A deterministic width function model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. E. Puente
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Use of a deterministic fractal-multifractal (FM geometric method to model width functions of natural river networks, as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, is reported. It is first demonstrated that the FM procedure may be used to simulate natural width functions, preserving their most relevant features like their overall shape and texture and their observed power-law scaling on their power spectra. It is then shown, via two natural river networks (Racoon and Brushy creeks in the United States, that the FM approach may also be used to closely approximate existing width functions.
Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width
Mihalka, A. M.
1986-04-01
A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the dc input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.
Patterns and Processes of Width Adjustment to Increased Streamflows in Semi-Alluvial Rivers
Kelly, S. A.; Belmont, P.
2015-12-01
extreme flood in 2010 and corroborates the notion that alluvial reaches respond more quickly than do till counterparts. We use a bathymetric map and morphodynamic modeling to explore whether the rates of adjustment simply differ or whether differences in bank strength change the processes governing channel width adjustment.
A Niche Width Model of Optimal Specialization
Bruggeman, Jeroen; Ó Nualláin, Breanndán
2000-01-01
Niche width theory, a part of organizational ecology, predicts whether “specialist” or “generalist” forms of organizations have higher “fitness,” in a continually changing environment. To this end, niche width theory uses a mathematical model borrowed from biology. In this paper, we first loosen th
Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.
Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes. As a re......Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes....... As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...... formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...
Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SONG Yingchun
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.
Synaptic channel model including effects of spike width variation
2015-01-01
Synaptic Channel Model Including Effects of Spike Width Variation Hamideh Ramezani Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey Ozgur B. Akan Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey ABSTRACT An accu...
Adjustment or updating of models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D J Ewins
2000-06-01
In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.
a Linear Model for Meandering Rivers with Arbitrarily Varying Width
Frascati, A.; Lanzoni, S.
2011-12-01
Alluvial rivers usually exhibit quite complex planforms, characterized by a wide variety of alternating bends, that have attracted the interest of a large number of researchers. Much less attention has been paid to another striking feature observed in alluvial rivers, namely the relatively regular spatial variations attained by the channel width. Actively meandering channels, in fact, generally undergo spatial oscillations systematically correlated with channel curvature, with cross sections wider at bends than at crossings. Some other streams have been observed to exhibit irregular width variations. Conversely, rivers flowing in highly vegetated flood plains, i.e. canaliform rivers, may exhibit an opposite behavior, owing to the combined effects of bank erodibility and floodplain depositional processes which, in turn, are strictly linked to vegetation cover. Similarly to streamline curvatures induced by bends, the presence of along channel width variations may have remarkable effects on the flow field and sediment dynamics and, thereby, on the equilibrium river bed configuration. In particular, spatial distribution of channel curvature typically determines the formation of a rhythmic bar-pool pattern in the channel bed strictly associated with the development of river meanders. Channel width variations are on the contrary characterized by a sequence of narrowing, yielding a central scour, alternated to the downstream development of a widening associated with the formation of a central bar. Here we present a morphodynamic model that predict at a linear level the spatial distribution of the flow field and the equilibrium bed configuration of an alluvial river characterized by arbitrary along channel distributions of both the channel axis curvature and the channel width. The mathematical model is averaged over the depth and describes the steady, non-uniform flow and sediment transport in sinuous channels with a noncohesive bed. The governing two-dimensional equations
Internal and external radiative widths in the combined R-matrix and potential model formalism
Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Hao, T V Nhan
2016-01-01
Using the $R$-matrix approach we calculate the radiative width for a resonance decaying to a bound state through electric dipole, $E1$, transitions. The total radiative width is determined by the interference of the nuclear internal and external radiative width amplitudes. For a given channel radius the external radiative width amplitude is model independent and is determined by the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) of the bound state to which the resonance decays. It also depends on the partial resonance width. To calculate the internal radiative width amplitude we show that a single particle potential model is appropriate. We compare our results with a few experimental data.
Modelling the widths of fission observables in GEF
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schmidt K.-H.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The widths of the mass distributions of the different fission channels are traced back to the probability distributions of the corresponding quantum oscillators that are coupled to the heat bath, which is formed by the intrinsic degrees of freedom of the fissioning system under the influence of pairing correlations and shell effects. Following conclusion from stochastic calculations of Adeev and Pashkevich, an early freezing due to dynamical effects is assumed. It is shown that the mass width of the fission channels in low-energy fission is strongly influenced by the zero-point motion of the corresponding quantum oscillator. The observed variation of the mass widths of the asymmetric fission channels with excitation energy is attributed to the energy-dependent properties of the heat bath and not to the population of excited states of the corresponding quantum oscillator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Hao
Full Text Available A multiple linear model was developed for individual tree crown width of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 55 sample plots of pure China-fir plantation stands. An Ordinary Linear Least Squares (OLS regression was used to establish the crown width model. To adjust for correlations between observations from the same sample plots, we developed one level linear mixed-effects (LME models based on the multiple linear model, which take into account the random effects of plots. The best random effects combinations for the LME models were determined by the Akaike's information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion and the -2logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced by three residual variance functions: the power function, the exponential function and the constant plus power function. The spatial correlation was modeled by three correlation structures: the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1], and the compound symmetry structure (CS. Then, the LME model was compared to the multiple linear model using the absolute mean residual (AMR, the root mean square error (RMSE, and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj-R2. For individual tree crown width models, the one level LME model showed the best performance. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating LME models.
Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor
2008-01-01
For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency rang...
The widths of the α decaying states of 12C within the three-cluster model
Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Fynbo, H. O. U.
2003-05-01
We estimate the widths of the alpha decaying states of 12C (1+, 1-, 1-1, 2+, 2-, 3-, and 4+) within the three-alpha cluster model. We solve the Faddeev equations using the hyperspheric approach and calculate the decisive effective hyper-radial barriers. We calculate the widths in the WKB approximation and compare with experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villarrubia, J.S., E-mail: john.villarrubia@nist.gov [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Vladár, A.E.; Ming, B. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Kline, R.J.; Sunday, D.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Chawla, J.S.; List, S. [Intel Corporation, RA3-252, 5200 NE Elam Young Pkwy, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States)
2015-07-15
The width and shape of 10 nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO{sub 2} lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm.
Behavioral modeling of Digitally Adjustable Current Amplifier
Josef Polak; Lukas Langhammer; Jan Jerabek
2015-01-01
This article presents the digitally adjustable current amplifier (DACA) and its analog behavioral model (ABM), which is suitable for both ideal and advanced analyses of the function block using DACA as active element. There are four levels of this model, each being suitable for simulation of a certain degree of electronic circuits design (e.g. filters, oscillators, generators). Each model is presented through a schematic wiring in the simulation program OrCAD, including a description of equat...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Jun; XU Shi-Zhong; HOU Xia; WEI Hui; CHEN Wei-Biao
2006-01-01
A single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) laser-diode pumped Nd: YAG laser with adjustable pulse width is developed by using the techniques of pre-lasing and changing polarization of birefingent crystal. The Q-switching voltage is triggered by the peak of the pre-lasing pulse to achieve the higher stability of output pulse energy. The output energy of more than 1mJ is obtained with output energy stability of 3% (rms) at 100 Hz. The pulsewidth can be adjusted from 30ns to 300ns by changing the Q-switching voltage. The probability of putting out single-longitudinal-mode pulses is almost 100%. The laser can be run over four hours continually without mode hopping.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petras Rupšys
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A stochastic modeling approach based on the Bertalanffy law gained interest due to its ability to produce more accurate results than the deterministic approaches. We examine tree crown width dynamic with the Bertalanffy type stochastic differential equation (SDE and mixed-effects parameters. In this study, we demonstrate how this simple model can be used to calculate predictions of crown width. We propose a parameter estimation method and computational guidelines. The primary goal of the study was to estimate the parameters by considering discrete sampling of the diameter at breast height and crown width and by using maximum likelihood procedure. Performance statistics for the crown width equation include statistical indexes and analysis of residuals. We use data provided by the Lithuanian National Forest Inventory from Scots pine trees to illustrate issues of our modeling technique. Comparison of the predicted crown width values of mixed-effects parameters model with those obtained using fixed-effects parameters model demonstrates the predictive power of the stochastic differential equations model with mixed-effects parameters. All results were implemented in a symbolic algebra system MAPLE.
Comparative study of dental arch width in plaster models, photocopies and digitized images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Cristina Rosseto
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to comparatively assess dental arch width, in the canine and molar regions, by means of direct measurements from plaster models, photocopies and digitized images of the models. The sample consisted of 130 pairs of plaster models, photocopies and digitized images of the models of white patients (n = 65, both genders, with Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions, treated by standard Edgewise mechanics and extraction of the four first premolars. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine and intermolar widths were measured by a calibrated examiner, prior to and after orthodontic treatment, using the three modes of reproduction of the dental arches. Dispersion of the data relative to pre- and posttreatment intra-arch linear measurements (mm was represented as box plots. The three measuring methods were compared by one-way ANOVA for repeated measurements (α = 0.05. Initial / final mean values varied as follows: 33.94 to 34.29 mm / 34.49 to 34.66 mm (maxillary intercanine width; 26.23 to 26.26 mm / 26.77 to 26.84 mm (mandibular intercanine width; 49.55 to 49.66 mm / 47.28 to 47.45 mm (maxillary intermolar width and 43.28 to 43.41 mm / 40.29 to 40.46 mm (mandibular intermolar width. There were no statistically significant differences between mean dental arch widths estimated by the three studied methods, prior to and after orthodontic treatment. It may be concluded that photocopies and digitized images of the plaster models provided reliable reproductions of the dental arches for obtaining transversal intra-arch measurements.
A diffusive model for halo width growth during vertical displacement events
Eidietis, N. W.; Humphreys, D. A.
2011-07-01
The electromagnetic loads produced by halo currents during vertical displacement events (VDEs) impose stringent requirements on the strength of ITER in-vessel components. A predictive understanding of halo current evolution is essential for ensuring the robust design of these components. A significant factor determining that evolution is the plasma resistance, which is a function of three quantities: the resistivities of the core and halo regions, and the halo region width. A diffusive model of halo width growth during VDEs has been developed, which provides one part of a physics basis for predictive halo current simulations. The diffusive model was motivated by DIII-D observations that VDEs with cold post-thermal quench plasma and a current decay time much faster than the vertical motion (type I VDE) possess much wider halo region widths than warmer plasma VDEs, where the current decay is much slower than the vertical motion (type II). A 2D finite element code is used to model the diffusion of toroidal halo current during selected type I and type II DIII-D VDEs. The model assumes a core plasma region within the last closed flux surface (LCFS) diffusing current into a halo plasma filling the vessel outside the LCFS. LCFS motion and plasma temperature are prescribed from experimental observations. The halo width evolution produced by this model compares favourably with experimental measurements of type I and type II toroidal halo current width evolution.
Behavioral modeling of Digitally Adjustable Current Amplifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josef Polak
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents the digitally adjustable current amplifier (DACA and its analog behavioral model (ABM, which is suitable for both ideal and advanced analyses of the function block using DACA as active element. There are four levels of this model, each being suitable for simulation of a certain degree of electronic circuits design (e.g. filters, oscillators, generators. Each model is presented through a schematic wiring in the simulation program OrCAD, including a description of equations representing specific functions in the given level of the simulation model. The design of individual levels is always verified using PSpice simulations. The ABM model has been developed based on practically measured values of a number of DACA amplifier samples. The simulation results for proposed levels of the ABM model are shown and compared with the results of the real easurements of the active element DACA.
Modeling and analysis of the HPM pulse-width upset effect on CMOS inverter
Xinhai, Yu; Changchun, Chai; Liping, Qiao; Yintang, Yang; Yang, Liu; Xiaowen, Xi
2015-05-01
We derive analytical models of the excess carrier density distribution and the HPM (high-power microwave) upset susceptibility with dependence of pulse-width, which are validated by the simulated results and experimental data. Mechanism analysis and model derivation verify that the excess carriers dominate the current amplification process of the latch-up. Our results reveal that the excess carrier density distribution in P-substrate behaves as pulse-width dependence. The HPM upset voltage threshold Vp decreases with the incremental pulse-width, while there is an inflection point which is caused because the excess carrier accumulation in the P-substrate will be suppressed over time. For the first time, the physical essence of the HPM pulse-width upset effect is proposed to be the excess carrier accumulation effect. Validation concludes that the Vp model is capable of giving a reliable and accurate prediction to the HPM upset susceptibility of a CMOS inverter, which simultaneously considers technology information, ambient temperature, and layout parameters. From the model, the layout parameter LB has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the pulse-width upset effect: a CMOS inverter with minor LB is more susceptible to HPM, which enables us to put forward hardening measures for inverters that are immune from the HPM upset. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60776034) and the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2014CB339900).
Decay widths of bottomonium states in matter -- a field theoretic model for composite hadrons
Mishra, Amruta
2016-01-01
We compute the in-medium partial decay widths of the bottomonium states to open bottom mesons ($B\\bar B$) using a field theoretical model for composite hadrons with quark constituents. These decay widths are calculated by using the explicit constructions for the bottomonium states and the open bottom mesons ($B$ and $\\bar B$), and, the quark antiquark pair creation term of the free Dirac Hamiltonian written in terms of the constituent quark field operators. These decay widths are calculated as arising from the mass modifications of the bottomonium states and the $B$ and $\\bar B$ mesons, obtained in a chiral effective model. The decay amplitude in the present model is multiplied with a strength parameter for the light quark pair creation, which is fitted from the observed vacuum partial decay width of the bottomonium state, $\\Upsilon (4S)$ to $B\\bar B$. The effects of the isospin asymmetry, the strangeness fraction of the hadronic matter on the decay widths, arising due to the mass modifications due to these e...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez-Ramirez, C. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es; Moya de Guerra, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2008-02-21
We investigate the importance of crossing symmetry in effective field models and the effects of phenomenological nucleon resonance widths on the paradigmatic case of pion photoproduction. We use reaction models containing four star resonances up to 1.8 GeV ({delta}(1232), N(1440), N(1520), N(1535), {delta}(1620), N(1650), {delta}(1700), and N(1720)) with different prescriptions for crossed terms and widths, to fit the latest world database on pion photoproduction. We compare {chi}{sup 2} results from selected multipoles and fits. The {chi}{sup 2} is highly dependent on the fulfillment of crossing symmetry and the inclusion of u channels.
Adjustment of endogenous concentrations in pharmacokinetic modeling.
Bauer, Alexander; Wolfsegger, Martin J
2014-12-01
Estimating pharmacokinetic parameters in the presence of an endogenous concentration is not straightforward as cross-reactivity in the analytical methodology prevents differentiation between endogenous and dose-related exogenous concentrations. This article proposes a novel intuitive modeling approach which adequately adjusts for the endogenous concentration. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out based on a two-compartment population pharmacokinetic (PK) model fitted to real data following intravenous administration. A constant and a proportional error model were assumed. The performance of the novel model and the method of straightforward subtraction of the observed baseline concentration from post-dose concentrations were compared in terms of terminal half-life, area under the curve from 0 to infinity, and mean residence time. Mean bias in PK parameters was up to 4.5 times better with the novel model assuming a constant error model and up to 6.5 times better assuming a proportional error model. The simulation study indicates that this novel modeling approach results in less biased and more accurate PK estimates than straightforward subtraction of the observed baseline concentration and overcomes the limitations of previously published approaches.
Thermal width of heavy quarkonia from an AdS/QCD model
Braga, Nelson R F
2016-01-01
We estimate the thermal width of a heavy quark anti-quark pair inside a strongly coupled plasma using a holographic AdS/QCD model. The imaginary part of the quark potential that produces the thermal width appears in the gravity dual from quantum fluctuations of the string world sheet in the vicinity of the horizon. The results, obtained using a soft wall background that involves an infrared mass scale, are consistent with previous analisys where the mass scale was introduced by averaging over quark anti-quark states.
Charmonium decay widths in matter in a field theoretic model of composite hadrons
Mishra, Amruta
2013-01-01
We calculate the decay widths of the charmonium states, $J/\\psi$, $\\psi (3686)$ and $\\psi(3770)$, to $D\\bar D$ pairs in isospin asymmetric strange hadronic matter, using a field theoretical model for composite hadrons with quark constituents. For this purpose we use a quark antiquark pair creation term that arises within the model, and then use explicit charmonium and $D$ and $\\bar {D}$ states to evaluate the decay amplitudes. The medium modifications of these partial decay widths, arising from the mass modifications of the $D(\\bar D)$ and the charmonium states calculated in a chiral effective model, are also included. The results of the present investigations are then compared with the decay widths computed earlier, using an ad hoc light quark pair creation in $^3P_0$ state. The effects of the isospin asymmetry, the strangeness fraction of the hadronic matter on the masses of the charmonium states and $D(\\bar D)$ mesons and hence on the decay widths, have also been studied. The isospin asymmetry effect is ob...
Modelling effects of stair width on rates of stair climbing in a train station.
Eves, Frank F; Lewis, Amanda L; Griffin, Carl
2008-09-01
Commuters leaving a station often choose the stair as a quicker exit than the escalator. This paper models the effects of speed leaving the station and stair width on choice of the stairs or escalator. Aggregated data from previous studies (n=82,347) revealed a plateau at about 45% stair use as the number leaving each train rose. Subsequently, the time taken by passengers on the stairs and escalator was measured in a station in Birmingham, UK in 2007 (n=5848). The resulting transport rates (passengers s(-1)) for stairs and escalators at the average commuting traffic were used to estimate the effects of increases in stair width on choice of the stairs. Average transport rates were higher for the escalator (0.93+/-0.33 passengers s(-1)) than the stairs (0.58+/-0.24 passengers s(-1)). Modelling of the effects of transport rate with multiple regression suggested 40.1% of passengers would use the stairs, a figure close to the observed rate. Using similar calculations, a doubling of width of the stairs could result maximally in a 17.2% increase in stair use. Changes to the width of stairs could produce a permanent increase in lifestyle physical activity immune to the effects of time on healthy intentions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Russell, D. A., E-mail: dave@lodestar.com; D' Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R. [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Canik, J. M.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2015-09-15
The effect of lithium (Li) wall coatings on scrape-off-layer (SOL) turbulence in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is modeled with the Lodestar SOLT (SOL Turbulence) code. Specifically, the implications for the SOL heat flux width of experimentally observed, Li-induced changes in the pedestal profiles are considered. The SOLT code used in the modeling has been expanded recently to include ion temperature evolution and ion diamagnetic drift effects. This work focuses on two NSTX discharges occurring pre- and with-Li deposition. The simulation density and temperature profiles are constrained, inside the last closed flux surface only, to match those measured in the two experiments, and the resulting drift-interchange-driven turbulence is explored. The effect of Li enters the simulation only through the pedestal profile constraint: Li modifies the experimental density and temperature profiles in the pedestal, and these profiles affect the simulated SOL turbulence. The power entering the SOL measured in the experiments is matched in the simulations by adjusting “free” dissipation parameters (e.g., diffusion coefficients) that are not measured directly in the experiments. With power-matching, (a) the heat flux SOL width is smaller, as observed experimentally by infrared thermography and (b) the simulated density fluctuation amplitudes are reduced with Li, as inferred for the experiments as well from reflectometry analysis. The instabilities and saturation mechanisms that underlie the SOLT model equilibria are also discussed.
An Agent-Based Model for Optimization of Road Width and Public Transport Frequency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark E. Koryagin
2015-04-01
Full Text Available An urban passenger transportation problem is studied. Municipal authorities and passengers are regarded as participants in the passenger transportation system. The municipal authorities have to optimise road width and public transport frequency. The road consists of a dedicated bus lane and lanes for passenger cars. The car travel time depends on the number of road lanes and passengers’ choice of travel mode. The passengers’ goal is to minimize total travel costs, including time value. The passengers try to find the optimal ratio between public transport and cars. The conflict between municipal authorities and the passengers is described as a game theoretic model. The existence of Nash equilibrium in the model is proved. The numerical example shows the influence of the value of time and intensity of passenger flow on the equilibrium road width and public transport frequency.
Sensorless Modeling of Varying Pulse Width Modulator Resolutions in Three-Phase Induction Motors
Marko, Matthew David; Shevach, Glenn
2017-01-01
A sensorless algorithm was developed to predict rotor speeds in an electric three-phase induction motor. This sensorless model requires a measurement of the stator currents and voltages, and the rotor speed is predicted accurately without any mechanical measurement of the rotor speed. A model of an electric vehicle undergoing acceleration was built, and the sensorless prediction of the simulation rotor speed was determined to be robust even in the presence of fluctuating motor parameters and significant sensor errors. Studies were conducted for varying pulse width modulator resolutions, and the sensorless model was accurate for all resolutions of sinusoidal voltage functions. PMID:28076418
The width of Liesegang bands: A study using moving boundary model and simulation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shibi Thomas; George Varghese; István Lagzi
2012-01-01
The pattern formation in reaction–diffusion systems was studied by invoking the provisions contained in the moving boundary model. The model claims that the phase separation mechanism is responsible for separating the colloidal phase of precipitants into band and non-band regions. The relation between the band separation and its width are invariably related to the concentration of the reacting components. It was observed that this model provides critical condition for the band formation in semi-idealized diffusion systems. An algorithm for generating the band structure was designed, and the simulated pattern shows a close resemblance with the experimentally observed ones.
A NEW SOLUTION MODEL OF NONLINEAR DYNAMIC LEAST SQUARE ADJUSTMENT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陶华学; 郭金运
2000-01-01
The nonlinear least square adjustment is a head object studied in technology fields. The paper studies on the non-derivative solution to the nonlinear dynamic least square adjustment and puts forward a new algorithm model and its solution model. The method has little calculation load and is simple. This opens up a theoretical method to solve the linear dynamic least square adjustment.
Analytical modelling of modular and unequal tooth width surface-mounted permanent magnet machines
Li, G. J.; Zhu, Z-Q.
2015-01-01
This paper presents simple analytical modelling for 2 types of 3-phase surface-mounted permanent magnet (SPM) machines such as modular and unequal tooth width (UNET) machines with different slot/pole number combinations. It is based on the slotless open-circuit air-gap flux density and the slotted air-gap relative permeance calculations. This model allows calculating the open-circuit air-gap flux density, phase flux linkage and back electromotive force (EMF), average torque of both the modula...
Ratsaby, Joel
2008-01-01
Kolmogorov argued that the concept of information exists also in problems with no underlying stochastic model (as Shannon's information representation) for instance, the information contained in an algorithm or in the genome. He introduced a combinatorial notion of entropy and information $I(x:\\sy)$ conveyed by a binary string $x$ about the unknown value of a variable $\\sy$. The current paper poses the following questions: what is the relationship between the information conveyed by $x$ about $\\sy$ to the description complexity of $x$ ? is there a notion of cost of information ? are there limits on how efficient $x$ conveys information ? To answer these questions Kolmogorov's definition is extended and a new concept termed {\\em information width} which is similar to $n$-widths in approximation theory is introduced. Information of any input source, e.g., sample-based, general side-information or a hybrid of both can be evaluated by a single common formula. An application to the space of binary functions is con...
Enhancement of Higgs to diphoton decay width in non-perturbative Higgs model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haba, Naoyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Mimura, Yukihiro [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Takahashi, Ryo, E-mail: ryo.takahasi88@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)
2013-01-29
We investigate a possibility if a loop diagram via Higgsino can enhance the Higgs to diphoton decay width in supersymmetric models with an extension of Higgs sector. A model with an additional non-renormalizable term of Higgs fields is firstly analyzed where the higher order term can introduce the Higgs coupling to Higgsinos as well as charged Higgs bosons. We point out that a choice of the Higgs coupling to obtain a significant size of enhancement of diphoton decay width reduces the Higgs mass and/or a size of non-renormalizable term needs to be large and a cutoff scale is around the weak scale. Another model in which the Higgsino mass term is generated by a non-perturbative instanton effect via a strong dynamics in a context of SUSY QCD is also suggested. It is shown that the sign of the Higgs coupling to fermions is opposite from perturbative models due to an operator including bosonic fields in the denominator and a constructive contribution to the diphoton decay amplitude can be easily obtained in this kind of model.
Measurement of the W boson mass and width using a novel recoil model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wetstein, Matthew J.
2009-01-01
This dissertation presents a direct measurement of the W boson mass (M_{W}) and decay width (Γ_{W}) in 1 fb^{-1} of W → ev collider data at D0 using a novel method to model the hadronic recoil. The mass is extracted from fits to the transverse mass M_{T}, p_{T}(e), and E_{T} distributions. The width is extracted from fits to the tail of the M_{T} distribution. The electron energy measurement is simulated using a parameterized model, and the recoil is modeled using a new technique by which Z recoils are chosen from a data library to match the p_{T} and direction of each generated W boson. We measure the the W boson mass to be M_{W} = 80.4035 ± 0.024(stat) ± 0.039(syst) from the M_{T}, M_{W} = 80.4165 ± 0.027(stat) ± 0.038(syst) from the pT(e), and MW = 80.4025 ± 0.023(stat) ± 0.043(syst) from the E_{T} distributions. Γ_{W} is measured to be Γ_{W} = 2.025 ± 0.038(stat) ± 0.061(syst) GeV.
Implications of the partial width Z --> bb for supersymmetry searches and model-building
Wells, J D; Kane, G L; James D Wells; Chris Kolda
1994-01-01
Assuming that the actual values of the top quark mass at FNAL and of the ratio of partial widths Z->bb/Z->hadrons at LEP are within their current one-sigma reported ranges, we present a No-Lose Theorem for superpartner searches at LEP II and an upgraded Tevatron. We impose only two theoretical assumptions: the Lagrangian is that of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with arbitrary soft-breaking terms, and all couplings remain perturbative up to scales of order 10^16 GeV; there are no assumptions about the soft SUSY breaking parameters, proton decay, cosmology, etc. In particular, if the LEP and FNAL values hold up and supersymmetry is responsible for the discrepancy with the SM prediction of the partial width of Z->bb, then we must have charginos and/or top squarks observable at the upgraded machines. Furthermore, little deviation from the SM is predicted within "super-unified" SUSY. Finally, it appears to be extremely difficult to find any unified MSSM model, regardless of the form of soft SUSY breaki...
Widths of K¯-nuclear deeply bound states in a dynamical model
Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
2005-01-01
The relativistic mean field (RMF) model is applied to a system of nucleons and a Kbar meson, interacting via scalar and vector boson fields. The model incorporates the standard RMF phenomenology for bound nucleons and, for the Kbar meson, it relates to low-energy Kbar N and K- atom phenomenology. Deeply bound Kbar nuclear states are generated dynamically across the periodic table and are exhibited for 12C and 16O over a wide range of binding energies. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for these light nuclei. Absorption modes are also included dynamically, considering explicitly both the resulting compressed nuclear density and the reduced phase space for Kbar absorption from deeply bound states. The behavior of the calculated width as function of the Kbar binding energy is studied in order to explore limits on the possible existence of narrow Kbar nuclear states.
Process based model sheds light on climate sensitivity of Mediterranean tree-ring width
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R. Touchan
2012-03-01
Full Text Available We use the process-based VS (Vaganov-Shashkin model to investigate whether a regional Pinus halepensis tree-ring chronology from Tunisia can be simulated as a function of climate alone by employing a biological model linking day length and daily temperature and precipitation (AD 1959–2004 from a climate station to ring-width variations. We check performance of the model on independent data by a validation exercise in which the model's parameters are tuned using data for 1982–2004 and the model is applied to generate tree-ring indices for 1959–1981. The validation exercise yields a highly significant positive correlation between the residual chronology and estimated growth curve (r=0.76 p<0.0001, n=23. The model shows that the average duration of the growing season is 191 days, with considerable variation from year to year. On average, soil moisture limits tree-ring growth for 128 days and temperature for 63 days. Model results depend on chosen values of parameters, in particular a parameter specifying a balance ratio between soil moisture and precipitation. Future work in the Mediterranean region should include multi-year natural experiments to verify patterns of cambial-growth variation suggested by the VS model.
Lee, Dongchul; Hershey, Brad; Bradley, Kerry; Yearwood, Thomas
2011-07-01
To understand the theoretical effects of pulse width (PW) programming in spinal cord stimulation (SCS), we implemented a mathematical model of electrical fields and neural activation in SCS to gain insight into the effects of PW programming. The computational model was composed of a finite element model for structure and electrical properties, coupled with a nonlinear double-cable axon model to predict nerve excitation for different myelinated fiber sizes. Mathematical modeling suggested that mediolateral lead position may affect chronaxie and rheobase values, as well as predict greater activation of medial dorsal column fibers with increased PW. These modeling results were validated by a companion clinical study. Thus, variable PW programming in SCS appears to have theoretical value, demonstrated by the ability to increase and even 'steer' spatial selectivity of dorsal column fiber recruitment. It is concluded that the computational SCS model is a valuable tool to understand basic mechanisms of nerve fiber excitation modulated by stimulation parameters such as PW and electric fields.
Process based model sheds light on climate sensitivity of Mediterranean tree-ring width
Touchan, R.; Shishov, V. V.; Meko, D. M.; Nouiri, I.; Grachev, A.
2012-03-01
We use the process-based VS (Vaganov-Shashkin) model to investigate whether a regional Pinus halepensis tree-ring chronology from Tunisia can be simulated as a function of climate alone by employing a biological model linking day length and daily temperature and precipitation (AD 1959-2004) from a climate station to ring-width variations. We check performance of the model on independent data by a validation exercise in which the model's parameters are tuned using data for 1982-2004 and the model is applied to generate tree-ring indices for 1959-1981. The validation exercise yields a highly significant positive correlation between the residual chronology and estimated growth curve (r=0.76 pseason is 191 days, with considerable variation from year to year. On average, soil moisture limits tree-ring growth for 128 days and temperature for 63 days. Model results depend on chosen values of parameters, in particular a parameter specifying a balance ratio between soil moisture and precipitation. Future work in the Mediterranean region should include multi-year natural experiments to verify patterns of cambial-growth variation suggested by the VS model.
Assimilation of pseudo-tree-ring-width observations into an atmospheric general circulation model
Acevedo, Walter; Fallah, Bijan; Reich, Sebastian; Cubasch, Ulrich
2017-05-01
Paleoclimate data assimilation (DA) is a promising technique to systematically combine the information from climate model simulations and proxy records. Here, we investigate the assimilation of tree-ring-width (TRW) chronologies into an atmospheric global climate model using ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) techniques and a process-based tree-growth forward model as an observation operator. Our results, within a perfect-model experiment setting, indicate that the "online DA" approach did not outperform the "off-line" one, despite its considerable additional implementation complexity. On the other hand, it was observed that the nonlinear response of tree growth to surface temperature and soil moisture does deteriorate the operation of the time-averaged EnKF methodology. Moreover, for the first time we show that this skill loss appears significantly sensitive to the structure of the growth rate function, used to represent the principle of limiting factors (PLF) within the forward model. In general, our experiments showed that the error reduction achieved by assimilating pseudo-TRW chronologies is modulated by the magnitude of the yearly internal variability in the model. This result might help the dendrochronology community to optimize their sampling efforts.
Wakahara, Taku; Ema, Ryoichi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kawakami, Yasuo
2015-02-01
This study aimed to ascertain whether training-induced muscle hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in the aponeurosis width, and to infer its impact on the training-induced increase in the pennation angle. Eleven young men completed a resistance training program of unilateral knee extensions for 12 weeks. Before and after training, anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the vastus lateralis and its distal aponeurosis width in the transverse plane were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. The pennation angle and fascicle length were also determined with ultrasonography at the midbelly of the muscle. The effect of change in aponeurosis width on the magnitude of training-induced increase in pennation angle was estimated by using a parallelepipedon model. After the training, there were significant increases in ACSA (10.7 ± 7.6 %), pennation angle (10.8 ± 7.3 %) and aponeurosis width (1.9 ± 3.1 %), whereas no significant change was found in the fascicle length. The model simulation shows that the increase in aponeurosis width by 1.9 % reduces the magnitude of increase in pennation angle by only 0.4°. These results indicate that (1) the aponeurosis width of the vastus lateralis increases after 12 weeks of resistance training and (2) the increase in the aponeurosis width accompanying muscle hypertrophy by the amount of ~10 % does not substantially affect the increase in pennation angle.
Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vlasta Kašparovská
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.
Paleo Data Assimilation of Pseudo-Tree-Ring-Width Chronologies in a Climate Model
Fallah Hassanabadi, B.; Acevedo, W.; Reich, S.; Cubasch, U.
2016-12-01
Using the Time-Averaged Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) and a forward model, we assimilate the pseudo Tree-Ring-Width (TRW) chronologies into an Atmospheric Global Circulation model. This study investigates several aspects of Paleo-Data Assimilation (PDA) within a perfect-model set-up: (i) we test the performance of several forward operators in the framework of a PDA-based climate reconstruction, (ii) compare the PDA-based simulations' skill against the free ensemble runs and (iii) inverstigate the skill of the "online" (with cycling) DA and the "off-line" (no-cycling) DA. In our experiments, the "online" (with cycling) PDA approach did not outperform the "off-line" (no-cycling) one, despite its considerable additional implementation complexity. On the other hand, it was observed that the error reduction achieved by assimilating a particular pseudo-TRW chronology is modulated by the strength of the yearly internal variability of the model at the chronology site. This result might help the dendrochronology community to optimize their sampling efforts.
The widths of the {alpha} decaying states of {sup 12}C within the three-cluster model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedorov, D.V.; Jensen, A.S.; Fynbo, H.O.U
2003-05-05
We estimate the widths of the alpha decaying states of {sup 12}C (1{sup +}, 1{sup -}, 1{sup -1}, 2{sup +}, 2{sup -}, 3{sup -}, and 4{sup +}) within the three-alpha cluster model. We solve the Faddeev equations using the hyperspheric approach and calculate the decisive effective hyper-radial barriers. We calculate the widths in the WKB approximation and compare with experimental data.
Effect of Flux Adjustments on Temperature Variability in Climate Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duffy, P.; Bell, J.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.
1999-12-27
It has been suggested that ''flux adjustments'' in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability.
Hurwitz, M. M.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.
2010-01-01
In a pair of idealized simulations with a simplified chemistry-climate model, the sensitivity of the wintertime Arctic stratosphere to variability in the width of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is assessed. The width of the QBO appears to have equal influence on the Arctic stratosphere as does the phase (i.e. the Holton-Tan mechanism). In the model, a wider QBO acts like a preferential shift toward the easterly phase of the QBO, where zonal winds at 60 N tend to be relatively weaker, while 50 hPa geopotential heights and polar ozone values tend to be higher.
Brown, Rocko A.; Pasternack, Gregory B.
2017-01-01
Understanding the spatial organization of river systems in light of natural and anthropogenic change is extremely important because it can provide information to assess, manage, and restore them to ameliorate worldwide freshwater fauna declines. For gravel- and cobble-bedded alluvial rivers studies spanning analytical, empirical and numerical domains suggest that at channel-forming flows there is a tendency towards covarying bankfull bed and width undulations amongst morphologic units such as pools and riffles, whereby relatively wide areas have relatively higher minimum bed elevations and relatively narrow areas have relatively lower minimum bed elevations. The goal of this study was to determine whether minimum bed elevation and flow-dependent channel top width are organized in a partially confined, incising gravel-cobbled bed river with multiple spatial scales of anthropogenic and natural landform heterogeneity across a range of discharges. A key result is that the test river exhibited covarying oscillations of minimum bed elevation and channel top width across all flows analyzed. These covarying oscillations were found to be quasiperiodic at channel-forming flows, scaling with the length scales of bars, pools and riffles. Thus, it appears that alluvial rivers organize their topography to have quasiperiodic, shallow and wide or narrow and deep cross section geometry, even despite ongoing, centennial-scale incision. Presumably these covarying oscillations are linked to hydrogeomorphic mechanisms associated with alluvial river channel maintenance. The biggest conclusion from this study is that alluvial rivers are defined more so by variability in topography and flow than mean conditions. Broader impacts of this study are that the methods provide a framework for characterizing longitudinal and flow-dependent variability in rivers for assessing geomorphic structure and aquatic habitat in space, and if repeated, through time.
Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment for multivariate dynamic linear models
Wilkinson, Darren J
2008-01-01
A methodology is developed for the adjustment of the covariance matrices underlying a multivariate constant time series dynamic linear model. The covariance matrices are embedded in a distribution-free inner-product space of matrix objects which facilitates such adjustment. This approach helps to make the analysis simple, tractable and robust. To illustrate the methods, a simple model is developed for a time series representing sales of certain brands of a product from a cash-and-carry depot. The covariance structure underlying the model is revised, and the benefits of this revision on first order inferences are then examined.
Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT)
The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations. SWMM, first released in 1971, models hydrology and hydrauli...
R.M. Solow Adjusted Model of Economic Growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion Gh. Rosca
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Besides the models of M. Keynes, R.F. Harrod, E. Domar, D. Romer, Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans etc., the R.M. Solow model is part of the category which characterizes the economic growth. The paper proposes the study of the R.M. Solow adjusted model of economic growth, while the adjustment consisting in the model adaptation to the Romanian economic characteristics. The article is the first one from a three paper series dedicated to the macroeconomic modelling theme, using the R.M. Solow model, such as: “Measurement of the economic growth and extensions of the R.M. Solow adjusted model” and “Evolution scenarios at the Romanian economy level using the R.M. Solow adjusted model”. The analysis part of the model is based on the study of the equilibrium to the continuous case with some interpretations of the discreet one, by using the state diagram. The optimization problem at the economic level is also used; it is built up of a specified number of representative consumers and firms in order to reveal the interaction between these elements.
Schippers, P.; Joenje, W.
2002-01-01
To evaluate the effects of nitrogen, disturbance, mowing and boundary width on the composition of plant communities of field boundaries a spatial plant competition model was developed that incorporates competition for nitrogen and light as well as mineralisation and population dynamical processes. T
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Baumgarten
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Noctilucent clouds (NLC in the polar summer mesopause region have been observed in Norway (69° N, 16° E between 1998 and 2009 by 3-color lidar technique. Assuming a mono-modal Gaussian size distribution we deduce mean and width of the particle sizes throughout the clouds. We observe a quasi linear relationship between distribution width and mean of the particle size at the top of the clouds and a deviation from this behavior for particle sizes larger than 40 nm, most often in the lower part of the layer. The vertically integrated particle properties show that 65% of the data follows the linear relationship with a slope of 0.42±0.02 for mean particle sizes up to 40 nm. For the vertically resolved particle properties (Δz = 0.15 km the slope is comparable and about 0.39±0.03. For particles larger than 40 nm the distribution width becomes nearly independent of particle size and even decreases in the lower part of the layer. We compare our observations to microphysical modeling of noctilucent clouds and find that the distribution width depends on turbulence, the time that turbulence can act (cloud age, and the sampling volume/time (atmospheric variability. The model results nicely reproduce the measurements and show that the observed slope can be explained by eddy diffusion profiles as observed from rocket measurements.
An Heuristic Drift-Based Model of the Power Scrape-Off Width in H-Mode Tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert J. Goldston
2011-02-28
An heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the SOL are balanced against sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall mass flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch-Shlüter flows to include sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of 2aρp/R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, defined above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Härm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in an heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in remarkable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.
Heuristic Drift-based Model of the Power Scrape-off width in H-mode Tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert J. Goldston
2011-04-29
An heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the SOL are balanced against sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall particle flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch-Shlüter flows to include sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of ~ 2aρp/R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, defined above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Härm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in a heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in reasonable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data from deuterium plasmas. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.
A price adjustment process in a model of monopolistic competition
J. Tuinstra
2004-01-01
We consider a price adjustment process in a model of monopolistic competition. Firms have incomplete information about the demand structure. When they set a price they observe the amount they can sell at that price and they observe the slope of the true demand curve at that price. With this informat
WIDTHS AND AVERAGE WIDTHS OF SOBOLEV CLASSES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘永平; 许贵桥
2003-01-01
This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David O Cummings
Full Text Available Distributions of stable isotopes have been used to infer an organism's trophic niche width, the 'isotopic niche', and examine resource partitioning. Spatial variation in the isotopic composition of prey may however confound the interpretation of isotopic signatures especially when foragers exploit resources across numerous locations. In this study the isotopic compositions from marine assemblages are modelled to determine the role of variation in the signature of prey items and the effect of dietary breadth and foraging strategies on predator signatures. Outputs from the models reveal that isotopic niche widths can be greater for populations of dietary specialists rather than for generalists, which contravenes what is generally accepted in the literature. When a range of different mixing models are applied to determine if the conversion from δ to p-space can be used to improve model accuracy, predator signature variation is increased rather than model precision. Furthermore the mixing models applied failed to correctly identify dietary specialists and/or to accurately estimate diet contributions that may identify resource partitioning. The results presented illustrate the need to collect sufficiently large sample sizes, in excess of what is collected under most current studies, across the complete distribution of a species and its prey, before attempts to use stable isotopes to make inferences about niche width can be made.
Cummings, David O; Buhl, Jerome; Lee, Raymond W; Simpson, Stephen J; Holmes, Sebastian P
2012-01-01
Distributions of stable isotopes have been used to infer an organism's trophic niche width, the 'isotopic niche', and examine resource partitioning. Spatial variation in the isotopic composition of prey may however confound the interpretation of isotopic signatures especially when foragers exploit resources across numerous locations. In this study the isotopic compositions from marine assemblages are modelled to determine the role of variation in the signature of prey items and the effect of dietary breadth and foraging strategies on predator signatures. Outputs from the models reveal that isotopic niche widths can be greater for populations of dietary specialists rather than for generalists, which contravenes what is generally accepted in the literature. When a range of different mixing models are applied to determine if the conversion from δ to p-space can be used to improve model accuracy, predator signature variation is increased rather than model precision. Furthermore the mixing models applied failed to correctly identify dietary specialists and/or to accurately estimate diet contributions that may identify resource partitioning. The results presented illustrate the need to collect sufficiently large sample sizes, in excess of what is collected under most current studies, across the complete distribution of a species and its prey, before attempts to use stable isotopes to make inferences about niche width can be made.
DESIGN OF 3D MODEL OF CUSTOMIZED ANATOMICALLY ADJUSTED IMPLANTS
Miodrag Manić; Zoran Stamenković; Milorad Mitković; Miloš Stojković; Duncan E.T. Shephard
2015-01-01
Design and manufacturing of customized implants is a field that has been rapidly developing in recent years. This paper presents an originally developed method for designing a 3D model of customized anatomically adjusted implants. The method is based upon a CT scan of a bone fracture. A CT scan is used to generate a 3D bone model and a fracture model. Using these scans, an indicated location for placing the implant is recognized and the design of a 3D model of customized implants is made. Wit...
Models of SOL transport and their relation to scaling of the divertor heat flux width in DIII-D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Makowski, M.A., E-mail: makowski1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Umansky, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Elder, J.D. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Nichols, J.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Baver, D.A.; Myra, J.R. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)
2015-08-15
Strong support for the critical pressure gradient model for the heat flux width has been obtained, in that the measured separatrix pressure gradient lies below and scales similarly to the pressure gradient limit obtained from the ideal, infinite-n stability codes, BALOO and 2DX, in all cases that have been examined. Predictions of a heuristic drift model for the heat flux width are also in qualitative agreement with the measurements. These results have been obtained using an improved high rep-rate and higher edge spatial resolution Thomson scattering system on DIII-D to measure the upstream electron temperature and density profiles. In order to compare theory and experiment, profiles of density, temperature, and pressure for both electrons and ions are needed as well values of these quantities at the separatrix. A simple method to identify a proxy for the separatrix has been developed to do so.
Comparison of multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment models for genetic evaluations.
Márkus, Sz; Mäntysaari, E A; Strandén, I; Eriksson, J-Å; Lidauer, M H
2014-06-01
Two heterogeneous variance adjustment methods and two variance models were compared in a simulation study. The method used for heterogeneous variance adjustment in the Nordic test-day model, which is a multiplicative method based on Meuwissen (J. Dairy Sci., 79, 1996, 310), was compared with a restricted multiplicative method where the fixed effects were not scaled. Both methods were tested with two different variance models, one with a herd-year and the other with a herd-year-month random effect. The simulation study was built on two field data sets from Swedish Red dairy cattle herds. For both data sets, 200 herds with test-day observations over a 12-year period were sampled. For one data set, herds were sampled randomly, while for the other, each herd was required to have at least 10 first-calving cows per year. The simulations supported the applicability of both methods and models, but the multiplicative mixed model was more sensitive in the case of small strata sizes. Estimation of variance components for the variance models resulted in different parameter estimates, depending on the applied heterogeneous variance adjustment method and variance model combination. Our analyses showed that the assumption of a first-order autoregressive correlation structure between random-effect levels is reasonable when within-herd heterogeneity is modelled by year classes, but less appropriate for within-herd heterogeneity by month classes. Of the studied alternatives, the multiplicative method and a variance model with a random herd-year effect were found most suitable for the Nordic test-day model for dairy cattle evaluation.
Hasenbusch, M.; Hasenbusch, Martin; Pinn, Klaus
1992-01-01
We compute properties of the interface of the 3-dimensional Ising model for a wide range of temperatures and for interface extensions up to 64 by 64. The interface tension sigma is obtained by integrating the surface energy density over the inverse temperature beta. The surface stiffness coefficient kappa is determined. We also study universal quantities like xi^2 sigma and xi^2 kappa. The behavior of the interfacial width on lattices up to 512 times 512 times 27 is also investigated.
A simple approach to adjust tidal forcing in fjord models
Hjelmervik, Karina; Kristensen, Nils Melsom; Staalstrøm, André; Røed, Lars Petter
2017-07-01
To model currents in a fjord accurate tidal forcing is of extreme importance. Due to complex topography with narrow and shallow straits, the tides in the innermost parts of a fjord are both shifted in phase and altered in amplitude compared to the tides in the open water outside the fjord. Commonly, coastal tide information extracted from global or regional models is used on the boundary of the fjord model. Since tides vary over short distances in shallower waters close to the coast, the global and regional tidal forcings are usually too coarse to achieve sufficiently accurate tides in fjords. We present a straightforward method to remedy this problem by simply adjusting the tides to fit the observed tides at the entrance of the fjord. To evaluate the method, we present results from the Oslofjord, Norway. A model for the fjord is first run using raw tidal forcing on its open boundary. By comparing modelled and observed time series of water level at a tidal gauge station close to the open boundary of the model, a factor for the amplitude and a shift in phase are computed. The amplitude factor and the phase shift are then applied to produce adjusted tidal forcing at the open boundary. Next, we rerun the fjord model using the adjusted tidal forcing. The results from the two runs are then compared to independent observations inside the fjord in terms of amplitude and phases of the various tidal components, the total tidal water level, and the depth integrated tidal currents. The results show improvements in the modelled tides in both the outer, and more importantly, the inner parts of the fjord.
Modeling wind adjustment factor and midflame wind speed for Rothermel's surface fire spread model
Patricia L. Andrews
2012-01-01
Rothermel's surface fire spread model was developed to use a value for the wind speed that affects surface fire, called midflame wind speed. Models have been developed to adjust 20-ft wind speed to midflame wind speed for sheltered and unsheltered surface fuel. In this report, Wind Adjustment Factor (WAF) model equations are given, and the BehavePlus fire modeling...
Pakenham, Kenneth I; Samios, Christina; Sofronoff, Kate
2005-05-01
The present study examined the applicability of the double ABCX model of family adjustment in explaining maternal adjustment to caring for a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-seven mothers completed questionnaires at a university clinic while their children were participating in an anxiety intervention. The children were aged between 10 and 12 years. Results of correlations showed that each of the model components was related to one or more domains of maternal adjustment in the direction predicted, with the exception of problem-focused coping. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that, after controlling for the effects of relevant demographics, stressor severity, pile-up of demands and coping were related to adjustment. Findings indicate the utility of the double ABCX model in guiding research into parental adjustment when caring for a child with Asperger syndrome. Limitations of the study and clinical implications are discussed.
Pelloux-Prayer, J.; Cassé, M.; Triozon, F.; Barraud, S.; Niquet, Y.-M.; Rouvière, J.-L.; Faynot, O.; Reimbold, G.
2016-11-01
The effect of strain on carrier mobility in triple gate Fully Depleted Silicon On Insulator (FDSOI) nanowires (NWs) is experimentally investigated through piezoresistance measurements. The piezoresitive coefficients have been extracted and analyzed for rectangular cross-section with varying aspect ratio (width vs. height). We propose an empirical model based on mobility separation between top and sidewall conduction surfaces of the NWs, and on the carrier density calculation in the cross-section of the NWs. The model allows fitting the piezoresistive coefficients and the carrier mobility for the different device geometries. We highlight an enhanced strain effect for Trigate nanowires with channel thickness below 11 nm.
Comparing models of the periodic variations in spin-down and beam-width for PSR B1828-11
Ashton, G; Prix, R
2015-01-01
We build a framework using tools from Bayesian data analysis to evaluate models explaining the periodic variations in spin-down and beam-width of PSR B1828-11. The available data consists of the time averaged spin-down rate, which displays a distinctive double-peaked modulation, and measurements of the beam-width. Two concepts exist in the literature that are capable of explaining these variations; we will formulate predictive models from these and quantitatively compare them. The first concept is phenomenological and stipulates that the magnetosphere undergoes periodic switching between two meta-stable states as first suggested by Lyne et al. (2010). The second concept, precession, was first considered as a candidate for the modulation of B1828-11 by Stairs et al. (2000). We quantitatively compare models built from these concepts using a Bayesian odds-ratio. Because the phenomenological switching model itself was informed by this data in the first place, it is difficult to specify appropriate parameter- spac...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahruddin Thalib
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Various types of anatomical landmarks of the face should match its proportions with the size of the teeth which is the interalar width, intercomissural width, interpupillary width, Intercanthal width, and byzigomatic width. Some of face landmarks can be used as a guide in the selection of anterior teeth in complete denture, especially if the pre extraction record such as radiography image, extracted teeth, model study, the remaining teeth, face shape, and the shape of the curved jaw have been lost. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisivus centralis width in a group of Buginese tribe. Ninety nine Buginese tribe subjects aged 17-25 were selected. The interalar width, intercommisural width, and mesiodistal incisor centralis teeth were measured using caliper about three times for accuracy and precision. Mean of interalar width and mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in males more width than females (p0.05. The degree of correlation between interalar width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width was 0.030, -0.246, 0,225 in Buginese tribe, males, and females (p>0.05. : The degree of correlation between intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in Buginese tribe was 0,054, 0,013, 0,153 in Buginese tribe, males, and females (p>0.05. The degree of correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width was 0.301 and 0.356 in Buginese tribe and males (p0.05. In conclusion, there is no significant correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in a group of Buginese tribe. Interalar width and intercommisural width directly proportional to mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla in a group of Buginese tribe. Interalar width and intercommisural width inversely proportional to mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla in males and directly
Forward modelling of tree-ring width and comparison with a global network of tree-ring chronologies
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P. Breitenmoser
2013-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate the relationship between climate and tree-ring data on a global scale using the process-based Vaganov–Shashkin–Lite (VSL forward model of tree-ring width formation. The VSL model requires as inputs only latitude, monthly mean temperature, and monthly accumulated precipitation. Hence, this simple, process-based model enables ring-width simulation at any location where monthly climate records exist. In this study, we analyse the growth response of simulated tree-rings to monthly climate conditions obtained from the CRU TS3.1 data set back to 1901. Our key aims are (a to examine the relations between simulated and observed growth at 2287 globally distributed sites and (b to evaluate the potential of the VSL model to reconstruct past climate. The assessment of the growth-onset threshold temperature of approximately 4–6 °C for most sites and species using a Bayesian estimation approach complements other studies on the lower temperature limits where plant growth may be sustained. Our results suggest that the VSL model skilfully simulates site level tree-ring series in response to climate forcing for a wide range of environmental conditions and species. Spatial aggregation of the tree-ring chronologies to reduce non-climatic noise at the site level yields notable improvements in the coherence between modelled and actual growth. The resulting distinct and coherent patterns of significant relationships between the aggregated and simulated series further demonstrate the VSL model's ability to skilfully capture the climatic signal contained in tree-series. Finally, we propose that the VSL model can be used as an observation operator in data assimilation approaches to reconstruct past climate.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Käsbach, Johannes; Hahmann, Manuel; May, Tobias;
2016-01-01
differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs) and the interaural coherence (IC). To quantify their contribution to ASW, a functional model of ASW perception was exploited using the TWO!EARS auditory-front-end (AFE) toolbox. The model determines the leftand right-most boundary of a sound source using...... a statistical representation of ITDs and ILDs based on percentiles integrated over time and frequency. The model’s performance was evaluated against psychoacoustic data obtained with noise, speech and music signals in loudspeakerbased experiments. A robust model prediction of ASW was achieved using a cross...
Constructing stochastic models from deterministic process equations by propensity adjustment
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Wu Jialiang
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA for chemical reactions admits three kinds of elementary processes, namely, mass action reactions of 0th, 1st or 2nd order. All other types of reaction processes, for instance those containing non-integer kinetic orders or following other types of kinetic laws, are assumed to be convertible to one of the three elementary kinds, so that SSA can validly be applied. However, the conversion to elementary reactions is often difficult, if not impossible. Within deterministic contexts, a strategy of model reduction is often used. Such a reduction simplifies the actual system of reactions by merging or approximating intermediate steps and omitting reactants such as transient complexes. It would be valuable to adopt a similar reduction strategy to stochastic modelling. Indeed, efforts have been devoted to manipulating the chemical master equation (CME in order to achieve a proper propensity function for a reduced stochastic system. However, manipulations of CME are almost always complicated, and successes have been limited to relative simple cases. Results We propose a rather general strategy for converting a deterministic process model into a corresponding stochastic model and characterize the mathematical connections between the two. The deterministic framework is assumed to be a generalized mass action system and the stochastic analogue is in the format of the chemical master equation. The analysis identifies situations: where a direct conversion is valid; where internal noise affecting the system needs to be taken into account; and where the propensity function must be mathematically adjusted. The conversion from deterministic to stochastic models is illustrated with several representative examples, including reversible reactions with feedback controls, Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics, a genetic regulatory motif, and stochastic focusing. Conclusions The construction of a stochastic
Model for Adjustment of Aggregate Forecasts using Fuzzy Logic
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Taracena–Sanz L. F.
2010-07-01
Full Text Available This research suggests a contribution in the implementation of forecasting models. The proposed model is developed with the aim to fit the projection of demand to surroundings of firms, and this is based on three considerations that cause that in many cases the forecasts of the demand are different from reality, such as: 1 one of the problems most difficult to model in the forecasts is the uncertainty related to the information available; 2 the methods traditionally used by firms for the projection of demand mainly are based on past behavior of the market (historical demand; and 3 these methods do not consider in their analysis the factors that are influencing so that the observed behaviour occurs. Therefore, the proposed model is based on the implementation of Fuzzy Logic, integrating the main variables that affect the behavior of market demand, and which are not considered in the classical statistical methods. The model was applied to a bottling of carbonated beverages, and with the adjustment of the projection of demand a more reliable forecast was obtained.
DESIGN OF 3D MODEL OF CUSTOMIZED ANATOMICALLY ADJUSTED IMPLANTS
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Miodrag Manić
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Design and manufacturing of customized implants is a field that has been rapidly developing in recent years. This paper presents an originally developed method for designing a 3D model of customized anatomically adjusted implants. The method is based upon a CT scan of a bone fracture. A CT scan is used to generate a 3D bone model and a fracture model. Using these scans, an indicated location for placing the implant is recognized and the design of a 3D model of customized implants is made. With this method it is possible to design volumetric implants used for replacing a part of the bone or a plate type for fixation of a bone part. The sides of the implants, this one lying on the bone, are fully aligned with the anatomical shape of the bone surface which neighbors the fracture. The given model is designed for implants production utilizing any method, and it is ideal for 3D printing of implants.
The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Gerhold, Philipp; Jansen, Karl; Kallarackal, Jim
2012-04-01
The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non-perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self-coupling.
The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerhold, Philipp [NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl, E-mail: Karl.Jansen@desy.de [NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Kallarackal, Jim [NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)
2012-04-20
The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non-perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self-coupling.
The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2011-11-15
The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self coupling. (orig.)
The Higgs boson resonance width from a chiral Higgs-Yukawa model on the lattice
Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim
2011-01-01
The Higgs boson is a central part of the electroweak theory and is crucial to generate masses for quarks, leptons and the weak gauge bosons. We use a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice formulation of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the electroweak model to compute physical quantities in the path integral approach which is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations thus allowing for fully non perturbative calculations. The chiral symmetry of the model is incorporated by using the Neuberger overlap Dirac operator. The here considered Higgs-Yukawa model does not involve the weak gauge bosons and furthermore, only a degenerate doublet of top- and bottom quarks are incorporated. The goal of this work is to study the resonance properties of the Higgs boson and its sensitivity to the strength of the quartic self coupling.
PERMINTAAN BERAS DI PROVINSI JAMBI (Penerapan Partial Adjustment Model
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Wasi Riyanto
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of price of rice, flour prices, population, income of population and demand of rice for a year earlier on rice demand, demand rice elasticity and rice demand prediction in Jambi Province. This study uses secondary data, including time series data for 22 years from 1988 until 2009. The study used some variables, consist of rice demand (Qdt, the price of rice (Hb, the price of wheat flour (Hg, population (Jp, the income of the population (PDRB and demand for rice the previous year (Qdt-1. The make of this study are multiple regression and dynamic analysis a Partial Adjustment Model, where the demand for rice is the dependent variable and the price of rice, flour prices, population, income population and demand of rice last year was the independent variable. Partial Adjustment Model analysis results showed that the effect of changes in prices of rice and flour are not significant to changes in demand for rice. The population and demand of rice the previous year has positive and significant impact on demand for rice, while revenues have negative and significant population of rice demand. Variable price of rice, earning population and the price of flour is inelastic the demand of rice, because rice is not a normal good but as a necessity so that there is no substitution of goods (replacement of rice with other commodities in Jambi Province. Based on the analysis, it is recommended to the government to be able to control the rate of population increase given the variable number of people as one of the factors that affect demand for rice.It is expected that the government also began to socialize in a lifestyle of non-rice food consumption to control the increasing amount of demand for rice. Last suggestion, the government developed a diversification of staple foods other than rice.
Permintaan Beras di Provinsi Jambi (Penerapan Partial Adjustment Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wasi Riyanto
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of price of rice, flour prices, population, income of population and demand of rice for a year earlier on rice demand, demand rice elasticity and rice demand prediction in Jambi Province. This study uses secondary data, including time series data for 22 years from 1988 until 2009. The study used some variables, consist of rice demand (Qdt, the price of rice (Hb, the price of wheat flour (Hg, population (Jp, the income of the population (PDRB and demand for rice the previous year (Qdt-1. The make of this study are multiple regression and dynamic analysis a Partial Adjustment Model, where the demand for rice is the dependent variable and the price of rice, flour prices, population, income population and demand of rice last year was the independent variable. Partial Adjustment Model analysis results showed that the effect of changes in prices of rice and flour are not significant to changes in demand for rice. The population and demand of rice the previous year has positive and significant impact on demand for rice, while revenues have negative and significant population of rice demand. Variable price of rice, earning population and the price of flour is inelastic the demand of rice, because rice is not a normal good but as a necessity so that there is no substitution of goods (replacement of rice with other commodities in Jambi Province. Based on the analysis, it is recommended to the government to be able to control the rate of population increase given the variable number of people as one of the factors that affect demand for rice.It is expected that the government also began to socialize in a lifestyle of non-rice food consumption to control the increasing amount of demand for rice. Last suggestion, the government developed a diversification of staple foods other than rice. Keywords: Demand, Rice, Income Population
Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F; Shrivastava, Sandeep; Sherratt, Samuel C R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha
2016-12-01
Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65.5%, 54.9%, 46.8%, and 45.2%, respectively) compared to controls; other treatments had modest effects. EPA effects on cholesterol domain formation were dose-dependent. In membranes with 1:1 C/P (predisposing domain formation), DHA, but not EPA, dose-dependently increased membrane fluidity. DHA also induced cholesterol domain formation without affecting temperature-induced changes in-bilayer unit cell periodicity relative to controls (d-space; 57Å-55Å over 15-30°C). Together, these data suggest simultaneous formation of distinct cholesterol-rich ordered domains and cholesterol-poor disordered domains in the presence of DHA. By contrast, EPA had no effect on cholesterol domain formation and produced larger d-space values relative to controls (60Å-57Å; pmembrane bilayer width, membrane fluidity, and cholesterol crystalline domain formation; suggesting omega-3 fatty acids with differing chain length or unsaturation may differentially influence membrane lipid dynamics and structural organization as a result of distinct phospholipid/sterol interactions.
Disaster Hits Home: A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina
Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget; Marlatt, Holly
2011-01-01
The authors explored individual and family adjustment processes among parents (n = 30) and children (n = 55) who were displaced to Colorado after Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 23 families, this article offers an inductive model of displaced family adjustment. Four stages of family adjustment are presented in the model: (a)…
Setting of Agricultural Insurance Premium Rate and the Adjustment Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Ya-lin
2012-01-01
First,using the law of large numbers,I analyze the setting principle of agricultural insurance premium rate,and take the case of setting of adult sow premium rate for study,to draw the conclusion that with the continuous promotion of agricultural insurance,increase in the types of agricultural insurance and increase in the number of the insured,the premium rate should also be adjusted opportunely.Then,on the basis of Bayes’ theorem,I adjust and calibrate the claim frequency and the average claim,in order to correctly adjust agricultural insurance premium rate;take the case of forest insurance for premium rate adjustment analysis.In setting and adjustment of agricultural insurance premium rate,in order to make the expected results well close to the real results,it is necessary to apply the probability estimates in a large number of risk units;focus on the establishment of agricultural risk database,to timely adjust agricultural insurance premium rate.
Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width
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J. Marková
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.
Modeling of divertor power footprint widths on EAST by SOLPS5.0/B2.5-Eirene
Guozhong, DENG; Xiaoju, LIU; Liang, WANG; Shaocheng, LIU; Jichan, XU; Wei, FENG; Jianbin, LIU; Huan, LIU; Xiang, GAO
2017-04-01
The edge plasma code package SOLPS5.0 is employed to simulate the divertor power footprint widths of the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) L-mode and ELM-free H-mode plasmas. The divertor power footprint widths, which consist of the scrape-off layer (SOL) width λ q and heat spreading S, are important physical parameters for edge plasmas. In this work, a plasma current scan is implemented in the simulation to obtain the dependence of the divertor power footprint width on the plasma current I p. Strong inverse scaling of the SOL width with I p has been achieved for both L-mode and H-mode plasmas in the forms of {λ }q,{{L}\\text-\\text{mode}}=4.98× {I}{{p}}-0.68 and {λ }q,{{H}\\text-\\text{mode}}=1.86× {I}{{p}}-1.08. Similar trends have also been demonstrated in the study of heat spreading with {S}{{L}\\text-\\text{mode}}=1.95× {I}{{p}}-0.542 and {S}{{H}\\text-\\text{mode}}=0.756× {I}{{p}}-0.872. In addition, studies on divertor peak heat load and the magnetic flux expansion factor show that both of them are proportional to plasma current. The simulation work here can act as a way to explore the power footprint widths of future tokamak fusion devices such as ITER and the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR).
Processing Approach of Non-linear Adjustment Models in the Space of Non-linear Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Chaokui; ZHU Qing; SONG Chengfang
2003-01-01
This paper investigates the mathematic features of non-linear models and discusses the processing way of non-linear factors which contributes to the non-linearity of a nonlinear model. On the basis of the error definition, this paper puts forward a new adjustment criterion, SGPE.Last, this paper investigates the solution of a non-linear regression model in the non-linear model space and makes the comparison between the estimated values in non-linear model space and those in linear model space.
The Optimal Solution of the Model with Physical and Human Capital Adjustment Costs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
RAO Lan-lan; CAI Dong-han
2004-01-01
We prove that the model with physical and human capital adjustment costs has optimal solution when the production function is increasing return and the structure of vetor fields of the model changes substantially when the prodution function from decreasing return turns to increasing return.And it is shown that the economy is improved when the coefficients of adjustment costs become small.
A New Method for Identifying the Model Error of Adjustment System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAO Benzao; ZHANG Chaoyu
2005-01-01
Some theory problems affecting parameter estimation are discussed in this paper. Influence and transformation between errors of stochastic and functional models is pointed out as well. For choosing the best adjustment model, a formula, which is different from the literatures existing methods, for estimating and identifying the model error, is proposed. On the basis of the proposed formula, an effective approach of selecting the best model of adjustment system is given.
Rank-Defect Adjustment Model for Survey-Line Systematic Errors in Marine Survey Net
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
In this paper,the structure of systematic and random errors in marine survey net are discussed in detail and the adjustment method for observations of marine survey net is studied,in which the rank-defect characteristic is discovered first up to now.On the basis of the survey-line systematic error model,the formulae of the rank-defect adjustment model are deduced according to modern adjustment theory.An example of calculations with really observed data is carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of this adjustment model.Moreover,it is proved that the semi-systematic error correction method used at present in marine gravimetry in China is a special case of the adjustment model presented in this paper.
ASPECTS OF DESIGN PROCESS AND CAD MODELLING OF AN ADJUSTABLE CENTRIFUGAL COUPLING
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Adrian BUDALĂ
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with constructive and functional elements of an adjustable coupling with friction shoes and adjustable driving. Also, the paper shows few stages of the design process, some advantages of the using CAD software and some comparative results prototype vs. CAD model.
Holahan, Charles J.; And Others
1995-01-01
An integrative predictive model was applied to responses of 241 college freshmen to examine interrelationships among parental support, adaptive coping strategies, and psychological adjustment. Social support from both parents and a nonconflictual parental relationship were positively associated with adolescents' psychological adjustment. (SLD)
Meyer, Andrew J; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J
2017-01-01
Neuromusculoskeletal disorders affecting walking ability are often difficult to manage, in part due to limited understanding of how a patient's lower extremity muscle excitations contribute to the patient's lower extremity joint moments. To assist in the study of these disorders, researchers have developed electromyography (EMG) driven neuromusculoskeletal models utilizing scaled generic musculoskeletal geometry. While these models can predict individual muscle contributions to lower extremity joint moments during walking, the accuracy of the predictions can be hindered by errors in the scaled geometry. This study presents a novel EMG-driven modeling method that automatically adjusts surrogate representations of the patient's musculoskeletal geometry to improve prediction of lower extremity joint moments during walking. In addition to commonly adjusted neuromusculoskeletal model parameters, the proposed method adjusts model parameters defining muscle-tendon lengths, velocities, and moment arms. We evaluated our EMG-driven modeling method using data collected from a high-functioning hemiparetic subject walking on an instrumented treadmill at speeds ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 m/s. EMG-driven model parameter values were calibrated to match inverse dynamic moments for five degrees of freedom in each leg while keeping musculoskeletal geometry close to that of an initial scaled musculoskeletal model. We found that our EMG-driven modeling method incorporating automated adjustment of musculoskeletal geometry predicted net joint moments during walking more accurately than did the same method without geometric adjustments. Geometric adjustments improved moment prediction errors by 25% on average and up to 52%, with the largest improvements occurring at the hip. Predicted adjustments to musculoskeletal geometry were comparable to errors reported in the literature between scaled generic geometric models and measurements made from imaging data. Our results demonstrate that with
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Werner, W.; Bueker, P. [Trier Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geobotanik
2000-07-01
To investigate the dose response of clover-leaves to ozone exposure a model of the stoma opening width was developed. It was based on leaf conductance measurements of white clover-clones who were carried out under field-conditions and under defined conditions for the parameters temperature, photosynthetic active radiation and vapour pressure deficit in the laboratory. The field-model predicts the leaf conductance with a smaller coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}=0,61 respectively 0,57) than the lab-model (r{sup 2}=0,98) but is more suitable to estimate potential ozone fluxes. (orig.) [German] Zur Bestimmung des Ozonflusses in Weisskleeblaettern wurde mit Hilfe Kuenstlicher Neuronaler Netze (ANN) ein Modell der Spaltoeffnungsweite entwickelt, das auf Messungen der Blattleitfaehigkeit basiert. Diese Messungen wurden einerseits im Labor unter definierten Bedingungen der Parameter Temperatur, Photosynthetisch Aktive Strahlung und Wasserdampfsaettigungsdefizit der Luft und andererseits unter Freiland-Bedingungen durchgefuehrt. Das Modell aus den Labormessungen sagt mit hohem Bestimmtheitsmass (r{sup 2}=0.98) Blattleitfaehigkeiten vorher, zeigt allerdings Schwaechen in der Uebertragbarkeit auf Freilandmessungen, waehrend das freiland-Modell bei geringerem Bestimmtheismass (r{sup 2}=0,61 bzw. 0,57) realistischere Blattleitfaehigkeit modelliert und sich besser zur Berechnung potentieller Ozonfluesse eignet. (orig.)
Modeling of an Adjustable Beam Solid State Light Project
Clark, Toni
2015-01-01
This proposal is for the development of a computational model of a prototype variable beam light source using optical modeling software, Zemax Optics Studio. The variable beam light source would be designed to generate flood, spot, and directional beam patterns, while maintaining the same average power usage. The optical model would demonstrate the possibility of such a light source and its ability to address several issues: commonality of design, human task variability, and light source design process improvements. An adaptive lighting solution that utilizes the same electronics footprint and power constraints while addressing variability of lighting needed for the range of exploration tasks can save costs and allow for the development of common avionics for lighting controls.
The relationship of values to adjustment in illness: a model for nursing practice.
Harvey, R M
1992-04-01
This paper proposes a model of the relationship between values, in particular health value, and adjustment to illness. The importance of values as well as the need for value change are described in the literature related to adjustment to physical disability and chronic illness. An empirical model, however, that explains the relationship of values to adjustment or adaptation has not been found by this researcher. Balance theory and its application to the abstract and perceived cognitions of health value and health perception are described here to explain the relationship of values like health value to outcomes associated with adjustment or adaptation to illness. The proposed model is based on the balance theories of Heider, Festinger and Feather. Hypotheses based on the model were tested and supported in a study of 100 adults with visible and invisible chronic illness. Nursing interventions based on the model are described and suggestions for further research discussed.
Mixed continuous/discrete time modelling with exact time adjustments
Rovers, K.C.; Kuper, Jan; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
2011-01-01
Many systems interact with their physical environment. Design of such systems need a modelling and simulation tool which can deal with both the continuous and discrete aspects. However, most current tools are not adequately able to do so, as they implement both continuous and discrete time signals
R.M. Solow Adjusted Model of Economic Growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion Gh. Rosca
2007-05-01
The analysis part of the model is based on the study of the equilibrium to the continuous case with some interpretations of the discreet one, by using the state diagram. The optimization problem at the economic level is also used; it is built up of a specified number of representative consumers and firms in order to reveal the interaction between these elements.
Salwen, Jessica K; O'Leary, K Daniel
2013-07-01
Four hundred and fifty-three married or cohabitating couples participated in the current study. A meditational model of men's perpetration of sexual coercion within an intimate relationship was examined based on past theories and known correlates of rape and sexual coercion. The latent constructs of adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style were examined. Adjustment problem variables included perceived stress, perceived low social support, and marital discord. Maladaptive relational style variables included psychological aggression, dominance, and jealousy. Sexual coercion was a combined measure of men's reported perpetration and women's reported victimization. As hypothesized, adjustment problems significantly predicted sexual coercion. Within the meditational model, adjustment problems were significantly correlated with maladaptive relational style, and maladaptive relational style significantly predicted sexual coercion. Once maladaptive relational style was introduced as a mediator, adjustment problems no longer significantly predicted sexual coercion. Implications for treatment, limitations, and future research are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joki, R. K.; Grytten, F.; Hayman, Brian
2016-01-01
-scale bridging and the multi-axial state of stress in the test specimen. The fracture resistance is calculated from the applied moments, the elastic material properties and the geometry of the test specimen. The cohesive law is then determined in a three step procedure: 1) Obtain the bridging law...... that the changing state of stress and deformation across the width of the test specimen is taken into account. The changing state of stress and deformation across the specimen width is shown to be significant for small openings (small fracture process zone size). This will also be important for the initial part......The cohesive law for Mode I delamination in glass fibre Non-Crimped Fabric reinforced vinylester is determined for use in finite element models. The cohesive law is derived from a delamination test based on DCB specimens loaded with pure bending moments taking into account the presence of large...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmet Mete Vural
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design details of a two-level space vector pulse width modulation algorithm in PSCAD that is able to generate pulses for three-phase two-level DC/AC converters with two different switching patterns. The presented FORTRAN code is generic and can be easily modified to meet many other kinds of space vector modulation strategies. The code is also editable for hardware programming. The new component is tested and verified by comparing its output as six gating signals with those of a similar component in MATLAB library. Moreover the component is used to generate digital signals for closed-loop control of STATCOM for reactive power compensation in PSCAD. This add-on can be an effective tool to give students better understanding of the space vector modulation algorithm for different control tasks in power electronics area, and can motivate them for learning.
Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes
2012-11-01
Rankine Vortex (RV) model [25], the SLOSH model [28], the Holland model [29], the vortex simulation model [30], and the Willoughby and Rahn model [31...www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm where Pn ¼ Pc 20:69 þ 1:33Vm þ 0:11u (3) Willoughby et al. [34] provide an alternative formula to estimate Rm as a function of...MacAfee and Pearson [26], and Willoughby et al. [34] also made adjustments which were tailored for mid- latitude applications. 3 Adjustments to the RV
On the compensation between cloud feedback and cloud adjustment in climate models
Chung, Eui-Seok; Soden, Brian J.
2017-04-01
Intermodel compensation between cloud feedback and rapid cloud adjustment has important implications for the range of model-inferred climate sensitivity. Although this negative intermodel correlation exists in both realistic (e.g., coupled ocean-atmosphere models) and idealized (e.g., aqua-planet) model configurations, the compensation appears to be stronger in the latter. The cause of the compensation between feedback and adjustment, and its dependence on model configuration remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine the characteristics of the cloud feedback and adjustment in model simulations with differing complexity, and analyze the causes responsible for their compensation. We show that in all model configurations, the intermodel compensation between cloud feedback and cloud adjustment largely results from offsetting changes in marine boundary-layer clouds. The greater prevalence of these cloud types in aqua-planet models is a likely contributor to the larger correlation between feedback and adjustment in those configurations. It is also shown that differing circulation changes in the aqua-planet configuration of some models act to amplify the intermodel range and sensitivity of the cloud radiative response by about a factor of 2.
论生产函数调整模型%Study on adjustable production function model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
葛新权
2003-01-01
Cobb-Douglas production function is a nonlinear model which is most frequently used and can beenchanged into linear model. There is no doubt for the reasonability of this logarithm linearization. Thispaper gives an new proposition on the basis of deeper analysis that there is a defect with this linearization,hence adjustable production function model is proposed to eliminate it.
Schlyter, F; Svensson, M; Zhang, Q H; Knízek, M; Krokene, P; Ivarsson, P; Birgersson, G
2001-07-01
Pheromone communication systems have a reliable signal with a restricted window of amounts and ratios released and perceived. We propose a model based on a Gaussian response profile that allows a quantification of the response peak (location of optimum) and a measure of the peak width (response window). Interpreting the Gaussian curve, fitted by nonlinear regression (NLR), as a standard normal distribution, the peak location equals the mean (it) and the window width equals 2 x the standard deviation (2sigma). The NLR procedure can provide an objective measure for both peak location and width for a wide range of data sets. Four empirical data sets as well as 10 literature data sets were analyzed. The double-spined spruce engraver, Ips duplicatus, was field tested in four populations to find the optimum proportion for attraction to the two male aggregation pheromone components, ipsdienol (Id) and (E)-myrcenol(EM), ranging from 0 to 100% of Id. Tests in Norway and the Czech Republic confirmed the preference of western populations for a blend between 50 and 90% Id. A population in Inner Mongolia showed a preference for traps with the 10 and 50% Id baits. The NLR fitted values for response peak and width (mu; 2sigma) were: Norway 0.64, 0.73; Czech Republic 0.53, 0.73; NE China 0.77, 0.29; and Inner Mongolia 0.33, 0.50. The signal produced by Norwegian field-collected males had a narrower window width (2sigma = 0.12). Males of the maize stem borer, Chilo partellus, were tested in a flight tunnel for their response to variation in the two major female sex pheromone gland components, (Z)- l1-hexadecenal and the corresponding alcohol (OH). Variation of the alcohol in seven levels from 2 to 29% OH showed the highest male response for 17% OH. For all behavioral steps, the peak of male response was near mu = 0.14, while the window width fell from 2sigma = 0.5 to 0.2 for eight sequential behavioral steps from take-off to copulation. Female production had a similar peak location
Modeling and Control of the Redundant Parallel Adjustment Mechanism on a Deployable Antenna Panel.
Tian, Lili; Bao, Hong; Wang, Meng; Duan, Xuechao
2016-10-01
With the aim of developing multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) coupling systems with a redundant parallel adjustment mechanism on the deployable antenna panel, a structural control integrated design methodology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the modal information from the finite element model of the structure of the antenna panel is extracted, and then the mathematical model is established with the Hamilton principle; Secondly, the discrete Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller is added to the model in order to control the actuators and adjust the shape of the panel. Finally, the engineering practicality of the modeling and control method based on finite element analysis simulation is verified.
Modeling and Control of the Redundant Parallel Adjustment Mechanism on a Deployable Antenna Panel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lili Tian
2016-10-01
Full Text Available With the aim of developing multiple input and multiple output (MIMO coupling systems with a redundant parallel adjustment mechanism on the deployable antenna panel, a structural control integrated design methodology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the modal information from the finite element model of the structure of the antenna panel is extracted, and then the mathematical model is established with the Hamilton principle; Secondly, the discrete Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR controller is added to the model in order to control the actuators and adjust the shape of the panel. Finally, the engineering practicality of the modeling and control method based on finite element analysis simulation is verified.
Steps in the construction and verification of an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to empirically test an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment during adolescence, with psychosocial adjustment during this stage being understood as a combination of school adjustment (or school engagement and subjective well-being. According to the hypothetic model, psychosocial adjustment depends on self-concept and resilience, which in turn act as mediators of the influence of perceived social support (from family, peers and teachers on this adjustment. Participants were 1250 secondary school students (638 girls and 612 boys aged between 12 and 15 years (Mean = 13.72; SD = 1.09. The results provided evidence of: (a the influence of all three types of perceived support on subject resilience and self-concept, with perceived family support being particularly important in this respect; (b the influence of the support received from teachers on school adjustment and support received from the family on psychological wellbeing; and (c the absence of any direct influence of peer support on psychosocial adjustment, although indirect influence was observed through the psychological variables studied. These results are discussed from an educational perspective and in terms of future research
Contact Angle Adjustment in Equation of States Based Pseudo-Potential Model
Hu, Anjie; Uddin, Rizwan
2015-01-01
Single component pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann model has been widely applied in multiphase simulation due to its simplicity and stability. In many research, it has been claimed that this model can be stable for density ratios larger than 1000, however, the application of the model is still limited to small density ratios when the contact angle is considered. The reason is that the original contact angle adjustment method influences the stability of the model. Moreover, simulation results in present work show that, by applying the contact angle adjustment method, the density distribution near the wall is artificially changed, and the contact angle is dependent on the surface tension. Hence, it is very inconvenient to apply this method with a fixed contact angle, and the accuracy of the model cannot be guaranteed. To solve these problems, a contact angle adjustment method based on the geometry analysis is proposed and numerically compared with the original method. Simulation results show that, with the new...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Moreno B, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2002-07-01
This model adjusts the experimental results for thermoluminescence according to the equation: I (T) = I (a{sub i}* exp (-1/b{sub i} * (T-C{sub i})) where: a{sub i}, b{sub i}, c{sub i} are the i-Th peak adjusted to a gaussian curve. The adjustments of the curve can be operated manual or analytically using the macro function and the solver.xla complement installed previously in the computational system. In this work it is shown: 1. The information of experimental data from a LiF curve obtained from the Physics Institute of UNAM which the data adjustment model is operated in the macro type. 2. A LiF curve of four peaks obtained from Harshaw information simulated in Microsoft Excel, discussed in previous works, as a reference not in macro. (Author)
Average radiation widths and the giant dipole resonance width
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnould, M.; Thielemann, F.K.
1982-11-01
The average E1 radiation width can be calculated in terms of the energy Esub(G) and width GAMMAsub(G) of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR). While various models can predict Esub(G) quite reliably, the theoretical situation regarding ..lambda..sub(G) is much less satisfactory. We propose a simple phenomenological model which is able to provide GAMMAsub(G) values in good agreement with experimental data for spherical or deformed intermediate and heavy nuclei. In particular, this model can account for shell effects in GAMMAsub(G), and can be used in conjunction with the droplet model. The GAMMAsub(G) values derived in such a way are used to compute average E1 radiation widths which are quite close to the experimental values. The method proposed for the calculation of GAMMAsub(G) also appears to be well suited when the GDR characteristics of extended sets of nuclei are required, as is namely the case in nuclear astrophysics.
Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.
2011-01-01
Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median 211%) caused by the hydrologic model's apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen-Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors' findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climatechange impacts on water. Copyright ?? 2011, Paper 15-001; 35,952 words, 3 Figures, 0 Animations, 1 Tables.
Praskievicz, Sarah; Bartlein, Patrick
2014-09-01
An emerging approach to downscaling the projections from General Circulation Models (GCMs) to scales relevant for basin hydrology is to use output of GCMs to force higher-resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs). With spatial resolution often in the tens of kilometers, however, even RCM output will likely fail to resolve local topography that may be climatically significant in high-relief basins. Here we develop and apply an approach for downscaling RCM output using local topographic lapse rates (empirically-estimated spatially and seasonally variable changes in climate variables with elevation). We calculate monthly local topographic lapse rates from the 800-m Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) dataset, which is based on regressions of observed climate against topographic variables. We then use these lapse rates to elevationally correct two sources of regional climate-model output: (1) the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a retrospective dataset produced from a regional forecasting model constrained by observations, and (2) a range of baseline climate scenarios from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), which is produced by a series of RCMs driven by GCMs. By running a calibrated and validated hydrologic model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), using observed station data and elevationally-adjusted NARR and NARCCAP output, we are able to estimate the sensitivity of hydrologic modeling to the source of the input climate data. Topographic correction of regional climate-model data is a promising method for modeling the hydrology of mountainous basins for which no weather station datasets are available or for simulating hydrology under past or future climates.
Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure
Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.
2004-01-01
This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…
A Model of Divorce Adjustment for Use in Family Service Agencies.
Faust, Ruth Griffith
1987-01-01
Presents a combined educationally and therapeutically oriented model of treatment to (1) control and lessen disruptive experiences associated with divorce; (2) enable individuals to improve their skill in coping with adjustment reactions to divorce; and (3) modify the pressures and response of single parenthood. Describes the model's four-session…
Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States
Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.
2007-01-01
Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…
Richardson, David B; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cole, Stephen R
2014-11-01
Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950-2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950-2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer--a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented.
Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet
2015-09-01
Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes.
Sun, Wenchao; Ishidaira, Hiroshi; Bastola, Satish; Yu, Jingshan
2015-05-01
Lacking observation data for calibration constrains applications of hydrological models to estimate daily time series of streamflow. Recent improvements in remote sensing enable detection of river water-surface width from satellite observations, making possible the tracking of streamflow from space. In this study, a method calibrating hydrological models using river width derived from remote sensing is demonstrated through application to the ungauged Irrawaddy Basin in Myanmar. Generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) is selected as a tool for automatic calibration and uncertainty analysis. Of 50,000 randomly generated parameter sets, 997 are identified as behavioral, based on comparing model simulation with satellite observations. The uncertainty band of streamflow simulation can span most of 10-year average monthly observed streamflow for moderate and high flow conditions. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency is 95.7% for the simulated streamflow at the 50% quantile. These results indicate that application to the target basin is generally successful. Beyond evaluating the method in a basin lacking streamflow data, difficulties and possible solutions for applications in the real world are addressed to promote future use of the proposed method in more ungauged basins. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grbac, Zorana; Scherer, Matthias; Zagst, Rudi
2016-01-01
This book presents 20 peer-reviewed chapters on current aspects of derivatives markets and derivative pricing. The contributions, written by leading researchers in the field as well as experienced authors from the financial industry, present the state of the art in: • Modeling counterparty credit risk: credit valuation adjustment, debit valuation adjustment, funding valuation adjustment, and wrong way risk. • Pricing and hedging in fixed-income markets and multi-curve interest-rate modeling. • Recent developments concerning contingent convertible bonds, the measuring of basis spreads, and the modeling of implied correlations. The recent financial crisis has cast tremendous doubts on the classical view on derivative pricing. Now, counterparty credit risk and liquidity issues are integral aspects of a prudent valuation procedure and the reference interest rates are represented by a multitude of curves according to their different periods and maturities. A panel discussion included in the book (featuring D...
Adjusting a cancer mortality-prediction model for disease status-related eligibility criteria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kimmel Marek
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Volunteering participants in disease studies tend to be healthier than the general population partially due to specific enrollment criteria. Using modeling to accurately predict outcomes of cohort studies enrolling volunteers requires adjusting for the bias introduced in this way. Here we propose a new method to account for the effect of a specific form of healthy volunteer bias resulting from imposing disease status-related eligibility criteria, on disease-specific mortality, by explicitly modeling the length of the time interval between the moment when the subject becomes ineligible for the study, and the outcome. Methods Using survival time data from 1190 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center, we model the time from clinical lung cancer diagnosis to death using an exponential distribution to approximate the length of this interval for a study where lung cancer death serves as the outcome. Incorporating this interval into our previously developed lung cancer risk model, we adjust for the effect of disease status-related eligibility criteria in predicting the number of lung cancer deaths in the control arm of CARET. The effect of the adjustment using the MD Anderson-derived approximation is compared to that based on SEER data. Results Using the adjustment developed in conjunction with our existing lung cancer model, we are able to accurately predict the number of lung cancer deaths observed in the control arm of CARET. Conclusions The resulting adjustment was accurate in predicting the lower rates of disease observed in the early years while still maintaining reasonable prediction ability in the later years of the trial. This method could be used to adjust for, or predict the duration and relative effect of any possible biases related to disease-specific eligibility criteria in modeling studies of volunteer-based cohorts.
Contact angle adjustment in equation-of-state-based pseudopotential model.
Hu, Anjie; Li, Longjian; Uddin, Rizwan; Liu, Dong
2016-05-01
The single component pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model has been widely applied in multiphase simulation due to its simplicity and stability. In many studies, it has been claimed that this model can be stable for density ratios larger than 1000. However, the application of the model is still limited to small density ratios when the contact angle is considered. The reason is that the original contact angle adjustment method influences the stability of the model. Moreover, simulation results in the present work show that, by applying the original contact angle adjustment method, the density distribution near the wall is artificially changed, and the contact angle is dependent on the surface tension. Hence, it is very inconvenient to apply this method with a fixed contact angle, and the accuracy of the model cannot be guaranteed. To solve these problems, a contact angle adjustment method based on the geometry analysis is proposed and numerically compared with the original method. Simulation results show that, with our contact angle adjustment method, the stability of the model is highly improved when the density ratio is relatively large, and it is independent of the surface tension.
Cassidy, Adam R
2016-01-01
The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors.
Hybrid Exotic Meson Decay Width
Cook, M S
2005-01-01
We present results of a decay width calculation for a hybrid exotic meson(h, JPC=1-+) in the decay channel h to pi+a1. This calculation uses quenched lattice QCD and Luescher's finite box method. Operators for the h and pi+a1 states are used in a correlation matrix which was expanded by varying the smearing and fuzzing levels at source and sink points. Scattering phase shifts for a discrete set of relative pi+a1 momenta are determined using eigenvalues of the correlation matrix and formulae derived by Luescher. The phase shift data is very sparse, but fits to a Breit-Wigner model are made, resulting in a decay width of about 80 MeV.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vansteelandt, S.; Martinussen, Torben; Tchetgen, E. J Tchetgen
2014-01-01
's dependence on time or on the auxiliary covariates is misspecified, and even away from the null hypothesis of no treatment effect. We furthermore show that adjustment for auxiliary baseline covariates does not change the asymptotic variance of the estimator of the effect of a randomized treatment. We conclude......We consider additive hazard models (Aalen, 1989) for the effect of a randomized treatment on a survival outcome, adjusting for auxiliary baseline covariates. We demonstrate that the Aalen least-squares estimator of the treatment effect parameter is asymptotically unbiased, even when the hazard...... that, in view of its robustness against model misspecification, Aalen least-squares estimation is attractive for evaluating treatment effects on a survival outcome in randomized experiments, and the primary reasons to consider baseline covariate adjustment in such settings could be interest in subgroup...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Lee
2012-01-01
Full Text Available State updating of distributed rainfall-runoff models via streamflow assimilation is subject to overfitting because large dimensionality of the state space of the model may render the assimilation problem seriously under-determined. To examine the issue in the context of operational hydrology, we carry out a set of real-world experiments in which streamflow data is assimilated into gridded Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA and kinematic-wave routing models of the US National Weather Service (NWS Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM with the variational data assimilation technique. Study basins include four basins in Oklahoma and five basins in Texas. To assess the sensitivity of data assimilation performance to dimensionality reduction in the control vector, we used nine different spatiotemporal adjustment scales, where state variables are adjusted in a lumped, semi-distributed, or distributed fashion and biases in precipitation and potential evaporation (PE are adjusted hourly, 6-hourly, or kept time-invariant. For each adjustment scale, three different streamflow assimilation scenarios are explored, where streamflow observations at basin interior points, at the basin outlet, or at both interior points and the outlet are assimilated. The streamflow assimilation experiments with nine different basins show that the optimum spatiotemporal adjustment scale varies from one basin to another and may be different for streamflow analysis and prediction in all of the three streamflow assimilation scenarios. The most preferred adjustment scale for seven out of nine basins is found to be the distributed, hourly scale, despite the fact that several independent validation results at this adjustment scale indicated the occurrence of overfitting. Basins with highly correlated interior and outlet flows tend to be less sensitive to the adjustment scale and could benefit more from streamflow assimilation. In comparison to outlet flow assimilation
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Thompson, Taylor L
2016-07-01
The model minority image is a common and pervasive stereotype that Asian American adolescents must navigate. Using multiwave data from 159 adolescents from Asian American backgrounds (mean age at initial recruitment = 15.03, SD = .92; 60 % female; 74 % US-born), the current study targeted unexplored aspects of the model minority experience in conjunction with more traditionally measured experiences of negative discrimination. When examining normative changes, perceptions of model minority stereotyping increased over the high school years while perceptions of discrimination decreased. Both experiences were not associated with each other, suggesting independent forms of social interactions. Model minority stereotyping generally promoted academic and socioemotional adjustment, whereas discrimination hindered outcomes. Moreover, in terms of academic adjustment, the model minority stereotype appears to protect against the detrimental effect of discrimination. Implications of the complex duality of adolescents' social interactions are discussed.
Glacial isostatic adjustment model with composite 3-D Earth rheology for Fennoscandia
Van der Wal, W.; Barnhoorn, A.; Stocchi, P.; Gradmann, S.; Wu, P.; Drury, M.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.
2013-01-01
Models for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) can provide constraints on rheology of the mantle if past ice thickness variations are assumed to be known. The Pleistocene ice loading histories that are used to obtain such constraints are based on an a priori 1-D mantle viscosity profile that assumes
A Threshold Model of Social Support, Adjustment, and Distress after Breast Cancer Treatment
Mallinckrodt, Brent; Armer, Jane M.; Heppner, P. Paul
2012-01-01
This study examined a threshold model that proposes that social support exhibits a curvilinear association with adjustment and distress, such that support in excess of a critical threshold level has decreasing incremental benefits. Women diagnosed with a first occurrence of breast cancer (N = 154) completed survey measures of perceived support…
A Four-Part Model of Autonomy during Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Adjustment
Lamborn, Susie D.; Groh, Kelly
2009-01-01
We found support for a four-part model of autonomy that links connectedness, separation, detachment, and agency to adjustment during emerging adulthood. Based on self-report surveys of 285 American college students, expected associations among the autonomy variables were found. In addition, agency, as measured by self-reliance, predicted lower…
Designing a model to improve first year student adjustment to university
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasrin Nikfal Azar
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The increase in the number of universities for the last decade in Iran increases the need for higher education institutions to manage their enrollment, more effectively. The purpose of this study is to design a model to improve the first year university student adjustment by examining the effects of academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, satisfaction, high school GPA and demographic variables on student’s adjustment to university. The study selects a sample of 357 students out of 4585 bachelor first year student who were enrolled in different programs. Three questionnaires were used for collection of data for this study, namely academic self-efficacy, academic motivation and student satisfaction with university. Structural equation modeling was employed using AMOS version7.16 to test the adequacy of the hypothesized model. Inclusion of additional relationship in the initial model improved the goodness indices considerably. The results suggest that academic self-efficacy were related positively to adjustment, both directly (B=0.35 and indirectly through student satisfaction (B=0.14 and academic motivation (B=0.9. The results indicate a need to develop programs that effectively promote the self-efficacy of first year student of student to increase college adjustment and consequently retention rate.
A Study of Perfectionism, Attachment, and College Student Adjustment: Testing Mediational Models.
Hood, Camille A.; Kubal, Anne E.; Pfaller, Joan; Rice, Kenneth G.
Mediational models predicting college students' adjustment were tested using regression analyses. Contemporary adult attachment theory was employed to explore the cognitive/affective mechanisms by which adult attachment and perfectionism affect various aspects of psychological functioning. Consistent with theoretical expectations, results…
Systematic review of risk adjustment models of hospital length of stay (LOS).
Lu, Mingshan; Sajobi, Tolulope; Lucyk, Kelsey; Lorenzetti, Diane; Quan, Hude
2015-04-01
Policy decisions in health care, such as hospital performance evaluation and performance-based budgeting, require an accurate prediction of hospital length of stay (LOS). This paper provides a systematic review of risk adjustment models for hospital LOS, and focuses primarily on studies that use administrative data. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, PubMed, and EconLit were searched for studies that tested the performance of risk adjustment models in predicting hospital LOS. We included studies that tested models developed for the general inpatient population, and excluded those that analyzed risk factors only correlated with LOS, impact analyses, or those that used disease-specific scales and indexes to predict LOS. Our search yielded 3973 abstracts, of which 37 were included. These studies used various disease groupers and severity/morbidity indexes to predict LOS. Few models were developed specifically for explaining hospital LOS; most focused primarily on explaining resource spending and the costs associated with hospital LOS, and applied these models to hospital LOS. We found a large variation in predictive power across different LOS predictive models. The best model performance for most studies fell in the range of 0.30-0.60, approximately. The current risk adjustment methodologies for predicting LOS are still limited in terms of models, predictors, and predictive power. One possible approach to improving the performance of LOS risk adjustment models is to include more disease-specific variables, such as disease-specific or condition-specific measures, and functional measures. For this approach, however, more comprehensive and standardized data are urgently needed. In addition, statistical methods and evaluation tools more appropriate to LOS should be tested and adopted.
Crosilla, Fabio; Beinat, Alberto
The paper reviews at first some aspects of the generalised Procrustes analysis (GP) and outlines the analogies with the block adjustment by independent models. On this basis, an innovative solution of the block adjustment problem by Procrustes algorithms and the related computer program implementation are presented and discussed. The main advantage of the new proposed method is that it avoids the conventional least squares solution. For this reason, linearisation algorithms and the knowledge of a priori approximate values for the unknown parameters are not required. Once the model coordinates of the tie points are available and at least three control points are known, the Procrustes algorithms can directly provide, without further information, the tie point ground coordinates and the exterior orientation parameters. Furthermore, some numerical block adjustment solutions obtained by the new method in different areas of North Italy are compared to the conventional solution. The very simple data input process, the less memory requirements, the low computing time and the same level of accuracy that characterise the new algorithm with respect to a conventional one are verified with these tests. A block adjustment of 11 models, with 44 tie points and 14 control points, takes just a few seconds on an Intel PIII 400 MHz computer, and the total data memory required is less than twice the allocated space for the input data. This is because most of the computations are carried out on data matrices of limited size, typically 3×3.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jing-Shang
2004-01-01
In fitting the double-differential measurements thelevelwidth broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg uncertainty.Besides level width broadening effect the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in this procedure.In general,the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed.However,the research indicates that to do so in this way the energy balance could not hold.For this reason,the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced,with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could hold exactly in the analytical form.
Adjustable box-wing model for solar radiation pressure impacting GPS satellites
Rodriguez-Solano, C. J.; Hugentobler, U.; Steigenberger, P.
2012-04-01
One of the major uncertainty sources affecting Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbits is the direct solar radiation pressure. In this paper a new model for the solar radiation pressure on GPS satellites is presented that is based on a box-wing satellite model, and assumes nominal attitude. The box-wing model is based on the physical interaction between solar radiation and satellite surfaces, and can be adjusted to fit the GPS tracking data. To compensate the effects of solar radiation pressure, the International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers employ a variety of approaches, ranging from purely empirical models based on in-orbit behavior, to physical models based on pre-launch spacecraft structural analysis. It has been demonstrated, however, that the physical models fail to predict the real orbit behavior with sufficient accuracy, mainly due to deviations from nominal attitude, inaccurately known optical properties, or aging of the satellite surfaces. The adjustable box-wing model presented in this paper is an intermediate approach between the physical/analytical models and the empirical models. The box-wing model fits the tracking data by adjusting mainly the optical properties of the satellite's surfaces. In addition, the so called Y-bias and a parameter related to a rotation lag angle of the solar panels around their rotation axis (about 1.5° for Block II/IIA and 0.5° for Block IIR) are estimated. This last parameter, not previously identified for GPS satellites, is a key factor for precise orbit determination. For this study GPS orbits are generated based on one year (2007) of tracking data, with the processing scheme derived from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). Two solutions are computed, one using the adjustable box-wing model and one using the CODE empirical model. Using this year of data the estimated parameters and orbits are analyzed. The performance of the models is comparable, when looking at orbit overlap and orbit
Evolution Scenarios at the Romanian Economy Level, Using the R.M. Solow Adjusted Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stelian Stancu
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Besides the models of M. Keynes, R.F. Harrod, E. Domar, D. Romer, Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model etc., the R.M. Solow model is part of the category which characterizes the economic growth. The paper proposes the presentation of the R.M. Solow adjusted model with specific simulation characteristics and economic growth scenario. Considering these aspects, there are presented the values obtained at the economy level, behind the simulations, about the ratio Capital on the output volume, Output volume on employee, equal with the current labour efficiency, as well as the Labour efficiency value.
Akacha, Mouna; Hutton, Jane L
2011-05-10
The Collaborative Ankle Support Trial (CAST) is a longitudinal trial of treatments for severe ankle sprains in which interest lies in the rate of improvement, the effectiveness of reminders and potentially informative missingness. A model is proposed for continuous longitudinal data with non-ignorable or informative missingness, taking into account the nature of attempts made to contact initial non-responders. The model combines a non-linear mixed model for the outcome model with logistic regression models for the reminder processes. A sensitivity analysis is used to contrast this model with the traditional selection model, where we adjust for missingness by modelling the missingness process. The conclusions that recovery is slower, and less satisfactory with age and more rapid with below knee cast than with a tubular bandage do not alter materially across all models investigated. The results also suggest that phone calls are most effective in retrieving questionnaires.
Spreading widths of doorway states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Pace, A., E-mail: depace@to.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Molinari, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica dell' Universita di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Weidenmueller, H.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)
2011-01-01
As a function of energy E, the average doorway strength function S(E)-bar of a doorway state is commonly assumed to be Lorentzian in shape and characterized by two parameters, the peak energy E{sub 0} and the spreading width {Gamma}{sup {down_arrow}}. The simple picture is modified when the density of background states that couple to the doorway state changes significantly in an energy interval of size {Gamma}{sup {down_arrow}}. For that case we derive an approximate analytical expression for S(E)-bar. We test our result successfully against numerical simulations. Our result may have important implications for shell-model calculations.
Banadaki, Yaser M.; Srivastava, Ashok
2015-09-01
The performance of graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor (GNR FET) is investigated from a numerical model based on self-consistent non-equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) formulism in mode-space with position-dependent effective mass model and tight-binding model. The model accounts for the tunneling currents on the static performance of GNR FETs in two semiconducting families of armchair GNRs (3p,0) and (3p+1,0). We conclude that increasing the GNR width in both GNR families increases the leakage current and subthreshold swing, and decreases ION/IOFF ratio. In this scenario, GNR group (3p+1,0) leads to superior off-state performance such that GNR (7,0) has off-state current close to 2.5 × 10-16 A, five orders of magnitude lower than GNR (6,0) as well as 67 mV/decade subthreshold swing which is much smaller than that of 90 mV/decade in GNR (6,0).
Detailed Theoretical Model for Adjustable Gain-Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA uses two SOAs in a ring-cavity topology: one to amplify the signal and the other to control the gain. The device was designed to maximize the output saturated power while adjusting gain to regulate power differences between packets without loss of linearity. This type of subsystem can be used for power equalisation and linear amplification in packet-based dynamic systems such as passive optical networks (PONs. A detailed theoretical model is presented in this paper to simulate the operation of the AGC-SOA, which gives a better understanding of the underlying gain clamping mechanics. Simulations and comparisons with steady-state and dynamic gain modulation experimental performance are given which validate the model.
Spin gated GDR widths at moderate temperatures
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Mukul Ish
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present the evolution of giant dipole resonance (GDR width as a function of angular momentum in the compound nucleus 144Sm in the temperature range of 1.5-2.0 MeV. The high energy γ rays emitted from the decay of excited 144Sm were measured using large NaI detector in coincidence with 4π sum spin spectrometer. GDR widths were found to comply with thermal shape fluctuation model in this temperature range over a wide range of spin. Experimental widths tend to increase rapidly at high angular momentum values.
Controlling chaos using Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and adaptive adjustment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng Yong-Ai
2006-01-01
In this paper, an approach to the control of continuous-time chaotic systems is proposed using the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model and adaptive adjustment. Sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee chaos control from Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed approach offers a systematic design procedure for stabilizing a large class of chaotic systems in the literature about chaos research. The simulation results on R(o)ssler's system verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭金运; 陶华学
2003-01-01
In order to process different kinds of observing data with different precisions, a new solution model of nonlinear dynamic integral least squares adjustment was put forward, which is not dependent on their derivatives. The partial derivative of each component in the target function is not computed while iteratively solving the problem. Especially when the nonlinear target function is more complex and very difficult to solve the problem, the method can greatly reduce the computing load.
Adjusting Felder-Silverman learning styles model for application in adaptive e-learning
Mihailović Đorđe; Despotović-Zrakić Marijana; Bogdanović Zorica; Barać Dušan; Vujin Vladimir
2012-01-01
This paper presents an approach for adjusting Felder-Silverman learning styles model for application in development of adaptive e-learning systems. Main goal of the paper is to improve the existing e-learning courses by developing a method for adaptation based on learning styles. The proposed method includes analysis of data related to students characteristics and applying the concept of personalization in creating e-learning courses. The research has been conducted at Faculty of organi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carvajal-Gamez
2012-09-01
Full Text Available When color images are processed in different color model for implementing steganographic algorithms, is important to study the quality of the host and retrieved images, since it is typically used digital filters, visibly reaching deformed images. Using a steganographic algorithm, numerical calculations performed by the computer cause errors and alterations in the test images, so we apply a proposed scaling factor depending on the number of bits of the image to adjust these errors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B.E. Carvajal-Gámez
2012-08-01
Full Text Available When color images are processed in different color model for implementing steganographic algorithms, is important to study the quality of the host and retrieved images, since it is typically used digital filters, visibly reaching deformed images. Using a steganographic algorithm, numerical calculations performed by the computer cause errors and alterations in the test images, so we apply a proposed scaling factor depending on the number of bits of the image to adjust these errors.
Li, Li; Brumback, Babette A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar
2016-08-15
Motivated by an investigation of the effect of surface water temperature on the presence of Vibrio cholerae in water samples collected from different fixed surface water monitoring sites in Haiti in different months, we investigated methods to adjust for unmeasured confounding due to either of the two crossed factors site and month. In the process, we extended previous methods that adjust for unmeasured confounding due to one nesting factor (such as site, which nests the water samples from different months) to the case of two crossed factors. First, we developed a conditional pseudolikelihood estimator that eliminates fixed effects for the levels of each of the crossed factors from the estimating equation. Using the theory of U-Statistics for independent but non-identically distributed vectors, we show that our estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal, but that its variance depends on the nuisance parameters and thus cannot be easily estimated. Consequently, we apply our estimator in conjunction with a permutation test, and we investigate use of the pigeonhole bootstrap and the jackknife for constructing confidence intervals. We also incorporate our estimator into a diagnostic test for a logistic mixed model with crossed random effects and no unmeasured confounding. For comparison, we investigate between-within models extended to two crossed factors. These generalized linear mixed models include covariate means for each level of each factor in order to adjust for the unmeasured confounding. We conduct simulation studies, and we apply the methods to the Haitian data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhang, Y J; Xue, F X; Bai, Z P
2017-03-06
The impact of maternal air pollution exposure on offspring health has received much attention. Precise and feasible exposure estimation is particularly important for clarifying exposure-response relationships and reducing heterogeneity among studies. Temporally-adjusted land use regression (LUR) models are exposure assessment methods developed in recent years that have the advantage of having high spatial-temporal resolution. Studies on the health effects of outdoor air pollution exposure during pregnancy have been increasingly carried out using this model. In China, research applying LUR models was done mostly at the model construction stage, and findings from related epidemiological studies were rarely reported. In this paper, the sources of heterogeneity and research progress of meta-analysis research on the associations between air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. The methods of the characteristics of temporally-adjusted LUR models were introduced. The current epidemiological studies on adverse pregnancy outcomes that applied this model were systematically summarized. Recommendations for the development and application of LUR models in China are presented. This will encourage the implementation of more valid exposure predictions during pregnancy in large-scale epidemiological studies on the health effects of air pollution in China.
Biologically Inspired Visual Model With Preliminary Cognition and Active Attention Adjustment.
Qiao, Hong; Xi, Xuanyang; Li, Yinlin; Wu, Wei; Li, Fengfu
2015-11-01
Recently, many computational models have been proposed to simulate visual cognition process. For example, the hierarchical Max-Pooling (HMAX) model was proposed according to the hierarchical and bottom-up structure of V1 to V4 in the ventral pathway of primate visual cortex, which could achieve position- and scale-tolerant recognition. In our previous work, we have introduced memory and association into the HMAX model to simulate visual cognition process. In this paper, we improve our theoretical framework by mimicking a more elaborate structure and function of the primate visual cortex. We will mainly focus on the new formation of memory and association in visual processing under different circumstances as well as preliminary cognition and active adjustment in the inferior temporal cortex, which are absent in the HMAX model. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) in the memory and association part, we apply deep convolutional neural networks to extract various episodic features of the objects since people use different features for object recognition. Moreover, to achieve a fast and robust recognition in the retrieval and association process, different types of features are stored in separated clusters and the feature binding of the same object is stimulated in a loop discharge manner and 2) in the preliminary cognition and active adjustment part, we introduce preliminary cognition to classify different types of objects since distinct neural circuits in a human brain are used for identification of various types of objects. Furthermore, active cognition adjustment of occlusion and orientation is implemented to the model to mimic the top-down effect in human cognition process. Finally, our model is evaluated on two face databases CAS-PEAL-R1 and AR. The results demonstrate that our model exhibits its efficiency on visual recognition process with much lower memory storage requirement and a better performance compared with the traditional purely computational
Masses, widths, and leptonic widths of the higher upsilon resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lovelock, D.M.J.; Horstkotte, J.E.; Klopfenstein, C.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Romero, L.; Schamberger, R.D.; Youssef, S.; Franzini, P.; Son, D.; Tuts, P.M.
1985-02-04
The masses, total widths, and leptonic widths of three triplet s-wave bb-bar states UPSILON(4S), UPSILON(5S), and UPSILON(6S) are determined from measurements of the e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation cross section into hadrons for 10.55
Brix, H.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Jahn, O.; Wang, D.; Bowman, K.; Zhang, H.
2015-11-01
The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Project aims to attribute changes in the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide to spatially resolved fluxes by utilizing the full suite of NASA data, models, and assimilation capabilities. For the oceanic part of this project, we introduce ECCO2-Darwin, a new ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model based on combining the following pre-existing components: (i) a full-depth, eddying, global-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), (ii) an adjoint-method-based estimate of ocean circulation from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) project, (iii) the MIT ecosystem model "Darwin", and (iv) a marine carbon chemistry model. Air-sea gas exchange coefficients and initial conditions of dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and oxygen are adjusted using a Green's Functions approach in order to optimize modeled air-sea CO2 fluxes. Data constraints include observations of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) for 2009-2010, global air-sea CO2 flux estimates, and the seasonal cycle of the Takahashi et al. (2009) Atlas. The model sensitivity experiments (or Green's Functions) include simulations that start from different initial conditions as well as experiments that perturb air-sea gas exchange parameters and the ratio of particulate inorganic to organic carbon. The Green's Functions approach yields a linear combination of these sensitivity experiments that minimizes model-data differences. The resulting initial conditions and gas exchange coefficients are then used to integrate the ECCO2-Darwin model forward. Despite the small number (six) of control parameters, the adjusted simulation is significantly closer to the data constraints (37% cost function reduction, i.e., reduction in the model-data difference, relative to the baseline simulation) and to independent observations (e.g., alkalinity). The adjusted air-sea gas
Improved Water Network Macroscopic Model Utilising Auto-Control Adjusting Valve by PLS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xia; ZHAO Xinhua; WANG Xiaodong
2005-01-01
In order to overcome the low precision and weak applicability problems of the current municipal water network state simulation model, the water network structure is studied. Since the telemetry system has been applied increasingly in the water network, and in order to reflect the network operational condition more accurately, a new water network macroscopic model is developed by taking the auto-control adjusting valve opening state into consideration. Then for highly correlated or collinear independent variables in the model, the partial least squares (PLS) regression method provides a model solution which can distinguish between the system information and the noisy data. Finally, a hypothetical water network is introduced for validating the model. The simulation results show that the relative error is less than 5.2%, indicating that the model is efficient and feasible, and has better generalization performance.
Remote Sensing-based Methodologies for Snow Model Adjustments in Operational Streamflow Prediction
Bender, S.; Miller, W. P.; Bernard, B.; Stokes, M.; Oaida, C. M.; Painter, T. H.
2015-12-01
Water management agencies rely on hydrologic forecasts issued by operational agencies such as NOAA's Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). The CBRFC has partnered with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under funding from NASA to incorporate research-oriented, remotely-sensed snow data into CBRFC operations and to improve the accuracy of CBRFC forecasts. The partnership has yielded valuable analysis of snow surface albedo as represented in JPL's MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) data, across the CBRFC's area of responsibility. When dust layers within a snowpack emerge, reducing the snow surface albedo, the snowmelt rate may accelerate. The CBRFC operational snow model (SNOW17) is a temperature-index model that lacks explicit representation of snowpack surface albedo. CBRFC forecasters monitor MODDRFS data for emerging dust layers and may manually adjust SNOW17 melt rates. A technique was needed for efficient and objective incorporation of the MODDRFS data into SNOW17. Initial development focused in Colorado, where dust-on-snow events frequently occur. CBRFC forecasters used retrospective JPL-CBRFC analysis and developed a quantitative relationship between MODDRFS data and mean areal temperature (MAT) data. The relationship was used to generate adjusted, MODDRFS-informed input for SNOW17. Impacts of the MODDRFS-SNOW17 MAT adjustment method on snowmelt-driven streamflow prediction varied spatially and with characteristics of the dust deposition events. The largest improvements occurred in southwestern Colorado, in years with intense dust deposition events. Application of the method in other regions of Colorado and in "low dust" years resulted in minimal impact. The MODDRFS-SNOW17 MAT technique will be implemented in CBRFC operations in late 2015, prior to spring 2016 runoff. Collaborative investigation of remote sensing-based adjustment methods for the CBRFC operational hydrologic forecasting environment will continue over the next several years.
Steinhauser, Marco; Eichele, Heike; Juvodden, Hilde T; Huster, Rene J; Ullsperger, Markus; Eichele, Tom
2012-01-01
Errors in choice tasks are preceded by gradual changes in brain activity presumably related to fluctuations in cognitive control that promote the occurrence of errors. In the present paper, we use connectionist modeling to explore the hypothesis that these fluctuations reflect (mal-)adaptive adjustments of cognitive control. We considered ERP data from a study in which the probability of conflict in an Eriksen-flanker task was manipulated in sub-blocks of trials. Errors in these data were preceded by a gradual decline of N2 amplitude. After fitting a connectionist model of conflict adaptation to the data, we analyzed simulated N2 amplitude, simulated response times (RTs), and stimulus history preceding errors in the model, and found that the model produced the same pattern as obtained in the empirical data. Moreover, this pattern is not found in alternative models in which cognitive control varies randomly or in an oscillating manner. Our simulations suggest that the decline of N2 amplitude preceding errors reflects an increasing adaptation of cognitive control to specific task demands, which leads to an error when these task demands change. Taken together, these results provide evidence that error-preceding brain activity can reflect adaptive adjustments rather than unsystematic fluctuations of cognitive control, and therefore, that these errors are actually a consequence of the adaptiveness of human cognition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng Yongai, E-mail: zhengyongai@163.co [Department of Computer, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Nian Yibei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Wang Dejin [Department of Computer, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China)
2010-12-01
In this Letter, a kind of novel model, called the generalized Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model, is first developed by extending the conventional T-S fuzzy model. Then, a simple but efficient method to control fractional order chaotic systems is proposed using the generalized T-S fuzzy model and adaptive adjustment mechanism (AAM). Sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee chaos control from the stability criterion of linear fractional order systems. The proposed approach offers a systematic design procedure for stabilizing a large class of fractional order chaotic systems from the literature about chaos research. The effectiveness of the approach is tested on fractional order Roessler system and fractional order Lorenz system.
Elizur, Y; Ziv, M
2001-01-01
While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeid Haghbin
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Closed-form analytical formulas are provided to calculate the dc bus harmonics of a three-phase sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM inverter. The harmonic analysis is performed by using a double Fourier series approach to determine the dc bus current frequency spectrum. For an arbitrary modulation index and load power factor, the full harmonic components of the inverter dc side current are calculated. Based on the developed analytical model, an equivalent circuit is proposed for the inverter harmonic analysis towards the dc bus. Moreover, the impacts of line harmonics and zero sequence injection in controller towards the dc bus are presented. The results show that the 5th and 7th ac line harmonics on the dc side current is appearance of the 6th harmonic in the dc side. The impact of zero sequence injection to the controller on the dc side is negligible. In addition to analytical formulation, different simulations and extensive measurements performed which the results verified the presented analytical framework.
Droop Control with an Adjustable Complex Virtual Impedance Loop based on Cloud Model Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Yan; Shuai, Zhikang; Xu, Qinming
2016-01-01
not only can avoid the active/reactive power coupling, but also it may reduce the output voltage drop of the PCC voltage. The proposed adjustable complex virtual impedance loop is putted into the conventional P/Q droop control to overcome the difficulty of getting the line impedance, which may change...... sometimes. The cloud model theory is applied to get online the changing line impedance value, which relies on the relevance of the reactive power responding the changing line impedance. The verification of the proposed control strategy is done according to the simulation in a low voltage microgrid in Matlab....
Muratore, Sydne; Statz, Catherine; Glover, J J; Kwaan, Mary; Beilman, Greg
2016-04-01
Colon surgical site infections (SSIs) are being utilized increasingly as a quality measure for hospital reimbursement and public reporting. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) now require reporting of colon SSI, which is entered through the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). However, the CMS's model for determining expected SSIs uses different risk adjustment variables than does NHSN. We hypothesize that CMS's colon SSI model will predict lower expected infection rates than will NHSN. Colon SSI data were reported prospectively to NHSN from 2012-2014 for the six Fairview Hospitals (1,789 colon procedures). We compared expected quarterly SSIs and standardized infection ratios (SIRs) generated by CMS's risk-adjustment model (age and American Society of Anesthesiologist [ASA] classification) vs. NHSN's (age, ASA classification, procedure duration, endoscope [including laparoscope] use, medical school affiliation, hospital bed number, and incision class). The patients with more complex colon SSIs were more likely to be male (60% vs. 44%; p = 0.011), to have contaminated/dirty incisions (21% vs. 10%; p = 0.005), and to have longer operations (235 min vs. 156 min; p < 0.001) and were more likely to be at a medical school-affiliated hospital (53% vs. 40%; p = 0.032). For Fairview Hospitals combined, CMS calculated a lower number of expected quarterly SSIs than did the NHSN (4.58 vs. 5.09 SSIs/quarter; p = 0.002). This difference persisted in a university hospital (727 procedures; 2.08 vs. 2.33; p = 0.002) and a smaller, community-based hospital (565 procedures; 1.31 vs. 1.42; p = 0.002). There were two quarters in which CMS identified Fairview's SIR as an outlier for complex colon SSIs (p = 0.05 and 0.04), whereas NHSN did not (p = 0.06 and 0.06). The CMS's current risk-adjustment model using age and ASA classification predicts lower rates of expected colon
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appelt, Ane L; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Farr, Katherina P.
2014-01-01
Background. Understanding the dose-response of the lung in order to minimize the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) is critical for optimization of lung cancer radiotherapy. We propose a method to combine the dose-response relationship for RP in the landmark QUANTEC paper with known clinical risk......-only QUANTEC model and the model including risk factors. Subdistribution cumulative incidence functions were compared for patients with high/low-risk predictions from the two models, and concordance indices (c-indices) for the prediction of RP were calculated. Results. The reference dose- response relationship...... factors, in order to enable individual risk prediction. The approach is validated in an independent dataset. Material and methods. The prevalence of risk factors in the patient populations underlying the QUANTEC analysis was estimated, and a previously published method to adjust dose...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C Elizabeth McCarron
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bayesian hierarchical models have been proposed to combine evidence from different types of study designs. However, when combining evidence from randomised and non-randomised controlled studies, imbalances in patient characteristics between study arms may bias the results. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of a proposed Bayesian approach to adjust for imbalances in patient level covariates when combining evidence from both types of study designs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Simulation techniques, in which the truth is known, were used to generate sets of data for randomised and non-randomised studies. Covariate imbalances between study arms were introduced in the non-randomised studies. The performance of the Bayesian hierarchical model adjusted for imbalances was assessed in terms of bias. The data were also modelled using three other Bayesian approaches for synthesising evidence from randomised and non-randomised studies. The simulations considered six scenarios aimed at assessing the sensitivity of the results to changes in the impact of the imbalances and the relative number and size of studies of each type. For all six scenarios considered, the Bayesian hierarchical model adjusted for differences within studies gave results that were unbiased and closest to the true value compared to the other models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Where informed health care decision making requires the synthesis of evidence from randomised and non-randomised study designs, the proposed hierarchical Bayesian method adjusted for differences in patient characteristics between study arms may facilitate the optimal use of all available evidence leading to unbiased results compared to unadjusted analyses.
Dynamic Air-Route Adjustments - Model,Algorithm,and Sensitivity Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GENG Rui; CHENG Peng; CUI Deguang
2009-01-01
Dynamic airspace management (DAM) is an important approach to extend limited air space resources by using them more efficiently and flexibly.This paper analyzes the use of the dynamic air-route adjustment (DARA) method as a core procedure in DAM systems.DARA method makes dynamic decisions on when and how to adjust the current air-route network with the minimum cost.This model differs from the air traffic flow management (ATFM) problem because it considers dynamic opening and closing of air-route segments instead of only arranging flights on a given air traffic network and it takes into account several new constraints,such as the shortest opening time constraint.The DARA problem is solved using a two-step heuristic algorithm.The sensitivities of important coefficients in the model are analyzed to determine proper values for these coefficients.The computational results based on practical data from the Beijing ATC region show that the two-step heuristic algorithm gives as good results as the CPLEX in less or equal time in most cases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali P. Yunus
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR from global warming may have severe consequences for coastal cities, particularly when combined with predicted increases in the strength of tidal surges. Predicting the regional impact of SLR flooding is strongly dependent on the modelling approach and accuracy of topographic data. Here, the areas under risk of sea water flooding for London boroughs were quantified based on the projected SLR scenarios reported in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC fifth assessment report (AR5 and UK climatic projections 2009 (UKCP09 using a tidally-adjusted bathtub modelling approach. Medium- to very high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs are used to evaluate inundation extents as well as uncertainties. Depending on the SLR scenario and DEMs used, it is estimated that 3%–8% of the area of Greater London could be inundated by 2100. The boroughs with the largest areas at risk of flooding are Newham, Southwark, and Greenwich. The differences in inundation areas estimated from a digital terrain model and a digital surface model are much greater than the root mean square error differences observed between the two data types, which may be attributed to processing levels. Flood models from SRTM data underestimate the inundation extent, so their results may not be reliable for constructing flood risk maps. This analysis provides a broad-scale estimate of the potential consequences of SLR and uncertainties in the DEM-based bathtub type flood inundation modelling for London boroughs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel J Clark
Full Text Available A recent study using Heckman-type selection models to adjust for non-response in the Zambia 2007 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS found a large correction in HIV prevalence for males. We aim to validate this finding, replicate the adjustment approach in other DHSs, apply the adjustment approach in an external empirical context, and assess the robustness of the technique to different adjustment approaches. We used 6 DHSs, and an HIV prevalence study from rural South Africa to validate and replicate the adjustment approach. We also developed an alternative, systematic model of selection processes and applied it to all surveys. We decomposed corrections from both approaches into rate change and age-structure change components. We are able to reproduce the adjustment approach for the 2007 Zambia DHS and derive results comparable with the original findings. We are able to replicate applying the approach in several other DHSs. The approach also yields reasonable adjustments for a survey in rural South Africa. The technique is relatively robust to how the adjustment approach is specified. The Heckman selection model is a useful tool for assessing the possibility and extent of selection bias in HIV prevalence estimates from sample surveys.
Multi-Period Model of Portfolio Investment and Adjustment Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
RONG Ximin; LU Meiping; DENG Lin
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a multi-period portfolio investment model with class constraints, transaction cost, and indivisible securities. When an investor joins the securities market for the first time, he should decide on portfolio investment based on the practical conditions of securities market. In addition, investors should adjust the portfolio according to market changes, changing or not changing the category of risky securities. Markowitz mean-variance approach is applied to the multi-period portfolio selection problems. Because the sub-models are optimal mixed integer program, whose objective function is not unimodal and feasible set is with a particular structure, traditional optimization method usually fails to find a globally optimal solution. So this paper employs the hybrid genetic algorithm to solve the problem. Investment policies that accord with finance market and are easy to operate for investors are put forward with an illustration of application.
A model of the western Laurentide Ice Sheet, using observations of glacial isostatic adjustment
Gowan, Evan J.; Tregoning, Paul; Purcell, Anthony; Montillet, Jean-Philippe; McClusky, Simon
2016-05-01
We present the results of a new numerical model of the late glacial western Laurentide Ice Sheet, constrained by observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), including relative sea level indicators, uplift rates from permanent GPS stations, contemporary differential lake level change, and postglacial tilt of glacial lake level indicators. The later two datasets have been underutilized in previous GIA based ice sheet reconstructions. The ice sheet model, called NAICE, is constructed using simple ice physics on the basis of changing margin location and basal shear stress conditions in order to produce ice volumes required to match GIA. The model matches the majority of the observations, while maintaining a relatively realistic ice sheet geometry. Our model has a peak volume at 18,000 yr BP, with a dome located just east of Great Slave Lake with peak thickness of 4000 m, and surface elevation of 3500 m. The modelled ice volume loss between 16,000 and 14,000 yr BP amounts to about 7.5 m of sea level equivalent, which is consistent with the hypothesis that a large portion of Meltwater Pulse 1A was sourced from this part of the ice sheet. The southern part of the ice sheet was thin and had a low elevation profile. This model provides an accurate representation of ice thickness and paleo-topography, and can be used to assess present day uplift and infer past climate.
Procedures for adjusting regional regression models of urban-runoff quality using local data
Hoos, A.B.; Sisolak, J.K.
1993-01-01
Statistical operations termed model-adjustment procedures (MAP?s) can be used to incorporate local data into existing regression models to improve the prediction of urban-runoff quality. Each MAP is a form of regression analysis in which the local data base is used as a calibration data set. Regression coefficients are determined from the local data base, and the resulting `adjusted? regression models can then be used to predict storm-runoff quality at unmonitored sites. The response variable in the regression analyses is the observed load or mean concentration of a constituent in storm runoff for a single storm. The set of explanatory variables used in the regression analyses is different for each MAP, but always includes the predicted value of load or mean concentration from a regional regression model. The four MAP?s examined in this study were: single-factor regression against the regional model prediction, P, (termed MAP-lF-P), regression against P,, (termed MAP-R-P), regression against P, and additional local variables (termed MAP-R-P+nV), and a weighted combination of P, and a local-regression prediction (termed MAP-W). The procedures were tested by means of split-sample analysis, using data from three cities included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program: Denver, Colorado; Bellevue, Washington; and Knoxville, Tennessee. The MAP that provided the greatest predictive accuracy for the verification data set differed among the three test data bases and among model types (MAP-W for Denver and Knoxville, MAP-lF-P and MAP-R-P for Bellevue load models, and MAP-R-P+nV for Bellevue concentration models) and, in many cases, was not clearly indicated by the values of standard error of estimate for the calibration data set. A scheme to guide MAP selection, based on exploratory data analysis of the calibration data set, is presented and tested. The MAP?s were tested for sensitivity to the size of a calibration data set. As expected, predictive accuracy of all MAP?s for
Adjusting kinematics and kinetics in a feedback-controlled toe walking model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olenšek Andrej
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical gait assessment, the correct interpretation of gait kinematics and kinetics has a decisive impact on the success of the therapeutic programme. Due to the vast amount of information from which primary anomalies should be identified and separated from secondary compensatory changes, as well as the biomechanical complexity and redundancy of the human locomotion system, this task is considerably challenging and requires the attention of an experienced interdisciplinary team of experts. The ongoing research in the field of biomechanics suggests that mathematical modeling may facilitate this task. This paper explores the possibility of generating a family of toe walking gait patterns by systematically changing selected parameters of a feedback-controlled model. Methods From the selected clinical case of toe walking we identified typical toe walking characteristics and encoded them as a set of gait-oriented control objectives to be achieved in a feedback-controlled walking model. They were defined as fourth order polynomials and imposed via feedback control at the within-step control level. At the between-step control level, stance leg lengthening velocity at the end of the single support phase was adaptively adjusted after each step so as to facilitate gait velocity control. Each time the gait velocity settled at the desired value, selected intra-step gait characteristics were modified by adjusting the polynomials so as to mimic the effect of a typical therapeutical intervention - inhibitory casting. Results By systematically adjusting the set of control parameters we were able to generate a family of gait kinematic and kinetic patterns that exhibit similar principal toe walking characteristics, as they were recorded by means of an instrumented gait analysis system in the selected clinical case of toe walking. We further acknowledge that they to some extent follow similar improvement tendencies as those which one can
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun'ichi Okuno
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We present relative sea level (RSL curves in Antarctica derived from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA predictions based on the melting scenarios of the Antarctic ice sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM given in previous works. Simultaneously, Holocene-age RSL observations obtained at the raised beaches along the coast of Antarctica are shown to be in agreement with the GIA predictions. The differences from previously published ice-loading models regarding the spatial distribution and total mass change of the melted ice are significant. These models were also derived from GIA modelling; the variations can be attributed to the lack of geological and geographical evidence regarding the history of crustal movement due to ice sheet evolution. Next, we summarise the previously published ice load models and demonstrate the RSL curves based on combinations of different ice and earth models. The RSL curves calculated by GIA models indicate that the model dependence of both the ice and earth models is significantly large at several sites where RSL observations were obtained. In particular, GIA predictions based on the thin lithospheric thickness show the spatial distributions that are dependent on the melted ice thickness at each sites. These characteristics result from the short-wavelength deformation of the Earth. However, our predictions strongly suggest that it is possible to find the average ice model despite the use of the different models of lithospheric thickness. By sea level and crustal movement observations, we can deduce the geometry of the post-LGM ice sheets in detail and remove the GIA contribution from the crustal deformation and gravity change observed by space geodetic techniques, such as GPS and GRACE, for the estimation of the Antarctic ice mass change associated with recent global warming.
Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.
2016-10-01
The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.
Measurement of the Economic Growth and Add-on of the R.M. Solow Adjusted Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion Gh. Rosca
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Besides the models of M. Keynes, R.F. Harrod, E. Domar, D. Romer, Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model etc., the R.M. Solow model is part of the category which characterizes the economic growth.The paper aim is the economic growth measurement and add-on of the R.M. Solow adjusted model.
Adjusting Felder-Silverman learning styles model for application in adaptive e-learning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihailović Đorđe
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for adjusting Felder-Silverman learning styles model for application in development of adaptive e-learning systems. Main goal of the paper is to improve the existing e-learning courses by developing a method for adaptation based on learning styles. The proposed method includes analysis of data related to students characteristics and applying the concept of personalization in creating e-learning courses. The research has been conducted at Faculty of organizational sciences, University of Belgrade, during winter semester of 2009/10, on sample of 318 students. The students from the experimental group were divided in three clusters, based on data about their styles identified using adjusted Felder-Silverman questionnaire. Data about learning styles collected during the research were used to determine typical groups of students and then to classify students into these groups. The classification was performed using data mining techniques. Adaptation of the e-learning courses was implemented according to results of data analysis. Evaluation showed that there was statistically significant difference in the results of students who attended the course adapted by using the described method, in comparison with results of students who attended course that was not adapted.
A Comparative Study of CAPM and Seven Factors Risk Adjusted Return Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madiha Riaz Bhatti
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This study is a comparison and contrast of the predictive powers of two asset pricing models: CAPM and seven factor risk-return adjusted model, to explain the cross section of stock rate of returns in the financial sector listed at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE. To test the models daily returns from January 2013 to February 2014 have been taken and the excess returns of portfolios are regressed on explanatory variables. The results of the tested models indicate that the models are valid and applicable in the financial market of Pakistan during the period under study, as the intercepts are not significantly different from zero. It is consequently established from the findings that all the explanatory variables explain the stock returns in the financial sector of KSE. In addition, the results of this study show that addition of more explanatory variables to the single factor CAPM results in reasonably high values of R2. These results provide substantial support to fund managers, investors and financial analysts in making investment decisions.
Changing step width alters lower extremity biomechanics during running.
Brindle, Richard A; Milner, Clare E; Zhang, Songning; Fitzhugh, Eugene C
2014-01-01
Step width is a spatiotemporal parameter that may influence lower extremity biomechanics at the hip and knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical response of the lower extremity joints to step width changes during running. Lower extremity data from 30 healthy runners, half of them male, were collected during running in three step width conditions: preferred, wide, and narrow. Dependent variables and step width were analyzed using a mixed model ANOVA and pairwise t-tests for post hoc comparisons. Step width was successfully altered in the wide and narrow conditions. Generally, frontal plane peak values decreased as step width increased from narrow to preferred to wide. Peak hip adduction and rearfoot eversion angles decreased as step width increased from narrow to wide. Peak knee abduction moment and knee abduction impulse also decreased as step width increased from narrow to wide. Although men and women ran differently, gender only influenced the effect of step width on peak rearfoot inversion moment. In conclusion, step width influences lower extremity biomechanics in healthy runners. When step width increased from narrow to wide, peak values of frontal plane variables decreased. In addition to previously reported changes at the rearfoot, the hip and knee joint biomechanics were also influenced by changes in step width.
Adjustment and Development of Health User’s Mental Model Completeness Scale in Search Engines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryam Nakhoda
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Users’ performance and their interaction with information retrieval systems can be observed in development of their mental models. Users, especially users of health, use mental models to facilitate their interactions with these systems and incomplete or incorrect models can cause problems for them . The aim of this study was the adjustment and development of health user’s mental model completeness scale in search engines. Method: This quantitative study uses Delphi method. Among various scales for users’ mental model completeness, Li’s scale was selected and some items were added to this scale based on previous valid literature. Delphi panel members were selected using purposeful sampling method, consisting of 20 and 18 participants in the first and second rounds, respectively. Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance in SPSS version 16 was used as basis for agreement (95% confidence. Results:The Kendall coefficient of Concordance (W was calculated to be 0.261(P-value<0.001 for the first and 0.336 (P-value<0.001 for the second round. Therefore, the study was found to be statistically significant with 95% confidence. Since the increase in the coefficient in two consecutive rounds was very little (equal to 0.075, surveying the panel members were stopped based on second Schmidt criterion and Delphi method was stopped after the second round. Finally, the dimensions of Li’s scale (existence and nature, search characteristics and levels of interaction were confirmed again, but “indexing of pages or websites” was eliminated and “Difference between results of different search engines”, “possibility of access to similar or related webpages”, and “possibility of search for special formats and multimedia” were added to Li’s scale. Conclusion: In this study, the scale for mental model completeness of health users was adjusted and developed; it can help the designers of information retrieval systems in systematic
A data-driven model of present-day glacial isostatic adjustment in North America
Simon, Karen; Riva, Riccardo
2016-04-01
Geodetic measurements of gravity change and vertical land motion are incorporated into an a priori model of present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) via least-squares inversion. The result is an updated model of present-day GIA wherein the final predicted signal is informed by both observational data with realistic errors, and prior knowledge of GIA inferred from forward models. This method and other similar techniques have been implemented within a limited but growing number of GIA studies (e.g., Hill et al. 2010). The combination method allows calculation of the uncertainties of predicted GIA fields, and thus offers a significant advantage over predictions from purely forward GIA models. Here, we show the results of using the combination approach to predict present-day rates of GIA in North America through the incorporation of both GPS-measured vertical land motion rates and GRACE-measured gravity observations into the prior model. In order to assess the influence of each dataset on the final GIA prediction, the vertical motion and gravimetry datasets are incorporated into the model first independently (i.e., one dataset only), then simultaneously. Because the a priori GIA model and its associated covariance are developed by averaging predictions from a suite of forward models that varies aspects of the Earth rheology and ice sheet history, the final GIA model is not independent of forward model predictions. However, we determine the sensitivity of the final model result to the prior GIA model information by using different representations of the input model covariance. We show that when both datasets are incorporated into the inversion, the final model adequately predicts available observational constraints, minimizes the uncertainty associated with the forward modelled GIA inputs, and includes a realistic estimation of the formal error associated with the GIA process. Along parts of the North American coastline, improved predictions of the long-term (kyr
Wang, Huai-Chun; Susko, Edward; Roger, Andrew J
2014-04-01
Standard protein phylogenetic models use fixed rate matrices of amino acid interchange derived from analyses of large databases. Differences between the stationary amino acid frequencies of these rate matrices from those of a data set of interest are typically adjusted for by matrix multiplication that converts the empirical rate matrix to an exchangeability matrix which is then postmultiplied by the amino acid frequencies in the alignment. The result is a time-reversible rate matrix with stationary amino acid frequencies equal to the data set frequencies. On the basis of population genetics principles, we develop an amino acid substitution-selection model that parameterizes the fitness of an amino acid as the logarithm of the ratio of the frequency of the amino acid to the frequency of the same amino acid under no selection. The model gives rise to a different sequence of matrix multiplications to convert an empirical rate matrix to one that has stationary amino acid frequencies equal to the data set frequencies. We incorporated the substitution-selection model with an improved amino acid class frequency mixture (cF) model to partially take into account site-specific amino acid frequencies in the phylogenetic models. We show that 1) the selection models fit data significantly better than corresponding models without selection for most of the 21 test data sets; 2) both cF and cF selection models favored the phylogenetic trees that were inferred under current sophisticated models and methods for three difficult phylogenetic problems (the positions of microsporidia and breviates in eukaryote phylogeny and the position of the root of the angiosperm tree); and 3) for data simulated under site-specific residue frequencies, the cF selection models estimated trees closer to the generating trees than a standard Г model or cF without selection. We also explored several ways of estimating amino acid frequencies under neutral evolution that are required for these selection
The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment
Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.
2009-01-01
This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…
A risk-adjusted CUSUM in continuous time based on the Cox model.
Biswas, Pinaki; Kalbfleisch, John D
2008-07-30
In clinical practice, it is often important to monitor the outcomes associated with participating facilities. In organ transplantation, for example, it is important to monitor and assess the outcomes of the transplants performed at the participating centers and send a signal if a significant upward trend in the failure rates is detected. In manufacturing and process control contexts, the cumulative summation (CUSUM) technique has been used as a sequential monitoring scheme for some time. More recently, the CUSUM has also been suggested for use in medical contexts. In this article, we outline a risk-adjusted CUSUM procedure based on the Cox model for a failure time outcome. Theoretical approximations to the average run length are obtained for this new proposal and for some discrete time procedures suggested in the literature. The proposed scheme and approximations are evaluated in simulations and illustrated on transplant facility data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients.
The use of satellites in gravity field determination and model adjustment
Visser, Petrus Nicolaas Anna Maria
1992-06-01
Methods to improve gravity field models of the Earth with available data from satellite observations are proposed and discussed. In principle, all types of satellite observations mentioned give information of the satellite orbit perturbations and in conjunction the Earth's gravity field, because the satellite orbits are affected most by the Earth's gravity field. Therefore, two subjects are addressed: representation forms of the gravity field of the Earth and the theory of satellite orbit perturbations. An analytical orbit perturbation theory is presented and shown to be sufficiently accurate for describing satellite orbit perturbations if certain conditions are fulfilled. Gravity field adjustment experiments using the analytical orbit perturbation theory are discussed using real satellite observations. These observations consisted of Seasat laser range measurements and crossover differences, and of Geosat altimeter measurements and crossover differences. A look into the future, particularly relating to the ARISTOTELES (Applications and Research Involving Space Techniques for the Observation of the Earth's field from Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft) mission, is given.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun; Muhammad Abdullah; Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq; Majid Lateef; Imran Khan
2015-01-01
This paper used the modern evaluation method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) to assess the comparative efficiency and then on the basis of this among multiple schemes chose the optimal scheme of agricultural production structure adjustment. Based on the results of DEA model, we dissected scale advantages of each discretionary scheme or plan. We examined scale advantages of each discretionary scheme, tested profoundly a definitive purpose behind not-DEA efficient, which elucidated the system and methodology to enhance these discretionary plans. At the end, another method had been proposed to rank and select the optimal scheme. The research was important to guide the practice if the modification of agricultural production industrial structure was carried on.
UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, S.C.
2000-11-16
The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Freight Truck Stock Adjustment Model (FTSAM) was created in 1995 relying heavily on input data from the 1992 Economic Census, Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS). The FTSAM is part of the NEMS Transportation Sector Model, which provides baseline energy projections and analyzes the impacts of various technology scenarios on consumption, efficiency, and carbon emissions. The base data for the FTSAM can be updated every five years as new Economic Census information is released. Because of expertise in using the TIUS database, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to assist the EIA when the new Economic Census data were available. ORNL provided the necessary base data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and other sources to update the FTSAM. The next Economic Census will be in the year 2002. When those data become available, the EIA will again want to update the FTSAM using the VIUS. This report, which details the methodology of estimating and extracting data from the 1997 VIUS Microdata File, should be used as a guide for generating the data from the next VIUS so that the new data will be as compatible as possible with the data in the model.
Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.;
2002-01-01
to be proven before one initiates real FFO applications. To achieve this goal a comprehensive set of line width measurements of the FFO operating in different regimes has been performed. FFOs with tapered shape have been successfully implemented in order to avoid the superfine resonant structure with voltage...... spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width...
Möller, Marco; Obleitner, Friedrich; Reijmer, Carleen H; Pohjola, Veijo A; Głowacki, Piotr; Kohler, Jack
2016-05-27
Large-scale modeling of glacier mass balance relies often on the output from regional climate models (RCMs). However, the limited accuracy and spatial resolution of RCM output pose limitations on mass balance simulations at subregional or local scales. Moreover, RCM output is still rarely available over larger regions or for longer time periods. This study evaluates the extent to which it is possible to derive reliable region-wide glacier mass balance estimates, using coarse resolution (10 km) RCM output for model forcing. Our data cover the entire Svalbard archipelago over one decade. To calculate mass balance, we use an index-based model. Model parameters are not calibrated, but the RCM air temperature and precipitation fields are adjusted using in situ mass balance measurements as reference. We compare two different calibration methods: root mean square error minimization and regression optimization. The obtained air temperature shifts (+1.43°C versus +2.22°C) and precipitation scaling factors (1.23 versus 1.86) differ considerably between the two methods, which we attribute to inhomogeneities in the spatiotemporal distribution of the reference data. Our modeling suggests a mean annual climatic mass balance of -0.05 ± 0.40 m w.e. a(-1) for Svalbard over 2000-2011 and a mean equilibrium line altitude of 452 ± 200 m above sea level. We find that the limited spatial resolution of the RCM forcing with respect to real surface topography and the usage of spatially homogeneous RCM output adjustments and mass balance model parameters are responsible for much of the modeling uncertainty. Sensitivity of the results to model parameter uncertainty is comparably small and of minor importance.
Development of a GIA (Glacial Isostatic Adjustment) - Fault Model of Greenland
Steffen, R.; Lund, B.
2015-12-01
The increase in sea level due to climate change is an intensely discussed phenomenon, while less attention is being paid to the change in earthquake activity that may accompany disappearing ice masses. The melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, for example, induces changes in the crustal stress field, which could result in the activation of existing faults and the generation of destructive earthquakes. Such glacially induced earthquakes are known to have occurred in Fennoscandia 10,000 years ago. Within a new project ("Glacially induced earthquakes in Greenland", start in October 2015), we will analyse the potential for glacially induced earthquakes in Greenland due to the ongoing melting. The objectives include the development of a three-dimensional (3D) subsurface model of Greenland, which is based on geologic, geophysical and geodetic datasets, and which also fulfils the boundary conditions of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling. Here we will present an overview of the project, including the most recently available datasets and the methodologies needed for model construction and the simulation of GIA induced earthquakes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appelt, Ane L; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Farr, Katherina P.;
2014-01-01
Background. Understanding the dose-response of the lung in order to minimize the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) is critical for optimization of lung cancer radiotherapy. We propose a method to combine the dose-response relationship for RP in the landmark QUANTEC paper with known clinical risk...... factors, in order to enable individual risk prediction. The approach is validated in an independent dataset. Material and methods. The prevalence of risk factors in the patient populations underlying the QUANTEC analysis was estimated, and a previously published method to adjust dose......-response relationships for clinical risk factors was employed. Effect size estimates (odds ratios) for risk factors were drawn from a recently published meta-analysis. Baseline values for D50 and γ50 were found. The method was tested in an independent dataset (103 patients), comparing the predictive power of the dose......-only QUANTEC model and the model including risk factors. Subdistribution cumulative incidence functions were compared for patients with high/low-risk predictions from the two models, and concordance indices (c-indices) for the prediction of RP were calculated. Results. The reference dose- response relationship...
A covariate-adjustment regression model approach to noninferiority margin definition.
Nie, Lei; Soon, Guoxing
2010-05-10
To maintain the interpretability of the effect of experimental treatment (EXP) obtained from a noninferiority trial, current statistical approaches often require the constancy assumption. This assumption typically requires that the control treatment effect in the population of the active control trial is the same as its effect presented in the population of the historical trial. To prevent constancy assumption violation, clinical trial sponsors were recommended to make sure that the design of the active control trial is as close to the design of the historical trial as possible. However, these rigorous requirements are rarely fulfilled in practice. The inevitable discrepancies between the historical trial and the active control trial have led to debates on many controversial issues. Without support from a well-developed quantitative method to determine the impact of the discrepancies on the constancy assumption violation, a correct judgment seems difficult. In this paper, we present a covariate-adjustment generalized linear regression model approach to achieve two goals: (1) to quantify the impact of population difference between the historical trial and the active control trial on the degree of constancy assumption violation and (2) to redefine the active control treatment effect in the active control trial population if the quantification suggests an unacceptable violation. Through achieving goal (1), we examine whether or not a population difference leads to an unacceptable violation. Through achieving goal (2), we redefine the noninferiority margin if the violation is unacceptable. This approach allows us to correctly determine the effect of EXP in the noninferiority trial population when constancy assumption is violated due to the population difference. We illustrate the covariate-adjustment approach through a case study.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chen Yuexia; Chen Long; Wang Ruochen; Xu Xing; Shen Yujie; Liu Yanling
2016-01-01
To reduce the damages of pavement, vehicle components and agricultural product during transportation, an electric control air suspension height adjustment system of agricultural transport vehicle...
Punamäki, R L; Qouta, S; el Sarraj, E
1997-08-01
The relations between traumatic events, perceived parenting styles, children's resources, political activity, and psychological adjustment were examined among 108 Palestinian boys and girls of 11-12 years of age. The results showed that exposure to traumatic events increased psychological adjustment problems directly and via 2 mediating paths. First, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more negative parenting they experienced. And, the poorer they perceived parenting, the more they suffered from high neuroticism and low self-esteem. Second, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more active they were, the more they suffered from psychological adjustment problems. Good perceived parenting protected children's psychological adjustment by making them less vulnerable in two ways. First, traumatic events decreased their intellectual, creative, and cognitive resources, and a lack of resources predicted many psychological adjustment problems in a model excluding perceived parenting. Second, political activity increased psychological adjustment problems in the same model, but not in the model including good parenting.
Zhu, Wenlong; Ma, Shoufeng; Tian, Junfang; Li, Geng
2016-11-01
Travelers' route adjustment behaviors in a congested road traffic network are acknowledged as a dynamic game process between them. Existing Proportional-Switch Adjustment Process (PSAP) models have been extensively investigated to characterize travelers' route choice behaviors; PSAP has concise structure and intuitive behavior rule. Unfortunately most of which have some limitations, i.e., the flow over adjustment problem for the discrete PSAP model, the absolute cost differences route adjustment problem, etc. This paper proposes a relative-Proportion-based Route Adjustment Process (rePRAP) maintains the advantages of PSAP and overcomes these limitations. The rePRAP describes the situation that travelers on higher cost route switch to those with lower cost at the rate that is unilaterally depended on the relative cost differences between higher cost route and its alternatives. It is verified to be consistent with the principle of the rational behavior adjustment process. The equivalence among user equilibrium, stationary path flow pattern and stationary link flow pattern is established, which can be applied to judge whether a given network traffic flow has reached UE or not by detecting the stationary or non-stationary state of link flow pattern. The stability theorem is proved by the Lyapunov function approach. A simple example is tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the rePRAP model.
Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.
2003-01-01
Matrix population models are important tools for research and management of populations. Estimating the parameters of these models is an important step in applying them to real populations. Multistate capture-recapture methods have provided a useful means for estimating survival and parameters of transition between locations or life history states but have mostly relied on the assumption that the state occupied by each detected animal is known with certainty. Nevertheless, in some cases animals can be misclassified. Using multiple capture sessions within each period of interest, we developed a method that adjusts estimates of transition probabilities for bias due to misclassification. We applied this method to 10 years of sighting data for a population of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in order to estimate the annual probability of transition from nonbreeding to breeding status. Some sighted females were unequivocally classified as breeders because they were clearly accompanied by a first-year calf. The remainder were classified, sometimes erroneously, as nonbreeders because an attendant first-year calf was not observed or was classified as more than one year old. We estimated a conditional breeding probability of 0.31 + 0.04 (estimate + 1 SE) when we ignored misclassification bias, and 0.61 + 0.09 when we accounted for misclassification.
Dynamic Stall Prediction of a Pitching Airfoil using an Adjusted Two-Equation URANS Turbulence Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Galih Bangga
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The necessity in the analysis of dynamic stall becomes increasingly important due to its impact on many streamlined structures such as helicopter and wind turbine rotor blades. The present paper provides Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD predictions of a pitching NACA 0012 airfoil at reduced frequency of 0.1 and at small Reynolds number value of 1.35e5. The simulations were carried out by adjusting the k − ε URANS turbulence model in order to damp the turbulence production in the near wall region. The damping factor was introduced as a function of wall distance in the buffer zone region. Parametric studies on the involving variables were conducted and the effect on the prediction capability was shown. The results were compared with available experimental data and CFD simulations using some selected two-equation turbulence models. An improvement of the lift coefficient prediction was shown even though the results still roughly mimic the experimental data. The flow development under the dynamic stall onset was investigated with regards to the effect of the leading and trailing edge vortices. Furthermore, the characteristics of the flow at several chords length downstream the airfoil were evaluated.
Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.
Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye
2013-09-13
We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.
ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao Benzao
2003-01-01
In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.
Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.
2002-01-01
The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over 4
Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.
2002-01-01
The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over 4
Biological width: No violation zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashu Sharma
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Maintenance of gingival health is one of the keys for the longevity of teeth, as well as for the longevity of restorations. The concept of Biologic width has been widely described by periodontists and restorative dentists. An adequate understanding of relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function and esthetics, and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width and indications and applications of surgical crown lengthening. These violations lead to complications like gingival inflammation, alveolar bone loss and improper fit of the restorative component. This review gives the wide aspect of the complex question of biologic width and represents an attempt to answer some of the demands in relation to it. The article also discusses the possible methods to assess biologic width, problems that occur after improper margin placement in the periodontium and the alternative procedures for prevention of biological width violation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha
2010-01-01
of particular importance to practitioners: yield convexity adjustments, forward versus futures convexity adjustments, timing and quanto convexity adjustments. We claim that the appropriate way to look into any of these adjustments is as a side effect of a measure change, as proposed by Pelsser (2003...
An assessment of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) glacial isostatic adjustment model
Purcell, A.; Tregoning, P.; Dehecq, A.
2016-05-01
The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a), is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology, and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this paper we make an assessment of some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and show that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Furthermore, the published spherical harmonic coefficients—which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)—contain excessive power for degree ≥90, do not agree with physical expectations and do not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. We show that the excessive power in the high-degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. (2011) is applied, but when correct Stokes coefficients are used, the empirical relationship produces excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. (2011). Using the Australian National University (ANU) groups CALSEA software package, we recompute the present-day GIA signal for the ice thickness history and Earth rheology used by Peltier et al. (2015) and provide dimensionless Stokes coefficients that can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals. We denote the new data sets as ICE6G_ANU.
K- nuclear states: Binding energies and widths
Hrtánková, J.; Mareš, J.
2017-07-01
K- optical potentials relevant to calculations of K- nuclear quasibound states were developed within several chiral meson-baryon coupled-channels interaction models. The applied models yield quite different K- binding energies and widths. Then the K- multinucleon interactions were incorporated by a phenomenological optical potential fitted recently to kaonic atom data. Though the applied K- interaction models differ significantly in the K-N subthreshold region, our self-consistent calculations of kaonic nuclei across the periodic table lead to conclusions valid quite generally. Due to K- multinucleon absorption in the nuclear medium, the calculated widths of K- nuclear states are sizable, ΓK-≥90 MeV, and exceed substantially their binding energies in all considered nuclei.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belehaki Anna
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Validation results on the latest version of TaD model (TaDv2 show realistic reconstruction of the electron density profiles (EDPs with an average error of 3 TECU, similar to the error obtained from GNSS-TEC calculated paremeters. The work presented here has the aim to further improve the accuracy of the TaD topside reconstruction, adjusting the TEC parameter calculated from TaD model with the TEC parameter calculated by GNSS transmitting RINEX files provided by receivers co-located with the Digisondes. The performance of the new version is tested during a storm period demonstrating further improvements in respect to the previous version. Statistical comparison of modeled and observed TEC confirms the validity of the proposed adjustment. A significant benefit of the proposed upgrade is that it facilitates the real-time implementation of TaD. The model needs a reliable measure of the scale height at the peak height, which is supposed to be provided by Digisondes. Oftenly, the automatic scaling software fails to correctly calculate the scale height at the peak, Hm, due to interferences in the receiving signal. Consequently the model estimated topside scale height is wrongly calculated leading to unrealistic results for the modeled EDP. The proposed TEC adjustment forces the model to correctly reproduce the topside scale height, despite the inaccurate values of Hm. This adjustment is very important for the application of TaD in an operational environment.
Meister, Daniel; Rotics, Udi
2013-01-01
In the study of full bubble model graphs of bounded clique-width and bounded linear clique-width, we determined complete sets of forbidden induced subgraphs, that are minimal in the class of full bubble model graphs. In this note, we show that (almost all of) these graphs are minimal in the class of all graphs. As a corollary, we can give sets of minimal forbidden induced subgraphs for graphs of bounded clique-width and for graphs of bounded linear clique-width for arbitrary bounds.
Bulk Density Adjustment of Resin-Based Equivalent Material for Geomechanical Model Test
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pengxian Fan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An equivalent material is of significance to the simulation of prototype rock in geomechanical model test. Researchers attempt to ensure that the bulk density of equivalent material is equal to that of prototype rock. In this work, barite sand was used to increase the bulk density of a resin-based equivalent material. The variation law of the bulk density was revealed in the simulation of a prototype rock of a different bulk density. Over 300 specimens were made for uniaxial compression test. Test results indicated that the substitution of quartz sand by barite sand had no apparent influence on the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus of the specimens but can increase the bulk density, according to the proportional coarse aggregate content. An ideal linearity was found in the relationship between the barite sand substitution ratio and the bulk density. The relationship between the bulk density and the usage of coarse aggregate and barite sand was also presented. The test results provided an insight into the bulk density adjustment of resin-based equivalent materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ratajkiewicz, H.; Kierzek, R.; Raczkowski, M.; Hołodyńska-Kulas, A.; Łacka, A.; Wójtowicz, A.; Wachowiak, M.
2016-11-01
This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV) adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha) on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) (PLB) and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha) when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henryk Ratajkiewicz
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop.
Shein, E. V.; Kokoreva, A. A.; Gorbatov, V. S.; Umarova, A. B.; Kolupaeva, V. N.; Perevertin, K. A.
2009-07-01
The water block of physically founded models of different levels (chromatographic PEARL models and dual-porosity MACRO models) was parameterized using laboratory experimental data and tested using the results of studying the water regime of loamy soddy-podzolic soil in large lysimeters of the Experimental Soil Station of Moscow State University. The models were adapted using a stepwise approach, which involved the sequential assessment and adjustment of each submodel. The models unadjusted for the water block underestimated the lysimeter flow and overestimated the soil water content. The theoretical necessity of the model adjustment was explained by the different scales of the experimental objects (soil samples) and simulated phenomenon (soil profile). The adjustment of the models by selecting the most sensitive hydrophysical parameters of the soils (the approximation parameters of the soil water retention curve (SWRC)) gave good agreement between the predicted moisture profiles and their actual values. In distinction from the PEARL model, the MARCO model reliably described the migration of a pesticide through the soil profile, which confirmed the necessity of physically founded models accounting for the separation of preferential flows in the pore space for the prediction, analysis, optimization, and management of modern agricultural technologies.
Carvalho, Catarina; MarkoviÄ, Petar; Maróti, Miklós
2007-01-01
We prove that the constraint languages invariant under a short sequence of J\\'onsson terms (containing at most three non-trivial ternary terms) are tractable by showing that they have bounded width. This improves the previous result by Kiss and Valeriote and presents some evidence that the Larose-Zadori conjecture holds in the congruence-distributive case.
Radiative widths of neutral kaon excitations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sunil V Somalwar; KTeV Collaboration
2004-03-01
We observe 147 events of the axial vector pair $K_{1} (1270) - K_{1} (1400)$ produced in the Coulomb field of a Pb target and measure the radiative widths $ (K_{1} (1400) → K^{0} + ) = 280.8 ± 23.2$ (stat.) $± (40.4)$ (syst.) keV and $ (K_{1} (1270) → K^{0} + ) = 73.2 ± 6.1$ (stat.) $± 28.3$ (syst.) keV. These first measurements are lower than the quark-model predictions. We also place upper limits on the radiative widths for $K^{*} (1410)$ and $K_{2}^{*} (1430)$ and find that the letter is very small in accord with $SU(3)$ invariance in the naive quark model.
Malberti, Martina
2006-01-01
The precision measurement of the W boson properties, such as its mass and width, constitutes an important consistency check of the Standard Model. This paper, in particular, describes methods to measure the W mass with improved precision at the Large Hadron Collider, exploiting the large number of Z bosons produced. The precision on the W boson mass achievable with an integrated luminosisty of 10~fb^-1 is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belousov, V. I.; Ezhela, V. V.; Kuyanov, Yu. V., E-mail: Yu.Kuyanov@gmail.com; Tkachenko, N. P. [Institute for High Energy Physics, National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, COMPAS Group (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
The experience of using the dynamic atlas of the experimental data and mathematical models of their description in the problems of adjusting parametric models of observable values depending on kinematic variables is presented. The functional possibilities of an image of a large number of experimental data and the models describing them are shown by examples of data and models of observable values determined by the amplitudes of elastic scattering of hadrons. The Internet implementation of an interactive tool DaMoScope and its interface with the experimental data and codes of adjusted parametric models with the parameters of the best description of data are schematically shown. The DaMoScope codes are freely available.
Crack widths in concrete with fibers and main reinforcement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Frede; Ulfkjær, Jens Peder; Brincker, Rune
the ductility of the fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is set up and experimental work is conducted in order to verify the crack width model. The ductility of the FRC is taken into account by using the stress crack width relation. The constitutive model for the FRC is based on the idea that the initial part......The main object of the research work presented in this paper is to establish design tools for concrete structures where main reinforcement is combined with addition of short discrete steel fibers. The work is concerned with calculating and measuring crack widths in structural elements subjected...... to bending load. Thus, the aim of the work is to enable engineers to calculate crack widths for flexural concrete members and analyze how different combinations of amounts of fibers and amounts of main reinforcement can meet a given maximum crack width requirement. A mathematical model including...
Deutsch, Anne; Pardasaney, Poonam; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Ingber, Melvin J; Porter, Kristie A; McMullen, Tara
2017-07-01
Functional status measures are important patient-centered indicators of inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) quality of care. We developed a risk-adjusted self-care functional status measure for the IRF Quality Reporting Program. This paper describes the development and performance of the measure's risk-adjustment model. Our sample included IRF Medicare fee-for-service patients from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' 2008-2010 Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration. Data sources included the Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation Item Set, IRF-Patient Assessment Instrument, and Medicare claims. Self-care scores were based on 7 Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation items. The model was developed using discharge self-care score as the dependent variable, and generalized linear modeling with generalized estimation equation to account for patient characteristics and clustering within IRFs. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics at IRF admission, and clinical characteristics related to the recent hospitalization were tested as risk adjusters. A total of 4769 patient stays from 38 IRFs were included. Approximately 57% of the sample was female; 38.4%, 75-84 years; and 31.0%, 65-74 years. The final model, containing 77 risk adjusters, explained 53.7% of variance in discharge self-care scores (P<0.0001). Admission self-care function was the strongest predictor, followed by admission cognitive function and IRF primary diagnosis group. The range of expected and observed scores overlapped very well, with little bias across the range of predicted self-care functioning. Our risk-adjustment model demonstrated strong validity for predicting discharge self-care scores. Although the model needs validation with national data, it represents an important first step in evaluation of IRF functional outcomes.
Rulison, Kelly L.; Gest, Scott D.; Loken, Eric; Welsh, Janet A.
2010-01-01
The association between affiliating with aggressive peers and behavioral, social and psychological adjustment was examined. Students initially in 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade (N = 427) were followed biannually through 7th grade. Students' peer-nominated groups were identified. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the independent contributions of…
King, M.A.; Altamimi, Z.; Boehm, J.; Bos, M.; Dach, R.; Elosegui, P. Fund, F.; Hernández-Pajares, M.; Lavallee, D.; Riva, E.M.; et al.
2010-01-01
The provision of accurate models of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is presently a priority need in climate studies, largely due to the potential of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to be used to determine accurate and continent-wide assessments of ice mass change and hydr
Koss, Kalsea J.; George, Melissa R. W.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Cummings, E. Mark; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.
2013-01-01
Examining children's physiological functioning is an important direction for understanding the links between interparental conflict and child adjustment. Utilizing growth mixture modeling, the present study examined children's cortisol reactivity patterns in response to a marital dispute. Analyses revealed three different patterns of cortisol…
Koss, Kalsea J.; George, Melissa R. W.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Cummings, E. Mark; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.
2013-01-01
Examining children's physiological functioning is an important direction for understanding the links between interparental conflict and child adjustment. Utilizing growth mixture modeling, the present study examined children's cortisol reactivity patterns in response to a marital dispute. Analyses revealed three different patterns of cortisol…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
He, Peng; Eriksson, Frank; Scheike, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
With competing risks data, one often needs to assess the treatment and covariate effects on the cumulative incidence function. Fine and Gray proposed a proportional hazards regression model for the subdistribution of a competing risk with the assumption that the censoring distribution and the cov......With competing risks data, one often needs to assess the treatment and covariate effects on the cumulative incidence function. Fine and Gray proposed a proportional hazards regression model for the subdistribution of a competing risk with the assumption that the censoring distribution...... and the covariates are independent. Covariate-dependent censoring sometimes occurs in medical studies. In this paper, we study the proportional hazards regression model for the subdistribution of a competing risk with proper adjustments for covariate-dependent censoring. We consider a covariate-adjusted weight...... function by fitting the Cox model for the censoring distribution and using the predictive probability for each individual. Our simulation study shows that the covariate-adjusted weight estimator is basically unbiased when the censoring time depends on the covariates, and the covariate-adjusted weight...
Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin; Kuehn, Emily D.
2011-01-01
The main goal of this study was to examine the direct and moderating effects of trustworthiness and modeling on adolescent siblings' adjustment. Data were collected from 438 families including a mother, a younger sibling in fifth, sixth, or seventh grade (M = 11.6 years), and an older sibling (M = 14.3 years). Respondents completed Web-based…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyle B Enfield
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospitals are increasingly compared based on clinical outcomes adjusted for severity of illness. Multiple methods exist to adjust for differences between patients. The challenge for consumers of this information, both the public and healthcare providers, is interpreting differences in risk adjustment models particularly when models differ in their use of administrative and physiologic data. We set to examine how administrative and physiologic models compare to each when applied to critically ill patients. METHODS: We prospectively abstracted variables for a physiologic and administrative model of mortality from two intensive care units in the United States. Predicted mortality was compared through the Pearsons Product coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. A subgroup of patients admitted directly from the emergency department was analyzed to remove potential confounding changes in condition prior to ICU admission. RESULTS: We included 556 patients from two academic medical centers in this analysis. The administrative model and physiologic models predicted mortalities for the combined cohort were 15.3% (95% CI 13.7%, 16.8% and 24.6% (95% CI 22.7%, 26.5% (t-test p-value<0.001. The r(2 for these models was 0.297. The Bland-Atlman plot suggests that at low predicted mortality there was good agreement; however, as mortality increased the models diverged. Similar results were found when analyzing a subgroup of patients admitted directly from the emergency department. When comparing the two hospitals, there was a statistical difference when using the administrative model but not the physiologic model. Unexplained mortality, defined as those patients who died who had a predicted mortality less than 10%, was a rare event by either model. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, while it has been shown that administrative models provide estimates of mortality that are similar to physiologic models in non-critically ill patients with pneumonia, our results
Data Assimilation and Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Model of VTEC Map over Thailand
Klinngam, Somjai; Maruyama, Takashi; Tsugawa, Takuya; Ishii, Mamoru; Supnithi, Pornchai; Chiablaem, Athiwat
2016-07-01
The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and high frequency (HF) communication are vulnerable to the ionospheric irregularities, especially when the signal travels through the low-latitude region and around the magnetic equator known as equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region. In order to study the ionospheric effects to the communications performance in this region, the regional map of the observed total electron content (TEC) can show the characteristic and irregularities of the ionosphere. In this work, we develop the two-dimensional (2D) map of vertical TEC (VTEC) over Thailand using the adjusted spherical harmonic model (ASHM) and the data assimilation technique. We calculate the VTEC from the receiver independent exchange (RINEX) files recorded by the dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers on July 8th, 2012 (quiet day) at 12 stations around Thailand: 0° to 25°E and 95°N to 110°N. These stations are managed by Department of Public Works and Town & Country Planning (DPT), Thailand, and the South East Asia Low-latitude ionospheric Network (SEALION) project operated by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan, and King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL). We compute the median observed VTEC (OBS-VTEC) in the grids with the spatial resolution of 2.5°x5° in latitude and longitude and time resolution of 2 hours. We assimilate the OBS-VTEC with the estimated VTEC from the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-VTEC) as well as the ionosphere map exchange (IONEX) files provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS-VTEC). The results show that the estimation of the 15-degree ASHM can be improved when both of IRI-VTEC and IGS-VTEC are weighted by the latitude-dependent factors before assimilating with the OBS-VTEC. However, the IRI-VTEC assimilation can improve the ASHM estimation more than the IGS-VTEC assimilation. Acknowledgment: This work is partially funded by the
van der Wal, W.; Wu, P.; Sideris, M.; Wang, H.
2009-05-01
GRACE satellite data offer homogeneous coverage of the area covered by the former Laurentide ice sheet. The secular gravity rate estimated from the GRACE data can therefore be used to constrain the ice loading history in Laurentide and, to a lesser extent, the mantle rheology in a GIA model. The objective of this presentation is to find a best fitting global ice model and use it to study how the ice model can be modified to fit a composite rheology, in which creep rates from a linear and non-linear rheology are added. This is useful because all the ice models constructed from GIA assume that mantle rheology is linear, but creep experiments on rocks show that nonlinear rheology may be the dominant mechanism in some parts of the mantle. We use CSR release 4 solutions from August 2002 to October 2008 with continental water storage effects removed by the GLDAS model and filtering with a destriping and Gaussian filter. The GIA model is a radially symmetric incompressible Maxwell Earth, with varying upper and lower mantle viscosity. Gravity rate misfit values are computed for with a range of viscosity values with the ICE-3G, ICE-4G and ICE-5G models. The best fit is shown for models with ICE-3G and ICE-4G, and the ICE-4G model is selected for computations with a so-called composite rheology. For the composite rheology, the Coupled Laplace Finite-Element Method is used to compute the GIA response of a spherical self-gravitating incompressible Maxwell Earth. The pre-stress exponent (A) derived from a uni- axial stress experiment is varied between 3.3 x 10-34/10-35/10-36 Pa-3s-1, the Newtonian viscosity η is varied between 1 and 3 x 1021 Pa-s, and the stress exponent is taken to be 3. Composite rheology in general results in geoid rates that are too small compared to GRACE observations. Therefore, simple modifications of the ICE-4G history are investigated by scaling ice heights or delaying glaciation. It is found that a delay in glaciation is a better way to adjust ice
The significance of biometric parameters in determining anterior teeth width
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Strajnić Ljiljana
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. An important element of prosthetic treatment of edentulous patients is selecting the size of anterior artificial teeth that will restore the natural harmony of one’s dentolabial structure as well as the whole face. The main objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the inner canthal distance (ICD and interalar width (IAW on one side and the width of both central incisors (CIW, the width of central and lateral incisors (CLIW, the width of anterior teeth (ATW, the width between the canine cusps (CCW, which may be useful in clinical practice. Methods. A total of 89 subjects comprising 23 male and 66 female were studied. Their age ranged from 19 to 34 years with the mean of 25 years. Only the subjects with the preserved natural dentition were included in the sample. All facial and intraoral tooth measurements were made with a Boley Gauge (Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn NY, USA having a resolution of 0.1mm. Results. A moderate correlation was established between the interalar width and combined width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.439, r = 0.374. A low correlation was established between the inner canthal distance and the width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.335, r = 0.303. The differences between the two genders were highly significant for all the parameters (p < 0.01. The measured facial distances and width of anterior teeth were higher in men than in women. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that the examined interalar width and inner canthal distance cannot be considered reliable guidelines in the selection of artificial upper anterior teeth. However, they may be used as a useful additional factor combined with other methods for objective tooth selection. The final decision should be made while working on dentures fitting models with the patient’s consent.
Exotic Meson Decay Widths using Lattice QCD
Cook, M S
2006-01-01
A decay width calculation for a hybrid exotic meson h, with JPC=1-+, is presented for the channel h->pi+a1. This quenched lattice QCD simulation employs Luescher's finite box method. Operators coupling to the h and pi+a1 states are used at various levels of smearing and fuzzing, and at four quark masses. Eigenvalues of the corresponding correlation matrices yield energy spectra that determine scattering phase shifts for a discrete set of relative pi+a1 momenta. Although the phase shift data is sparse, fits to a Breit-Wigner model are attempted, resulting in a decay width of about 60 MeV when averaged over two lattice sizes.
Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.
Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff
2008-01-01
Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…
A Key Challenge in Global HRM: Adding New Insights to Existing Expatriate Spouse Adjustment Models
Gupta, Ritu; Banerjee, Pratyush; Gaur, Jighyasu
2012-01-01
This study is an attempt to strengthen the existing knowledge about factors affecting the adjustment process of the trailing expatriate spouse and the subsequent impact of any maladjustment or expatriate failure. We conducted a qualitative enquiry using grounded theory methodology with 26 Indian spouses who had to deal with their partner's…
Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J
2016-07-01
The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment.
Quantifying River Widths of North America from Satellite Imagery
Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Miller, Z.
2013-12-01
River width is a fundamental predictor variable in many hydrologic, geomorphic, and biogeochemical models, yet current large-scale models rely on theoretical hydraulic geometry relationships that do not fully capture natural variability in river form. Here we present the first high-resolution dataset of long-term mean width of North American rivers wider than 30 m. The dataset contains 7.93 million georeferenced width measurements derived from Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery that were acquired when rivers were most likely to be at mean discharge. We built the dataset by developing an automated procedure that selects and downloads raw imagery, creates cloud-free normalized difference water index images, histogram balances and mosaics them together, and produces a water mask using a dynamic water-land threshold technique. We then visually inspected and corrected the mask for errors and used RivWidth software to calculate river width at each river centerline pixel. We validated our dataset using >1000 United States Geological Survey and Water Survey of Canada in situ gauge station measurements. Error analysis shows a robust relationship between the remotely sensed widths and in situ gauge measurements with an r 2 = 0.86 (Spearman's = 0.81) and a mean absolute error of 27.5 m. We find that North American river widths lie on logarithmic frequency curve with some notable exceptions at widths SWOT) satellite mission.
How do attachment dimensions affect bereavement adjustment? A mediation model of continuing bonds.
Yu, Wei; He, Li; Xu, Wei; Wang, Jianping; Prigerson, Holly G
2016-04-30
The current study aims to examine mechanisms underlying the impact of attachment dimensions on bereavement adjustment. Bereaved mainland Chinese participants (N=247) completed anonymous, retrospective, self-report surveys assessing attachment dimensions, continuing bonds (CB), grief symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Results demonstrated that attachment anxiety predicted grief symptoms via externalized CB and predicted PTG via internalized CB at the same time, whereas attachment avoidance positively predicted grief symptoms via externalized CB but negatively predicted PTG directly. Findings suggested that individuals with a high level of attachment anxiety could both suffer from grief and obtain posttraumatic growth after loss, but it depended on which kind of CB they used. By contrast, attachment avoidance was associated with a heightened risk of maladaptive bereavement adjustment. Future grief therapy may encourage the bereaved to establish CB with the deceased and gradually shift from externalized CB to internalized CB.
Business cycle effects on portfolio credit risk: A simple FX Adjustment for a factor model
Sokolov, Yuri
2010-01-01
The recent economic crisis on the demand side of the economy affects the trends and volatilities of the exchange rates as well as the operating conditions of borrowers in emerging market economies. But the exchange rate depreciation creates both winners and losers. With a weaker exchange rate, exporters and net holders of foreign assets will benefit, and vice verse, those relying on import and net debtors in foreign currency will be hurt. This paper presents a simple FX adjustment framewor...
N-Widths and Average Widths of Besov Classes in Sobolev Spaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gui Qiao XU; Yong Sheng SUN; Yong Ping LIU
2006-01-01
In this paper, we consider the n-widths and average widths of Besov classes in the usual Sobolev spaces. The weak asymptotic results concerning the Kolmogorov n-widths, the linear n-widths,the Gel'fand n-widths, in the Sobolev spaces on Td, and the infinite-dimensional widths and the average widths in the Sobolev spaces on Rd are obtained, respectively.
Active notch filter network with variable notch depth, width and frequency
Black, J. M. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
An active notch filter having independently adjustable notch frequency, width, and depth is provided by three equal capacitors connected in series with an operational amplifier (connected in a voltage follower configuration), a potentiometer across the series connected capacitors for notch depth adjustment, and a potentiometer (for notch frequency connected across the center capacitor); with its tap connected to receive a voltage feedback signal from a variable voltage divider comprised of another potentiometer for notch width. Adjusting the voltage dividing potentiometer will independently set the notch width, and adjusting the tap on the potentiometer across the center capacitor will independently adjust the notch frequency of the filter. A second operational amplifier connected in a voltage follower configuration may be used to connect the voltage divider output to the adjustable tap of the potentiometer across the center capacitor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faille, D.; Codrons, B.; Gevers, M.
1996-03-01
This document belongs to the methodological part of the project MISTRAL, which builds a library of power plant models. The model equations are generally obtained from the first principles. The parameters are actually not always easily calculable (at least accurately) from the dimension data. We are therefore investigating the possibility of automatically adjusting the value of those parameters from experimental data. To do that, we must master the optimization algorithms and the techniques that are analyzing the model structure, like the identifiability theory. (authors). 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 append.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHONG Yi-feng; WANG Rui; YING Xue-gang; CHEN Huai
2006-01-01
In this paper, we established a finite element (FEM) model to analyze the dynamic characteristics of arch bridges. In this model, the effects of adjustment to the length of a suspender on its geometry stiffness matrix are stressed. The FEM equations of mechanics characteristics, natural frequency and main mode are set up based on the first order matrix perturbation theory. Applicantion of the proposed model to analyze a real arch bridge proved the improvement in the simulation precision of dynamical characteristics of the arch bridge by considering the effects of suspender length variation.
Benchmarking Judgmentally Adjusted Forecasts
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)
2017-01-01
textabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice, usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights given
Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)
2015-01-01
markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights
Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)
2015-01-01
markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give
Jiang, Xianan; Zhao, Ming; Maloney, Eric D.; Waliser, Duane E.
2016-10-01
Despite its pronounced impacts on weather extremes worldwide, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) remains poorly represented in climate models. Here we present findings that point to some necessary ingredients to produce a strong MJO amplitude in a large set of model simulations from a recent model intercomparison project. While surface flux and radiative heating anomalies are considered important for amplifying the MJO, their strength per unit MJO precipitation anomaly is found to be negatively correlated to MJO amplitude across these multimodel simulations. However, model MJO amplitude is found to be closely tied to a model's convective moisture adjustment time scale, a measure of how rapidly precipitation must increase to remove excess column water vapor, or alternately the efficiency of surface precipitation generation per unit column water vapor anomaly. These findings provide critical insights into key model processes for the MJO and pinpoint a direction for improved model representation of the MJO.
Cotton, Fabrice; Scherbaum, Frank; Bommer, Julian J.; Bungum, Hilmar
2006-04-01
A vital component of any seismic hazard analysis is a model for predicting the expected distribution of ground motions at a site due to possible earthquake scenarios. The limited nature of the datasets from which such models are derived gives rise to epistemic uncertainty in both the median estimates and the associated aleatory variability of these predictive equations. In order to capture this epistemic uncertainty in a seismic hazard analysis, more than one ground-motion prediction equation must be used, and the tool that is currently employed to combine multiple models is the logic tree. Candidate ground-motion models for a logic tree should be selected in order to obtain the smallest possible suite of equations that can capture the expected range of possible ground motions in the target region. This is achieved by starting from a comprehensive list of available equations and then applying criteria for rejecting those considered inappropriate in terms of quality, derivation or applicability. Once the final list of candidate models is established, adjustments must be applied to achieve parameter compatibility. Additional adjustments can also be applied to remove the effect of systematic differences between host and target regions. These procedures are applied to select and adjust ground-motion models for the analysis of seismic hazard at rock sites in West Central Europe. This region is chosen for illustrative purposes particularly because it highlights the issue of using ground-motion models derived from small magnitude earthquakes in the analysis of hazard due to much larger events. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating ground-motion models from small to large magnitude earthquakes in low seismicity regions are discussed for the selected target region.
Farley, Gary L.
1994-01-01
Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.
NKG201xGIA - first results for a new model of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia
Steffen, Holger; Barletta, Valentina; Kollo, Karin; Milne, Glenn A.; Nordman, Maaria; Olsson, Per-Anders; Simpson, Matthew J. R.; Tarasov, Lev; Ågren, Jonas
2016-04-01
Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is a dominant process in northern Europe, which is observed with several geodetic and geophysical methods. The observed land uplift due to this process amounts to about 1 cm/year in the northern Gulf of Bothnia. GIA affects the establishment and maintenance of reliable geodetic and gravimetric reference networks in the Nordic countries. To support a high level of accuracy in the determination of position, adequate corrections have to be applied with dedicated models. Currently, there are efforts within a Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG) activity towards a model of glacial isostatic adjustment for Fennoscandia. The new model, NKG201xGIA, to be developed in the near future will complement the forthcoming empirical NKG land uplift model, which will substitute the currently used empirical land uplift model NKG2005LU (Ågren & Svensson, 2007). Together, the models will be a reference for vertical and horizontal motion, gravity and geoid change and more. NKG201xGIA will also provide uncertainty estimates for each field. Following former investigations, the GIA model is based on a combination of an ice and an earth model. The selected reference ice model, GLAC, for Fennoscandia, the Barents/Kara seas and the British Isles is provided by Lev Tarasov and co-workers. Tests of different ice and earth models will be performed based on the expertise of each involved modeler. This includes studies on high resolution ice sheets, different rheologies, lateral variations in lithosphere and mantle viscosity and more. This will also be done in co-operation with scientists outside NKG who help in the development and testing of the model. References Ågren, J., Svensson, R. (2007): Postglacial Land Uplift Model and System Definition for the New Swedish Height System RH 2000. Reports in Geodesy and Geographical Information Systems Rapportserie, LMV-Rapport 4, Lantmäteriet, Gävle.
Return predictability and intertemporal asset allocation: Evidence from a bias-adjusted VAR model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard
We extend the VAR based intertemporal asset allocation approach from Campbell et al. (2003) to the case where the VAR parameter estimates are adjusted for small- sample bias. We apply the analytical bias formula from Pope (1990) using both Campbell et al.'s dataset, and an extended dataset...... with quarterly data from 1952 to 2006. The results show that correcting the VAR parameters for small-sample bias has both quantitatively and qualitatively important e¤ects on the strategic intertemporal part of optimal portfolio choice, especially for bonds: for intermediate values of risk...
Loeser, Meghan K.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.
2016-01-01
Youth's perception of parents’ differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings (M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (−1 SD) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment. PMID:27867295
Loeser, Meghan K; Whiteman, Shawn D; McHale, Susan M
2016-08-01
Youth's perception of parents' differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings (M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (-1 SD) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment.
Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths
Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.
2016-01-01
Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张津京; 刘玉华; 吕培军; 赵一姣
2011-01-01
Objective :To explore the effect of gingival retraction time on the gingival sulcus width in different gingival areas, using three-dimensional ( 3D) model analysis. Methods: Forty-six premolars from 10 volunteers were included, gingival retraction cords were applied on the buccal sulcus for three times, and the retraction time was 5, 10 and 15 minutes respectively. The least interval between two retraction procedures was 2 weeks. Impressions and stone models were made before and after gingival retraction. 3D data of the models were acquired by a 3D line laser scanner. Models were superimposed and tooth coordinate was set up with special software. Sulcus widths from different retraction time and different gingival areas were measured and compared. Results: Sulcus widths between retraction of 5 and 10 minutes were significantly different at midbuccal and transitional line angle ( TLA) gingival areas. At TLA areas, sulcus widths between retraction of 10 and 15 minutes were also statistically different, but the difference was not significant when compared with that of 5 and 10 minutes. Sulcus widths at midbuccal areas were significantly greater than that at TLA areas for all three retraction time. Conclusion: Before making impressions, gingival retraction time of single-cord mechanical technique should be at least 10 minutes. For different gingival areas, the enlargement of gingival sulcus from gingival retraction and the optimal retraction time were different. 3D model analysis could be used as a new objective method to evaluate gingival retraction effect from different retraction time.%目的:利用三维数字化模型分析法,研究排龈时间对牙龈不同部位龈沟宽度的影响.方法:选取10名志愿者的46颗前磨牙,对其颊侧龈沟共进行3次排龈,时间分别为5、10、15 min,两次排龈至少间隔2周,制取排龈前、后的印模并灌制石膏模型.用三维线激光扫描仪获取模型三维数据,通过专业软件进行模型重
A limit-cycle model of leg movements in cross-country skiing and its adjustments with fatigue.
Cignetti, F; Schena, F; Mottet, D; Rouard, A
2010-08-01
Using dynamical modeling tools, the aim of the study was to establish a minimal model reproducing leg movements in cross-country skiing, and to evaluate the eventual adjustments of this model with fatigue. The participants (N=8) skied on a treadmill at 90% of their maximal oxygen consumption, up to exhaustion, using the diagonal stride technique. Qualitative analysis of leg kinematics portrayed in phase planes, Hooke planes, and velocity profiles suggested the inclusion in the model of a linear stiffness and an asymmetric van der Pol-type nonlinear damping. Quantitative analysis revealed that this model reproduced the observed kinematics patterns of the leg with adequacy, accounting for 87% of the variance. A rising influence of the stiffness term and a dropping influence of the damping terms were also evidenced with fatigue. The meaning of these changes was discussed in the framework of motor control.
... syndrome) A certain type of stroke (vertebral artery dissection) after neck manipulation Don't seek chiropractic adjustment ... Chiropractic treatment. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Shekelle P, et al. Spinal ...
Probing eigenfunction nonorthogonality by parametric shifts of resonance widths
Savin, D V
2013-01-01
Recently, it has been shown that the change of resonance widths in an open system under a perturbation of its interior is a sensitive indicator of the nonorthogonality of resonance states. We apply this measure to quantify parametric motion of the resonances. In particular, a strong redistribution of the widths is linked with the maximal degree of nonorthogonality. Then for weakly open chaotic systems we discuss the role of spectral rigidity on the statistical properties of the parametric width shifts, and derive the distribution of the latter in a picket-fence model with equidistant spectrum.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen
2016-01-01
, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10–20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2–3 km away.......Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling...... overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5–30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall...
2010-01-01
... Route width. (a) Routes and route segments over Federal airways, foreign airways, or advisory routes have a width equal to the designated width of those airways or advisory routes. Whenever the... clearance. (2) Minimum en route altitudes. (3) Ground and airborne navigation aids. (4) Air traffic density...
Clique-width of unit interval graphs
Lozin, Vadim V.
2007-01-01
The clique-width is known to be unbounded in the class of unit interval graphs. In this paper, we show that this is a minimal hereditary class of unbounded clique-width, i.e., in every hereditary subclass of unit interval graphs the clique-width is bounded by a constant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
João Pedro Velho
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In the present work, with whole plant silage corn at different stages of maturity, aimed to evaluate the mathematical models Exponential, France, Gompertz and Logistic to study the kinetics of gas production in vitro incubations for 24 and 48 hours. A semi-automated in vitro gas production technique was used during one, three, six, eight, ten, 12, 14, 16, 22, 24, 31, 36, 42 and 48 hours of incubation periods. Model adjustment was evaluated by means of mean square of error, mean bias, root mean square prediction error and residual error. The Gompertz mathematical model allowed the best adjustment to describe the gas production kinetics of maize silages, regardless of incubation period. The France model was not adequate to describe gas kinetics of incubation periods equal or lower than 48 hours. The in vitro gas production technique was efficient to detect differences in nutritional value of maize silages from different growth stages. Twenty four hours in vitro incubation periods do not mask treatment effects, whilst 48 hour periods are inadequate to measure silage digestibility.
What sets the minimum tokamak scrape-off layer width?
Joseph, Ilon
2016-10-01
The heat flux width of the tokamak scrape-off layer is on the order of the poloidal ion gyroradius, but the ``heuristic drift'' physics model is still not completely understood. In the absence of anomalous transport, neoclassical transport sets the minimum width. For plateau collisionality, the ion temperature width is set by qρi , while the electron temperature width scales as the geometric mean q(ρeρi) 1 / 2 and is close to qρi in magnitude. The width is enhanced because electrons are confined by the sheath potential and have a much longer time to radially diffuse before escaping to the wall. In the Pfirsch-Schluter regime, collisional diffusion increases the width by the factor (qR / λ) 1 / 2 where qR is the connection length and λ is the mean free path. This qualitatively agrees with the observed transition in the scaling law for detached plasmas. The radial width of the SOL electric field is determined by Spitzer parallel and ``neoclassical'' radial electric conductivity and has a similar scaling to that for thermal transport. Prepared under US DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Step width alters iliotibial band strain during running.
Meardon, Stacey A; Campbell, Samuel; Derrick, Timothy R
2012-11-01
This study assessed the effect of step width during running on factors related to iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 15 healthy recreational runners during overground running under various step width conditions (preferred and at least +/- 5% of their leg length). Strain and strain rate were estimated from a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. Greater ITB strain and strain rate were found in the narrower step width condition (p < 0.001, p = 0.040). ITB strain was significantly (p < 0.001) greater in the narrow condition than the preferred and wide conditions and it was greater in the preferred condition than the wide condition. ITB strain rate was significantly greater in the narrow condition than the wide condition (p = 0.020). Polynomial contrasts revealed a linear increase in both ITB strain and strain rate with decreasing step width. We conclude that relatively small decreases in step width can substantially increase ITB strain as well as strain rates. Increasing step width during running, especially in persons whose running style is characterized by a narrow step width, may be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of running-related ITB syndrome.
Performance influence in submersible pump with different diffuser inlet widths
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingshun Wei
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The diffuser inlet width is a key geometric parameter that affects submersible pump performance. On the basis of diffuser characteristic curve analyses, diffusers with different inlet widths and the same impeller were equipped to construct a submersible pump model through the use of AutoCAD software. The performance curves of the submersible pump, with six diffuser inlet widths, were obtained using computational fluid dynamics method. Simultaneously, the simulation results were tested with the experimental method presented in this article. The results show that the optimum value of the inlet width (b3 = 50 mm is larger than the experience-based one. With an increase in the inlet width, the optimum operating point of a submersible pump offsets to a larger flow rate. When the guide blade inlet width is approximately 40–55 mm, the submersible pump efficiency is relatively high, approximately 75.9%–83.7% capacity, and the flow rate is approximately 105–135 m3/h. The numerical results of submersible pump performance are higher than those of the test results; however, their change trends have an acceptable agreement with each other. The practical significance is supplied by changing the inlet width of the diffuser to expand the scope of use.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kadaj Roman
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The adjustment problem of the so-called combined (hybrid, integrated network created with GNSS vectors and terrestrial observations has been the subject of many theoretical and applied works. The network adjustment in various mathematical spaces was considered: in the Cartesian geocentric system on a reference ellipsoid and on a mapping plane. For practical reasons, it often takes a geodetic coordinate system associated with the reference ellipsoid. In this case, the Cartesian GNSS vectors are converted, for example, into geodesic parameters (azimuth and length on the ellipsoid, but the simple form of converted pseudo-observations are the direct differences of the geodetic coordinates. Unfortunately, such an approach may be essentially distorted by a systematic error resulting from the position error of the GNSS vector, before its projection on the ellipsoid surface. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of this error on the determined measures of geometric ellipsoid elements, including the differences of geodetic coordinates or geodesic parameters is presented. Assuming that the adjustment of a combined network on the ellipsoid shows that the optimal functional approach in relation to the satellite observation, is to create the observational equations directly for the original GNSS Cartesian vector components, writing them directly as a function of the geodetic coordinates (in numerical applications, we use the linearized forms of observational equations with explicitly specified coefficients. While retaining the original character of the Cartesian vector, one avoids any systematic errors that may occur in the conversion of the original GNSS vectors to ellipsoid elements, for example the vector of the geodesic parameters. The problem is theoretically developed and numerically tested. An example of the adjustment of a subnet loaded from the database of reference stations of the ASG-EUPOS system was considered for the preferred functional
Kadaj, Roman
2016-12-01
The adjustment problem of the so-called combined (hybrid, integrated) network created with GNSS vectors and terrestrial observations has been the subject of many theoretical and applied works. The network adjustment in various mathematical spaces was considered: in the Cartesian geocentric system on a reference ellipsoid and on a mapping plane. For practical reasons, it often takes a geodetic coordinate system associated with the reference ellipsoid. In this case, the Cartesian GNSS vectors are converted, for example, into geodesic parameters (azimuth and length) on the ellipsoid, but the simple form of converted pseudo-observations are the direct differences of the geodetic coordinates. Unfortunately, such an approach may be essentially distorted by a systematic error resulting from the position error of the GNSS vector, before its projection on the ellipsoid surface. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of this error on the determined measures of geometric ellipsoid elements, including the differences of geodetic coordinates or geodesic parameters is presented. Assuming that the adjustment of a combined network on the ellipsoid shows that the optimal functional approach in relation to the satellite observation, is to create the observational equations directly for the original GNSS Cartesian vector components, writing them directly as a function of the geodetic coordinates (in numerical applications, we use the linearized forms of observational equations with explicitly specified coefficients). While retaining the original character of the Cartesian vector, one avoids any systematic errors that may occur in the conversion of the original GNSS vectors to ellipsoid elements, for example the vector of the geodesic parameters. The problem is theoretically developed and numerically tested. An example of the adjustment of a subnet loaded from the database of reference stations of the ASG-EUPOS system was considered for the preferred functional model of the GNSS
Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Havsapian, R.; Koritarov, V.
2015-04-06
Hydropower is the largest producer of renewable energy in the U.S. More than 60% of the total renewable generation comes from hydropower. There is also approximately 22 GW of pumped storage hydropower (PSH). Conventional PSH uses a synchronous generator, and thus the rotational speed is constant at synchronous speed. This work details a hydrodynamic model and generator/power converter dynamic model. The optimization of the hydrodynamic model is executed by the hydro-turbine controller, and the electrical output real/reactive power is controlled by the power converter. All essential controllers to perform grid-interface functions and provide ancillary services are included in the model.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郜琳琳; 金福江; 吴温龙
2012-01-01
In order to solve the key technical problem regarding to the difficulty to design the parameters affecting the finished fabric width quantitatively in heat setting process, this paper puts forward the Quantum Genetic Algorithm (Quantum Genetic Algorithm, QGA) that is used to finish the process parameters optimization design of the product door model. First, we establish the optimization model, and then use quantum genetic algorithm based on this model to realize precise and quantitative design of parameters affecting the finished width. We process the elastic cloth by using the process parameters which are obtained by the method in the paper. The deviation in weight, width between the product, and user required index is less than 0. 1% , which can meet the actual production requirements fully. At the same time in the paper we can know that quantum genetic algorithm is better than genetic algorithm in optimum design of process parameters in comparison when the iterative population increase gradually.%为了解决热定型中影响成品织物门幅的工艺参数难以定量设计的关键技术难题.提出了将量子遗传算法用于成品门幅模型工艺参数优化设计中.建立优化模型,基于该模型采用量子遗传算法,实现了影响成品门幅的工艺参数精确定量设计.用该方法得到的工艺参数加工弹力布,生产成品的门幅与用户要求指标的偏差小于0.1％,完全满足实际生产要求.同时将量子遗传算法与遗传算法在工艺参数的优化设计中进行比较,得出当迭代种群逐渐增大时,量子遗传算法在工艺参数的优化设计中的优势更加明显.
Palindromic widths of nilpotent and wreath products
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Valeriy G Bardakov; Oleg V Bryukhanov; Krishnendu Gongopadhyay
2017-02-01
We prove that the nilpotent product of a set of groups $A_1, \\ldots , A_s$ has finite palindromic width if and only if the palindromic widths of $A_i$, $i = 1, \\ldots , s$, are finite. We give a new proof that the commutator width of $F_n \\wr K$ is infinite, where $F_n$ is a free group of rank $n\\geq 2$ and $K$ is a finite group. This result, combining with a result of Fink [9] gives examples of groups with infinite commutator width but finite palindromic width with respect to some generating set.
基于M/G/C排队模型的地铁人行通道宽度设置%Determined Method of Subway Footway Width Based on M/G/C Gueuing Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
金瑞俊; 陈京荣; 尉陇亮; 崔笑川
2013-01-01
通过分析地铁人行通道内的客流特性,依据行人流将整个通道划分为相反方向的2个独立通道,每个通道构成一个排队系统.分析排队系统的参数特性,建立M/G/C排队优化模型,得出地铁通道宽度的设置方法.利用专业的Simio仿真软件,建立地铁通道内的客流仿真模型,并对所建立的排队优化模型进行验证,使得对满足最大客流需求的地铁通道的设置具有理论依据和实际操作性.%The footway is divided into 2 channels whose directions are opposite based on passenger flow by analyzing the characteristics of passenger flow in subway, and each channel was described as a queuing system. The M/G/C queuing optimization model was built based on the analysis of parameter characteristics of queuing system, and an approach for determining subway footway width was obtained. A simulation model was built by using professional Simio simulation software, which was proposed to testify the queuing optimization model, and it makes the approach for determining subway footway width which meets the maximum value of passenger flow with theoretical basis and practical operation.
Rational Multi-curve Models with Counterparty-risk Valuation Adjustments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Crépey, Stéphane; Macrina, Andrea; Nguyen, Tuyet Mai
2016-01-01
We develop a multi-curve term structure set-up in which the modelling ingredients are expressed by rational functionals of Markov processes. We calibrate to London Interbank Offer Rate swaptions data and show that a rational two-factor log-normal multi-curve model is sufficient to match market data...
Study of Offset Collisions and Beam Adjustment in the LHC Using a Strong-Strong Simulation Model
Muratori, B
2002-01-01
The bunches of the two opposing beams in the LHC do not always collide head-on. The beam-beam effects cause a small, unavoidable separation under nominal operational conditions. During the beam adjustment and when the beams are brought into collision the beams are separated by a significant fraction of the beam size. A result of small beam separation can be the excitation of coherent dipole oscillations or an emittance increase. These two effects are studied using a strong-strong multi particle simulation model. The aim is to identify possible limitations and to find procedures which minimise possible detrimental effects.
MacNab, Ying C
2007-11-20
This paper presents a Bayesian disability-adjusted life year (DALY) methodology for spatial and spatiotemporal analyses of disease and/or injury burden. A Bayesian disease mapping model framework, which blends together spatial modelling, shared-component modelling (SCM), temporal modelling, ecological modelling, and non-linear modelling, is developed for small-area DALY estimation and inference. In particular, we develop a model framework that enables SCM as well as multivariate CAR modelling of non-fatal and fatal disease or injury rates and facilitates spline smoothing for non-linear modelling of temporal rate and risk trends. Using British Columbia (Canada) hospital admission-separation data and vital statistics mortality data on non-fatal and fatal road traffic injuries to male population age 20-39 for year 1991-2000 and for 84 local health areas and 16 health service delivery areas, spatial and spatiotemporal estimation and inference on years of life lost due to premature death, years lived with disability, and DALYs are presented. Fully Bayesian estimation and inference, with Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation, are illustrated. We present a methodological framework within which the DALY and the Bayesian disease mapping methodologies interface and intersect. Its development brings the relative importance of premature mortality and disability into the assessment of community health and health needs in order to provide reliable information and evidence for community-based public health surveillance and evaluation, disease and injury prevention, and resource provision.
Direct measurement of the W boson width
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.
2009-09-01
We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.
Direct measurement of the W boson width.
Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2009-12-04
We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W --> enu candidate events. Data from approximately 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity recorded at square root of s = 1.96 TeV by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider are analyzed. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 +/- 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model.
Linear identification and model adjustment of a PEM fuel cell stack
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunusch, C.; Puleston, P.F.; More, J.J. [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, calle 1 esq. 47 s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Husar, A. [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), c/ Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mayosky, M.A. [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, calle 1 esq. 47 s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIC), Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2008-07-15
In the context of fuel cell stack control a mayor challenge is modeling the interdependence of various complex subsystem dynamics. In many cases, the states interaction is usually modeled through several look-up tables, decision blocks and piecewise continuous functions. Many internal variables are inaccessible for measurement and cannot be used in control algorithms. To make significant contributions in this area, it is necessary to develop reliable models for control and design purposes. In this paper, a linear model based on experimental identification of a 7-cell stack was developed. The procedure followed to obtain a linear model of the system consisted in performing spectroscopy tests of four different single-input single-output subsystems. The considered inputs for the tests were the stack current and the cathode oxygen flow rate, while the measured outputs were the stack voltage and the cathode total pressure. The resulting model can be used either for model-based control design or for on-line analysis and errors detection. (author)
The timing of the Black Sea flood event: Insights from modeling of glacial isostatic adjustment
Goldberg, Samuel L.; Lau, Harriet C. P.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Latychev, Konstantin
2016-10-01
We present a suite of gravitationally self-consistent predictions of sea-level change since Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the vicinity of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits that combine signals associated with glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and the flooding of the Black Sea. Our predictions are tuned to fit a relative sea level (RSL) record at the island of Samothrace in the north Aegean Sea and they include realistic 3-D variations in viscoelastic structure, including lateral variations in mantle viscosity and the elastic thickness of the lithosphere, as well as weak plate boundary zones. We demonstrate that 3-D Earth structure and the magnitude of the flood event (which depends on the pre-flood level of the lake) both have significant impact on the predicted RSL change at the location of the Bosphorus sill, and therefore on the inferred timing of the marine incursion. We summarize our results in a plot showing the predicted RSL change at the Bosphorus sill as a function of the timing of the flood event for different flood magnitudes up to 100 m. These results suggest, for example, that a flood event at 9 ka implies that the elevation of the sill was lowered through erosion by ∼14-21 m during, and after, the flood. In contrast, a flood event at 7 ka suggests erosion of ∼24-31 m at the sill since the flood. More generally, our results will be useful for future research aimed at constraining the details of this controversial, and widely debated geological event.
Real time adjustment of slow changing flow components in distributed urban runoff models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Morten; Grum, M.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
2011-01-01
. This information is then used to update the states of the hydrological model. The method is demonstrated on the 20 km2 Danish urban catchment of Ballerup, which has substantial amount of infiltration inflow after succeeding rain events, for a very rainy period of 17 days in August 2010. The results show big......In many urban runoff systems infiltrating water contributes with a substantial part of the total inflow and therefore most urban runoff modelling packages include hydrological models for simulating the infiltrating inflow. This paper presents a method for deterministic updating of the hydrological...
Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Lafaysse, Matthieu
2017-04-01
Projections of future climate change have been increasingly called for lately, as the reality of climate change has been gradually accepted and societies and governments have started to plan upcoming mitigation and adaptation policies. In mountain regions such as the Alps or the Pyrenees, where winter tourism and hydropower production are large contributors to the regional revenue, particular attention is brought to current and future snow availability. The question of the vulnerability of mountain ecosystems as well as the occurrence of climate-related hazards such as avalanches and debris-flows is also under consideration. In order to generate projections of snow conditions, however, downscaling global climate models (GCMs) by using regional climate models (RCMs) is not sufficient to capture the fine-scale processes and thresholds at play. In particular, the altitudinal resolution matters, since the phase of precipitation is mainly controlled by the temperature which is altitude-dependent. Simulations from GCMs and RCMs moreover suffer from biases compared to local observations, due to their rather coarse spatial and altitudinal resolution, and often provide outputs at too coarse time resolution to drive impact models. RCM simulations must therefore be adjusted using empirical-statistical downscaling and error correction methods, before they can be used to drive specific models such as energy balance land surface models. In this study, time series of hourly temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation were generated over the Pyrenees and the French Alps for the period 1950-2100, by using a new approach (named ADAMONT for ADjustment of RCM outputs to MOuNTain regions) based on quantile mapping applied to daily data, followed by time disaggregation accounting for weather patterns selection. We first introduce a thorough evaluation of the method using using model runs from the ALADIN RCM driven by a global reanalysis over the
Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y
2016-07-01
Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.
Modeling and simulation of M/M/c queuing pharmacy system with adjustable parameters
Rashida, A. R.; Fadzli, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Safwati; Goh, Siti Rohana
2016-02-01
This paper studies a discrete event simulation (DES) as a computer based modelling that imitates a real system of pharmacy unit. M/M/c queuing theo is used to model and analyse the characteristic of queuing system at the pharmacy unit of Hospital Tuanku Fauziah, Kangar in Perlis, Malaysia. The input of this model is based on statistical data collected for 20 working days in June 2014. Currently, patient waiting time of pharmacy unit is more than 15 minutes. The actual operation of the pharmacy unit is a mixed queuing server with M/M/2 queuing model where the pharmacist is referred as the server parameters. DES approach and ProModel simulation software is used to simulate the queuing model and to propose the improvement for queuing system at this pharmacy system. Waiting time for each server is analysed and found out that Counter 3 and 4 has the highest waiting time which is 16.98 and 16.73 minutes. Three scenarios; M/M/3, M/M/4 and M/M/5 are simulated and waiting time for actual queuing model and experimental queuing model are compared. The simulation results show that by adding the server (pharmacist), it will reduce patient waiting time to a reasonable improvement. Almost 50% average patient waiting time is reduced when one pharmacist is added to the counter. However, it is not necessary to fully utilize all counters because eventhough M/M/4 and M/M/5 produced more reduction in patient waiting time, but it is ineffective since Counter 5 is rarely used.
Model-based Adjustment of Droplet Characteristic for 3D Electronic Printing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Na
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The major challenge in 3D electronic printing is the print resolution and accuracy. In this paper, a typical mode - lumped element modeling method (LEM - is adopted to simulate the droplet jetting characteristic. This modeling method can quickly get the droplet velocity and volume with a high accuracy. Experimental results show that LEM has a simpler structure with the sufficient simulation and prediction accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In population-based cancer research, piecewise exponential regression models are used to derive adjusted estimates of excess mortality due to cancer using the Poisson generalized linear modelling framework. However, the assumption that the conditional mean and variance of the rate parameter given the set of covariates x i are equal is strong and may fail to account for overdispersion given the variability of the rate parameter (the variance exceeds the mean. Using an empirical example, we aimed to describe simple methods to test and correct for overdispersion. Methods We used a regression-based score test for overdispersion under the relative survival framework and proposed different approaches to correct for overdispersion including a quasi-likelihood, robust standard errors estimation, negative binomial regression and flexible piecewise modelling. Results All piecewise exponential regression models showed the presence of significant inherent overdispersion (p-value <0.001. However, the flexible piecewise exponential model showed the smallest overdispersion parameter (3.2 versus 21.3 for non-flexible piecewise exponential models. Conclusion We showed that there were no major differences between methods. However, using a flexible piecewise regression modelling, with either a quasi-likelihood or robust standard errors, was the best approach as it deals with both, overdispersion due to model misspecification and true or inherent overdispersion.
Line Width Recovery after Vectorization of Engineering Drawings
Gramblička, Matúš; Vaský, Jozef
2016-12-01
Vectorization is the conversion process of a raster image representation into a vector representation. The contemporary commercial vectorization software applications do not provide sufficiently high quality outputs for such images as do mechanical engineering drawings. Line width preservation is one of the problems. There are applications which need to know the line width after vectorization because this line attribute carries the important semantic information for the next 3D model generation. This article describes the algorithm that is able to recover line width of individual lines in the vectorized engineering drawings. Two approaches are proposed, one examines the line width at three points, whereas the second uses a variable number of points depending on the line length. The algorithm is tested on real mechanical engineering drawings.
Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts
Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa; Durant, A.J.
2016-01-01
Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16–17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m−3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between ∼ 2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20–0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25–50 Tg), plume height (8.5–25 km), mass fraction of fine ( operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.
Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts
Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Durant, Adam J.
2016-07-01
Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m-3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between ˜ 2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20-0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine ( water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that aggregation may be treated as a discrete process that is insensitive to eruptive style or magnitude. This result offers the potential for a simple, computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun
2015-01-01
DEA is a nonparametric method used in operation researches and economics fields for the evaluation of the production frontier. It has distinct intrinsic which is worth coping with assessment problems with multiple inputs in particular with multiple outputs. This paper usedDεC2R model of DEA to assess the comparative efficiency of the multiple schemes of agricultural industrial structure, at the end we chose the most favorable also known as "OPTIMAL" scheme. In addition to this, using some functional insights from DEA model non optimal schemes or less optimal schemes had also been improved to some extent. Assessment and selection of optimal schemes of agricultural industrial structure using DEA model gave a greater and better insight of agricultural industrial structure and was the first of such researches in Pakistan.
Adjustment and Characterization of an Original Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure in Pig
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurent Barandon
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We present and characterize an original experimental model to create a chronic ischemic heart failure in pig. Two ameroid constrictors were placed around the LAD and the circumflex artery. Two months after surgery, pigs presented a poor LV function associated with a severe mitral valve insufficiency. Echocardiography analysis showed substantial anomalies in radial and circumferential deformations, both on the anterior and lateral surface of the heart. These anomalies in function were coupled with anomalies of perfusion observed in echocardiography after injection of contrast medium. No demonstration of myocardial infarction was observed with histological analysis. Our findings suggest that we were able to create and to stabilize a chronic ischemic heart failure model in the pig. This model represents a useful tool for the development of new medical or surgical treatment in this field.
Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.
2013-01-01
Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that…
Adjustment of Homeless Adolescents to a Crisis Shelter: Application of a Stress and Coping Model.
Dalton, Melanie M.; Pakenham, Kenneth I.
2002-01-01
Examined the usefulness of a stress and coping model of adaptation to a homeless shelter among 78 homeless adolescents who were interviewed and completed measures at shelter entrance and discharge. After controlling for relevant background variables, measures of coping resources, appraisal, and coping strategies showed relations with measures of…
Glacial isostatic adjustment associated with the Barents Sea ice sheet: A modelling inter-comparison
Auriac, A.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Bentley, M. J.; Patton, H.; Lloyd, J. M.; Hubbard, A.
2016-09-01
The 3D geometrical evolution of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet (BSIS), particularly during its late-glacial retreat phase, remains largely ambiguous due to the paucity of direct marine- and terrestrial-based evidence constraining its horizontal and vertical extent and chronology. One way of validating the numerous BSIS reconstructions previously proposed is to collate and apply them under a wide range of Earth models and to compare prognostic (isostatic) output through time with known relative sea-level (RSL) data. Here we compare six contrasting BSIS load scenarios via a spherical Earth system model and derive a best-fit, χ2 parameter using RSL data from the four main terrestrial regions within the domain: Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya and northern Norway. Poor χ2 values allow two load scenarios to be dismissed, leaving four that agree well with RSL observations. The remaining four scenarios optimally fit the RSL data when combined with Earth models that have an upper mantle viscosity of 0.2-2 × 1021 Pa s, while there is less sensitivity to the lithosphere thickness (ranging from 71 to 120 km) and lower mantle viscosity (spanning 1-50 × 1021 Pa s). GPS observations are also compared with predictions of present-day uplift across the Barents Sea. Key locations where relative sea-level and GPS data would prove critical in constraining future ice-sheet modelling efforts are also identified.
Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.
2013-01-01
Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that…
An improved canopy wind model for predicting wind adjustment factors and wildland fire behavior
W. J. Massman; J. M. Forthofer; M. A. Finney
2017-01-01
The ability to rapidly estimate wind speed beneath a forest canopy or near the ground surface in any vegetation is critical to practical wildland fire behavior models. The common metric of this wind speed is the "mid-flame" wind speed, UMF. However, the existing approach for estimating UMF has some significant shortcomings. These include the assumptions that...
The linear quadratic adjustment cost model and the demand for labour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsted, Tom; Haldrup, Niels
1994-01-01
Der udvikles en ny metode til estimation og test af den lineære kvadratiske tilpasningsomkostningsmodel når de underliggende tidsserier er ikke-stationære, og metoden anvendes til modellering af arbejdskraftefterspørgslen i danske industrisektorer....
Modelling and control of Base Plate Loading subsystem for The Motorized Adjustable Vertical Platform
Norsahperi, N. M. H.; Ahmad, S.; Fuad, A. F. M.; Mahmood, I. A.; Toha, S. F.; Akmeliawati, R.; Darsivan, F. J.
2017-03-01
Malaysia National Space Agency, ANGKASA is an organization that intensively undergoes many researches especially on space. On 2011, ANGKASA had built Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Centre (AITC) for spacecraft development and test. Satellite will undergo numerous tests and one of it is Thermal test in Thermal Vacuum Chamber (TVC). In fact, TVC is located in cleanroom and on a platform. The only available facilities for loading and unloading the satellite is overhead crane. By utilizing the overhead crane can jeopardize the safety of the satellite. Therefore, Motorized vertical platform (MAVeP) for transferring the satellite into the TVC with capability to operate under cleanroom condition and limited space is proposed to facilitate the test. MAVeP is the combination of several mechanisms to produce horizontal and vertical motions with the ability to transfer the satellite from loading bay into TVC. The integration of both motions to elevate and transfer heavy loads with high precision capability will deliver major contributions in various industries such as aerospace and automotive. Base plate subsystem is capable to translate the horizontal motion by converting the angular motion from motor to linear motion by using rack and pinion mechanism. Generally a system can be modelled by performing physical modelling from schematic diagram or through system identification techniques. Both techniques are time consuming and required comprehensive understanding about the system, which may expose to error prone especially for complex mechanism. Therefore, a 3D virtual modelling technique has been implemented to represent the system in real world environment i.e. gravity to simulate control performance. The main purpose of this technique is to provide better model to analyse the system performance and capable to evaluate the dynamic behaviour of the system with visualization of the system performance, where a 3D prototype was designed and assembled in Solidworks
Ding, Lili; Kurowski, Brad G; He, Hua; Alexander, Eileen S.; Mersha, Tesfaye B.; Fardo, David W.; Zhang, Xue; Pilipenko, Valentina V; Kottyan, Leah; Martin, Lisa J.
2014-01-01
Genetic studies often collect data on multiple traits. Most genetic association analyses, however, consider traits separately and ignore potential correlation among traits, partially because of difficulties in statistical modeling of multivariate outcomes. When multiple traits are measured in a pedigree longitudinally, additional challenges arise because in addition to correlation between traits, a trait is often correlated with its own measures over time and with measurements of other family...
Pokhilko, Alexandra; Flis, Anna; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Ebenhöh, Oliver
2014-03-04
In the light, photosynthesis provides carbon for metabolism and growth. In the dark, plant growth depends on carbon reserves that were accumulated during previous light periods. Many plants accumulate part of their newly-fixed carbon as starch in their leaves in the day and remobilise it to support metabolism and growth at night. The daily rhythms of starch accumulation and degradation are dynamically adjusted to the changing light conditions such that starch is almost but not totally exhausted at dawn. This requires the allocation of a larger proportion of the newly fixed carbon to starch under low carbon conditions, and the use of information about the carbon status at the end of the light period and the length of the night to pace the rate of starch degradation. This regulation occurs in a circadian clock-dependent manner, through unknown mechanisms. We use mathematical modelling to explore possible diurnal mechanisms regulating the starch level. Our model combines the main reactions of carbon fixation, starch and sucrose synthesis, starch degradation and consumption of carbon by sink tissues. To describe the dynamic adjustment of starch to daily conditions, we introduce diurnal regulators of carbon fluxes, which modulate the activities of the key steps of starch metabolism. The sensing of the diurnal conditions is mediated in our model by the timer α and the "dark sensor"β, which integrate daily information about the light conditions and time of the day through the circadian clock. Our data identify the β subunit of SnRK1 kinase as a good candidate for the role of the dark-accumulated component β of our model. The developed novel approach for understanding starch kinetics through diurnal metabolic and circadian sensors allowed us to explain starch time-courses in plants and predict the kinetics of the proposed diurnal regulators under various genetic and environmental perturbations.
Ammar, Sami; Pernaudat, Guillaume; Trépanier, Jean-Yves
2017-08-01
The interdependence of surface tension and density ratio is a weakness of pseudo-potential based lattice Boltzmann models (LB). In this paper, we propose a 3D multi-relaxation time (MRT) model for multiphase flows at large density ratios. The proposed model is capable of adjusting the surface tension independently of the density ratio. We also present the 3D macroscopic equations recovered by the proposed forcing scheme. A high order of isotropy for the interaction force is used to reduce the amplitude of spurious currents. The proposed 3D-MRT model is validated by verifying Laplace's law and by analyzing its thermodynamic consistency and the oscillation period of a deformed droplet. The model is then applied to the simulation of the impact of a droplet on a dry surface. Impact dynamics are determined and the maximum spread factor calculated for different Reynolds and Weber numbers. The numerical results are in agreement with data published in the literature. The influence of surface wettability on the spread factor is also investigated. Finally, our 3D-MRT model is applied to the simulation of the impact of a droplet on a wet surface. The propagation of transverse waves is observed on the liquid surface.
A data-driven model for constraint of present-day glacial isostatic adjustment in North America
Simon, K. M.; Riva, R. E. M.; Kleinherenbrink, M.; Tangdamrongsub, N.
2017-09-01
Geodetic measurements of vertical land motion and gravity change are incorporated into an a priori model of present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in North America via least-squares adjustment. The result is an updated GIA model wherein the final predicted signal is informed by both observational data, and prior knowledge (or intuition) of GIA inferred from models. The data-driven method allows calculation of the uncertainties of predicted GIA fields, and thus offers a significant advantage over predictions from purely forward GIA models. In order to assess the influence each dataset has on the final GIA prediction, the vertical land motion and GRACE-measured gravity data are incorporated into the model first independently (i.e., one dataset only), then simultaneously. The relative weighting of the datasets and the prior input is iteratively determined by variance component estimation in order to achieve the most statistically appropriate fit to the data. The best-fit model is obtained when both datasets are inverted and gives respective RMS misfits to the GPS and GRACE data of 1.3 mm/yr and 0.8 mm/yr equivalent water layer change. Non-GIA signals (e.g., hydrology) are removed from the datasets prior to inversion. The post-fit residuals between the model predictions and the vertical motion and gravity datasets, however, suggest particular regions where significant non-GIA signals may still be present in the data, including unmodeled hydrological changes in the central Prairies west of Lake Winnipeg. Outside of these regions of misfit, the posterior uncertainty of the predicted model provides a measure of the formal uncertainty associated with the GIA process; results indicate that this quantity is sensitive to the uncertainty and spatial distribution of the input data as well as that of the prior model information. In the study area, the predicted uncertainty of the present-day GIA signal ranges from ∼0.2-1.2 mm/yr for rates of vertical land motion, and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Montri Srirajlao
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Para Rubber was an economic wood growing in Northeast Thailand playing economic and social role. The objectives of this research were to study: (1 the economic, social and cultural lifestyle and (2 the appropriate adjustment model of agriculturists or farmers growing Para Rubber in Northeast Thailand. Approach: The research area covered 6 provinces: Mahasarakam, Roi-ed, Khon Kaen, Nongkai, Udontani and Loei. The samples were selected by Purposive Sampling including: 90 experts, 60 practitioners and 60 general people. The instruments using for collecting data were: (1 The Interview Form, (2 The Observation Form, (3 Focus Group Discussion and (4 Workshop, investigated by Triangulation. Data were analyzed according to the specified objectives and presented in descriptive analysis. Results: The farmers' lifestyle in traditional period of Northeast Thailand was to earn their living from producing by themselves and sharing resources with each other including: rice farming, farm rice growing, vegetable garden growing, searching for natural food without cost wasting one's capital. When it was period of changing, the price of traditional industrial crop was lowered, the agriculturists began to grow Para Rubber instead since the promotion of governmental industrial section. For the economic, social and cultural changes, found that the agriculturists growing Para Rubber Plantation, had more revenue. But, the mechanism of market price and selling had stability was attached with political situation. For the pattern of adjustment of the agriculturists growing Para Rubber Plantation in Northeast Thailand, found that there was an adjustment in individual level for developing their self study by applying body of knowledge learned by experience of successful people by being employed in cutting Para Rubber in The Southern of Thailand as well as the academic support and selling to serve the need of farmers. Conclusion/Recommendations: Para Rubber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cichon, Bernardette; Ritz, Christian; Fabiansen, Christian
2017-01-01
measured in serum. Generalized additive, quadratic, and linear models were used to model the relation between SF and sTfR as outcomes and CRP and AGP as categorical variables (model 1; equivalent to the CF approach), CRP and AGP as continuous variables (model 2), or CRP and AGP as continuous variables......: Crossvalidation revealed no advantage to using generalized additive or quadratic models over linear models in terms of the RMSE. Linear model 3 performed better than models 2 and 1. Furthermore, we found no difference in CFs for adjusting SF and those from a previous meta-analysis. Adjustment of SF and s...... of inflammation into account. In clinical settings, the CF approach may be more practical. There is no benefit from adjusting sTfR. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN42569496....
HR Department
2008-01-01
In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566
HR Department
2008-01-01
In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566
A Generic Model for Relative Adjustment Between Optical Sensors Using Rigorous Orbit Mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Islam
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The classical calibration or space resection is the fundamental task in photogrammetry. The lack of sufficient knowledge of interior and exterior orientation parameters lead to unreliable results in the photogrammetric process. One of the earliest in approaches using in photogrammetry was the plumb line calibration method. This method is suitable to recover the radial and decentering lens distortion coefficients, while the remaining interior(focal length and principal point coordinates and exterior orientation parameters have to be determined by a complimentary method. As the lens distortion remains very less it not considered as the interior orientation parameters, in the present rigorous sensor model. There are several other available methods based on the photogrammetric collinearity equations, which consider the determination of exterior orientation parameters, with no mention to the simultaneous determination of inner orientation parameters. Normal space resection methods solve the problem using control points, whose coordinates are known both in image and object reference systems. The non-linearity of the model and the problems, in point location in digital images and identifying the maximum GPS measured control points are the main drawbacks of the classical approaches. This paper addresses mathematical model based on the fundamental assumption of collineariy of three points of two Along-Track Stereo imagery sensors and independent object point. Assuming this condition it is possible to extract the exterior orientation (EO parameters for a long strip and single image together, without and with using the control points. Moreover, after extracting the EO parameters the accuracy for satellite data products are compared in with using single and with no control points.
Models of Quality-Adjusted Life Years when Health varies over Time: Survey and Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Østerdal, Lars Peter
2006-01-01
time trade-off (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) scores. We investigate deterministic and probabilistic models and consider five different families of discounting functions in all. This discussion includes questioning the SG method as the gold standard of the health state index, re-examining the role...... of the constant-proportional trade-off condition, revisiting the problem of double discounting of QALYs, and suggesting that it is not a matter of choosing between TTO and SG procedures as the combination of these two can be used to disentangle risk aversion from discounting. We find that caution must be taken...
Models of quality-adjusted life years when health varies over time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
2006-01-01
time tradeoff (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) scores. We investigate deterministic and probabilistic models and consider five different families of discounting functions in all. The second part of the paper discusses four issues recurrently debated in the literature. This discussion includes questioning...... the SG method as the gold standard for estimation of the health state index, reexamining the role of the constantproportional tradeoff condition, revisiting the problem of double discounting of QALYs, and suggesting that it is not a matter of choosing between TTO and SG procedures as the combination...
Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V.; Westcott, Jamie E.; Krebs, Nancy F
2008-01-01
The quantity of total dietary zinc (Zn) and phytate are the principal determinants of the quantity of absorbed Zn. Recent estimates of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Zn by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) were based on data from low-phytate or phytate-free diets. The objective of this project was to estimate the effects of increasing quantities of dietary phytate on these DRI. We used a trivariate model of the quantity of Zn absorbed as a function of dietary Zn and phytate with updated pa...
Approximation Algorithms for Directed Width Parameters
Kintali, Shiva; Kumar, Akash
2011-01-01
Treewidth of an undirected graph measures how close the graph is to being a tree. Several problems that are NP-hard on general graphs are solvable in polynomial time on graphs with bounded treewidth. Motivated by the success of treewidth, several directed analogues of treewidth have been introduced to measure the similarity of a directed graph to a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Directed treewidth, D-width, DAG-width, Kelly-width and directed pathwidth are some such parameters. In this paper, we present the first approximation algorithms for all these five directed width parameters. For directed treewidth and D-width we achieve an approximation factor of O(sqrt{logn}). For DAG-width, Kelly-width and directed pathwidth we achieve an O({\\log}^{3/2}{n}) approximation factor. Our algorithms are constructive, i.e., they construct the decompositions associated with these parameters. The width of these decompositions are within the above mentioned factor of the corresponding optimal width.
Width Distributions for Convex Regular Polyhedra
Finch, Steven R
2011-01-01
The mean width is a measure on three-dimensional convex bodies that enjoys equal status with volume and surface area [Rota]. As the phrase suggests, it is the mean of a probability density f. We verify formulas for mean widths of the regular tetrahedron and the cube. Higher-order moments of f_tetra and f_cube have not been examined until now. Assume that each polyhedron has edges of unit length. We deduce that the mean square width of the regular tetrahedron is 1/3+(3+sqrt(3))/(3*pi) and the mean square width of the cube is 1+4/pi.
The width of 5-dimensional prismatoids
Matschke, Benjamin; Weibel, Christophe
2012-01-01
Santos' construction of counter-examples to the Hirsch conjecture is based on the existence of prismatoids of dimension d of width greater than d. The case d=5 being the smallest one in which this can possibly occur, we here study the width of 5-dimensional prismatoids, obtaining the following results: - There are 5-prismatoids of width six with only 25 vertices, versus the 48 vertices in Santos' original construction. This leads to lowering the dimension of the non-Hirsch polytopes from 43 to only 20. - There are 5-prismatoids with n vertices and width \\Omega(n^(1/2)) for arbitrarily large n.
Devising a model brand loyalty in tires industry: the adjustment role of customer perceived value
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davoud Feiz
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Today, brand discussion is highly considered by companies and market agents. Different factors such as customers’ loyalty to brand impact on brand and the increase in sale and profit. Present paper aims at studying the impact of brand experience, trust and satisfaction on brand loyalty to Barez Tire Company in the city of Kerman as well as providing a model for this case. Research population consists of all Barez Tire consumers in Kerman. The volume of the sample was 171 for which simple random sampling was used. Data collection tool was a standard questionnaire and for measuring its reliability, Chronbach’s alpha was used. Present research is an applied one in terms of purpose and it is a descriptive and correlative one in terms of acquiring needed data. To analyze data, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation model (SEM in SPSS and LISREL software were used. The findings indicate that brand experience, brand trust, and brand satisfaction impact on brand loyalty to Barez Tire Brand in the city of Kerman significantly. Noteworthy, the impact of these factors is higher when considering the role of the perceived value moderator.
Ward, Sophie L.; Neill, Simon P.; Scourse, James D.; Bradley, Sarah L.; Uehara, Katsuto
2016-11-01
The spatial and temporal distribution of relative sea-level change over the northwest European shelf seas has varied considerably since the Last Glacial Maximum, due to eustatic sea-level rise and a complex isostatic response to deglaciation of both near- and far-field ice sheets. Because of the complex pattern of relative sea level changes, the region is an ideal focus for modelling the impact of significant sea-level change on shelf sea tidal dynamics. Changes in tidal dynamics influence tidal range, the location of tidal mixing fronts, dissipation of tidal energy, shelf sea biogeochemistry and sediment transport pathways. Significant advancements in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling of the region have been made in recent years, and earlier palaeotidal models of the northwest European shelf seas were developed using output from less well-constrained GIA models as input to generate palaeobathymetric grids. We use the most up-to-date and well-constrained GIA model for the region as palaeotopographic input for a new high resolution, three-dimensional tidal model (ROMS) of the northwest European shelf seas. With focus on model output for 1 ka time slices from the Last Glacial Maximum (taken as being 21 ka BP) to present day, we demonstrate that spatial and temporal changes in simulated tidal dynamics are very sensitive to relative sea-level distribution. The new high resolution palaeotidal model is considered a significant improvement on previous depth-averaged palaeotidal models, in particular where the outputs are to be used in sediment transport studies, where consideration of the near-bed stress is critical, and for constraining sea level index points.
An ice flow modeling perspective on bedrock adjustment patterns of the Greenland ice sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Olaizola
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Since the launch in 2002 of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites, several estimates of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS have been produced. To obtain ice mass changes, the GRACE data need to be corrected for the effect of deformation changes of the Earth's crust. Recently, a new method has been proposed where ice mass changes and bedrock changes are simultaneously solved. Results show bedrock subsidence over almost the entirety of Greenland in combination with ice mass loss which is only half of the currently standing estimates. This subsidence can be an elastic response, but it may however also be a delayed response to past changes. In this study we test whether these subsidence patterns are consistent with ice dynamical modeling results. We use a 3-D ice sheet–bedrock model with a surface mass balance forcing based on a mass balance gradient approach to study the pattern and magnitude of bedrock changes in Greenland. Different mass balance forcings are used. Simulations since the Last Glacial Maximum yield a bedrock delay with respect to the mass balance forcing of nearly 3000 yr and an average uplift at present of 0.3 mm yr^{−1}. The spatial pattern of bedrock changes shows a small central subsidence as well as more intense uplift in the south. These results are not compatible with the gravity based reconstructions showing a subsidence with a maximum in central Greenland, thereby questioning whether the claim of halving of the ice mass change is justified.
Adjustment of mathematical models and quality of soybean grains in the drying with high temperatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo C. Coradi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the initial moisture content of soybeans and the drying air temperatures on drying kinetics and grain quality, and find the best mathematical model that fit the experimental data of drying, effective diffusivity and isosteric heat of desorption. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD, with a factorial scheme (4 x 2, four drying temperatures (75, 90, 105 and 120 ºC and two initial moisture contents (25 and 19% d.b., with three replicates. The initial moisture content of the product interferes with the drying time. The model of Wang and Singh proved to be more suitable to describe the drying of soybeans to temperature ranges of the drying air of 75, 90, 105 and 120 °C and initial moisture contents of 19 and 25% (d.b.. The effective diffusivity obtained from the drying of soybeans was higher (2.5 x 10-11 m2 s-1 for a temperature of 120 °C and water content of 25% (d.b.. Drying of soybeans at higher temperatures (above 105 °C and higher initial water content (25% d.b. also increases the amount of energy (3894.57 kJ kg-1, i.e., the isosteric heat of desorption necessary to perform the process. Drying air temperature and different initial moisture contents affected the quality of soybean along the drying time (electrical conductivity of 540.35 µS cm-1g-1; however, not affect the final yield of the oil extracted from soybean grains (15.69%.
Fast cloud adjustment to increasing CO2 in a superparameterized climate model
Wyant, Matthew C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.; Khairoutdinov, Marat
2012-05-01
Two-year simulation experiments with a superparameterized climate model, SP-CAM, are performed to understand the fast tropical (30S-30N) cloud response to an instantaneous quadrupling of CO2 concentration with SST held fixed at present-day values. The greenhouse effect of the CO2 perturbation quickly warms the tropical land surfaces by an average of 0.5 K. This shifts rising motion, surface precipitation, and cloud cover at all levels from the ocean to the land, with only small net tropical-mean cloud changes. There is a widespread average reduction of about 80 m in the depth of the trade inversion capping the marine boundary layer (MBL) over the cooler subtropical oceans. One apparent contributing factor is CO2-enhanced downwelling longwave radiation, which reduces boundary-layer radiative cooling, a primary driver of turbulent entrainment through the trade inversion. A second contributor is a slight CO2-induced heating of the free troposphere above the MBL, which strengthens the trade inversion and also inhibits entrainment. There is a corresponding downward displacement of MBL clouds with a very slight decrease in mean cloud cover and albedo. Two-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of this MBL response are run to steady state using composite SP-CAM simulated thermodynamic and wind profiles from a representative cool subtropical ocean regime, for the control and 4xCO2 cases. Simulations with a CRM grid resolution equal to that of SP-CAM are compared with much finer resolution simulations. The coarse-resolution simulations maintain a cloud fraction and albedo comparable to SP-CAM, but the fine-resolution simulations have a much smaller cloud fraction. Nevertheless, both CRM configurations simulate a reduction in inversion height comparable to SP-CAM. The changes in low cloud cover and albedo in the CRM simulations are small, but both simulations predict a slight reduction in low cloud albedo as in SP-CAM.
Montandon, L. M.; Small, E.
2008-12-01
The green vegetation fraction (Fg) is an important climate and hydrologic model parameter. The commonly- used Fg model is a simple linear mixing of two NDVI end-members: bare soil NDVI (NDVIo) and full vegetation NDVI (NDVI∞). NDVI∞ is generally set as a percentile of the historical maximum NDVI for each land cover. This approach works well for areas where Fg reaches full cover (100%). Because many biomes do not reach Fg=0, however, NDVIo is often determined as a single invariant value for all land cover types. In general, it is selected among the lowest NDVI observed over bare or desert areas, yielding NDVIo close to zero. There are two issues with this approach: large-scale variability of soil NDVI is ignored and observations on a wide range of soils show that soil NDVI is often larger. Here we introduce and test two new approaches to compute Fg that takes into account the spatial variability of soil NDVI. The first approach uses a global soil NDVI database and time series of MODIS NDVI data over the conterminous United States to constrain possible soil NDVI values over each pixel. Fg is computed using a subset of the soils database that respects the linear mixing model condition NDVIo≤NDVIh, where NDVIh is the pixel historical minimum. The second approach uses an empirical soil NDVI model that combines information of soil organic matter content and texture to infer soil NDVI. The U.S. General Soil Map (STATSGO2) database is used as input for spatial soil properties. Using in situ measurements of soil NDVI from sites that span a range of land cover types, we test both models and compare their performance to the standard Fg model. We show that our models adjust the temporal Fg estimates by 40-90% depending on the land cover type and amplitude of the seasonal NDVI signal. Using MODIS NDVI and soil maps over the conterminous U.S., we also study the spatial distribution of Fg adjustments in February and June 2008. We show that the standard Fg method
Fast Cloud Adjustment to Increasing CO2 in a Superparameterized Climate Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marat Khairoutdinov
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Two-year simulation experiments with a superparameterized climate model, SP-CAM, are performed to understand the fast tropical (30S-30N cloud response to an instantaneous quadrupling of CO2 concentration with SST held fixed at present-day values.The greenhouse effect of the CO2 perturbation quickly warms the tropical land surfaces by an average of 0.5 K. This shifts rising motion, surface precipitation, and cloud cover at all levels from the ocean to the land, with only small net tropical-mean cloud changes. There is a widespread average reduction of about 80 m in the depth of the trade inversion capping the marine boundary layer (MBL over the cooler subtropical oceans.One apparent contributing factor is CO2-enhanced downwelling longwave radiation, which reduces boundary-layer radiative cooling, a primary driver of turbulent entrainment through the trade inversion. A second contributor is a slight CO2-induced heating of the free troposphere above the MBL, which strengthens the trade inversion and also inhibits entrainment. There is a corresponding downward displacement of MBL clouds with a very slight decrease in mean cloud cover and albedo.Two-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM simulations of this MBL response are run to steady state using composite SP-CAM simulated thermodynamic and wind profiles from a representative cool subtropical ocean regime, for the control and 4xCO2 cases. Simulations with a CRM grid resolution equal to that of SP-CAM are compared with much finer resolution simulations. The coarse-resolution simulations maintain a cloud fraction and albedo comparable to SP-CAM, but the fine-resolution simulations have a much smaller cloud fraction. Nevertheless, both CRM configurations simulate a reduction in inversion height comparable to SP-CAM. The changes in low cloud cover and albedo in the CRM simulations are small, but both simulations predict a slight reduction in low cloud albedo as in SP-CAM.
Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Mayer, Stefanie E; Abelson, James L
2014-07-01
In this report, we present growth curve modeling (GCM) with landmark registration as an alternative statistical approach for the analysis of time series cortisol data. This approach addresses an often-ignored but critical source of variability in salivary cortisol analyses: individual and group differences in the time latency of post-stress peak concentrations. It allows for the simultaneous examination of cortisol changes before and after the peak while controlling for timing differences, and thus provides additional information that can help elucidate group differences in the underlying biological processes (e.g., intensity of response, regulatory capacity). We tested whether GCM with landmark registration is more sensitive than traditional statistical approaches (e.g., repeated measures ANOVA--rANOVA) in identifying sex differences in salivary cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test--TSST) in healthy adults (mean age 23). We used plasma ACTH measures as our "standard" and show that the new approach confirms in salivary cortisol the ACTH finding that males had longer peak latencies, higher post-stress peaks but a more intense post-peak decline. This finding would have been missed if only saliva cortisol was available and only more traditional analytic methods were used. This new approach may provide neuroendocrine researchers with a highly sensitive complementary tool to examine the dynamics of the cortisol response in a way that reduces risk of false negative findings when blood samples are not feasible.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenwei Huang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Arctic Ocean sea-level change is an important indicator of climate change. Contemporary geodetic observations, including data from tide gages, satellite altimetry and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE, are sensitive to the effect of the ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA process. To fully exploit these geodetic observations to study climate related sea-level change, this GIA effect has to be removed. However, significant uncertainty exists with regard to the GIA model, and using different GIA models could lead to different results. In this study we use an ensemble of 14 contemporary GIA models to investigate their differences when they are applied to the above-mentioned geodetic observations to estimate sea-level change in the Arctic Ocean. We find that over the Arctic Ocean a large range of differences exists in GIA models when they are used to remove GIA effect from tide gage and GRACE observations, but with a relatively smaller range for satellite altimetry observations. In addition, we compare the derived sea-level trend from observations after applying different GIA models in the study regions, sea-level trend estimated from long-term tide gage data shows good agreement with altimetry result over the same data span. However the mass component of sea-level change obtained from GRACE data does not agree well with the result derived from steric-corrected altimeter observation due primarily to the large uncertainty of GIA models, errors in the Arctic Ocean altimetry or steric measurements, inadequate data span, or all of the above. We conclude that GIA correction is critical for studying sea-level change over the Arctic Ocean and further improvement in GIA modelling is needed to reduce the current discrepancies among models.
Experimental and modelling characterisation of adjustable hollow Micro-needle delivery systems.
Liu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Kai; Pan, Min
2017-09-06
Hollow micro-needles have been used increasingly less in practice because the infusion into the skin is limited by the tissue resistance to flow. The relationship between the infusion flow rate and tissue resistance pressure is not clear. A custom-made, hollow micro-needle system was used in this study. The driving force and infusion flow rate were measured using a force transducer attached to an infusion pump. Evans blue dye was injected into the air, polyacrylamide gel and in-vivo mouse skin at different flow rates. Two different micro-needle lengths were used for in-vivo infusion into the mouse. A model was derived to calculate the driving force of the micro-needle infusion into the air, and the results were compared to experimental data. The calculated driving forces match the experimental results with different infusion flow rates. The pressure loss throughout the micro-needle delivery system was found to be two orders smaller than the resistance pressure inside the gel and mouse skin, and the resistance pressure increased with increasing flow rate. A portion of liquid backflow was observed when the flow rate was relatively larger, and the backflow was associated with a sudden larger increase in resistance pressure at a higher flow rate. The current micro-needle delivery system is capable of administering liquid into the mouse skin at a flow rate of up to 0.15 ml/min, without causing significant backflow on the surface. The resistance pressure increases with increasing flow rate, causing infusion restriction at higher flow rates. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chung, Ha-Yeun; Kollmey, Anna S; Schrepper, Andrea; Kohl, Matthias; Bläss, Markus F; Stehr, Sebastian N; Lupp, Amelie; Gräler, Markus H; Claus, Ralf A
2017-04-15
Cardiac dysfunction, in particular of the left ventricle, is a common and early event in sepsis, and is strongly associated with an increase in patients' mortality. Acid sphingomyelinase (SMPD1)-the principal regulator for rapid and transient generation of the lipid mediator ceramide-is involved in both the regulation of host response in sepsis as well as in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure. This study determined the degree and the potential role to which SMPD1 and its modulation affect sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy using both genetically deficient and pharmacologically-treated animals in a polymicrobial sepsis model. As surrogate parameters of sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy, cardiac function, markers of oxidative stress as well as troponin I levels were found to be improved in desipramine-treated animals, desipramine being an inhibitor of ceramide formation. Additionally, ceramide formation in cardiac tissue was dysregulated in SMPD1(+/+) as well as SMPD1(-/-) animals, whereas desipramine pretreatment resulted in stable, but increased ceramide content during host response. This was a result of elevated de novo synthesis. Strikingly, desipramine treatment led to significantly improved levels of surrogate markers. Furthermore, similar results in desipramine-pretreated SMPD1(-/-) littermates suggest an SMPD1-independent pathway. Finally, a pattern of differentially expressed transcripts important for regulation of apoptosis as well as antioxidative and cytokine response supports the concept that desipramine modulates ceramide formation, resulting in beneficial myocardial effects. We describe a novel, protective role of desipramine during sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction that controls ceramide content. In addition, it may be possible to modulate cardiac function during host response by pre-conditioning with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug desipramine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Suresh Kumar,
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A modified pulse width modulation technique for Z-source inverter based BLDC motor is proposed and analyzed in this project.The Z-source inverter can be used as Buck/Boost converter with lower cost and high efficiency. BLDC motors are used in electric vehicles where portability and efficiency are required. This drive system provides advantages of both BLDC motors and Z-source inverter, and can be used in fuel cell system and other adjustable speed drive application. In this project principle of modified pulse width modulation technique is implemented and simulated. The model of a three phase Z-source inverter has been discussed based on modified pulse with modulation technique. The simulation of Z-source inverter based BLDC motor is done using the MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
2016-08-01
Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.
2010-01-01
.... (a) Approved routes and route segments over U.S. Federal airways or foreign airways (and advisory... designated width of those airways or routes. Whenever the Administrator finds it necessary to determine the width of other approved routes, he considers the following: (1) Terrain clearance. (2) Minimum en route...
Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt
2006-01-01
We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...
Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, K.A.
2004-01-01
We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Width. 29.1085 Section 29.1085 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep. Width...
A Novel Joint Problem of Routing, Scheduling, and Variable-Width Channel Allocation in WMNs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chun-Cheng Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates a novel joint problem of routing, scheduling, and channel allocation for single-radio multichannel wireless mesh networks in which multiple channel widths can be adjusted dynamically through a new software technology so that more concurrent transmissions and suppressed overlapping channel interference can be achieved. Although the previous works have studied this joint problem, their linear programming models for the problem were not incorporated with some delicate constraints. As a result, this paper first constructs a linear programming model with more practical concerns and then proposes a simulated annealing approach with a novel encoding mechanism, in which the configurations of multiple time slots are devised to characterize the dynamic transmission process. Experimental results show that our approach can find the same or similar solutions as the optimal solutions for smaller-scale problems and can efficiently find good-quality solutions for a variety of larger-scale problems.
Braun, Alexander; Kuo, Chung-Yen; Shum, C. K.; Wu, Patrick; van der Wal, Wouter; Fotopoulos, Georgia
2008-10-01
Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelling in North America relies on relative sea level information which is primarily obtained from areas far away from the uplift region. The lack of accurate geodetic observations in the Great Lakes region, which is located in the transition zone between uplift and subsidence due to the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet, has prevented more detailed studies of this former margin of the ice sheet. Recently, observations of vertical crustal motion from improved GPS network solutions and combined tide gauge and satellite altimetry solutions have become available. This study compares these vertical motion observations with predictions obtained from 70 different GIA models. The ice sheet margin is distinct from the centre and far field of the uplift because the sensitivity of the GIA process towards Earth parameters such as mantle viscosity is very different. Specifically, the margin area is most sensitive to the uppermost mantle viscosity and allows for better constraints of this parameter. The 70 GIA models compared herein have different ice loading histories (ICE-3/4/5G) and Earth parameters including lateral heterogeneities. The root-mean-square differences between the 6 best models and the two sets of observations (tide gauge/altimetry and GPS) are 0.66 and 1.57 mm/yr, respectively. Both sets of independent observations are highly correlated and show a very similar fit to the models, which indicates their consistent quality. Therefore, both data sets can be considered as a means for constraining and assessing the quality of GIA models in the Great Lakes region and the former margin of the Laurentide ice sheet.
Measurement of effective sheath width around the cutoff probe based on electromagnetic simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y., E-mail: sjyou@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: woh1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J., E-mail: sjyou@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: woh1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H. [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.-S. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan 573-540 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
We inferred the effective sheath width using the cutoff probe and incorporating a full-wave three-dimensional electromagnetic (EM) simulation. The EM simulation reproduced the experimentally obtained plasma-sheath resonance (PSR) on the microwave transmission (S{sub 21}) spectrum well. The PSR frequency has a one-to-one correspondence with the width of the vacuum layer assumed to be the effective sheath in the EM simulation model. The sheath width was estimated by matching the S{sub 21} spectra of the experiment and the EM simulation for different widths of the sheath. We found that the inferred sheath widths quantitatively and qualitatively agree with the sheath width measured by incorporating an equivalent circuit model. These results demonstrate the excellent potential of the cutoff probe for inferring the effective sheath width from its experimental spectrum data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela Prelipcean
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The recent crisis and turbulences have significantly changed the consumers’ behavior, especially through its access possibility and satisfaction, but also the new dynamic flexible adjustment of the supply of goods and services. The access possibility and consumer satisfaction should be analyzed in a broader context of corporate responsibility, including financial institutions. This contribution gives an answer to the current situation in Romania as an emerging country, strongly affected by the global crisis. Empowering producers and harmonize their interests with the interests of consumers really require a significant revision of the quantitative models used to study long-term consumption-saving behavior, with a new model, adapted to the current conditions in Romania in the post-crisis context. Based on the general idea of the model developed by Hai, Krueger, Postlewaite (2013 we propose a new way of exploiting the results considering the dynamics of innovative adaptation based on Brownian motion, but also the integration of the cyclicality concept, the stochastic shocks analyzed by Lèvy and extensive interaction with capital markets characterized by higher returns and volatility.
Morphodynamics structures induced by variations of the channel width
Duro, Gonzalo; Crosato, Alessandra; Tassi, Pablo
2014-05-01
In alluvial channels, forcing effects, such as a longitudinally varying width, can induce the formation of steady bars (Olesen, 1984). The type of bars that form, such as alternate, central or multiple, will mainly depend on the local flow width-to-depth ratio and on upstream conditions (Struiksma et al., 1985). The effects on bar formation of varying the channel width received attention only recently and investigations, based on flume experiments and mathematical modelling, are mostly restricted to small longitudinal sinusoidal variations of the channel width (e.g. Repetto et al., 2002; Wu and Yeh, 2005, Zolezzi et al., 2012; Frascati and Lanzoni, 2013). In this work, we analyze the variations in equilibrium bed topography in a longitudinal width-varying channel with characteristic scales of the Waal River (The Netherlands) using two different 2D depth-averaged morphodynamic models, one based on the Delft3D code and one on Telemac-Mascaret system. In particular, we explore the effects of changing the wavelength of sinusoidal width variations in a straight channel, focusing on the effects of the spatial lag between bar formation and forcing that is observed in numerical models and laboratory experiments (e.g. Crosato et al, 2011). We extend the investigations to finite width variations in which longitudinal changes of the width-to-depth ratio are such that they may affect the type of bars that become unstable (alternate, central or multiple bars). Numerical results are qualitatively validated with field observations and the resulting morphodynamic pattern is compared with the physics-based predictor of river bar modes by Crosato and Mosselman (2009). The numerical models are finally used to analyse the experimental conditions of Wu and Yeh (2005). The study should be seen as merely exploratory. The aim is to investigate possible approaches for future research aiming at assessing the effects of artificial river widening and narrowing to control bar formation in
Rinsing Processes in Open-width Washing Machines
Kroezen, A.B.J.; Linden, van der H.J.L.J.; Groot Wassink, J.
1986-01-01
A simulator is described for rinsing processes carried out on open-width washing machines. In combination with a theoretical model, a simple method is given for testing rinsing processes. The method has been used to investigate the extraction of caustic soda from a cotton fabric, varying the tempera
Betts, Lucy R; Rotenberg, Ken J; Trueman, Mark
2009-06-01
The study aimed to examine the relationship between self-knowledge of trustworthiness and young children's school adjustment. One hundred and seventy-three (84 male and 89 female) children from school years 1 and 2 in the United Kingdom (mean age 6 years 2 months) were tested twice over 1-year. Children's trustworthiness was assessed using: (a) self-report at Time 1 and Time 2; (b) peers reports at Time 1 and Time 2; and (c) teacher-reports at Time 2. School adjustment was assessed by child-rated school-liking and the Short-Form Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment (Short-Form TRSSA). Longitudinal quadratic relationships were found between school adjustment and children's self-knowledge, using peer-reported trustworthiness as a reference: more accurate self-knowledge of trustworthiness predicted increases in school adjustment. Comparable concurrent quadratic relationships were found between teacher-rated school adjustment and children's self-knowledge, using teacher-reported trustworthiness as a reference, at Time 2. The findings support the conclusion that young children's psychosocial adjustment is best accounted for by the realistic self-knowledge model (Colvin & Block, 1994).
Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.
2005-01-01
This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…
On the Spectrum Width of Wind Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李陆平; 黄培基
2001-01-01
Based on the universal expression of wind wave spectra, four commonly used definitions of the spectrum width arere-examined. The results show that the non-dimensional spectrum width can measure the width of non-dimensionalspectra but it does not reflect the developing state of the spectra. The dimensional spectrum width expresses the degree ofconcentration of wave energy of the spectrum in the process of wind wave growth. Tests show that the spectrum widthpresented by Wen et al. can objectively measure the degree of concentration of wave energy of the spectrum, reflect thestate of wind wave growth, and provides a better result for practical application. The rules for definition of the spectrumwidth are discussed.
Bipartite Graphs of Large Clique-Width
Korpelainen, Nicholas; Lozin, Vadim V.
Recently, several constructions of bipartite graphs of large clique-width have been discovered in the literature. In the present paper, we propose a general framework for developing such constructions and use it to obtain new results on this topic.
SOL Width Scaling in the MAST Tokamak
Ahn, Joon-Wook; Counsell, Glenn; Connor, Jack; Kirk, Andrew
2002-11-01
Target heat loads are determined in large part by the upstream SOL heat flux width, Δ_h. Considerable effort has been made in the past to develop analytical and empirical scalings for Δh to allow reliable estimates to be made for the next-step device. The development of scalings for a large spherical tokamak (ST) such as MAST is particularly important both for development of the ST concept and for improving the robustness of scalings derived for conventional tokamaks. A first such scaling has been developed in MAST DND plasmas. The scaling was developed by flux-mapping data from the target Langmuir probe arrays to the mid-plane and fitting to key upstream parameters such as P_SOL, bar ne and q_95. In order to minimise the effects of co-linearity, dedicated campaigns were undertaken to explore the widest possible range of each parameter while keeping the remainder as fixed as possible. Initial results indicate a weak inverse dependence on P_SOL and approximately linear dependence on bar n_e. Scalings derived from consideration of theoretical edge transport models and integration with data from conventional devices is under way. The established scaling laws could be used for the extrapolations to the future machine such as Spherical Tokamak Power Plant (STPP). This work is jointly funded by Euratom and UK Department of Trade and Industry. J-W. Ahn would like to recognise the support of a grant from the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kurien, Anjana; Cherian, K P; Mhatre, Shirley; Tharakan, Renji George
2014-01-01
This study was done to determine the relationship between interalar width and inter commissural width on circumferential arc width of maxillary anterior teeth in dentulous subjects between the age groups of 20–50 years...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高仲亮; 施绍军; 龙腾腾; 李智; 朱家进; 张盛; 宗发平; 周劲峰
2012-01-01
依据实地调查和测量，结合室内燃烧床模拟野外计划烧除试验，考虑可燃物载量缸。）、温度㈦、可燃物含水率㈥、风速㈤、坡向㈦、坡度（x6）、林带高度（x7）、蔓延速度（x8）、火线强度（x9）及计划烧除防火隔离带宽度（y）等因子构建多元线性回归模型。结果表明，预测的多元线性回归模型为y=-12．371＋4．182xl＋0．435x2＋0．013x3＋0．083x4＋0．017x5＋0．916x6＋0．540x7，对计划烧除防火隔离带宽度的影响大小依次为X6,X7、X1、x4、x3、x2、x5,利用该模型，可以用易于获取的可燃物特征、地形因子、气象因子、林分因子来开设防火隔离带，为合理开展计划烧除和营林用火等提供依据。%Based on field survey and measurement, and the simulated field burning test by indoor burning bed, a multiple linear regression model was established with factors of fuel load（x1）, temperature（x2）, fuel moisture content（x3）, wind velocity（x4）, aspect（xs）, slope（x6）, forest height（x7）, propagation velocity（x8）, fire line intensity（xg） and prescribed burning width of fire isolated belt（y）. The results showed that the multivari- ate linear model was y=-12.371 ＋4.182x1 ＋0.435x2 ＋0.013x3＋0.083x4＋0.017x5＋0.916x6＋ 0.540x7, and the influences of the factors on the prescribed burning width of fire isolated belt were in the order of x6, x7, x1, x4, x3, x2, x5. This model make it easier to establish fire isolated belt by using fuel characteristics, topographic factors, meteorological factors, and forest stand factors, providing basis for the development of prescribed burning and forest management fire.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mentz Graciela
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate estimates of hypertension prevalence are critical for assessment of population health and for planning and implementing prevention and health care programs. While self-reported data is often more economically feasible and readily available compared to clinically measured HBP, these reports may underestimate clinical prevalence to varying degrees. Understanding the accuracy of self-reported data and developing prediction models that correct for underreporting of hypertension in self-reported data can be critical tools in the development of more accurate population level estimates, and in planning population-based interventions to reduce the risk of, or more effectively treat, hypertension. This study examines the accuracy of self-reported survey data in describing prevalence of clinically measured hypertension in two racially and ethnically diverse urban samples, and evaluates a mechanism to correct self-reported data in order to more accurately reflect clinical hypertension prevalence. Methods We analyze data from the Detroit Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP Survey conducted in 2002 and the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES 2001–2002 restricted to urban areas and participants 25 years and older. We re-calibrate measures of agreement within the HEP sample drawing upon parameter estimates derived from the NHANES urban sample, and assess the quality of the adjustment proposed within the HEP sample. Results Both self-reported and clinically assessed prevalence of hypertension were higher in the HEP sample (29.7 and 40.1, respectively compared to the NHANES urban sample (25.7 and 33.8, respectively. In both urban samples, self-reported and clinically assessed prevalence is higher than that reported in the full NHANES sample in the same year (22.9 and 30.4, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between clinical and self-reported hypertension prevalence were ‘moderate to good’ within
A theoretical analysis of river bars stability under changing channel width
Zen, S.; Zolezzi, G.; Tubino, M.
2014-04-01
In this paper we propose a new theoretical model to investigate the influence of temporal changes in channel width on river bar stability. This is achieved by performing a nonlinear stability analysis, which includes temporal width variations as a small-amplitude perturbation of the basic flow. In order to quantify width variability, channel width is related with the instantaneous discharge using existing empirical formulae proposed for channels with cohesionless banks. Therefore, width can vary (increase and/or decrease) either because it adapts to the temporally varying discharge or, if discharge is constant, through a relaxation relation describing widening of an initially overnarrow channel towards the equilibrium width. Unsteadiness related with changes in channel width is found to directly affect the instantaneous bar growth rate, depending on the conditions under which the widening process occurs. The governing mathematical system is solved by means of a two-parameters (ɛ, δ) perturbation expansion, where ɛ is related to bar amplitude and δ to the temporal width variability. In general width unsteadiness is predicted to play a destabilizing role on free bar stability, namely during the peak stage of a flood event in a laterally unconfined channel and invariably for overnarrow channels fed with steady discharge. In this latter case, width unsteadiness tends to shorten the most unstable bar wavelength compared to the case with constant width, in qualitative agreement with existing experimental observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Menna
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The surveying and 3D modelling of objects that extend both below and above the water level, such as ships, harbour structures, offshore platforms, are still an open issue. Commonly, a combined and simultaneous survey is the adopted solution, with acoustic/optical sensors respectively in underwater and in air (most common or optical/optical sensors both below and above the water level. In both cases, the system must be calibrated and a ship is to be used and properly equipped with also a navigation system for the alignment of sequential 3D point clouds. Such a system is usually highly expensive and has been proved to work with still structures. On the other hand for free floating objects it does not provide a very practical solution. In this contribution, a flexible, low-cost alternative for surveying floating objects is presented. The method is essentially based on photogrammetry, employed for surveying and modelling both the emerged and submerged parts of the object. Special targets, named Orientation Devices, are specifically designed and adopted for the successive alignment of the two photogrammetric models (underwater and in air. A typical scenario where the proposed procedure can be particularly suitable and effective is the case of a ship after an accident whose damaged part is underwater and necessitate to be measured (Figure 1. The details of the mathematical procedure are provided in the paper, together with a critical explanation of the results obtained from the adoption of the method for the survey of a small pleasure boat in floating condition.
Austin, Peter C.; Reeves, Mathew J.
2015-01-01
Background Hospital report cards, in which outcomes following the provision of medical or surgical care are compared across health care providers, are being published with increasing frequency. Essential to the production of these reports is risk-adjustment, which allows investigators to account for differences in the distribution of patient illness severity across different hospitals. Logistic regression models are frequently used for risk-adjustment in hospital report cards. Many applied researchers use the c-statistic (equivalent to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) of the logistic regression model as a measure of the credibility and accuracy of hospital report cards. Objectives To determine the relationship between the c-statistic of a risk-adjustment model and the accuracy of hospital report cards. Research Design Monte Carlo simulations were used to examine this issue. We examined the influence of three factors on the accuracy of hospital report cards: the c-statistic of the logistic regression model used for risk-adjustment, the number of hospitals, and the number of patients treated at each hospital. The parameters used to generate the simulated datasets came from analyses of patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in Ontario, Canada. Results The c-statistic of the risk-adjustment model had, at most, a very modest impact on the accuracy of hospital report cards, whereas the number of patients treated at each hospital had a much greater impact. Conclusions The c-statistic of a risk-adjustment model should not be used to assess the accuracy of a hospital report card. PMID:23295579
Chang, E C; Sanna, L J
2001-09-01
This study attempted to address limitations in the understanding of optimism and pessimism among middle-aged adults. Specifically, a model of affectivity as a mediator of the link between outcome expectancies and psychological adjustment (life satisfaction and depressive symptoms) was presented and examined in a sample of 237 middle-aged adults. Consistent with a mediation model, results of path analyses indicated that optimism and pessimism (particularly the former) had significant direct and indirect links (by means of positive and negative affectivity) with depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. These results add to the small but growing literature identifying optimism and pessimism as important concomitants of psychological adjustment in more mature adults.
Magnetohydrodynamic disc winds and line width distributions - II
Chajet, L. S.; Hall, P. B.
2017-02-01
We study AGN emission line profiles combining an improved version of the accretion disc-wind model of Murray & Chiang with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of Emmering et al. Here, we extend our previous work to consider central objects with different masses and/or luminosities. We have compared the dispersions in our model C IV line-width distributions to observational upper limit on that dispersion, considering both smooth and clumpy torus models. Following Fine et al., we transform that scatter in the profile line-widths into a constraint on the torus geometry and show how the half-opening angle of the obscuring structure depends on the mass of the central object and the accretion rate. We find that the results depend only mildly on the dimensionless angular momentum, one of the two integrals of motion that characterize the dynamics of the self-similar ideal MHD outflows.
Cagnoli, Bruno; Piersanti, Antonio
2017-02-01
We have carried out new three-dimensional numerical simulations by using a discrete element method (DEM) to study the mobility of dry granular flows of angular rock fragments. These simulations are relevant for geophysical flows such as rock avalanches and pyroclastic flows. The model is validated by previous laboratory experiments. We confirm that (1) the finer the grain size, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows; (2) the smaller the flow volume, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows and (3) the wider the channel, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows. The grain size effect is due to the fact that finer grain size flows dissipate intrinsically less energy. This volume effect is the opposite of that experienced by the flow fronts. The original contribution of this paper consists of providing a comparison of the mobility of granular flows in six channels with a different cross section each. This results in a new scaling parameter χ that has the product of grain size and the cubic root of flow volume as the numerator and the product of channel width and flow length as the denominator. The linear correlation between the reciprocal of mobility and parameter χ is statistically highly significant. Parameter χ confirms that the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows is an increasing function of the ratio of the number of fragments per unit of flow mass to the total number of fragments in the flow. These are two characteristic numbers of particles whose effect on mobility is scale invariant.
Quality of pedestrian flow and crosswalk width at signalized intersections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Among various pedestrian facilities, signalized crosswalks are the most complex and critical ones. Their geometry and configuration including width, position and angle directly affect the safety, cycle length and resulting delays for all users. Existing manuals do not provide clear and rational specifications for the required crosswalk width under different pedestrian demand combinations and properties. Furthermore, they do not consider the bi-directional flow effects on crossing speed and time when addressing pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks. However, quantifying the effects of such interactions on the behavior of pedestrian flow is a prerequisite for improving the geometric design and configuration of signalized crosswalks. The objective of this paper is to develop a methodology for estimating the required crosswalk width at different pedestrian demand combinations and a pre-defined LOS. The developed methodology is based on theoretical modeling for total pedestrian platoon crossing time, which consists of discharge and crossing times. The developed models are utilized to generate the fundamental diagrams of pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks. A comprehensive discussion about the effects of bi-directional flow and various pedestrian age groups on the characteristics of pedestrian flow and the capacity of signalized crosswalks is presented. It is found that the maximum reduction in the capacity of signalized crosswalks occurs at roughly equal pedestrian flows from both sides of the crosswalk. By utilizing existing LOS thresholds for pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks, the required crosswalk widths for various pedestrian demand combinations are proposed for implementation.
Speckman, McGlory
2016-01-01
Predicated on the principles of success and contextuality, this chapter shares an African perspective on a first-year adjustment programme, known as First-Year Village, including its potential and challenges in establishing it.
Horton, B.P.; Peltier, W.R.; Culver, S.J.; Drummond, R.; Engelhart, S.E.; Kemp, A.C.; Mallinson, D.; Thieler, E.R.; Riggs, S.R.; Ames, D.V.; Thomson, K.H.
2009-01-01
We have synthesized new and existing relative sea-level (RSL) data to produce a quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive database from the North Carolina coastline. The RSL database consists of 54 sea-level index points that are quantitatively related to an appropriate tide level and assigned an error estimate, and a further 33 limiting dates that confine the maximum and minimum elevations of RSL. The temporal distribution of the index points is very uneven with only five index points older than 4000 cal a BP, but the form of the Holocene sea-level trend is constrained by both terrestrial and marine limiting dates. The data illustrate RSL rapidly rising during the early and mid Holocene from an observed elevation of -35.7 ?? 1.1 m MSL at 11062-10576 cal a BP to -4.2 m ?? 0.4 m MSL at 4240-3592 cal a BP. We restricted comparisons between observations and predictions from the ICE-5G(VM2) with rotational feedback Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model to the Late Holocene RSL (last 4000 cal a BP) because of the wealth of sea-level data during this time interval. The ICE-5G(VM2) model predicts significant spatial variations in RSL across North Carolina, thus we subdivided the observations into two regions. The model forecasts an increase in the rate of sea-level rise in Region 1 (Albemarle, Currituck, Roanoke, Croatan, and northern Pamlico sounds) compared to Region 2 (southern Pamlico, Core and Bogue sounds, and farther south to Wilmington). The observations show Late Holocene sea-level rising at 1.14 ?? 0.03 mm year-1 and 0.82 ?? 0.02 mm year-1 in Regions 1 and 2, respectively. The ICE-5G(VM2) predictions capture the general temporal trend of the observations, although there is an apparent misfit for index points older than 2000 cal a BP. It is presently unknown whether these misfits are caused by possible tectonic uplift associated with the mid-Carolina Platform High or a flaw in the GIA model. A comparison of local tide gauge data with the Late Holocene RSL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIA Shenzhen; KE Changqing; ZHOU Xiaobing; ZHANG Jie
2016-01-01
Thein situ sea surface salinity (SSS) measurements from a scientific cruise to the western zone of the southeast Indian Ocean covering 30°-60°S, 80°-120°E are used to assess the SSS retrieved from Aquarius (Aquarius SSS). Wind speed and sea surface temperature (SST) affect the SSS estimates based on passive microwave radiation within the mid- to low-latitude southeast Indian Ocean. The relationships among thein situ, Aquarius SSS and wind-SST corrections are used to adjust the Aquarius SSS. The adjusted Aquarius SSS are compared with the SSS data from MyOcean model. Results show that: (1) Before adjustment: compared with MyOcean SSS, the Aquarius SSS in most of the sea areas is higher; but lower in the low-temperature sea areas located at the south of 55°S and west of 98°E. The Aquarius SSS is generally higher by 0.42 on average for the southeast Indian Ocean. (2) After adjustment: the adjustment greatly counteracts the impact of high wind speeds and improves the overall accuracy of the retrieved salinity (the mean absolute error of the Zonal mean is improved by 0.06, and the mean error is -0.05 compared with MyOcean SSS). Near the latitude 42°S, the adjusted SSS is well consistent with the MyOcean and the difference is approximately 0.004.
Colais, Paola; Fantini, Maria P; Fusco, Danilo; Carretta, Elisa; Stivanello, Elisa; Lenzi, Jacopo; Pieri, Giulia; Perucci, Carlo A
2012-06-21
Caesarean section (CS) rate is a quality of health care indicator frequently used at national and international level. The aim of this study was to assess whether adjustment for Robson's Ten Group Classification System (TGCS), and clinical and socio-demographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of CS rates. The study population includes 64,423 deliveries in Emilia-Romagna between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, classified according to theTGCS. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hospital relative risks of CS compared to a reference category. Analyses were carried out in the overall population and separately according to the Robson groups (groups I, II, III, IV and V-X combined). Adjusted relative risks (RR) of CS were estimated using two risk-adjustment models; the first (M1) including the TGCS group as the only adjustment factor; the second (M2) including in addition demographic and clinical confounders identified using a stepwise selection procedure. Percentage variations between crude and adjusted RRs by hospital were calculated to evaluate the confounding effect of covariates. The percentage variations from crude to adjusted RR proved to be similar in M1 and M2 model. However, stratified analyses by Robson's classification groups showed that residual confounding for clinical and demographic variables was present in groups I (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and III (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and to a minor extent in groups II (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour). The TGCS classification is useful for inter-hospital comparison of CS section rates, but
Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial-depth dependence on waveguide width.
Madasamy, P; West, B R; Morrell, M M; Geraghty, D F; Honkanen, S; Peyghambarian, N
2003-07-01
A detailed theoretical and experimental study of the depth dependence of buried ion-exchanged waveguides on waveguide width is reported. Modeling, which includes the effect of nonhomogeneous time-dependent electric field distribution, agrees well with our experiments showing that burial depth increases linearly with waveguide width. These results may be used in the proper design of integrated optical circuits that need waveguides of different widths at different sections, such as arrayed waveguide gratings.
Saunders, James E; Barrs, David M; Gong, Wenfeng; Wilson, Blake S; Mojica, Karen; Tucci, Debara L
2015-09-01
Cochlear implantation (CI) is a common intervention for severe-to-profound hearing loss in high-income countries, but is not commonly available to children in low resource environments. Owing in part to the device costs, CI has been assumed to be less economical than deaf education for low resource countries. The purpose of this study is to compare the cost effectiveness of the two interventions for children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a model using disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Cost estimates were derived from published data, expert opinion, and known costs of services in Nicaragua. Individual costs and lifetime DALY estimates with a 3% discounting rate were applied to both two interventions. Sensitivity analysis was implemented to evaluate the effect on the discounted cost of five key components: implant cost, audiology salary, speech therapy salary, number of children implanted per year, and device failure probability. The costs per DALY averted are $5,898 and $5,529 for CI and deaf education, respectively. Using standards set by the WHO, both interventions are cost effective. Sensitivity analysis shows that when all costs set to maximum estimates, CI is still cost effective. Using a conservative DALY analysis, both CI and deaf education are cost-effective treatment alternatives for severe-to-profound SNHL. CI intervention costs are not only influenced by the initial surgery and device costs but also by rehabilitation costs and the lifetime maintenance, device replacement, and battery costs. The major CI cost differences in this low resource setting were increased initial training and infrastructure costs, but lower medical personnel and surgery costs.
Constraints on widths of mixed pentaquark multiplets
Mohta, V
2004-01-01
We determine constraints on the partial widths of mixed pentaquark multiplets in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HB$\\chi$PT). The partial widths satisfy a GMO-type relation at leading order in HB$\\chi$PT, for arbitrary mixing. The widths of N(1440), N(1710), and $\\Theta(1540)$ are not consistent with ideal mixing, $\\theta_{N} = 35.3^{\\circ}$, but are consistent with $\\theta_{N} \\lesssim 25^{\\circ}$. Furthermore, there are parameter values in HB$\\chi$PT that produce such a mixing angle while allowing the identification of the mass spectrum above. As an alternative to non-ideal mixing, we also suggest reasons for giving up on N(1440) as a pure pentaquark state.
The Variable Line Width of Achernar
Rivinius, Th; Baade, D; Carciofi, A C; Leister, N; Štefl, S
2016-01-01
Spectroscopic observations of Achernar over the past decades, have shown the photospheric line width, as measured by the rotational parameter $v \\sin i$, to vary in correlation with the emission activity. Here we present new observations, covering the most recent activity phase, and further archival data collected from the archives. The $v \\sin i$ variation is confirmed. On the basis of the available data it cannot be decided with certainty whether the increased line width precedes the emission activity, i.e. is a signature of the ejection mechanism, or postdates is, which would make it a signature of re-accretion of some of the disk-material. However, the observed evidence leans towards the re-accretion hypothesis. Two further stars showing the effect of variable line width in correlation with emission activity, namely 66 Oph and $\\pi$ Aqr, are presented as well.
Graph Operations on Clique-Width Bounded Graphs
Gurski, Frank
2007-01-01
Clique-width is a well-known graph parameter. Many NP-hard graph problems admit polynomial-time solutions when restricted to graphs of bounded clique-width. The same holds for NLC-width. In this paper we study the behavior of clique-width and NLC-width under various graph operations and graph transformations. We give upper and lower bounds for the clique-width and NLC-width of the modified graphs in terms of the clique-width and NLC-width of the involved graphs.
基于UML的高校调串课系统的建模研究%UML modeling on university teacher adjustable course system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
阎琦
2013-01-01
The university teacher adjustable course system is the network application software used in teacher' s adjustable course for schools of higher education. In the course of demand analysis, the whole system is divided into six parts, such as teacher adjustable course module, teaching secretary module, academic administration adjustable course module, course information module,etc. The use of language UML can realize the object-oriented analysis and modeling, completing the system static modeling and dynamic modeling. In database design, E-R diagram establishes the database concept model.%高校调串课系统是适用于高等院校教师调串课的网络应用软件.在需求分析过程中,将整个系统分为教师调串课模块、教学秘书模块、教务处调串课管理模块和课程信息模块等6部分,使用统一建模语言UML对系统进行面向对象的分析和建模,完成了系统的静态建模和动态建模.在数据库设计中用E-R图建立了数据库的概念模型.
Healy, Martha F; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Eugenio, Kenneth R; Murphy, Patricia M
2012-04-01
Because of the renal elimination and increased risk for bleeding events at supratherapeutic doses of eptifibatide, the manufacturer recommends dosing adjustment in patients with renal dysfunction. Methods commonly used to estimate renal dysfunction in hospital settings may be inconsistent with those studied and recommended by the manufacturer. To compare hypothetical renal dosing adjustments of eptifibatide using both the recommended method and several other commonly used formulas for estimating kidney function. Sex, age, weight, height, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were obtained retrospectively from the records of patients who received eptifibatide during a 12-month period. Renal dosing decisions were determined for each patient based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) estimates via the Cockcroft-Gault formula (CG) with actual body weight (ABW), ideal body weight (IBW) or adjusted weight (ADJW), and eGFR from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Percent agreement and Cohen κ were calculated comparing dosing decisions for each formula to the standard CG-ABW. In this analysis of 179 patients, percent agreement as compared to CG-ABW varied (CG-IBW: 90.50%, CG-ADJW: 95.53%, and eGFR: 93.30%). All κ coefficients were categorized as good. In the 20% of patients receiving an adjusted dose by any of the methods, 68.6% could have received a dose different from that determined using the CG-ABW formula. In the patients with renal impairment (CrCl <50 mL/min) in this study, two thirds would have received an unnecessary 50% dose adjustment discordant from the manufacturer's recommendation. Because failure to adjust eptifibatide doses in patients with renal impairment has led to increased bleeding events, practitioners may be inclined to err on the side of caution. However, studies have shown that suboptimal doses of eptifibatide lead to suboptimal outcomes. Therefore, correct dosing of eptifibatide is important to both patient
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张良
2012-01-01
目的 分析牙列拥挤患者不拔牙与拔牙的MBT矫治对牙弓宽度变化的影响.方法 选择我院正畸科2008-2011年MBT矫治器治疗的牙列拥挤患者40例.其中轻中度牙列拥挤患者20例,使用MBT矫治器进行不拔牙正畸；中重度牙列拥挤患者20例,使用MBT矫治器进行拔除4颗第一前磨牙的拔牙正畸.测量术前术后石膏模型的牙弓宽度,对矫治前后不拔牙组和拔牙组的测量数据分别进行组内、组间统计学分析.结果 矫治前后不拔牙组:上颌尖牙间宽度增大,上下颌第一前磨牙、第一磨牙间宽度增大,有统计学意义；拔牙组:上颌尖牙间宽度增大,上下颌第二前磨牙、第一磨牙间宽度变小,有统计学意义.矫治前2组上下颌尖牙、第一磨牙间牙弓宽度相近,无统计学差异；矫治后不拔牙组上下颌第一磨牙间牙弓宽度大于拔牙组,有统计学意义,2组上下颌尖牙间牙弓宽度相近,差异无统计学意义.结论 不拔牙矫治牙弓宽度变化与拥挤部位、拥挤程度有关,拔牙矫治牙弓宽度变化主要与牙齿移动方向有关.拔牙矫治后尖牙间宽度不会减小.%Objective To investigate the changes of dental arch width after extraction and nonextraction treatment with MBT appliance. Methods 40 patients with crowded denture who received treatment with MBT appliance from 2008 to 2011 in our hospital were randomly selected. 20 patients with mild dental crowding who received nonextraction treatment were in the nonextraction group, while 20 patients with severe dental crowding whose 4 first premolars were extracted in the treatment with MBT appliance were in the extraction group. SPSS 11.0 software package was used for paired-samples t Test and independent-samples t Test. Results The upper inter-canine widths, the upper and lower inter-first bicuspid widths, the upper and lower inter-first molar widths of nonextraction cases increased significantly after the treatment. The
Correlation Widths in Quantum--Chaotic Scattering
Dietz, B.; Richter, A; WeidenmÜller, H.
2011-01-01
An important parameter to characterize the scattering matrix S for quantum-chaotic scattering is the width Gamma_{corr} of the S-matrix autocorrelation function. We show that the "Weisskopf estimate" d/(2pi) sum_c T_c (where d is the mean resonance spacing, T_c with 0
Wireline equalization using pulse-width modulation
Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, Bram
2006-01-01
Abstract-High-speed data links over copper cables can be effectively equalized using pulse-width modulation (PWM) pre-emphasis. This provides an alternative to the usual 2-tap FIR filters. The use of PWM pre-emphasis allows a channel loss at the Nyquist frequency of ~30dB, compared to ~20dB for a
Static vortices in long Josephson junctions of exponentially varying width
Semerdjieva, E. G.; Boyadjiev, T. L.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.
2004-06-01
A numerical simulation is carried out for static vortices in a long Josephson junction with an exponentially varying width. At specified values of the parameters the corresponding boundary-value problem admits more than one solution. Each solution (distribution of the magnetic flux in the junction) is associated to a Sturm-Liouville problem, the smallest eigenvalue of which can be used, in a first approximation, to assess the stability of the vortex against relatively small spatiotemporal perturbations. The change in width of the junction leads to a renormalization of the magnetic flux in comparison with the case of a linear one-dimensional model. The influence of the model parameters on the stability of the states of the magnetic flux is investigated in detail, particularly that of the shape parameter. The critical curve of the junction is constructed from pieces of the critical curves for the different magnetic flux distributions having the highest critical currents for the given magnetic field.
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2014-01-10
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.
Temperature Dependence of Spreading Width of Giant Dipole Resonance
Storozhenko, A N; Ventura, A; Blokhin, A I
2002-01-01
The Quasiparticle-Phonon Nuclear Model extended to finite temperature within the framework of Thermo Field Dynamics is applied to calculate a temperature dependence of the spreading width Gamma^{\\downarrow} of a giant dipole resonance. Numerical calculations are made for ^{120}Sn and ^{208}Pb nuclei. It is found that Gamma^{\\downarrow} increases with T. The reason of this effect is discussed as well as a relation of the present approach to other ones, existing in the literature.
A complete generalized adjustment criterion
Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.
2015-01-01
Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent confound
Wei, Jingwen; Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai
2017-10-01
With the rapid development of battery-powered electric vehicles, the lithium-ion battery plays a critical role in the reliability of vehicle system. In order to provide timely management and protection for battery systems, it is necessary to develop a reliable battery model and accurate battery parameters estimation to describe battery dynamic behaviors. Therefore, this paper focuses on an on-board adaptive model for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a first-order equivalent circuit battery model is employed to describe battery dynamic characteristics. Then, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide good initial values of model parameters to ensure filter stability and reduce the convergence time. Thirdly, an extended-Kalman-filter (EKF) is applied to on-line estimate battery SOC and model parameters. Considering that the EKF is essentially a first-order Taylor approximation of battery model, which contains inevitable model errors, thus, a proportional integral-based error adjustment technique is employed to improve the performance of EKF method and correct model parameters. Finally, the experimental results on lithium-ion batteries indicate that the proposed EKF with proportional integral-based error adjustment method can provide robust and accurate battery model and on-line parameter estimation.
Computerized analysis of retinal vessel width and tortuosity in premature infants.
Wilson, Clare M; Cocker, Kenneth D; Moseley, Merrick J; Paterson, Carl; Clay, Simon T; Schulenburg, William E; Mills, Monte D; Ells, Anna L; Parker, Kim H; Quinn, Graham E; Fielder, Alistair R; Ng, Jeffrey
2008-08-01
To determine, with novel software, the feasibility of measuring the tortuosity and width of retinal veins and arteries from digital retinal images of infants at risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The Computer-Aided Image Analysis of the Retina (CAIAR) program was developed to enable semiautomatic detection of retinal vasculature and measurement of vessel tortuosity and width from digital images. CAIAR was tested for accuracy and reproducibility of tortuosity and width measurements by using computer-generated vessel-like lines of known frequency, amplitude, and width. CAIAR was then tested by using clinical digital retinal images for correlation of vessel tortuosity and width readings compared with expert ophthalmologist grading. When applied to 16 computer-generated sinusoidal vessels, the tortuosity measured by CAIAR correlated very well with the known values. Width measures also increased as expected. When the CAIAR readings were compared with five expert ophthalmologists' grading of 75 vessels on 10 retinal images, moderate correlation was found in 10 of the 14 tortuosity output calculations (Spearman rho = 0.618-0.673). Width was less well correlated (rho = 0.415). The measures of tortuosity and width in CAIAR were validated using sequential model vessel analysis. On comparison of CAIAR output with assessments made by expert ophthalmologists, CAIAR correlates moderately with tortuosity grades, but less well with width grades. CAIAR offers the opportunity to develop an automated image analysis system for detecting the vascular changes at the posterior pole, which are becoming increasingly important in diagnosing treatable ROP.
Mass and width of a composite Higgs boson
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doff, A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana-UTFPR-COMAT Via do Conhecimento Km 01, 85503-390, Pato Branco - PR (Brazil)], E-mail: agomes@utfpr.edu.br; Natale, A.A. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, UNESP Rua Pamplona, 145, 01405-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)], E-mail: natale@ift.unesp.br
2009-06-29
The scalar Higgs boson mass in a Technicolor model was obtained by Elias and Scadron with the analysis of an homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE), however it was performed before the most recent developments of walking gauge theories. It was not observed in their work that dynamically generated technifermion mass may vary according to the theory dynamics that forms the scalar bound state. This will be done in this work and we also call attention that their calculation must change to take into account the normalization condition of the BSE. We compute the width of the composite boson and show how the gauge group and fermion content of a technicolor theory can be inferred from the measurement of the mass and width of the scalar boson.
Reduction of track width in perpendicular magnetic recording
Xia, W.; Yamada, T.; Aoi, H.; Muraoka, H.; Nakamura, Y.
2005-02-01
In order to three dimensionally analyze perpendicular magnetic recording mechanisms, we have developed a program in which the magnetization of magnetic particles is introduced into calculations of magnetization distributions in a recording layer, based on the commercial software JMAG-Studio. Because this program was based on a FEM calculation, the head and media interactions and demagnetization during the recording process can be accurately modeled. Using this program, methods to reduce the recorded track width in perpendicular magnetic recording were investigated. Decreasing the magnetic spacing, the use of a side-shielded head structure and using media with weak exchange coupling are effective ways to reduce the track width in a single pole head and double-layer perpendicular media recording system.
Rotational Baroclinic Adjustment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holtegård Nielsen, Steen Morten
In stratified waters like those around Denmark there is a close correlation between the biology of the water masses and their structure and currents; this is known as dynamic biologicaloceanography. The currents are particularly strong near the fronts, which can be seen in several places throughout...... the reciprocal of the socalled Coriolis parameter, and the length scale, which is known as the Rossby radius. Also, because of their limited width currents influenced by rotation are quite persistent. The flow which results from the introduction of a surface level discontinuity across a wide channel is discussed...... of the numerical model a mechanism for the generation of along-frontal instabilities and eddies is suggested. Also, the effect of an irregular bathymetry is studied.Together with observations of wind and water levels some of the oceanographical observations from the old lightvessels are used to study...
Are there any good digraph width measures?
Ganian, Robert; Kneis, Joachim; Meister, Daniel; Obdržálek, Jan; Rossmanith, Peter; Sikdar, Somnath
2010-01-01
Several different measures for digraph width have appeared in the last few years. However, none of them shares all the "nice" properties of treewidth: First, being \\emph{algorithmically useful} i.e. admitting polynomial-time algorithms for all $\\MS1$-definable problems on digraphs of bounded width. And, second, having nice \\emph{structural properties} i.e. being monotone under taking subdigraphs and some form of arc contractions. As for the former, (undirected) $\\MS1$ seems to be the least common denominator of all reasonably expressive logical languages on digraphs that can speak about the edge/arc relation on the vertex set.The latter property is a necessary condition for a width measure to be characterizable by some version of the cops-and-robber game characterizing the ordinary treewidth. Our main result is that \\emph{any reasonable} algorithmically useful and structurally nice digraph measure cannot be substantially different from the treewidth of the underlying undirected graph. Moreover, we introduce \\...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ricano Castillo, Juan Manuel; Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1989-12-31
The recursive technique of the method of minimum squares is employed to obtain a multivariable model of the self regressive mobile mean type, needed for the design of a multivariable, self-adjustable controller self adjustable multivariable. In this article the employed technique and the results obtained are described with the characterization of the model structure and the parametric estimation. The convergency velocity curves are observed towards the parameters` numerical values. [Espanol] La tecnica recursiva del metodo de los minimos cuadrados se emplea para obtener un modelo multivariable de tipo autorregresivo de promedio movil, necesario para el diseno de un controlador autoajustable muitivariable. En el articulo, se describe la tecnica empleada y los resultados obtenidos con la caracterizacion de la estructura del modelo y la estimacion parametrica. Se observan las curvas de la velocidad de convergencia hacia los valores numericos de los parametros.
Mohammad Lagzian; Shamsoddin Nazemi; Fatemeh Dadmand
2012-01-01
Assessing the success of information systems within organizations has been identified as one of the most critical subjects of information system management in both public and private organizations. It is therefore important to measure the success of information systems from the user's perspective. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the degree of information system success by the adjusted DeLone and McLean’s model in the field financial information system (FIS) in an Iranian Univ...
Narrowing of Terrace-width Distributions During Growth on Vicinals
Hamouda, Ajmi Bh.; Pimpinelli, A.; Einstein, T. L.
2009-03-01
Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for a generic minimal SOS model of vicinal surfaces, we compute the terrace-width distributions (TWDs) as a function of incident flux during homoepitaxial growth. We show that the distribution narrows markedly, U.B.P.-Clermont 2 as though there were a flux-dependent repulsion between steps, until the step picture fails at high flux. Using a Fokker-Planck approach, we analyze the evolution and saturation of this narrowing. We compare with a 1D model and with our simulations for narrowing due to an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier.
MODELING OF THE HEAT PUMP STATION ADJUSTABLE LOOP OF AN INTERMEDIATE HEAT-TRANSFER AGENT (Part I
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sit B.
2009-08-01
Full Text Available There are examined equations of dynamics and statics of an adjustable intermediate loop of heat pump carbon dioxide station in this paper. Heat pump station is a part of the combined heat supply system. Control of transferred thermal capacity from the source of low potential heat source is realized by means of changing the speed of circulation of a liquid in the loop and changing the area of a heat-transmitting surface, both in the evaporator, and in the intermediate heat exchanger depending on the operating parameter, for example, external air temperature and wind speed.
2008-09-01
West Model Adult ICU Model Holt-Winters’ Expo Smoothing Model Month Total Req. Acuity Adj. FTEs Leve l Tren d Seaso n Predicted FTE’s...Surgical Model Medical Total Req. FTE’s Based Holt-Winters’ Expo Smoothing Model Month Workload Acuity/FTE’ s Level Tren d Season Predicte d
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Augusto de Souza
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the number and position of nutrient levels used in dose-response trials in the estimation of the optimal-level (OL and the goodness of fit on the models: quadratic polynomial (QP, exponential (EXP, linear response plateau (LRP and quadratic response plateau (QRP. It was used data from dose-response trials realized in FCAV-Unesp Jaboticabal considering the homogeneity of variances and normal distribution. The fit of the models were evaluated considered the following statistics: adjusted coefficient of determination (R²adj, coefficient of variation (CV and the sum of the squares of deviations (SSD.It was verified in QP and EXP models that small changes on the placement and distribution of the levels caused great changes in the estimation of the OL. The LRP model was deeply influenced by the absence or presence of the level between the response and stabilization phases (change in the straight to plateau. The QRP needed more levels on the response phase and the last level on stabilization phase to estimate correctly the plateau. It was concluded that the OL and the adjust of the models are dependent on the positioning and the number of the levels and the specific characteristics of each model, but levels defined near to the true requirement and not so spaced are better to estimate the OL.
Kor-Anantakul, Ounjai; Suntharasaj, Thitima; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Hanprasertpong, Tharangrut; Pranpanus, Savitree; Pruksanusak, Ninlapa; Janwadee, Suthiraporn; Geater, Alan
2017-01-01
To establish normative weight-adjusted models for the median levels of first trimester serum biomarkers for trisomy 21 screening in southern Thai women, and to compare these reference levels with Caucasian-specific and northern Thai models. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,150 normal singleton pregnancy women to determine serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) concentrations in women from southern Thailand. The predicted median values were compared with published equations for Caucasians and northern Thai women. The best-fitting regression equations for the expected median serum levels of PAPP-A (mIU/L) and free β- hCG (ng/mL) according to maternal weight (Wt in kg) and gestational age (GA in days) were: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Both equations were selected with a statistically significant contribution (p< 0.05). Compared with the Caucasian model, the median values of PAPP-A were higher and the median values of free β-hCG were lower in the southern Thai women. And compared with the northern Thai models, the median values of both biomarkers were lower in southern Thai women. The study has successfully developed maternal-weight- and gestational-age-adjusted median normative models to convert the PAPP-A and free β-hCG levels into their Multiple of Median equivalents in southern Thai women. These models confirmed ethnic differences.
Artifacts for Calibration of Submicron Width Measurements
Grunthaner, Frank; Grunthaner, Paula; Bryson, Charles, III
2003-01-01
Artifacts that are fabricated with the help of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are undergoing development for use as dimensional calibration standards with submicron widths. Such standards are needed for calibrating instruments (principally, scanning electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes) for measuring the widths of features in advanced integrated circuits. Dimensional calibration standards fabricated by an older process that involves lithography and etching of trenches in (110) surfaces of single-crystal silicon are generally reproducible to within dimensional tolerances of about 15 nm. It is anticipated that when the artifacts of the present type are fully developed, their critical dimensions will be reproducible to within 1 nm. These artifacts are expected to find increasing use in the semiconductor-device and integrated- circuit industries as the width tolerances on semiconductor devices shrink to a few nanometers during the next few years. Unlike in the older process, one does not rely on lithography and etching to define the critical dimensions. Instead, one relies on the inherent smoothness and flatness of MBE layers deposited under controlled conditions and defines the critical dimensions as the thicknesses of such layers. An artifact of the present type is fabricated in two stages (see figure): In the first stage, a multilayer epitaxial wafer is grown on a very flat substrate. In the second stage, the wafer is cleaved to expose the layers, then the exposed layers are differentially etched (taking advantage of large differences between the etch rates of the different epitaxial layer materials). The resulting structure includes narrow and well-defined trenches and a shelf with thicknesses determined by the thicknesses of the epitaxial layers from which they were etched. Eventually, it should be possible to add a third fabrication stage in which durable, electronically inert artifacts could be replicated in diamondlike carbon from a master made by
Longitudinal wave motion in width-constrained auxetic plates
Lim, Teik-Cheng
2016-05-01
This paper investigates the longitudinal wave velocity in auxetic plates in comparison to conventional ones, in which the plate is constrained from motion in the width direction. By taking into account the thickness change of the plate and its corresponding change in density, the developed wave velocity is casted not only as a function of Young’s modulus and density, but also in terms of Poisson’s ratio and longitudinal strain. Results show that density and thickness variations compensate for one another when the Poisson’s ratio is positive, but add up when the Poisson’s ratio is negative. Results also reveal that the classical model of longitudinal wave velocity for the plate is accurate when the Poisson’s ratio is about 1/3; at this Poisson’s ratio the influence from density and thickness variations cancel each other. Comparison between the current corrected model and the density-corrected Rayleigh-Lamb model reveals a number of consistent trends, while the discrepancies are elucidated. If the plate material possesses a negative Poisson’s ratio, the deviation of the actual wave velocity from the classical model becomes significant; auxeticity suppresses and enhances the wave velocity in compressive and tensile impacts, respectively. Hence the use of the corrected model is proposed when predicting longitudinal waves in width-constrained auxetic plates, and auxetic materials can be harnessed for effectively controlling wave velocities in thin-walled structures.
Clique Cover Width and Clique Sum
Shahrokhi, Farhad
2015-01-01
For a clique cover $C$ in the undirected graph $G$, the clique cover graph of $C$ is the graph obtained by contracting the vertices of each clique in $C$ into a single vertex. The clique cover width of G, denoted by $CCW(G)$, is the minimum value of the bandwidth of all clique cover graphs of $G$. When $G$ is the clique sum of $G_1$ and $G_2$, we prove that $CCW(G) \\le 3/2(CCW(G_1) + CCW(G_2))$.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandra Kuznetsova
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Adjusting of wind input source term in numerical model WAVEWATCH III for the middle-sized water body is reported. For this purpose, the field experiment on Gorky Reservoir is carried out. Surface waves are measured along with the parameters of the airflow. The measurement of wind speed in close proximity to the water surface is performed. On the basis of the experimental results, the parameterization of the drag coefficient depending on the 10 m wind speed is proposed. This parameterization is used in WAVEWATCH III for the adjusting of the wind input source term within WAM 3 and Tolman and Chalikov parameterizations. The simulation of the surface wind waves within tuned to the conditions of the middle-sized water body WAVEWATCH III is performed using three built-in parameterizations (WAM 3, Tolman and Chalikov, and WAM 4 and adjusted wind input source term parameterizations. Verification of the applicability of the model to the middle-sized reservoir is performed by comparing the simulated data with the results of the field experiment. It is shown that the use of the proposed parameterization CD(U10 improves the agreement in the significant wave height HS from the field experiment and from the numerical simulation.
The rise and fall of divorce - a sociological adjustment of becker’s model of the marriage market
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Signe Hald; Hansen, Lars Gårn
Despite the strong and persistent influence of Gary Becker’s marriage model, the model does not completely explain the observed correlation between married women’s labor market participation and overall divorce rates. In this paper we show how a simple sociologically inspired extension of the model...... this aspect into Becker’s model, the model provides predictions of divorce rates and causes that fit more closely with empirical observations. (JEL: J1)...
Chen, Shi; Liao, Xu; Ma, Hongsheng; Zhou, Longquan; Wang, Xingzhou; Zhuang, Jiancang
2017-04-01
The relative gravimeter, which generally uses zero-length springs as the gravity senor, is still as the first choice in the field of terrestrial gravity measurement because of its efficiency and low-cost. Because the drift rate of instrument can be changed with the time and meter, it is necessary for estimating the drift rate to back to the base or known gravity value stations for repeated measurement at regular hour's interval during the practical survey. However, the campaigned gravity survey for the large-scale region, which the distance of stations is far away from serval or tens kilometers, the frequent back to close measurement will highly reduce the gravity survey efficiency and extremely time-consuming. In this paper, we proposed a new gravity data adjustment method for estimating the meter drift by means of Bayesian statistical interference. In our approach, we assumed the change of drift rate is a smooth function depend on the time-lapse. The trade-off parameters were be used to control the fitting residuals. We employed the Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) for the estimated these trade-off parameters. The comparison and analysis of simulated data between the classical and Bayesian adjustment show that our method is robust and has self-adaptive ability for facing to the unregularly non-linear meter drift. At last, we used this novel approach to process the realistic campaigned gravity data at the North China. Our adjustment method is suitable to recover the time-varied drift rate function of each meter, and also to detect the meter abnormal drift during the gravity survey. We also defined an alternative error estimation for the inversed gravity value at the each station on the basis of the marginal distribution theory. Acknowledgment: This research is supported by Science Foundation Institute of Geophysics, CEA from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Nos. DQJB16A05; DQJB16B07), China National Special Fund for Earthquake
Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment
Wilkinson, Darren J
1995-01-01
In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aiman Omer
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Bipedal humanoid robots are expected to play a major role in the future. Performing bipedal locomotion requires high energy due to the high torque that needs to be provided by its legs’ joints. Taking the WABIAN-2R as an example, it uses harmonic gears in its joint to increase the torque. However, using such a mechanism increases the weight of the legs and therefore increases energy consumption. Therefore, the idea of developing a mechanism with adjustable stiffness to be connected to the leg joint is introduced here. The proposed mechanism would have the ability to provide passive and active motion. The mechanism would be attached to the ankle pitch joint as an artificial tendon. Using computer simulations, the dynamical performance of the mechanism is analytically evaluated.
GA-based PID control of the plate width in hot-plate mills
Kim, Byungman; Lee, Dae Y.; Cho, Hyungsuck
1999-11-01
In hot plate mills the slabs from incoming reheat furnace are reduced to the desired width and thickness, being rolled out with considerable accuracy. The process of changing the plate width is controlled by a pair of edge rolls, which is called edger. The objectives of this edging process are to meet tight width tolerances of plates and to reduce the yield loss caused by trimming when irregular width is formed at the plate edge. There are several factors that result in complexity and uncertainty in width control. These include inaccurate edger set-up model, degradation of various mill equipment, variation of operation conditions, environments and variation of the dimension of incoming cast slabs. In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based PID control is proposed to ensure the control of the desired width at the exit of the mill. The approach adopted here is essentially optimization of the PID controller gains in order to minimize the error between the desired and actual slab width. Since the design parameters associated with genetic algorithm affect convergence performance, the effects of these parameters are investigated in detail. In addition, the control performance is also evaluated for various process parameters such as initial width of the incoming slab and temperature of the slab. Based on the result obtained from a series of simulations, the proposed control method is found to yield satisfactory performance for various process conditions.
May, C. L.; Roering, J. J.; Eaton, L. S.; Burnett, K.
2012-12-01
A fundamental yet unresolved question in fluvial geomorphology is what controls the width of valleys in mountainous terrain. Establishing a predictive relation for valley width is critical for realizing linkages between aquatic ecology and geomorphology because the most productive riverine habitats often occur in low gradient streams with broad floodplains. Working in the Oregon Coast Range, we used 1m resolution airborne lidar to explore controls on valley width and couple these findings with previously published models of salmon habitat potential. We defined how valley floor width varies with drainage area in a catchment that exhibits relatively uniform ridge-and-valley topography sculpted primarily by shallow landslides and debris flows. Above drainage areas of 0.1 km2, valley width increases as a power-law function of drainage area with an exponent of ~0.6. As a result, valley width increases more rapidly downstream than channel width (exponent ~0.4), as defined by local hydraulic geometry. At low drainage areas, valley width is relatively constant, reflecting the signature of debris flows. We used this 'baseline' valley width-drainage area function to determine how ancient deep-seated landslides in a nearby catchment influence valley width. Anomalously wide valleys tend to occur upstream of and adjacent to large landslides while downstream valley segments are narrower than predicted from our baseline relation. According to coho salmon habitat potential models, broad valley segments associated with deep-seated landsliding resulted in a greater proportion of the channel network hosting productive habitat. Because large landslides in this area are structurally controlled, our findings suggest a strong link between geologic properties and aquatic habitat realized by geomorphic processes.
Resonance trapping and saturation of decay widths
Persson, E; Rotter, I
1998-01-01
Resonance trapping appears in open many-particle quantum systems at high level density when the coupling to the continuum of decay channels reaches a critical strength. Here a reorganization of the system takes place and a separation of different time scales appears. We investigate it under the influence of additional weakly coupled channels as well as by taking into account the real part of the coupling term between system and continuum. We observe a saturation of the mean width of the trapped states. Also the decay rates saturate as a function of the coupling strength. The mechanism of the saturation is studied in detail. In any case, the critical region of reorganization is enlarged. When the transmission coefficients for the different channels are different, the width distribution is broadened as compared to a chi_K^2 distribution where K is the number of channels. Resonance trapping takes place before the broad state overlaps regions beyond the extension of the spectrum of the closed system.
Optical antennas with sinusoidal modulation in width.
Dikken, Dirk Jan; Segerink, Frans B; Korterik, Jeroen P; Pfaff, Stefan S; Prangsma, Jord C; Herek, Jennifer L
2016-08-08
Small metal structures sustaining plasmon resonances in the optical regime are of great interest due to their large scattering cross sections and ability to concentrate light to subwavelength volumes. In this paper, we study the dipolar plasmon resonances of optical antennas with a constant volume and a sinusoidal modulation in width. We experimentally show that by changing the phase of the width-modulation, with a small 10 nm modulation amplitude, the resonance shifts over 160 nm. Using simulations we show how this simple design can create resonance shifts greater than 600 nm. The versatility of this design is further shown by creating asymmetric structures with two different modulation amplitudes, which we experimentally and numerically show to give rise to two resonances. Our results on both the symmetric and asymmetric antennas show the capability to control the localization of the fields outside the antenna, while still maintaining the freedom to change the antenna resonance wavelength. The antenna design we tested combines a large spectral tunability with a small footprint: all the antenna dimensions are factor 7 to 13 smaller than the wavelength, and hold potential as a design element in meta-surfaces for beam shaping.
Trejos, Ana María; Reyes, Lizeth; Bahamon, Marly Johana; Alarcón, Yolima; Gaviria, Gladys
2015-08-01
A study in five Colombian cities in 2006, confirms the findings of other international studies: the majority of HIV-positive children not know their diagnosis, caregivers are reluctant to give this information because they believe that the news will cause emotional distress to the child becoming primary purpose of this study to validate a model of revelation. We implemented a clinical model, referred to as: "DIRE" that hypothetically had normalizing effects on psychological adjustment and adherence to antiretroviral treatment of HIV seropositive children, using a quasi-experimental design. Test were administered (questionnaire to assess patterns of disclosure and non-disclosure of the diagnosis of VIH/SIDA on children in health professionals and participants caregivers, Family Apgar, EuroQol EQ- 5D, MOS Social Support Survey Questionnaire Information treatment for VIH/SIDA and child Symptom Checklist CBCL/6-18 adapted to Latinos) before and after implementation of the model to 31 children (n: 31), 30 caregivers (n: 30) and 41 health professionals. Data processing was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 21 by applying parametric tests (Friedman) and nonparametric (t Student). No significant differences in adherence to treatment (p=0.392), in the psychological adjustment were found positive significant differences at follow-ups compared to baseline 2 weeks (p: 0.001), 3 months (p: 0.000) and 6 months (p: 0.000). The clinical model demonstrated effectiveness in normalizing of psychological adjustment and maintaining treatment compliance. The process also generated confidence in caregivers and health professionals in this difficult task.
Yue, Weisheng
2012-08-01
We demonstrate that surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement could be tuned by adjusting the width of a connection bar at the bottom of a gold nanorod pair. Arrays of gold nanorod pairs with interconnection bars of different widths at the bottom of the interspace were fabricated by electron-beam lithography and used for the SERS study. Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was used as the probe molecule for the SERS. In addition to the large SERS enhancement observed in the nanostructured substrates, the SERS enhancement increases as the width of the connection bar increases. This result provides an important method for tuning SERS enhancement. Numerical simulations of electromagnetic properties on the nanostructures were performed with CST Microwave Studio, and the results correspond well with the experimental observations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Call, B. C.; Belmont, P.; Schmidt, J. C.; Wilcock, P. R.
2017-05-01
Predicting the frequency and aerial extent of flooding in river valleys is essential for infrastructure design, environmental management, and risk assessment. Conventional flood prediction relies on assumptions of stationary flood distributions and static channel geometries. However, nonstationary flow regimes are increasingly observed and changes in flow and/or sediment supply are known to alter the geometry and flood conveyance of alluvial channels. Systematic changes in flows and/or channel geometry may amplify or attenuate the frequency and/or extent of flood inundation in unexpected ways. We present a stochastic, reduced complexity model to investigate such dynamics. The model routes a series of annual peak discharges through a simplified reach-averaged channel-floodplain cross section. Channel width, depth, and slope are permitted to adjust annually by a user-specified fraction toward equilibrium geometries predicted based on each year's peak discharge and sediment supply. Modeled channel adjustments are compared with empirical observations for two rivers in Minnesota, USA that have experienced multiple large floods over the past 6 years. The model is then run using six hypothetical scenarios simulating nonstationary flow regimes with temporal adjustments in the mean and/or variance of the governing peak-flow distributions. Each scenario is run repeatedly while varying parameters that control the amount of fractional adjustment that channel geometries can make annually. Results indicate that the intra-annual mean horizontal width of floodplain inundation primarily depends on the governing peak-flow distribution's coefficient of variation, but the intra-annual frequency of floodplain inundation (i.e., the fraction of modeled years with inundation) primarily depends on the amount of channel adjustment permitted annually.
Total width of 125 GeV Higgs boson.
Barger, Vernon; Ishida, Muneyuki; Keung, Wai-Yee
2012-06-29
By using the LHC and Tevatron measurements of the cross sections to various decay channels relative to the standard model Higgs boson, the total width of the putative 125 GeV Higgs boson is determined as 6.1(-2.9)(+7.7) MeV. We describe a way to estimate the branching fraction for the Higgs-boson decay to dark matter. We also discuss a no-go theorem for the γγ signal of the Higgs boson at the LHC.
Excitation-energy dependence of the giant dipole resonance width
Enders, G.; Berg, F. D.; Hagel, K.; Kühn, W.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Pfeiffer, M.; Schwalb, O.; Charity, R. J.; Gobbi, A.; Freifelder, R.; Henning, W.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Holzmann, R.; Mayer, R. S.; Simon, R. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Stefanini, A. A.
1992-07-01
High-energy γ rays have been measured in coincidence with heavy fragents in deeply inelastic reactions of 136Xe+48Ti at 18.5 MeV/nucleon. The giant dipole resonance (GDR) strength function is deduced from an analysis of the photon spectra within the statistical model. The GDR width Γ is studied as a function of the fragment excitation energy E*. A saturation at about Γ=10 MeV is observed for E*/A>=1.0 MeV/nucleon.
Excitation-energy dependence of the giant dipole resonance width
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enders, G.; Berg, F.D.; Hagel, K.; Kuehn, W.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Pfeiffer, M.; Schwalb, O. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet, Giessen, Giessen (Germany)); Charity, R.J.; Gobbi, A.; Freifelder, R.; Henning, W.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Holzmann, R.; Mayer, R.S.; Simon, R.S.; Wessels, J.P. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)); Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Stefanini, A.A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and University of Florence, Florence (Italy))
1992-07-13
High-energy {gamma} rays have been measured in coincidence with heavy fragents in deeply inelastic reactions of {sup 136}Xe+{sup 48}Ti at 18.5 MeV/nucleon. The giant dipole resonance (GDR) strength function is deduced from an analysis of the photon spectra within the statistical model. The GDR width {Gamma} is studied as a function of the fragment excitation energy {ital E}{sup *}. A saturation at about {Gamma}=10 MeV is observed for {ital E}{sup *}/{ital A}{ge}1.0 MeV/nucleon.
Average radiation widths of levels in natural xenon isotopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noguere, G., E-mail: gilles.noguere@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul les Durance (France); Litaize, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul les Durance (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble (France)
2011-11-15
Average radiation widths <{Gamma}{sub {gamma}>} for the stable xenon isotopes have been estimated using neutron resonance spectroscopic information deduced from high-resolution capture and transmission data measured at the electron linear accelerator GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in Geel, Belgium. The combination of conventional Neutron Resonance Shape Analysis techniques (NRSA) with high-energy model calculations in a simple Bayesian learning method permit to calculate a consistent local systematic in the xenon's mass region (Z=54) from A=124 to A=136.
Koivunoro, H; Schmitz, T; Hippeläinen, E; Liu, Y-H; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S
2014-06-01
The mixed neutron-photon beam of FiR 1 reactor is used for boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland. A beam model has been defined for patient treatment planning and dosimetric calculations. The neutron beam model has been validated with an activation foil measurements. The photon beam model has not been thoroughly validated against measurements, due to the fact that the beam photon dose rate is low, at most only 2% of the total weighted patient dose at FiR 1. However, improvement of the photon dose detection accuracy is worthwhile, since the beam photon dose is of concern in the beam dosimetry. In this study, we have performed ionization chamber measurements with multiple build-up caps of different thickness to adjust the calculated photon spectrum of a FiR 1 beam model.
Device-width dependence of plateau width in quantum Hall states
Kawaji, S.; Hirakawa, K.; Nagata, M.
1993-02-01
Hall bar type devices having a total length of 2900 μm, a source and drain electrode width of 400 μm and different widths w ranging from 10 to 120 μm in its central 600 μm long part are fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs wafer with electron mobility of 21 m 2V -1s -1. The current at which the quantum Hall plateau for i=2 at B=9.7T at T=1.2K disappears is proportional to w. The average critical current density is Jcr=(1.6±0.2) A m -1
Harrison, Sean; Tilling, Kate; Turner, Emma L; Lane, J Athene; Simpkin, Andrew; Davis, Michael; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Martin, Richard M
2016-12-01
Previous studies indicate a possible inverse relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and body mass index (BMI), and a positive relationship between PSA and age. We investigated the associations between age, BMI, PSA, and screen-detected prostate cancer to determine whether an age-BMI-adjusted PSA model would be clinically useful for detecting prostate cancer. Cross-sectional analysis nested within the UK ProtecT trial of treatments for localized cancer. Of 18,238 men aged 50-69 years, 9,457 men without screen-detected prostate cancer (controls) and 1,836 men with prostate cancer (cases) met inclusion criteria: no history of prostate cancer or diabetes; PSA BMI between 15 and 50 kg/m(2). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between log-PSA, age, and BMI in all men, controlling for prostate cancer status. In the 11,293 included men, the median PSA was 1.2 ng/ml (IQR: 0.7-2.6); mean age 61.7 years (SD 4.9); and mean BMI 26.8 kg/m(2) (SD 3.7). There were a 5.1% decrease in PSA per 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI (95% CI 3.4-6.8) and a 13.6% increase in PSA per 5-year increase in age (95% CI 12.0-15.1). Interaction tests showed no evidence for different associations between age, BMI, and PSA in men above and below 3.0 ng/ml (all p for interaction >0.2). The age-BMI-adjusted PSA model performed as well as an age-adjusted model based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines at detecting prostate cancer. Age and BMI were associated with small changes in PSA. An age-BMI-adjusted PSA model is no more clinically useful for detecting prostate cancer than current NICE guidelines. Future studies looking at the effect of different variables on PSA, independent of their effect on prostate cancer, may improve the discrimination of PSA for prostate cancer.
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy
2015-04-01
There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes.
Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo
2016-07-01
Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Karen
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Widely used substitution models for proteins, such as the Jones-Taylor-Thornton (JTT or Whelan and Goldman (WAG models, are based on empirical amino acid interchange matrices estimated from databases of protein alignments that incorporate the average amino acid frequencies of the data set under examination (e.g JTT + F. Variation in the evolutionary process between sites is typically modelled by a rates-across-sites distribution such as the gamma (Γ distribution. However, sites in proteins also vary in the kinds of amino acid interchanges that are favoured, a feature that is ignored by standard empirical substitution matrices. Here we examine the degree to which the pattern of evolution at sites differs from that expected based on empirical amino acid substitution models and evaluate the impact of these deviations on phylogenetic estimation. Results We analyzed 21 large protein alignments with two statistical tests designed to detect deviation of site-specific amino acid distributions from data simulated under the standard empirical substitution model: JTT+ F + Γ. We found that the number of states at a given site is, on average, smaller and the frequencies of these states are less uniform than expected based on a JTT + F + Γ substitution model. With a four-taxon example, we show that phylogenetic estimation under the JTT + F + Γ model is seriously biased by a long-branch attraction artefact if the data are simulated under a model utilizing the observed site-specific amino acid frequencies from an alignment. Principal components analyses indicate the existence of at least four major site-specific frequency classes in these 21 protein alignments. Using a mixture model with these four separate classes of site-specific state frequencies plus a fifth class of global frequencies (the JTT + cF + Γ model, significant improvements in model fit for real data sets can be achieved. This simple mixture model also reduces the long
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoli Wang
Full Text Available Serfling-type periodic regression models have been widely used to identify and analyse epidemic of influenza. In these approaches, the baseline is traditionally determined using cleaned historical non-epidemic data. However, we found that the previous exclusion of epidemic seasons was empirical, since year-year variations in the seasonal pattern of activity had been ignored. Therefore, excluding fixed 'epidemic' months did not seem reasonable. We made some adjustments in the rule of epidemic-period removal to avoid potentially subjective definition of the start and end of epidemic periods. We fitted the baseline iteratively. Firstly, we established a Serfling regression model based on the actual observations without any removals. After that, instead of manually excluding a predefined 'epidemic' period (the traditional method, we excluded observations which exceeded a calculated boundary. We then established Serfling regression once more using the cleaned data and excluded observations which exceeded a calculated boundary. We repeated this process until the R2 value stopped to increase. In addition, the definitions of the onset of influenza epidemic were heterogeneous, which might make it impossible to accurately evaluate the performance of alternative approaches. We then used this modified model to detect the peak timing of influenza instead of the onset of epidemic and compared this model with traditional Serfling models using observed weekly case counts of influenza-like illness (ILIs, in terms of sensitivity, specificity and lead time. A better performance was observed. In summary, we provide an adjusted Serfling model which may have improved performance over traditional models in early warning at arrival of peak timing of influenza.
Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Shuangsheng; MacIntyre, C Raina; Zhang, Hongbin; Shi, Weixian; Peng, Xiaomin; Duan, Wei; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Quanyi
2015-01-01
Serfling-type periodic regression models have been widely used to identify and analyse epidemic of influenza. In these approaches, the baseline is traditionally determined using cleaned historical non-epidemic data. However, we found that the previous exclusion of epidemic seasons was empirical, since year-year variations in the seasonal pattern of activity had been ignored. Therefore, excluding fixed 'epidemic' months did not seem reasonable. We made some adjustments in the rule of epidemic-period removal to avoid potentially subjective definition of the start and end of epidemic periods. We fitted the baseline iteratively. Firstly, we established a Serfling regression model based on the actual observations without any removals. After that, instead of manually excluding a predefined 'epidemic' period (the traditional method), we excluded observations which exceeded a calculated boundary. We then established Serfling regression once more using the cleaned data and excluded observations which exceeded a calculated boundary. We repeated this process until the R2 value stopped to increase. In addition, the definitions of the onset of influenza epidemic were heterogeneous, which might make it impossible to accurately evaluate the performance of alternative approaches. We then used this modified model to detect the peak timing of influenza instead of the onset of epidemic and compared this model with traditional Serfling models using observed weekly case counts of influenza-like illness (ILIs), in terms of sensitivity, specificity and lead time. A better performance was observed. In summary, we provide an adjusted Serfling model which may have improved performance over traditional models in early warning at arrival of peak timing of influenza.
McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly
2008-01-01
Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…
The rise and fall of divorce - a sociological adjustment of becker’s model of the marriage market
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Signe Hald; Hansen, Lars Gårn
Despite the strong and persistent influence of Gary Becker’s marriage model, the model does not completely explain the observed correlation between married women’s labor market participation and overall divorce rates. In this paper we show how a simple sociologically inspired extension of the model...... realigns the model’s predictions with the observed trends. The extension builds on Becker’s own claim that partners match on preference for partner specialization, and, as a novelty, on additional sociological theory claiming that preference coordination tend to happen subconsciously. When we incorporate...... this aspect into Becker’s model, the model provides predictions of divorce rates and causes that fit more closely with empirical observations. (JEL: J1)...
Walker, Stefan P W; Thibaut, Loïc; McCormick, Mark I
2010-09-01
Positive density dependence (i.e., the Allee effect; AE) often has important implications for the dynamics and conservation of populations. Here, we show that density-dependent sex ratio adjustment in response to sexual selection may be a common AE mechanism. Specifically, using an analytical model we show that an AE is expected whenever one sex is more fecund than the other and sex ratio bias toward the less fecund sex increases with density. We illustrate the robustness of this pattern, using Monte Carlo simulations, against a range of body size-fecundity relationships and sex-allocation strategies. Finally, we test the model using the sex-changing polygynous reef fish Parapercis cylindrica; positive density dependence in the strength of sexual selection for male size is evidenced as the causal mechanism driving local sex ratio adjustment, hence the AE. Model application may extend to invertebrates, reptiles, birds, and mammals, in addition to over 70 reef fishes. We suggest that protected areas may often outperform harvest quotas as a conservation tool since the latter promotes population fragmentation, reduced polygyny, a balancing of the sex ratio, and hence up to a 50% decline in per capita fecundity, while the former maximizes polygyny and source-sink potential.
Pulse-Width Jitter Measurement for Laser Diode Pulses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Jun-Hua; WANG Yun-Cai
2006-01-01
@@ Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement of pulse-width jitter of diode laser pulses are presented. The expression of pulse power spectra with all amplitude jitter, timing jitter and pulse-width jitter is deduced.
Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...
Moisan, Emmanuel; Charbonnier, Pierre; Foucher, Philippe; Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Guillemin, Samuel; Koehl, Mathieu
2015-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part) and sonar (for its underwater part) scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology. PMID:26690444
Adjustment of Sonar and Laser Acquisition Data for Building the 3D Reference Model of a Canal Tunnel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emmanuel Moisan
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part and sonar (for its underwater part scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology.
Cheng, Dong; Zhao, Jiangtao; Jian, Liguo; Ding, Tongbin; Liu, Shichao
2016-09-01
Previous studies found that red cell distribution width was related to adverse cardiovascular events. However, few studies reported the relationship between red cell distribution width and early-stage renal injury in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Using a cross-sectional design, 334 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled according to the criterion of inclusion and exclusion. Demographic and clinical examination data were collected. Depended on the urine albumin, study population were divided into case group (n = 118) and control group (n = 216). Compared with control group, the case group tend to be higher red cell distribution width level (13.6 ± 0.9 vs.12.5 ± 0.6, p red cell distribution width was positively associated with albuminuria creatinine ratio (r = 0.567, p red cell distribution width was still associated with early-stage renal injury after adjusting for many other potential cofounders. Compared with the first quartile, the risk ratio of the second, the third and the fourth quartile were 1.38 (95%CI: 1.06-1.80), 1.57 (95%CI: 1.21-2.97), 2.71 (95%CI: 2.08-3.54), respectively. Besides, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen were also significantly associated with renal injury in gestational diabetes mellitus patients. The elevated red cell distribution width level might be a predictor of early-stage renal injury in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. As an easy and routine examination index, red cell distribution width may provide better clinical guidance when combined with other important indices.
Dibaryon Mass and Width Calculation with Tensor Interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PANG Hou-Rong; PING Jia-Lun; CHEN Ling-Zhi; WANG Fan
2004-01-01
@@ The effect of tensor interaction due to gluon and Goldstone boson exchange on the dibaryon mass and decay width has been studied in the framework of the quark delocalization and colour screening model. The effective S-D wave transition interactions induced by gluon and Goldstone boson exchanges decrease quickly with the increasing channel strangeness, and there is no six-quark state in the light flavour world, which can become a bound one by the help of these tensor interactions, except for the deuteron. The K and η meson exchange effect has been shown to be negligible after a short-range truncation in this model approach. The partial D-wave decay widths, from the NΩ state to the A final states of spins 0 and 1, are 20. 7keV and 63.1 kev respectively. This is a very narrow dibaryon resonance, that might be detected in the relativistic heavy ion reaction by the existing RHIC detectors through the reconstruction of the A vertex mass and by the future COMPAS detector at CERNand the FAIR project in Germany.
Combining LEP and LHC to bound the Higgs Width
Englert, Christoph; Spannowsky, Michael
2016-01-01
The correlation of on- and off-shell Higgs boson production at the LHC in $gg \\to h^* \\to ZZ$ to bound the Higgs width, under specific model-dependent assumptions, has recently received a lot of attention. As off-shell cross section measurements in this channel suffer from a small signal yield, large backgrounds, and theoretical uncertainties, we propose an alternative complementary constraint which is only possible through the combination of LEP and LHC measurements. Previous precision electroweak measurements at LEP allow for the determination of indirect constraints on Higgs couplings to vector bosons by considering one-loop processes involving virtual Higgs exchange. As the Higgs is off-shell in these diagrams we venture that LEP can be interpreted as an off-shell `Higgs Factory'. By combining these LEP constraints with current LHC 8 TeV Higgs measurements a stronger limit on the Higgs width can be achieved than with LHC data alone for models with rescaled Higgs couplings. Looking to the future, avoiding ...
Wadsworth, Martha E; Rindlaub, Laura; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Rienks, Shauna; Bianco, Hannah; Markman, Howard J
2013-01-01
This study tests key tenets of the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model. This model (Wadsworth, Raviv, Santiago, & Etter, 2011 ) builds on Conger and Elder's family stress model by proposing that primary control coping and secondary control coping can help reduce the negative effects of economic strain on parental behaviors central to the family stress model, namely, parental depressive symptoms and parent-child interactions, which together can decrease child internalizing and externalizing problems. Two hundred seventy-five co-parenting couples with children between the ages of 1 and 18 participated in an evaluation of a brief family strengthening intervention, aimed at preventing economic strain's negative cascade of influence on parents, and ultimately their children. The longitudinal path model, analyzed at the couple dyad level with mothers and fathers nested within couple, showed very good fit, and was not moderated by child gender or ethnicity. Analyses revealed direct positive effects of primary control coping and secondary control coping on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms. Decreased economic strain predicted more positive father-child interactions, whereas increased secondary control coping predicted less negative mother-child interactions. Positive parent-child interactions, along with decreased parent depression and economic strain, predicted child internalizing and externalizing over the course of 18 months. Multiple-group models analyzed separately by parent gender revealed, however, that child age moderated father effects. Findings provide support for the adaptation to poverty-related stress model and suggest that prevention and clinical interventions for families affected by poverty-related stress may be strengthened by including modules that address economic strain and efficacious strategies for coping with strain.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yong-ping Liu; Gui-qiao Xu
2002-01-01
The classes of the multivariate functions with bounded moduli on Rd and Td are given and their average a-widths and non-linear n-widths are discussed. The weak asymptotic behaviors are established for the corresponding quantities.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Affisco
2008-04-01
Full Text Available We study the impact of the efforts aimed at reducing the lead-time variability in a quality-adjusted stochastic inventory model. We assume that each lot contains a random number of defective units. More specifically, a logarithmic investment function is used that allows investment to be made to reduce lead-time variability. Explicit results for the optimal values of decision variables as well as optimal value of the variance of lead-time are obtained. A series of numerical exercises is presented to demonstrate the use of the models developed in this paper. Initially the lead-time variance reduction model (LTVR is compared to the quality-adjusted model (QA for different values of initial lead-time over uniformly distributed lead-time intervals from one to seven weeks. In all cases where investment is warranted, investment in lead-time reduction results in reduced lot sizes, variances, and total inventory costs. Further, both the reduction in lot-size and lead-time variance increase as the lead-time interval increases. Similar results are obtained when lead-time follows a truncated normal distribution. The impact of proportion of defective items was also examined for the uniform case resulting in the finding that the total inventory related costs of investing in lead-time variance reduction decrease significantly as the proportion defective decreases. Finally, the results of sensitivity analysis relating to proportion defective, interest rate, and setup cost show the lead-time variance reduction model to be quite robust and representative of practice.
Combination of CDF and D0 Results on W Boson Mass and Width
Abazov, V M; Abdesselam, A; Abolins, M; Abramov, V; Acharya, B S; Acosta, D; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Affolder, T; Ahmed, S N; Akimoto, H; Akopian, A; Albrow, M G; Alexeev, G D; Alton, A; Alves, G A; Amaral, P; Ambrose, D; Amendolia, S R; Amidei, D; Anikeev, K; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Arnoud, Y; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asakawa, T; Avila, C; Ashmanskas, W; Atac, M; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Babintsev, V V; Babukhadia, L; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Bacon, Trevor C; Baden, A; Badgett, W; Baffioni, S; Bailey, M W; Bailey, S; Baldin, B Yu; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; De Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bauer, G; Bean, A; Beaudette, F; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Begel, M; Belforte, S; Bell, W H; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, J; Belyaev, A; Benjamin, D; Bensinger, J; Beretvas, A; Bergé, J P; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Berryhill, J W; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Bevensee, B; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Bhatti, A A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blusk, S R; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Böhnlein, A; Bozhko, N; Bokhari, W; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bolton, T A; Bonushkin, Yu; Borcherding, F; Bortoletto, D; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boudreau, J; Brandl, A; Brandt, A; Van den Brink, S; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brozovic, M; Bruner, N; Brubaker, E; Buchholz, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burkett, K; Burtovoi, V S; Busetto, G; Butler, J M; Byon-Wagner, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carithers, W; Carlson, J; Carlsmith, D; Carvalho, W; Cassada, J; Casey, D; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakraborty, D; Chan, A W; Chan, K M; Chang, P S; Chang, P T; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M T; Chekulaev, S V; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christofek, L; Chu, M L; Chung, J Y; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Claes, D; Clark, A G; Clark, A R; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Connolly, B; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cooper, J; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Cordelli, M; Cranshaw, J; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Cropp, R; Culbertson, R; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Dagenhart, D; Da Motta, H; D'Auria, S; Davis, G A; De, K; De Cecco, S; De Jongh, F; De Jong, S J; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Demarteau, M; Demers, S; Demina, R; Demine, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Desai, S; Devlin, T; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Done, J; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyshkant, A; Eddy, N; Edmunds, D; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Ellison, J; Elias, J E; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Engelmann, R; Engels, E; Eno, S; Erbacher, R; Erdmann, W; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Errede, D; Errede, S; Estrada, J; Eusebi, R; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Fan, Q; Farrington, S; Feild, R G; Ferbel, T; Fernández, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Filthaut, F; Fiori, I; Fisk, H E; Flaugher, B; Flores-Castillo, L R; Fortner, M; Foster, G W; Fox, H; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Frisch, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Fukui, Y; Furic, I; Galeotti, S; Gallas, E; Gallinaro, M; Galjaev, A N; Gao, M; Gao, T; García-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gatti, P; Gavrilov, V; Gay, C; Geer, S; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gerdes, D W; Gershtein, Yu; Gerstein, E; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Ginther, G; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Goncharov, M; Goncharov, P I; Gordon, A; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Yu; Goulianos, K; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Green, C; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Groer, L S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Günther, M; Guillian, G; Guimarães da Costa, J; Guo, R S; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, R M; Haber, C; Hadley, N J; Hafen, E S; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S L; Hagopian, V; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hall, C; Hall, R E; Han, C; Handa, T; Handler, R; Hansen, S; Hao, W; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hardman, A D; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, J; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinrich, J; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Heiss, A; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Hildreth, M D; Hill, C; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Höcker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hoffman, K D; Holck, C; Hollebeek, R; Holloway, L; Hou, S; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R; Huston, J; Huth, J; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ikeda, H; Issever, C; Incandela, J R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Iwai, J; Iwata, Y; Iyutin, B; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; James, E; Jensen, H; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Joshi, U; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kambara, H; Karmanov, D; Karmgard, D; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karr, K; Kartal, S; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keaffaber, T A; Kelley, K; Kelly, M; Kehoe, R; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, R; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Khazins, D; Kharchilava, A I; Kikuchi, T; Kilminster, B; Kim, B J; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, T H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirk, M; Kirsch, L; Klima, B; Klimenko, S; Koehn, P; Kohli, J M; Kondo, K; Köngeter, A; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korn, A J; Korytov, A; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Kovács, E; Kozelov, A V; Kozlovskii, E A; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krivkova, P; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurino, K; Kuwabara, T; Kuznetsov, V E; Kuznetsova, N; Laasanen, A T; Lai, N; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lamoureux, J I; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Lander, R; Landsberg, G L; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, Alfred M; Le, Y; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, J D; Li, J; Li, K; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lin, C S; Lincoln, D; Lindgren, M; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipton, R; Liss, T M; Liu, J B; Liu, T; Liu, Y C; Litvintsev, D O; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loken, J; Loreti, M; Lucchesi, D; Lueking, L; Lukens, P; Lundstedt, C; Luo, C; Lusin, S; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Malyshev, V L; Manankov, V; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Manca, G; Mao, H S; Mariotti, M; Marshall, T; Martignon, G; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, M I; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Matthews, J A J; Mattingly, S E K; Mayer, J; Mayorov, A A; Mazzanti, P; McCarthy, R; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A S; Menguzzato, M; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Miao, C; Miao, T; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Minato, H; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Mitselmakher, G; Moggi, N; Mokhov, N V; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, E; Moore, R; Moore, R W; Morita, Y; Moulik, T; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Müller, T; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Musy, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakada, H; Nakaya, T; Nakano, I; Napora, R; Nagy, E; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, C; Nelson, S; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Ngan, C Y P; Nicolaidi, P; Niell, F; Nigmanov, T; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Nomerotski, A; Nunnemann, T; O'Neil, D; Oguri, V; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohmoto, T; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Olsen, J; Orejudos, W; Oshima, N; Padley, P; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Pappas, S P; Parashar, N; Partos, D; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patrick, J; Patwa, A; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Pauly, T; Paus, C; Pellett, D; Penzo, Aldo L; Pescara, L; Peters, O; Petroff, P; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Piegaia, R; Pitts, K T; Plunkett, R; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, B G; Pope, G; Popovic, M; Poukhov, O; Pratt, T; Prokoshin, F; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Proudfoot, J; Przybycien, M B; Ptohos, F; Pukhov, O; Punzi, G; Qian, J; Rademacker, J; Rajagopalan, S; Ragan, K; Rakitine, A; Rapidis, P A; Ratnikov, F; Ray, H; Reay, N W; Reher, D; Reichold, A; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Ridel, M; Ribon, A; Riegler, W; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Riveline, M; Rizatdinova, F K; Robertson, W J; Robinson, A; Rockwell, T; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Roy, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Ruiz, A; Ryan, D; Sabirov, B M; Safonov, A; Sajot, G; Saint-Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Santoro, A F S; Sarkar, S; Sato, H; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Sawyer, L; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwartzman, A; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A; Scribano, A; Sedov, A; Segler, S; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Shabalina, E; Shah, T; Shapiro, M D; Shepard, P F; Shibayama, T; Shimojima, M; Shivpuri, R K; Shochet, M; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M A; Sidwell, R A; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Signorelli, G; Sill, A; Simák, V; Sinervo, P; Singh, P; Sirotenko, V I; Slattery, P F; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, C; Smith, R P; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Solodsky, A; Solomon, J; Song, Y; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Sotnikova, N; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spalding, J; Speer, T; Spezziga, M; Sphicas, Paris; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Spiegel, L; Stanton, N R; Stefanini, A; Steinbruck, G; Stoker, D; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strologas, J; Strovink, M; Strumia, F; Stuart, D; Stutte, L; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, T; Sznajder, A; Takano, T; Takashima, R; Takikawa, K; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanaka, M; Tannenbaum, B; Taylor, W; Tecchio, M; Tesarek, R J; Teng, P K; Tentindo-Repond, S; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Theriot, D; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thurman-Keup, R M; Tipton, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tollestrup, Alvin V; Tonelli, D; Tonnesmann, M; Toyoda, H; Trippe, T G; Trischuk, W; De Trocóniz, J F; Tseng, J; Tsybychev, D; Turcot, A S; Turini, N; Tuts, P M; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Vaiciulis, T; Valls, J; Van Kooten, R; Vaniev, V; Varelas, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vejcik, S; Velev, G V; Veramendi, G; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Volkov, A A; Volobuev, I P; Von der Mey, M; Vorobev, A P; Vucinic, D; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wahl, H D; Wahl, J; Wallace, N B; Walsh, A M; Wan, Z; Wang, C; Wang, C H; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Watanabe, T; Waters, D; Watts, G; Watts, T; Wayne, M; Webb, R; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wenzel, H; Wester, W C; White, A; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wijngaarden, D A; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Willis, S; Winer, B L; Wimpenny, S J; Winn, D; Wolbers, S; Wolinski, D; Wolinski, J; Wolinski, S; Wolter, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Worm, S; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wyss, J; Xu, Q; Yamada, R; Yang, U K; Yagil, A; Yao, W; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yeh, G P; Yeh, P; Yi, K; Yip, K; Yoh, J; Yosef, C; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, J; Yu, S; Yu, Z; Yun, J C; Zanabria, M; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, B; Zhou, Z; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zucchelli, S; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A
2003-01-01
The results based on 1992-95 data (Run 1) from the CDF and DO experiments on the measurements of the W boson mass and width are presented, along with the combined results. We report a Tevatron collider average M_W = 80.456 +- 0.059 GeV. We also report the Tevatron collider average of the directly measured W boson width Gamma_W = 2.115 +- 0.105 GeV. We describe a new joint analysis of the direct W mass and width measurements. Assuming the validity of the standard model, we combine the directly measured W boson width with the width extracted from the ratio of W and Z boson leptonic partial cross sections. This combined result for the Tevatron is Gamma_W = 2.135 +- 0.050 GeV. Finally, we use the measurements of the direct total W width and the leptonic branching ratio to extract the leptonic partial width Gamma(W -> e nu) = 224 +- 13 MeV.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Lagzian
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Assessing the success of information systems within organizations has been identified as one of the most critical subjects of information system management in both public and private organizations. It is therefore important to measure the success of information systems from the user's perspective. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the degree of information system success by the adjusted DeLone and McLean’s model in the field financial information system (FIS in an Iranian University. The relationships among the dimensions in an extended systems success measurement framework were tested. Data were collected by questionnaire from end-users of a financial information system at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The adjusted DeLone and McLean model was contained five variables (system quality, information quality, system use, user satisfaction, and individual impact. The results revealed that system quality was significant predictor of system use, user satisfaction and individual impact. Information quality was also a significant predictor of user satisfaction and individual impact, but not of system use. System use and user satisfaction were positively related to individual impact. The influence of user satisfaction on system use was insignificant
L.M. Lamers (Leida)
1999-01-01
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Diagnostic Cost Group (DCG) model using health survey information. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Longitudinal data collected for a sample of members of a Dutch sickness fund. In the Netherlands the sickness
Fieberg, John R; Conn, Paul B
2014-05-01
An important assumption in observational studies is that sampled individuals are representative of some larger study population. Yet, this assumption is often unrealistic. Notable examples include online public-opinion polls, publication biases associated with statistically significant results, and in ecology, telemetry studies with significant habitat-induced probabilities of missed locations. This problem can be overcome by modeling selection probabilities simultaneously with other predictor-response relationships or by weighting observations by inverse selection probabilities. We illustrate the problem and a solution when modeling mixed migration strategies of northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Captures occur on winter yards where deer migrate in response to changing environmental conditions. Yet, not all deer migrate in all years, and captures during mild years are more likely to target deer that migrate every year (i.e., obligate migrators). Characterizing deer as conditional or obligate migrators is also challenging unless deer are observed for many years and under a variety of winter conditions. We developed a hidden Markov model where the probability of capture depends on each individual's migration strategy (conditional versus obligate migrator), a partially latent variable that depends on winter severity in the year of capture. In a 15-year study, involving 168 white-tailed deer, the estimated probability of migrating for conditional migrators increased nonlinearly with an index of winter severity. We estimated a higher proportion of obligates in the study cohort than in the population, except during a span of 3 years surrounding back-to-back severe winters. These results support the hypothesis that selection biases occur as a result of capturing deer on winter yards, with the magnitude of bias depending on the severity of winter weather. Hidden Markov models offer an attractive framework for addressing selection biases due to their
Javaheri, Amir; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Miller, Robert N.
2016-06-01
Data Assimilation (DA) has been proposed for multiple water resources studies that require rapid employment of incoming observations to update and improve accuracy of operational prediction models. The usefulness of DA approaches in assimilating water temperature observations from different types of monitoring technologies (e.g., remote sensing and in-situ sensors) into numerical models of in-land water bodies (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) has, however, received limited attention. In contrast to in-situ temperature sensors, remote sensing technologies (e.g., satellites) provide the benefit of collecting measurements with better X-Y spatial coverage. However, assimilating water temperature measurements from satellites can introduce biases in the updated numerical model of water bodies because the physical region represented by these measurements do not directly correspond with the numerical model's representation of the water column. This study proposes a novel approach to address this representation challenge by coupling a skin temperature adjustment technique based on available air and in-situ water temperature observations, with an ensemble Kalman filter based data assimilation technique. Additionally, the proposed approach used in this study for four-dimensional analysis of a reservoir provides reasonably accurate surface layer and water column temperature forecasts, in spite of the use of a fairly small ensemble. Application of the methodology on a test site - Eagle Creek Reservoir - in Central Indiana demonstrated that assimilation of remotely sensed skin temperature data using the proposed approach improved the overall root mean square difference between modeled surface layer temperatures and the adjusted remotely sensed skin temperature observations from 5.6°C to 0.51°C (i.e., 91% improvement). In addition, the overall error in the water column temperature predictions when compared with in-situ observations also decreased from 1.95°C (before assimilation
Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation
Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.
2013-04-02
A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.
Pankoke, S.; Buck, B.; Woelfel, H. P.
1998-08-01
Long-term whole-body vibrations can cause degeneration of the lumbar spine. Therefore existing degeneration has to be assessed as well as industrial working places to prevent further damage. Hence, the mechanical stress in the lumbar spine—especially in the three lower vertebrae—has to be known. This stress can be expressed as internal forces. These internal forces cannot be evaluated experimentally, because force transducers cannot be implementated in the force lines because of ethical reasons. Thus it is necessary to calculate the internal forces with a dynamic mathematical model of sitting man.A two dimensional dynamic Finite Element model of sitting man is presented which allows calculation of these unknown internal forces. The model is based on an anatomic representation of the lower lumbar spine (L3-L5). This lumber spine model is incorporated into a dynamic model of the upper torso with neck, head and arms as well as a model of the body caudal to the lumbar spine with pelvis and legs. Additionally a simple dynamic representation of the viscera is used. All these parts are modelled as rigid bodies connected by linear stiffnesses. Energy dissipation is modelled by assigning modal damping ratio to the calculated undamped eigenvalues. Geometry and inertial properties of the model are determined according to human anatomy. Stiffnesses of the spine model are derived from static in-vitro experiments in references [1] and [2]. Remaining stiffness parameters and parameters for energy dissipation are determined by using parameter identification to fit measurements in reference [3]. The model, which is available in 3 different postures, allows one to adjust its parameters for body height and body mass to the values of the person for which internal forces have to be calculated.
McKean, John R.; Johnson, Donn; Taylor, R. Garth
2003-04-01
An alternate travel cost model is applied to an on-site sample to estimate the value of flat water recreation on the impounded lower Snake River. Four contiguous reservoirs would be eliminated if the dams are breached to protect endangered Pacific salmon and steelhead trout. The empirical method applies truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for endogenous stratification. The two-stage decision model assumes that recreationists allocate their time among work and leisure prior to deciding among consumer goods. The allocation of time and money among goods in the second stage is conditional on the predetermined work time and income. The second stage is a disequilibrium labor market which also applies if employers set work hours or if recreationists are not in the labor force. When work time is either predetermined, fixed by contract, or nonexistent, recreationists must consider separate prices and budgets for time and money.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadhem Selmi
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of the real exchange rate deviations of G7 countries by capturing nonlinearity and long memory features. In this context, we used fractionally integrated STAR (FISTAR models proposed by Van Dijk et al. (2002 [Van Dijk, D., Franses, P.H., Paap, R., (2002, A nonlinear long-memory model with an application to US unemployment, Journal of Econometrics, 110, 135-165.] for a case with an exponential transition function. Indeed, this study can take into account procedures characterized by several dynamic regimes and persistence phenomena. Empirically, the elements of both fractional long memory and threshold non-linearity are present for the real exchange rates of the G-7 countries against the US, notably in the EU countries.
Fieberg, John R.; Paul B Conn
2014-01-01
An important assumption in observational studies is that sampled individuals are representative of some larger study population. Yet, this assumption is often unrealistic. Notable examples include online public-opinion polls, publication biases associated with statistically significant results, and in ecology, telemetry studies with significant habitat-induced probabilities of missed locations. This problem can be overcome by modeling selection probabilities simultaneously with other predicto...
Berends, Tijn; van de Wal, Roderik; de Boer, Bas; Bradley, Sarah
2016-04-01
ANICE is a 3-D ice-sheet-shelf model, which simulates ice dynamics on the continental scale. It uses a combination of the SIA and SSA approximations and here it is forced with benthic δ18O records using an inverse routine. It is coupled to SELEN, a model, which solves the gravitationally self-consistent sea-level equation and the solid earth deformation of a spherically symmetrical rotating Maxwell visco-elastic earth, accounting for all major GIA effects. The coupled ANICE-SELEN model thus captures ice-sea-level feedbacks and can be used to accurately simulate variations in local relative sea-level over geological time scales. In this study it is used to investigate the mass loss of the Laurentide ice-sheet during the last deglaciation, accounting in particular for the presence of the proglacial Lake Agassiz by way of its GIA effects and its effect on the ice sheet itself. We show that the mass of the water can have a significant effect on local relative sea-level through the same mechanisms as the ice-sheet - by perturbing the geoid and by deforming the solid earth. In addition we show that calving of the ice-shelf onto the lake could have had a strong influence on the behaviour of the deglaciation. In particular, when allowing lake calving, the ice-sheet retreats rapidly over the deepening bed of Hudson Bay during the deglaciation, resulting in a narrow ice dam over Hudson Strait. This dam collapses around 8.2 Kyr causing a global sea level rise of approximately 1 meter - an observation that agrees well with field data (for example, LaJeunesse and St. Onge, 2008). Without lake calving the model predicts a drainage towards the Arctic ocean in the North.
Oil Shocks and Macroeconomic Adjustment: a DSGE modeling approach for the Case of Libya, 1970–2007
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Issa Ali
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Libya experienced a substantial increase in oil revenue as a result of increased oil prices during the period of the late 1970s and early 1980s, and again after 2000. Recent increases in oil production and the price of oil, and their positive and negative macroeconomic impacts upon key macroeconomic variables, are of considerable contemporary importance to an oil dependent economy such as that of Libya. In this paper a dynamic macroeconomic model is developed for Libya to evaluate the effects of additional oil revenue, arising from positive oil production and oil price shocks, upon key macroeconomic variables, including the real exchange rate. It takes into consideration the impact of oil revenue upon the non-oil trade balance, foreign asset stock, physical capital stock, human capital stock, imported capital stock and non-oil production. Model simulation results indicate that additional oil revenue brings about: an increase in government revenue, increased government spending in the domestic economy, increased foreign asset stocks, increased output and wages in the non oil sector. However, increased oil revenue may also produce adverse consequences, particularly upon the non-oil trade balance, arising from a loss of competitiveness of non-oil tradable goods induced by an appreciation of the real exchange rate and increased imports stimulated by increased real income. Model simulation results also suggest that investment stimulating policy measures by government produce the most substantive benefits for the economy.
GAP WIDTH STUDY IN LASER BUTT-WELDING
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove
In this paper the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding is intensively studied. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.5-2.0 m/min, the laser...... to the welding speed, (2) the larger laser power leads to the bigger maximum allowable gap width and (3) the focal point position has very little influence on the maximum gap width....... power : 2 and 2.6 kW and the focal point position : 0 and -1.2 mm. Quality of all the butt welds are destructively tested according to ISO 13919-1.Influences of the variable process parameters to the maximum allowable gap width are observed as (1) the maximum gap width is inversely related...
Direct top-quark width measurement at CDF.
Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S
2010-12-03
We present a measurement of the top-quark width in the lepton+jets decay channel of tt events produced in p p collisions at Fermilab's Tevatron collider and collected by the CDF II detector. From a data sample corresponding to 4.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we identify 756 candidate events. The top-quark mass and the mass of the hadronically decaying W boson that comes from the top-quark decay are reconstructed for each event and compared with templates of different top-quark widths (Γ(t)) and deviations from nominal jet energy scale (Δ(JES)) to perform a simultaneous fit for both parameters, where Δ(JES) is used for the in situ calibration of the jet energy scale. By applying a Feldman-Cousins approach, we establish an upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) of Γ(t) quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c(2), which are consistent with the standard model prediction.
Width of the chaotic layer: maxima due to marginal resonances.
Shevchenko, Ivan I
2012-06-01
Modern theoretical methods for estimating the width of the chaotic layer in the presence of prominent marginal resonances are considered in the perturbed pendulum model of nonlinear resonance. The fields of applicability of these methods are explicitly and precisely formulated. The comparative accuracy is investigated in massive and long-run numerical experiments. It is shown that the methods are naturally subdivided in classes applicable for adiabatic and nonadiabatic cases of perturbation. It is explicitly shown that the pendulum approximation of marginal resonance works well in the nonadiabatic case. In this case, the role of marginal resonances in determining the total layer width is demonstrated to diminish with increasing main parameter λ (equal to the ratio of the perturbation frequency to the frequency of small-amplitude phase oscillations on the resonance). Solely the "bending effect" is important in determining the total amplitude of the energy deviations of the near-separatrix motion at λ≳7. In the adiabatic case, it is demonstrated that the geometrical form of the separatrix cell can be described analytically quite easily by means of using a specific representation of the separatrix map. It is shown that the nonadiabatic (and, to some extent, intermediary) case is most actual, in comparison with the adiabatic one, for the physical or technical applications that concern the energy jumps in the near-separatrix chaotic motion.
A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns
Dao, Ngocanh
2014-04-03
Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte Carlo GOF test. Additionally, if the data comprise a single dataset, a popular version of the test plugs a parameter estimate in the hypothesized parametric model to generate data for theMonte Carlo GOF test. In this case, the test is invalid because the resulting empirical level does not reach the nominal level. In this article, we propose a method consisting of nested Monte Carlo simulations which has the following advantages: the bias of the resulting empirical level of the test is eliminated, hence the empirical levels can always reach the nominal level, and information about inhomogeneity of the data can be provided.We theoretically justify our testing procedure using Taylor expansions and demonstrate that it is correctly sized through various simulation studies. In our first data application, we discover, in agreement with Illian et al., that Phlebocarya filifolia plants near Perth, Australia, can follow a homogeneous Poisson clustered process that provides insight into the propagation mechanism of these plants. In our second data application, we find, in contrast to Diggle, that a pairwise interaction model provides a good fit to the micro-anatomy data of amacrine cells designed for analyzing the developmental growth of immature retina cells in rabbits. This article has supplementary material online. © 2013 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.
van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Bröcker-Vriends, Annette H J T; van Asperen, Christi J; Sijmons, Rolf H; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R; Klijn, Jan G M; Tibben, Aad
2007-12-01
This prospective study explored the contribution of illness representations and coping to cancer-related distress in unaffected individuals undergoing predictive genetic testing for an identified mutation in BRCA1/2 (BReast CAncer) or an HNPCC (Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer)-related gene, based on the common sense model of self-regulation. Coping with hereditary cancer (UCL), illness representations (IPQ-R) and risk perception were assessed in 235 unaffected applicants for genetic testing before test result disclosure. Hereditary cancer distress (IES) and cancer worry (CWS) were assessed before, 2 weeks after and 6 months after result disclosure. Timeline (r = 0.30), consequences (r = 0.25), illness coherence (r = 0.21) and risk perception (r = 0.20) were significantly correlated to passive coping. Passive coping predicted hereditary cancer distress and cancer worry from pre-test (beta = 0.46 and 0.42, respectively) up to 6 months after result disclosure (beta = 0.32 and 0.19, respectively). Illness coherence predicted hereditary cancer distress up to 6 months after result disclosure (beta = 0.24), too. The self-regulatory model may be useful to predict the cognitive and emotional reactions to genetic cancer susceptibility testing. Identifying unhelpful representations and cognitive restructuring may be appropriate interventions to help distressed individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC-related mutation.
Crack elongation and its width of large depth reinforced concrete beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUAN Jun-feng; ZHAO Shun-bo; HUANG Cheng-kui
2010-01-01
In order to meet the requirement of structural inspection,the crack spacing and crack width at various heights in the tensile zone of six large depth reinforced concrete beams were measured under several loading levels of serviceability state.The effects of the depth of normal section beams on the crack spacing and crack width were analyzed,and the modified model is proposed for calculating the average crack spacing by thinking about the depth of normal section,the reinforcement arrangement and the effective reinforcement ratio.The relationships of crack widths at any position in the tensile zone and at the reinforcement level on the side surface of beam were studied.By theoretical and statistical analysis,a method is proposed to calculate the ratios of crack widths between any position and the reinforcement level on the side surface of large depth reinforced concrete beams.
Pulse width effect on the dissociation probability of CH4+ in the intense femtosecond laser field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Gao; SONG Di; LIU Yuyan; KONG Fan'ao
2006-01-01
The laser pulse width effect on the dissociation probability of CH4+ irradiated by an ultrafast laser has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The femtosecond laser at 800 nm with an intensity of 8.0 × 1013 W/cm2 was used. The observed relative yield of the primary fragment ion CH3+ increases with increasing pulse width and tends to saturate when the pulse width is longer than 120 fs. The field-assisted dissociation (FAD) model and quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculation were applied to predicting the dissociation probability of CH4+.The calculated probability is corrected with the molecular orientation effect and the spatial distribution of laser intensity. The modified results show that the dissociation requires at least 23 fs and saturates with long pulse widths (≥100 rs). The result is approximately consistent with the experimental observation.
Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
2013-01-01
Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605
Effect of object width on muscle and joint forces during thumb-index finger grasping.
Vigouroux, Laurent; Domalain, Mathieu; Berton, Eric
2011-08-01
The objective of this study was to identify the impact of modifying the object width on muscle and joint forces while gripping objects. The experimental protocol consisted to maintain horizontally five objects of different widths (3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5 cm) with a thumb-index finger grip. Subjects were required to grasp spontaneously the object without any instruction regarding the grip force (GF) to apply. A biomechanical model of thumb-index finger pinch was developed to estimate muscle and joint forces. This model included electromyography, fingertip force, and kinematics data as inputs. The finger joint postures and the GF varied across the object widths. The estimated muscle forces also varied significantly according to the object width. Interestingly, we observed that the muscle force/GF ratios of major flexor muscles remain particularly stable with respect to the width whereas other muscle ratios differed largely. This may argue for a control strategy in which the actions of flexors were preserved in spite of change in joint postures. The estimated joint forces tended to increase with object width and increased in the distal-proximal sense. Overall, these results are of importance for the ergonomic design of handheld objects and for clinical applications.
Spin-up and adjustment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and global pycnocline
Allison, L. C.; Johnson, H. L.; Marshall, D. P.
2012-04-01
A theory is presented for the adjustment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and global pycnocline to a sudden and sustained change in wind forcing. The adjustment timescale is controlled by the mesoscale eddy diffusivity across the ACC, the mean width of the ACC, the surface area of the ocean basins to the north, and deep water formation in the North Atlantic. In particular, northern sinking may have the potential to shorten the timescale and reduce its sensitivity to Southern Ocean eddies, but the relative importance of northern sinking and Southern Ocean eddies cannot be determined precisely, largely due to limitations in the parameterization of northern sinking. Although it is clear that the main processes that control the adjustment timescale are those which counteract the deepening of the global pycnocline, the theory also suggests that the timescale can be subtly modified by wind forcing over the ACC and global diapycnal mixing. Results from calculations with a reduced-gravity model compare well with the theory. The multidecadal-centennial adjustment timescale implies that long observational time series will be required to detect dynamic change in the ACC due to anthropogenic forcing. The potential role of Southern Ocean mesoscale eddy activity in determining both the equilibrium state of the ACC and the timescale over which it adjusts suggests that the response to anthropogenic forcing may be rather different in coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models that parameterize and resolve mesoscale eddies.
Grosz, Balázs; Well, Reinhard; Dannenmann, Michael; Dechow, René; Kitzler, Barbara; Michel, Kerstin; Reent Köster, Jan
2017-04-01
data-sets are needed in view of the extreme spatio-temporal heterogeneity of denitrification. DASIM will provide such data based on laboratory incubations including measurement of N2O and N2 fluxes and determination of the relevant drivers. Here, we present how we will use these data to evaluate common biogeochemical process models (DailyDayCent, Coup) with respect to modeled NO, N2O and N2 fluxes from denitrification. The models are used with different settings. The first approximation is the basic "factory" setting of the models. The next step would show the precision in the results of the modeling after adjusting the appropriate parameters from the result of the measurement values and the "factory" results. The better adjustment and the well-controlled input and output measured parameters could provide a better understanding of the probable scantiness of the tested models which will be a basis for future model improvement.
Reichle, Rolf; Koster, Randal; DeLannoy, Gabrielle; Forman, Barton; Liu, Qing; Mahanama, Sarith; Toure, Ally
2011-01-01
The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is a state-of-the-art reanalysis that provides. in addition to atmospheric fields. global estimates of soil moisture, latent heat flux. snow. and runoff for J 979-present. This study introduces a supplemental and improved set of land surface hydrological fields ('MERRA-Land') generated by replaying a revised version of the land component of the MERRA system. Specifically. the MERRA-Land estimates benefit from corrections to the precipitation forcing with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project pentad product (version 2.1) and from revised parameters in the rainfall interception model, changes that effectively correct for known limitations in the MERRA land surface meteorological forcings. The skill (defined as the correlation coefficient of the anomaly time series) in land surface hydrological fields from MERRA and MERRA-Land is assessed here against observations and compared to the skill of the state-of-the-art ERA-Interim reanalysis. MERRA-Land and ERA-Interim root zone soil moisture skills (against in situ observations at 85 US stations) are comparable and significantly greater than that of MERRA. Throughout the northern hemisphere, MERRA and MERRA-Land agree reasonably well with in situ snow depth measurements (from 583 stations) and with snow water equivalent from an independent analysis. Runoff skill (against naturalized stream flow observations from 15 basins in the western US) of MERRA and MERRA-Land is typically higher than that of ERA-Interim. With a few exceptions. the MERRA-Land data appear more accurate than the original MERRA estimates and are thus recommended for those interested in using '\\-tERRA output for land surface hydrological studies.
Reichle, Rolf; Koster, Randal; DeLannoy, Gabrielle; Forman, Barton; Liu, Qing; Mahanama, Sarith; Toure, Ally
2011-01-01
The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is a state-of-the-art reanalysis that provides. in addition to atmospheric fields. global estimates of soil moisture, latent heat flux. snow. and runoff for J 979-present. This study introduces a supplemental and improved set of land surface hydrological fields ('MERRA-Land') generated by replaying a revised version of the land component of the MERRA system. Specifically. the MERRA-Land estimates benefit from corrections to the precipitation forcing with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project pentad product (version 2.1) and from revised parameters in the rainfall interception model, changes that effectively correct for known limitations in the MERRA land surface meteorological forcings. The skill (defined as the correlation coefficient of the anomaly time series) in land surface hydrological fields from MERRA and MERRA-Land is assessed here against observations and compared to the skill of the state-of-the-art ERA-Interim reanalysis. MERRA-Land and ERA-Interim root zone soil moisture skills (against in situ observations at 85 US stations) are comparable and significantly greater than that of MERRA. Throughout the northern hemisphere, MERRA and MERRA-Land agree reasonably well with in situ snow depth measurements (from 583 stations) and with snow water equivalent from an independent analysis. Runoff skill (against naturalized stream flow observations from 15 basins in the western US) of MERRA and MERRA-Land is typically higher than that of ERA-Interim. With a few exceptions. the MERRA-Land data appear more accurate than the original MERRA estimates and are thus recommended for those interested in using '\\-tERRA output for land surface hydrological studies.
Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Donlon, John-Paul; Kent, Richard W
2015-02-26
A method was developed to adjust the posture of a human numerical model to match the pre-impact posture of a human subject. The method involves pulling cables to prescribe the position and orientation of the head, spine and pelvis during a simulation. Six postured models matching the pre-impact posture measured on subjects tested in previous studies were created from a human numerical model. Posture scalars were measured on pre- and after applying the method to evaluate its efficiency. The lateral leaning angle θL defined between T1 and the pelvis in the coronal plane was found to be significantly improved after application with an average difference of 0.1±0.1° with the PMHS (4.6±2.7° before application). This method will be applied in further studies to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact posture on impact response using human numerical models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Masses of Distant Galaxies from Optical Emission Line Widths
Gillespie, E B; Gillespie, Elizabeth Barton; Zee, Liese van
2002-01-01
Promising methods for studying galaxy evolution rely on optical emission line width measurements to compare intermediate-redshift objects to galaxies with equivalent masses at the present epoch. However, emission lines can be misleading. We show empirical examples of galaxies with concentrated central star formation from a survey of galaxies in pairs; HI observations of these galaxies indicate that the optical line emission fails to sample their full gravitational potentials. We use simple models of bulge-forming bursts of star formation to demonstrate that compact optical morphologies and small half-light radii can accompany these anomalously narrow emission lines; thus late-type bulges forming on rapid (0.5-1 Gyr) timescales at intermediate redshift would exhibit properties similar to those of heavily bursting dwarfs. We conclude that some of the luminous compact objects observed at intermediate and high redshift may be starbursts in the centers of massive galaxies and/or bulges in formation.
Downstream hydraulic geometry relationships: Gathering reference reach-scale width values from LiDAR
Sofia, G.; Tarolli, P.; Cazorzi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.
2015-12-01
This paper examines the ability of LiDAR topography to provide reach-scale width values for the analysis of downstream hydraulic geometry relationships along some streams in the Dolomites (northern Italy). Multiple reach-scale dimensions can provide representative geometries and statistics characterising the longitudinal variability in the channel, improving the understanding of geomorphic processes across networks. Starting from the minimum curvature derived from a LiDAR DTM, the proposed algorithm uses a statistical approach for the identification of the scale of analysis, and for the automatic characterisation of reach-scale bankfull widths. The downstream adjustment in channel morphology is then related to flow parameters (drainage area and stream power). With the correct planning of a LiDAR survey, uncertainties in the procedure are principally due to the resolution of the DTM. The outputs are in general comparable in quality to field survey measurements, and the procedure allows the quick comparison among different watersheds. The proposed automatic approach could improve knowledge about river systems with highly variable widths, and about systems in areas covered by vegetation or inaccessible to field surveys. With proven effectiveness, this research could offer an interesting starting point for the analysis of differences between watersheds, and to improve knowledge about downstream channel adjustment in relation, for example, to scale and landscape forcing (e.g. sediment transport, tectonics, lithology, climate, geomorphology, and anthropic pressure).
Level and width statistics of the open many-body systems
Mizutori, Shoujirou; Aiba, Hirokazu
2016-06-01
The level and width statistics of the two kinds of the random matrix models coupled to the continuum are analyzed. In the first model, the gaussian orthogonal ensemble with random couplings to the continuum, not only the width statistics deviate from the Porter-Thomas distribution due to the super-radiant mechanism, but also the distribution of the nearest neighbor level spacings shows deviation from the Wigner one simultaneously. In the second model, the two body random ensemble with correlated couplings to the continuum, the correlation between the target and the compound states leads to the global energy dependence of the widths. Within the narrow energy interval where states with widths deviating from the global energy dependence lie, the distributions behave similar way with the case of the random couplings. Namely, the deviation of statistics of the nearest neighbor level spacings from the Wigner distribution and the deviation of the width statistics from the Porter-Thomas distribution take place simultaneously within the models we investigated.
An adjusting model of sustainable development of Jiangsu province%江苏省可持续发展系统调控试验模式及分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
凌亢; 陈传美
2003-01-01
This paper designed a naturally evolution model to simulate the social and economic development of Jiangsu province. Then some parameters in the model were changed and some development patterns were obtained. All patterns were incorporated to design an adjusting model of SuStainable development of Jiangsu province.
An investigation of bridge width measurement and processing capabilities (1985)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armstrong, K.P. [comp.
1989-05-15
An investigation of Mound`s ability to measure and process bridges was conducted in 1985. Prior to improvements in the measuring system and technique, bridge width was found to have a sigma of 0.00019 in. After improvements were made, a sigma of 0.000047 was realized. Bridge length was found to be more erratic than width, although most of the inaccuracy was caused by measurement uncertainty. Length and width were found to have little or no correlation.
Huang, Andrew H; Patel, Kamlesh B; Maschhoff, Clayton W; Huebener, Donald V; Skolnick, Gary B; Naidoo, Sybill D; Woo, Albert S
2015-09-01
To determine a correlation between the width of the cleft palate measured at the time of lip adhesion, definitive lip repair, and palatoplasty and the subsequent occlusal classification of patients born with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Retrospective, observational study. Referral, urban, children's hospital Participants : Dental models and records of 270 patients were analyzed. None. Angle occlusion classification. The mean age at which occlusal classification was determined was 11 ± 0.3 years. Of the children studies, 84 were diagnosed with Class I or II occlusion, 67 were diagnosed with Class III occlusion, and 119 were lost to follow up or transferred care. Mean cleft widths were significantly larger in subjects with Class III occlusion for all measures at time of lip adhesion and definitive lip repair (P cleft widths were significantly greater at the alveolus (P = .025) but not at the midportion of the hard palate (P = .35) or posterior hard palate (P = .10). Cleft widths from the lip through to the posterior hard palate are generally greater in children who are diagnosed with Class III occlusion later in life. Notably, the alveolar cleft width is significantly greater at each time point for patients who went on to develop Class III occlusion. There were no significant differences in cleft widths between patients diagnosed later with Class I and Class II occlusions.
Decay width of $d^*(2380)\\to NN \\pi\\pi$ processes
Dong, Yubing; Shen, Pengnian; Zhang, Zongye
2016-01-01
The decay widths of four-body double-pion decays $\\ds\\to pn \\pi^0\\pi^0$, $\\ds\\to pn \\pi^+\\pi^-$, and iso-scalar parts of $\\ds\\to pp \\pi^0\\pi^-$ and $\\ds\\to nn \\pi^+\\pi^0$ are explicitly calculated with the help of the $d^*$ wave function obtained in a chiral SU(3) quark model calculation. The effect of the dynamical structure on $\\ds$'s width is analyzed both in the single $\\Delta\\Delta$ channel and coupled $\\Delta\\Delta$ and $CC$ channel approximations. It is found that in the coupled-channel approximation, the obtained partial decay widths of $\\ds\\to pn \\pi^0\\pi^0$, $\\ds\\to pn \\pi^+\\pi^-$, and those of $d^*$ to the iso-scalar parts of $pp \\pi^0\\pi^-$ and $nn \\pi^+\\pi^0$ are about $7.4$MeV, $16.4$MeV, $3.5$MeV and $3.5$MeV, respectively As a consequence, the total width is about $64.5$MeV. These widths are consistent with those estimated by using the corresponding cross section data in our previous investigation and also the observed data. But in the single $\\Delta\\Delta$ channel approximation, the widths ar...
Biologic width and its importance in periodontal and restorative dentistry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Babitha Nugala
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An adequate understanding of the relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function, esthetics and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width, its maintenance and applications of crown lengthening in cases of biologic width violation. Relevant publications regarding biologic width, its violation and management were identified up to August 2011 using manual and electronic database search in Medline, Embase, Directory of Open Access Journals and Google Scholar. This review discusses the concept of biologic width around tooth and its relationship to periodontal health and restorative dentistry.
A Statistical Approach for Obtaining the Controlled Woven Fabric Width
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaker Khubab
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving parameters for obtaining controlled fabric width. On the basis of signal to noise ratios, it could be concluded that controlled fabric width could be produced using medium temple type and intense take-up pressing tension at relatively lower warp tension and smaller loom working width. The analysis of variance revealed that temple needle size was the most significant factor affecting the fabric width, followed by loom working width and warp tension, whereas take-up pressing tension was least significant of all the factors investigated in the study.
Measurement of Giant Dipole Resonance width at low temperature: A new experimental perspective
Mukhopadhyay, S; Pal, Surajit; Bhattacharya, Srijit; De, A; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, C; Banerjee, K; Kundu, S; Rana, T K; Mukherjee, G; Pandey, R; Gohil, M; Pai, H; Meena, J K; Banerjee, S R
2011-01-01
The systematic evolution of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) width in the temperature region of 0.9 ~ 1.4 MeV has been measured experimentally for 119Sb using alpha induced fusion reaction and employing the LAMBDA high energy photon spectrometer. The temperatures have been precisely determined by simultaneously extracting the vital level density parameter from the neutron evaporation spectrum and the angular momentum from gamma multiplicity filter using a realistic approach. The systematic trend of the data seems to disagree with the thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM). The model predicts the gradual increase of GDR width from its ground state value for T > 0 MeV whereas the measured GDR widths appear to remain constant at the ground state value till T ~ 1 MeV and increase thereafter indicating towards a failure of the adiabatic assumption of the model at low temperature.
Correlation of Density Pedestal Width and Neutral Penetration
Xu, X. Q.; Nevins, W. M.; Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.; Umansky, M. V.
2003-10-01
Pedestal studies in DIII-D and C-Mod find a good correlation between the width of the H-mode density barrier and the neutral penetration length.[1][2] These results suggest that the width may be set by the combined effects of neutral and plasma transport. This paper is a report on fluid simulations of boundary plasma using BOUT code [3] with neutral source added. Thus both neutral and plasma physics are treated. The plasma transport is self-consistently driven by boundary turbulence due to the resistive X-point mode, while neutral is described by a simple fluid diffusive model. The plasma profiles are evolved on the same time scale as the turbulence for the given heat source from the core plasma and particle source from the neutrals. For prescribed neutral profiles, we find the formation of a density pedestal inside the separatrix in the L-mode even though the calculated plasma diffusion coefficients are almost radially constant and without the formation of a temperature pedestal. These results support the hypothesis that particle fueling can provide the dominant control for the size of the H-mode density barrier. The width of the density barrier, and its relationship to pedestal height and neutral penetration length at the midplane, will be given by using hyperbolic-tangent fit to the simulation data. [1] R.J.Groebner, M.A.Mahdavi, A.W.Leonard, 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference(Lyon, France, 14 to 19 October 2002), IAEA-CN-94/EX/C2-3. [2] D.Mossessian, J.W.Hughes, M.Greenwald, et al., ``Local dimensionless identity method as a tool for studying H-mode pedestal'', The 9th Joint US-European TTF workshop (Madison, Wisconsin, April 2nd - 5th, 2003). [3] X.Q.Xu, R.H.Cohen, T.D.Rognlien and J.R.Myra, Physics of Plasma, Vol. 7, 1951-1958 (2000).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2009-01-01
An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...
Three-dimensional virtual simulation of alar width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies.
Liebregts, J; Xi, T; Schreurs, R; van Loon, B; Bergé, S; Maal, T
2016-10-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue simulation of nose width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies and to identify patient- and surgery-related factors that may affect the accuracy of simulation. Sixty patients (mean age 26 years) who underwent bimaxillary osteotomies participated in this study. Cone beam computed tomography scans were acquired preoperatively and at 1-year postoperative. The 3D hard and soft tissue rendered preoperative and postoperative virtual head models were superimposed, after which the maxilla and mandible were segmented and aligned to the postoperative position. The postoperative changes in alar width were simulated using a mass tensor model (MTM)-based algorithm and compared with the postoperative outcome. 3D cephalometric analyses were used to quantify the simulation error. The postoperative alar width was increased by 1.6±1.1mm and the mean error between the 3D simulation and the actual postoperative alar width was 1.0±0.9mm. The predictability was not correlated to factors such as age, sex, alar cinch suture, VY closure, maxillary advancement, or a history of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The MTM-based simulation model of postoperative alar width change was found to be reasonably accurate, although there is room for further improvement.
Adjustment index pont for women and men
Nava–Salcedo, Paula María; Gutiérrez–Rojo, Jaime Fabián; Rojas–García, Alma Rosa
2014-01-01
Arch of men and women is different, in men the dental arch is wide and in women of parabolic shape. There are indexes and methods for the prediction of the width and shape of the ideal arch in orthodontics; one of these indices is that of Pont whichdoes not take into account the differences between the sexes. Objectives: determine the effectiveness of the Pont index to employ men and women, adjust if necessary to the formulas of the Pont index to be able to apply to men and women. Materialsan...
Optimal gate-width setting for passive neutrons multiplicity counting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
When setting up a passive neutron coincidence counter it is natural to ask what coincidence gate settings should be used to optimize the counting precision. If the gate width is too short then signal is lost and the precision is compromised because in a given period only a few coincidence events will be observed. On the other hand if the gate is too large the signal will be maximized but it will also be compromised by the high level of random pile-up or Accidental coincidence events which must be subtracted. In the case of shift register electronics connected to an assay chamber with an exponential dieaway profile operating in the regime where the Accidentals rate dominates the Reals coincidence rate but where dead-time is not a concern, simple arguments allow one to show that the relative precision on the net Reals rate is minimized when the coincidence gate is set to about 1.2 times the lie dieaway time of the system. In this work we show that making the same assumptions it is easy to show that the relative precision on the Triples rates is also at a minimum when the relative precision of the Doubles (or Reals) is at a minimum. Although the analysis is straightforward to our knowledge such a discussion has not been documented in the literature before. Actual measurement systems do not always behave in the ideal we choose to model them. Fortunately however the variation in the relative precision as a function of gate width is rather flat for traditional safeguards counters and so the performance is somewhat forgiving of the exact choice. The derivation further serves to delineate the important parameters which determine the relative counting precision of the Doubles and Triples rates under the regime considered. To illustrate the similarities and differences we consider the relative standard deviation that might be anticipated for a passive correlation count of an axial section of a spent nuclear fuel assembly under practically achievable conditions.
Wu, C B; Huang, G H; Liu, Z P; Zhen, J L; Yin, J G
2017-03-01
In this study, an inexact multistage stochastic mixed-integer programming (IMSMP) method was developed for supporting regional-scale energy system planning (EPS) associated with multiple uncertainties presented as discrete intervals, probability distributions and their combinations. An IMSMP-based energy system planning (IMSMP-ESP) model was formulated for Qingdao to demonstrate its applicability. Solutions which can provide optimal patterns of energy resources generation, conversion, transmission, allocation and facility capacity expansion schemes have been obtained. The results can help local decision makers generate cost-effective energy system management schemes and gain a comprehensive tradeoff between economic objectives and environmental requirements. Moreover, taking the CO2 emissions scenarios mentioned in Part I into consideration, the anti-driving effect of carbon emissions on energy structure adjustment was studied based on the developed model and scenario analysis. Several suggestions can be concluded from the results: (a) to ensure the smooth realization of low-carbon and sustainable development, appropriate price control and fiscal subsidy on high-cost energy resources should be considered by the decision-makers; (b) compared with coal, natural gas utilization should be strongly encouraged in order to insure that Qingdao could reach the carbon discharges peak value in 2020; (c) to guarantee Qingdao's power supply security in the future, the construction of new power plants should be emphasised instead of enhancing the transmission capacity of grid infrastructure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Xiaowei; Li, Wei; Xie, Yulei; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Changjuan; Yin, Jianguang
2016-11-01
A model based on economic structure adjustment and pollutants mitigation was proposed and applied in Urumqi. Best-worst case analysis and scenarios analysis were performed in the model to guarantee the parameters accuracy, and to analyze the effect of changes of emission reduction styles. Results indicated that pollutant-mitigations of electric power industry, iron and steel industry, and traffic relied mainly on technological transformation measures, engineering transformation measures and structure emission reduction measures, respectively; Pollutant-mitigations of cement industry relied mainly on structure emission reduction measures and technological transformation measures; Pollutant-mitigations of thermal industry relied mainly on the four mitigation measures. They also indicated that structure emission reduction was a better measure for pollutants mitigation of Urumqi. Iron and steel industry contributed greatly in SO2, NOx and PM (particulate matters) emission reduction and should be given special attention in pollutants emission reduction. In addition, the scales of iron and steel industry should be reduced with the decrease of SO2 mitigation amounts. The scales of traffic and electric power industry should be reduced with the decrease of NOx mitigation amounts, and the scales of cement industry and iron and steel industry should be reduced with the decrease of PM mitigation amounts. The study can provide references of pollutants mitigation schemes to decision-makers for regional economic and environmental development in the 12th Five-Year Plan on National Economic and Social Development of Urumqi.
Equivalent Widths of 15 Extrasolar-Planet Host Stars
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
We present the equivalent widths of 15 extrasolar-planet host stars.These data were based on the high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra obtained with the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station. The error in the Xinglong equivalent width is estimated by a comparison of these data with those given in previous studies of common stars.
Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness
Barton D. Clinton
2011-01-01
Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...
Average widths of anisotropic Besov-Wiener classes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
This paper concerns the problem of average σ-K width and average σ-L width of some anisotropic Besov-Wiener classes Srp q θb(Rd) and Srp q θB(Rd) in Lq(Rd) (1≤q≤p＜∞). The weak asymptotic behavior is established for the corresponding quantities.
Average widths of anisotropic Besov-Wiener classes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋艳杰
2000-01-01
This paper concems the problem of average σ-K width and average σ-L width of some anisotropic Besov-wiener classes Spqθr(Rd) and Spqθr(Rd) in Lq(Rd) (1≤≤q≤p<∞). The weak asymptotic behavior is established for the corresponding quantities.
Segmentation and determination of joint space width in foot radiographs
Schenk, O.; de Muinck Keizer, D. M.; Bernelot Moens, H. J.; Slump, C. H.
2016-03-01
Joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis is frequently assessed using radiographs of hands and feet. Evaluation includes measurements of the joint space width (JSW) and detection of erosions. Current visual scoring methods are timeconsuming and subject to inter- and intra-observer variability. Automated measurement methods avoid these limitations and have been fairly successful in hand radiographs. This contribution aims at foot radiographs. Starting from an earlier proposed automated segmentation method we have developed a novel model based image analysis algorithm for JSW measurements. This method uses active appearance and active shape models to identify individual bones. The model compiles ten submodels, each representing a specific bone of the foot (metatarsals 1-5, proximal phalanges 1-5). We have performed segmentation experiments using 24 foot radiographs, randomly selected from a large database from the rheumatology department of a local hospital: 10 for training and 14 for testing. Segmentation was considered successful if the joint locations are correctly determined. Segmentation was successful in only 14%. To improve results a step-by-step analysis will be performed. We performed JSW measurements on 14 randomly selected radiographs. JSW was successfully measured in 75%, mean and standard deviation are 2.30+/-0.36mm. This is a first step towards automated determination of progression of RA and therapy response in feet using radiographs.
Adjustable reed for weaving net-shaped tailored fabrics
Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
An apparatus and method for forming woven fabrics through the use of an adjustable reed. The adjustable reed has multiple groups of reed wires that guide the warp yarns. The groups of reed wires move on reed rails parallel to the warp direction. In addition, rail expanders permit the space between the reed wires to be modified and telescoping rods attached to the rail sliders can be turned to permit the reed wires to be skewed to alter the fill yarn angle. These adjustments to the reed permit simultaneous variation of fill yarn angles and fabric widths and allow these variations to be made during fabrication, without the need to halt production.
Energetic constraints on the width of the ITCZ: theory and simulations
Byrne, Michael; Schneider, Tapio
2016-04-01
The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) has been the focus of considerable research in recent years, with much of this work focusing on how the latitude of maximum tropical precipitation responds to natural climate variability and to radiative forcing. The width of the ITCZ, however, has received little attention despite its importance for regional climate and for our understanding of tropical dynamics. Here we investigate the width of the ITCZ in simulations with an idealized general circulation model over a wide range of climates. The ITCZ displays rich behaviour as the climate is varied, widening with warming in cool climates, narrowing in temperate climates, and maintaining a relatively constant width in hot climates. Theoretical scalings for (a) the area of the ITCZ relative to the area of the neighboring descent region and (b) the sensitivity of the ITCZ area to changes in climate are derived. The width of the ITCZ is found to depend primarily on four quantities: the net energy input to the tropical atmosphere, the advection of moist static energy by the Hadley circulation, the transport of moist static energy by transient eddies, and the gross moist stability. Different processes are important for the ITCZ width in different climates, with changes in gross moist stability generally having a weak influence relative to the other processes. The results are used to identify and analyse the physical mechanisms responsible for the robust narrowing of the ITCZ in comprehensive climate-model simulations of warming climates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng Zhong
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem of genetic association testing of a binary trait in a sample that contains related individuals, where we adjust for relevant covariates and allow for missing data. We propose CERAMIC, an estimating equation approach that can be viewed as a hybrid of logistic regression and linear mixed-effects model (LMM approaches. CERAMIC extends the recently proposed CARAT method to allow samples with related individuals and to incorporate partially missing data. In simulations, we show that CERAMIC outperforms existing LMM and generalized LMM approaches, maintaining high power and correct type 1 error across a wider range of scenarios. CERAMIC results in a particularly large power increase over existing methods when the sample includes related individuals with some missing data (e.g., when some individuals with phenotype and covariate information have missing genotype, because CERAMIC is able to make use of the relationship information to incorporate partially missing data in the analysis while correcting for dependence. Because CERAMIC is based on a retrospective analysis, it is robust to misspecification of the phenotype model, resulting in better control of type 1 error and higher power than that of prospective methods, such as GMMAT, when the phenotype model is misspecified. CERAMIC is computationally efficient for genomewide analysis in samples of related individuals of almost any configuration, including small families, unrelated individuals and even large, complex pedigrees. We apply CERAMIC to data on type 2 diabetes (T2D from the Framingham Heart Study. In a genome scan, 9 of the 10 smallest CERAMIC p-values occur in or near either known T2D susceptibility loci or plausible candidates, verifying that CERAMIC is able to home in on the important loci in a genome scan.
... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...
High-throughput gated photon counter with two detection windows programmable down to 70 ps width
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tosi@polimi.it; Zappa, Franco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mora, Alberto Dalla [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2014-01-15
We present the design and characterization of a high-throughput gated photon counter able to count electrical pulses occurring within two well-defined and programmable detection windows. We extensively characterized and validated this instrument up to 100 Mcounts/s and with detection window width down to 70 ps. This instrument is suitable for many applications and proves to be a cost-effective and compact alternative to time-correlated single-photon counting equipment, thanks to its easy configurability, user-friendly interface, and fully adjustable settings via a Universal Serial Bus (USB) link to a remote computer.
High-throughput gated photon counter with two detection windows programmable down to 70 ps width.
Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Zappa, Franco
2014-01-01
We present the design and characterization of a high-throughput gated photon counter able to count electrical pulses occurring within two well-defined and programmable detection windows. We extensively characterized and validated this instrument up to 100 Mcounts/s and with detection window width down to 70 ps. This instrument is suitable for many applications and proves to be a cost-effective and compact alternative to time-correlated single-photon counting equipment, thanks to its easy configurability, user-friendly interface, and fully adjustable settings via a Universal Serial Bus (USB) link to a remote computer.
Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump
Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.
1987-01-01
Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.
Weighted triangulation adjustment
Anderson, Walter L.
1969-01-01
The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.
Weighted triangulation adjustment
Anderson, Walter L.
1969-01-01
The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Oishi Tomohiro
2016-01-01
We calculate the two-proton decay width of the 6 Be nucleus employing the schematic density-dependent contact potential for the proton-proton pairing interaction. The decay width is calculated with a time-dependent method, in which the two-proton emission is described as a time-evolution of a three-body meta-stable state. Model-dependence of the two-proton decay width has been shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different pairing models, schematic density-dependent contact and Minnesota interactions, which have zero and finite ranges, respectively.
CMS presents new boundary of Higgs width
Katarina Anthony
2014-01-01
At last year's Moriond conference, CERN physicists announced the retirement of the "Higgs-like" particle and the arrival of "boson, Higgs boson". Now, one year later, at the same session in the same conference, physicists are back with more exciting news about the famed particle. This time: the best constraint yet of the Higgs Boson “width”, a parameter that determines the particle’s lifetime. Rencontres de Moriond 2014. As a key indicator for new physics, the Higgs “width” has long been on the LHC "to-do" list. Now less than two years post-discovery, the CMS experiment has gotten the closest yet to pinning it down, constraining the parameter to < 17 MeV with 95% confidence. This result is some two orders of magnitude better than previous limits: stronger evidence that this boson looks like the Standard Model Higgs boson. "It's been exciting to see how wel...
Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. E. Woodfield
Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms^{-1} exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms^{-1}. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms^{-1} have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to
Biologic width and crown lengthening: case reports and review.
Oh, Se-Lim
2010-01-01
The biologic width includes both the connective tissue attachment and the junctional epithelium and has a mean dimension of approximately 2 mm. Invading the biologic width with a restoration can result in localized crestal bone loss, gingival recession, localized gingival hyperplasia, or a combination of these three. When restoring teeth that have subgingival caries or fractures below the gingival attachment, a clinical crown-lengthening procedure is needed to establish the biologic width. This article presents three case reports that utilized crown-lengthening procedures.
Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding.
Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y; Ishii, Satoshi; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Kildishev, Alexander V
2015-04-20
Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogenization, we calculate the resonant eigenmodes of the finite-width cladding layers, and find agreement with the resonant features in the dispersion of the cladded waveguides. We show that at the resonant widths, the propagating modes of the waveguides are coupled to the cladding eigenmodes and hence, are strongly absorbed. By avoiding the resonant widths in the design of the actual waveguides, the strong absorption can be eliminated.
USING R TO TEACH SEASONAL ADJUSTMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Costa Ferreira
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article shows, using R software, how to seasonally adjust a time series using the X13-ARIMA-SEATS program and the seasonal package developed by Christoph Sax. In addition to presenting step-by-step seasonal adjustment, the article also explores how to analyze the program output and how to forecast the original and seasonally adjusted time series. A case study was proposed using the Brazilian industrial production. It was verified that the effect of Carnival, Easter and working days improved the seasonal adjustment when treated by the model.
ϕ meson mass and decay width in nuclear matter and nuclei
Cobos-Martínez, J. J.; Tsushima, K.; Krein, G.; Thomas, A. W.
2017-08-01
The mass and decay width of the ϕ meson in cold nuclear matter are computed in an effective Lagrangian approach. The medium dependence of these properties are obtained by evaluating kaon-antikaon loop contributions to the ϕ self-energy, employing the medium-modified kaon masses, calculated using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integral is regularized with a dipole form factor, and the sensitivity of the results to the choice of cutoff mass in the form factor is investigated. At normal nuclear matter density we find a downward shift of the ϕ mass by a few percent, while the decay width is enhanced by an order of magnitude. For a large variation of the cutoff mass parameter, the results for the ϕ mass and the decay width turn out to vary very little. Our results support results in the literature which suggest that one should observe a small downward mass shift and a large broadening of the decay width. In order to explore the possibility of studying the binding and absorption of ϕ mesons in nuclei, we also present the single-particle binding energies and half-widths of ϕ-nucleus bound states for some selected nuclei.
Parameters of the best approximation of reduced neutron widths distribution. Actinides
Sukhovoj, A M
2011-01-01
The data of ENDF/B-VII library on reduced neutron widths for nuclei 231Pa, 232Th, 233,234,235,236,238U, 237Np, 239,240,241,242Pu, 241,243Am and 243Cm (including p-resonances of 232Th, 238U, 239Pu) in form of cumulative sums in function on Gamma0n/ were approximated by variable number K of partial items 0
Scale orientated analysis of river width changes due to extreme flood hazards
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Krapesch
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the morphological effects of extreme floods (recurrence interval >100 years and examines which parameters best describe the width changes due to erosion based on 5 affected alpine gravel bed rivers in Austria. The research was based on vertical aerial photos of the rivers before and after extreme floods, hydrodynamic numerical models and cross sectional measurements supported by LiDAR data of the rivers. Average width ratios (width after/before the flood were calculated and correlated with different hydraulic parameters (specific stream power, shear stress, flow area, specific discharge. Depending on the geomorphological boundary conditions of the different rivers, a mean width ratio between 1.12 (Lech River and 3.45 (Trisanna River was determined on the reach scale. The specific stream power (SSP best predicted the mean width ratios of the rivers especially on the reach scale and sub reach scale. On the local scale more parameters have to be considered to define the "minimum morphological spatial demand of rivers", which is a crucial parameter for addressing and managing flood hazards and should be used in hazard zone plans and spatial planning.
Deuteron spin-flip resonance widths and the spin response function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. R. Mane
2007-11-01
Full Text Available The spin response function is used to analyze the spin-flip resonance widths of stored polarized deuteron beams. It is found, using simple model assumptions, that the contribution of the vertical betatron oscillations (for an rf radial dipole field spin-flipper reduces the resonance width by an amount in good agreement with recent measurements. It is also noted that, for spin-flip measurements with an rf-solenoid spin flipper, the spin response formalism also yields an answer consistent with experimental data.
Research on Adjust Time of Premium
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
By considering economic strength and economic profit of insurance company, this paper presents a concept-contact point, and gives premium expectation adjust time model which provides more practical significance for insurance company to make rational adjustment of premium. Finally, an illustration is given to show their application.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张艺君; 廖沐莹; 张翼
2014-01-01
Objective:to construct a three-dimensional finite element model of maxillary central incisor with various crown-root ratio and labial alveolar bone width.Methods:after thoroughly cleaning and polished, an extracted maxillary central incisor with normal anatomic structure was scanned with micro-CT technique, and its two dimensional images were transferred into a 3-D model by using the software Mimic, reverse engineering software Geomagic, computer aid design program UG6. The 3-D parametric model of a maxillary central incisor with various crown-root ratio, periodontal membrane and alveolar bone were established in the UG software through its automated modeling.Results:The 3D parametric model with precise anatomical features were successfully established. In the Design Exploration, the clinical crown-root ratio and width of labial alveolar bone were defined as input parameters with the former ranging from 1.1 to 2.5 and the later from 0.1mm to 0.5mm. Conclusion:the 3D parametric model of model of maxillary central incisor with various crown-root ratio and labial alveolar bone width was successfully established by reverse engineering software which had precise anatomical features.%目的：建立不同临床冠根比例和唇侧牙槽嵴顶厚度的上颌中切牙三维有限元模型。方法：选择一颗解剖形态标准的离体上颌中切牙清理抛光后，在显微CT扫描下获得断层二维图像，结合有限元软件Mimics、Geomagic及UG实现三维模型的实体化。利用UG软件构建出牙周膜、松质骨及皮质骨模块，建立上颌中切牙不同临床冠根比例及唇侧牙槽嵴顶厚度的自适应模型。结果：构建了不同临床冠根比例和唇侧牙槽嵴顶厚度的三维有限元模型。将变量冠根比例的变化范围设置为1.1-2.5，变量唇侧牙槽嵴顶厚度的变化范围设置为0.1mm-0.5mm。结论：采用有限元软件建立的不同临床冠根比例和牙槽嵴顶厚度的三维有限元模型，
Temperature dependence of the giant dipole resonance width in 152Gd
Ghosh, C.; Mishra, G.; Rhine Kumar, A. K.; Dokania, N.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Kumar, Suresh; Rout, P. C.; Joshi, Sandeep; Arumugam, P.
2016-07-01
To investigate the dependence of giant dipole resonance (GDR) width on temperature (T ) and angular momentum (J ), high energy γ -ray spectra were measured in the reaction 28Si+124Sn at E28Si=135 MeV. The J information was deduced from multiplicity of low-energy γ rays. The GDR parameters, namely, the centroid energy and width are extracted using statistical model analysis. The observed variation of the GDR width for T ˜1.2 -1.37 MeV and J ˜20 ℏ -40 ℏ is consistent with the universal scaling given by Kusnezov et al., which is applicable in the liquid-drop regime. The GDR input cross sections extracted from the statistical model best fits are compared with thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM) calculations and are found to be in good agreement. The TSFM calculations predominantly favor the noncollective oblate shape, while the statistical model fit with both prolate and oblate shapes describes the data. The present data together with earlier measurements indicate a very slow variation of the GDR width for T ˜1.2 to 1.5 MeV. The observed trend is well explained by the TSFM calculations, although the calculated values are ˜4 %-13% higher than the data.
SOL width and intermittent fluctuations in KSTAR
Garcia, O E; Theodorsen, A; Bak, J -G; Hong, S -H; Kim, H -S; Pitts, R A
2016-01-01
Radial profiles of the ion saturation current and its fluctuation statistics are presented from probe measurements in L-mode, neutral beam heated plasmas at the outboard mid-plane region of KSTAR. The familiar two-layer structure, seen elsewhere in tokamak L-mode discharges, with a steep near-SOL profile and a broad far-SOL profile, is observed. The profile scale length in the far-SOL increases drastically with line-averaged density, thereby enhancing plasma interactions with the main chamber walls. Time series from the far-SOL region are characterised by large-amplitude bursts attributed to the radial motion of blob-like plasma filaments. Analysis of a data time series of several seconds duration under stationary plasma conditions reveals the statistical properties of these fluctuations, including the rate of level crossings and the average duration of periods spent above a given threshold level. This is shown to be in excellent agreement with predictions of a stochastic model, giving novel predictions of pl...
Surface scattering contribution to the plasmon width in embedded Ag nanospheres
Monreal, R Carmina; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J
2014-01-01
Nanometer-sized metal particles exhibit broadening of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in comparison to its value predicted by the classical Mie theory. Using our model for the LSPR dependence on non-local surface screening and size quantization, we quantitatively relate the observed plasmon width to the nanoparticle radius $R$ and the permittivity of the surrounding medium $\\epsilon_m$. For Ag nanospheres larger than 8 nm only the non-local dynamical effects occurring at the surface are important and, up to a diameter of 25 nm, dominate over the bulk scattering mechanism. Qualitatively, the LSPR width is inversely proportional to the particle size and has a nonmonotonic dependence on the permittivity of the host medium, exhibiting for Ag a maximum at $\\epsilon_m\\approx2.5$. Our calculated LSPR width is compared with recent experimental data.
Cenozoic tectonics of western North America controlled by evolving width of Farallon slab.
Schellart, W P; Stegman, D R; Farrington, R J; Freeman, J; Moresi, L
2010-07-16
Subduction of oceanic lithosphere occurs through two modes: subducting plate motion and trench migration. Using a global subduction zone data set and three-dimensional numerical subduction models, we show that slab width (W) controls these modes and the partitioning of subduction between them. Subducting plate velocity scales with W(2/3), whereas trench velocity scales with 1/W. These findings explain the Cenozoic slowdown of the Farallon plate and the decrease in subduction partitioning by its decreasing slab width. The change from Sevier-Laramide orogenesis to Basin and Range extension in North America is also explained by slab width; shortening occurred during wide-slab subduction and overriding-plate-driven trench retreat, whereas extension occurred during intermediate to narrow-slab subduction and slab-driven trench retreat.
Development of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics
Reid, Paul B.; Davis, W.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.
2010-03-01
We report on the development of adjustable grazing incidence optics. We are developing bimorph mirrors for high resolution (sub-arc second) imaging. Bimorph mirrors consist of a thin layer of piezo-electric material deposited on the back surface of a thin (material localizes the strain to the particular piezo "pixel.” Mirror figure errors are corrected (on-orbit) via induced localized deformations. We have successfully deposited a 1-micrometer thick layer of the piezo-electric material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors, and mirror requirements. We discuss finite element modeling of bimorph mirrors. In particular, we focus on how a difference in mirror mounting affects the influence functions ( the induced deformations). We are also developing the use of electrostrictive adjusters for moderate resolution (a few arc second) imaging. Electroplated nickel/cobalt full shells are mounted together using the adjusters. The adjusters are arrayed axially and tangentially between shells, with their adjustable dimension in the radial direction. Each shell is adjusted and fixed in place during mirror assembly, starting with the innermost shell. We review finite element modeling of the adjustable optics and the application of the adjustment system to correct manufacturing errors. We discuss initial tests using electrostrictive adjusters to change the shape of flat mirror segments. This work is supported by NASA Contract NNX09AE87G and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
Viradia, Neal K; Berger, Alex A; Dahners, Laurence E
2011-09-01
Trochanteric bursitis is a common disorder that is characterized by inflammation of the bursa, superficial to the greater trochanter of the femur, leading to pain in the lateral hip, and often occurs because of acute trauma or repetitive friction involving the iliotibial band, the greater trochanter, and the bursa. In the study reported here, we hypothesized that the increased incidence of bursitis may be the result of the increased prominence of the trochanter in relation to the wings of the iliac crest. Distances between the outermost edges of trochanters and iliac wings were measured in 202 patients from the University of North Carolina Health Care System-101 without a known diagnosis and 101 with a clinical diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis. To determine significance, t tests for nonpaired data were used. Mean (SD) difference between trochanter and iliac wing widths was 28 (20) mm in the group diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and 17 (18) mm in the control group. The difference between the groups in this regard was significant (Pbursitis group and 1.05 (.06) in the control group. The difference between these groups was significant (Pbursitis.
Systematics of oscillatory behavior in hadronic masses and widths
Tatischeff, Boris
2016-01-01
A systematic study of hadron masses and widths shows regular oscillations that can be fitted by a simple cosine function. This property can be observed when the difference between adjacent masses of each family is plotted versus the mean mass.
Saturation of the width of the strength function
Sargeant, A J; Pato, M P; Ueda, M
2000-01-01
The strength function of a single state $|d>$ is studied using the deformed Gaussian orthogonal ensemble. In particular we study the dependence of the spreading width of $|d>$ on the degree of mixing.
Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width
Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.
2011-05-10
Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.
Sweep Width Estimation for Ground Search and Rescue
2004-12-30
that may influence sweep width were measured during the experiments. Promising variables include SAR background, height, age, color - blindness , fatigue...123 8.3.9 Color Blindness ................................................................................................... 124... Color Blindness ................................................................................................ 200 Searcher Profile
Widths of some classes of convex functions and bodies
Konovalov, V. N.; Maiorov, Vitalii E.
2010-02-01
We consider classes of uniformly bounded convex functions defined on convex compact bodies in \\mathbb{R}^d and satisfying a Lipschitz condition and establish the exact orders of their Kolmogorov, entropy, and pseudo-dimension widths in the L_1-metric. We also introduce the notions of pseudo-dimension and pseudo-dimension widths for classes of sets and determine the exact orders of the entropy and pseudo-dimension widths of some classes of convex bodies in \\mathbb{R}^drelative to the pseudo-metric defined as the d-dimensional Lebesgue volume of the symmetric difference of two sets. We also find the exact orders of the entropy and pseudo-dimension widths of the corresponding classes of characteristic functions in L_p-spaces, 1\\le p\\le\\infty.
The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian
2012-01-01
Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received little...... attention in previous studies. In this paper we report on finding for syrphids, spiders and carabids, three taxonomic groups with different mobility, all important for conservation biological control. For all groups we found an effect of buffer zone width on their density. A buffer width of 6m...... was the narrowest that consistently promoted a higher abundance or activity of arthropods within the field area (outside the hedge bottom). However, a further increase in buffer width always increased the abundance and activity of arthropods a little more....
Martian Meanders: Wavelength-Width Scaling and Flow Duration
Gregoire-Mazzocco, H.; Stepinski, T. F.; McGovern, P. J.; Lanzoni, S.; Frascati, A.; Rinaldo, A.
2006-03-01
Martian meanders reveals linear wavelength/width scaling with a coef. k~10, that can be used to estimate discharges. Simulations of channel evolution are used to determine flow duration from sinuosity. Application to Nirgal Vallis yields 200 yrs.
Temporary roads : nature-friendly construction method cuts road width by half and saves money
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Godfrey, B.
2010-10-15
This article discussed a new method for building low-disturbance temporary roads that entails mulching trees and using the resulting wood-fibre material for the road bed. The size of the mulch is adjusted for conditions. A specialized whole-tree mulcher is used after the access area is logged and the felled trees cleared away. The mulcher mulches a whole tree to specs and then moves on to the next tree. Merchantable wood is removed and sold. The process is suited to flat or gently sloping areas at higher elevations, and it reduces the width of a conventional clay-based right-of-way by 50 percent. Clay-built roads require extensive ditch drainage, increasing the width needed, but moisture drains directly through mulch-based roads, which also leave the underlying root zone undisturbed, so no drainage ditches are needed. The new method reduces disturbance resulting from road width, makes use of materials that would otherwise go unused, eliminates the need to import large quantities of fill, and eliminates the risk of introducing new species to the roadway area during the reclamation process. The mulch road bed has a depth of 8 to 20 inches. Leaving the root bed undisturbed adds to the load-bearing integrity of the road. The mulch method also cuts overall access costs. The construction cost is slightly more than for clay-based roads, but the severely reduced reclamation cost results in big savings. 1 ref., 3 figs.
Calculating Method of Moments Uniform Bin Width Histograms
James S. Weber
2016-01-01
A clear articulation of Method of Moments (MOM) Histograms is instructive and has waited 121 years since 1895. Also of interest are enabling uniform bin width (UBW) shape level sets. Mean-variance MOM uniform bin width frequency and density histograms are not unique, however ranking them by histogram skewness compared to data skewness helps. Although theoretical issues rarely take second place to calculations, here calculations based on shape level sets are central and challenge uncritically ...
Energetic Constraints on the Width of the Intertropical Convergence Zone
2016-01-01
The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) has been the focus of considerable research in recent years, with much of this work concerned with how the latitude of maximum tropical precipitation responds to natural climate variability and to radiative forcing. The width of the ITCZ, however, has received little attention despite its importance for regional climate and for understanding the general circulation of the atmosphere. This paper investigates the ITCZ width in simulations with an ideali...
A direct measurement of W boson decay width
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2002-01-01
Based on 85 pb$^{-1}$ data of \\ppbar collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.8$ \\tev\\ collected using the D{\\O}detector at Fermilab during the 1994-1995 run of the Tevatron, we present a direct measurement of the total decay width of the \\wb\\ boson, $\\Gamma_W$. The width is determined from the transverse mass spectrum in the $W \\to e+\