress, suicidal ideation, and intentions to seek help for ideation on functional impairment. These results warrant the deliberate management of telephone crisis support workers' impairment through service selection, training, supervision, and professional development strategies. Future research replicating and extending this model will further inform the modification and/or development of strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and delivery of support to callers.

  16. Knowing that you matter, matters! The Interplay of Meaning, Monetary Incentives, and Worker Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kosfeld (Michael); S. Neckermann (Susanne); X. Yang (Xiaoguang)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We manipulate workers' perceived meaning of a job in a field experiment. Half of the workers are informed that their job is important, the other half are told that their job is of no relevance. Results show that workers exert more effort when meaning is high, corroborat

  17. Knowing that you matter, matters! The Interplay of Meaning, Monetary Incentives, and Worker Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kosfeld (Michael); S. Neckermann (Susanne); X. Yang (Xiaoguang)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We manipulate workers' perceived meaning of a job in a field experiment. Half of the workers are informed that their job is important, the other half are told that their job is of no relevance. Results show that workers exert more effort when meaning is high,

  18. Test of the Fishbein and Ajzen models as predictors of health care workers' glove use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, P F

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of health care workers' glove use when there is a potential for blood exposure. The study hypothesis was that an extension of the theory of planned behavior would explain more of the variance in glove use behavior than the theory of reasoned action or theory of planned behavior. A random sample of nurses and laboratory workers (N = 527) completed a 26-item questionnaire with acceptable content validity and reliability estimates. Using structural equation modeling techniques, intention, attitude, and perceived risk were significant predictors of behavior. Perceived control and attitude were the significant determinants of intention. The theory of reasoned action was the most parsimonious model, explaining 70% of the variance in glove use behavior. The theory of planned behavior extension was a viable model to study behavior related to glove use and reducing workers' risks to bloodborne diseases.

  19. Modeling Dental Health Care Workers' Risk of Occupational Infection from Bloodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilouto, Eli; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The brief paper offers a model which permits quantification of the dental health care workers' risk of occupationally acquiring infection from bloodborne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. The model incorporates five parameters such as the probability that any individual patient is infected and number of patients…

  20. Influence of Role Models and Hospital Design on the Hand Hygiene of Health-Care Workers

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the effect of medical staff role models and the number of health-care worker sinks on hand-hygiene compliance before and after construction of a new hospital designed for increased access to handwashing sinks. We observed health-care worker hand hygiene in four nursing units that provided similar patient care in both the old and new hospitals: medical and surgical intensive care, hematology/oncology, and solid organ transplant units. Of 721 hand-hygiene opportunities, 304 (42%) we...

  1. Problems of Quality of Migrant Workers and Countermeasures from the Perspective of Iceberg Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Iceberg Model,we analyze levels and structures of quality of migrant workers from knowledge,skills,social role, self-cognition,traits and motives. On the basis of these situations,we put forward countermeasures: value rural education and enhance skill training; make clear occupational planning and set up correct sense of value; assist migrant workers in facing the reality and adjusting their state of mind in working; coordinate interest relationship and call upon social care; rebuild mental world and construct harmonious society.

  2. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  3. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  4. Transition probabilities of health states for workers in Malaysia using a Markov chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsuddin, Shamshimah; Ismail, Noriszura

    2017-04-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate the transition probabilities of health states for workers in Malaysia who contribute to the Employment Injury Scheme under the Social Security Organization Malaysia using the Markov chain model. Our study uses four states of health (active, temporary disability, permanent disability and death) based on the data collected from the longitudinal studies of workers in Malaysia for 5 years. The transition probabilities vary by health state, age and gender. The results show that men employees are more likely to have higher transition probabilities to any health state compared to women employees. The transition probabilities can be used to predict the future health of workers in terms of a function of current age, gender and health state.

  5. Modeling community integration in workers with delayed recovery from mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollayeva, T.; Shapiro, C. M.; Mollayeva, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delayed recovery in persons after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is poorly understood. Community integration (CI) is endorsed by persons with neurological disorders as an important outcome. We aimed to describe CI and its associated factors in insured Ontario workers with delayed...... recovery following mTBI. Methods: A cross-sectional study of insured workers in the chronic phase following mTBI was performed at a rehabilitation hospital in Ontario, Canada. Sociodemographic, occupational, injury-related, clinical, and claim-related data were collected from self-reports, medical...... assessments, and insurers' referral files. Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) scores were compared using analysis of variance or Spearman's correlation tests. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations with CI. Results: Ninety-four workers with mTBI (45...

  6. A risk prediction model of the incidence of occupational low back pain among mining workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikry Effendi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back Pain (LBP is the most frequently reported musculoskeletal disorder in workers. This study was aimed to develop risk prediction model of low back pain that can be used to prevent the recurring low back pain attack.Methods: The study was case-control design based on the industrial community by using ergonomical approach. Total samples were 91 workers for cases and 91 workers for controls. Workers suffering for low back pain in the last 6 months served as cases, and those from the same age group and receiving the same amount of exposure without any symptoms of low back pain served as controls. Risk factors include socio-demographic factors, socio-ocupational factors, physical working environmental factors, non-physical environmental factors, and biomechanics factors. Receiver Operating Characreistics (ROC was used to describe relationship between true positive value (in vertical axis and false positive value (in horizontal axis in order to discover a risk predictive value of LBP.Results: The determinant risk factors for low back pain (LBP were bending work postures, waist rotation movement, manual lifting, unnatural work postures, those who had worked for more than 18 years, and irregular sport activities. By using ROC with 91.20% senstivity and 87.90% spesifi city, the calculated prediction value was 0.35. This is the cut-off point to discriminate workers with and without LBP. The risk predictors value of work-induced LBP calculated by linear equation of logistic regression varied between 0-11.25.Conclusion: The prediction model of work-induced LBP can be used for early detection of LBP to reduce the risk and prevent the recurrence of LBP. (Med J Indones. 2011; 20:212-6Keywords: Ergonomy, low back pain, prediction model, work-induced LBP

  7. Towards greater realism in inclusive fitness models: the case of worker reproduction in insect societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Helanterä, Heikki; Alves, Denise A; Dueñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Pamilo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    The conflicts over sex allocation and male production in insect societies have long served as an important test bed for Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, but have for the most part been considered separately. Here, we develop new coevolutionary models to examine the interaction between these two conflicts and demonstrate that sex ratio and colony productivity costs of worker reproduction can lead to vastly different outcomes even in species that show no variation in their relatedness structure. Empirical data on worker-produced males in eight species of Melipona bees support the predictions from a model that takes into account the demographic details of colony growth and reproduction. Overall, these models contribute significantly to explaining behavioural variation that previous theories could not account for.

  8. The Age-Competency Model to the Study of the Age-Wage Profiles for Workers

    CERN Document Server

    Maximov, S I

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I present a new approach and a novel model to the study of the life cycle of wages. The key idea is that wage can be thought as remuneration paid for the competency. It is assumed with the approach that there are three mechanisms acting at micro level and resulting in the change of workers' competencies during their lives. These are an endogenous growth of workers' initial competencies; a rate of investments in schooling in the life cycle of wages; and an effect of relative losses in workers' competencies. The developed model is to shed light on the processes resulting in the age-wage profiles seen in mass. The model obeys a nonlinear integro-differential equation. The found analytic solution of the equation has the form of Fisk PDF of a special type. The solution and its features are discussed. The regression technique is used to check the model upon reliability. The model provides better fitting to the data (Elo and Salonen, 2004) than minceraninan earnings function (Mincer, 1974) does.

  9. A system dynamics approach for modeling construction workers' safety attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mingyu; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Park, Moonseo; Moon, Myunggi; Han, Sangwon

    2014-07-01

    Construction accidents are caused by an unsafe act (i.e., a person's behavior or activity that deviates from normal accepted safe procedure) and/or an unsafe condition (i.e., a hazard or an unsafe mechanical or physical environment). While there has been dramatic improvement in creating safer construction environments, relatively little is known regarding the elimination of construction workers' unsafe acts. To address this deficiency, this paper aims to develop a system dynamics (SD)-based model of construction workers' mental processes that can help analyze the feedback mechanisms and the resultant dynamics regarding the workers' safety attitudes and safe behaviors. The developed model is applied to examine the effectiveness of three safety improvement policies: incentives for safe behaviors, and increased levels of communication and immersion in accidents. Application of the model verifies the strong potential of the developed model to provide a better understanding of how to eliminate unsafe acts, and to function as a robust test-bed to assess the effectiveness of safety programs or training sessions before their implementation.

  10. Chemometrics models for assessment of oxidative stress risk in chrome-electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed Vahid; Azari, Mansoor R; Hosseini, Vajihe; Mohammadi, Hamidreza

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress is the main cause of hexavalant chromium-induced damage in chrome electroplating workers. The main goal of this study is toxicity analysis and the possibility of toxicity risk categorizing in the chrome electroplating workers based on oxidative stress parameters as prognostic variables. We assessed blood chromium levels and biomarkers of oxidative stress such as lipid peroxidation, thiol (SH) groups and antioxidant capacity of plasma. Data were subjected to principle component analysis (PCA) and artificial neuronal network (ANN) to obtain oxidative stress pattern for chrome electroplating workers. Blood chromium levels increased from 4.42 ppb to 10.6 ppb. Induction of oxidative stress was observed by increased in lipid peroxidation (22.38 ± 10.47 μM versus 14.74 ± 4.82 μM, p < 0.0008), decreased plasma antioxidant capacity (3.17 ± 1.35 μM versus 7.74 ± 4.45 μM, p < 0.0001) and plasma total thiol (SH groups) (0.21 ± 0.07 μM versus 0.45 ± 0.41 μM, p < 0.0042) in comparison to controls. Based on the oxidative parameters, two groups were identified by PCA methods. One category is workers with the risk of oxidative stress and second group is subjects with probable risk of oxidative stress induction. ANN methods can predict oxidative-risk category for assessment of toxicity induction in chrome electroplaters. The result showed multivariate modeling can be interpreted as the induced biochemical toxicity in the workers exposed to hexavalent chromium. Different occupation groups were assessed on the basis of risk level of oxidative stress which could further justify proceeding engineering control measures.

  11. Cost Comparison Model: Blended eLearning versus traditional training of community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissine, Mysha; Segan, Robert; Taylor, Mathew; Jefferson, Bobby; Borrelli, Alice; Koehler, Mohandas; Chelvayohan, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Another one million community healthcare workers are needed to address the growing global population and increasing demand of health care services. This paper describes a cost comparison between two training approaches to better understand costs implications of training community health workers (CHWs) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our team created a prospective model to forecast and compare the costs of two training methods as described in the Dalburge Report - (1) a traditional didactic training approach ("baseline") and (2) a blended eLearning training approach ("blended"). After running the model for training 100,000 CHWs, we compared the results and scaled up those results to one million CHWs. A substantial difference exists in total costs between the baseline and blended training programs. RESULTS indicate that using a blended eLearning approach for training community health care workers could provide a total cost savings of 42%. Scaling the model to one million CHWs, the blended eLearning training approach reduces total costs by 25%. The blended eLearning savings are a result of decreased classroom time, thereby reducing the costs associated with travel, trainers and classroom costs; and using a tablet with WiFi plus a feature phone rather than a smartphone with data plan. The results of this cost analysis indicate significant savings through using a blended eLearning approach in comparison to a traditional didactic method for CHW training by as much as 67%. These results correspond to the Dalberg publication which indicates that using a blended eLearning approach is an opportunity for closing the gap in training community health care workers.

  12. Workshop on electronic and ionic collision cross sections needed in the modeling of radiation interactions with matter: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The term modeling in the Workship title refers to the mathematical analysis of the consequences of many collision processes for characterizing the physical stage of radiation actions. It requires as input some knowledge of collision cross sections. Traditionally, work on cross sections and work on the modeling are conducted by separate groups of scientists. It was the purpose of the Workshop to bring these two groups together in a forum that would promote effective communication. Cross-section workers described the status of their work and told what data were available or trustworthy. Modeling workers told what kind of data were needed or were most important. Twenty-two items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base.

  13. Influence of role models and hospital design on hand hygiene of healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Mary G; Zembower, Teresa R; Trick, William E; Hacek, Donna M; Noskin, Gary A; Peterson, Lance R

    2003-02-01

    We assessed the effect of medical staff role models and the number of health-care worker sinks on hand-hygiene compliance before and after construction of a new hospital designed for increased access to handwashing sinks. We observed health-care worker hand hygiene in four nursing units that provided similar patient care in both the old and new hospitals: medical and surgical intensive care, hematology/oncology, and solid organ transplant units. Of 721 hand-hygiene opportunities, 304 (42%) were observed in the old hospital and 417 (58%) in the new hospital. Hand-hygiene compliance was significantly better in the old hospital (161/304; 53%) compared to the new hospital (97/417; 23.3%) (pwash hands were significantly less likely to wash their own hands (odds ratio 0.2; confidence interval 0.1 to 0.5); phand-hygiene compliance is influenced significantly by the behavior of other health-care workers. An increased number of hand-washing sinks, as a sole measure, did not increase hand-hygiene compliance.

  14. Estimated Nutritive Value of Low-Price Model Lunch Sets Provided to Garment Workers in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Makurat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods: Exemplary lunch sets were served to female workers through a temporary canteen at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Dish samples were collected repeatedly to examine mean serving sizes of individual ingredients. Food composition tables and NutriSurvey software were used to assess mean amounts and contributions to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs or adequate intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fiber, vitamin C (VitC, iron, vitamin A (VitA, folate and vitamin B12 (VitB12. Results: On average, lunch sets provided roughly one third of RDA or adequate intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fiber. Contribution to RDA of protein was high (46% RDA. The sets contained a high mean share of VitC (159% RDA, VitA (66% RDA, and folate (44% RDA, but were low in VitB12 (29% RDA and iron (20% RDA. Conclusions: Overall, lunches satisfied recommendations of caloric content and macronutrient composition. Sets on average contained a beneficial amount of VitC, VitA and folate. Adjustments are needed for a higher iron content. Alternative iron-rich foods are expected to be better suited, compared to increasing portions of costly meat/fish components. Lunch provision at Cambodian garment factories holds the potential to improve food security of workers, approximately at costs of <1 USD/person/day at large scale. Data on quantitative total dietary intake as well as physical activity among workers are needed to further optimize the concept of staff canteens.

  15. Marginal structural modelling of associations of occupational injuries with voluntary and involuntary job loss among nursing home workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra Adiba; Bacic, Janine; Velasquez, Esther; Hammer, Leslie B

    2016-03-01

    Qualitative studies have highlighted the possibility of job loss following occupational injuries for some workers, but prospective investigations are scant. We used a sample of nursing home workers from the Work, Family and Health Network to prospectively investigate association between occupational injuries and job loss. We merged data on 1331 workers assessed 4 times over an 18-month period with administrative data that include job loss from employers and publicly available data on their workplaces. Workers self-reported occupational injuries in surveys. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated risk ratios for the impact of occupational injuries on overall job loss, whereas multinomial models were used to estimate OR of voluntary and involuntary job loss. Use of marginal structural models allowed for adjustments of multilevel lists of confounders that may be time varying and/or on the causal pathway. By 12 months, 30.3% of workers experienced occupational injury, whereas 24.2% experienced job loss by 18 months. Comparing workers who reported occupational injuries to those reporting no injuries, risk ratio of overall job loss within the subsequent 6 months was 1.31 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.86). Comparing the same groups, injured workers had higher odds of experiencing involuntary job loss (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.77). Also, compared with uninjured workers, those injured more than once had higher odds of voluntary job loss (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.67), while those injured once had higher odds of involuntary job loss (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.18 to 4.05). Despite regulatory protections, occupational injuries were associated with increased risk of voluntary and involuntary job loss for nursing home workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Experiences in disaster-related mental health relief work: An exploratory model for the interprofessional training of psychological relief workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, ZhengJia; Wang, HongTao; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to begin to generate an exploratory model of the disaster-related mental health education process associated with the training experiences of psychological relief workers active during the Sichuan earthquake in China. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 20 psychological relief workers from four different professions (social workers, psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, and counsellors) regarding their experiences in training and ideas for improvement. The model explains the need to use a people-centred community interprofessional education approach, which focuses on role-modelling of the trainer, caring for relief workers, paying attention to the needs of the trainee, and building systematic interprofessional education strategies. The proposed model identifies areas for the comprehensive training of relief workers and aims to address the importance of people-centred mental health service provisions, ensure intentional and strategic training of relief workers using interprofessional concepts and strategies, and use culturally attuned and community-informed strategies in mental health training practices.

  17. Work-related stress according to the demand-control model and minor psychic disorders in nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete de Souza Urbanetto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study that aimed to assess the association between work-related stress according to the Demand-Control Model, and the occurrence of Minor Psychic Disorder (MPD in nursing workers. The participants were 335 professionals, out of which 245 were nursing technicians, aged predominantly between 20 and 40 years. Data were collected using the Job Stress Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. The analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The prevalence of suspected MPD was 20.6%. Workers classified in the quadrants active job and high strain of the Demand-Control Model presented higher potential for developing MPD compared with those classified in the quadrant low strain. In conclusion, stress affects the mental health of workers and the aspects related to high psychological demands and high control still require further insight in order to understand their influence on the disease processes of nursing workers.

  18. [Work-related stress according to the Demand-Control Model and Minor Psychic Disorder in nursing workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanetto, Janete de Souza; Magalhães, Maria Cristina Cademartori; Maciel, Vanessa Oreda; Sant'Anna, Viviane Massena; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza

    2013-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study that aimed to assess the association between work-related stress according to the Demand-Control Model, and the occurrence of Minor Psychic Disorder (MPD) in nursing workers. The participants were 335 professionals, out of which 245 were nursing technicians, aged predominantly between 20 and 40 years. Data were collected using the Job Stress Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. The analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The prevalence of suspected MPD was 20.6%. Workers classified in the quadrants active job and high strain of the Demand-Control Model presented higher potential for developing MPD compared with those classified in the quadrant low strain. In conclusion, stress affects the mental health of workers and the aspects related to high psychological demands and high control still require further insight in order to understand their influence on the disease processes of nursing workers.

  19. Salud Para Su Corazon (Health for Your Heart) Community Health Worker Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H.; Alvarado, M.; Ortiz, G.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy. PMID:21914992

  20. Beyond two-stage models for lung carcinogenesis in the Mayak workers: implications for plutonium risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Zöllner

    Full Text Available Mechanistic multi-stage models are used to analyze lung-cancer mortality after Plutonium exposure in the Mayak-workers cohort, with follow-up until 2008. Besides the established two-stage model with clonal expansion, models with three mutation stages as well as a model with two distinct pathways to cancer are studied. The results suggest that three-stage models offer an improved description of the data. The best-fitting models point to a mechanism where radiation increases the rate of clonal expansion. This is interpreted in terms of changes in cell-cycle control mediated by bystander signaling or repopulation following cell killing. No statistical evidence for a two-pathway model is found. To elucidate the implications of the different models for radiation risk, several exposure scenarios are studied. Models with a radiation effect at an early stage show a delayed response and a pronounced drop-off with older ages at exposure. Moreover, the dose-response relationship is strongly nonlinear for all three-stage models, revealing a marked increase above a critical dose.

  1. Dealing with Conflicting Information: Young Children's Reliance on What They See versus What They Are Told

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lili; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Children often learn about the world through direct observation. However, much of children's knowledge is acquired through the testimony of others. This research investigates how preschoolers weigh these two sources of information when they are in conflict. Children watched as an adult hid a toy in one location. Then the adult told children that…

  2. Dancing with the Devil and Other Stories My Mother Told Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, E. Michael

    2009-01-01

    "Dancing with the Devil and Other Stories My Mother Told Me" is an analysis of the history and growth of a popular folktale genre that developed during the 15th century in Mexico and has persisted over time throughout the Southwest. The oral tradition and the telling of folktales are means by which the cultural traditions of people of Mexican…

  3. Dancing with the Devil and Other Stories My Mother Told Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, E. Michael

    2009-01-01

    "Dancing with the Devil and Other Stories My Mother Told Me" is an analysis of the history and growth of a popular folktale genre that developed during the 15th century in Mexico and has persisted over time throughout the Southwest. The oral tradition and the telling of folktales are means by which the cultural traditions of people of…

  4. Modelling worker physical health and societal sustainability at farm level: an application to conventional and organic dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Farm-level modelling can be used to determine how farming systems and individual farm-management measures influence different sustainability indicators. Until now however, worker physical health and societal sustainability have been lacking in farm models. For this paper, we first selected attribute

  5. Choice Model and Influencing Factor Analysis of Travel Mode for Migrant Workers: Case Study in Xi’an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the basic theory and methods of disaggregate choice model, the influencing factors in travel mode choice for migrant workers are analyzed, according to 1366 data samples of Xi’an migrant workers. Walking, bus, subway, and taxi are taken as the alternative parts of travel modes for migrant workers, and a multinomial logit (MNL model of travel mode for migrant workers is set up. The validity of the model is verified by the hit rate, and the hit rates of four travel modes are all greater than 80%. Finally, the influence of different factors affecting the choice of travel mode is analyzed in detail, and the inelasticity of each factor is analyzed with the elasticity theory. Influencing factors such as age, education level, and monthly gross income have significant impact on travel choice mode for migrant workers. The elasticity values of education degree are greater than 1, indicating that it on the travel mode choice is of elasticity, while the elasticity values of gender, industry distribution, and travel purpose are less than 1, indicating that these factors on travel mode choice are of inelasticity.

  6. Protein purification and crystallization artifacts: The tale usually not told.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzialkowska, Ewa; Gasiorowska, Olga; Handing, Katarzyna B; Majorek, Karolina A; Porebski, Przemyslaw J; Shabalin, Ivan G; Zasadzinska, Ewelina; Cymborowski, Marcin; Minor, Wladek

    2016-03-01

    The misidentification of a protein sample, or contamination of a sample with the wrong protein, may be a potential reason for the non-reproducibility of experiments. This problem may occur in the process of heterologous overexpression and purification of recombinant proteins, as well as purification of proteins from natural sources. If the contaminated or misidentified sample is used for crystallization, in many cases the problem may not be detected until structures are determined. In the case of functional studies, the problem may not be detected for years. Here several procedures that can be successfully used for the identification of crystallized protein contaminants, including: (i) a lattice parameter search against known structures, (ii) sequence or fold identification from partially built models, and (iii) molecular replacement with common contaminants as search templates have been presented. A list of common contaminant structures to be used as alternative search models was provided. These methods were used to identify four cases of purification and crystallization artifacts. This report provides troubleshooting pointers for researchers facing difficulties in phasing or model building.

  7. Pulmonary deposition modeling with airborne fiber exposure data: a study of workers manufacturing refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Thomas J; Rice, Carol H; Succop, Paul A; Lockey, James E; Dement, John M; LeMasters, Grace K

    2003-04-01

    Increasing production of refractory ceramic fiber (RCF), a synthetic vitreous material with industrial applications (e.g., kiln insulation), has created interest in potential respiratory effects of exposure to airborne fibers during manufacturing. An ongoing study of RCF manufacturing workers in the United States has indicated an association between cumulative fiber exposure and pleural plaques. Fiber sizing data, obtained from electron microscopy analyses of 118 air samples collected in three independent studies over a 20-year period (1976-1995), were used with a computer deposition model to estimate pulmonary dose of fibers of specified dimensions for 652 former and current RCF production workers. Separate dose correction factors reflecting differences in fiber dimensions in six uniform job title groups were used with data on airborne fiber concentration and employment duration to calculate cumulative dose estimates for each worker. From review of the literature, critical dimensions (diameter <0.4 microm, length <10 microm) were defined for fibers that may translocate to the parietal pleura. Each of three continuous exposure/dose metrics analyzed in separate logistic regression models was significantly related to plaques, even after adjusting for possible past asbestos exposure: cumulative fiber exposure, chi(2) = 15.2 (p < 0.01); cumulative pulmonary dose (all fibers), chi(2) = 14.6 (p < 0.01); cumulative pulmonary dose (critical dimension fibers), chi(2) = 12.4 (p < 0.01). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for levels of each metric. Increasing ORs were statistically significant for the two highest dose levels of critical dimension fibers (level three, OR = 11, 95%CI = [1.4, 98]; level four, OR = 25, 95%CI = [3.2, 190]). Similar associations existed for all metrics after adjustment for possible asbestos exposure. It was concluded that development of pleural plaques follows exposure- and dose-response patterns, and that airborne fibers in RCF manufacturing

  8. Violence, stigma and mental health among female sex workers in China: A structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Xu, Jinping; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-05-26

    Intimate partner violence is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China, and it is significantly associated with mental health problems among FSWs. However, limited studies have explored the mechanisms/process by which violence affects mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among partner violence, internalized stigma, and mental health problems among FSWs. Data were collected using a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered to 1,022 FSWs in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), China during 2008-2009. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that violence perpetrated by either stable sexual partners or clients was directly and positively associated with mental health problems. Violence also had an indirect relation to mental health problems through stigma. Results highlight the need for interventions on counseling and care for FSWs who have experienced violence and for interventions to increase FSWs' coping skills and empowerment strategies.

  9. Opportunities for Using Building Information Modeling to Improve Worker Safety Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Alomari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM enables the creation of a digital representation of a designed facility combined with additional information about the project attributes, performance criteria, and construction process. Users of BIM tools point to the ability to visualize the final design along with the construction process as a beneficial feature of using BIM. Knowing the construction process in relationship to a facility’s design benefits both safety professionals when planning worker safety measures for a project and designers when creating a project’s design. Success in using BIM to enhance safety partly depends on the familiarity of project personnel with BIM tools and the extent to which the tools can be used to identify and eliminate safety hazards. In a separate, ongoing study, the authors investigated the connection between BIM and safety to document the opportunities, barriers, and impacts. Utilizing an on-line survey of project engineers who work for construction firms together with a comprehensive literature review, the study found those who use BIM feel that it aids in communication of project information and project delivery, both of which have been found to have positive impacts on construction site safety. Further, utilizing the survey results, the authors apply the binary logistic regression econometric framework to better understand the factors that lead to safety professionals believing that BIM increases safety in the work place. In addition, according to the survey results, a large percentage of the engineers who use BIM feel that ultimately it helps to eliminate safety hazards and improve worker safety. The study findings suggest that improvements in safety performance across the construction industry may be due in part to increased use of BIM in the construction industry.

  10. Core competency requirements among extension workers in peninsular Malaysia: Use of Borich's needs assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sulaiman; Man, Norsida; Nawi, Nolila Mohd; Latif, Ismail Abd; Samah, Bahaman Abu

    2017-06-01

    The study described the perceived importance of, and proficiency in core agricultural extension competencies among extension workers in Peninsular Malaysia; and evaluating the resultant deficits in the competencies. The Borich's Needs Assessment Model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. A sample of 298 respondents was randomly selected and interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Thirty-three core competency items were assessed. Instrument validity and reliability were ensured. The cross-sectional data obtained was analysed using SPSS for descriptive statistics including mean weighted discrepancy score (MWDS). Results of the study showed that on a scale of 5, the most important core extension competency items according to respondents' perception were: "Making good use of information and communication technologies/access and use of web-based resources" (M=4.86, SD=0.23); "Conducting needs assessments" (M=4.84, SD=0.16); "organizing extension campaigns" (M=4.82, SD=0.47) and "Managing groups and teamwork" (M=4.81, SD=0.76). In terms of proficiency, the highest competency identified by the respondents was "Conducting farm and home visits (M=3.62, SD=0.82) followed by 'conducting meetings effectively' (M=3.19, SD=0.72); "Conducting focus group discussions" (M=3.16, SD=0.32) and "conducting community forums" (M=3.13, SD=0.64). The discrepancies implying competency deficits were widest in "Acquiring and allocating resources" (MWDS=12.67); use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and web-based resources in agricultural extension (MWDS=12.59); and report writing and sharing the results and impacts (MWDS=11.92). It is recommended that any intervention aimed at developing the capacity of extension workers in Peninsular Malaysia should prioritize these core competency items in accordance with the deficits established in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proactive Personality and Training Motivation among Older Workers: A Mediational Model of Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Ilaria; Dordoni, Paola; Piccoli, Beatrice; Bellotto, Massimo; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at examining the relationship between proactive personality and training motivation among older workers (aged over 55 years) in a context characterized by the growing ageing of the global population. First, the authors hypothesized that proactive personality predicts the motivation to learn among older workers and that…

  12. Proactive Personality and Training Motivation among Older Workers: A Mediational Model of Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Ilaria; Dordoni, Paola; Piccoli, Beatrice; Bellotto, Massimo; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at examining the relationship between proactive personality and training motivation among older workers (aged over 55 years) in a context characterized by the growing ageing of the global population. First, the authors hypothesized that proactive personality predicts the motivation to learn among older workers and that…

  13. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions.

  14. Increasing the delivery of health care services to migrant farm worker families through a community partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Ann; Rainer, Laura P; Simcox, Jordan B; Thomisee, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The Farm Worker Family Health Program (FWFHP) is a 13-year community partnership model designed to increase delivery of health care services for migrant farm worker families. During a yearly 2-week immersion experience, 90 students and faculty members provide health care services, including physical examinations, health screenings, health education, physical therapy, and dental care for 1,000 migrant farm workers and migrant children. Students and faculty members gain a deeper appreciation of the health and social issues that migrant farm worker families face by providing health care services in the places where migrant families live, work, and are educated. Although the model is not unique, it is significant because of its sustained history, interdisciplinary collaboration among community and academic partners, mutual trust and connections among the partners, and the way the program is tailored to meet the needs of the population served. The principles of social responsibility and leadership frame the FWFHP experience. This community partnership model can be replicated by others working with at-risk populations in low-resource settings.

  15. A Model of Supervisor Decision-Making in the Accommodation of Workers with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Kristman, Vicki; Shaw, William S; Soklaridis, Sophie; Reguly, Paula

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To explore supervisors' perspectives and decision-making processes in the accommodation of back injured workers. Methods Twenty-three semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with supervisors from eleven Canadian organizations about their role in providing job accommodations. Supervisors were identified through an on-line survey and interviews were recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo software. The initial analyses identified common units of meaning, which were used to develop a coding guide. Interviews were coded, and a model of supervisor decision-making was developed based on the themes, categories and connecting ideas identified in the data. Results The decision-making model includes a process element that is described as iterative "trial and error" decision-making. Medical restrictions are compared to job demands, employee abilities and available alternatives. A feasible modification is identified through brainstorming and then implemented by the supervisor. Resources used for brainstorming include information, supervisor experience and autonomy, and organizational supports. The model also incorporates the experience of accommodation as a job demand that causes strain for the supervisor. Accommodation demands affect the supervisor's attitude, brainstorming and monitoring effort, and communication with returning employees. Resources and demands have a combined effect on accommodation decision complexity, which in turn affects the quality of the accommodation option selected. If the employee is unable to complete the tasks or is reinjured during the accommodation, the decision cycle repeats. More frequent iteration through the trial and error process reduces the likelihood of return to work success. Conclusion A series of propositions is developed to illustrate the relationships among categories in the model. The model and propositions show: (a) the iterative, problem solving nature of the RTW process; (b) decision resources necessary

  16. The impact of syphilis screening among female sex workers in China: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M Mitchell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In China, female sex workers (FSWs are at high risk of syphilis infection, but are hard to reach for interventions. Point-of-care testing introduces opportunities for expanding syphilis control measures. Modelling is used to estimate the impact of using rapid tests to screen FSWs for syphilis. In other settings, modelling has predicted large rebounds in infectious syphilis following screening, which may undermine any impact achieved. METHODS: A deterministic syphilis transmission model among FSWs and clients was fitted to data from Yunnan Province (FSW syphilis prevalence = 7.5%, and used to estimate the impact of rapid syphilis testing and treatment for FSWs. Impact projections were compared for different model structures that included risk heterogeneity amongst FSWs, incoming syphilis infections amongst new FSWs and clients and re-infection from FSWs' regular non-commercial partners. The rebound in syphilis prevalence after screening ceased was explored. RESULTS: All model structures suggest yearly syphilis screening could substantially reduce (by 72-88% syphilis prevalence amongst FSWs in this setting over five years. However, incoming syphilis infections amongst new FSWs and clients or re-infections from regular non-commercial partners of FSWs can considerably reduce (>30% the proportion of infections averted. Including heterogeneity in risk amongst FSWs had little effect upon the proportion of infections averted. In this setting, the rebound in syphilis prevalence after screening ceased is predicted to be slight, but it could be large in high prevalence settings. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid test screening could dramatically reduce syphilis prevalence amongst hard-to-reach groups, but strategies to reduce re-infection from regular non-commercial partners are needed to maximise impact.

  17. The Impact of Syphilis Screening among Female Sex Workers in China: A Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kate M.; Cox, Andrew P.; Mabey, David; Tucker, Joseph D.; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Vickerman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background In China, female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of syphilis infection, but are hard to reach for interventions. Point-of-care testing introduces opportunities for expanding syphilis control measures. Modelling is used to estimate the impact of using rapid tests to screen FSWs for syphilis. In other settings, modelling has predicted large rebounds in infectious syphilis following screening, which may undermine any impact achieved. Methods A deterministic syphilis transmission model among FSWs and clients was fitted to data from Yunnan Province (FSW syphilis prevalence = 7.5%), and used to estimate the impact of rapid syphilis testing and treatment for FSWs. Impact projections were compared for different model structures that included risk heterogeneity amongst FSWs, incoming syphilis infections amongst new FSWs and clients and re-infection from FSWs' regular non-commercial partners. The rebound in syphilis prevalence after screening ceased was explored. Results All model structures suggest yearly syphilis screening could substantially reduce (by 72–88%) syphilis prevalence amongst FSWs in this setting over five years. However, incoming syphilis infections amongst new FSWs and clients or re-infections from regular non-commercial partners of FSWs can considerably reduce (>30%) the proportion of infections averted. Including heterogeneity in risk amongst FSWs had little effect upon the proportion of infections averted. In this setting, the rebound in syphilis prevalence after screening ceased is predicted to be slight, but it could be large in high prevalence settings. Conclusions Rapid test screening could dramatically reduce syphilis prevalence amongst hard-to-reach groups, but strategies to reduce re-infection from regular non-commercial partners are needed to maximise impact. PMID:23383249

  18. A model of supervisor decision-making in the accommodation of workers with low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Kristman, Vicki; Shaw, William S.; Soklaridis, Sophie; Reguly, Paula

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To explore supervisors’ perspectives and decision-making processes in the accommodation of back injured workers. METHODS Twenty-three semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with supervisors from eleven Canadian organizations about their role in providing job accommodations. Supervisors were identified through an on-line survey and interviews were recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo software. The initial analyses identified common units of meaning, which were used to develop a coding guide. Interviews were coded, and a model of supervisor decision-making was developed based on the themes, categories and connecting ideas identified in the data. RESULTS The decision-making model includes a process element that is described as iterative “trial and error” decision-making. Medical restrictions are compared to job demands, employee abilities and available alternatives. A feasible modification is identified through brainstorming and then implemented by the supervisor. Resources used for brainstorming include information, supervisor experience and autonomy, and organizational supports. The model also incorporates the experience of accommodation as a job demand that causes strain for the supervisor. Accommodation demands affect the supervisor’s attitude, brainstorming and monitoring effort and communication with returning employees. Resources and demands have a combined effect on accommodation decision complexity, which in turn affects the quality of the accommodation option selected. If the employee is unable to complete the tasks or is reinjured during the accommodation, the decision cycle repeats. More frequent iteration through the trial and error process reduces the likelihood of return to work success. CONCLUSIONS A series of propositions is developed to illustrate the relationships among categories in the model. The model and propositions show: a) the iterative, problem solving nature of the RTW process; b) decision resources

  19. Lévy Flights and Self-Similar Exploratory Behaviour of Termite Workers: Beyond Model Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Octavio; DeSouza, Og; Paiva, Leticia Ribeiro; Marins, Alessandra; Orozco, Sirio

    2014-01-01

    Animal movements have been related to optimal foraging strategies where self-similar trajectories are central. Most of the experimental studies done so far have focused mainly on fitting statistical models to data in order to test for movement patterns described by power-laws. Here we show by analyzing over half a million movement displacements that isolated termite workers actually exhibit a range of very interesting dynamical properties –including Lévy flights– in their exploratory behaviour. Going beyond the current trend of statistical model fitting alone, our study analyses anomalous diffusion and structure functions to estimate values of the scaling exponents describing displacement statistics. We evince the fractal nature of the movement patterns and show how the scaling exponents describing termite space exploration intriguingly comply with mathematical relations found in the physics of transport phenomena. By doing this, we rescue a rich variety of physical and biological phenomenology that can be potentially important and meaningful for the study of complex animal behavior and, in particular, for the study of how patterns of exploratory behaviour of individual social insects may impact not only their feeding demands but also nestmate encounter patterns and, hence, their dynamics at the social scale. PMID:25353958

  20. Levy flights and self-similar exploratory behaviour of termite workers: beyond model fitting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Miramontes

    Full Text Available Animal movements have been related to optimal foraging strategies where self-similar trajectories are central. Most of the experimental studies done so far have focused mainly on fitting statistical models to data in order to test for movement patterns described by power-laws. Here we show by analyzing over half a million movement displacements that isolated termite workers actually exhibit a range of very interesting dynamical properties--including Lévy flights--in their exploratory behaviour. Going beyond the current trend of statistical model fitting alone, our study analyses anomalous diffusion and structure functions to estimate values of the scaling exponents describing displacement statistics. We evince the fractal nature of the movement patterns and show how the scaling exponents describing termite space exploration intriguingly comply with mathematical relations found in the physics of transport phenomena. By doing this, we rescue a rich variety of physical and biological phenomenology that can be potentially important and meaningful for the study of complex animal behavior and, in particular, for the study of how patterns of exploratory behaviour of individual social insects may impact not only their feeding demands but also nestmate encounter patterns and, hence, their dynamics at the social scale.

  1. Teleconference Use among Office Workers: An Interorganizational Comparison of an Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Hing Lo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From a corporate social responsibility perspective, there are many reasons to promote teleconference use as an alternative to business travel. The present study examines psychosocial and organizational factors relevant to teleconference use. We tested an extended Theory of Planned Behavior model of teleconference use among office workers of four organizations. Results indicate that intention was the strongest direct predictor of teleconference use. Habit and perceived norm, in turn, were the strongest predictors of intention to use teleconference. In contrast, attitude was only weakly predictive and perceived control not predictive at all of intention to use teleconference. We also examined how this model was influenced by the organizational context by comparing organizations from two different regions, and organizations from the private vs. the public sector. Most teleconference-related beliefs differed between regions and organizational sectors. The relevance of specific attitudinal and normative beliefs to the overall attitude and perceived norm also differed between organizational sectors. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  2. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  3. Analysis of perceived risk among construction workers: a cross-cultural study and reflection on the Hofstede model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fiestas, Myriam; Rodríguez-Garzón, Ignacio; Delgado-Padial, Antonio; Lucas-Ruiz, Valeriano

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a cross-cultural study on perceived risk in the construction industry. Worker samples from three different countries were studied: Spain, Peru and Nicaragua. The main goal was to explain how construction workers perceive their occupational hazard and to analyze how this is related to their national culture. The model used to measure perceived risk was the psychometric paradigm. The results show three very similar profiles, indicating that risk perception is independent of nationality. A cultural analysis was conducted using the Hofstede model. The results of this analysis and the relation to perceived risk showed that risk perception in construction is independent of national culture. Finally, a multiple lineal regression analysis was conducted to determine what qualitative attributes could predict the global quantitative size of risk perception. All of the findings have important implications regarding the management of safety in the workplace.

  4. Mortality study of nickel-cadmium battery workers by the method of regression models in life tables.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The mortality experienced by a cohort of 3025 nickel-cadmium battery workers during the period 1946-81 has been investigated. Occupational histories were described in terms of some 75 jobs: eight with "high", 14 with "moderate" or slight, and 53 with minimal exposure to cadmium oxide (hydroxide). The method of regression models in life tables (RMLT) was used to compare the estimated cadmium exposures (durations of exposed employment) of those dying from causes of interest with those of matchi...

  5. PROPOSING AN INTEGRATIVE-PROGRESSIVE MODEL IN HANDLING TROUBLED INDONESIAN OVERSEAS WORKERS IN THE TRANSIT AREA (A SOCIO-LEGAL RESEARCH IN TANJUNG PINANG CITY, KEPULAUAN RIAU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanjung Pinang City of the Riau Islands Province (Provinsi Kepulauan Riau is a transit area for the troubled Indonesian overseas workers from Singapore and Malaysia. The Indonesian National Board for the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers (Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia/BNP2TKI reported that 15,105 troubled Indonesian overseas workers were deported from January to November 2014 via Tanjung Pinang City.  Previous research revealed that citizens of Tanjung Pinang City criticized the treatments given by the local government to the deported workers by reason that they were not the citizens of the Riau Islands Province, yet the local government has to provide shelters and funds prior to returning them to their home towns. The treatments for the deported workers in the transit area have also raised pros and cons among the stakeholders who are in charge of handling the deported workers. This circumstance may not occur if a special regional regulation of the Riau Islands Province has been issued to govern the troubled Indonesian overseas workers in the transit area.  Due to this vacuum of law, this research aims to establish a mechanism in handling the deported workers in the transit area by designing an integrative-progressive model which can be adopted by the stakeholders. The model is to link the legal and non- legal issues and as well as to provide the collaborative mechanisms for the stakeholders based on the approaches of the integrative and progressive legal theory.

  6. A validation study of lawless expectancy model on low-level rural black workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Edwards

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to validate the expectancy theory model propogated by Lawler(1971; 1973 on low level rural Black shop assistants in the Republic of Transkei. The criterion measure, performance, is measured by a performance appraisal instrument developed by the NIPR and the expectancy theory components by means of a translated version of the instrument which appears in the Michigan Organizational Assessment Package Part II. For a sample of 183 shop assistants from 10 organizations, the instrument yielded reliability coefficients ranging from 0,72 to 0,84. Evidence of validity was obtained by means of correlational analysis. A multiple correlation coefficient of R² = 0,29 was obtained. Further evidence of validity was found by means of maximum likelihood path analytic procedures. Opsomming Die geldigheid van Lawler se verwagtingsteorie vir landelike Swart winkelassistente in die Republiekvan Transkei word in die studie ondersoek. Die komponente van die verwagtingsteorie is gemeet deur 'n vertaalde weergawe van die Michigan Organizational Assessment Package (Part II, terwyl die kriterium, werksprestasie, beoordeel is deur middel van 'n prestasiebeoordelingsvraelys ontwikkel deur die NIPN. Met 'n steekproef van 183 winkelassistente uit 10 organisasies het die motiveringsvraelys betroubaarheidskoeffisiente gelewer van tussen 0,72 en 0,84. Met uitsondering van die E→ P komponent was al die korrelasies met die kriterium beduidend op die l%-peil en het gevarieer tussen 0,24 en 0,26 met 'n gekwadreerde meervoudige korrelasiekoeffisient van 0,29. Genoeg positiewe bewyse is in die studie verkry om met redelike sekerheid te aanvaar dat die verwagtingsteorie van toepassing gemaak kan word op lae-vlak landelike Swart workers.

  7. A general equilibrium model of guest-worker migration: the source-country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S; Milbourne, R

    1988-11-01

    "This paper examines the problem of guest-worker migration from an economy populated by identical, utility-maximizing individuals with finite working lives. The decision to migrate, the rate of saving while abroad, as well as the length of a migrant's stay in the foreign country, are all viewed as part of a solution to an intertemporal optimization problem. In addition to studying the microeconomic aspects of temporary migration, the paper analyses the determinants of the equilibrium flow of migrants, the corresponding domestic wage, and the level of welfare enjoyed by a typical worker. Effects of an emigration tax are also investigated."

  8. Workers' marginal costs of commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour...

  9. Why parents should not be told the sex of their fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tamara Kayali

    2017-01-01

    A new technique called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been developed, which can detect a range of genetic and chromosomal diseases, as well as fetal sex earlier, more easily and more reliably. NIPT, therefore, potentially expands the market for sex determination and sex selective abortion. This paper argues that both practices should be prevented by not including fetal sex in prenatal test reports. This is because there is a discrepancy between what parents are concerned with (gender) and what the prenatal test can provide (sex). The paper first presents arguments, which indicate a difference between sex and gender before presenting parental motivations for sex selection and sex determination to show that parents are not concerned with their child's sex chromosomes, or even their genitalia, but the gender role that their child will espouse. That, however, is not something that a prenatal test can provide. We are thus left with a situation in which what parents are told, and what they think they are being told, are two different things. In other words, as the conflation of sex with gender is implicit in the disclosure of fetal sex, it may be more accurate to refer to it as misinformation. This misinformation promotes sexism via gender essentialism, which is neither in the interests of the future child nor society.

  10. The impact of migrant workers on the tuberculosis transmission: general models and a case study for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luju; Wu, Jianhong; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    A tuberculosis (TB) transmission model involving migrant workers is proposed and investigated. The basic reproduction number R0 is calculated, and is shown to be a threshold parameter for the disease to persist or become extinct in the population. The existence and global attractivity of an endemic equilibrium, if R0 > 1, is also established under some technical conditions. A case study, based on the TB epidemiological and other statistical data in China, indicates that the disease spread can be controlled if effective measures are taken to reduce the reactivation rate of exposed/latent migrant workers. Impact of the migration rate and direction, as well as the duration of home visit stay, on the control of disease spread is also examined numerically.

  11. Examining a Proposed Job Retention Model for Adult Workers with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    This research provides an analysis of factors predicting job retention (JR), job satisfaction (JS), and job performance (JP) of workers with mental retardation (MR). The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in influencing three important employee's outcomes, JR, JS, and JP. The intent of the study was to develop job retention…

  12. Modelling the return on investment of preventively vaccinating healthcare workers against pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tariq, Luqman; Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Hovels, Anke; Frijstein, Gerard; de Boer, Hero

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at particular risk of acquiring pertussis and transmitting the infection to high-risk susceptible patients and colleagues. In this paper, the return on investment (ROI) of preventively vaccinating HCWs against pertussis to prevent nosocomial pertussis outbre

  13. Modelling the return on investment of preventively vaccinating healthcare workers against pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tariq, Luqman; Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Hovels, Anke; Frijstein, Gerard; de Boer, Hero

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at particular risk of acquiring pertussis and transmitting the infection to high-risk susceptible patients and colleagues. In this paper, the return on investment (ROI) of preventively vaccinating HCWs against pertussis to prevent nosocomial pertussis

  14. Assessment of local public health workers' willingness to respond to pandemic influenza through application of the extended parallel process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Barnett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local public health agencies play a central role in response to an influenza pandemic, and understanding the willingness of their employees to report to work is therefore a critically relevant concern for pandemic influenza planning efforts. Witte's Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM has been found useful for understanding adaptive behavior in the face of unknown risk, and thus offers a framework for examining scenario-specific willingness to respond among local public health workers. We thus aim to use the EPPM as a lens for examining the influences of perceived threat and efficacy on local public health workers' response willingness to pandemic influenza. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We administered an online, EPPM-based survey about attitudes/beliefs toward emergency response (Johns Hopkins approximately Public Health Infrastructure Response Survey Tool, to local public health employees in three states between November 2006-December 2007. A total of 1835 responses were collected for an overall response rate of 83%. With some regional variation, overall 16% of the workers in 2006-7 were not willing to "respond to a pandemic flu emergency regardless of its severity". Local health department employees with a perception of high threat and high efficacy--i.e., those fitting a 'concerned and confident' profile in the EPPM analysis--had the highest declared rates of willingness to respond to an influenza pandemic if required by their agency, which was 31.7 times higher than those fitting a 'low threat/low efficacy' EPPM profile. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the context of pandemic influenza planning, the EPPM provides a useful framework to inform nuanced understanding of baseline levels of--and gaps in--local public health workers' response willingness. Within local health departments, 'concerned and confident' employees are most likely to be willing to respond. This finding may allow public health agencies to design, implement

  15. Contingent workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrina, Ryan T; Burns, Candace M; Conlon, Helen

    2011-03-01

    Contingent workers compose a large portion of the U.S. work force. Contingent workers include temporary employees, contracted employees, day laborers, and freelancers. The skill level and educational requirements for their jobs vary from basic to highly advanced. Construction, housekeeping, engineering, and nursing have such positions. U.S. contingent workers are more likely to engage in occupations associated with increased risk of injury, and a variety of factors increase their risk of work injuries, particularly those leading to death. This article focuses on select occupational health and safety issues affecting contingent workers and their implications for occupational health nurses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The scientists A history of science told through the lives of its greatest inventors

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2004-01-01

    By focusing on the scientists themselves, Gribbin has written an anecdotal narrative enlivened with stories of personal drama, success and failure. A bestselling science writer with an international reputation, Gribbin is among the few authors who could even attempt a work of this magnitude. Praised as “a sequence of witty, information-packed tales” and “a terrifi c read” by The Times upon its recent British publication, The Scientists breathes new life into such venerable icons as Galileo, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Linus Pauling, as well as lesser lights whose stories have been undeservedly neglected. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  17. Bivariate Left-Censored Bayesian Model for Predicting Exposure: Preliminary Analysis of Worker Exposure during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Caroline; Banerjee, Sudipto; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Stenzel, Mark R; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron; Engel, Lawrence S; Kwok, Richard K; Stewart, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig caught fire and exploded, releasing almost 5 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over the ensuing 3 months. Thousands of oil spill workers participated in the spill response and clean-up efforts. The GuLF STUDY being conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is an epidemiological study to investigate potential adverse health effects among these oil spill clean-up workers. Many volatile chemicals were released from the oil into the air, including total hydrocarbons (THC), which is a composite of the volatile components of oil including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and hexane (BTEXH). Our goal is to estimate exposure levels to these toxic chemicals for groups of oil spill workers in the study (hereafter called exposure groups, EGs) with likely comparable exposure distributions. A large number of air measurements were collected, but many EGs are characterized by datasets with a large percentage of censored measurements (below the analytic methods' limits of detection) and/or a limited number of measurements. We use THC for which there was less censoring to develop predictive linear models for specific BTEXH air exposures with higher degrees of censoring. We present a novel Bayesian hierarchical linear model that allows us to predict, for different EGs simultaneously, exposure levels of a second chemical while accounting for censoring in both THC and the chemical of interest. We illustrate the methodology by estimating exposure levels for several EGs on the Development Driller III, a rig vessel charged with drilling one of the relief wells. The model provided credible estimates in this example for geometric means, arithmetic means, variances, correlations, and regression coefficients for each group. This approach should be considered when estimating exposures in situations when multiple chemicals are correlated and have varying degrees of censoring.

  18. Use of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Simulate the Profiles of 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene in Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Ortiz, Roberto; Maître, Anne; Barbeau, Damien; Lafontaine, Michel; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Biomathematical modeling has become an important tool to assess xenobiotic exposure in humans. In the present study, we have used a human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and an simple compartmental toxicokinetic model of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kinetics and its 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) metabolite to reproduce the time-course of this biomarker of exposure in the urine of industrially exposed workers and in turn predict the most plausible exposure scenarios. The models were constructed from in vivo experimental data in rats and then extrapolated from animals to humans after assessing and adjusting the most sensitive model parameters as well as species specific physiological parameters. Repeated urinary voids from workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been collected over the course of a typical workweek and during subsequent days off work; urinary concentrations of 3-OHBaP were then determined. Based on the information obtained for each worker (BaP air concentration, daily shift hours, tasks, protective equipment), the time courses of 3-OHBaP in the urine of the different workers have been simulated using the PBPK and toxicokinetic models, considering the various possible exposure routes, oral, dermal and inhalation. Both models were equally able to closely reproduce the observed time course of 3-OHBaP in the urine of workers and predicted similar exposure scenarios. Simulations of various scenarios suggest that the workers under study were exposed mainly by the dermal route. Comparison of measured air concentration levels of BaP with simulated values needed to obtain a good approximation of observed time course further pointed out that inhalation was not the main route of exposure for most of the studied workers. Both kinetic models appear as a useful tool to interpret biomonitoring data of PAH exposure on the basis of 3-OHBaP levels. PMID:25032692

  19. Analyzing stories told by an elementary science teacher in a fifth-grade classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Alicia M.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze and interpret the stories told by one teacher, Ms. M, in a fifth grade science classroom. In this study, stories are defined as teacher utterances that are used in first person or third person narrative view, and are related to an experience that occurred outside the classroom. This research answers questions concerning: (a) what types of stories Ms. M tells during science instruction; (b) when these stories occur in the classroom; and (c) what pedagogical functions do these stories serve in the classroom. Utilizing theories on the social construction of knowledge and narrative cognition, stories told may be formed through multiple paths that follow no logical expression to make sense of the context and to connect to its audience. Therefore, this study provides insight into how Ms. M made sense of science with her stories and the ways in which they worked with her students. The results illlustrated that the types of stories found with Ms. M were autobiographical, biographical, fictional, or based on current events. These stories occurred when the teacher initiated the discussion by bringing forth a definition, a question or reinforcing a concept. However, the stories were triggered by students to a greater degree with their questions, concerns, observations or their own stories or explanations. Finally, all pedagogical functions of stories were identified with Ms. M's stories: promotion of engagement or attention of students, building community, clarifying concepts or vocabulary, activation and building of background knowledge and disclosure of teacher role and voice. Ms. M stories exemplified her sense-making of science and connections to her own life that her students were eventually able to make for themselves.

  20. Community health workers speak out about the Kin KeeperSM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Shimaa M; Brooks, Emily; Dietrich, Monika; Henderson, Aisha; McLean, Casey; Patricia Williams, Karen

    2010-06-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) informed students and researcher alike on the Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention. Students interested in medicine, guided by faculty, conducted a focus group session with 13 CHWs to find out if the intervention was effective for delivering breast and cervical cancer education. Strengths reported were (1) cultural appropriateness, (2) home visits, (3) CHW resource kits, and (4) increased awareness. The barriers were privacy perceptions and scheduling home visits. Overall, the CHWs indicated that the intervention was effective and flexible enough to accommodate the African American, Latina, and Arab groups of women.

  1. The relationship between Chinese construction workers' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, B; Guo, H Q; Liu, J; Zuo, T M; Zhang, Y; Sun, G

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in migrant urban construction workers using structural equation modelling (SEM). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 428 male subjects on three building sites in Shenyang City. The SEM model of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour was built using LISREL version 8.5 and it fitted the data well, as shown by an adjusted goodness of fit index of 0.82 and a root mean square error of approximation of 0.094. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS was closely correlated with attitudes and behaviour. Age was an important factor affecting HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. These findings suggest that increasing HIV/AIDS-related knowledge could improve the attitude and behaviour of migrant urban construction workers, enabling them to avoid high-risk behaviour that increases the spread of HIV/AIDS. Any intervention used will need to take the important factor of age into consideration.

  2. 'I'm So Stressed!': A Longitudinal Model of Stress, Burnout and Engagement among Social Workers in Child Welfare Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dnika J; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work-family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work-family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement.

  3. The Tensions between the Ideal and Experienced: Teacher-Student Relationships in Stories Told by Beginning Japanese Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, Erkki; Uitto, Minna

    2016-01-01

    This narrative research explores the tensions that beginning teachers tell about their relationships with students between the ideals they have, and how the teachers experience those relationships in the micropolitical and relational environment of their everyday work. The phenomenon is approached through stories told by three Japanese beginning…

  4. The Tensions between the Ideal and Experienced: Teacher-Student Relationships in Stories Told by Beginning Japanese Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, Erkki; Uitto, Minna

    2016-01-01

    This narrative research explores the tensions that beginning teachers tell about their relationships with students between the ideals they have, and how the teachers experience those relationships in the micropolitical and relational environment of their everyday work. The phenomenon is approached through stories told by three Japanese beginning…

  5. Ethnicity, work-related stress and subjective reports of health by migrant workers: a multi-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Roberto; Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-11-16

    This study integrates different aspects of ethnicity and work-related stress dimensions (based on the Demands-Resources-Individual-Effects model, DRIVE [Mark, G. M., and A. P. Smith. 2008. "Stress Models: A Review and Suggested New Direction." In Occupational Health Psychology, edited by J. Houdmont and S. Leka, 111-144. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press]) and aims to test a multi-dimensional model that combines individual differences, ethnicity dimensions, work characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction/stress as independent variables in the prediction of subjectives reports of health by workers differing in ethnicity. A questionnaire consisting of the following sections was submitted to 900 workers in Southern Italy: for individual and cultural characteristics, coping strategies, personality behaviours, and acculturation strategies; for work characteristics, perceived job demands and job resources/rewards; for appraisals, perceived job stress/satisfaction and racial discrimination; for subjective reports of health, psychological disorders and general health. To test the reliability and construct validity of the extracted factors referred to all dimensions involved in the proposed model and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the main effects of the independent variables on the health outcomes were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded seven factors for individual and cultural characteristics (emotional/relational coping, objective coping, Type A behaviour, negative affectivity, social inhibition, affirmation/maintenance culture, and search identity/adoption of the host culture); three factors for work characteristics (work demands, intrinsic/extrinsic rewards, and work resources); three factors for appraisals (perceived job satisfaction, perceived job stress, perceived racial discrimination) and three factors for subjective reports of health (interpersonal disorders, anxious-depressive disorders, and general health). Logistic

  6. HIV and Mexican migrant workers in the United States: a review applying the vulnerable populations conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrán, Cynthia R; Nyamathi, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    Mexican migrant workers residing in the United States are a vulnerable population at high risk for HIV infection. This article critically appraises the published data surrounding HIV prevalence in this vulnerable group, as seen through the lens of the Vulnerable Populations Conceptual Model. This model demonstrates how exposure to risk and resource availability affect health status. The health status of Mexican migrants in the United States is compromised by a number of factors that increase risk of HIV: limited access to health services, multiple sexual partners, low rates of condom use, men having sex with men, and lay injection practices. Migration from Mexico to the United States has increased the prevalence of HIV in rural Mexico, making this an issue of urgent binational concern. This review highlights the implications for further nursing research, practice, and policy.

  7. The Work Ratio--modeling the likelihood of return to work for workers with musculoskeletal disorders: A fuzzy logic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalit, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The world of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is complicated and fuzzy. Fuzzy logic provides a precise framework for complex problems characterized by uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision. Although fuzzy logic would appear to be an ideal modeling language to help address the complexity of MSDs, little research has been done in this regard. The Work Ratio is a novel mathematical model that uses fuzzy logic to provide a numerical and linguistic valuation of the likelihood of return to work and remaining at work. It can be used for a worker with any MSD at any point in time. Basic mathematical concepts from set theory and fuzzy logic are reviewed. A case study is then used to illustrate the use of the Work Ratio. Its potential strengths and limitations are discussed. Further research of its use with a variety of MSDs, settings and multidisciplinary teams is needed to confirm its universal value.

  8. Family services for migrant and seasonal farm workers: the Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Amy K; Mainster, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural employers and work supervisors strive to keep children out of worksites, but oftentimes migrating farm worker parents lack accessible or affordable options for childcare in a trusted environment. Thus, children may not have a safe, appropriate place to be while their parents are conducting agricultural work. Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) of Florida is a community development organization that creates and fosters opportunities for the children of migrant and other low-income rural families. To better understand the RCMA system, an in-depth assessment of its program was undertaken to identify both its standard and unique features. Results revealed many attributes contributing to RCMA's success. Based upon RCMA's 48-year track record, employers, agribusinesses, and communities are encouraged to adopt strategies to meet local and regional childcare needs where parents are working in agriculture.

  9. Lung cancer mortality (1950-1999 among Eldorado uranium workers: a comparison of models of carcinogenesis and empirical excess risk models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Eidemüller

    Full Text Available Lung cancer mortality after exposure to radon decay products (RDP among 16,236 male Eldorado uranium workers was analyzed. Male workers from the Beaverlodge and Port Radium uranium mines and the Port Hope radium and uranium refinery and processing facility who were first employed between 1932 and 1980 were followed up from 1950 to 1999. A total of 618 lung cancer deaths were observed. The analysis compared the results of the biologically-based two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE model to the empirical excess risk model. The spontaneous clonal expansion rate of pre-malignant cells was reduced at older ages under the assumptions of the TSCE model. Exposure to RDP was associated with increase in the clonal expansion rate during exposure but not afterwards. The increase was stronger for lower exposure rates. A radiation-induced bystander effect could be a possible explanation for such an exposure response. Results on excess risks were compared to a linear dose-response parametric excess risk model with attained age, time since exposure and dose rate as effect modifiers. In all models the excess relative risk decreased with increasing attained age, increasing time since exposure and increasing exposure rate. Large model uncertainties were found in particular for small exposure rates.

  10. Potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Bangalore, India: a mathematical modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M Mitchell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Bangalore, new HIV infections of female sex workers and men who have sex with men continue to occur, despite high condom use. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP has high anti-HIV efficacy for men who have sex with men. PrEP demonstration projects are underway amongst Indian female sex workers. We estimated the impact and efficiency of prioritizing PrEP to female sex workers and/or men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Methods: A mathematical model of HIV transmission and treatment for female sex workers, clients, men who have sex with men and low-risk groups was parameterized and fitted to Bangalore data. The proportion of transmission attributable (population attributable fraction to commercial sex and sex between men was calculated. PrEP impact (infections averted, life-years gained and efficiency (life-years gained/infections averted per 100 person-years on PrEP were estimated for different levels of PrEP adherence, coverage and prioritization strategies (female sex workers, high-risk men who have sex with men, both female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men, or female sex workers with lower condom use, under current conditions and in a scenario with lower baseline condom use amongst key populations. Results: Population attributable fractions for commercial sex and sex between men have declined over time, and they are predicted to account for 19% of all new infections between 2016 and 2025. PrEP could prevent a substantial proportion of infections amongst female sex workers and men who have sex with men in this setting (23%/27% over 5/10 years, with 60% coverage and 50% adherence, which could avert 2.9%/4.3% of infections over 5/10 years in the whole Bangalore population. Impact and efficiency in the whole population was greater if female sex workers were prioritized. Efficiency increased, but impact decreased, if only female sex workers with lower condom use were given PrEP. Greater impact and efficiency was

  11. Who will have Sustainable Employment After a Back Injury? The Development of a Clinical Prediction Model in a Cohort of Injured Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Heather M; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Hayden, Jill A; Frank, John; Johnson, William G

    2016-11-02

    Purpose Our objective was to develop a clinical prediction model to identify workers with sustainable employment following an episode of work-related low back pain (LBP). Methods We used data from a cohort study of injured workers with incident LBP claims in the USA to predict employment patterns 1 and 6 months following a workers' compensation claim. We developed three sequential models to determine the contribution of three domains of variables: (1) basic demographic/clinical variables; (2) health-related variables; and (3) work-related factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop the predictive models. We constructed receiver operator curves and used the c-index to measure predictive accuracy. Results Seventy-nine percent and 77 % of workers had sustainable employment at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Sustainable employment at 1 month was predicted by initial back pain intensity, mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type (c-index = 0.77). At 6 months, sustainable employment was predicted by physical and mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type (c-index = 0.77). Adding health-related and work-related variables to models improved predictive accuracy by 8.5 and 10 % at 1 and 6 months respectively. Conclusion We developed clinically-relevant models to predict sustainable employment in injured workers who made a workers' compensation claim for LBP. Inquiring about back pain intensity, physical and mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type may be beneficial in developing programs of care. Our models need to be validated in other populations.

  12. A Community Health Worker "logic model": towards a theory of enhanced performance in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimoli, Joseph F; Frymus, Diana E; Wuliji, Tana; Franco, Lynne M; Newsome, Martha H

    2014-10-02

    There has been a resurgence of interest in national Community Health Worker (CHW) programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A lack of strong research evidence persists, however, about the most efficient and effective strategies to ensure optimal, sustained performance of CHWs at scale. To facilitate learning and research to address this knowledge gap, the authors developed a generic CHW logic model that proposes a theoretical causal pathway to improved performance. The logic model draws upon available research and expert knowledge on CHWs in LMICs. Construction of the model entailed a multi-stage, inductive, two-year process. It began with the planning and implementation of a structured review of the existing research on community and health system support for enhanced CHW performance. It continued with a facilitated discussion of review findings with experts during a two-day consultation. The process culminated with the authors' review of consultation-generated documentation, additional analysis, and production of multiple iterations of the model. The generic CHW logic model posits that optimal CHW performance is a function of high quality CHW programming, which is reinforced, sustained, and brought to scale by robust, high-performing health and community systems, both of which mobilize inputs and put in place processes needed to fully achieve performance objectives. Multiple contextual factors can influence CHW programming, system functioning, and CHW performance. The model is a novel contribution to current thinking about CHWs. It places CHW performance at the center of the discussion about CHW programming, recognizes the strengths and limitations of discrete, targeted programs, and is comprehensive, reflecting the current state of both scientific and tacit knowledge about support for improving CHW performance. The model is also a practical tool that offers guidance for continuous learning about what works. Despite the model's limitations and several

  13. Modeling signal-to-noise ratio of otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to different industrial noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05. Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038. The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041. The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the

  14. The Chrysler-Weldtech Approach to Retraining Displaced Workers. A Model Project to Develop Specialized Welding Skills Required for Modern Auto Assembly Operations. Final Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Thomas M.; Knight, Glen A.

    A model project was conducted to demonstrate how Chrysler, in partnership with the education community and the government, could provide technical training to enable displaced workers to contribute to the "H-Body" car launch, to improve their job skills, and to enhance their future employability. The training was conducted on a pilot basis for 2…

  15. The effectiveness of a training method using self-modeling webcam photos for reducing musculoskeletal risk among office workers using computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taieb-Maimon, Meirav; Cwikel, Julie; Shapira, Bracha; Orenstein, Ido

    2012-03-01

    An intervention study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of an innovative self-modeling photo-training method for reducing musculoskeletal risk among office workers using computers. Sixty workers were randomly assigned to either: 1) a control group; 2) an office training group that received personal, ergonomic training and workstation adjustments or 3) a photo-training group that received both office training and an automatic frequent-feedback system that displayed on the computer screen a photo of the worker's current sitting posture together with the correct posture photo taken earlier during office training. Musculoskeletal risk was evaluated using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method before, during and after the six weeks intervention. Both training methods provided effective short-term posture improvement; however, sustained improvement was only attained with the photo-training method. Both interventions had a greater effect on older workers and on workers suffering more musculoskeletal pain. The photo-training method had a greater positive effect on women than on men.

  16. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  17. Effects of Co-Worker and Supervisor Support on Job Stress and Presenteeism in an Aging Workforce: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianan; Shen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Mingjing; Liu, Yuanling; Deng, Jianwei; Chen, Qian; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649). The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p stress had a significant direct positive effect on presenteeism (β = 0.30; p stress (β = −0.10; p stress (β = −0.40; p employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees. PMID:26703705

  18. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the Eur

  19. Signaling and Screening of Workers' Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a model in which workers to a certain extent like to exert effort at the workplace. We examine the implications of workers' motivation for optimal monetary incentive schemes. We show that in the optimum motivated workers work harder and are willing to work for a lower

  20. Signaling and Screening of Workers' Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a model in which workers to a certain extent like to exert effort at the workplace. We examine the implications of workers' motivation for optimal monetary incentive schemes. We show that in the optimum motivated workers work harder and are willing to work for a lower

  1. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: A study amongst Malaysian workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd A. Idris; Dollard, Maureen F.; Winefield, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions.Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout) and moti...

  2. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: A study amongst Malaysian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd A. Idris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions.Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout and motivational pathways (i.e. work engagement.Motivation for the study: So far, integration of PSC in the JD-R model is only tested in a Western context (i.e. Australia. We tested the emerging construct of PSC in Malaysia, an Eastern developing country in the Asian region.Research design, approach and method: A random population based sample was derived using household maps provided by Department of Statistics, Malaysia; 291 employees (response rate 50.52% from the State of Selangor, Malaysia participated. Cross-sectional data were analysed using structural equation modelling.Main findings: We found that PSC was negatively related to job demands and positively related to job resources. Job demands, in turn, predicted burnout (i.e. exhaustion and cynicism, whereas job resources predicted engagement. Both burnout and engagement were associated with performance. Bootstrapping showed significant indirect effects of PSC on burnout via job demands, PSC on performance via burnout and PSC on performance via the resources-engagement pathway.Practical/managerial implications: Our findings are consistent with previous research that suggests that PSC should be a target to improve working conditions and in turn reduce burnout and improve engagement and productivity.Contribution/value-add: These findings suggest that JD-R theory may be expanded to include PSC as an antecedent and that the expanded JD-R model is largely valid in an Eastern, developing economy setting.

  3. An older-worker employment model: Japan's Silver Human Resource Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, S A; Oka, M

    1995-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, a unique model of publicly assisted industries has developed in Japan, which contracts for services provided by retirees. Jobs for retirees are part-time and temporary in nature and, for the most part, are designed to assist in expanding community-based services. The program, known as the Silver Human Resource Centers, has expanded nationwide and reflects a novel approach to the productive engagement of retirees in society that may be replicable in other industrialized nations.

  4. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks.

  5. Modelling the impact and cost-effectiveness of the HIV intervention programme amongst commercial sex workers in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foss Anna M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ahmedabad is an industrial city in Gujarat, India. In 2003, the HIV prevalence among commercial sex workers (CSWs in Ahmedabad reached 13.0%. In response, the Jyoti Sangh HIV prevention programme for CSWs was initiated, which involves outreach, peer education, condom distribution, and free STD clinics. Two surveys were performed among CSWs in 1999 and 2003. This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of the Jyoti Sangh HIV prevention programme. Methods A dynamic mathematical model was used with survey and intervention-specific data from Ahmedabad to estimate the HIV impact of the Jyoti Sangh project for the 51 months between the two CSW surveys. Uncertainty analysis was used to obtain different model fits to the HIV/STI epidemiological data, producing a range for the HIV impact of the project. Financial and economic costs of the intervention were estimated from the provider's perspective for the same time period. The cost per HIV-infection averted was estimated. Results Over 51 months, projections suggest that the intervention averted 624 and 5,131 HIV cases among the CSWs and their clients, respectively. This equates to a 54% and 51% decrease in the HIV infections that would have occurred among the CSWs and clients without the intervention. In the absence of intervention, the model predicts that the HIV prevalence amongst the CSWs in 2003 would have been 26%, almost twice that with the intervention. Cost per HIV infection averted, excluding and including peer educator economic costs, was USD 59 and USD 98 respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that targeted CSW interventions in India can be cost-effective, and highlights the importance of replicating this effort in other similar settings.

  6. The effects of influenza vaccination of health care workers in nursing homes: insights from a mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carline van den Dool

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Annual influenza vaccination of institutional health care workers (HCWs is advised in most Western countries, but adherence to this recommendation is generally low. Although protective effects of this intervention for nursing home patients have been demonstrated in some clinical trials, the exact relationship between increased vaccine uptake among HCWs and protection of patients remains unknown owing to variations between study designs, settings, intensity of influenza seasons, and failure to control all effect modifiers. Therefore, we use a mathematical model to estimate the effects of HCW vaccination in different scenarios and to identify a herd immunity threshold in a nursing home department. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use a stochastic individual-based model with discrete time intervals to simulate influenza virus transmission in a 30-bed long-term care nursing home department. We simulate different levels of HCW vaccine uptake and study the effect on influenza virus attack rates among patients for different institutional and seasonal scenarios. Our model reveals a robust linear relationship between the number of HCWs vaccinated and the expected number of influenza virus infections among patients. In a realistic scenario, approximately 60% of influenza virus infections among patients can be prevented when the HCW vaccination rate increases from 0 to 1. A threshold for herd immunity is not detected. Due to stochastic variations, the differences in patient attack rates between departments are high and large outbreaks can occur for every level of HCW vaccine uptake. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of herd immunity in nursing homes implies that vaccination of every additional HCW protects an additional fraction of patients. Because of large stochastic variations, results of small-sized clinical trials on the effects of HCW vaccination should be interpreted with great care. Moreover, the large variations in attack rates should be taken into

  7. Effects of Co-Worker and Supervisor Support on Job Stress and Presenteeism in an Aging Workforce: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianan Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649. The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p < 0.001. Job stress had a significant direct positive effect on presenteeism (β = 0.30; p < 0.001. Co-worker support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.10; p < 0.001 and presenteeism (β = −0.11; p < 0.001. Supervisor support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.40; p < 0.001 but not presenteeism. The findings suggest that presenteeism is reduced by increased respect and concern for employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees.

  8. 基于学习遗忘曲线模型的员工生产率研究%Study on Worker Productivity with Learn Forget Curve Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宇菲; 汪应洛

    2011-01-01

    基于学习遗忘曲线模型,研究劳动密集型产业的员工生产率.在将该模型扩展到多周期的基础上,探讨了劳动技能培训与巩固、短期雇佣与长期雇佣等对员工生产率的影响.此外,在考虑发生停产的情况下,分析了不同的人力资源管理策略对员工生产率的影响.研究结果为企业人力资源管理提供了理论依据和参考,并为企业保持较高的员工生产率提供了解决思路.%Based on LFCM (learn forget curve model), this paper studies the worker productivity in labor-intense industry. By extending the original LFCM to multi-period situation, this paper discusses the effects of skill training, long-term and short-term employment on worker productivity. Besides, under the situation of temporary production stop, it invastigates how different human resource management policies influence worker productivity. The conclusions from this research may offer theoretical support and solutions for human resource management to maintain worker productivity.

  9. Use of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Simulate the Profiles of 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene in Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Heredia Ortiz; Anne Maître; Damien Barbeau; Michel Lafontaine; Michèle Bouchard

    2014-01-01

    Biomathematical modeling has become an important tool to assess xenobiotic exposure in humans. In the present study, we have used a human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and an simple compartmental toxicokinetic model of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kinetics and its 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) metabolite to reproduce the time-course of this biomarker of exposure in the urine of industrially exposed workers and in turn predict the most plausible exposure scenarios. The models ...

  10. Comparison of three intervention models for promoting circumcision among migrant workers in western China to reduce local sexual transmission of HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyi Ning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China. METHODS: A cohort study was performed after an initial cross-sectional survey among migrant workers in three provincial level districts with high HIV prevalence in western China. A total of 1,670 HIV seronegative male migrants were cluster-randomized into three intervention models, in which the dissemination of promotional materials and expert- and volunteer-led discussions are conducted in one, two, and three stage interventions. Changes in knowledge of MC, acceptability of MC, MC surgery uptake, and the costs of implementation were analyzed at 6-month and 9-month follow-up visits. RESULTS: All three models significantly increased the participants' knowledge about MC. The three-stage model significantly increased the acceptability of MC among participants and led to greatest increase in MC uptake. At the end of follow-up, 9.2% (153/1,670 of participants underwent MC surgery; uptake among the one-, two-, and three-stage models were 4.9%, 9.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that three-stage model was the most effective method to scale up MC, with RR = 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1, P=0.002 compared to the on-site session model. The two-stage intervention model showed no significant difference with either the on-site session model (RR=1.5, 95% CI, 0.92-2.4, P=0.12 or three-stage model (P=0.10. CONCLUSIONS: A three-stage intervention with gradual introduction of knowledge led to the significantly increase in MC uptake among migrant workers in western China, and was also the most cost-effective method among the three models.

  11. Dynamic CGE Model and Simulation Analysis on the Impact of Citizenization of Rural Migrant Workers on the Labor and Capital Markets in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the policy of citizenization of rural migrant workers on the factor market in a dynamic CGE model, which contains multiple dimensions of labor heterogeneity, a labor-lagged adjustment mechanism, and a dynamic investment mechanism. The simulation results show that changes in supply in the labor market will affect the labor market structure, the relative factor price, and the investment in and the output of industries.

  12. Employment models in social enterprises : does the mission matter for job quality, discrimination, and motivations of workers in low-skilled positions ?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Social enterprises (SEs) represent a consequent number of jobs and are being established in increasingly diverse types of industries. Besides, employers and workers are starting to structure themselves in more visible and identifiable professional organizations. In this context, the existence of a specific employment model in SEs may be discussed, particularly with regards to (low-skilled) job quality. Nowadays, this question is even of upmost importance because such organizations are more an...

  13. Globalization and workers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Ichiro

    2008-10-01

    The global integration of economies worldwide has led to increased pressure for "labor flexibility". A notable aspect of this trend has been the rise in non-standard work arrangements, which include part-time work, temporary agency-based work, fixed-term contingent work, and independent contracting. Although non-standard work arrangements are convenient for employers, they are often associated with poor pay, absence of pension and health benefits, as well as lack of protection from unions and labor laws. Studies have begun to address the question of whether these "precarious" jobs pose a health hazard for workers. The challenge for causal inference is that precarious workers are likely to differ from non-precarious workers in a variety of characteristics that also influence health outcomes, i.e. there is confounding and selection bias. However, even after taking account of these biases--through propensity score-matched analysis--there is evidence to suggest that non-standard work may be damaging to workers' health. Policies modeled after the European Union's Directive on Part-Time Work may help to mitigate some of the health hazards associated with precarious work.

  14. Job Strain in Shift and Daytime Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson; Nilsson

    1997-07-01

    Cross-sectional questionnaire data were used to compare the levels of job strain in shift and daytime workers. Job strain was measured according to Karasek's Demands/Discretion model. Four occupational groups were included: drivers, industrial workers, policemen/watchmen, and cooks. The study subjects were a random sample of 508 daytime workers and 418 shift workers. Job demand did not differentiate between shift and daytime workers, comparing groups broken down by gender and by occupation. The daytime workers reported higher levels of job strain than the shift workers, and women experienced a higher level of job strain than did men. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only occupational group and gender predicted job strain level. Shiftwork was not significantly associated with job strain in the regression model.

  15. On Knowledge Workers in the Knowledge Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yu-wei; WANG Shu-hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a study on our present knowledge society and knowledge workers. After analyzing the reason that knowledge workers are the newly emerging dominant group in this knowledge society, it gets to the point that the real leadership in the age of knowledge are knowledge workers. Yet, they have to actively organize and learn together, otherwise, they would be same as the workers of industrial model. Only through organizational learning can knowledge workers turn into a very innovative learning organization dancing with the unexpected.

  16. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Abowd; Kramarz, Francis

    1995-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work-force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group, and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wag...

  17. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Abowd; Françis KRAMARZ; Moreau, Antoine

    1995-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wage...

  18. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  19. Community Health Workers as Social Marketers of Injectable Contraceptives: A Case Study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidert, Karen; Gessessew, Amanuel; Bell, Suzanne; Godefay, Hagos; Prata, Ndola

    2017-03-08

    Ethiopia has made notable progress in increasing awareness and knowledge of family planning and is considered a success story among funders and program planners. Yet unmet need among rural women (28.6%) is almost double that of urban women (15.5%), with a wide gap in total fertility rate depending on urban (2.6) or rural (5.5) residence. This study investigates the impact of a service delivery model that combines community-based distribution (CBD) of contraception with social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia, to create a more sustainable approach to CBD. Between September 2011 and October 2013, 626 volunteer CHWs were recruited and trained to administer depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections and provide counseling and referrals to the health post for other methods; the project implementation period ended in June 2014. The CHWs received a supply of DMPA injections in the form of a microloan from a drug revolving fund; the CHWs charged women a minimal fee (5 birr, or US$0.29), determined based on willingness-to-pay data, for each DMPA injection; and the CHWs returned part of the fee (3 birr) to the drug revolving fund while keeping the remaining portion (2 birr). The CHWs also promoted demand for family planning through door-to-door outreach and community meetings. Existing health extension workers (HEWs) provided regular supervision of the CHWs, supplemented by in-depth supervision visits from study coordinators. Baseline and endline representative surveys of women of reproductive age, as well as of participating CHWs, were conducted. In addition, DMPA provision data from the CHWs were collected. Between October 2011 and June 2014, the CHWs served in total 8,604 women and administered an estimated 15,410 DMPA injections, equivalent to providing 3,853 couple-years of protection. There was a 25% significant increase in contraceptive use among surveyed women, from 30.1% at baseline to 37.7% at endline, with DMPA use largely responsible for this increase

  20. Community Health Workers as Social Marketers of Injectable Contraceptives: A Case Study from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidert, Karen; Gessessew, Amanuel; Bell, Suzanne; Godefay, Hagos; Prata, Ndola

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ethiopia has made notable progress in increasing awareness and knowledge of family planning and is considered a success story among funders and program planners. Yet unmet need among rural women (28.6%) is almost double that of urban women (15.5%), with a wide gap in total fertility rate depending on urban (2.6) or rural (5.5) residence. This study investigates the impact of a service delivery model that combines community-based distribution (CBD) of contraception with social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia, to create a more sustainable approach to CBD. Between September 2011 and October 2013, 626 volunteer CHWs were recruited and trained to administer depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections and provide counseling and referrals to the health post for other methods; the project implementation period ended in June 2014. The CHWs received a supply of DMPA injections in the form of a microloan from a drug revolving fund; the CHWs charged women a minimal fee (5 birr, or US$0.29), determined based on willingness-to-pay data, for each DMPA injection; and the CHWs returned part of the fee (3 birr) to the drug revolving fund while keeping the remaining portion (2 birr). The CHWs also promoted demand for family planning through door-to-door outreach and community meetings. Existing health extension workers (HEWs) provided regular supervision of the CHWs, supplemented by in-depth supervision visits from study coordinators. Baseline and endline representative surveys of women of reproductive age, as well as of participating CHWs, were conducted. In addition, DMPA provision data from the CHWs were collected. Between October 2011 and June 2014, the CHWs served in total 8,604 women and administered an estimated 15,410 DMPA injections, equivalent to providing 3,853 couple-years of protection. There was a 25% significant increase in contraceptive use among surveyed women, from 30.1% at baseline to 37.7% at endline, with DMPA use largely responsible for this

  1. A model for developing job rotation schedules that eliminate sequential high workloads and minimize between-worker variability in cumulative daily workloads: Application to automotive assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang-Young; Ko, Jeonghan; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of study is to suggest a job rotation schedule by developing a mathematical model in order to reduce cumulative workload from the successive use of the same body region. Workload assessment using rapid entire body assessment (REBA) was performed for the model in three automotive assembly lines of chassis, trim, and finishing to identify which body part exposed to relatively high workloads at workstations. The workloads were incorporated to the model to develop a job rotation schedule. The proposed schedules prevent the exposure to high workloads successively on the same body region and minimized between-worker variance in cumulative daily workload. Whereas some of workers were successively assigned to high workload workstation under no job rotation and serial job rotation. This model would help to reduce the potential for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) without additional cost for engineering work, although it may need more computational time and relative complex job rotation sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure scenarios for workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Northage, Christine; Money, Chris

    2007-12-01

    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate considerations of both human health and the environment. Specific aspects are relevant for worker exposure. Gathering information on the uses of the chemical is an important step in developing an Exposure Scenario. In-house information at manufacturers is an important source. Downstream users can contribute information through direct contact or through their associations. Relatively simple approaches (Tier 1 tools, such as the ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment and the model EASE) can be used to develop broad Exposure Scenarios that cover many use situations. These approaches rely on the categorisation of just a few determinants, including only a small number of risk management measures. Such approaches have a limited discriminatory power and are rather conservative. When the hazard of the substance or the complexity of the exposure situation require a more in-depth approach, further development of the Exposure Scenarios with Tier 2 approaches is needed. Measured data sets of worker exposure are very valuable in a Tier 2 approach. Some downstream user associations have attempted to build Exposure Scenarios based on measured data sets. Generic Tier 2 tools for developing Exposure Scenarios do not exist yet. To enable efficient development of the worker exposure part of Exposure Scenarios a further development of Tier 1 and Tier 2 tools is needed. Special attention should be given to user friendliness and to the validity (boundaries) of the approaches. The development of standard worker exposure descriptions or full Exposure Scenarios by downstream user branches in cooperation with manufacturers and importers is recommended.

  3. Factors affecting frontline workers' satisfaction with supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelker, Linda S; Ejaz, Farida K; Menne, Heather L; Bagaka's, Joshua G

    2009-02-01

    Objective. This research was guided by a stress and support model to examine the effects of frontline workers' background characteristics, personal stressors, job-related stressors, and workplace support on satisfaction with supervision. Method. Survey data were collected from 644 workers in 49 long-term-care settings that employed them. Regression analysis were used to determine the effects of worker level and then Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and organizational factors on the outcome. Results. Although all four variable categories made significant contributions to explaining satisfaction with supervision, the most powerful were personal stressors and job-related stressors. Results from HLM analysis showed frontline workers in nursing homes and those employed in for-profit organizations had lower levels of satisfaction with supervision. Discussion. Findings suggest organizational interventions to address workers' financial and health issues and management practices such as better training programs and peer mentoring could enhance workers' satisfaction with supervision.

  4. Salud Para Su Corazon (health for your heart) community health worker model: community and clinical approaches for addressing cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanics/Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Alvarado, M; Ortiz, G

    2011-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy.

  5. Model of converting tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge on the example of R&D department of the manufacturing company, including evaluation of knowledge workers' usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śliwa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to create a model of converting tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge with Bayes algorithm for the research and development department in a manufacturing company. Based on the reference works, there have been proposed the characteristics of knowledge conversion process, with the focus on the factors supporting sharing tacit knowledge. The sources of tacit knowledge in the research and development department in a manufacturing company were identified, and then mechanisms of its collection were proposed. As a result, Bayes algorithm was implemented to perform the conversion process of the collected tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge. By stimulating knowledge workers to share tacit knowledge, the organisation increases its know-how value, by formalized specialist knowledge available for other procedures. The model is illustrated by the example of business practice. As a result, it is assumed to receive measurable benefits, i.e. reductions of cost, corrections, complaints and faster completion of a similar project, optimal selection of workers. It presents directions for further work, including the IT implementation of the presented model and its verification.

  6. "I Wanted to Come Here Because of My Child": Stories of Migration Told by Turkish-Speaking Families Who Have a Son or Daughter with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Prabhleen; Ibrahim, Jeyda; Chinn, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite growing interest in the experiences and social barriers experienced by people with intellectual disabilities from ethnic minorities, the specific challenges associated with migration from abroad faced by these individuals and their families have been overlooked. This research focuses on narratives told by Turkish-speaking…

  7. "I Wanted to Come Here Because of My Child": Stories of Migration Told by Turkish-Speaking Families Who Have a Son or Daughter with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Prabhleen; Ibrahim, Jeyda; Chinn, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite growing interest in the experiences and social barriers experienced by people with intellectual disabilities from ethnic minorities, the specific challenges associated with migration from abroad faced by these individuals and their families have been overlooked. This research focuses on narratives told by Turkish-speaking…

  8. 基于冰山模型的农业推广人员素质研究%Research on Competency of Agricultural Extension Workers Based on Iceberg Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜华章

    2011-01-01

    农业推广作为农业科技成果转化为生产力的桥梁和纽带,是现代农业发展不可缺少的重要环节。目前农业推广人员的总体素质不高,很大程度上制约了我国农业科技成果的推广应用和农民科技素质的提高。引入素质冰山模型并给予相应的理论阐释,从显性素质与隐性素质两方面讨论了农业推广人员素质不高的问题和原因,并根据素质冰山模型的要求提出了强化思想教育、强化素质培训、强化激励机制等提升农业推广人员素质的对策建议。%Agricultural extension is an indispensable task of modern agricultural development as the bridge and link to turn agricultural sci-tech achievements into productive force.At present,the overall competency of agricultural extension workers is not high,which hinders the further spread and use of agricultural sci-tech achievements and improve the sci-tech and cultural qualities of peasants.This article introduces Iceberg Model and some theoretical explanation of it are also given,and discusses and reasons existed in the competency of agricultural extension workers from dominant competency and recessive competency.It also puts forward proposals about how to enhance the competency of agricultural extension workers based on the demand of Iceberg Model.

  9. A Model for Art Therapy-Based Supervision for End-of-Life Care Workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan S; Chan, Faye; Ho, Andy H Y; Wang, Xiao Lu; Cheng, Carol

    2015-01-01

    End-of-life care workers and volunteers are particularly prone to burnout given the intense emotional and existential nature of their work. Supervision is one important way to provide adequate support that focuses on both professional and personal competencies. The inclusion of art therapy principles and practices within supervision further creates a dynamic platform for sustained self-reflection. A 6-week art therapy-based supervision group provided opportunities for developing emotional awareness, recognizing professional strengths, securing collegial relationships, and reflecting on death-related memories. The structure, rationale, and feedback are discussed.

  10. ‘I'm So Stressed!’: A Longitudinal Model of Stress, Burnout and Engagement among Social Workers in Child Welfare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dnika J.; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E.

    2016-01-01

    The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work–family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work–family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement. PMID:27559215

  11. Two Year Virologic Outcomes of an Alternative AIDS Care Model: Evaluation of a Peer Health Worker and Nurse-Staffed Community-Based Program in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Larry W.; Alamo, Stella; Guma, Samuel; Christopher, Jason; Suntoke, Tara; Omasete, Richard; Montis, Jennifer P.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Juncker, Margrethe; Reynolds, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Background There is growing concern about the human resources needed to care for increasing numbers of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. We evaluated an alternative model, community-based, comprehensive antiretroviral program staffed primarily by peer health workers and nurses. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy during the first 10 months of program enrollment beginning in late 2003. Virologic, immunologic, clinical, and adherence data were collected. Results Of 360 patients started on treatment, 258 (72%) were active and on therapy approximately two years later. Viral load testing demonstrated that 86% of active patients (211 of 246 tested) had a viral load <400 copies/mL. The median CD4 increase for active patients was 197 cells/mm3 (IQR, 108–346). Patients with either a history of antiretroviral use or lack of CD4 response were more likely to experience virologic failure. Survival was 84% at one year and 82% at two years. WHO stage 4 was predictive of both not sustaining therapy and increased mortality. Conclusions A community-based antiretroviral treatment program in a resource-limited setting can provide excellent AIDS care over at least a two year period. A comprehensive program based upon peer health workers and nurses provides an effective alternative model for AIDS care. PMID:19194316

  12. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Mobility of Women: A Comparative Analysis of Mobility of Informal Workers in Fisheries in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Nikhila

    2016-01-01

    Mobility or freedom and ability to move is gendered in many cultural contexts. In this paper I analyse mobility associated with work from the capability approach perspective of Sen. This is an empirical paper which uses the Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to construct the measure of mobility of women for the first time in the development studies discourse. I construct a measure of mobility (latent trait) of women workers engaged in two types of informal work, namely, peeling work and fish vending, in fisheries in the cultural context of India. The scale measure enables first, to test the unidimensionality of my construct of mobility of women and second, to analyse the domains of mobility of women workers. The comparative analysis of the scale of permissibility of mobility constructed using the RSM for the informal women workers shows that women face constraints on mobility in social and personal spaces in the socially advanced state of Kerala in India. Work mobility does not expand the real freedoms, hence work mobility can be termed as bounded capability which is a capability limited or bounded by either the social, cultural and gender norms or a combination of all of these. Therefore at the macro level, growth in informal employment in sectors like fisheries which improve mobility of women through work mobility does not necessarily expand the capability sets by contributing to greater freedoms and transformational mobility. This paper has a significant methodological contribution in that it uses an innovative method for the measurement of mobility of women in the development studies discipline.

  13. A comparison between standard methods and structural nested modelling when bias from a healthy worker survivor effect is suspected: an iron-ore mining cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björ, Ove; Damber, Lena; Jonsson, Håkan; Nilsson, Tohr

    2015-07-01

    Iron-ore miners are exposed to extremely dusty and physically arduous work environments. The demanding activities of mining select healthier workers with longer work histories (ie, the Healthy Worker Survivor Effect (HWSE)), and could have a reversing effect on the exposure-response association. The objective of this study was to evaluate an iron-ore mining cohort to determine whether the effect of respirable dust was confounded by the presence of an HWSE. When an HWSE exists, standard modelling methods, such as Cox regression analysis, produce biased results. We compared results from g-estimation of accelerated failure-time modelling adjusted for HWSE with corresponding unadjusted Cox regression modelling results. For all-cause mortality when adjusting for the HWSE, cumulative exposure from respirable dust was associated with a 6% decrease of life expectancy if exposed ≥15 years, compared with never being exposed. Respirable dust continued to be associated with mortality after censoring outcomes known to be associated with dust when adjusting for the HWSE. In contrast, results based on Cox regression analysis did not support that an association was present. The adjustment for the HWSE made a difference when estimating the risk of mortality from respirable dust. The results of this study, therefore, support the recommendation that standard methods of analysis should be complemented with structural modelling analysis techniques, such as g-estimation of accelerated failure-time modelling, to adjust for the HWSE. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  15. What students told us about their experiences and expectations of print and e-books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Estelle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 13 years at least, many of us have participated in the debate about the development of e-books to support education. Librarians, publishers and intermediaries all have a view about the format and the business models to support it and, of course, studies and surveys of students have informed that debate. However, it is not often that information professionals have the opportunity to sit down with a group of students, listen to their perspective and ask them questions. The UKSG One-Day Conference held in London in November 2015 offered such an opportunity with a panel session of students chaired by Jeremy Upton, Director of Library & University Collections at the University of Edinburgh. The debate uncovered the continued role of print alongside emerging e-book models.  The students shared with us their frustrations in accessing the books they need, the financial challenges they face in terms of purchasing books and their expectations about library provision of books. This article is a summary for those readers who were unable to attend the session to hear for themselves the frank and eye-opening views from the student panel. As one member of the audience put it, the students provided us with gold dust.  The students who so generously gave us their time were Tess McGovern, student of English literature and Cameron Myers, a law student, from King’s College London; Saleh Ahmed and Thomas Ash, who are postgraduates in library studies from City University London; and Lucy Hensher, a geography student and Lenart Celar, a psychology student, from the University of Sussex.

  16. Exploring a New Training Model of Migrant Workers in Case of Constructing Migrant Worker -- School-based Training%以建筑农民工为例探讨农民工培训新模式--基于校本培训的模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐青林; 强韶华

    2013-01-01

    农民工一直以来是推动城市发展的“主力军”,但却因技能和素质的问题制约了经济和社会的发展。因此,关于农民工的培训问题成为了近年来学者研究的热点,但对农民工培训模式的研究却相对较少且已有模式的效果不很理想。从当代农民工的培训需求出发,分析指出了目前农民工培训模式效率不高的主要原因。通过对在我国发展相对成熟的校本培训模式以及校本培训和农民工培训的契合点进行研究,提出了一种以农民工为主体地位的新型5阶段农民工培训模式,对于增加农民工培训的积极性和增强培训效果都有一定的积极意义。%Migrant workers have been the“main force”for the development of city,But they become obstacles for economic and social development because of skills and qualities. So in recent years,training of migrant workers become a hot issue,but the model of migrant workers training is relatively small. This paper analyzes the training needs of contemporary migrant workers and points out the reason that the efficiency of migrant workers training models are low,through the study of the common of migrant workers training and school-based training. We want to explore the model that is suitable for contemporary migrant training. Article proposes a model where migrant workers are the main body,it has a positive significance for increasing the motivation of migrant workers and improving the effectiveness of training.

  17. The Vision of "Industrie 4.0" in the Making-a Case of Future Told, Tamed, and Traded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Since industrial trade fair Hannover Messe 2011, the term "Industrie 4.0" has ignited a vision of a new Industrial Revolution and has been inspiring a lively, ongoing debate among the German public about the future of work, and hence society, ever since. The discourse around this vision of the future eventually spread to other countries, with public awareness reaching a temporary peak in 2016 when the World Economic Forum's meeting in Davos was held with the motto "Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution." How is it possible for a vision originally established by three German engineers to unfold and bear fruit at a global level in such a short period of time? This article begins with a summary of the key ideas that are discussed under the label Industrie 4.0. The main purpose, based on an in-depth discourse analysis, is to debunk the myth about the origin of this powerful vision and to trace the narrative back to the global economic crisis in 2009 and thus to the real actors, central discourse patterns, and hidden intentions of this vision of a new Industrial Revolution. In conclusion, the discourse analysis reveals that this is not a case of visioneering but one of a future told, tamed, and traded.

  18. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Lunar Sample Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    the lunar surface was resurfaced; on Earth, this would scale to ~23,000 large impacts in a brief time. Impact ages in ordinary chondrites, HED meteorites, and the Martian meteorite ALH 84001 suggest that this early bombardment event affected the entire inner solar system. If true, the late heavy bombardment may have directly affected the evolution of life on Earth and our understanding of "habitable" planets. Lunar sample ages have also been used to drive large-scale dynamical modeling of solar system formation. These new models of planetary dynamics show a violent beginning to our solar system, where the late formation or outward migration of the gas giant planets destabilizes the Kuiper belt and main-belt asteroids, sending a cascade of impactors into the Moon and all the inner planets. The existence of an early bombardment has even been postulated in extrasolar planetary systems. Even after 40+ years of study, the provenance of returned lunar samples and ages of key events continue to be a focus of research and a topic of debate. One of the most important lessons learned from Apollo missions is that small samples yield a wealth of information and are gifts that keep on giving. The legacy of Apollo samples serves as a model and impetus for future sample return missions from the Moon, Mars, and asteroids.

  19. History of the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422 as told by the cyanopolyynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Al-Edhari, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.; Viti, S.; Balucani, N.; Caux, E.; Faure, A.; Lefloch, B.; Lique, F.; Mendoza, E.; Quenard, D.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Cyanopolyynes are chains of carbon atoms with an atom of hydrogen and a CN group on either side. They are detected almost everywhere in the interstellar medium (ISM), as well as in comets. In the past, they have been used to constrain the age of some molecular clouds, since their abundance is predicted to be a strong function of time. Finally, cyanopolyynes can potentially contain a large portion of molecular carbon. Aims: We present an extensive study of the cyanopolyynes distribution in the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. The goals are (i) to obtain a census of the cyanopolyynes in this source and of their isotopologues; (ii) to derive how their abundance varies across the protostar envelope; and (iii) to obtain constraints on the history of IRAS 16293-2422 by comparing the observations with the predictions of a chemical model. Methods: We analysed the data from the IRAM-30 m unbiased millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey towards IRAS 16293-2422 named TIMASSS. The derived spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of each detected cyanopolyyne was compared with the predictions from the radiative transfer code GRenoble Analysis of Protostellar Envelope Spectra (GRAPES) to derive the cyanopolyyne abundances across the envelope of IRAS 16293-2422. Finally, the derived abundances were compared with the predictions of the chemical model UCL_CHEM. Results: We detect several lines from cyanoacetylene (HC3N) and cyanodiacetylene (HC5N), and report the first detection of deuterated cyanoacetylene, DC3N, in a solar-type protostar. We found that the HC3N abundance is roughly constant ( 1.3 × 10-11) in the outer cold envelope of IRAS 16293-2422, and it increases by about a factor 100 in the inner region where the dust temperature exceeds 80 K, namely when the volcano ice desorption is predicted to occur. The HC5N has an abundance similar to HC3N in the outer envelope and about a factor of ten lower in the inner region. The comparison with the chemical

  20. Megadroughts: The scary past told by tree rings and its implications for the future (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    extreme mode of hydroclimatic variability, one in which megadroughts are more frequent and prolonged. The reasons for this are not well understood, but they appear to be associated with warmer climate conditions, such as that experienced during medieval times. Climate model projections of future climate change due to greenhouse warming indicate that the dry subtropical zones of the world will expand poleward in the future. Given the apparent association between past megadroughts and warmer climate, we may be in danger of slipping into a new megadrought era, like that seen during medieval times in the drought atlases, even if the underlying mechanisms are different. This suggests that past megadroughts should be used as analogues of future hydroclimatic change for modeling and impact studies.

  1. Antisnake venom production crisis--who told us it was uneconomic and unsustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ian D; Jacobsen, Ingrid M

    2009-01-01

    The world of antisnake venom production is currently a gloomy place to visit. It is described as being in crisis, characterized by shortages, producers leaving the market, high prices, and unsustainability. It has been reduced to a pauper-like status, doomed to relying on charitable handouts for resolution. The worrying aspect of this is that little work has been done to establish the true economics and return on antisnake venom if provided by private companies. Fortunately, it is amenable to economic analysis, and in this manner, a rational approach to further development and distribution can be obtained. This article proposes a model antisnake venom (ASV) production unit and shows the likely economics and return based on the production of various volumes of ASV. It estimates the costs for the key components of the unit, which are production equipment and staffing. A profit and loss account and balance sheet are constructed for the unit, and the effects of ASV volume and neutralizing titres are demonstrated. It is our contention that ASV production can be sustained at affordable prices in the developing world. We recommend that any solution to the ASV shortage must take into account the most cost efficient method(s) of production.

  2. The Age of the Moon As Told By Dynamics and Asteroidal Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, W. F.; Marchi, S.; Vokrouhlicky, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Moon likely formed as a result of a collision between a large protoplanet and the early Earth. A long-standing mystery, however, is precisely when this giant impact (GI) took place. The conventional wisdom, based on both planet formation models and age estimates of ancient lunar samples, is that the GI occurred many tens of My after the formation of CAIs (~4.45-4.53 Ga). New work on ferroan anothosites by Borg et al. (2011; Nature), however, indicates the Moon may have formed ~200 My after CAIs (4.36 Ga). If true, our understanding of solar system evolution and lunar origin will require drastic revisions. The problem is that testing the claims of Borg et al. (2011) is difficult; ancient lunar samples are both rare and hard to date, while current planet formation models have their issues (e.g., they cannot yet make Mars or the asteroid belt with all of their observed properties). This prompted us to examine a novel method to calculate the timing of the GI. Consider that the GI, probably the largest collision to ever take place in the inner solar system, should have produced lots of debris. Numerical hydrocode simulations of the GI by R. Canup show that, on average, 5-10% of an Earth-mass escapes the Earth-Moon system as ejecta; this is equivalent to 100-200 times the mass of the asteroid belt. Our dynamical simulations show this material spreads rapidly across the inner solar system over tens of My, with most bodies going away by hitting the Earth (20-40%), Venus (20-40%), the Sun, or by being ejected out of the Solar System via an encounter with Jupiter. Before they are eliminated, however, a substantial fraction of ejecta reach orbits that allow them to slam into primordial main belt asteroids at high velocities (> 10 km/s). These kinds of impacts are particularly good at heating target material and thereby creating Ar-Ar shock degassing ages. Using the formalism of Marchi, Bottke et al. (2013; Nature Geosci.), we found that over a ~100 My interval, high

  3. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Mutsumi; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression) in healthcare workers. Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1) occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468), (2) occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142), and (3) occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687). Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships) as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD). Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1), burnout syndrome (Study 2), and depression (Study 3) were also analyzed. Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  4. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsumi Teraoka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression in healthcare workers.Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1 occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468, (2 occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142, and (3 occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687. Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD. Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18, study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS, and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, exploratory factor analysis (EFA, and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1, burnout syndrome (Study 2, and depression (Study 3 were also analyzed.Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  5. Heuristic for Task-Worker Assignment with Varying Learning Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawee Tharmmaphornphilas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fashion industry has variety products, so the multi-skilled workers are required to improve flexibility in production and assignment. Generally the supervisor will assign task to the workers based on skill and skill levels of worker. Since in fashion industry new product styles are launched more frequently and the order size tends to be smaller, the workers always learn when the raw material and the production process changes. Consequently they require less time to produce the succeeding units of a task based on their learning ability. Since the workers have both experience and inexperience workers, so each worker has different skill level and learning ability. Consequently, the assignment which assumed constant skill level is not proper to use. This paper proposes a task-worker assignment considering worker skill levels and learning abilities. Processing time of each worker changes along production period due to a worker learning ability. We focus on a task-worker assignment in a fashion industry where tasks are ordered in series; the number of tasks is greater than the number of workers. Therefore, workers can perform multiple assignments followed the precedence restriction as an assembly line balancing problem. The problem is formulated in an integer linear programming model with objective to minimize makespan. A heuristic is proposed to determine the lower bound (LB and the upper bound (UB of the problem and the best assignment is determined. The performance of the heuristic method is tested by comparing quality of solution and computational time to optimal solutions.

  6. The predictive validity and effects of using the transtheoretical model to increase the physical activity of healthcare workers in a public hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaal, Linda; Pengpid, Supa

    2012-12-01

    There have been studies conducted on the effectiveness of the transtheoretical model (TTM) in improving the level of physical activity at worksites worldwide, but no such studies have been conducted in South Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive validity and effects of using the Transtheoretical Model to increase the physical activity of healthcare workers in a public hospital in South Africa. A quasi-experimental design in the form of a single-group, pretest-posttest model was used to examine the possible relationship between an exposure to interventions, attitude, knowledge, and an increased level of physical activity. Two hundred hospital staff members (medical and nonmedical staff) were randomly selected for participation in the study. The following variables were measured: TTM stages of physical activity, knowledge and attitudes, fitness level, body mass index, and level of exposure to the intervention. The interventions designed were based on the concept of progressing stages of physical activity in TTM stage sequences: (1) pamphlets about physical activity and health, (2) posters, fun runs, and sports day, and (3) a second set of posters, a daily radio program, and aerobic classes. Post-intervention, participants had significantly increased their stages of physical activity, attitudes, and knowledge compared with their pre-tests. Mean scores of TTM (3.70) and knowledge (3.65) were significantly (p < 0.05) greater at post-test. Overall accuracies of TTM at pre-test correctly predicted TTM at post-test by an average of 66.9%. The use of TTM to identify the stage of physical activity of healthcare workers has enabled the researcher to design intervention programs specific to the stage of exercise behavior of hospital staff. The predictors (TTM1), exposure levels, knowledge, attitudes, and processes of change have significant contributions to the outcome (TTM2).

  7. 基于层次结构的农民工就业特征模型研究%Study on the Employment Feature Model of Migrant Workers Based on the Hierarchical Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉峰; 张红燕; 敬松; 谢元瑰; 隆珂

    2013-01-01

    为了更有效地为农民工提供个性化就业推荐信息,促进农村剩余劳动力转移.通过采用层次结构表示方法融合决策树模型和向量空间模型,分析了农民工就业个性化推送服务的特点,并将农民工的基本信息特征与其网络上求职的操作特征有机结合,建立农民工就业特征模型.实证结果表明,该模型能够更好地对农民工的就业特征进行表示,提高就业推荐准确率.%To provide employment recommendation information for migrant workers more specific and promote the transfer of rural surplus labor, we integrate the decision tree model and vector space model into hierarchical structure representation method, analyze the characteristics of personalized employment recommendation service for migrant workers, combine the basic characteristics of the migrant workers with their concrete operation for job wanted on the network, then establish an employment characteristics model for migrant workers. The results showed that, the model could represent the employment characteristics of the migrant workers more effectively than existing models, so as to improve the recommendation accuracy for the employment of the migrant workers.

  8. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyougoku, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression) in healthcare workers. Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1) occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468), (2) occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142), and (3) occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687). Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships) as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD). Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1), burnout syndrome (Study 2), and depression (Study 3) were also analyzed. Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  9. Empirical Analysis of Migrant Workers in Shanghai after the City Health Insurance Reform Security Model%上海市农民工医疗保险改革后城保模式的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙茜

    2014-01-01

    The reform of Shanghai migrant workers health insurance has been completed from comprehen -sive insurance to city insurance .By investigating 1000 of migrant workers in Shanghai , it found out the problems existing in the city insurance after the reform , which perfects Chinese migrant workers with health insurance model reference and guidance .%在上海市农民工医疗保险完成了综保转城保的改革的前提下,通过对上海市1000名农民工进行调查,找出了改革后城保模式存在的问题,这对我国农民工医疗保险模式的完善有着借鉴意义。

  10. Mortality among rubber workers: V. processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R

    1982-07-01

    Cause-specific mortality was evaluated among 2,666 men employed in the processing division of a rubber manufacturing plant. The division was divided into two sections: front processing (compounding, mixing and milling operations) and back processing (extrusion, calendering, cement mixing and rubberized fabrics operations). Mortality rates for all processing workers combined and for men in each section were compared with rates for U.S. White males or for workers employed in other divisions of the same plant. Compared with either referent group, men in the processing division had increased mortality from leukemia, emphysema, and cancers of the stomach, large intestine, and biliary passages and liver. An excess number of deaths from stomach and larger intestine cancer was found predominantly among men in the front processing section (33 observed vs. 17.7 expected deaths, based on rates in nonprocessing workers). Increased mortality from leukemia (14 observed vs. 7.3 expected) and from emphysema (22 observed vs. 11.0 expected) was present among men employed in the back processing section. Examination of mortality from these causes according to age and the year starting work, duration of employment, and years since starting work in the relevant sections of the processing division suggested that observed excesses of stomach cancer, large intestine cancer, leukemia, and emphysema among processing workers are related to occupational exposures. These results are consistent with the findings of studies of other groups of rubber workers.

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation on Migrant Workers Information Ability Based on Partial Least Squares Path Model%基于偏最小二乘通径模型的农民工信息能力综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区晶莹; 张淞琳; 俞守华

    2011-01-01

    针对农民工信息能力建立评价指标体系,利用偏最小二乘通径模型,建立了农民工信息能力PLS通径模型,并以广东省8个城市的农民工群体为例,计算分析了模型通径系数和各城市农民工信息能力的综合排名.结果表明信息运用能力、信息吸收能力和信息创新能力是影响农民工信息能力的关键因素,广州市农民工信息能力位于广东省的首位.图3,表1,参12.%The evaluation index system was established according to migrant workers information ability in this paper. A path model for evaluation of migrant workers information ability was constructed using partial least squares. Taking migrant workers groups in eight cities of Guangdong province as examples, the model' s path coefficients were figured out and the ranking of comprehensive information a-bility of migrant workers in these cities were analyzed The results showed that the information practical ability, the information acquiring ability and the information innovation ability are key influential factors of migrant workers information ability, and information ability of migrant workers in Guangzhou ranked first among the eight cities.

  12. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  13. Recommendations for Evidence-based Thinking on Migrant Worker Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based thinking originates from the United States. It stresses combination of actual facts and practical experience of managers to find out optimal evidence and make decisions accordingly. Migrant worker is a unique concept of China. Migrant workers are essential parts of industrial forces. However,due to limitation of their quality,they generally fail to bring into play their important function in the industry chain. At present,there are many problems in training models of migrant workers,leading to failure to raise their employment ability. This study is expected to introduce the evidence-based thinking into the building of training models for migrant workers,to provide recommendations for migrant worker training,raise efficiency of migrant worker training,and so as to bring into play important function of migrant workers in socialist construction of China.

  14. Predictors of condom use behaviors based on the Health Belief Model (HBM among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in Hubei Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhu Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM constructs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the 'low-tier' entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r=0.07. Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r=0.23 and r=-0.62, respectively. Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r=0.36. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs.

  15. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  16. Workers' Education in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  17. Risk Factors of Work-related Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders in Male Shipyard Workers: Structural Equation Model Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Chan Park

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: The model in this study provides a better approximation of the complexity of the actual relationship between risk factors and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Among the variables evaluated in this study, physical factors (work posture had the strongest association with musculoskeletal disorders.

  18. Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers in Nuclear Power Plants: Development of a Model of Procedure Usage and Identification of Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been looking at replacing the current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedure systems. The concept of computer-based procedures is not new by any means; however most research has focused on procedures used in the main control room. Procedures reviewed in these efforts are mainly emergency operating procedures and normal operating procedures. Based on lessons learned for these previous efforts we are now exploring a more unknown application for computer based procedures - field procedures, i.e. procedures used by nuclear equipment operators and maintenance technicians. The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. commercial nuclear industry are collaborating in an applied research effort with the objective of developing requirements and specifications for a computer-based procedure system to be used by field workers. The goal is to identify the types of human errors that can be mitigated by using computer-based procedures and how to best design the computer-based procedures to do so. This paper describes the development of a Model of Procedure Use and the qualitative study on which the model is based. The study was conducted in collaboration with four nuclear utilities and five research institutes. During the qualitative study and the model development requirements and for computer-based procedures were identified.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in permanent night workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggi, Nicoletta; Consonni, Dario; Galluzzo, Valeria; Sogliani, Marco; Costa, Giovanni

    2008-04-01

    Night and shift work might be risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders due to interference with diet, circadian metabolic rhythms, and lifestyle. The relationship between permanent night work and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors was explored in a retrospective longitudinal study of workers employed in a large municipal enterprise in charge of street cleaning and domestic waste collection. All subjects who had worked night shifts between 1976 and 2007 as hand sweepers, motor sweepers, and delivery tricar drivers were compared with subjects who always worked the same jobs but on day shifts. From the periodical medical surveillance files, we identified 488 male workers who had been examined on average five times (minimum 2, maximum 14) during the study period, for a total of 2,328 medical examinations; 157 always had worked day shifts, 12 always the night shift, and 319 both (initially day and subsequently night shifts). Their age ranged from 22 to 62 yrs, and work experience varied from 1 to 28 yrs. Lifestyle habits (smoking, alcohol consumption), body mass index, serum glucose, total cholesterol, tryglicerides, hepatic enzymes, blood pressure, resting electrocardiogram, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and related drugs were taken into consideration for the analysis. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) models (exchangeable correlation matrix) to analyze the relationship between night work and health effects while accounting for within-subject correlations and adjusting for study period, job, age, and lifestyle variables. As a whole, night workers smoked more and had significantly higher BMI, serum total cholesterol, and triglycerides than day workers. Both the inter-individual comparison between day and night workers and the intra-individual comparison among the workers, who were day workers at the beginning of their employment and later became night workers, showed a significant increase in BMI, total cholesterol

  20. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  1. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  2. 居住模式对农民工社会融入的影响研究∗%Research on the Effect of Residing Model on the Social Integration of Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马良; 黄益飞

    2014-01-01

    The issue of the social integration of migrant workers is a big problem faced by China in presently social transition pe⁃riod, and the process of Chinese urbanization can be accelerated by solving the problem in the social integration of the migrant workers and by boosting the citizenization of the migrant workers. This paper analyzes the influence of the two residing models such as centralized residence and decentralized residence on the four levels of the social integration of the migrant workers. And the research results show that the residing model has significant impact on the social integration of the migrant workers.%农民工社会融入问题是当前我国社会转型期面临的一大社会难题,解决农民工的社会融入问题,促进农民工市民化,能够加快我国城市化的进程。文章根据闻潮社区和格畈社区农民工的社会融入情况,从农民工的两种居住模式:集中居住和分散居住来分析研究其对农民工社会融入的四个层面所产生的影响。研究结果表明,居住模式对农民工社会融入存在显著的影响。

  3. Application of a prospective model for calculating worker exposure due to the air pathway for operations in a laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimbergen, T.W.M. [Department of Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); NRG Radiation and Environment, PO Box 9034, 6800 ES Arnhem (Netherlands); Wiegman, M.M. [VU Medisch Centrum, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET-Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    In order to arrive at recommendations for guidelines on maximum allowable quantities of radioactive material in laboratories, a proposed mathematical model was used for the calculation of transfer fractions for the air pathway. A set of incident scenarios was defined, including spilling, leakage and failure of the fume hood. For these 'common incidents', dose constraints of 1 mSv and 0.1 mSv are proposed in case the operations are being performed in a controlled area and supervised area, respectively. In addition, a dose constraint of 1 {mu}Sv is proposed for each operation under regular working conditions. Combining these dose constraints and the transfer fractions calculated with the proposed model, maximum allowable quantities were calculated for different laboratory operations and situations. Provided that the calculated transfer fractions can be experimentally validated and the dose constraints are acceptable, it can be concluded from the results that the dose constraint for incidents is the most restrictive one. For non-volatile materials this approach leads to quantities much larger than commonly accepted. In those cases, the results of the calculations in this study suggest that limitation of the quantity of radioactive material, which can be handled safely, should be based on other considerations than the inhalation risks. Examples of such considerations might be the level of external exposure, uncontrolled spread of radioactive material by surface contamination, emissions in the environment and severe accidents like fire. (authors)

  4. Application of a prospective model for calculating worker exposure due to the air pathway for operations in a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, T W M; Wiegman, M M

    2007-01-01

    In order to arrive at recommendations for guidelines on maximum allowable quantities of radioactive material in laboratories, a proposed mathematical model was used for the calculation of transfer fractions for the air pathway. A set of incident scenarios was defined, including spilling, leakage and failure of the fume hood. For these 'common incidents', dose constraints of 1 mSv and 0.1 mSv are proposed in case the operations are being performed in a controlled area and supervised area, respectively. In addition, a dose constraint of 1 microSv is proposed for each operation under regular working conditions. Combining these dose constraints and the transfer fractions calculated with the proposed model, maximum allowable quantities were calculated for different laboratory operations and situations. Provided that the calculated transfer fractions can be experimentally validated and the dose constraints are acceptable, it can be concluded from the results that the dose constraint for incidents is the most restrictive one. For non-volatile materials this approach leads to quantities much larger than commonly accepted. In those cases, the results of the calculations in this study suggest that limitation of the quantity of radioactive material, which can be handled safely, should be based on other considerations than the inhalation risks. Examples of such considerations might be the level of external exposure, uncontrolled spread of radioactive material by surface contamination, emissions in the environment and severe accidents like fire.

  5. Alocação de modelos de produtos a equipes de trabalhadores baseada em modelos de curvas de aprendizagem Assignment of product models to worker teams using learning curve models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel José Anzanello

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Em ambientes de alta customização, uma grande variedade de modelos de produtos é demandada pelos consumidores. Essa condição exige uma rápida adequação dos meios produtivos às especificações do próximo modelo a ser produzido. Tal situação, contudo, pode acarretar perdas consideráveis em relação aos níveis de produção e qualidade, em decorrência da pouca habilidade dos trabalhadores nos ciclos iniciais de produção de um novo modelo. Assim, a modelagem do processo de aprendizado de trabalhadores atuando sobre cada modelo de produto pode auxiliar a gerência na alocação de modelos de produtos a equipes de trabalhadores, minimizando as perdas verificadas nos primeiros ciclos de produção. Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia baseada na utilização de curvas de aprendizagem como balizadoras da alocação de modelos de produtos a equipes de trabalhadores. Os diversos modelos de produtos são agrupados em famílias de acordo com suas características similares, permitindo uma redução na coleta de dados. A alocação das famílias às equipes é realizada através da análise das curvas de aprendizagem. Duas formas de alocação são apresentadas, de acordo com a duração da corrida de produção. A metodologia proposta é ilustrada através de um estudo de caso em uma indústria do setor calçadista.In highly customized markets a large variety of product models are typically demanded by customers. That requires fast setup of production resources to comply with specifications of the next model to be produced. Such compliance, however, may cause considerable production and quality losses due to workers' poor performance during the initial production runs of a new model. Therefore, modeling workers' learning upon exposure to each product model may help production managers to define the best assignment scheme for models and workers, such that losses in the initial stages of production are minimized. This paper presents a

  6. Tobacco Workers in 1916

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    I looked at the women in the photo carefully,judging theirage from the style of their hair and clothes,and guessingtheir mood at the time when the photo was taken. On this photo there are about 50 workers from theNanyang Brothers Tobacco Company,who are sitting in thefactory working.It seems they are married women, for allwear their hair in buns.Behind them stand two men in white;they may be the foremen. Women tobacco workers were one branch of Chinesewomen workrs in modern industry.At the end of the 1900’s,the reeling.cotton spinning,match and cigarette trades usedwomen workers extensively.They were mainly employed inenterprises with more than 500 workers,chiefly in cotton,silkand weaving mills.They also amassed in the tobacco trade,

  7. Migrant Workers Fight Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBO

    2005-01-01

    Zhao, aged 33, is a migrant worker in a shoe factory in Shenzhen, the prosperous southern Chinese city. He arrived there hve years ago from his home village in north Jiangsu province, a notoriously poverty struck region of China.

  8. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  9. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  10. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  11. Stress in Humanitarian Workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In emerging countries, the consequences of stress remain undervalued. Stress ... hazards reducing workers' satisfaction and productivity,. 1-3 ... organizations and NGOs (renewable one-year contract) ... Job Related Stress Among Physicians.

  12. Dependency and Worker Flirting

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof

    1990-01-01

    The present paper concentrates on 'worker flirting' as one of the forms of interactional ritual in the culture of an organization. It is thus only an illustration of the interactional dimension of the culture of an organization. The paper deals with interactional ritual in an industrial organization and is based on an empirical study carried out in a radio-electrical plant, "Z," which employs 1,500 workers. The author carried out a period of three-months covert participant observation and...

  13. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  14. Evolution of worker policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-06-21

    Workers in insect societies are sometimes observed to kill male eggs of other workers, a phenomenon known as worker policing. We perform a mathematical analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of policing. We investigate the selective forces behind policing for both dominant and recessive mutations for different numbers of matings of the queen. The traditional, relatedness-based argument suggests that policing evolves if the queen mates with more than two males, but does not evolve if the queen mates with a single male. We derive precise conditions for the invasion and stability of policing alleles. We find that the relatedness-based argument is not robust with respect to small changes in colony efficiency caused by policing. We also calculate evolutionarily singular strategies and determine when they are evolutionarily stable. We use a population genetics approach that applies to dominant or recessive mutations of any effect size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Migration of health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  16. Workplace violence against homecare workers and its relationship with workers health outcomes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ginger C; Perrin, Nancy A; Moss, Helen; Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy

    2015-01-17

    Consumer-driven homecare models support aging and disabled individuals to live independently through the services of homecare workers. Although these models have benefits, including autonomy and control over services, little evidence exists about challenges homecare workers may face when providing services, including workplace violence and the negative outcomes associated with workplace violence. This study investigates the prevalence of workplace violence among homecare workers and examines the relationship between these experiences and homecare worker stress, burnout, depression, and sleep. We recruited female homecare workers in Oregon, the first US state to implement a consumer driven homecare model, to complete an on-line or telephone survey with peer interviewers. The survey asked about demographics and included measures to assess workplace violence, fear, stress, burnout, depression and sleep problems. Homecare workers (n = 1,214) reported past-year incidents of verbal aggression (50.3% of respondents), workplace aggression (26.9%), workplace violence (23.6%), sexual harassment (25.7%), and sexual aggression (12.8%). Exposure was associated with greater stress (p workplace aggression buffered homecare workers against negative work and health outcomes. To ensure homecare worker safety and positive health outcomes in the provision of services, it is critical to develop and implement preventive safety training programs with policies and procedures that support homecare workers who experience harassment and violence.

  17. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of

  18. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of pat

  19. Increasing Knowledge, Skills, and Empathy among Direct Care Workers in Elder Care: A Preliminary Study of an Active-Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Cheang, Michael; Shigeta, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the development of a 24-hr curriculum for nonclinical direct care workers in elder care that features active-learning strategies and consumer-directed approaches. Design and Methods: Our curricular design was based on adult education theory and a survey of 70% of the community's service providers. Training was completed by 88…

  20. The older worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, J S; Fallon, L F

    2001-01-01

    About one person in eight remains employed past 65, the average age for retirement in the U.S. These persons tend to be highly reliable. They can adapt and learn new technology, but may require extra time to do so. Older workers have particular needs in the workplace due to physiological changes that accompany aging. They may require more lighting, and they may have decreased mobility, physical strength, and dexterity. These factors often have no impact on their ability to accomplish job duties. This chapter underscores the significant contributions that older workers often provide, and also addresses retirement planning.

  1. EVALUATIVE LANGUAGE IN SPOKEN AND SIGNED STORIES TOLD BY A DEAF CHILD WITH A COCHLEAR IMPLANT: WORDS, SIGNS OR PARALINGUISTIC EXPRESSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Takkinen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the use and quality of the evaluative language produced by a bilingual child in a story-telling situation is analysed. The subject, an 11-year-old Finnish boy, Jimmy, is bilingual in Finnish sign language (FinSL and spoken Finnish.He was born deaf but got a cochlear implant at the age of five.The data consist of a spoken and a signed version of “The Frog Story”. The analysis shows that evaluative devices and expressions differ in the spoken and signed stories told by the child. In his Finnish story he uses mostly lexical devices – comments on a character and the character’s actions as well as quoted speech occasionally combined with prosodic features. In his FinSL story he uses both lexical and paralinguistic devices in a balanced way.

  2. Mapping site-based construction workers' motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghoddousi, Parviz; Bahrami, Nima; Chileshe, Nicholas; Hosseini, M Reza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in construction and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry...

  3. Retention of tritium in reference persons: a metabolic model. Derivation of parameters and application of the model to the general public and to workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A

    2010-09-01

    Tritium ((3)H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen that is ubiquitous in environmental and biological systems. Following debate on the human health risk from exposure to tritium, there have been claims that the current biokinetic model recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may underestimate tritium doses. A new generic model for tritium in mammals, based on energy metabolism and body composition, together with all its input data, has been described in a recent paper and successfully tested for farm and laboratory mammals. That model considers only dietary intake of tritium and was extended to humans. This paper presents the latest development of the human model with explicit consideration of brain energy metabolism. Model testing with human experimental data on organically bound tritium (OBT) in urine after tritiated water (HTO) or OBT intakes is presented. Predicted absorbed doses show a moderate increase for OBT intakes compared with doses recommended by the ICRP. Infants have higher tritium retention-a factor of 2 longer than the ICRP estimate. The highest tritium concentration is in adipose tissue, which has a very low radiobiological sensitivity. The ranges of uncertainty in retention and doses are investigated. The advantage of the new model is its ability to be applied to the interpretation of bioassay data.

  4. 基于五因素模型的新生代农民工组织承诺管理研究%On Organizational Commitment Management of New Urban Migrant Workers Based on Five - Factor Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴聪

    2015-01-01

    从管理学角度分析了新生代农民工的特点,并运用组织承诺的五因素模型,从感情承诺、理想承诺、规范承诺、经济承诺和机会承诺这五个因素分析了新生代农民工组织承诺较低的现状和原因,最后以这五个因素为基础探讨了如何提高新生代农民工的组织承诺。%This paper analyzes the features of the new urban migrant workers from the management perspective, and the five - factor model of organizational commitment was used to analyze the present situation and reasons of the low organizational commitment of the new urban migrant workers. At last,how to improve the organizational com-mitment of the new urban migrant workers on the basis on the five factors were also discussed in this paper.

  5. Working Hours Flexibility and Older Workers' Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the presence of hours constraints on the UK labor market and its effect on older workers labor supply, both at the extensive and the intensive margin. Using panel data for the period 1991-2004, the results from a competing risks model show that over-employed male workers can freel

  6. Battling for Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s labor pool is not running dry, but migrant workers are expecting more from cities For most of China’s 240 million farmers who leave their hometowns for manualobs in cities, the only opportunity for family reunion is the Spring Festival,or Lunar New

  7. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  8. WORKERS FINDING A VOICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The recent cases of U.S. fast-food giants McDonald’s and KFC, accused of underpaying and exploiting part-time workers in their Chinese branches, have put labor relations under the spotlight. With deepening market-oriented economic reforms and an increasi

  9. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non...

  10. Historical Cohort Study on the Factors Affecting Blood Pressure in Workers of Polyacryl Iran Corporation Using Bayesian Multilevel Modeling with Skew T Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension is considered as a major public health problem in most countries due to its association with ischemic heart disease which causes cerebrovascular disease and death. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to study factors affecting Blood Pressure (BP). Patients and Methods The data were extracted from annual observation of the workers who worked in Polyacryl Iran Corporation (PIC) between 1998 and 2010. In this research, we assessed the effect of Body Mass Index...

  11. 现代远程教育背景下劳模教学模式的探索%Exploration of Model Workers Teaching Mode under the Condition of Modern Long--distance Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃凤梅

    2012-01-01

    Exploring model workers teaching mode in modern long--distance education has profound significance. In this paper, we explore its construction style from theory support,mode selection and strategy application according to its main characteris- tics.%探索现代远程教育劳模教学模式意义深远,我们根据它的主要特点,从理论支撑、模式选择、策略运用等三个方面认真探索其构建方式。

  12. Modelo operário e percepção de riscos ocupacionais e ambientais: o uso exemplar de estudo descritivo The "worker model" and perception of environmental and occupational risks: the optimal use of a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Facchini

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar os riscos resultantes da exposição a produtos químicos, de trabalhadores de indústria química e farmacêutica. Realizou-se estudo descritivo, através do modelo operário (MO, onde o acesso aos trabalhadores significava uma parte essencial do método e a única forma de neutralizar a impossibilidade de acesso ao local de trabalho. Reconstruíam-se as atividades dos setores de trabalho e identificaram-se as principais substâncias químicas utilizadas, as queixas mais referidas, os danos potenciais e os principais riscos ambientais, concluindo pela precariedade das condições gerais de trabalho. Com os resultados confirmados, ficou evidenciada a importância do MO e sua utilidade metodológica, levando trabalhadores a conseguir das autoridades que a empresa fosse vistoriada. A mobilização dos trabalhadores, através de denúncias nos meios de comunicação, ajudou a formar uma consciência popular dos riscos ocupacionais e ambientais daquela atividade produtiva.An attempt was made to identify the risks resulting from exposure to the chemicals to which workers are exposed as well as from the poor working conditions to which they are subject in a chemical and pharmaceutical factory. A descriptive study based on the "workers model" - a methodological approach developed in Italy in the 60's, was carried out. Such a study requires direct contact with the workers and has the advantage of overcoming the difficulty of gaining access to their work-place. The activities of the different departments of the plant were reconstructed and the main chemicals used, the main physical complaints, the potencial harms and the main environmental risks identified. The repon on the harmful working conditions produced was used by the workers as a means of pressing the authorities into carrying out an inspection of the plant concerned to verify its accuracy. The report's findings have been confirmed and demonstrate the usefulness of the

  13. The Future of the Migrant Workers: the Issue of Pensioning of the Retired Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxia Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first generation migrant workers contributed a lot to the construction of the cities with the lowest wages and the hardest work. On the other hand, due to flaws in the current social insurance systems, unclear responsibility of enterprises, insufficient understanding of the migrant workers themselves, there appear the dilemma that the cities refuse to care for migrant workers while the countryside cannot undertake the task and the traditional family and land-supporting model also fails to do so. And this has become an urgent problem faced the whole society. This paper, by analyzing the predicament and the issues of the care service of the retired migrant workers, presents solutions such as bettering the insurance system, quickening the law making, and popularizing the idea of responsibilities and consciousness of the enterprises and the farmer workers. It also calls for a power financial support from the government, and a way to unite the transitional system of the insurance policies, with strict supervision and management to protect the lawful interest of the migrant workers.

  14. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  15. Addressing Workers' Rights in the Textile and Apparel Industries: Consequences for the Bangladesh Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a CGE model to analyze the effects of better addressing worker¿s rights in Bangladesh¿s textile and apparel industries. Results show that an increased minimum wage for unskilled, low-, and medium-skilled workers has negative impacts for these workers in aggregate and also for the

  16. Retired Worker Writes Novel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    SUN Junxian, a retired worker from the Huanghe Machine Building Company in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, spent nearly 15 years writing her autobiographical novel White Snow. With the publication of this novel, Sun has won widespread praise throughout Xi’an. Readers think the novel is effective and true to life. The China Television Play Production Center plans to adapt the novel for a TV series and present it during the

  17. Reserach on the Measurement of Human Capital of the New Generation of Migrant Workers Based on the Latent Variable Model%基于潜变量的新生代农民工人力资本测度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛莹玉; 李春平

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of migrant workers has become the main source of the increased urban labor force.With their human capital level developed,the supply side structural reform will be promoted significantly, contributing to strengthening the power of sustainable economic growth as well as maintaining social stability and harmonious development. In order to study the problem of the measurement and current situation of the human capital of the new generation of migrant workers,this paper proposed a latent variable model to measure human capital of the new generation of migrant workers. The established index system is developed based on the income level with three dimensions,including health capital,experience capital and skill capital.Through the questionnaire survey,this paper used the partial least square method to measure the human capital level of the new generation of migrant workers. The results show that differences in skill and experience capital directly contribute to the income differences ,and the new generation of migrant workers'health capital has positive effect on the formation of skill capital which further influences the income,and skill capital and experience capital of the new generation of migrant workers are stilla t low level.The above results suggest that strengthening vocational training and accumulating experiences showld be adopted to improve the new generation migrant workers'human capital level.%新生代农民工作为城市新增劳动力的主要来源,其人力资本水平的提升,对促进供给侧结构性改革、增强经济持续增长动力具有重要意义。为了研究新生代农民工人力资本的构成、测度及现状等问题,从健康资本、经验资本和技能资本三个维度建立指标体系,构建了基于潜变量的新生代农民工人力资本的测度模型。通过问卷调查,采用偏最小二乘方法对新生代农民工的人力资本水平进行了测度,结果表明:新生代农

  18. Abordaje de los trabajadores con trastornos físicos y psíquicos en salud laboral: un modelo Approach of workers with physical and mentaldisorders in occupational health: a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mansilla Izquierdo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone un modelo de abordaje en salud laboral de los trabajadores con trastornos físicos o psíquicos, utilizando la entrevista motivacional y el apoyo social como ejes del modelo. La atención se realiza en tres fases: contención, valoración y orientación. Este modelo puede favorecer la disminución de los problemas o dificultades en el contexto laboral, adaptando o cambiando su puesto de trabajo.This article proposes a model approach to occupational health of workers with physical or mental disorders, using motivational interviewing and social support model axis. Attention is done in three phases: containment, assessment and guidance. This model may help to decrease the problems or difficulties in the employment context, adapting or changing their jobs.

  19. Work-Life Balance and Ideal Worker Expectations for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the work-life experiences of administrators as well as whether and how the ideal worker model affects those experiences. Departmental and supervisory differences and technology complicate administrators' work-life experiences.

  20. Work-Life Balance and Ideal Worker Expectations for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the work-life experiences of administrators as well as whether and how the ideal worker model affects those experiences. Departmental and supervisory differences and technology complicate administrators' work-life experiences.

  1. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Efi Yuliati Yovi; Suryaningsih Suryaningsih

    2012-01-01

    Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise) produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance ...

  2. Workers' compensation law: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, B

    1994-09-01

    1. The workers' compensation system provides benefits to workers who are injured or made ill in the course of employment or their dependents regardless of fault. 2. The current workers' compensation laws benefit both the employer and the employee; however, workers' compensation is an exclusive remedy which bars recovery through a negligence lawsuit. 3. Workers' compensation regulations interact with other federal statutes such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Family Medical Leave Act. 4. Workers' compensation covers occupational injuries and occupational diseases, which may include cumulative trauma and mental stress claims. Nurses may be instrumental in evaluating and planning for an injured employee's return to work and occasionally in detecting fraudulent claims.

  3. Radiological worker training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  4. China's Migrant Workers' Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sifeng; Zhang Wenxue; Wang Lijian; Zhang Li

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of migrant workers and migrant workers'social security,systems,policies and regulations and status quo of specific safeguard project of social security have been analyzed.Authors draw following conclusions: China's social security systems of migrant workers show diversification and differentiation trend; national-level policies take on diversification and local-level regulations take on differentiation; social welfare and social assistance have deficiency; coverage rate of social insurance items is extremely low.

  5. A Model to Determine the Level of Serum Aldosterone in the Workers Attributed to the Combined Effects of Sound Pressure Level, Exposure Time and Serum Potassium Level: A Field-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Occupational exposure to excessive noise is one of the biggest work-related challenges in the world. This phenomenon causes the release of stress-related hormones, which in turn, negatively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives The current study study aimed to determine the level of workers’ serum aldosterone in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 45 workers of Gol-Gohar Mining and Industrial Company in the fall of 2014. The subjects were divided into three groups (one control and two case groups, each including 15 workers. Participants in the control group were selected from workers with administrative jobs (exposure to the background noise. On the other hand, participants in the case groups were selected from the concentrator and pelletizing factories exposed to excessive noise. Serum aldosterone and potassium levels of participants were assessed at three different time intervals: at the beginning of the shift and before exposure to noise (7:30 - 8:00 AM, during exposure to noise (10:00 - 10:30 AM, and during continuous exposure (1:30 - 2:00 PM. The obtained data were transferred into SPSS ver. 18. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to develop the statistical model of workers’ aldosterone level in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time, and serum potassium level. Results The results of the final statistical model to determine the level of serum aldosterone based on the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level indicated that the sound pressure level had a significant influence on the human’s serum aldosterone level (P = 0.04. In addition, the effects of exposure time and serum potassium on aldosterone level were statistically significant with P-values of 0.008 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions

  6. Ethical issues in worker productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Linda; Levenstein, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Occupational health has always operated at the intersection of corporate economic concerns and worker health. Conflicting demands on the loyalty of occupational health professionals by the interests of labor and industry have made negotiating this minefield an essential part of the practice of occupational medicine. In recent years, occupational health professionals have found themselves increasingly required to rationalize worker health measures with economic arguments. This has led to physician engagement in the realm of defining and measuring worker productivity. Ethical guidelines that hold worker health as a top priority are critical in preserving the responsibility of occupational physicians to their patients.

  7. Front-line worker engagement: greening health care, improving worker and patient health, and building better jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenven, Laura; Copeland, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Frontline workers have a great deal to contribute to improving environmental sustainability of their employers and the health of workers and patients. This article discusses a national project of the Healthcare Career Advancement Program, funded by the U.S. Department of Labor to support green jobs development. Implementation was accomplished through a labor/management collaboration between union locals and 11 employers in four regions throughout the United States. The project developed and implemented a model of training and education for environmental service workers and other frontline health-care workers in hospital settings that supported systems change and built new roles for these workers. It empowered them to contribute to triple bottom line outcomes in support of People (patients, workers, the community), Planet (environmental sustainability and a lower carbon footprint), and Profit (cost savings for the institutions). In the process workers more clearly articulated their important role as a part of the healthcare team and learned how they could contribute to improved patient and worker health and safety.

  8. Do sanitary ceramic workers have a worse presentation of chest radiographs or pulmonary function tests than other ceramic workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-03-01

    Silicosis remains the most prevalent occupational disease worldwide. There have been no specific studies focusing on the association between exposure settings at work and the clinical severity in silicosis patients. In this study, we describe and compare the clinical characteristics and silicosis-associated exposure history at work among workers from several types of ceramic production facilities in Taiwan. We reviewed the medical records of 221 patients who were first diagnosed with silicosis at the Occupational Medicine Clinic of Northern Taiwan in 2012. For each patient, we collected data on demographic characteristics, smoking habits, working history, duration of exposure, and years on the first relevant job. We also retrieved clinical reports of the pulmonary function test and the baseline chest radiography used for silicosis staging. As compared to other ceramic workers, sanitary ceramic workers had a worse X-ray type (p=0.044), more advanced age (pceramic workers showed a comparable risk for worse X-ray findings to other ceramic workers (adjusted odds ratio=1.18, p=0.704). Results of multivariable regression models on individual lung function parameter also suggested comparably impaired lung function tests between sanitary and other ceramic workers (p>0.05). In this study, we found that sanitary ceramic workers were at a similar risk to other ceramic workers for moderate to severe silicosis when older age and longer working duration were accounted for. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Factors affecting Thai workers' use of hearing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantranont, Kunlayanee; Srisuphan, Wichit; Kaewthummanukul, Thanee; Suthakorn, Weeraporn; Jormsri, Pantip; Salazar, Mary K

    2009-11-01

    This study used an ecological model to examine Thai workers' beliefs and attitudes toward using occupational hearing protection. Data collection involved focus group sessions with 28 noise-exposed workers at four factories in Chiang Mai Province and an interview with a safety officer at each organization. Detailed content analysis resulted in the identification of three types of factors influencing the use of hearing protection: intrapersonal, including preventing impaired hearing, noise annoyance, personal discomfort, and interference with communication; interpersonal, including coworker modeling, supervisor support, and supervisor modeling; and organizational, including organizational rules and regulations, provision of hearing protection devices, dissemination of knowledge and information, noise monitoring, and hearing testing. Effective hearing protection programs depend on knowledge of all of these factors. Strategies to promote workers' use of hearing protection should include the complete range of factors having the potential to affect workers' hearing.

  10. Coping motives and trait negative affect: testing mediation and moderation models of alcohol problems among American Red Cross disaster workers who responded to the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Jacobs, Gerard A; Meyer, David; Johnson-Jimenez, Erika

    2006-08-01

    This study explored the mechanism by which trait negative affect and alcohol coping motives are associated with alcohol-related problems in a sample of American Red Cross workers who participated in the relief operation following the attacks in New York City, the Pentagon, and the Pennsylvania crash site on Sept. 11th 2001. The results supported the mediation but not moderation model of coping motives. The support for the mediation model was fairly strong, including small to moderate associations between negative affect and alcohol problems, moderate to strong associations between negative affect and coping motives, and evidence of coping motives mediating the negative affect to alcohol problems relationships. The association between negative affect and coping motives was stronger among younger participants.

  11. [Tuberculosis in healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, A

    2009-01-01

    Perception and knowledge of the TB-infection risk in healthcare workers (HCWs) changed profoundly in Germany during the past few years. Molecular-epidemiological studies and a comprehensive review of the existing evidence concerning the infection risk for HCWs lead to the conclusion that TB in HCWs is often caused by infection at the workplace. In the Hamburg Fingerprint Study, 80 % of the TB cases in HCWs were caused by infections at the workplace. In a similar Dutch study 43 % of all cases were work-related. Besides of the well-known risks in TB wards and laboratories, an increased risk for infection should be assumed for paramedics, in emergency rooms, for HCWs caring for the elderly or for workers with close contact to high-risk groups (homeless people, i. v. drug users, migrants from high-incidence countries). TB in a HCW working in these fields can be recognised as an occupational disease (OD) without identifying a particular source of infection. For all other HCWs, the German occupational disease law requires the identification of a source case before TB in an HCW can be accepted as an OD. Even though the proportion of work-related TB in HCWs is higher than was assumed before previously, the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) is lower than expected. In an ongoing evaluation study of the interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) LTBI prevalence in HCWs is 10 %. Prevention strategies in Germany should be reconsidered in the light of these new findings.

  12. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  13. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  14. Mobile Applications for Knowledge Workers and Field Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieglitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the diffusion of mobile applications (mobile apps has risen significantly. Nowadays, mobile business apps are strongly emerging in business, enhancing productivity and employees’ satisfaction, whilst the usage of customized individual enterprise apps is still an exception. Standardized business apps enable basic functionalities, for example, mobile data storage and exchange (e.g., Dropbox, communication (e.g., Skype, and other routine processes, which support mobile workers. In addition, mobile apps can, for example, increase the flexibility of mobile workers by easing the access to firm’s information from outside the enterprise and by enabling ubiquitous collaboration. Hence, mobile apps can generate competitive advantages and can increase work efficiency on a broad scale. But mobile workers form no coherent group. Our research reveals, based on two case studies, that they can be clustered into two groups: knowledge workers and field workers. Knowledge workers and field workers fulfill different tasks and work in different environments. Hence, they have different requirements for mobile support. In this paper we conclude that standardized mobile business apps cannot meet the different requirements of various groups of mobile workers. Task- and firm-specific (individualized requirements determine the specification, implementation, and application of mobile apps.

  15. Remuneration Difference between Migrant Workers and Non-migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changlin; DUAN; Huawei; LUO

    2013-01-01

    Through the survey of direct economic remuneration, indirect economic remuneration and non-economic remuneration of employees in flat panel furniture enterprises in Chengdu City, we conduct a comparative analysis of the problems and causes of remuneration difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers. The results show that the wage difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers is the biggest, and there is little difference in terms of interests safeguarding and non-economic factors. The reason for the above results lies in the difference of education level; gender, region, household registration and other issues have little impact on the above results. The following recommendations are put forward to improve the remuneration of migrant workers: increasing government’s policy advocacy efforts and eliminating subjective offense; establishing the administrative oversight bodies and effectively safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of migrant workers; strengthening vocational training for migrant workers, so that workers have more choices on positions; improving the working environment and developing good working atmosphere.

  16. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  17. 基于"虚拟工序库"作业系统的工人指派模型及算法研究%A Research on Worker Assignment Model and Its Algorithm Based on the "Virtual Process Database" Operating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程硕; 张毕西; 曹铭; 胡盛强

    2015-01-01

    为中小制造型企业生产模式下的"虚拟工序库"作业系统中的工人指派制定合理的方案,以生产成本最小化为目标,构建满足订单交货期的工人指派模型,采用种群的精英保留的遗传算法对此问题进行优化,并通过实例仿真验证了该方法增强了全局的寻优能力,提高全局的收敛速度,研究表明该方法对解决工人指派问题是行之有效的.%:In order to obtain a reasonable worker-assignment plan for small and medium-sized manufac-turing enterprises under"virtual process database" ( VPDs) operating system, and to minimize production cost, a worker-assignment model is constructed, through using the improved genetic algorithm of elitism preservation, optimizing the workers′assignment and scheduling in VPDs.Repeated simulation experi-ments and comparison show that the improved genetic algorithm has the faster speed of convergence, which indicates that it is effective.

  18. “冰山模型”视角下农民工素质问题与对策研究%Problems of Quality of Migrant Workers and Countermeasures from the Perspective of Iceberg Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜毓洁; 刘园

    2012-01-01

    以“冰山模型”的视角,从知识、技能、社会角色、自我认知、品质、动机等多个方面,对当前农民工素质层次与结构进行了分析.提出了提高农民工素质的对策:重视农村教育,加强技能培训;明晰职业规划,树立正确价值观;帮助农民工面对现实,调整农民工工作心态;协调利益关系,呼吁社会关怀;重塑精神家园,构筑和谐社会.%From the perspective of Iceberg Model, we analyze levels and structures of quality of migrant workers from knowledge, skills, social role, self-cognition, quality, and motivation. On the basis of these situations, we put forward counlermeasures: value rural education and enhance skill training; make clear occupational planning and set up correct sense of value; assist migrant workers in facing the reality and adjusting their state of mind in working; coordinate interest relationship and call upon social concern; rebuild menial world and construct harmonious society.

  19. Prenatal care disparities and the migrant farm worker community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    The pregnant migrant farm worker faces many barriers to accessing healthcare in the United States due to poverty, language/literacy issues, transportation difficulties, and geographic isolation. The advanced practice nurse has the opportunity to contribute solutions to the problems of lack of adequate prenatal care among the migrant farm worker community, if he/she is aware of the need and can institute novel models of care. This article describes the problem of migrant farm worker health and suggests ways that advanced practice nurses can provide cost effective, competent professional care to reduce or eliminate the obstacles to care for this population.

  20. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  1. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  2. Workers' Education and the ILO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigui, Albert

    1970-01-01

    In its concern to eliminate the imbalance between social and economic development, the International Labour Organisation has two objectives in its workers' education activities: to help workers protect themselves against the harmful effects of our technological society; and to strengthen their ability to discharge their social responsibilities.…

  3. Economic Globalization and Workers: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-J. Visser (Evert-Jan); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis dossier deals with the impact of economic globalisation on workers, especially in developing nations: their employment opportunities, wage income, job security and other aspects of decent work (ILO 1999, 2002). This is a highly relevant theme. Not only do workers in the EU, the Unit

  4. Informed consent and placebo effects: a content analysis of information leaflets to identify what clinical trial participants are told about placebos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity L Bishop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placebo groups are used in randomised clinical trials (RCTs to control for placebo effects, which can be large. Participants in trials can misunderstand written information particularly regarding technical aspects of trial design such as randomisation; the adequacy of written information about placebos has not been explored. We aimed to identify what participants in major RCTs in the UK are told about placebos and their effects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a content analysis of 45 Participant Information Leaflets (PILs using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. PILs were obtained from trials on a major registry of current UK clinical trials (the UKCRN database. Eligible leaflets were received from 44 non-commercial trials but only 1 commercial trial. The main limitation is the low response rate (13.5%, but characteristics of included trials were broadly representative of all non-commercial trials on the database. 84% of PILs were for trials with 50:50 randomisation ratios yet in almost every comparison the target treatments were prioritized over the placebos. Placebos were referred to significantly less frequently than target treatments (7 vs. 27 mentions, p<001 and were significantly less likely than target treatments to be described as triggering either beneficial effects (1 vs. 45, p<001 or adverse effects (4 vs. 39, p<001. 8 PILs (18% explicitly stated that the placebo treatment was either undesirable or ineffective. CONCLUSIONS: PILs from recent high quality clinical trials emphasise the benefits and adverse effects of the target treatment, while largely ignoring the possible effects of the placebo. Thus they provide incomplete and at times inaccurate information about placebos. Trial participants should be more fully informed about the health changes that they might experience from a placebo. To do otherwise jeopardises informed consent and is inconsistent with not only the science of placebos but also the

  5. [Structure of allostatic load in railway workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, S G; Pfaf, V F; Muraseyeva, E V; Akhsanova, E R; Prigorovskaya, T S; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied allostatic load in railway workers, as an indicator of stress effect. Analysis covered biomarkers that form allostatic load index, and their ratio for variable allostatic load index levels. Moderate allostatic load appeared to prevail in the examinees group. Findings are that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, general cholesterol and hemoglobin make major contribution into allostatic load index. Comparison covered models of allostatic load index calculation for variable biomarkers sets.

  6. Pattern of the rational worker incentive system

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytova A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a model of rational incentive system with the structure consisting of three blocks. The first block (financial incentives) provides monetary compensation to a worker. The second block (stimulating by comfortable living conditions) is aimed to regulate the quality of a worker’s life in and outside the place he works. The third block (non-financial incentives) takes into account cultural and social worker’s needs. The proposed structure of incentive system provides the most...

  7. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.

  8. Incentive Effects of Workers' Compensation Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Alan B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper uses Current Population Survey data on a large sample of workers to estimate the determinants of participation in state workers' compensation programs in the United States. The principal finding is Chat higher workers' compensation benefits are associated with greater participation in the workers' compensation program, after accounting for worker characteristics, state fixed effects, and other aspects of the workers' compensation law. Moreover, this result holds for both manufactur...

  9. Empirical Study on Online Political Participation of Young Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; KANG; Jianbin; FANG

    2015-01-01

    Popularization of network technology and development of online political participation expand approaches of young migrant workers participating in political affairs and raise interest and ability of young migrant workers participating in political affairs. Through questionnaire of young migrant workers participating in political affairs in Xi’an,Xianyang and Yangling,the survey team found that political participation of young migrant workers takes on following characteristics: active and positive online political concern,passive and profit seeking online political expression,and claim of right. Besides,online political participation of young migrant workers is related to region,cultural level,and occupation,but not related with their political status. Based on this survey,it came up with recommendations: governments at all levels should strengthen network information construction,carry out theoretical and practical training for online political participation of young migrant workers,establish online political participation government feedback mechanism and enhance party organization construction,and bring into play the lead model role of party members of young migrant workers in online political participation.

  10. Knowledge of treatment group does not bias assessment of time to seizure in an animal model of cocaine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Kennon J; Krier, Shay; Cleveland, Nathan R

    2010-07-01

    Blinded outcome assessment decreases bias in human clinical trials. The necessity of blinded outcome assessment on animal studies is unknown. The authors determined the effect of knowledge of treatment group on assessment of time to seizure in an animal model of cocaine poisoning. Four subjects observed 20 animal experiments where all animals were administered a high dose of cocaine and placebo. For each experiment, two of the observers were told the animal had been treated with placebo and two were told the animal had been treated with a medication expected to delay the onset of seizures. Each observer recorded the time from cocaine administration to onset of seizure. The median time to seizure was compared between observers told the animal received placebo and those told the animal received active treatment. Seizures were reported by all subjects in 12 animals and by no subjects in five animals, and there was disagreement in three animals. The reported median time to seizure was similar for observers told that the animals were treated with placebo and those told they were treated with study medication. It is feasible to determine whether unblinded assessments are biased in an animal study. Knowledge of treatment group did not bias the assessment of time to seizure in this animal model. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

  11. Worker did not prove that employer perceived him as being limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-27

    [Name removed], an openly gay electrician for General Electric Co., led his employer to believe that he had HIV and claimed he suffered 2 years of harassment as a result. Because of the harassment, [name removed] quit his job and sued the company. At issue was an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) regulation which states that a plaintiff should meet the "regarded as" test of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), if the plaintiff was fired based on the perception of being HIV-positive. A Federal judge in Indiana ruled against this interpretation of the law stating that the employer must regard the worker as having an impairment and must act as if that impairment substantially limits the worker's ability to fulfill normal job requirements. The employer did not curtail [name removed]'s responsibilities after he told them he was HIV-positive. The judge also ruled against General Electric's alternate legal theory that [name removed] was trying to create his own disability by deliberately misrepresenting his HIV status.

  12. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  13. Risk of WMSDs in monofunctional and multifunctional workers in a Brazilian footwear company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilza Karla dos Santos Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the risk of musculoskeletal disorders in monofunctional and multifunctional workers in a footwear company. The sample comprised 114 workers in the shoe production sector. The method Occupational Repetitive Actions was used to assess the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs. Proportional odds models were constructed, relating the risk of WMSDs to the type of work and the worker’s level of multifunctionality. For monofunctional workers, exposure to the higher risk was related to cycle time and the technical actions within their activities, whereas for multifunctional workers, it was related to the range of motion, use of gloves and precision needed in activities. For monofunctional workers, greater risks were associated with a short activity cycle, whereas for multifunctional workers, they were associated with complementary and organizational factors. Moreover, workers whose intracellular activities were less than 30% of the total appeared to be less exposed to the risk of WMSDs.

  14. Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth

    2002-04-01

    Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms

  15. Occupational physical activity and mortality among Danish workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Burr, Hermann; Hansen, Jørgen V;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The relationship between occupational physical activity (OPA) and mortality has mainly been studied among males and shows conflicting results. This study examines this relationship in a cohort of both male and female workers. METHODS: OPA was determined by 4 self-reported questions...... in a representative sample of 5,839 Danish workers aged 18-59 years at baseline. A 19-year follow-up on mortality was assessed by linkage with the national death registry. Gender-stratified Cox regression models were used to determine the effect of high OPA on all-cause mortality while controlling for age, BMI.......79, CI: 1.19-2.70), but not among female workers (HR: 0.99, CI: 0.65-1.49) compared with workers in the lowest quartile of OPA. Among females, indications of a u-shaped relationship between occupational physical activity and all-cause mortality were found. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that high...

  16. Knowledge of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut and the risk of its ingestion among health workers in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilesanmi FF; Ilesanmi OS

    2011-01-01

    To assess the awareness and knowledge of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut and the risk of its ingestion among health workers in Ibadan. Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Study instrument was a semi-structured self administered questionnaire. The respondents were health workers from a public health facility. Results: A total of 417 health workers participated out of which males were 60.2%. The mean age of respondents was (28.0±4.9) years old. Doctors made up 83.0% while others were nurses. 95% of the respondents had previous awareness of aflatoxin and class room lectures was the most common source of information (56%). Occupation and religion both showed a significant association with previous awareness of aflatoxin (P<0.05). Knowledge regarding aflatoxin contamination in groundnut and the risk of its ingestion was obtained showing knowledge score range of 0 to 14. In all, 80.6% had good scores of 11 to 14. None of the respondents had ever told their patients about the risk of aflatoxin ingestion.Conclusions:There is a need to explore the possibility of incorporating aflatoxin awareness into routine health talk to increase the level of awareness of patients and their relatives.

  17. The worker profile autocontrolled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Omar Delgado Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This document is part of two deliveries. In this first paper is to make an approach to the concept of self-control from the very beginning with Sakichi Toyoda, founder of what the industry Toyota Motor Company, additionally taking some excerpts of the concept issued by teachers and the psychologist Henry Murray, a professor at the university Harvard precursor test TAT personality test creator, pen applied world wide by psychologists David McCllelan, also a psychologist and a pioneer in the study of human needs and the concept of competence; Professor Jeffrey Pfeffer of Stanford University organizational behavior and theory, Frederick Hertzberg, Psychologist and strong influential in business management, Kronfly Cruz, lawyer and investigator of social and administrative sciences, Charles Perrow, a sociologist at Yale University and Stanford , who studies the impact of large organizations in society, among others. The study reflects the need to meet organizational objectives related to the physicochemical characteristics of the finished product in a plant of the company’s main beers in the country. In this paper, we intend to make an approximation of worker self -controlled, which when compared with the powers, generic, specific and technical area established by the brewery, will allow generating a methodology to adjust these competencies and to obtain the target profile drawn. This comparison and development of the methodology proposed is the subject of the second work planned.

  18. Interviewing media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.

  19. The ILO and Workers' Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigui, Albert

    1973-01-01

    The International Labour Organization is concerned with three types of education: vocational training, management training, and workers' education. The last, which is the focus of the article, is concerned solely with social matters. (MS)

  20. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  1. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  2. Dermatoses among floral shop workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown.

  3. Contingent Faculty as Nonideal Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Bernstein-Sierra, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how contingent faculty address the issue of work and family and demonstrates the importance of understanding the diversity of contingent faculty experiences and of underemployment rather than notions of the ideal worker to explain their work lives.

  4. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  5. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  6. A test of stress theory: relief workers in refugee camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hussein H; Gillespie, David F

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply a stress model drawn from the literature to the relief and social service workers who have been active in refugee camps for a prolonged period of time. Working in difficult environments, social service workers deliver essential services to refugee populations around the world. A model of four work-stress determinants--tasks, management, appreciation and collaboration--was tested on 274 social workers in five regions of the Middle East (Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, as well as the occupied Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank). Statistical fit indices were adequate but two relationships were statistically insignificant. The collaboration variable was dropped to create a modified model with tasks indirectly and management and appreciation directly affecting work-related stress. The five direct relationships and two indirect relationships of this modified model are consistent with stress theory, and all relationships--direct and indirect--are statistically significant.

  7. 29 CFR 779.409 - Handicapped workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handicapped workers. 779.409 Section 779.409 Labor... Students, Learners, and Handicapped Workers § 779.409 Handicapped workers. Regulations have been issued... handicapped workers at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act....

  8. Why do Worker-Firm Matches Dissolve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In a dynamic labor market worker-firm matches dissolve frequently causing workers to separate and firms to look for replacements.A separation may be initiated by the worker (a quit) or the firm (a layoff), or may result from a joint decision.A dissolution of a worker-firm match may be ineffcient if

  9. Byssinosis among jute mill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar P; Saiyed, Habibullah N; Mukherjee, Ashit K

    2003-07-01

    Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers.

  10. Hope as a Strategy in Supervising Social Workers of Terminally Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaky, Haya; Lipschitz-Elhawi, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on supervision of social workers who feel despair and hopelessness in treating terminally ill patients. The emotional difficulties that may lead to these feelings are discussed. A special model of supervision that relates to hope as a strategy to help social workers cope with such difficulties is presented. The model suggests…

  11. Dislocated Worker Human Capital Depreciation and Recovery. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper 90-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Kevin

    This study examined the characteristics of dislocated workers' wage profiles upon reemployment. In particular, it related these profiles to the model developed by Mincer and Ofek (1982). An inference from this model was that workers recovered wage losses relatively rapidly. Explanations for a steeply sloped reentry wage profile were as follows:…

  12. Residential location choice of knowledge-workers: The role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle...

  13. Uninsured Workers Have More Severe Hospitalizations: Examining the Texas Workers' Compensation System, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Bethany; Scott, Brittany; Pompeii, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    Texas' unique elective system of workers' compensation (WC) coverage is being discussed widely in the United States as a possible model to be adopted by other states. Texas is the only state that does not mandate that employers provide state-certified WC insurance. Oklahoma passed legislation for a similar system in 2013, but it was declared unconstitutional by the Oklahoma Supreme Court in 2016. This study examined 9523 work-related hospitalizations that occurred in Texas in 2012 using Texas Department of State Health Services data. We sought to examine work-related injury characteristics by insurance source. An unexpected finding was that among those with WC, 44.6% of the hospitalizations were not recorded as work related by hospital staff. These unrecorded cases had 1.9 (1.6-2.2) times higher prevalence of a severe risk of mortality compared to WC cases that were recorded as work related. Uninsured and publicly insured workers also had a higher prevalence of severe mortality risk. The hospital charges for one year were $615.2 million, including at least $102.8 million paid by sources other than WC, and with $29.6 million that was paid for by injured workers or by taxpayers. There is an urgent need for more research to examine how the Texas WC system affects injured workers.

  14. The Development of an Integrated Mechanical Skill Instructional Model (IMSIM in the Secondary Technology School (STM for the Improvement of Middle Level Skilled Worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto Riyanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop an instructional model of mechanical skill learning for the STM students to improve their cognitive, psychomotoric skills, motivation, and creativity. To develop an adequate instructional model, 15 experts were consulted. Based on the result of consultation, the model was revised. The revised model was then tried-out to 20 students of the STM Bengkulu and 17 students of the STM Curup. The result of try-out showed that the developed test items had moderate validity and reliability. The revised instructional model was applied to 25 students of the STM Bengkulu and 30 students of the STM Curup. The result of the study showed that the integrated instructional model was effective to teach mechanical skill, highly effective to increase students' motivation, and moderate to develop creativity

  15. Postural stability assessment in sewer workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, W; Bhattacharya, A; Succop, P; Linz, D

    1996-01-01

    In this study, postural stability was measured with a microcomputer-based force platform as an indirect assessment of central nervous system effect in 28 sewer workers (age range 23.4 to 64.5 years, standard deviation of 8.7 years). All workers performed four 30-second postural sway tests. The organic-solvent exposure was measured by a photo-ionization detector. The photo-ionization detector was calibrated to measure volatile organic solvents in total benzene equivalence, and concentrations were measured in various parts of the plant. The mean exposure was .32 parts per million (ppm) benzene equivalent (range of .02 to .95 ppm, standard deviation .19 ppm). Based on a covariate adjusted linear multiple-regression model, a statistically significant (p organic-solvent exposure. These workers also had increased postural sway compared with a nonexposed population. The statistically significant correlation between postural sway determinations and organic-solvent exposure was surprising given the very low exposures measured. It is possible that the organic-solvent exposure might not be the causative agent, but rather that the solvents themselves correlate with some other causative exposure, ie, total volatile organics as implicated in the cause of sick-building syndrome.

  16. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  17. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  18. "But I wasn't told to": lack of education and workplace policy as barriers in the provision of family planning information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Access to family planning has been identified as critical to public health. Improving the linkage between medical and social services could result in improved access to care for those most at risk of unintended pregnancy. This study used a survey based on Alfred Bandura's social cognitive theory (1986) to increase the understanding of the barriers social workers confront in the provision of family planning information to clients. Although moral disagreement with family planning presented a barrier for some, workplace policy, participation in family planning trainings, and working in an urban setting were of greater value in understanding barriers.

  19. Evaluating goals in worker health protection using a participatory design and an evaluation checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Emily Q; Zanoni, Joseph; Forst, Linda; Ochsner, Michele; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen; Ringholm, Elisa; Rodríguez, Eric; Kader, Adam; Sokas, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking immigrant workers in construction are considered hard to reach and at high risk for work-related injury and fatality. This evaluation study describes the use of participatory methods and an evaluation checklist to consider a health and safety (H&S) training program for these workers. A previously developed training manual and model were disseminated to eight worker centers (WCs) through participatory research collaboration. It incorporated H&S training for workers while strengthening the role of WCs as sources for leadership development and worker empowerment. Design, delivery, reaction, application, and extension were assessed through individual interviews with participants, trained trainers, and center staff and through observation of training sessions and partner debriefs; pre- and post-training tests assessed participant learning. Results indicate moderate learning and application by participants and strong evidence for structural gains in and among WCs. We conclude that such partnerships and models are valuable tools for collaborating with hard-to-reach workers.

  20. The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaDou Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor.

  1. [Factors associated with influenza immunization in primary care health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-Capdevila, Josep; Godoy, Pere; Marsal, Josep Ramon; Barbé-Illa, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    To identify the influenza vaccination coverage in healthcare workers in primary care and to determine the factors associated with vaccination (2013-2014 season). A cross-sectional study was carried out among 287 healthcare workers who completed a questionnaire that included questions about knowledge, beliefs and attitudes to influenza and vaccination. We estimated the vaccine coverage and identified the variables associated with vaccination of healthcare workers by using non-conditional logistic regression models. The participation rate was 47.2%. Vaccination coverage was 60.3% and was higher in workers older than 55 years, women and pediatricians. The factors associated with healthcare worker vaccination were the perception that vaccination confers protection (aOR: 11.1; 95%CI: 3.41-35.9) and the perception that it is effective (aOR: 7.5; 95%CI: 0.9-59.3). No association was found between receiving the vaccine and knowledge of influenza or vaccination. However, an association was found with prescribing vaccination to pregnant women, to persons older than 65 years, and to immunosuppressed individuals. Strategies should be designed to increase coverage, based on changing negative attitudes of healthcare workers to vaccination. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Social Insurance and Truncated Benefits: Measuring the Impacts of Workers' Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Samuel K.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the indirect impacts of state-mandated workers' compensation benefits on workers' wages. The benefit structure of workers' compensation causes a fundamental estimation problem. I develop a new strategy to limit the biases inherent in earlier models. I utilize individual-level census data (between 1940 and 1990) to exploit benefit variation that occurs both across states and within the fifty states over time. The results suggest that wage offsets are not constant across ti...

  3. Young workers' professional experience and access to high-skill jobs: a note

    OpenAIRE

    Therese Rebiere

    2012-01-01

    The implications of on-the-job search and learning-by-doing of young workers are studied in a search-matching model. The labor market is segmented in two sub-markets: that of beginners, and that of experienced workers offering higher wages. After a long enough employment spell, beginners can search for a better-paying job in the experienced sub-market. Employment instability reduces upgrading opportunities for young workers, penalizing the overall economy. Under specific conditions this pheno...

  4. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  5. [Worker's health & outsourcing: worker's profile in a hospital cleaning service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillida, Manuela de Santana Pi; Cocco, Maria Inês Monteiro

    2004-01-01

    In the last two decades, service outsourcing has reduced companies' costs by the rationalization of their actions and the exploration of precarious work relations. This research aimed to outline the profile of outsourced workers in the cleaning service of a university hospital, identify their points of view about the health-illness process and future plans. This is a descriptive study from a quantitative approach, involving a random sample with 50 cleaning workers. Most of them started to work early, 74% were women and education level was low. In 36% of the cases, physicians diagnosed some kind of illness. In the analyzed period, 84% of the interviewees had realized medical consultations, resulting in an average of 3.6 consultations per worker, 56% of which involved general clinicians. Data analysis allowed for the identification of these professionals' perspectives in relation to the health/illness process and their future.

  6. Contingent workers: Workers' compensation data analysis strategies and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Community-based blood pressure measurement by non-health workers using electronic devices: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Reidpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers using mercury sphygmomanometers. Method: Fifty-six adult volunteers participated in the research. Data were collected by five qualified health workers, and six non-health workers. Participants were randomly allocated to have their blood pressure measured on four consecutive occasions by alternating a qualified health worker with a non-health worker. Descriptive statistics and graphs, and mixed effects linear models to account for the repeated measurement were used in the analysis. Results: Blood pressure readings by non-health workers were more reliable than those taken by qualified health workers. There was no significant difference between the readings taken by qualified health workers and those taken by non-health workers for systolic blood pressure. Non-health workers were, on average, 5–7 mmHg lower in their measures of blood pressure than the qualified health workers (95%HPD: −2.9 to −10.0 for diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: The results provide empirical evidence that supports the practice of non-health workers using electronic devices for BP measurement in community-based research and screening. Non-health workers recorded blood pressures that differed from qualified health workers by no more than 10 mmHg. The approach is promising, but more research is needed to establish the generalisability of the results.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Knowledge Workers at R&D department in Outsourcing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akhavan Kharazian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the focus of industries is changed from efficiency of workers to efficiency of knowledge workers. Thus, the performance appraisal process of the knowledge workers is important. A basic drawback of previous methods for performance evaluation is their biased results due to influence of rater's personal motivations. In this study, by developing a Result Base Method (RBM approach, the criteria of performance appraisal of knowledge workers in outsourcing conditions is identified in Hedayat-e-Farhikhtegan-e-Javan Institution (HFJ. Different models of data envelopment analysis (DEA are validated on 25 knowledge workers working at the research and development department at the institution. The DEA was able to classify knowledge workers into efficient and inefficient ones. Based on project career development plans, a set of efficient knowledge workers was used to establish an internal best practice benchmark for improving the performance of other inefficient knowledge workers. The findings show that 4 knowledge workers are efficient. Our findings indicate that the non-radial model of data envelopment analysis owns more separation power comparing with other radial models.

  9. Musculoskeletal diseases in forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slađana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.

  10. [Violence on health care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, M; Fusaro, N; Colaiuda, F; Rescigno, G; Fioravanti, M

    2017-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is vulnerable for workplace violence, but little is known about this and its consequences. Objectives of this study were presence, characteristics and effects of violence from patients and visitors on health care workers in an Emergency Department (ED). This study was about the Accident and Emergency Department, S. Pertini Hospital, (ASL RMB, Rome, Italy). Data were collected from November 2014 to January 2015 on frequency and type of violent behavior in the past five years experienced by staff members and their level of stress by an ad hoc questionnaire for the evaluation of violent events in health activities (QVS) and a questionnaire on perceived work-related stress (QES). Of the 58 eligible workers, 51 completed the interview. Health care workers were regularly exposed to violence with a consequent severe underreporting to work authorities and only a minor reporting to the police. A diffuse belief that workplace violence is a normal part of the work was also identified. Aggressors were usually patients or their relatives and were mainly males. Health care workers may suffer physical and emotional harm. Emergency Department health care workers are at risk of experiencing workplace violence and should have specific training and support in the management of violent situations focused on early identification, communication strategies, and de-escalation techniques.

  11. Health effects of low doses at low dose rates: dose-response relationship modeling in a cohort of workers of the nuclear industry; Effets sanitaires des faibles doses a faibles debits de dose: modelisation de la relation dose-reponse dans une cohorte de travailleurs du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz-Flamant, Camille

    2011-09-19

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the health effects of chronic external low doses of ionising radiation. This work is based on the French cohort of CEA-AREVA NC nuclear workers. The mains stages of this thesis were (1) conducting a review of epidemiological studies on nuclear workers, (2) completing the database and performing a descriptive analysis of the cohort, (3) quantifying risk by different statistical methods and (4) modelling the exposure-time-risk relationship. The cohort includes monitored workers employed more than one year between 1950 and 1994 at CEA or AREVA NC companies. Individual annual external exposure, history of work, vital status and causes of death were reconstructed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios using French national mortality rates as external reference were computed. Exposure-risk analysis was conducted in the cohort using the linear excess relative risk model, based on both Poisson regression and Cox model. Time dependent modifying factors were investigated by adding an interaction term in the model or by using exposure time windows. The cohort includes 36, 769 workers, followed-up until age 60 in average. During the 1968- 2004 period, 5, 443 deaths, 2, 213 cancers, 62 leukemia and 1, 314 cardiovascular diseases were recorded. Among the 57% exposed workers, the mean cumulative dose was 21.5 milli-sieverts (mSv). A strong Healthy Worker Effect is observed in the cohort. Significant elevated risks of pleura cancer and melanoma deaths were observed in the cohort but not associated with dose. No significant association was observed with solid cancers, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, mainly for doses received less than 15 years before and for yearly dose rates higher than 10 mSv. This PhD work contributes to the evaluation of risks associated to chronic external radiation

  12. HMO strategies for managing workers' compensation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, P A

    1996-03-01

    Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) have become very active in managing workers' compensation medical expense benefits. A survey of 316 HMOs shows that this activity takes the form of various network models and a range of services--such as utilization review and case management--that may not be linked to a provider network. Of the HMOs surveyed, 78 reported that, by using managed care services and provider discounts, they were able to save from 20 percent to 30 percent on occupational health claim costs.

  13. Information support for the ambulant health worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Ronald C; Merriam, Nathaniel; Doarn, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Health workers are trained to work in information-rich environments. Nineteen medical students evaluated 2700 patients in four villages in Kenya where there was no power or phone. A model of information support included personal digital assistants (PDA), electronic medical records (EMR), satellite telecommunications, medical software, and solar power. The students promptly found the advantages of PDA over paper. By using software for decision support and interacting with the EMR data for medical expertise, very few live telemedicine consults were needed. The cost of this information support was only US 0.28 dollars per patient visit. We conclude information resources can be provided in remote environments at reasonable cost.

  14. TOWARDS A GENERIC MODEL OF CATALYSIS Martin Grayson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    We consider polarizabilities and hardness/softness parameters to see how ... The methodology presented here is simple, almost to the extreme, but contains within it tried ... approach is potentially exact it cannot be generic, because so much .... model molecule is in isolation, unless the program is explicitly told to model the.

  15. [Night workers and plasmatic cortisol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, P; Rosati, M V; Ciarrocca, M; Nicassio, P; Piccoli, F; Cerratti, D; Anzani, M F; Tomei, G; Perugi, F; Monti, C; Palitti, T; Tomao, E; Caciari, T; Tomei, F

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to night work could cause alterations in the levels of plasmatic cortisol. The interest toward this argument arises form several studies in scientific literature referring the presence of an alteration in the synthesis and release of cortisol in workers exposed to night work. We studied a population of workers employed in night security service and monitoring service of alarm systems in different museums compared to a control group not performing shift-work and/or night work. The exposed and control subjects were compared by age, length of service, smoking habit (n. cigarettes per day), habitual consumption of alcoholic drinks (n. glass of wine/beer per day). We evaluated the levels of plasmatic cortisol on 50 workers exposed to night work, all males of whom 30 smokers and 20 non-smokers and on 50 controls of whom 30 smokers and 20 non-smokers.

  16. Job strain among Malaysian office workers of a multinational company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizura, H; Retneswari, M; Moe, H; Hoe, V C W; Bulgiba, A

    2010-05-01

    Information on job strain exposure among Malaysian workers in multinational companies is limited. To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with high job strain among office workers of a multinational company in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2007 among 470 eligible workers. Respondents self-administered the Job Content Questionnaire downloaded from the company's intranet. A median-split procedure was applied to create four groups according to the Job Demand-Control Model: active, passive, high and low job strain. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between socio-demographic, occupational and psychosocial factors and high job strain. A total of 356 questionnaires were received (response rate 76%). Twenty-one per cent of respondents were in the high job strain group, 35% were in the passive group, whereas 26% and 17% of workers were in the low strain and active groups, respectively. After controlling for confounders, three factors were found to be associated with high job strain: male workers (adjusted OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.04-3.64), working >48 h per week (adjusted OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.44-4.39) and job insecurity (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27). One protective factor for high job strain was the scale 'created skill', which is part of skill discretion (adjusted OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57-0.86). About one in five workers in this study experience high job strain. Work improvement measures include reducing long working hours and job insecurity and giving workers the opportunity to learn, use creativity and develop abilities.

  17. Low back pain patterns over one year among 842 workers in the DPhacto study and predictors for chronicity based on repetitive measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie; Bay, Hans; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2016-01-01

    intensity and high variation, (4) high intensity and low variation (defined as chronic LBP). Significant baseline predictors for chronic LBP in the fully adjusted model were high baseline LBP (p blue-collar worker (vs. white-collar worker...

  18. A little bird told me : Twitter may be growing at 700 per cent a week, but is it a valuable tool for the patch, or a distraction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2009-10-15

    The social networking tool Twitter may soon be adopted by petroleum industry workers as a means of ensuring increased communications. Comprised of social networks, link sharing, and live searching, the tool can be used to conduct subject searchers as well as to link to quarterly reports and press releases. Twitter is also being used to manage crisis communications as well as to monitor activities on the Internet. Twitter may also provide a means for oil and gas operators to follow influential industry bloggers as well as to develop effective communications strategies. It was concluded that Twitter may offer an opportunity for companies to participate in non-traditional communications approaches such as online forums, and other media-sharing tools. 1 fig.

  19. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianan; Guo, Yina; Ma, Mingxu; Li, Yaxin; Tian, Huilin; Deng, Jianwei

    2017-08-29

    Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = -0.40; p workers. Presenteeism can be addressed by increasing affective commitment and challenge stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China.

  20. Social Insurance and Truncated Benefits: Measuring the Impacts of Workers' Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the indirect impacts of state-mandated workers' compensation benefits on workers' wages. The benefit structure of workers' compensation causes a fundamental estimation problem. I develop a new strategy to limit the biases inherent in earlier models. I utilize individual-level census data (between 1940 and 1990 to exploit benefit variation that occurs both across states and within the fifty states over time. The results suggest that wage offsets are not constant across time and may be larger for workers at lower-wage levels.

  1. Radiographic survey of perlite workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W C

    1975-05-01

    Chest roentgenograms of 240 perlite workers employed for 1 to 23 years in the industry, showed no evidence of pneumoconiosis associated with perlite exposures. One individual, found to have simple pneumoconiosis, and one found to have complicated pneumoconiosis, had formerly been diatomaceous earth workers. Since only 28 of the men had been in the industry over 15 years and only seven for 20 years or more, continued surveillance is essential to make sure that there are no effects with more prolonged exposures. Studies of pulmonary function of the individuals who have had relatively long exposures are needed to supplement radiographic evidence.

  2. CONTACT DERMATITIS AMONG CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Diah Purnama Sari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is a form of skin inflammation with spongiosis or intercellular edema of the epidermis due to the interaction of irritants and allergens. While occupational contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin due to exposure to irritants or allergens in the workplace. One of the jobs that have a high risk of the disease are construction workers. Although the disease is rarely-threatening but can cause high morbidity and suffering for workers, so it can affect the economy and quality of life of patients.

  3. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug.  This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude.  The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation.  Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise.  These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw

  4. Aplicação do modelo de crenças em saúde na adesão do trabalhador hipertenso ao tratamento Application of the model of health beliefs in the worker's compliance with hypertension treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karine de Figueiredo Moreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo e qualitativo que objetivou analisar as mudanças comportamentais em trabalhadores hipertensos na adesão ao tratamento, após aplicação de uma tecnologia em saúde embasada no Modelo de Crença em Saúde. O cenário da pesquisa foi uma instituição filantrópica e, após a proposta de educação em saúde, os participantes foram entrevistados. Selecionamos as seguintes categorias temáticas: percepção da severidade da HAS, percepção dos benefícios da adesão, percepção dos custos da mudança, identificação das mudanças visando à adesão e motivação para o estabelecimento de metas para a mudança. Os dados alcançados reforçam a educação em saúde do trabalhador hipertenso como estratégia de mudança de hábitos e valores pela aquisição de novos conhecimentos e adoção de atitudes favoráveis à saúde, através de uma educação crítica e transformadora, em que o sujeito assume participação ativa no processo de aprendizagem.Qualitative and descriptive study aiming to examine the behavioral changes in hypertensive workers in the compliance with treatment after application of a health technology based on the Health Belief Model. The scenario of the research was a philanthropic institution, and after presenting health education issues, the participants were interviewed. Then we selected the following theme categories: perception of the severity of hypertension, awareness of the benefits of compliance, awareness of change costs, identification of the changes aiming the compliance and motivation for the establishment of objectives for the change. The data obtained reinforce the health education of hypertensive worker as a changing strategy of habits and values for the acquisition of new knowledge and adoption of positive attitudes towards health, through a critical and changing education, in which the subject actively participates in the learning process.

  5. Comparison between generalized linear modelling and additive Bayesian network; identification of factors associated with the incidence of antibodies against Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona in meat workers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittavino, M; Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Benschop, J; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Torgerson, P R; Furrer, R

    2017-09-01

    Additive Bayesian Network (ABN) is a graphical model which extends Generalized Linear Modelling (GLM) to multiple dependent variables. The present study compares results from GLM with those from ABN analysis used to identify factors associated with Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona (Pomona) infection by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of these two methodologies, to corroborate inferences informing health and safety measures at abattoirs in New Zealand (NZ). In a cohort study in four sheep slaughtering abattoirs in NZ, sera were collected twice a year from 384 meat workers and tested by Microscopic Agglutination with a 91% sensitivity and 94% specificity for Pomona. The study primarily addressed the effect of work position, personal protective equipment (PPE) and non-work related exposures such as hunting on a new infection with Pomona. Significantly associated with Pomona were "Work position" and two "Abattoirs" (GLM), and "Work position" (ABN). The odds of Pomona infection (OR, [95% CI]) was highest at stunning and hide removal (ABN 41.0, [6.9-1044.2]; GLM 57.0, [6.9-473.3]), followed by removal of intestines, bladder, and kidneys (ABN 30.7, [4.9-788.4]; GLM 33.8, [4.2-271.1]). Wearing a facemask, glasses or gloves (PPE) did not result as a protective factor in GLM or ABN. The odds of Pomona infection was highest at stunning and hide removal. PPE did not show any indication of being protective in GLM or ABN. In ABN all relationships between variables are modelled; hence it has an advantage over GLM due to its capacity to capture the natural complexity of data more effectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Workers of Acromyrmex echinatior leafcutter ants police worker-laid eggs, but not reproductive workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Michiel B.; van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Dirchsen, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Nonreproductive workers of many eusocial Hymenoptera 'police' the colony, that is, they attack reproductive sister workers or destroy their eggs (unfertilized; developing into haploid males). Several ultimate causes of policing have been proposed, including (1) an increase in colony productivity,...... reproductive workers. We infer that relatedness incentives are the most likely ultimate cause of the evolutionary maintenance of worker-egg policing in A. echinatior. (C) 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  7. Training Child Welfare Workers from an Intersectional Cultural Humility Perspective: A Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Robert M.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2011-01-01

    The increasing diversity of the populations encountered and served by child welfare workers challenges cultural competence models. Current concerns focus on the unintentional over-emphasis on shared group characteristics, undervaluing unique differences of individuals served, and privileging worker expertise about the client's culture, thereby…

  8. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory

  9. Workers without Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    of expression. Pointing to past developments across a number of advanced and developing democracies, I place post-communist labour decline within a larger comparative and historical context. Lastly, I indicate how the erosion of labour power has influenced the particular models of democracy and the varieties...

  10. Progress Made in Drilling Workers Training Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guozheng; Zhao Zhangbin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Great Wall Drilling Workers Training Centre in North China Petroleum Workers College is specialized in training oil drilling technicians for China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), who will undertake the international contract and recontract.

  11. Proteins Are the Body's Worker Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Chapter 1: Proteins are the Body's Worker Molecules You've probably heard that proteins are important ... are much more than that. Proteins are worker molecules that are necessary for virtually every activity in ...

  12. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-01-01

    workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership......PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  13. Healthcare workers' knowledge, attitudes, practices on post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthcare workers' knowledge, attitudes, practices on post exposure ... in the same proportions leading to increased risk of exposure to and transmission of HIV through ... This hospital based study of 316 health care workers (HCW) in Dar Es ...

  14. Taking care of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beate I.J.M. van der Heijden; Annet H. de Lange; Hubert P.L.M. Korzilius; Ben J.M. Emans; Klaske N. Veth

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purposes of this paper are to 1) give an overview of the prevalence of HR practices that are used to retain vital older workers in health organizations, 2) to examine the evaluations of those HR practices, and 3) to determine the wishes for HR practices in three different target groups

  15. Technical Workers in Great Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Labor and Social Security Ministry conducted a survey on 81 labor markets across China in the second quarter of this year, the results of which showed that the demand for technical workers, especially those of middle and senior titles, far outnumbers the supply.The survey shows that the demand/supply

  16. Girl domestic workers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzungu, M

    1999-03-01

    This article exposes the conditions among children who are forced by their poor families to assume domestic work in households in Kenya. It is an accepted practice for parents to place daughters in households to help with housework and baby-sitting. The Sinaga Women and Child Labor Resource Center in Nairobi finds this exploitative and part of a wider practice that institutionalizes violence against women. The Center was established in 1995 to challenge the practice of child domestic labor. The Center's research reveals that child domestic workers tend to come from large, poor, and rural families or from urban slums. Wages are low or exchanged for shoes, clothes, and food. The hours of work are long. Mistreatment may include sexual molestation by male household members, beatings, verbal abuse, and mistrust. There is little recourse. Complaints from child workers or others outside the household can result in further mistreatment. Action against mistreatment is complicated by the prevailing image of activists as frustrated women with vendettas against men. The Center focuses on rehabilitation, literacy training, marketable skill development, and awareness creation. Counseling includes parents, children, and employers. Public awareness campaigns have resulted in employer referrals of youth workers for training. Other groups are joining the effort to improve conditions for child domestic workers.

  17. Labor Rights of Health Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bonilla-Medina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim of health workers to the way they are outraged in the exercise of their profession has become reiterative. Let's start with the inadequate input of supplies to care agencies. Because of the dreadful 100 law, the poor working conditions in the different hospitals, especially public hospitals, are well known.

  18. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to serious, and sometimes deadly, diseases. If you ... about these diseases and the benefits and potential risks associated with the vaccines, read the ... hospital inpatients, and developmentally disabled facility residents; search for ...

  19. Accommodating Workers with Mental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mank, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    NEC America prepares its employees to train severely disabled co-workers. Three characteristics of the training are (1) the right type and amount of assistance; (2) measurement of degrees of learning; and (3) reinforcement of what has been learned. (SK)

  20. The Migration of Technical Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Using panel data on the Danish population, we estimated the revealed preferences of scientists and engineers for the places in which they choose to work. Our results indicate that these technical workers exhibit substantial sensitivity to differences in wages but that they have even stronger...

  1. The migrant worker: visible, yet invisible

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Aung

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant workers are a vulnerable and underserved population. The average life expectancy of the migrant worker is 49 years, compared to 77.2 years for most Americans. Immigrant workers have a higher disease burden than other populations and work in occupations with high hazard levels. In addition, they have low socioeconomic levels and face many barriers to accessing healthcare services. Undocumented immigrant workers are excluded in the Affordable Care Act. Health professionals must be att...

  2. Ionizing radiation risks to satellite power systems (SPS) workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, J.T.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Alpen, E.L.; Bond, V.; Curtis, S.B.; Fry, R.J.M.; Jackson, K.L.; Nachtwey, S.; Sondhaus, C.; Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment were examined. For ionizing radiation, the major concern will be late or delayed health effects, particularly the increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. The estimated lifetime risk for cancer is 0.8 to 5.0 excess deaths per 10,000 workers per rad of exposure. Thus, for example, in 10,000 workers who completed ten missions with an exposure of 40 rem per mission, 320 to 2000 additional deaths in excess of the 1640 deaths from normally occurring cancer, would be expected. These estimates would indicate a 20 to 120% increase in cancer deaths in the worker-population. The wide range in these estimates stems from the choice of the risk-projection model and the dose-response relationsip. The choice between a linear and a linear-quadratic dose-response model may alter the risk estimate by a factor of about two. The method of analysis (e.g., relative vs absolute risk model) can alter the risk estimate by an additional factor of three. Choosing different age and sex distributions can further change the estimate by another factor of up to three. The potential genetic consequences could be of significance, but at the present time, sufficient information on the age and sex distribution of the worker population is lacking for precise estimation of risk. The potential teratogenic consequences resulting from radiation are considered significant. Radiation exposure of a pregnant worker could result in developmental abnormalities.

  3. Role of ILO in the Field of Workers' Education for Rural Workers and Their Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The framework within which ILO activities for workers' education among rural workers are undertaken can be considered as having two dimensions; the ILO's overall work for the development of the rural areas and the overall workers' education activities. Activity areas for workers' education programs are discussed. (Author/EC)

  4. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  5. 78 FR 68867 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... receive all compensation benefits to which they are entitled. Agency: Office of Workers' Compensation... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed... Office of Workers' Compensation (OWCP) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection...

  6. The Worker's Cooperative = Cooperativas de Trabajadores Duenos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mayra Lee

    Written in Spanish and English (on facing pages), this manual is a practical guide for those interested in forming a worker-owned cooperative. It includes examples based on the personal experience of teaching about cooperativism and worker-owned cooperatives to a group of construction workers with diverse levels of education; vocabulary and…

  7. Arsenal Workers During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-01-01

    During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  8. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...

  9. Workers' Central Life Interests and Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Robert; Champoux, Joseph E.

    Supervisors' ratings of individual industrial workers appear to be related to the central life interests (CLI) of the workers. The group of workers who had a job-oriented CLI received the highest ratings from their superivsors among the three CLI groups on Initiative and Application, Cooperation and Quantity of Work and were rated low on…

  10. Impact of the workers' loyalty on the group performance modeled by a bi-layer cellular automaton with a hysteretic rule

    CERN Document Server

    Malarz, Krzysztof; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The problem `human and work' in a model working group is investigated by means of cellular automata technique. Attitude of members of a group towards work is measured by indicator of loyalty to the group (the number of underloaded agents who carry out their tasks), and lack of loyalty (the number of overloaded agents, who give their tasks to other agents). Initially, all agents realize scheduled tasks one-by-one. Agents with the number of scheduled tasks larger than a given threshold change their strategy to `overloaded' one and start avoiding completing tasks by passing them to their colleagues. Optionally, in some conditions, we allow agents to return to `underloaded' state; hence the rule is hysteretic. Results are presented on an influence of i) the density of tasks, ii) the threshold number of tasks assigned to the agents' forcing him/her for strategy change on the system efficiency. We show that a `black' scenario of the system stacking in a jammed phase (with all agents being in overloaded state and ha...

  11. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing for Health Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Pamela S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes Critical Incident Stress Debriefing process (CISD) as model designed to mitigate impact of life-threatening crises on health care workers, to facilitate their return to routine functioning, and to prevent pathological responses to trauma that is inherent aspect of their profession. Examines development of CISD and explores its…

  12. Incentives and Workers' Motivation in the Public Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCivil servants have a bad reputation of being lazy. However, citizens' personal experiences with civil servants appear to be significantly better. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive

  13. Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

  14. Incentives and Workers' Motivation in the Public Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCivil servants have a bad reputation of being lazy. However, citizens' personal experiences with civil servants appear to be significantly better. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive con

  15. Peer Evaluation: Incentives and Co-Worker Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sol (Joeri)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn many workplaces co-workers have the best information about each other's effort. Managers may attempt to exploit this information through peer evaluation. I study peer evaluation in a pure moral hazard model of production by two limitedly liable agents. Agents receive a signal about th

  16. Worker Morale and Effort : Is the Relationship Causal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.; Fernandez, Roberto M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a unique setting which enables us to distinguish between two theories of work performance. A standard labor supply framework implies a negative effect of the nonpecuniary cost of work on the employee’s effort. In contrast, a model of worker morale that is consistent with a widely used

  17. The Worker-to-Job "Fit" Hypothesis. Some Further Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caston, Richard J.; Braito, Rita

    1985-01-01

    A worker-to-job congruence model of a classic motivation theory was tested using 401 registered nurses as the sample, with weights applied to intrinsic and extrinsic workplace factors reflecting the importance they held for individual respondents. When importance increases, intrinsic factors have a greater effect on job satisfaction. (CT)

  18. ‘Face’ and psychological processes of laid-off workers in transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to explore the psychological experiences of laid-off workers in contemporary transitional China and to formulate a theoretical model of these. Methods: In-depth interviews of 26 laid-off workers were conducted and analysed using grounded theory techniques. Results: Four themes underline the psychological processes of these laid-off workers – feeling of loss, feeling of physical pain, feeling of fatalism, and final acceptance. These are characterized by Chinese culture and its philosophy – feeling of loss is dominated by their loss of face (diu mianzi, physical pain is a somatization of their mental painfulness, their fatalism is traced back to the Chinese ancient theocratic concept of Tian Ming, and their acceptance of reality to their final making face (zheng mianzi is sourced from both Confucianism and Daoism. Conclusion: The psychological experience of laid-off workers (or unemployed workers is likely to have varied manifestations in different cultural contexts. The psychological processes of Chinese laid-off workers (or unemployed workers might be different from those of laid-off workers in Western countries. A therapeutic intervention to cater for the needs of laid-off workers derived from the four themes might be effective.

  19. Ergonomic workforce scheduling under complex worker limitation and task requirements:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuchporn Wongwien

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ergonomic workforce scheduling problem (WPS is addressed in this paper. Unlike its previous related works, theproblem considers realistic worker limitation and task requirements that include heterogeneous workforce with limited taskflexibility, varying worker team sizes, and pre-defined task operation schedules. Its main objective is to find a daily rotatingwork schedule solution using a minimum number of workers such that all workers’ ergonomics hazard exposures do notexceed a permissible limit. Initially, the ergonomic WPS is explained. Its mathematical model and approximation procedure toobtain the workforce schedule solution are described. From the results of the computation experiment, it can be concludedthat the approximation procedure is both efficient and effective in solving large-sized ergonomic workforce schedulingproblems.

  20. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  1. Unitizing worker expertise and maximizing the brain reward centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Anthony Bert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and

  2. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  3. Managing IT Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łubieńska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the issue of motivation in software engineers. It bases on the experiences of one of the authors, and on preliminary results of qualitative and quantitative research gathered from 300 software engineers working in the IT financial service sector in Poland. It reviews main approaches to software specialist motivation found in the scientific and practical literature. It critiques some approaches to motivation of software specialists for the long-term consequences of using the motivators that they focus on. It shows that research based on P. Glen’s model (2003a analyses only hygienic factors (as described by Herzberg that can hinder the state of flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1975, which is characteristic of internally motivated software specialists. There are no analyses which would show how to secure long-term hygienic factors in the management of IT specialist motivation. Recommendations on long-term hygienic factors form a significant part of the text.

  4. [Selective internationalization: foreign workers and Japanese society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, R

    1990-01-01

    and medium sized enterprises in search of inexpensive unskilled labor. The trend in Japanese society has become less egalitarian in recent years than it was in the years of rapid growth. Changes in mid-career, contractual employment, and other diversified practices are encroaching on the model of lifetime employment by and loyalty to a single enterprise. Introduction of foreign workers will be 1 more factor contributing to diversification. The new policy of selective internationalization will have some impact on the status of the existing Korean and Chinese communities in Japan, but by itself it does little to end social, economic, and legal discrimination against members of these groups.

  5. Cancer incidence among Danish brewery workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Johansen, Christoffer; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2005-01-01

    Since the foundation of the Danish Brewery Workers' Union (BWU) in 1898, an integrated issue in the labour contract between the BWU and the employers implied that the breweries provided 6 bottles of beer to each brewery worker per day. The objective of our study is to investigate if this presumably...... in a brewery between 1939 and 1963. From the original cohort of 14,313 workers, it was possible to identify 13,051 brewery workers (91.2%). The identified brewery workers were linked to the Danish Cancer Registry for any cancer diagnoses during 1943-1999. The incidence rate of all Danish men was applied...

  6. Measurement Research on Industrial Workers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weixin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the factors that made the new generation of migrant workers transform in to the industrial workers by the questionnaire for them in china. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of the new generation of migrant worker groups, the implementation approaches of their industrialization has been researched from the following four aspects: their on quality, psychological identity, economic base and social environment with the help of structural equation modle. Measures that transformed the new generation of migrant workers into industrial workers had been proposed according to the result of this study.

  7. Estimating Worker Risk Levels Using Accident/Incident Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenoyer, Judson L.; Stenner, Robert D.; Andrews, William B.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2000-09-26

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to identify methods that are currently being used in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to identify and control hazards/risks in the workplace, evaluate them in terms of their effectiveness in reducing risk to the workers, and to develop a preliminary method that could be used to predict the relative risks to workers performing proposed tasks using some of the current methodology. This report describes some of the performance indicators (i.e., safety metrics) that are currently being used to track relative levels of workplace safety in the DOE complex, how these fit into an Integrated Safety Management (ISM) system, some strengths and weaknesses of using a statistically based set of indicators, and methods to evaluate them. Also discussed are methods used to reduce risk to the workers and some of the techniques that appear to be working in the process of establishing a condition of continuous improvement. The results of these methods will be used in future work involved with the determination of modifying factors for a more complex model. The preliminary method to predict the relative risk level to workers during an extended future time period is based on a currently used performance indicator that uses several factors tracked in the CAIRS. The relative risks for workers in a sample (but real) facility on the Hanford site are estimated for a time period of twenty years and are based on workforce predictions. This is the first step in developing a more complex model that will incorporate other modifying factors related to the workers, work environment and status of the ISM system to adjust the preliminary prediction.

  8. Prospective study of violence against ED workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalenko, Terry; Gates, Donna; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Succop, Paul; Mentzel, Tammy K

    2013-01-01

    Health care support occupations have an assault-injury rate nearly 10 times the general sector. Emergency departments (EDs) are at greatest risk of such events. The objective was to describe the incidence of violence in ED health care workers (HCWs) over 9 months. Specific aims were to (1) identify demographic, occupational, and perpetrator factors related to violent events (VEs) and (2) identify predictors of acute stress in victims and predictors of loss of productivity. A longitudinal, repeated-methods design was used to collect monthly survey data from ED HCWs at 6 hospitals. Surveys assessed number and type of VEs, and feelings of safety and confidence. Victims also completed specific VE surveys. Descriptive statistics and a repeated-measure linear regression model were used. Two hundred thirteen ED HCWs completed 1795 monthly surveys and 827 VEs were reported. Average VE rate per person per 9 months was 4.15. Six hundred one events were physical threats (PTs) (3.01 per person). Two hundred twenty six events were assaults (1.13 per person). Five hundred one VE surveys were completed, describing 341 PTs and 160 assaults. Men perpetrated 63% of PTs and 52% of assaults. Significant differences in VEs were reported between registered nurses (RNs) and medical doctors (MDs) (P = .0017) and patient care assistants (P stress than the MDs (P stress reduced productivity (P stress, and lost productivity. Acute stress has negative consequences on workers' ability to perform their duties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Share capitalism and worker wellbeing().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E; Freeman, Richard B; Green, Colin P

    2016-10-01

    We show that worker wellbeing is determined not only by the amount of compensation workers receive but also by how compensation is determined. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been preoccupied with individual performance-related pay, we find that the receipt of a range of group-performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) is associated with higher job satisfaction. This holds conditional on wage levels, so that pay methods are associated with greater job satisfaction in addition to that coming from higher wages. We use a variety of methods to control for unobserved individual and job-specific characteristics. We suggest that half of the share-capitalism effect is accounted for by employees reciprocating for the "gift"; we also show that share capitalism helps dampen the negative wellbeing effects of what we typically think of as "bad" aspects of job quality.

  10. [Impact of the Tobacco Law on the workplace: a follow up study of a cohort of workers in Spain 2005-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzà-Amengual, M de Lluc; Blasco-González, Manuel; Sánchez-Vazquez, Elena; Pereiró-Berenguer, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Varea, Nidia; Pericás-Beltran, Jordi

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the changes caused by the Law on Tobacco and its consumption in workers who are active smokers. A post-intervention follow up study of a cohort of users. Health Centres in Valencia and Majorca. Users who attended health centres. The field work consisted of each patient filling in a case report form with the requested information. The variables collected were, sex, place of work, education level, number of workers in the company, number of cigarettes smoked. They were told that on the following day they had to count the cigarettes smoked throughout the day, noting whether they had been smoked during or outside working hours. If they smoked during working hours, they reported whether it was inside or outside the workplace. On the following day they were telephoned to let us know the number of cigarettes smoked. This telephone call was repeated at six months and eighteen months. Smoking prevalence and the number of cigarettes smoked in the workplace has been reduced by 9% per month. The variables associated with compliance with the law were education level, the sex of the worker, and the size of the company. The coming into force of the Tobacco Law has been effective. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of warehouse workers productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Štěpánková, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this diploma thesis is to create a new system to measure and evaluate the productivity of warehouse processes in Euromedia books wholesale warehouse. The Warehouse management system (WMS) is implemented in the warehouse, so the company has information about processes within warehouse. However, the system does not have any tool to measure and report the productivity of individual workers and shifts. So the manager of the warehouse does not have enough data for efficient human resour...

  12. Provisional coverage for independent workers

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Luis Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The study examines how, from the traditional work of the independent artisan, we have moved to autonomous work integrated within networks of specialized businesses. This modality is owed not only to the manner in which labor is organized today, to government stimuli, to actions of multilaterals, but also to unemployment. With the purpose of humanizing independent work and rationalizing business costs, an intermediate category of autonomous worker has been created; the semi-dependent who...

  13. [Relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M Y; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H M; Che, C L; Lu, Y; Cong, L X; Gao, X J; Liu, Y J; Yuan, J X; Li, X M; Hu, B; Chen, Y P

    2016-11-10

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the male steel workers selected during health examination in Tangshan Steel Company from March 2015 to March 2016. The relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers were analyzed by using logistic regression model and restricted cubic splinemodel. Results: A total of 7 262 male steel workers were surveyed, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesitywas 64.5% (4 686/7 262), the overweight rate was 34.3% and the obesity rate was 30.2%, respectively. After adjusting for age, educational level and average family income level per month by multivariable logistic regression analysis, shift work was associated with overweight/obesity and obesity in the male steel workers. The OR was 1.19(95% CI: 1.05-1.35) and 1.15(95% CI: 1.00-1.32). Restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that the relationship between shift work years and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ(2)=7.43, Pobesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ(2)=10.48, Poverweight and obesity in the male steel workers, and shift work years and overweight/obesity had a nonlinear relationship.

  14. Foreign workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Lim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.

  15. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either.

  16. Analysis of Factors Influencing Migrant Workers' Income in China - Based on Empirical Research of Survey and Research Data in Shanxi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jun-Li

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of conducting field survey of migrant workers in 18 counties of Shanxi Province, this article analyses the basic characteristics of migrant workers in Shanxi Province, and adopts revised Mincer model to conduct empirical analysis of various factors concerning the income of migrant workers in Shanxi Province . the results show that age, gender, skills and other factors, have significant impact on migrant workers' income, while the educational level and the working places within th...

  17. Residential location choice of knowledge-workers in a "startup metropolis": the role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle...

  18. Tobacco smoking among migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jin; Fellmeth, Gracia; Griffiths, Sian; Dawes, Martin; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    While several studies of smoking behaviors in rural-to-urban Chinese migrants exist, none to our knowledge have focused on factory workers, estimated to represent between 10% and 20% of China's total rural-to-urban migratory population. This paper assesses factors associated with smoking behavior among rural-to-urban migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A cross-sectional survey of migrant workers from 44 randomly selected factories in Shenzhen, China. Participants were migrant factory workers aged 16-59 years and holding nonlocal household registration. The main outcome measures were demographic, migration-related, and behavioral factors associated with smoking status. Four thousand and eighty-eight completed questionnaires were obtained (response rate 95.5%). Overall smoking prevalence (including occasional, daily, and heavy daily smoking) was 19.1%. The prevalence of daily smoking (including heavy daily smoking) was higher in men (27.3%) than women (0.7%). These rates are significantly lower than national smoking rates (59.5% in men, 3.7% in women) and rates found in a similar study. A high-risk group of men who smoke heavily and consume alcohol frequently was identified. Longer working hours and less rest were associated with higher rates of smoking. Frequent Internet use and lack of insurance were associated with lifetime smoking. Gender-adjusted models showed that poorer mental health and an accumulated working time in Shenzhen of 2-3 years increased female workers' likelihood of smoking. Migrant factory workers in Shenzhen had lower rates of smoking than other population groups in China. The identification of risk factors for heavy smoking may help to effectively target health promotion interventions.

  19. 职工养老保险的数学模型分析及政策建议--以温州为例%On Analysis and Policy Suggestion of Mathematical Model in Workers' Endowment Insurance---T aking Wenzhou as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新成

    2015-01-01

    根据浙江省1985-2010年历年职工的平均工资,建立Logistics模型,合理预测2011年到2045年的职工平均工资。根据养老金替代率、养老保险基金缺口数学模型,分别对30岁及40岁开始起缴养老金,直至55岁、60岁、65岁的退休人员的养老金替代率及缺口进行了比较研究。提出了既能达到目标替代率,又能维持养老金收支平衡的有效措施。%Retired workers endowment insurance is a hot topic concerning the people's livelihood in current times .According to the average wages of the workers in Zhejiang province from 1985 to 2010 ,we have es-tablished a Logistics model to forecast the average wages of workers from 2011 to 2045 reasonably .Ac-cording to the pension replacement rate and the mathematical model of the gap of pension insurance fund , we have conducted a comparative study on the pension gap and replacement rate for retired workers who begin to pay pension in 30 year old and 40 year old until the age of 55 ,60 and 65 years old .We have put forward effective measures which can achieve the target replacement rate and maintain the balance of pay-ments of pensions .

  20. Comparison of the ICRP 30 models with the new models of ICRP 66 and 69 on the basis of the results of thorium incorporation monitoring of gas mantle manufactory workers by quarterly urinary bioassays; Ein Vergleich der ICRP 30 Modelle mit den Modellen der ICRP 66 und 69 anhand der Ergebnisse von Inkorporationsueberwachungen auf Thorium bei Beschaeftigten der Gasgluehkoerperproduktion durch vierteljaehrliche Urinuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin - Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin

    1998-12-31

    The worker in gas mantle manufacturing may be assumed to be subjected to the risk of chronic Thorium incorporation. The annual committed dose or intake, resp. may be determined from the mean intake rate determined from mean daily urinary excretion which should be derived from repeated samplings per year. The excretion data were interpretated using the excretion rates of `Retex` computer code applying the ICRP 30 model. The results basing on the ICRP 66 respiratory tract model and the biokinetic model and data of the ICRP 69 were obtained from the computer code established in the Institute of Radiation Hygiene of the Federal Board of Radiation Protection. Assuming the more soluble classes the differences between effective dose equivalent and effective dose proved to be negligible with the exception of the results for one worker but in one year. Assuming class Y or S aerosols the differences may be vary by the factor of up to four. Comparing the results of both dose sizes throughout the classes substantially extensive differences were observed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Umganszyklen der Beschaeftigten in der Gasgluehkoerperproduktion lassen die vereinfachende Annahme eines gleichbleibenden Inkorporationsrisikos mit dem entsprechenden chronischen Zufuhrmodell fuer die Interpretation als gerechtfertigt erscheinen. Die jaehrliche Zufuhr entspricht dem Mittelwert der aus wiederholten Messungen der Ausscheidungsrate im Urin ermittelten Zufuhrrate. Die Zufuhrermittlung aus den Messdaten entsprechend den Modellen der ICRP Veroeff. 30 erfolgt nach dem `Retex`-Computer Programm Code. Die Interpretation der Messdaten entsprechend den neuen Modellen der ICRP fuer den Atemtrakt und fuer das biokinetische Verhalten des Thoriums und seine Folgeprodukte erfolgt nach einem im Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene beim Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz entwickelten Computerprogramm. Die Unterschiede von effektiver Aequivalentdosis und Effektiver Dosis fuer die weniger loesliche Verbindungsklasse

  1. Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

    1999-01-01

    Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems.

  2. Illness Absences Among Beryllium Sensitized Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Janice P.; Ellis, Elizabeth D.; Girardi, David J.; Cragle, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined absence rates among US Department of Energy workers who had beryllium sensitization (BeS) or were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) compared with those of other workers. Methods. We used the lymphocyte proliferation test to determine beryllium sensitivity. In addition, we applied multivariable logistic regression to compare absences from 2002 to 2011 between workers with BeS or CBD to those without, and survival analysis to compare time to first absence by beryllium sensitization status. Finally, we examined beryllium status by occupational group. Results. Fewer than 3% of the 19 305 workers were BeS, and workers with BeS or CBD had more total absences (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.46) and respiratory absences (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.24, 1.84) than did other workers. Time to first absence for all causes and for respiratory conditions occurred earlier for workers with BeS or CBD than for other workers. Line operators and crafts personnel were at increased risk for BeS or CBD. Conclusions. Although not considered “diseased,” workers with BeS have higher absenteeism compared with nonsensitized workers. PMID:25211750

  3. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  4. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  5. An anthropometric study of Serbian metal industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omić, S; Brkić, V K Spasojevic; Golubović, T A; Brkić, A D; Klarin, M M

    2017-01-01

    There are recent studies using new industrial workers' anthropometric data in different countries, but for Serbia such data are not available. This study is the first anthropometric study of Serbian metal industry workers in the country, whose labor force is increasingly employed both on local and international markets. The metal industry is one of Serbia's most important economic sectors. To this end, we collected the basic static anthropometric dimensions of 122 industrial workers and used principal components analysis (PCA) to obtain multivariate anthropometric models. To confirm the results, the dimensions of an additional 50 workers were collected. The PCA methodology was also compared with the percentile method. Comparing both data samples, we found that 96% of the participants are within the tolerance ellipsoid. According to this study, multivariate modeling covers a larger extent of the intended population proportion compared to percentiles. The results of this research are useful for the designers of metal industry workstations. This information can be used in dimensioning the workplace, thus increasing job satisfaction, reducing the risk of injuries and fatalities, and consequently increasing productivity and safety.

  6. Vaccination Games with Peer Effects in a Heterogeneous Hospital Worker Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Tassier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a game theoretic model to analyze the Nash equilibrium of vaccine decisions in a hospital population with heterogeneous contacts. We use the model in conjunction with person-to-person contact data within a large university hospital. We simulate, using agent-based models, the probability of infection for various worker types in the data and use these probabilities to identify the Nash equilibrium vaccine choices of hospital workers. The analysis suggests that there may be large differences in vaccination rates among hospital worker groups. We extend the model to include peer effects within the game. The peer effects may create additional equilibria or may further cement existing equilibria depending on parameter values. Further, depending on the magnitude of the peer effects and the costs of infection and vaccination, peer effects may increase or decrease differences in worker group vaccination rates within the hospital.

  7. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed between condom use skilled and unskilled groups and level of condom use skills between African Americans and Hispanics. African Americans showed better skills in using condoms, and participants in the condom-use skilled group used condoms more frequently. Finally, a logistic regression was conducted to find predictors of condom use skills. Significant predictors were ethnicity, language, and assistance-related social support (obtaining advice from people who could provide tangible assistance).

  8. History of workers' educational movements in the United States (1)

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Workers' education in the United States started as a pioneering movement at the turning of the centuries, developed all over the country in the 19203, and reached its height in of the 1930's. Women workers, college women, and activists of women's movements developed the workers education movement. With this development of Worker's education, women workers began to organize a labor movement for themselves. At first, women workers were a point force for Workers' education within the young labor...

  9. Initial experiences and innovations in supervising community health workers for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Roberton, Timothy; Applegate, Jennifer; LeFevre, Amnesty E.; Mosha, Idda; Cooper, Chelsea M; Silverman, Marissa; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Chebet, Joy J; Mpembeni, Rose; Semu, Helen; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter; Baqui, Abdullah H.; George, Asha S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Supervision is meant to improve the performance and motivation of community health workers (CHWs). However, most evidence on supervision relates to facility health workers. The Integrated Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) Program in Morogoro region, Tanzania, implemented a CHW pilot with a cascade supervision model where facility health workers were trained in supportive supervision for volunteer CHWs, supported by regional and district staff, and with village...

  10. Labour Market Policies in Denmark and Canada: Could Flexicurity be an Answer for Canadian Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J Nichols

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The labour market in Canada is changing. Over the past decades there has been an increase in the number of precarious workers on short-term, part-time, contracts; jobs are created and lost, as employers deem necessary. As a result of these shifts in the organization of work, many workers are now forced to hold multiple jobs in order to make ends meet. This move away from long-term employment has created a situation where the majority of Canadian workers can no longer expect their employer to provide predictable support and security for them. At the same time, under the current Employment Insurance (EI laws, they cannot expect support from the federal government either. How can workers gain some immediate protection through expanded social welfare programmes? With more and more workers, especially women, racialized workers and lower income people relegated to precarious employment, we must question current social policy. If, as it appears, EI does not work, we must strive to implement a viable alternative. Could an alternative system be modeled on the flexicurity system now in effect in Denmark? This paper draws on Nancy Fraser’s criteria for social justice for the globalized worker, to assess the ways that flexicurity could improve the security of the Canadian worker by offering alternatives to participation in the market nexus.

  11. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  12. The adaptive significance of inquiline parasite workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2003-01-01

    Social parasites exploit the socially managed resources of their host's society. Inquiline social parasites are dependent on their host throughout their life cycle, and so many of the traits inherited from their free-living ancestor are removed by natural selection. One trait that is commonly lost...... is the worker caste, the functions of which are adequately fulfilled by host workers. The few inquiline parasites that have retained a worker caste are thought to be at a transitional stage in the evolution of social parasitism, and their worker castes are considered vestigial and non-adaptive. However...... a vital role in ensuring the parasite's fitness. We show that the presence of these parasite workers has a positive effect on the production of parasite sexuals and a negative effect on the production of host sexuals. This suggests that inquiline workers play a vital role in suppressing host queen...

  13. Active Strategies for Older Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This report is also to be published by ETUI (Euruopean Trade Unions' Institute) in a book on Active Strategies for Older Workers. It is the National report for Denmark and contains a short section on characteristics of the Danish labour market, with a special focus on the situation of the elderly......, followed by a section on early retirement schemes in Denmark. These are very popular and it has been and, maybe, still is a problem to reduce the participation in these schemes. More ''positive'' measures than just reducing the attractiveness of the early retirement schemes are also necessary to keep...

  14. Mortality among ethylene oxide workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R W; Claxton, K W; Divine, B J; Kaplan, S D; Harris, V B

    1981-11-01

    Because of reports linking an increased risk of leukemia with exposure to ethylene oxide, a mortality study of workers with potential exposure to ethylene oxide at the Texaco Chemical Company Plant in Port Neches, Tex., was undertaken. A total of 767 males with potential exposure to ethylene oxide were identified. Forty-six deaths occurred in this cohort with 80 expected (standardized mortality ratio; SMR = 58). No deaths from leukemia were seen, nor were there any statistically significant excesses from any specific causes of death.

  15. Meet the local policy workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla L.; Vallgårda, Signild; Jensen, Anja MB

    2017-01-01

    of whom we found typified a specific way of reasoning and implementing the guidelines. This typology illustrates the diversity found within a group of local policy workers, and helps explain the variability reported in most studies on policy/guideline implementation. On the level of individuals, variation...... in implementation is often explained by the implementers’ perceptions of need for, and potential benefits of the policy, selfefficacy, and skill proficiency. We add ‘professionally related experiences’ as another explanation. We introduce the concepts of translation and hinterland to understand how and why people...

  16. Balancing parallel assembly lines with disabled workers

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Felipe F. B.; Costa,Alysson M.; Miralles, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    We study an assembly line balancing problem that occurs in sheltered worker centers for the disabled, where workers with very different characteristics are present. We are interested in the situation in which parallel assembly lines are allowed and name the resulting problem as parallel assembly line worker assignment and balancing problem. We present a linear mixed-integer formulation and a four-stage heuristic algorithm. Computational results with a large set of instances recently proposed ...

  17. Measurement Research on Industrial Workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Weixin; Wang Xu; Deng Lei; Gao Jia

    2013-01-01

    The paper studied the factors that made the new generation of migrant workers transform in to the industrial workers by the questionnaire for them in china. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of the new generation of migrant worker groups, the implementation approaches of their industrialization has been researched from the following four aspects: their on quality, psychological identity, economic base and social environment with the help of structural equation modle. Measures that...

  18. A meta-analytic approach for characterizing the within-worker and between-worker sources of variation in occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symanski, Elaine; Maberti, Silvia; Chan, Wenyaw

    2006-06-01

    While many studies have quantified the sources of variation in exposure to workplace contaminants for individual groups of workers, patterns of exposure variability have not been investigated since a comprehensive evaluation was carried out over 10 years ago. Therefore, a systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies that applied the one-way random-effects model to describe exposure profiles of groups of workers classified on the basis of the kind of work performed and where it was performed. Quantitative estimates of the sources of variation in exposure along with information related to the workplace, contaminant and sampling strategy were compiled. For subsets of the data, based upon the classification scheme used to group workers, weighted empirical cumulative distribution functions were constructed and compared using the non-parametric Kolomogorov-Smirnov two-sample test. Further stratifications evaluated differences by industry, agent and characteristics of the sampling strategy. The review identified nearly 60 studies that examined the within-worker and between-worker sources of variation in exposure to workplace contaminants. In pooling results across studies, the between-worker variability increased as workers were aggregated across jobs and locations. The within-worker variability for an occupational group of workers was generally larger than the between-worker variability, although the differences in the variation in exposures across work shifts relative to the variation among workers' mean exposure levels diminished as groups were combined across jobs and locations. On average, gaseous exposures were more homogeneous than exposures to aerosols or dermal agents as were exposures in the chemical industry compared with the non-chemical industry. The design of sampling strategies also plays an important role with greater variability among groups of workers who were sampled randomly rather than systematically; in addition, differences

  19. The Managers' Influence On The Workers' Engagement-A Case Study Of Public Sector Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liliana Hawrysz

    2015-01-01

      The workers' engagement means that they are loyal to their employers, trust both supervisors and co-workers, are not interested in changing their job, are proud of their work for a given company...

  20. Cyborgs and Knowledge Workers? Gendered Constructions of Workers in Vocational Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connole, Helen

    1996-01-01

    Discussions of knowledge workers are gender blind and ignore or devalue women's work. A more useful conception of the worker as cyborg illuminates questions of ownership of skills and knowledge and the blurring of boundaries between humans and technologies. (SK)

  1. Tax reform for low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, M M

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the recent implementation of work-oriented antipoverty programs, more welfare recipients can be expected to be working in low-wage jobs. With these jobs there is little hope that these workers' incomes will rise above the poverty level. One way to help support these low-wage workers is through tax reform. Although low-wage workers pay little or no federal tax, they still pay high payroll and local taxes. To help such workers keep more of their earnings, refundable taxes like earned income tax credit and child refund taxes should be expanded, and sales taxes on food should be eliminated.

  2. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  3. Characteristics of Menstrual Cycle in Shift Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Darkhi, Hamidreza; Kashanian, Maryam; khodarahmian, Mahshad; Dolati, Mandana; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Mohammadi, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, the characteristics of menstrual cycle in shift workers employed in the pharmaceutical industry are investigated. Method: This study was conducted in a pharmaceutical industrial complex in Tehran in 2012. 406 female workers in packaging units were studied on the menstrual cycle characteristics. The studied workers were divided into two groups of shift workers and non-shift workers and were compared in terms of the frequency of menstrual disorder (short-term cycle, long-term cycle, irregular cycle and bleeding during menstrual cycle) as well as hormonal values (FSH, LH, TSH, and Prolactin). Results: The odds ratio (OR) for menstrual disorder in the shift workers was 5.54 (95% CI=2.78-11.02) compared to the non-shift workers. The mean difference of hormonal values (except prolactin) between shift workers and non-shift workers was not significant (P> 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that shift work may disrupt the menstrual cycle. PMID:23618486

  4. The Research of Cenozoic Migrant Worker Satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海霞

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of Cenozoic migrant worker shortage is a realism problem of China's enterprise,and Cenozoic migrant worker has become an important force occupied the social structure.So the study of Cenozoic migrant worker's status and the demand is imperative.Understand employees"both psychological and physiological satisfaction of enterprises'environmental factors,and make some corresponding changes is of great help to reduce the employee turnover rate.This paper commenced to research from the Cenozoic migrant worker's characteristics,analyzed conditions and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures.

  5. Classic or Modern? Enhancement of Job Satisfaction Scale for Green Job Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Basol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Green jobs, in environmental and eco-friendly sectors, are defined as jobs where decent work conditions are presented. The green jobs, significantly increasing all over the world, support the protection of natural resources and also provide high quality work life for workers. The goal of this research is to improve the job satisfaction scale for green job workers by using the Structural Equation Model with model development strategy. Within this research SPSS 21 has been used for internal consistency rate and exploratory factor analysis and smartPLS 2.0 has been used for Structural Equation Model. Analysis results show that contingent reward, supervision, co-workers and communication effect job satisfaction of green job workers.

  6. Organisational design elements and competencies for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ramsey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are still structured according to the Industrial Age control model that restricts optimising the expertise of knowledge workers.Research purpose: The general aim of the research was to explore the organisation design elements and competencies that contribute to optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre.Motivation for the study: Current organisational design methodologies do not emphasise optimising the expertise of knowledge workers. This research addresses the challenge of how an organisation design can improve the creation and availability of the expertise of knowledge workers.Research design/approach method: The researcher followed a qualitative case study research design and collected data in six focus group sessions (N = 25.Main findings: The findings showed that the shared services centre (SSC is not designed to enable its structure, culture and codifying system to optimise the expertise of knowledge workers. In addition, the SSC does not share the knowledge generated with other knowledge workers. Furthermore, it does not use the output of the knowledge workers to improve business processes.Practical/managerial implications: The expertise of knowledge workers is the basis of competitive advantage. Therefore, managers should create an organisational design that is conducive to optimising knowledge work expertise.Contribution/value add: This research highlights the important organisational design elements and supportive organisational structures for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers. The research also proposes a framework for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers and helping an organisation to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.

  7. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Montero-Simó

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08. The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.

  8. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

  9. Establishment of Evaluation Index System of Migrant Workers' Entrepreneurial Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Taking evaluation of migrant workers' entrepreneurial competence as the research content, this paper first defines the migrant workers' entrepreneurial characteristics and the connotation of migrant workers' entrepreneurial competence; on the basis of this, from entrepreneurial thinking competence, behaviour competence, and language competence of migrant workers, this paper establishes evaluation index system of migrant workers' entrepreneurial competence. We use Analytic Hierarchy Process, e...

  10. Adaptive reproduction schedule as a cause of worker policing in social hymenoptera: a dynamic game analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theories predict conflicts over sex allocation, male parentage, and reproductive allocation in hymenopteran societies. However, no theory to date has considered the evolution when a colony faces these three conflicts simultaneously. We tackled this issue by developing a dynamic game model, focusing especially on worker policing. Whereas a Nash equilibrium predicts male parentage patterns that are basically the same as those of relatedness-based worker-policing theory (queen multiple mating impedes worker reproduction), we also show the potential for worker policing under queen single mating. Worker policing will depend on the stage of colony growth that is caused by interaction with reproductive allocation conflict or a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Male production at an early stage greatly hinders the growth of the work force and undermines future inclusive fitness of colony members, leading to worker policing at the ergonomic stage. This new mechanism can explain much broader ranges of existing worker-policing behavior than that predicted from relatedness. Predictions differ in many respects from those of models assuming operation of only one or two of the three conflicts, suggesting the importance of interactions among conflicts.

  11. "We Were Told We're Not Teachers... It Gets Difficult to Draw the Line": Negotiating Roles in Peer-Assisted Study Sessions (PASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kim; Nairn, Karen; van der Meer, Jacques; Scott, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Peer learning models in pre-service teacher education are in the early stages of implementation. In this article, we evaluated a pilot Peer-Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) program that supplemented a course for pre-service teachers at one New Zealand university. PASS participants discussed experiences of the program, revealing tensions between what…

  12. Factors shaping interactions among community health workers in rural Ethiopia: rethinking workplace trust and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Michelle M; Stephenson, Rob; Hadley, Craig; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, a shortage of skilled health workers has prompted a shift toward community-based health workers taking on greater responsibility in the provision of select maternal and newborn health services. Research in mid- and high-income settings suggests that coworker collaboration increases productivity and performance. A major gap in this research, however, is the exploration of factors that influence teamwork among diverse community health worker cadres in rural, low-resource settings. The purpose of this study is to examine how sociodemographic and structural factors shape teamwork among community-based maternal and newborn health workers in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with health extension workers, community health development agents, and traditional birth attendants in 3 districts of the West Gojam Zone in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Communities were randomly selected from Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) sites; health worker participants were recruited using a snowball sampling strategy. Fractional logit modeling and average marginal effects analyses were carried out to identify the influential factors for frequency of work interactions with each cadre. One hundred and ninety-four health workers participated in the study. A core set of factors-trust in coworkers, gender, and cadre-were influential for teamwork across groups. Greater geographic distance and perception of self-interested motivations were barriers to interactions with health extension workers, while greater food insecurity (a proxy for wealth) was associated with increased interactions with traditional birth attendants. Interventions that promote trust and gender sensitivity and improve perceptions of health worker motivations may help bridge the gap in health services delivery between low- and high-resource settings. Inter-cadre training may be one mechanism to increase trust and respect among diverse health workers, thereby increasing

  13. Developing effective leadership competencies in military social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Jennifer L; Howard, Reginald W

    2014-01-01

    Military social workers are facing transformative times in that demand for military social work has increased and become more complex, challenging, and diverse due to the last 13 years of combat experiences. Developing military social work leaders must be deliberate, continuous, and progressive in order to impact and improve organizational performance in the healthcare delivery system. The transformational leadership model has been proven to be effective in both the military and social service organizations. The strength of this leadership model coincides well with the values of the social work profession. Incorporating leadership development in a clinical Master of Social Work program has the potential to improve service provision and offer strategies for military social workers to effectively manage the ongoing challenges in the field of social work.

  14. Properties of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia across Workers with Different Pain Experiences and Cultural Backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M B; Damsgård, E; Holtermann, A;

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether the construct validity of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) is consistent with respect to its scaling properties, unidimensionality and targeting among workers with different levels of pain. The 311 participating Danish workers reported...... not fit the Rasch model, but removing one item solved the poorness of fit. Invariance was found across the pain levels, ages and genders. Thus, with a few modifications, the TSK was shown to capture a unidimensional construct of fear of movement in workers with different pain levels, ages, and genders....

  15. Contextual Factors Impacting Practice Beliefs and Practice Behaviors among Social Workers with Lesbian and Gay Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary H

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author explores contextual factors that impact practice beliefs and behaviors among social workers with lesbian and gay clients. The Gay Affirmative Practice scale was used to measure levels of gay affirmative practice beliefs and practice behaviors among social workers in a medical setting. A model is presented that illustrates how contextual factors related to education, training, relationships with lesbian and gay individuals, and religiosity affects social workers' practice behaviors. The results illustrate the importance of educational exposure and affirming practice beliefs on practice behaviors.

  16. General report on the status of Chinese rural migrant workers and their development trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊; 崔传义; 金三林

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the rural migrant worker issue in China since reform and opening-up began. Firstly,utilizing substantial investigation,the authors analyze the new characteristics of Chinese rural migrant workers;Secondly,authors analyze the migrant workers’ contributions to reshaping the rural landscape and to driving China’s economic development and social structural change;Finally,using a quantitative analysis model,they examine the long-term trends of rural migrant workers and their interactions with macroeconomic and social development.

  17. [Analysis of changes in characteristics of arterial hypertension occupational risk in workers of nonferrous metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, E M; Shliapnikov, D M; Lebedeva, T M

    2015-01-01

    The article covers changes in occupational cardiovascular risk for workers of nonferrous,metallurgy. Findings are that exposure to noise up to 94 dB with length of service increases possible atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. With 5 years of service, risk of the predicted conditions increases by 40.5%. When occupational exposure lasts over 5 years, risk of arterial hypertension increases. A group of workers without exposure to occupational factors appeared to have no connection between length of service and metabolic syndrome and arterial hypertension. Risk evolution modelling proved that risk of functional disorders in nonferrous metallurgy workers becomes unacceptable after 5 years of service (cardiovascular disorders are critical).

  18. Bell Nonlocality, Signal Locality and Unpredictability (or What Bohr Could Have Told Einstein at Solvay Had He Known About Bell Experiments)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Eric G.; Wiseman, Howard M.

    2012-10-01

    The 1964 theorem of John Bell shows that no model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics can simultaneously satisfy the assumptions of locality and determinism. On the other hand, the assumptions of signal locality plus predictability are also sufficient to derive Bell inequalities. This simple theorem, previously noted but published only relatively recently by Masanes, Acin and Gisin, has fundamental implications not entirely appreciated. Firstly, nothing can be concluded about the ontological assumptions of locality or determinism independently of each other—it is possible to reproduce quantum mechanics with deterministic models that violate locality as well as indeterministic models that satisfy locality. On the other hand, the operational assumption of signal locality is an empirically testable (and well-tested) consequence of relativity. Thus Bell inequality violations imply that we can trust that some events are fundamentally unpredictable, even if we cannot trust that they are indeterministic. This result grounds the quantum-mechanical prohibition of arbitrarily accurate predictions on the assumption of no superluminal signalling, regardless of any postulates of quantum mechanics. It also sheds a new light on an early stage of the historical debate between Einstein and Bohr.

  19. MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS

    FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…

  20. 78 FR 25561 - Workers Memorial Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... world's most talented, driven, effective labor force. American workers power our homes and feed our... the world. Together, they form the backbone of our economy. As a Nation, we have an obligation to... often led to poverty and starvation. From mine shafts to railroads to factory floors, workers began...

  1. Compensation for State and Local Government Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maury Gittleman; Brooks Pierce

    2012-01-01

    ... with the two primary data sources for looking at compensation of state and local government workers: the Current Population Survey compensation of state and local government workers: the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics, (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census for t...

  2. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  3. Children of Migrant Workers: Exploring the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw, Lynne; Colby, Susan; Pacifici, Linda; Oldendorf, Sandra; Groce, Robin; Groce, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The topic of migrant workers is commonplace among headlines in the national news, but such workers have been part of the United States economy for at least seventy-five years, as can be seen in decades of enrollment records in K-12 schools. In this article, the authors discuss an integrated unit of study which integrates language arts and social…

  4. Migrant Workers and the Changing Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…

  5. Gold-Collar Workers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    The gold-collar worker has problem-solving abilities, creativity, talent, and intelligence; performs non-repetitive and complex work difficult to evaluate; and prefers self management. Gold-collar information technology workers learn continually from experience; recognize the synergy of teams; can demonstrate leadership; and are strategic thinkers…

  6. Teaching and Cultivating Workers of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, I.

    1972-01-01

    The Donetsk Vocational-Technical School No. 1 began in 1963 training specialist workers in the mining industry with a secondary education. The school has facilities for general education along with vocational training thereby encouraging a combination of education and labor development and future party workers. (Author/SM)

  7. Local Exhaust Optimization and Worker Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Pedersen, Morten; Plath, Thomas

    This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office.......This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office....

  8. Emotional Exhaustion in Day-Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvgren, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Although childcare workers have the second-worst occupation for work-related health problems and the number of professional day-care centers is growing throughout Europe, few studies have examined these workers' emotional well-being. This study investigates the effect of position, competence, work role, role clarity, and work tasks on emotional…

  9. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836.577 Section 836.577 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL...' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  10. Women Workers Commissions of the Trade Unions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    AT the 12th National Congress of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions(ACFTU) held in 1988 a large number of women deputies put forward the proposal that women workers commissions be established in trade unions to strengthen the role of female workers in economic

  11. Helping Those in Need: Human Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Colleen Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Many people experience hardship and need help. This help is provided by a network of agencies and organizations, both public and private. Staffed by human service workers, this network, and the kinds of help it offers, is as varied as the clients it serves. Human service workers help clients become more self-sufficient. The first section of this…

  12. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  13. Study of the doctor - nurse - medical social worker cooperation work model to deal with emergent complicated issues%医、护、医务社会工作者三方介入急诊复杂事件服务模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎小群; 卓美容; 尹杰英; 庄新耘; 刘晨

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨医、护、医务社会工作者三方协同服务于急诊患者的新型服务模式.方法 急诊科设立急诊医务社工,制订医、护、医务社会工作者三方介入处理相关事件的服务流程,依据不同的个案采取相应的服务措施,满足不同患者的需求.结果 三方介入服务模式运行两年来共为165例患者提供了服务;为85例患者提供了经济援助与心理辅导,为45例患者提供了心理支持,申请救助基金46.60万元.结论 医、护、医务社会工作者三方协同服务的新型服务模式,可以弥补医护服务的不足,能为患者及家属提供切实可行的帮助,全面提升医院的服务质量.%Objective To explore a new service model of the doctor - nurse - medical socical worker cooperation in emergency patients. Methods Social workers were employed in emergency departments, and the service flow charts for doctors, nurses and medical social workers to cooperate and deal with related issues were developed. And different services were provided for different patients,so as to meet specific individual needs. Results Two years after implementing the model,165 patients received services,85 patients received economic assistance as well as psychological consultation,and 45 patients received psychological supports. We successfully applied for assistance fund of 466 thousands RMB. Conclusion The new service model of doctor - nurse - medical social worker cooperation can not only compensate for the insufficiency of the doctor - nurse service model, but also provide patients and their family members with practical help, thus lead to a comprehensive escalation in the quality of hospital services.

  14. 江西省农民工艾滋病预防宣传模式初探%Investigation on the propaganda and education models of HIV/AIDS control among migrant workers in Jiangxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 朱世鸣; 葛军; 周小军

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究农民工艾滋病性病知识知晓、态度、意愿及性行为的现状和对艾滋病防治需求,探索农民工艾滋病防治宣传教育模式. 方法 用分层整群抽样方法,对经济水平不同地区及不同工种的1012名农民工进行问卷调查. 结果 农民工艾滋病性病知识知晓率分别为70.00%和66.26%.调查者中近三个月与固定性伴、非固定异性性伴、男男同性发生的性行为分别占58.60%、19.28%、12.06%,每次安全套使用率分别为10.79%,8.21%,14.75%.93.69%农民工有接受艾滋病和性病的相关知识和教育意愿,且喜欢艾滋病性病知识宣传途径依次为电视、报纸杂志、收音机、"网络"、"贴画、挂图""文艺演出""听别人说""其他",经济水平不同地区、不同工种存在一定差异. 结论 农民工艾滋病知识知晓率低,存在艾滋病传播高危行为,安全套使用率低,非常有必要在该群体开展宣传教育及行为干预.应根据该群体需求及特征,选择合适的艾滋病预防宣传模式.%Objective To evaluate AIDS/STD related knowledge, attitude and sexual behaviors in migrant workers. Methods A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select participants from the areas of different economic development. An informed consent questionnaire was carried out in 1 021 migrant workers of different occupations. Results The awareness rates of HIV/AIDS and STD were 70% and 66. 26%, respectively in the migrant workers. 58. 6%, 19. 7% and 12. 06%% of the migrant workers had sex with regular, causal, and MSM partners, respectively. The condom use rates of sex activities were 10. 79%, 8. 21% and 14.8%, respectively, for the migrant workers having sex with regular, causal and MSM partners in the last 3 months. The AIDS/STD knowledge was mainly obtained through the channels of TV ( 71.43%), newspapers ( 46.44%), magazines ( 20. 26%), network (19. 57%), radio (18. 97%), etc. However, there

  15. Prevalence and correlates of violence against female sex workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Key words: female sex workers, violence against women, brothel based sex workers, prostitution in Africa .... is the leader of the sex workers. The chairlady serves as ...... and economic challenges that encourage sex work.

  16. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  17. Strong trade unions meet EEC workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Hansen, Jens Arnholtz

    2008-01-01

    Although Denmark has not experienced an increase in the number of migrant workers from Eastern Europe to same degree as the UK or Ireland, Danish unions in the construction sector are concerned that the collective bargaining system could be undermined by the presence of Eastern European Country...... (EEC) workers. The argument is that migrant and, in particular, posted workers' conditions of employment often are characterised by evasions of collective agreements, whether in the form of underpayment or other violations of terms and conditions specified in the agreements. However, the trade union...... with distrust on behalf of the migrants. Or should they focus first and foremost on the workplace and aim to organise the EEC workers? Or might they be able to do both? In this article we describe problems and challenges trade unions have faced due to the presence of EEC workers in the Danish construction...

  18. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  19. The migrant worker: visible, yet invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung

    2015-01-22

    Immigrant workers are a vulnerable and underserved population. The average life expectancy of the migrant worker is 49 years, compared to 77.2 years for most Americans. Immigrant workers have a higher disease burden than other populations and work in occupations with high hazard levels. In addition, they have low socioeconomic levels and face many barriers to accessing healthcare services. Undocumented immigrant workers are excluded in the Affordable Care Act. Health professionals must be attuned to the health issues of new immigrants so that they can provide better services. In order to raise the health standards of America, health professionals must provide healthcare for all, including immigrant workers.

  20. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...

  1. Contingency, Employment Intentions, and Retention of Vulnerable Low-Wage Workers: An Examination of Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Janette S.; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Marshall, Victor W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: While theories of job turnover generally assume a strong correlation between job satisfaction, intention, and retention, such models may be limited in explaining turnover of low-wage health care workers. Low-wage workers likely have a lower ability to act on their employment intentions or plans due to a lack of resources that…

  2. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Megan L; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A; Pollack, Keshia M; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice.

  3. Assessing the skills of home care workers in helping older people take their prescribed medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Elizabeth E J

    2015-08-01

    The Southern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland applied a modified version of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the skills of home care workers in assisting older people taking prescribed medications. In Northern Ireland, home care workers are care workers employed by health and social care trusts or private agencies. The application of the model has developed the skills of this staff group, improved the relationship between the commissioner and provider, significantly reduced the time spent by community nurses in individual training and assessment, and enhanced the patient experience for those taking medication. Overall, the application of this model has provided assurances to the Trust board, the executive director of nursing, and operational directors that home care workers are competent in assisting older people in this high-risk activity.

  4. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chuang; Liu, Wanzhao

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers, new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend, undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions...

  5. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  6. Assessment in Child Protection : social workers' voices in England and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Samsonsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Good quality assessment in Child Protection is crucial to ensure adequate protection and provision. This article explores social workers` experiences with two different Child Protection assessment models: the “professional judgment model”, exemplified by Norway, and the “structured assessment model”, exemplified by England. The aim is to explore the experiences of social workers who carry out assessments in England and Norway, and compare and discuss these experiences in light of “accountability” theory.

  7. Doing the right thing without being told: joint effects of initiative climate and general self-efficacy on employee proactive customer service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Steffen; Liao, Hui

    2012-05-01

    We developed and tested a cross-level model of the antecedents and outcomes of proactive customer service performance. Results from a field study of 900 frontline service employees and their supervisors in 74 establishments of a multinational hotel chain located in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia demonstrated measurement equivalence and suggested that, after controlling for service climate, initiative climate at the establishment level and general self-efficacy at the individual level predicted employee proactive customer service performance and interacted in a synergistic way. Results also showed that at the establishment level, controlling for service climate and collective general service performance, initiative climate was positively and indirectly associated with customer service satisfaction through the mediation of aggregated proactive customer service performance. We discuss important theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Job satisfaction and turnover intent among hospital social workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L

    2016-08-01

    Feelings of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among social workers affect work quality for both social workers and the people for whom they provide services. Existing literature on job satisfaction among hospital social workers is limited, and is overly focused on issues of compensation. There is job satisfaction research with hospital nurses available for comparison. Other informative social work research on job satisfaction and turnover exists in mental health and generally, across settings. Research on turnover intent in social work is primarily from child welfare settings and may not generalize. The literature notes gaps and contradictions about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intent. Using a large national dataset of hospital social workers, this research clarifies and fills gaps regarding hospital social workers, and explores how Herzberg's theory of work can clarify the difference between sources of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. Findings include hospital social workers reporting high job satisfaction and that demographics do not contribute to the predictive models. The findings do support centralized social work departments and variety in the job functions of hospital social workers, and are consistent with the theoretical framework.

  9. Factors associated with health-seeking behavior among migrant workers in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Hongpu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrant workers are a unique phenomenon in the process of China's economic transformation. The household registration system classifies them as temporary residents in cities, putting them in a vulnerable state with an unfair share of urban infrastructure and social public welfare. The amount of pressure inflicted by migrant workers in Beijing, as one of the major migration destinations, is currently at a threshold. This study was designed to assess the factors associated with health-seeking behavior and to explore feasible solutions to the obstacles migrant workers in China faced with when accessing health-care. Methods A sample of 2,478 migrant workers in Beijing was chosen by the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted via face-to-face interviews between investigators and subjects. The multilevel methodology (MLM was used to demonstrate the independent effects of the explanatory variables on health seeking behavior in migrant workers. Results The medical visitation rate of migrant workers within the past two weeks was 4.8%, which only accounted for 36.4% of those who were ill. Nearly one-third of the migrant workers chose self-medication (33.3% or no measures (30.3% while ill within the past two weeks. 19.7% of the sick migrants who should have been hospitalized failed to receive medical treatment within the past year. According to self-reported reasons, the high cost of health service was a significant obstacle to health-care access for 40.5% of the migrant workers who became sick. However, 94.0% of the migrant workers didn't have any insurance coverage in Beijing. The multilevel model analysis indicates that health-seeking behavior among migrants is significantly associated with their insurance coverage. Meanwhile, such factors as household monthly income per capita and working hours per day also affect the medical visitation rate of the migrant workers in Beijing

  10. Investigation on occupational health status and health demand model among female floating workers in Gaomi City%高密市流动人口中女工职业健康状况和卫生的需求方式调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙少华; 邹建芳; 周晓杰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the occupational health status and occupational health demand model among female floating workers in Gaomi City. [Methods]The occupational health questionnaire survey was conducted in 3 804 female floating workers collected from 3 textile enterprises and 3 shoemaking enterprises. By using Epi Data database and Spssl7. 0 statistical software, the data were analyzed with t-test and Chi square test. [Results]The female floating workers in shoemaking enterprises had the characteristics of younger age and less working years, and most of them were unmarried. The female floating workers in textile enterprises had the characteristics of older age and longer working years, and most of them were married(P<0. 01 all). The reproductive health problems were mainly dysmenorrheal and congestion. The physical health problems included headache, dizziness, lumbodor-sal pain, depression and so on. In extile enterprises, 60. 9% of posts need repeat monotone operation, 45. 1% need continuous standing, and the awareness rate of occupational risk factors (43.4% ) of female workers was lower than that in shoemaking enterprises. The main ways that female floating workers obtained the occupational health knowledge were book and TV, and they hoped to get the occupational health knowledge by book. [ Conclusion ] The female floating workers in shoemaking enterprises and extile enterprises in Gaomi City have serious reproductive health problems and occupational health problems, and they hoped to get the occupational health knowledge by book.%目的 了解高密市流动人口中女工(简称流动女工)的职业健康状况和职业卫生需求方式.方法 选择纺织行业3个企业和制鞋行业3个企业的流动女工共3 804人,填写职业健康调查问卷.全部数据录入EpiData数据库,应用SPSS17.0统计软件进行统计分析,进行t检验,x2检验.结果 制鞋行业流动女工年龄小,工龄低,多未婚,纺织行业流动女工年龄大、

  11. Aversive conditioning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): a comparison of drones and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Christopher W; Avalos, Arian; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Austin, Zoe M; Varnon, Christopher A; Dal, Fatima Nur; Giray, Tugrul; Wells, Harrington

    2013-11-01

    Honey bees provide a model system to elucidate the relationship between sociality and complex behaviors within the same species, as females (workers) are highly social and males (drones) are more solitary. We report on aversive learning studies in drone and worker honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica) in escape, punishment and discriminative punishment situations. In all three experiments, a newly developed electric shock avoidance assay was used. The comparisons of expected and observed responses were performed with conventional statistical methods and a systematic randomization modeling approach called object oriented modeling. The escape experiment consisted of two measurements recorded in a master-yoked paradigm: frequency of response and latency to respond following administration of shock. Master individuals could terminate an unavoidable shock triggered by a decrementing 30 s timer by crossing the shuttlebox centerline following shock activation. Across all groups, there was large individual response variation. When assessing group response frequency and latency, master subjects performed better than yoked subjects for both workers and drones. In the punishment experiment, individuals were shocked upon entering the shock portion of a bilaterally wired shuttlebox. The shock portion was spatially static and unsignalled. Only workers effectively avoided the shock. The discriminative punishment experiment repeated the punishment experiment but included a counterbalanced blue and yellow background signal and the side of shock was manipulated. Drones correctly responded less than workers when shock was paired with blue. However, when shock was paired with yellow there was no observable difference between drones and workers.

  12. Air quality, mortality, and economic benefits of a smoke - free workplace law for non-smoking Ontario bar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, J; Zhang, B; Bondy, S J; Benowitz, N; Ferrence, R

    2013-04-01

    We estimated the impact of a smoke-free workplace bylaw on non-smoking bar workers' health in Ontario, Canada. We measured bar workers' urine cotinine before (n = 99) and after (n = 91) a 2004 smoke-free workplace bylaw. Using pharmacokinetic and epidemiological models, we estimated workers' fine-particle (PM2.5 ) air pollution exposure and mortality risks from workplace secondhand smoke (SHS). workers' pre-law geometric mean cotinine was 10.3 ng/ml; post-law dose declined 70% to 3.10 ng/ml and reported work hours of exposure by 90%. Pre-law, 97% of workers' doses exceeded the 90th percentile for Canadians of working age. Pre-law-estimated 8-h average workplace PM2.5 exposure from SHS was 419 μg/m(3) or 'Very Poor' air quality, while outdoor PM2.5 levels averaged 7 μg/m(3) , 'Very Good' air quality by Canadian Air Quality Standards. We estimated that the bar workers' annual mortality rate from workplace SHS exposure was 102 deaths per 100000 persons. This was 2.4 times the occupational disease fatality rate for all Ontario workers. We estimated that half to two-thirds of the 10620 Ontario bar workers were non-smokers. Accordingly, Ontario's smoke-free law saved an estimated 5-7 non-smoking bar workers' lives annually, valued at CA $50 million to $68 million (US $49 million to $66 million).

  13. Contact dermatitis in cement workers in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to recent industrialization and inadequately protected workers or in other words poor supervision on constructive workers habits in our large city of Isfahan cement contact dermatitis is relatively high especially among cement factory workers and constructive personnel. PURPOSES: To investigate the prevalence rate of cement contact dermatitis in cement factory workers in Isfahan. METHODS: A case-control clinical study was carried out by randomly selecing 150 factory workders and 150 official clerks in a cement factory in Isfahan in 2001. After a complete physical examination, data was recorded in observational checklists. FINDINGS: The percentages of contact dermatitis prevalences in the first and the second groups were 22% and 5.3% respectively. About 60% of cement workers with contact dermatitis were between 30-40 years of age. There was a direct relationship with age in both groups of the workers. In the high-exposure group, the hand eczema along was 70% but in the other group the percentage of involvement was the same in exposed and unexposed anatomical areas. CONCLUSIONS: There was a direct relationship between occurrence and the severity of involvement and duration of contact in the first group. Cent percent of cement workers had contact dermatitis after 10 or less years, but the percentage among the other group was 35%. LIMITATION: Irritant contact dermatitis to cement has not been detected.

  14. Immune Functions of the Garment Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LN Islam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to cotton dust, fibers, metal fumes and different chemicals used in the apparel manufacturing industries cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems in the garment workers that may also affect their immune function.Objective: To assess the immune system function in garment workers.Methods: A total of 45 workers of a garment factory, and 41 control subjects, not exposed to the garment working environment were enrolled in this study. In the study subjects, the complement system function was assessed as bactericidal activity on Escherichia coli DH5α cells using the standard plate count method. Serum complement components C3 and C4 were measured by immunoprecipitation, and IgG was measured by immunonephelometry.Results: The bactericidal activity of serum complement in the garment workers (range: 93.5%–99.9% was significantly (p<0.01 lower than that in the controls (range: 98.6%–100%. The heat-inactivated serum of the workers showed a significantly enhanced bactericidal activity. In the garment workers, the mean levels of complement C3, and C4 were 1.75 and 0.26 g/L, respectively that were close to those of the controls. The mean IgG level in the garment workers was 13.5 g/L that was significantly (p<0.001 higher than that in the controls. Conclusion: Working in a garment factory may affect the immune system.

  15. Occupational stress among healthcare workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinya; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    High distress levels in healthcare workers in Japan may deteriorate safe service provision. To clarify job stress of healthcare workers, we compared Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) scores among physicians, nursing staff and administrative workers. Healthcare workers (n=9,137) in 20 hospitals in Japan were asked to answer BJSQ. BJSQ is job stress questionnaire to measure "Job Stressors", "Stress Responses" and "Social Supports". The "Total Health Risk" of the healthcare workers was 10% higher than the national average. While the physicians felt the stress of the quantitative and qualitative job overload, they had support from supervisors and coworkers and showed mild "Stress Responses". The nursing staff felt the stress of the quantitative and qualitative job overload at the same level as the physicians, but they did not have sufficient support from supervisors and coworkers, and showed high "Stress Responses". The administrative workers did not have sufficient support from supervisors and coworkers, but they experienced less stress as measured by the quantitative and qualitative job overload than the physicians or the nursing staff and showed moderate "Stress Responses". Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms and the influence of other factors to the stress trait in healthcare workers.

  16. Catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Upfal, Mark J; Russell, Jim; Luborsky, Mark; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Judith E

    2015-09-01

    To identify common catalysts of worker-to-worker violence and incivility in hospital settings. Worker-to-worker violence and incivility are prevalent forms of mistreatment in healthcare workplaces. These are forms of counterproductive work behaviour that can lead to negative outcomes for employees, patients and the organisation overall. Identifying the factors that lead to co-worker mistreatment is a critical first step in the development of interventions targeting these behaviours. Retrospective descriptive study. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on the total sample (n = 141) of employee incident reports of worker-to-worker violence and incivility that were documented in 2011 at a large American hospital system. More than 50% of the incidents involved nurses, and the majority of incidents did not involve physical violence. Two primary themes emerged from the analysis: Work Behaviour and Work Organisation. Incidents in the Work Behaviour category were often sparked by unprofessional behaviour, disagreement over responsibilities for work tasks or methods of patient care, and dissatisfaction with a co-worker's performance. Incidents in the Work Organisation category involved conflicts or aggression arising from failure to following protocol, patient assignments, limited resources and high workload. Incidents of worker-to-worker violence and incivility stemmed from dissatisfaction with employee behaviour or from organisational practices or work constraints. These incident descriptions reflect worker dissatisfaction and frustration, resulting from poor communication and collaboration between employees, all of which threaten work productivity. Violence and incivility between hospital employees can contribute to turnover of top performers, hinder effective teamwork and jeopardise the quality of patient care. Identification of common catalysts for worker-to-worker violence and incivility informs the development of mistreatment prevention programmes that can be

  17. Assessment of micronuclei in lymphocytes from workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge, Peter; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Spickenheuer, Anne; Kendzia, Benjamin; Heinze, Evelyn; Angerer, Jürgen; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the micronucleus frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 225 mastic asphalt workers (age 17-62 years) and 69 non-bitumen-exposed road construction workers (age 18-64 years) in Germany before and after the working shift. Median shift exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen of exposed workers was 3.0 mg/m³. Micronuclei (MN) were determined with a standard method using cytochalasin B. Median MN frequency was 6.0 (interquartile range (IQR) 4.0-8.5) MN/1,000 binucleated lymphocytes (MN/1,000 BNC) in exposed workers and 6.0 (IQR 4.0-8.3) MN/1,000 BNC in non-exposed workers before shift. After shift, we observed 6.5 (IQR 4.4-9.3) MN/1,000 BNC in exposed workers and 6.5 (IQR 4.0-9.0) MN/1,000 BNC in non-exposed workers. Regression models were applied with the log-transformed MN frequency as the dependent variable in order to estimate the effects of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen and of potential confounders. Age was the strongest predictor of MN formation in both exposed workers and referents. Our data suggest that MN formation was not associated with concentration of vapours and aerosols of bitumen during shift at the individual level. Although similar MN frequencies were observed in both groups, the modelling of factors potentially influencing MN frequency revealed a weak group difference in the post-shift model. We conclude that this small difference cannot be judged to be a relevant mutagenic effect of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen, also with regard to the lack of adjustment for multiple testing and the lack of a group effect in the original data.

  18. Neuropsychological effects of exposure to naphtha among automotive workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R F; Robins, T G; Proctor, S; Echeverria, D; Rocskay, A S

    1994-02-01

    The association between exposure to naphtha and neurobehavioural measures was examined prospectively over one year among workers employed at an automotive plant that used naphtha to calibrate fuel injectors. The neurobehavioural tests included those that assess mood, basic intelligence, and functioning of the cerebral frontal lobes and limbic system and were designed so that acute, reversible, and chronic effects of solvent exposure could be assessed. Participants were 248 workers in June 1988, and the testing was repeated on 185 of these workers in 1989. Concentrations of naphtha at the plant ranged from six to 709 mg/m3, although exposure was greater in 1988 than in 1989. Duration of exposure for individual subjects ranged from 0.8 to 7.3 years. Cross sectional data analyses showed significant associations between level of exposure to naphtha and slower timed scores on trails A, and greater reports of negative affective symptoms on profile of mood states scales in 1988 but not 1989. Threshold model analyses of the 1989 data showed an association between score on visual reproductions immediate recall and daily exposure to naphtha at or above 1050 h x mg/m3. Models of chronic exposure showed no associations between chronic exposure and negative neurobehavioural outcome. Results suggest that naphtha produces mild acute reversible effects on function of the central nervous system at or above daily exposures of 540 h x mg/m3 (approximately 90 ppm/h).

  19. An examination of nervios among Mexican seasonal farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Margaret; Mysyk, Avis; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory descriptive study was to examine a process model of the nervios experience of 30 Mexican seasonal farm workers. Focused interviews were conducted in Spanish to determine the workers' perspectives on their experiences of nervios while residing in rural, southwest Ontario. Data for analysis originated from variables created to represent key themes that had emerged from open coding of the interviews. Simultaneous entry, multiple regression analyses revealed that provocation, control salience, and cognitive sensory motor distress directly explained 67.2% of the variation in worker expressions of negative affectivity. The combination fear, feeling trapped, and giving in mediated the relationship of provocation, control salience and cognitive sensory motor distress to expressions of negative affectivity (R(2) = 88.1%). Control salience and its dampening effect on other elements of the nervios experience, however, appeared to be key to whether subjects experienced negative reactions to being provoked or distressed. This evidence points to nervios being a powerful, holistic idiom of distress with at least six variables contributing to its affective negativity. This information is important to our understanding of how nervios unfolds and for accurate specification of a nervios model for clinical practice and research. It also sets the stage for improved therapeutic alliances with nervios sufferers, and social action to reduce factors that provoke nervios.

  20. Sleep, immunity and shift workers: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Oliveira de Almeida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, shift workers represent between 15% and 25% of the modern day workforce. Work time poses a great challenge to workers as it requires that they balance productivity and sleep time between shifts. As a result, these workers experience chronic sleep deprivation with increased fatigue and drowsiness due to this sleep deprivation. The impact of this kind of work on the immune system is not yet known. We conducted a literature review with the aim of evaluating articles on this specific type of work's effects on sleep and immunity.

  1. The mental suffering of social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Sassolas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with the mental suffering of the social workers means interesting to unpleasant or painful events that affect the daily working practice. The present work illustrates what can be the painful experiences, their nature and origin, and the conditions in which they appear, also highlighting the evolution, or the way in which social workers react to their appearance, if they do them away or if they are charged. The work focuses finally on external factors which influence or determine the way in which these feelings are metabolized by the operators.Keywords: Social workers; Managing negative emotions; Care work

  2. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  3. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site.

  4. Organizational culture of a psychiatric hospital and resilience of nursing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Gaioli, Cheila Cristina Leonardo de Oliveira; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques; Mininel, Vivian Aline; Vegro, Thamiris Cavazzani

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the organizational culture of a psychiatric hospital and identify the capacity of resilience of nursing workers. quantitative research. For data collection, were used the Brazilian Instrument for Evaluation of Organizational Culture (IBACO - Instrumento Brasileiro para Avaliação da Cultura Organizacional) and the Resilience Scale (RS). participants reported the existence of centralization of power and devaluation of workers, despite recognizing the existence of collaboration at work and practices for improving interpersonal relations. In relation to the capacity of resilience, 50% of workers showed high level, and 42.9% a medium level of resilience. The correlation tests revealed negative values between the IBACO and RS domains, indicating that the lower the appreciation of individuals in the institution, the greater their capacity of resilience. the organizational values reflect the work organization model in the institution that devalues the workers' needs and requires greater capacity of resilience.

  5. Would an Increase in High-Skilled Immigration in Canada Benefit Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Fougère

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the economic and welfare effects of raising the number of high-skilled immigrants in Canada. It uses a life-cycle applied general equilibrium model with endogenous time allocation decisions between work, education, and leisure. According to the simulation results, raising the number of high-skilled immigrants would boost productive capacity and labour productivity but could lower real GDP per capita. In addition, by raising the supply of high-skilled workers, more high-skilled immigrants would reduce the skill premium and the return to human capital. This in turn would lower incentives for young adults to invest in human capital and have a dampening effect on the domestic supply of skilled workers. Finally, it is found that more high-skilled immigrants would be welfare enhancing for medium- and low-skilled workers but welfare decreasing for high-skilled workers.

  6. Gynecologic pain related to occupational stress among female factory workers in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajder, Kristin K; Harlow, Siobán D; Burgard, Sarah A; Wang, Yanrang; Han, Cheng; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and non-cyclic pelvic pain are health concerns for factory workers in China and may be increased by occupational stress. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and demographic and occupational factors associated with three types of gynecologic pain among female factory workers in Tianjin. Methods: The study included 651 female workers from three factories in Tianjin, China. Logistic regression models were estimated to determine associations between occupational stress and gynecologic pain. Results: Occupational stress including high job strain, exhaustion, and stress related to working conditions was a risk factor for gynecologic pain. High job strain and poor job security were associated with an increased risk for dysmenorrhea. Compulsory overtime and exhaustion were associated with increased non-cyclic pelvic pain. Working overtime and exhaustion were associated with increased dyspareunia. Conclusions: As China’s population of female factory workers grows, research on the reproductive health of this population is essential. PMID:24804338

  7. "That Is So Common Everyday . . . Everywhere You Go": Sexual Harassment of Workers in Assisted Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Elisabeth O; Barmon, Christina; Moorhead, James R; Perkins, Molly M; Bender, Alexis A

    2016-02-09

    In assisted living (AL) facilities, workers are intimately involved in the lives of residents. Existing research on AL demonstrates the imbalance of this environment, which is a personal home for the residents and a workplace for staff. Using observational and interview data collected from six AL facilities, this grounded theory project analyzes how AL staff define, understand, and negotiate sexual comments, joking, and physical touch. We developed a conceptual model to describe how such harassment was perceived, experienced by AL workers, and how they responded. Sexualized behavior or harassment was experienced by workers of every status. We found that words and actions were contextualized based on resident and worker characteristics and the behavior. Staff members refused to engage residents, redirected them, or reframed the words and gestures to get the job done. Reporting the incidents was less common. We conclude by discussing implications for policy and research.

  8. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  9. Exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence among office workers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vinsløv Hansen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between selfreported exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) for more than two consecutive weeks among office workers. Methods LTSA was measured using register data that were linked to survey data from 2,883 office workers...... aged 18–59 who were surveyed in 2005 on exposure to disturbing noise. The risk of LTSA was investigated using Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of the study population, 4.4 % had LTSA in the 1-year follow-up period. Compared to office workers who were ‘rarely or never’ exposed to disturbing noise...... at work, office workers who reported being ‘frequently’ exposed to disturbing noise had a significantly increased estimated risk of LTSA when adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, and managerial position (HR = 1.90; 95 % CI, 1.12–3.22). After additional adjustment for psychosocial work conditions...

  10. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  11. Office Home Care Workers' Occupational Health: Associations with Workplace Flexibility and Worker Insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Isik U. Zeytinoglu; Denton, Margaret; Davies, Sharon; Plenderleith, Jennifer Millen

    2009-01-01

    Office home care workers provide support to visiting staff, although their work tends to be invisible in many respects. This paper focuses on managers, supervisors, coor dinators, case managers and office administrative staff in home care. We examine the effects of workplace flexibility and worker insecurity on office home care workers' occupational health, particularly their self-reported stress and musculoskeletal disorders. Data come from our survey of 300 home care office staff in a mid-s...

  12. 131 Productivity Strategies Ranking of Knowledge Workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    J. Appl. Sci. Environ. ... Knowledge Workers' characteristics, in this paper, we seek to identify factors influencing the Productivity of ... cost, time and performance (Afrazeh et al., 2003). ... ranking tools and the theoretical framework used to.

  13. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  14. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  15. Worker Retrenchment: Preventive and Remedial Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Klock, Christine; Kelly, Peggy; Richards, Peter; Vargha, Corinne

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the range of responses taken in industrialized countries seeking to deal with substantial worker displacement. Practices discussed include preventive subsidies, buyouts, retraining, job-search assistance, job creation, local and regional development, and local enterprise development. (Author/JOW)

  16. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  17. 77 FR 25859 - Workers Memorial Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... advocates, we secured that basic right over 40 years ago, helping protect Americans from death or injury... rededicate ourselves to protecting the health, safety, and dignity of every worker. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK...

  18. HEALTH WORKERS' USE OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support

    Key Words: electronic information; children with communication disorders; health workers' ... Information regarding young children who experience barriers to the ... the position might be even less favourable. Effective health care depends on ...

  19. Organisational change management and workers' behaviour: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organisational change management and workers' behaviour: A critical review. ... Employees' resistance to change has been identified as a critical contributor to ... behaviour within the workplace and how organisations can manage change

  20. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  1. Short Communication Health Workers' Knowledge of and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-30

    Aug 30, 2011 ... Health Workers' Knowledge of and Experience with Female Genital. Cutting in Southwestern .... FGC to assess the effectiveness of this bill on the populace. .... Swedish Health Care Providers' Experience and Knowledge of ...

  2. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  3. the Bakery workers in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Bakery workers, Respiratory Symptoms, Ventilatary. _}'iu1cti0n. Résiinié ..... and cigarette smoking on the pattern of pulmonary function among the Bakery ... Valic F and Zuskin E: Effects of different vvegetable dust exposures. Brit.

  4. [Sex workers: limited access to healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, E; Meystre-Agustoni, G; Ansermet-Pagot, A; Vaucher, P; Durieux-Paillard, S; Bodenmann, P; Cavassini, M

    2011-06-29

    Sex workers constitute a heterogeneous group possessing a combination of vulnerability factors such as geographical instability, forced migration, substance addiction and lack of legal residence permit. Access to healthcare for sex workers depends on the laws governing the sex market and on migration policies in force in the host country. In this article, we review different European health strategies established for sex workers, and present preliminary results of a pilot study conducted among 50 sex workers working on the streets in Lausanne. The results are worrying: 56% have no health insurance, 96% are migrants and 66% hold no legal residence permit. These data should motivate public health departments towards improving access to healthcare for this vulnerable population.

  5. AWARENESS OF HIV / AIDS AMONG HOSPITAL WORKERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development of AIDS. HIV is a blood-borne virus ... Health care workers need to avoid any contact with potentially infected ... by the media, friends /relations, patients or the church respectively. ..... Canada, India, and Thailand. Arch Intern Med ...

  6. Problems of Younger Workers in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Alexander

    1974-01-01

    Young workers, persons from sixteen to thirty years old, have problems relating to occupational choice, vocational guidance, vocational training and other educational opportunities, job satisfaction, and housing, complicating their search for an occupational and social identity. (AG)

  7. Heart rate variability in workers of various professions in contrasting seasons of the year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Alexander; Solonin, Iuriy; Bojko, Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    considered when assessing the HRV among workers of various professions. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):793-800. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Cancer risk in diagnostic radiation workers in Korea from 1996–2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Ha, Mina; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Jeong, Meeseon; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Lee, Kwang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kang, Jong-Won; Kim, Heon

    2013-01-14

    This study was aimed to examine the association between the effective radiation dose of diagnostic radiation workers in Korea and their risk for cancer. A total of 36,394 diagnostic radiation workers (159,189 person-years) were included in this study; the effective dose and cancer incidence were analyzed between the period 1996 and 2002. Median (range) follow-up time was 5.5 (0.04-7) years in males and 3.75 (0.04-7) years in females. Cancer risk related to the average annual effective dose and exposure to more than 5 mSv of annual radiation dose were calculated by the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for occupation and age at the last follow-up. The standardized incidence ratio of cancer in radiation workers showed strong healthy worker effects in both male and female workers. The relative risk of all cancers from exposure of the average annual effective dose in the highest quartile (upper 75% or more of radiation dose) was 2.14 in male workers (95% CI: 1.48-3.10, p-trend: <0.0001) and 4.43 in female workers (95% CI: 2.17-9.04, p-trend: <0.0001), compared to those in the lower three quartiles of radiation exposure dose (less than upper 75% of radiation dose). Cancer risks of the brain (HR: 17.38, 95% CI: 1.05-287.8, p-trend: 0.04) and thyroid (HR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.09-13.75, p-trend: 0.01) in female workers were significantly higher in the highest quartile group of radiation exposure compared to those in the lower three quartiles, and the risk of colon and rectum cancers in male workers showed a significantly increasing trend according to the increase of the average annual radiation dose (HR: 2.37, 95% CI: 0.99-5.67, p-trend: 0.02). The relative risk of leukemia in male workers and that of brain cancer in female workers were significantly higher in the group of people who had been exposed to more than 5 mSv/year than those exposed to less than 5 mSv/year (HR: 11.75, 95% CI: 1.08-128.20; HR: 63.11, 95% CI: 3.70-1,075.00, respectively). Although the present study

  9. Health worker migration from South Africa: causes, consequences and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Sanders, David; Mathole, Thubelihle; Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel; Dambisya, Yoswa; Runnels, Vivien; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2015-12-03

    This paper arises from a four-country study that sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health worker migration, its consequences, and the strategies countries have employed to mitigate negative impacts. The four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-have historically been "sources" of skilled health workers (SHWs) migrating to other countries. This paper presents the findings from South Africa. The study began with a scoping review of the literature on health worker migration from South Africa, followed by empirical data collected from skilled health workers and stakeholders. Surveys were conducted with physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists. Interviews were conducted with key informants representing educators, regulators, national and local governments, private and public sector health facilities, recruitment agencies, and professional associations and councils. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Interview data were analyzed thematically. There has been an overall decrease in out-migration of skilled health workers from South Africa since the early 2000s largely attributed to a reduced need for foreign-trained skilled health workers in destination countries, limitations on recruitment, and tighter migration rules. Low levels of worker satisfaction persist, although the Occupation Specific Dispensation (OSD) policy (2007), which increased wages for health workers, has been described as critical in retaining South African nurses. Return migration was reportedly a common occurrence. The consequences attributed to SHW migration are mixed, but shortages appear to have declined. Most promising initiatives are those designed to reinforce the South African health system and undertaken within South Africa itself. In the near past, South Africa's health worker shortages as a result of emigration were viewed as significant and harmful. Currently, domestic policies to improve health care and

  10. Migrant workers: victims of war in Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Persian Gulf War forced millions of migrant workers in the region to return home, causing hardship not only on the workers but also on their home countries. Prior to the war, the region's oil wealth had attracted migrants from around the world. By 1990, some 3 million resided in Iraq and Kuwait alone. Many more worked in other Gulf countries. But only 2 months after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, over 2 million workers had fled the region or had been returned home. Yemenis and Egyptians alone accounted for 750,000 and 1/2 million workers, respectively. There were also an estimated 600,000 Asians. Although many of the migrants were unskilled laborers, many also were skilled laborers and professionals. Jordanians and Palestinians made up much of the Kuwaiti civil service. As the war unfolded, it became clear that the migrant workers lacked any of the legal rights and protection granted to other citizens. Many workers were not allowed to return home because of their importance to the economy. Others, like some 35,000 Sri Lankan housemaids in Kuwait, were stranded in the war zone, lacking the money and means to return home. In most cases, the workers also suffered from frozen bank accounts, unpaid wages and benefits, and property loss. Their return home also created problems for their countries. Jordan's population increased by 10% in 1990 due to the returning population. Yemen's unemployment increased from 10% to 25%. As a result of the Gulf war experience, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families, which must now be ratified by 20 nations before implementation begins.

  11. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  12. All Urban Workers to Enjoy Medicare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Tibet started to reform its medical insurance system in 1999. Beginning in 2001, workers in Lhasa were given basic medical insurance on a trial basis. Whether workers in other parts of Tibet will enjoy the same system in the near future? With this in mind, reporters with Tibet Business News interviewed Qi Weiguo, Deputy Director of the Labor and Social Securities Commission of the Tibet Autonomous Region.

  13. Telangiectasia in aluminium workers: a follow up.

    OpenAIRE

    Thériault, G.; Gingras, S.; Provencher, S

    1984-01-01

    A five step investigation was carried out to gain a better understanding of the morbidity that accompanied the development of telangiectasia on aluminium workers and to find its cause. Fifty workers with multiple telangiectasia when matched with normal controls showed the same amount of illness except that evidence of ischaemia on the ECG was found in nine cases and one control. The cases did not show an excess of abnormal biochemical tests. The basic histopathological lesion affected the sur...

  14. 48 CFR 852.236-86 - Workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 852... Workers' compensation. As prescribed in 836.577, insert the following clause: Workers' Compensation (JAN... workers compensation laws to all lands and premises owned or held by the United States. (End of clause)...

  15. Intellectual Workers and Their Work in Social Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillier, Rolande

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of intellectual work and the relationship between intellectual workers and their work, the quality of intellectual work, and worker's rights demonstrates there are far greater differences between intellectual workers and other workers than commonly supposed. Their work must not be dehumanized--a present danger. (AG)

  16. [Healthcare for migrant workers in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Mordechai

    2003-06-01

    An estimated 300.000 migrant workers are currently living in Israel, which is about 5% of the general population. More then half of this population is undocumented and have very limited access to public health care. Due to the financial difficulties within the Israel's public health system, the entity is unable to deal with the needs of migrant workers. Hence, when these migrant workers need inpatient care, hospitals have to bear the costs and this situation creates a divergence between medical and economic considerations. The open clinic of "Physicians for Human Rights", which is operated by volunteer physicians and nurses, is able to provide medical aid for mild and transient illnesses, but not for chronic diseases. Israeli physicians are regularly confronted with ethical issues, regarding the therapy they would like to provide to undocumented migrant workers, but are unable to do so. In Europe, undocumented migrant workers have better access to public health care than in Israel. The Israeli public health system should permit all migrant workers to insure themselves at affordable prices, or another inexpensive insurance system should be created for them.

  17. Are healthcare workers immune to rubella?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Campins, Magda; Esteve, María; Urbiztondo, Luis; Broner, Sonia; Bayas, José María; Costa, Josep; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) have high exposure to infectious diseases, some of which, such as rubella, are vaccine-preventable. The aim of this study was to determine the immunity of HCW against rubella. We performed a seroprevalence study using a self-administered survey and obtained blood samples to determine rubella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels in HCW during preventive examinations by five Primary Care Basic Prevention Units and six tertiary hospitals in Catalonia. Informed consent was obtained. IgG was determined using an antibody capture microparticle direct chemiluminometric technique. The odss ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Logistic regression was made to calculate adjusted OR. Of 642 HCW who participated (29.9% physician, 38.8% nurses, 13.3% other health workers and 18% non-health workers), 46.6% were primary care workers and 53.4% hospital workers. Of total, 97.2% had rubella antibodies. HCW aged 30-44 years had a higher prevalence of antibodies (98.4%) compared with HCW agedrubella antibodies is high in HCW, but workers agedrubella.

  18. Visual dysfunction among former microelectronics assembly workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, D; Huel, G; Bowler, R; Frenette, B; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    Although known neurotoxins with potential ophthalmotoxic properties are commonly used in microelectronics assembly, there has been no systematic study of visual disturbances among past or present workers in this industry. The objective of the present study was to compare visual functions, using a matched-pair design, between former workers from a microelectronics plant and a local reference population. From an initial population of 180 former workers and 157 potential referents, 54 pairs were matched for age (+/- 3 y), education (+/- 2 y), sex, ethnic origin, and number of children. Near and far visual acuity, chromatic discrimination, and near contrast sensitivity were assessed monocularly. Paired comparisons (Signed-rank Wilcoxon test) revealed that the former microelectronics workers had significantly lower contrast sensitivity, particularly in the intermediate frequencies, independently of near visual acuity loss. There were no differences for far visual acuity in both eyes. Even though near visual acuity and color vision were compromised among the former workers, the differences were only significant for one eye, as was the prevalence of acquired dyschromatopsia (chi-square for matched pairs, p less than .001). These findings suggest a pattern of contrast sensitivity deficits consistent with impairment to foveal and/or neuro-optic pathways among these former microelectronics workers. Exposure to ophthalmotoxic chemicals is proposed as the most probable risk factor.

  19. Neuropsychological impairment among former microelectronics workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, R M; Mergler, D; Huel, G; Harrison, R; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    Although chemicals posing potential neurotoxic hazards are commonly used in the microelectronics industry, there has been no systematic study of possible chronic nervous system effects in microelectronics workers. The objective of the present study was to assess neuropsychological functions of a group of former microelectronics plant assembly workers and a group of referents, using a matched pair design. During employment, the former microelectronics workers had been exposed to multiple organic solvents, including trichloroethylene, xylene, chlorofluorocarbons and trichloroethane. Referents were recruited from the same geographic region. From a pool of 180 former workers and 157 referents, 67 pairs were matched on the basis of age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, sex and number of children. Comparison of results on the subtests of the California Neuropsychological Screening Battery-Revised (CNS-R) revealed significantly lower performance by the former microelectronics workers on tests of attention/concentration, verbal ability, memory functions, visuospatial functions, visuomotor speed, cognitive flexibility, psychomotor speed, and reaction time (t-test for pairs or Wilcoxon Signed Rank p less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed for performance on tests assessing mental status, visual recall, tactile function and learning. This overall pattern of impairment is consistent with organic solvent-related chronic toxic encephalopathy, and possible early stages of dementia. These findings underline the need for more studies among workers currently or previously employed in microelectronics industries.

  20. Psychosocial stress of the building construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tiwary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry plays a vital role in development of infrastructure of a country. About 50% of the subjects of unorganised sector belonged to construction industry in our country. The questionnaire based cross sectional prospective study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status and the psychosocial stress & strain faced by the workers due to occupational exposure. The average age of the workers was 30.6±10.9 years. Majority of them (79.2% were literates and earned below Rs 5000/-. About 59% were smokers and 37% consumed alcohol. The mean duration of present occupational exposure was 8.6±8.0 years. The workers were victim of different health impairment like occupational health hazards, psychosocial stress & strain etc. The psychosocial stress & strain were due to long working hours (73.3%, lower wages (60.4%, job uncertainty (56.9%, poor communication among workers with supervisors (22.7%. Exploitation by labour contractor, gender discrimination, sexual harassment was observed. Low job satisfaction (42.4%, injuries & accidents (47% were also reported. About 94.6% of the workers were not aware of the different social security schemes. This occupationally exposed group of workers were victims of different psychosocial stresses & strains and other health impairments.

  1. Are healthcare workers immune to rubella?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Campins, Magda; Esteve, María; Urbiztondo, Luis; Broner, Sonia; Bayas, José María; Costa, Josep; Domínguez, Angela; in Healthcare Workers, Working Group for the Study of the Immune Status

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) have high exposure to infectious diseases, some of which, such as rubella, are vaccine-preventable. The aim of this study was to determine the immunity of HCW against rubella. We performed a seroprevalence study using a self-administered survey and obtained blood samples to determine rubella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels in HCW during preventive examinations by five Primary Care Basic Prevention Units and six tertiary hospitals in Catalonia. Informed consent was obtained. IgG was determined using an antibody capture microparticle direct chemiluminometric technique. The odss ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Logistic regression was made to calculate adjusted OR. Of 642 HCW who participated (29.9% physician, 38.8% nurses, 13.3% other health workers and 18% non-health workers), 46.6% were primary care workers and 53.4% hospital workers. Of total, 97.2% had rubella antibodies. HCW aged 30–44 years had a higher prevalence of antibodies (98.4%) compared with HCW aged history of vaccination (97.3% vs. 96.8%, P 0.82). Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies is high in HCW, but workers aged <30 years have a higher susceptibility (5.5%). Vaccination should be reinforced in HCW in this age group, due to the risk of nosocomial transmission and congenital rubella. PMID:24356729

  2. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang; LU; Wanzhao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers,new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend,undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions that competent authorities should set up support mechanism in undertaking-starting training,undertaking-starting fund,service platform,and preferential policies,to encourage and support new generation migrant workers to start an undertaking.

  3. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage.

  4. A Story Told by a Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshayahu Shen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: We investigate whether people use a narrative/story schema to organize visual information in figurative isolated pictures representing a "pregnant moment", and, if so, how they do this.  The participants in our study were asked to freely describe pictures that depict some event. Their descriptions were analyzed according to a system of categories developed especially for examining the use of an elaborated narrative organization. The findings support the hypothesis that observers use elaborated narrative organization that goes beyond mere temporal and causal organization (including, e.g., exposition, complication, resolution. Furthermore, the findings suggest that this elaborative narrative organization sometimes dominates the visual organization of the pictures.

     

    Abstract (F: Cet article tente de répondre à la question suivante: est-ce que les spectateurs se servent d’un schéma base sur l’opposition narration/récit pour organiser l’information visuelle contenue dans des images fixes isolées représentant un « moment prégnant », et, si oui, comment le font-ils ? Pour ce faire, nous avons demandé aux participants à notre étude de décrire librement certaines images qui représentent un événement. Ensuite nous avons analysé leurs descriptions en nous référant à un système de catégories spécialement conçues pour l’analyse d’organisations narratives complexes. Nos observations étayent l’hypothèse que les spectateurs recourent à des structures d’organisation narrative très complexes qui dépassent le seul niveau de l’organisation temporelle et causale (et qui incluent par exemple des structures comme : exposition, complication, résolution. De plus, nos observations démontrent aussi que l’organisation narrative est parfois plus importante que l’organisation proprement visuelle des images.

  5. Ancient loons stories Pingree told me

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of short stories, small anecdotes in the life of some historical characters. More concretely, it focuses on the oddities and singularities of some well-known historical figures, not only in science, but also in arts, politics and social sciences. … the book shows the fascination for ancient history, the treasures hidden in original sources and the importance of exploring unusual connections.-Javier Martinez, The European Mathematical Society, January 2013… a rambling, illuminating and thoroughly enjoyable bio/autobiographical and historical sketch, setting Pingree's immense erudition in its professional and intellectual context. Besides a string of amusing and intriguing anecdotes plentifully sprinkled with photos and sketches, this small volume supplies a valuable reminder of how complex, surprising and just plain strange the history of the exact sciences can be.-Kim Plofker, MAA Reviews, October 2012.

  6. 'As I told Henning the other day'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Møller

    2008-01-01

    En analyse af sætningen 'Som jeg også sagde til Henning forleden dag' ud fra henholdsvis en klassisk argumentationsanalytisk synsvinkel, en sproghandlingsanalytisk synsvinkel og en dialogisk sysnvinkel (BAchtin)...

  7. Doctors Told to Guard Against Female Circumcision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白青山

    2001-01-01

    在非洲和中东的许多国家有一种令人毛骨悚然的“文化”:女性阴部的切除,最严重的称之为infibulation(为防止性交而封锁阴部),即使这些人离开故土,来到英国,他们仍然保留这种文化。英国的医生因此也就多了一件事情:protect girls from ethnic minorities(少数民族)against genital mutilation(生殖器的切割)

  8. Lies your science columnist told you

    CERN Multimedia

    Cole, K C

    2000-01-01

    Discovering the Higgs boson is often quoted as the way to discover the origin of mass. This article explains that the Higgs is actually responsible for the 'rest mass' of fundamental particles but the general concept of mass is still poorly understood (2 pages).

  9. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera worker genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Magne Koscielniak Rasmussen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provides a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, includes cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the social repertoire of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior.

  10. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  11. Determinants of participation in further training among workers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the determinants of the participation in further training for workers without and with disabilities in Germany. In particular, we are interested in testing the hypothesis that people with disabilities are less likely to receive further training. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel which covers the period 1989 to 2008, we estimate panel data regression models that allow us to identify the factors affecting the likelihood to participate in further training for people without and with disabilities. The results confirm that workers with disabilities are less likely to participate in further training as compared to workers without disabilities (especially among males). In addition, variables such as age, years of education, occupation and firm size have a significant effect on the likelihood to get involved in further training for the disabled sample. We also found that people with disabilities have experienced more intensely the changes and variations in the participation rates over the period analysed compared to people without disabilities. From a public policy perspective, these findings show the importance of designing and implementing specific training programs for people with disabilities, which can contribute to maintaining and increasing their integration in the German labour market. Training and vocational rehabilitation can in many cases be critical to achieve or secure employment. A person becoming disabled may, even after completion of the medical rehabilitation process, not be able to continue to work in the previous occupation. Rehabilitation specialists must be more involved within the design, provision and implementation of further training. They can also help to identify adaptive equipment and specific training tools that contribute to increasing the participation in further training among the disabled population. However, the odds of participating in further training among workers with disabilities is around 17

  12. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain syndromes in primary healthcare unit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Diana Goldenberg Meirelles Mariano da Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of pain syndromes and theirrelation with stress in healthcare workers at primary healthcareunits. Methods: A total of 540 workers of 10 primary healthcareunits were assessed in partnership with the Hospital Israelita AlbertEinstein (HIAE, in São Paulo, in 2005, through the Prevalence of PainSyndromes in the General Population Survey and the Lipp’s StressSymptom Inventory for Adults. Statistical analysis was carriedthrough univariate and multivariate analyses using accurate binarylogistic regression models adjusted for the following variables: stress,sex, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Ratios were compared usingFisher-Freeman-Halton test. Results: 86.93% were women, 54.63%of females were married, the majority worked at daytime and hadattended high school. General prevalence of pain was 54.26% (56.57%of women and 38.24% of men. Schooling was inversely proportionalto onset of pain. Health agents were twice more likely to presentpain than other professionals. Pain likelihood increased by 1.98%each year, and by 20.7% within 10 years. The groups with chronicpain presented statistical significance with stress (p < 0.001.There was no statistical difference in use of medications, number ofphysiotherapy sessions and lost work days in the groups with chronicpain when compared with the group with acute pain. Both chronicand acute pain groups were statistically significant in all variableswhen compared with the group with no pain. Stress, dyslipidemiaand arterial hypertension were positively associated with pain.Employees with stress presented a 4.19-fold higher likelihood ofpresenting pain as compared to those with no stress. Conclusion:The prevalence of pain syndromes among primary healthcare unitsworkers was 54.63%, and it was influenced by schooling and stresslevels. Most workers affected were female. Preventive measuresmust be established for healthcare workers.

  13. What makes home health workers think about leaving their job? The role of physical injury and organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Jang, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the role of physical injury and organizational support in predicting home health workers' turnover intention. In a sample of home health workers in Central Texas (n = 150), about 37% reported turnover intention. The logistic regression model showed that turnover intention was 3.23 times more likely among those who had experienced work-related injury. On the other hand, organizational support was found to reduce the likelihood of turnover intention. Findings suggest that injury and organizational support should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to promote home health workers' safety and retention.

  14. Loss of Community Health Workers and Countermeasures Based on the Integrated Incentive Model%基于综合激励视角的社区卫生人才流失问题与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杏通; 王丽芝

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the present condition of frequent loss of community health human resources as well as its influencing factors,and to explore the incentive system for loss avoidance and countermeasures. Methods A question-naire investigation was conducted among 120 turnover staff numbers from 2012 to 2013 who were between 22 and 25 years old and dismissed their jobs on their own rather than being excluded or self physical reasons and who were randomly selected from Liwan district,Haizhu district,Tianhe district,Baiyun district and Yuexiu district in Guangzhou from March,14 to May,7,2014 a-bout their salary,bottleneck of their personal development and the crux,major or minor demission reasons. 53 major leaders of health service centers in the above 5 districts were interviewed about proportion of each income,educational background and pro-fessional titles of the health service numbers and the post ratio,bottleneck and crux of the community hospital development. With the help of the related data provided by Guangzhou Public Health Network,the main reason for the loss of community health work-ers and its influencing factors were analyzed. Porter-Lawler Incitement Model was used to explore the countermeasures for the loss. Excel and SPSS 16. 0 were used for repeatability screening and logic check and descriptive analysis of the indexes. Results Compared with that in 2012,in 2013 the amount of job vacancy was increasing as a whole and the most major and direct reason for brain drain was salary and welfare,accounting for 26. 7%(32/120) followed by opportunity of promotion 21. 7%(26/120);the third was personal establishment according to their professional titles 18. 3%(22/120);the fourth was skill training 15. 8%(19/120);the fifth was working condition 11. 7%(14/120). Porter -Lawler Incitement Model showed that titers (the value of the targeted task and evaluation value of the internal and external award)and expectation(estimation of realizing probability of

  15. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42...

  16. The Wage and Employment Dynamics of Minimum Wage Workers

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Even; Macpherson, David A.

    2004-01-01

    This study uses 20 years of short panel data sets on minimum wage workers to examine the wage and employment dynamics of minimum wage workers. Compared to workers earning above the minimum wage, minimum wage workers differ substantially in several ways. First, minimum wage workers are much more likely to be new entrants and much more likely to exit the labor market. Second, changes in industry and occupation and access to job training are particularly important to improving the wages of minim...

  17. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42...

  18. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina

    2006-12-01

    Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the country. Each participant was asked to complete a self-administered KABP (sexual knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices) questionnaire. The average age of respondents was 38.2 years and the majority worked as seafarers (77.3%) and construction workers (20.5%). Only 18.5% of respondents were able to correctly answer all 13 questions assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seafarers reported higher levels of knowledge than did construction workers. The average respondent reported having had two sexual partners in the last 12 months, with slightly over half of the respondents (55.3%) reporting condom use at their last intercourse with a casual partner. One fifth of the respondents (20.3%) who reported having had intercourse with a sex worker during the last year reported not using condoms at last intercourse. The number of sexual partners was correlated with age, marital status, faith in God, and personal HIV risk assessment. Attitudes toward condom use, co-workers' HIV/AIDS concerns and the duration of migrant status (within the last two years) were shown to be significant correlates of condom use at last intercourse with a casual partner. The effect of HIV/AIDS related knowledge on analyzed behaviors did not reach statistical significance. Inadequate patterns of migrant workers' condom use, gaps in knowledge about HIV transmission and modes of protection, as well as widespread ignorance regarding available anonymous HIV testing found by this study suggest a critical need for expert intervention to

  19. Promoting a Shared Representation of Workers' Activities to Improve Integrated Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Roquelaure

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective and sustainable prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs remains a challenge for preventers and policy makers. Coordination of stakeholders involved in the prevention of WR-MSDs is a key factor that requires greater reflection on common knowledge and shared representation of workers' activities among stakeholders. Information on workers' strategies and operational leeway should be the core of common representations, because it places workers at the center of the “work situation system” considered by the intervention models. Participatory ergonomics permitting debates among stakeholders about workers' activity and strategies to cope with the work constraints in practice could help them to share representations of the “work situation system” and cooperate. Sharing representation therefore represents a useful tool for prevention, and preventers should provide sufficient space and time for dialogue and discussion of workers' activities among stakeholders during the conception, implementation, and management of integrated prevention programs.

  20. Increased risk of death with congenital anomalies in the offspring of male semiconductor workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Wang, Jung-Der; Hsieh, Gong-Yih; Chang, Yu-Yin; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Female workers in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of subfertility and spontaneous abortion, but no studies exploring male-mediated developmental toxicity have been published. This study aimed to investigate whether the offspring of male workers employed in the semiconductor manufacturing industry had an increased risk of death with congenital anomalies. The 6,834 male workers had been employed in the eight semiconductor companies in Taiwan between 1980 and 1994. We identified the live born children with or without congenital anomalies of the workers using the National Birth and Death Registries from the Department of Health, Taiwan. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of birth outcomes and deaths, controlling for infant sex, maternal age, and paternal education. A total of 5,702 children were born to male workers during the period 1980-1994. There were increased risks of deaths with congenital anomalies (adjusted OR, 3.26; and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-9.44) and heart anomalies (OR, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.08-15.95) in the offspring of male workers who were employed during the two months before conception. We found evidence of a possible link between paternal preconception exposure of semiconductor manufacturing and an increased risk of congenital anomalies, especially of the heart. The possible etiological basis needs to be corroborated in further research.

  1. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir M; Svendsen, Kristin V H

    2015-12-01

    Goal-oriented communication of risk of hazards is necessary in order to reduce risk of workers' exposure to chemicals. Adequate training of workers and enterprise priority setting are essential elements. Cleaning enterprises have many challenges and the existing paradigms influence the risk levels of these enterprises. Information on organization and enterprises' prioritization in training programs was gathered from cleaning enterprises. A measure of enterprises' conceptual level of importance of chemical health hazards and a model for working out the risk index (RI) indicating enterprises' conceptual risk level was established and used to categorize the enterprises. In 72.3% of cases, training takes place concurrently with task performances and in 67.4% experienced workers conduct the trainings. There is disparity between employers' opinion on competence level of the workers and reality. Lower conceptual level of importance was observed for cleaning enterprises of different sizes compared with regional safety delegates and occupational hygienists. Risk index values show no difference in risk level between small and large enterprises. Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step.

  2. Occupational skin diseases in automotive industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, Yunus; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Akdeniz, Sedat; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sula, Bilal

    2014-03-01

    Studies on occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry are few. To investigate the prevalence of occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry. Between September and December 2011, a total of 405 workers from the automotive repair industry in Diyarbakır were interviewed. They were active workers in the repair industry who had been employed for at least six months. Business owners, sellers of spare parts and accounting officers were not included. The employees were examined at their workplaces and the working conditions were observed. Detailed dermatological examination was performed. The mean age of the 405 workers who participated in the study was 27.7 ± 10.3. The mean working time of employees was 13.3 ± 10.4 years. All of the employees were male. Dermatological diseases were not detected in 144 out of 405 workers (35.6%) and at least one condition was diagnosed in 261 (64.4%). The most frequent diagnosis was callus, hyperkeratosis, clavus (27.7%), followed by nail changes (16.8%) and superficial mycoses (12.1%). Contact dermatitis was seen at a rate of 5.9%. Traumatic lesions such as hyperkeratotic lesions and nail changes were found most frequently. Traumatic lesions were common among individuals who did not use gloves. Most nail changes were localized leuconychia, a finding not reported in the studies on automotive industry workers. In accordance with the literature, irritant contact dermatitis was observed in patients with a history of atopy and who had been working for a long time. Occupational skin diseases comprise an important field in dermatology, deserving much attention. Further studies on occupational dermatology are necessary.

  3. Service quality assessment of workers compensation health care delivery programs in New York using SERVQUAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunasalam, Mark; Paulson, Albert; Wallace, William

    2003-01-01

    Preferred provider organizations (PPOs) provide healthcare services to an expanding proportion of the U.S. population. This paper presents a programmatic assessment of service quality in the workers' compensation environment using two different models: the PPO program model and the fee-for-service (FFS) payor model. The methodology used here will augment currently available research in workers' compensation, which has been lacking in measuring service quality determinants and assessing programmatic success/failure of managed care type programs. Results indicated that the SERVQUAL tool provided a reliable and valid clinical quality assessment tool that ascertained that PPO marketers should focus on promoting physician outreach (to show empathy) and accessibility (to show reliability) for injured workers.

  4. Contextual influences on health worker motivation in district hospitals in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaauw Duane

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational factors are considered to be an important influence on health workers' uptake of interventions that improve their practices. These are additionally influenced by factors operating at individual and broader health system levels. We sought to explore contextual influences on worker motivation, a factor that may modify the effect of an intervention aimed at changing clinical practices in Kenyan hospitals. Methods Franco LM, et al's (Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework. Soc Sci Med. 2002, 54: 1255–66 model of motivational influences was used to frame the study Qualitative methods including individual in-depth interviews, small-group interviews and focus group discussions were used to gather data from 185 health workers during one-week visits to each of eight district hospitals. Data were collected prior to a planned intervention aiming to implement new practice guidelines and improve quality of care. Additionally, on-site observations of routine health worker behaviour in the study sites were used to inform analyses. Results Study settings are likely to have important influences on worker motivation. Effective management at hospital level may create an enabling working environment modifying the impact of resource shortfalls. Supportive leadership may foster good working relationships between cadres, improve motivation through provision of local incentives and appropriately handle workers' expectations in terms of promotions, performance appraisal processes, and good communication. Such organisational attributes may counteract de-motivating factors at a national level, such as poor schemes of service, and enhance personally motivating factors such as the desire to maintain professional standards. Conclusion Motivation is likely to influence powerfully any attempts to change or improve health worker and hospital practices. Some factors influencing motivation may

  5. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qu

  6. Lay Outreach Workers and the Ohio Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Health Education Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Olga L.

    The Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Project sought to determine the health education needs of this indigent population in Ohio using the help of lay outreach workers. A bilingual needs assessment survey was developed containing questions on demographics, place of permanent residence, points of travel after working in Ohio, and type of work and…

  7. Coping with Workplace Stress: A Multiple-Group Comparison of Female Managers and Clerical Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bonita C.

    1998-01-01

    A causal model of workplace stress was refined and cross-validated. Multivariate analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were used to investigate the effects of social roles on patterns of coping with workplace stress and job satisfaction. Differences found between managers (n=249) and clerical workers (n=214) suggest power and…

  8. The prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among workers in West Africa: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K. Bosu

    2015-01-01

    a significant proportion is undiagnosed, severe or complicated. The clustering of risk factors, co-morbidities, and general low awareness warrant an integrated and multisectoral approach. Models for workplace health programmes aiming to improve cardiovascular health should be extended to informal sector workers.

  9. Office home care workers' occupational health: associations with workplace flexibility and worker insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Davies, Sharon; Plenderleith, Jennifer Millen

    2009-05-01

    Office home care workers provide support to visiting staff, although their work tends to be invisible in many respects. This paper focuses on managers, supervisors, coor dinators, case managers and office administrative staff in home care. We examine the effects of workplace flexibility and worker insecurity on office home care workers' occupational health, particularly their self-reported stress and musculoskeletal disorders. Data come from our survey of 300 home care office staff in a mid-sized city in Ontario. Results show that workers' perceptions of insecurity are positively associated with musculoskeletal disorders but not workplace flexibility measures. We recommend that managers and other decision-makers in the home care field pay attention to the perceptions of workers' insecurity in initiating workplace flexibility measures.

  10. Occupational phosphine exposure in Indian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, U K; Bhargava, S K; Nag, D; Kidwai, M M; Lal, M M

    1988-09-01

    To evaluate the health effects of occupational phosphine exposure, 22 workers engaged in fumigation of stored grains were subjected to a clinical and environmental study. These workers were used to placing aluminum phosphide tablets on the stacks of grains and covering it with a gas-proof plastic cover. The mean age of the workers was 48 years (range 24-60) and mean duration of exposure 11.1 years (range 0.5-29). After fumigation they reported minor symptoms, which included cough (18.2%), dyspnoea (31.8%), tightness around the chest (27.3%), headache (31.8%), giddiness, numbness and lethargy (13.6% each), anorexia and epigastric pain (18.2% each). The abnormal physical signs included bilateral diffuse rhonchi and absent ankle reflex each occurring in one worker. Motor nerve conduction velocity of median and peroneal nerves, and sensory conduction velocity of median and sural nerves were normal. Phosphine concentration in the work environment ranged from 0.17 to 2.11 ppm. Occupational phosphine exposure in the workers was associated with mild to moderate symptoms, which were transient. However, to assess the chronic effects, long-term follow-up is recommended.

  11. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonde Jens

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4 (10–16% among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3, free triiodthyroxine (FT3 and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels.

  12. Respiratory problems among cotton textile workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mansouri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long term occupational exposure to cotton dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and loss of pulmonary function. Aim: This study was conducted to explore respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and chest radiography of workers, and to evaluate the findings of high resolution computed tomographyand its correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 cotton workers as exposed group and 100 unexposed subjects. Smokers were excluded from the study. All workers were interviewed and examined by the pulmonologist. PFT and chest radiography were conducted for all subjects. HRCT was performed for those with abnormal PFT or chest radiography. Results: A total of 51% and 31% of the cotton textile workers had one or more respiratory symptoms and respiratory signs respectively. 28% of subjects in the exposed group and 5% of subjects in unexposed group had obstructive pattern. Bronchia wall thickening and air trapping were the most frequent chest radiography and HRCT abnormalities respectively. There was a significant correlation between HRCT and the results of PFT. Conclusion: We conclude that long term exposure to cotton dust is associated with obstructive disease that increase with duration of exposure (history of working years, also use of HRCT as a sensitive tool in the assessment of pathologic changes and it's correlation with PFT, confirms the expected pathophysiology of airway obstruction in cotton workers.

  13. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  14. Mutagens in urine of carbon electrode workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, R.; Monarca, S.; Sforzolini, G.S.; Conti, R.; Fagioli, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following previous work carried out in an Italian factory producing carbon electrodes and evaluating the occupational mutagenic-carcinogenic hazards, the authors studied the presence of mutagen metabolites in the urine of workers in the same factory who were exposed to petroleum coke and pitch and in the urine of a control group of unexposed workers. The urine samples were concentrated by absorption on XAD-2 columns and were tested using the Salmonella/microsome assay (strain TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1538) with and without the addition of beta-glucuronidase and metabolizing system. The collection of urine samples was carried out twice, with an interval of 2 months; 'before working time', 'after working time', and also during Sunday. The results showed that urine samples collected 'before' occupational exposure (upon waking) or on Sunday revealed no mutagenic activity in either worker groups and that the urine samples collected after or during occupational exposure revealed high mutagenic activity in the exposed workers, with a statistically significant difference between the mean of the revertants/plate values for exposed and unexposed workers. On the basis of the previous and the present research, the authors suggest that application of the Salmonella/microsome test to work environments could offer useful and suitable tool for evaluating the health hazards due to mutagenic/carcinogenic substances from occupational exposure.

  15. Ocular injuries in industrial technical workers in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.T.Edema; A.E.Omoti; F.B.Akinsola; P.A.Aigbotsua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the types and causes of eye injury in industrial workers. Methods: A cross sectional study of the pattern of ocular injuries in Delta state of Nigeria was carried out over 3 months. Five hundred workers were interviewed and examined using the Snellen's chart, pen-torch, direct ophthalmoscope, magnifying loupe and the Perkin's hand-held applanation tonometer. Results: All the 500 workers were males. One hundred and twenty-three workers (24.6%) reported a history of ocular injury at work. The most common causative agents were sand dust, 53 workers (25.1%); cake dust, 27 workers (12.8%) and chemicals, 32 workers (15.1%). The main types of ocular injury were corneal/ conjunctival foreign bodies, 79 workers (64.2%); burns, 35 workers (28.5%) and blunt injury, 9 workers (7.3%). Only 36 (7.2%) workers used protective eye devices at work. Thirteen workers (2.6%) developed monocular blindness from ocular injury. Conclusion: Ocular injury at work is common and few workers wear protective devices at work in industries in Delta state, Nigeria. Industrial workers should have regular eye services and wear eye safety devices at work.

  16. Managed care in workers' compensation: analysis of cost drivers and vendor selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiker, B

    1995-08-01

    1. Managed care for employee benefits provides a model of cost containment for workers' compensation; however, significant differences must be understood. 2. Purchasers of managed care services must perform an internal assessment to determine the cost drivers for workers' compensation. Managed care does not address all cost drivers. 3. A model for evaluating managed care vendors places them on a continuum of risk, similar to insurance risk, where a variety of cost containment strategies may be used together. 4. By reviewing seven key aspects of a managed care vendor, a purchaser can rate the vendor's ability to meet their needs.

  17. Candidate Screening for the Recruitment of Critical Research and Development Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin

    and mechanical elements fields. A mixed logit model is used to analyse hiring preferences because this model allows us to deal with repeated choices. We find that HR decision makers prefer candidates with technology-specific patenting experience, an engineering background, analytical thinking skills......The report focuses on résumé-based screening strategies for the recruitment of highly qualified research and development (R&D) workers (critical R&D workers) in high-tech firms. We investigate which kinds of professional background, job-related experience, motivations, specific skills, and previous...

  18. Punishment Without Crime? Prison as a Worker-Discipline Device

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Marcus; Smith, Jennifer C

    2007-01-01

    An ‘efficiency wage’ model developed for Western economies is reinterpreted for Soviet Russia assuming that it was the Gulag not unemployment that acted as a ‘worker-discipline device’. Archival data now available allows for a basic account of the dynamics of the Gulag to be estimated. When this is combined with a dictatorship wishing to maximise the ‘investible surplus’ subject to an efficiency wage incentive constraint, what does it imply? That to secure resources for investment or war, con...

  19. Antineoplastic drug contamination in the urine of Canadian healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Shen, Hui; Demers, Paul A; Venners, Scott

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the urine concentration of non-metabolized cyclophosphamide (CP), a commonly administered antineoplastic drug, among potentially exposed Canadian healthcare workers and to identify factors associated with the drug concentration levels. Participants were asked to provide two sets of 24-h urine samples (at two different sampling events), and the level of CP was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition to demographic information, participants were surveyed regarding their frequency of handling of antineoplastic drugs, safe drug handling training, and known contact with CP on their work shift. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. A backward stepwise linear mixed effect model was conducted to identify the factors associated with urine concentration levels. We collected 201 urine samples, and 55 % (n = 111) had levels greater than the LOD of 0.05 ng/mL. The mean urinary CP concentration was 0.156 ng/mL, the geometric mean was 0.067 ng/mL, the geometric standard deviation was 3.18, the 75th percentile was 0.129 ng/mL, and the range was drug administration unit, but were not responsible for administering the drugs to patients, i.e., volunteers, oncologists, ward aides, and dieticians, had the largest proportion of samples exceeding the LOD. We did not find any correlation between the urinary concentration levels and known contact with CP during the work shift. Two factors were found to be significantly associated with urinary CP concentration: (1) Workers who had a duty to handle antineoplastic drugs had higher concentration levels, and (2) workers who had not received safe drug handling training had higher levels of CP in their urine compared with those who had. The presence of non-metabolized CP in urine confirms that, despite the existence of control measures, a broad range of healthcare workers are at risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs. A

  20. Modelos explicativos e de intervenção na promoção da saúde do trabalhador Modelos explicativos de intervención en la promoción de la salud del trabajador Explanative and intervention models in workers' health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale

    2008-01-01

    promote workers' health and prevent occupational accidents with biological material. METHODS: Integrative literature review. RESULTS: Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria, with 36.4% of them using explanative models centered on the individual behavior or enabling the interaction between individuals and service providers; 63.6% used intervention models to promote the health of workers exposed to biological risks. CONCLUSION: Intervention models are more relevant in the worker health area, since they organize the technical and scientific means to intervene in risks and damage to health, incorporating a logic that guides the technical interventions for the problems and necessities of the workers.