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Sample records for modeling white pine

  1. Modeling Effects of Climate Change and Fire Management on Western White Pine (Pinus monticola in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Keane

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is projected to profoundly influence vegetation patterns and community compositions, either directly through increased species mortality and shifts in species distributions or indirectly through disturbance dynamics such as increased wildfire activity and extent, shifting fire regimes, and pathogenesis. Mountainous landscapes have been shown to be particularly sensitive to climate changes and are likely to experience significant impacts under predicted future climate regimes. Western white pine (Pinus monticola, a five-needle pine species that forms the most diverse of the white pine forest cover types in the western United States, is vulnerable to an interacting suite of threats that includes climate change, fire suppression, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae that have already caused major changes in species distribution and abundance. We used the mechanistic simulation model FireBGCv2 to simulate effects of climate change and fire management on western white pines in a mountainous watershed in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Our results suggest that warming temperatures favor increased abundance of western white pine over existing climax and shade tolerant species in the study area, mainly because warmer conditions potentiate fire dynamics, including increased wildfire frequency and extent, which facilitates regeneration. Suppression of wildfires reduced the area dominated by western white pine, but fire suppression was less effective at limiting burned area extent and fire frequency in a warmer and drier climate. Wildfires created canopy gaps that allowed for western white pine regeneration at a high enough rate to escape local extirpation from white pine blister rust. Western white pine appears to be a resilient species even under fairly extreme warming trajectories and shifting fire regimes, and may provide a hedge against vegetation community shifts away

  2. Demographic projection of high-elevation white pines infected with white pine blister rust: a nonlinear disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, S G; Schoettle, A W; Klutsch, J G; Tavener, S J; Antolin, M F

    2012-01-01

    Matrix population models have long been used to examine and predict the fate of threatened populations. However, the majority of these efforts concentrate on long-term equilibrium dynamics of linear systems and their underlying assumptions and, therefore, omit the analysis of transience. Since management decisions are typically concerned with the short-term (blister rust (WPBR). We evaluate the model using newly developed software to calculate sensitivity and elasticity for nonlinear population models at any projected time step. We concentrate on two points in time, during transience and at equilibrium, and under two scenarios: a regenerating pine stand following environmental disturbance and a stand perturbed by the introduction of WPBR. The model includes strong density-dependent effects on population dynamics, particularly on seedling recruitment, and results in a structure favoring large trees. However, the introduction of WPBR and its associated disease-induced mortality alters stand structure in favor of smaller stages. Populations with infection probability (beta) > or = 0.1 do not reach a stable coexisting equilibrium and deterministically approach extinction. The model enables field observations of low infection prevalence among pine seedlings to be reinterpreted as resulting from disease-induced mortality and short residence time in the seedling stage. Sensitivities and elasticities, combined with model output, suggest that future efforts should focus on improving estimates of within-stand competition, infection probability, and infection cost to survivorship. Mitigating these effects where intervention is possible is expected to produce the greatest effect on population dynamics over a typical management timeframe.

  3. A Model for Predicting Spring Emergence of Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Korean white pine, Pinus koraiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan Sik; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Nam, Youngwoo; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Lee, Cha Young; Choi, Won I L

    2015-08-01

    Monochamus saltuarius Gebler is a vector that transmits the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Korean white pine, Pinus koraiensis, in Korea. To reduce the damage caused by this nematode in pine forests, timely control measures are needed to suppress the cerambycid beetle population. This study sought to construct a forecasting model to predict beetle emergence based on spring temperature. Logs of Korean white pine were infested with M. saltuarius in 2009, and the infested logs were overwintered. In February 2010, infested logs were then moved into incubators held at constant temperature conditions of 16, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30 or 34°C until all adults had emerged. The developmental rate of the beetles was estimated by linear and nonlinear equations and a forecasting model for emergence of the beetle was constructed by pooling data based on normalized developmental rate. The lower threshold temperature for development was 8.3°C. The forecasting model relatively well predicted the emergence pattern of M. saltuarius collected from four areas in northern Republic of Korea. The median emergence dates predicted by the model were 2.2-5.9 d earlier than the observed median dates. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Developing blister rust resistance in white pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.

    2000-01-01

    After a century since introduction to North America from Europe, white pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., is recognized as one of the catastrophic plant disease epidemics in history. It has not yet stabilized and continues to spread and intensify. Its nine native white pine hosts comprise major timber producers, important...

  5. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  6. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  7. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David

    2003-01-01

    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  8. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike

    2012-01-01

    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  9. Blister rust control in the management of western white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth P. Davis; Virgil D. Moss

    1940-01-01

    The forest industry of the western white pine region depends on the production of white pine as a major species on about 2,670,000 acres of commercial forest land. Continued production of this species and maintenance of the forest industry at anything approaching its present level is impossible unless the white pine blister rust is controlled. Existing merchantable...

  10. White pines, blister rust, and management in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Conklin; M Fairweather; D Ryerson; B Geils; D Vogler

    2009-01-01

    White pines in New Mexico and Arizona are threatened by the invasive disease white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola. Blister rust is already causing severe damage to a large population of southwestern white pine in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico. Recent detection in northern and western New Mexico suggests that a major expansion of the...

  11. 78 FR 52498 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Eureka, Nevada. The... Standard Time. All RAC meetings are subject to change or cancellation. For status of the White Pine-Nye...

  12. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo

    2012-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  13. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  14. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  15. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunlap

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  16. Current and future molecular approaches to investigate the white pine blister rust pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. A. Richardson; A. K. M. Ekramoddoulah; J.-J. Liu; M.-S. Kim; N. B. Klopfenstein

    2010-01-01

    Molecular genetics is proving to be especially useful for addressing a wide variety of research and management questions on the white pine blister rust pathosystem. White pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola, is an ideal model for studying biogeography, genetics, and evolution because: (1) it involves an introduced pathogen; (2) it includes multiple primary...

  17. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  18. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  19. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Kim E. Hummer; Richard S. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) has linked white pines (Strobus) with currants and gooseberries (Ribes) in a complex and serious disease epidemic in Asia, Europe, and North America. Because of ongoing changes in climate, societal demands for forests and their amenities, and scientific advances in genetics and proteomics, our current...

  20. 78 FR 30847 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. ] SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka,...

  1. 77 FR 58095 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  2. 76 FR 41451 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  3. 77 FR 45331 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  4. 76 FR 48800 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee meeting scheduled in...

  5. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: Evidence for a major gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; K. S. Burns

    2014-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections...

  6. The influence of white pine blister rust on seed dispersal in whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Diana F. Tomback

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) damage in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands leads to reduced (1) seed cone density, (2) predispersal seed survival, and (3) likelihood of Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811)) seed...

  7. Restoration planting options for limber pines impacted by mountain pine beetles and/or white pine blister rust in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rock Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pine’s critical role these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods six seedling planting trial sites were installed...

  8. Can microscale meteorological conditions predict the impact of white pine blister rust in Colorado and Wyoming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Jacobi; Betsy A. Goodrich; Holly S. J. Kearns; Kelly S. Burns; Brian W. Geils

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust occurs when there are compatible interactions between susceptible hosts (white pines and Ribes spp.), inoculum (Cronartium ribicola spores), and local weather conditions during infection. The five spore stages of the white pine blister rust (WPBR) fungus have specific temperature and moisture conditions necessary for production, germination, and...

  9. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: evidence for a major gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A W; Sniezko, R A; Kegley, A; Burns, K S

    2014-02-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections from >100 limber pine trees confirm that genetic segregation of a stem symptom-free trait to blister rust is consistent with inheritance by a single dominant resistance (R) gene, and the resistance allele appears to be distinct from the R allele in western white pine. Following previous conventions, we are naming the R gene for limber pine "Cr4." The frequency of the Cr4 allele across healthy and recently invaded populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains was unexpectedly high (5.0%, ranging from 0 to 13.9%). Cr4 is in equilibrium, suggesting that it is not a product of a recent mutation and may have other adaptive significance within the species, possibly related to other abiotic or biotic stress factors. The identification of Cr4 in native populations of limber pine early in the invasion progress in this region provides useful information for predicting near-term impacts and structuring long-term management strategies.

  10. The Old Orchard white pine plantation at Biltmore

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; Brian A. Ritter

    2000-01-01

    A pioneering case study in the Old Orchard Plantation on Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina, considered current yields and the effects of periodic thinning on height and basal area growth, as well as cubic volume and board-foot yields. Established in 1899, one of three plots of this eastern white pine stand was first thinned in 1916. Beyond providing growth...

  11. Epidemiology for hazard rating of white pine blister rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene P. Van Arsdel; Brian W. Geils; Paul J. Zambino

    2006-01-01

    The ability to assess the potential for a severe infestation of white pine blister rust is an important management tool. Successful hazard rating requires a proper understanding of blister rust epidemiology, including environmental and genetic factors. For the blister rust caused by Cronartium ribicola, climate and meteorology, and the ecology,...

  12. Seasonal growth in white pine seedlings from different provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank S., Jr. Santamour

    1960-01-01

    The Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, in cooperation with other experiment stations in the United States and Canada, began a range-wide provenance test of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in 1955. Seed was collected from 31 different locations in 17 states and 4 Canadian provinces. In most places collections were made from 10 trees at each location. The seed...

  13. Molecular dissection of white pine genetic resistance to Cronartium ribicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-Jun Liu; Richard Sniezko

    2011-01-01

    Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don.) maintains a complex defence system that detects white pine blister rust pathogen (Cronartium ribicola J.C.Fisch.) and activates resistance responses. A thorough understanding of how it functions at the molecular level would provide us new strategies for creating forest trees with durable disease resistance. Our research focuses on...

  14. Entrepreneurial orientation of eastern white pine primary producers and secondary manufacturers: A regional phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2011-01-01

    Eastern white pine (EWP) and red pine make up nearly 8.5 percent of the total sawtimber volume in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Lake States regions. The majority of white pine growing stock is found in the Mid-Atlantic and Lake State regions; however, the center of eastern white pine production and markets is in New England. EWP is produced in both hardwood...

  15. Options for the management of white pine blister rust in the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly S. Burns; Anna W. Schoettle; William R. Jacobi; Mary F. Mahalovich

    2008-01-01

    This publication synthesizes current information on the biology, distribution, and management of white pine blister rust (WPBR) in the Rocky Mountain Region. In this Region, WPBR occurs within the range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), limber pine (P. flexilis), and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis...

  16. Growing white pine in the Lake States to avoid blister rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene P. Van Arsdel

    1961-01-01

    Since white pine is one of the most desirable tree species for the Lake States region, it is unfortunate that fear of the blister rust disease has greatly limited the amount of white pine planted. Research has shown that, in many areas, loss from the disease has not been great even where pine stands have not been protected through ribes eradication. Conversely, in...

  17. First report of the white pine blister rust pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Fairweather; Brian Geils

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., was found on southwestern white pine (Pinus flexilis James var. reflexa Engelm., synonym P. strobiformis Engelm.) near Hawley Lake, Arizona (Apache County, White Mountains, 34.024°N, 109.776°W, elevation 2,357 m) in April 2009. Although white pines in the Southwest (Arizona and New Mexico) have been...

  18. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  19. Dose and Enantiospecific Responses of White Pine Cone Beetles, Conophthorus coniperda, to a-Pinene in an Eastern White Pine Seed Orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Christopher M. Crowe; Christopher Asaro; Gary L. DeBarr

    2003-01-01

    The white pine cone beetle, Conophthorus coniperda, exhibited dose and enantiospecific responses to a-pinene in stands of mature eastern white pine, Pinus strobus, in a seed orchard near Murphy, North Carolina, USA. (-)-a-Pinene significantly increased catches of cone beetles to...

  20. A method for estimating white pine blister rust canker age on limber pine in the central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly S. J. Kearns; William R. Jacobi; Brian W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of white pine blister rust on limber pine require a temporal component to explain variations in incidence of infection and mortality. Unfortunately, it is not known how long the pathogen has been present at various sites in the central Rocky Mountains of North America. Canker age, computed from canker length and average expansion rate, can be...

  1. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  2. Ecology of whitebark pine populations in relation to white pine blister rust infection in subalpine forests of the Lake Tahoe Basin: Implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia E. Maloney; Detlev R. Vogler; Camille E. Jensen; Annette. Delfino Mix

    2012-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by the introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., has affected white pine (Subgenus Strobus) individuals, populations, and associated forest communities in North America. We surveyed eight populations of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) across a range of environmental conditions in...

  3. Biology and pathology of Ribes and their implications for management of white pine blister rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Zambino

    2010-01-01

    Ribes (currants and gooseberries) are telial hosts for the introduced and invasive white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola. Knowledge of wild and introduced Ribes helps us understand the epidemiology of blister rust on its aecial hosts, white pines, and develop disease control and management strategies. Ribes differ by species in their contribution to...

  4. Aiding blister rust control by silvicultural measures in the western white pine type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil D. Moss; Charles A. Wellner

    1953-01-01

    The forest industry of the Inland Empire depends on the production of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) as a major species. Continued production of this tree is impossible unless white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fischer) is controlled. Existing merchantable timber can and probably will be harvested before serious losses occur, but the young growth...

  5. 76 FR 13600 - White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will...

  6. 76 FR 85 - Nye/White Pine County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Forest Service Nye/White Pine County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Nye/White Pine County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will hold...: The meeting will be held in Nye County at the Bureau of Land Management, 1553 S. Erie Main...

  7. 76 FR 25298 - White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in...

  8. 76 FR 8334 - White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will...

  9. Sex Pheromone of Conophthorus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in a Coastal Stand of Western White Pine (Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Harold D. Pierce; Peter de Groot; Nicole Jeans-Williams; Robb Bennett; John H. Borden

    2000-01-01

    An isolated stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don, on Texada Island (49°40'N, 124°10'W), British Columbia, is extremely valuable as a seed-production area for progeny resistant to white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. (Cronartiaceae). During the past 5 years, cone beetles, ...

  10. White pine blister rust resistance in Pinus monticola and P. albicaulis in the Pacific Northwest U.S. – A tale of two species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Robert Danchok

    2012-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis Engelm.) are white pine species with similar latitudinal and longitudinal geographic ranges in Oregon and Washington (figs. 1 and 2). Throughout these areas, whitebark pine generally occurs at higher elevations than western white pine. Both...

  11. Injury to white pine crowns in northern New England in 1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W., Jr. Wilson

    1956-01-01

    Unusual development of white pine terminal shoots - due to some sort of damage - was observed during the summer of 1955 throughout northern New England. In at least one instance it was also observed in pitch pine, and it may have occurred in other species.

  12. Limonene: attractant kairomone for white pine cone beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in an eastern white pine seed orchard in western North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel R

    2007-06-01

    I report on the attraction of the white pine cone beetle, Conophthoru.s coniperda (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to traps baited with the host monoterpene limonene in western North Carolina. Both (+)- and (-)-limonene attracted male and female cone beetles to Japanese beetle traps in an eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., seed orchard near Murphy, NC. Catches of cone beetles were directly proportional to the release rate of (-)-limonene; (+)-limonene was not tested for dose response. Attraction of cone beetles to the pheromone (+/-)-trans-pityol was increased significantly by both enantiomers of limonene. In all experiments, catches of C. coniperda were strongly male biased with no treatment effect on sex ratio. (- )-Limonene had no effect on trap catches of the predator Enoclerus nigripes (Say) to pityol, whereas (+)-limonene interrupted the attraction of E. nigripes to traps baited with pityol. Of six monoterpenes commonly found in white pine cones, only (-)-alpha-pinene elicited attraction of E. nigripes to Japanese beetle traps.

  13. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  14. Mountain pine beetle in high-elevation five-needle white pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Elizabeth Campbell; Ken Gibson; Sandra Kegley; Jesse Logan; Diana Six

    2011-01-01

    Across western North America mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), populations are growing at exponential rates in pine ecosystems that span a wide range of elevations. As temperature increased over the past several decades, the flexible, thermally-regulated life-history strategies of mountain pine beetle have allowed...

  15. Effect of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and rust-resistance breeding on genetic variation in western white pine Pinus monticola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. -S. Kim; S. J. Brunsfeld; G. I. McDonald; N. B. Klopfenstein

    2003-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species from western North America that has declined over the past several decades mainly due to the introduction of blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used...

  16. Characterization of Fungal Pathogens Associated with White Pine Needle Damage (WPND in Northeastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Broders

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eastern white pine is a crucial ecological and economic component of forests in the northern USA and eastern Canada, and is now facing an emerging problem in white pine needle damage (WPND. It is still unclear whether WPND results from one, or the combination of several fungal pathogens. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to characterize the fungi associated with WPND in the northeastern United States and document the damage being done to mature eastern white pine as a result of repeated defoliation. To date, 22 species of fungi, either cultured from diseased pine needles or formed fruiting bodies on pine needles were identified based on morphology and sequence data. Lecanosticta acicola and a putative new species of Septorioides were the species most frequently recovered from diseased needles, in addition to needle cast fungi Lophophacidium dooksii and Bifusella linearis, two obligate fungal pathogens that were frequently observed on pine needles in the northeast, but have not been known to cause excessive defoliation of eastern white pine. A second objective was to monitor yearly the health of 63 pairs of healthy and unhealthy trees in eight affected locations throughout New England. Since 2012, affected trees are increasingly and repeatedly chlorotic and defoliated every year. Trees that were initially healthy are now exhibiting symptoms. While L. acicola appears to be the primary pathogen causing WPND, several other common needle pathogens are being more frequently observed and the role of climate change may be important in the disease ecology of WPND. These defoliation events, while once a sporadic occurrence, have now become more frequent as observed in continued crown deterioration of eastern white pine in long-term monitoring plots followed during the course of this three-year study.

  17. Tall oil precursors and turpentine in Jack and Eastern White Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    The tall oil precursors and turpentine from jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were investigated. The tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and unsaponifiables were determined by chemical fractionation of the nonvolatile diethyl ether extractives (NVEE) of these speices: (approximate % resin acids, % fatty acids, % unsaponifiables, and % acids other that fatty and resin acids) - jack pine sapwood (10, 60, 10, 20%), heartwood (38, 12, 6, 44%); eastern white pine sapwood (11, 57, 9, 22%), and heartwood (11, 18, 10, 62%). The resin acids were a mixture of the pimaric and abietic acids common to pines. In addition, eastern white pine contained major amounts of the resin acid, anticopalic acid. The fatty acids were predominately oleic, linoleic, and 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acids. The unsaponsiables were a complex mixture of diterpenes and sterols (mainly campesterol and sitosterol). On treating these species with paraquat, lightwood occurred in the sapwood but not in the heartwood areas as we have oberved with other pines. The NVEE of the lightwood areas contained increased amounts of resin acids, unsaponifiables, and acids other than fatty and resin acids. The total fatty acid content was essentially unchanged. Since fatty acid components are preferentially lost by esterification with neutral alcoholic constituents in the unsaponifiables during the distillation refining of crude tall oil, the increased unsaponifiables relative to the constant fatty acid content might result in a net reduction in fatty acid recovery from lightered trees. The turpentine content of both jack and eastern white pine increased on lightering and was primarily a mixture of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-pinene.

  18. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Ribes inerme in north-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Vogler; B. W. Geils; K. Coats

    2017-01-01

    Cronartium ribicola Fisch. has not been found infecting any of the five-needle white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) in Utah, despite being established on both white pine and Ribes hosts in the other 10 western states, defined as those west of the 102° meridian.

  19. The phenomena of Pine's "four psychologies": their contrast and interplay as exhibited in the Beatles' "white album".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brog, M A

    1995-01-01

    Psychoanalytically informed clinicians are frequently challenged with recognizing and integrating into their work the diverse phenomena central to differing psychoanalytic theoretical frameworks. In addressing this dilemma, Pine has formulated a "multiple model" that recognizes the qualitatively different psychological phenomena and the distinct motivational forces emphasized by what he calls "the four psychologies of psychoanalysis," the psychologies of drive, ego, object relations and self. This model makes it possible to describe individual personality organizations in terms of psychological hierarchies of the phenomena of the four psychologies. Use of this model promotes a particular kind of listening stance that facilitates recognition and use of a wide variety of clinical data. The usefulness of this model is demonstrated through its application to a creative work, the Beatles' "White Album." This application shows the utility of Pine's psychological hierarchies in describing differing personality organizations, the "multiple functions" mental events can represent through serving the motives of multiple psychologies, and the frequent interactions that occur between the differing psychological phenomena. Pine's model facilitates a recognition that an important quality found in works by the Beatles is their demonstration in strikingly clear form, of the qualitatively different aspects of human experience emphasized by the four psychologies. The accessibility of Beatles music makes it a potentially valuable teaching tool for demonstrating Pine's model.

  20. Distribution of Ribes, an alternate host of white pine blister rust, in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly S. J. Kearns; William R. Jacobi; Kelly S. Burns; Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Ribes (currants and gooseberries) are alternate hosts for Cronartium ribicola, the invasive fungus that causes blister rust of white pines (Pinus, subgenus Strobus) in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado and Wyoming. The location, species, and density of Ribes can affect...

  1. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) applications in white pine blister rust resistance screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam Hendricks; Wendy Sutton; Jeffrey Stone; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Anna Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    A goal of breeding programs for resistance to white pine blister rust is the development of multigenic resistance, even if the genetics and mechanisms of resistance may be imperfectly understood. The goal of multigenic resistance has prompted efforts to categorize host resistance reactions at increasingly finer scales, to identify heritable traits that may confer...

  2. Okadaic acid and trifluoperazine enhance Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in eastern white pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Lin, Jinxing; Newton, Ronald J

    2007-05-01

    Mature zygotic embryos of recalcitrant Christmas tree species eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were used as explants for Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101-mediated transformation using the uidA (beta-Glucuronidase) gene as a reporter. Influence of the time of sonication and the concentrations of protein phosphatase inhibitor (okadaic acid) and kinase inhibitor (trifluoperazine) on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation have been evaluated. A high transformation frequency was obtained after embryos were sonicated for 45-50 s, or treated with 1.5-2.0 microM okadaic acid or treated with 100-200 microM trifluoperazine, respectively. Protein phosphatase and kinase inhibitors enhance Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in eastern white pine. A 2-3.5-fold higher rate of hygromycin-resistant callus was obtained with an addition of 2 microM okadaic acid or 150 microM trifluoperazine or sonicated embryos for 45 s. Stable integration of the uidA gene in the plant genome of eastern white pine was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern and northern blot analyses. These results demonstrated that a stable and enhanced transformation system has been established in eastern white pine and this system would provide an opportunity to transfer economically important genes into this Christmas tree species.

  3. Optimum Vegetation Conditions for Successful Establishment of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Pitt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 10th-growing season performance of planted eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings was evaluated in response to herbaceous and woody vegetation control treatments within a clearcut and two variants of the uniform shelterwood regeneration system (single vs. multiple future removal cuts. Herbaceous vegetation control involved the suppression of grasses, forbs, ferns and low shrubs for the first 2 or 4 growing seasons after planting. Deciduous woody vegetation control treatments, conducted in combination with the herbaceous treatments within a response-surface design, involved the permanent removal of all tall shrubs and deciduous trees at the time of planting, at the end of the 2nd or 5th growing seasons, or not at all. In general, the average size of planted pine was related positively to the duration of herbaceous vegetation control and negatively to delays in woody control. White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck altered these trends, reducing the height of pine on plots with little or no overtopping deciduous woody vegetation or mature tree cover. Where natural pine regeneration occurred on these plots, growth was similar but subordinate to the planted pine. Data from the three sites indicate that at least 60% of planted pine may be expected to reach an age-10 height target of 2.5 m when overtopping cover (residual overstory + regenerating deciduous is managed at approximately 65% ± 10%, and total herbaceous cover is suppressed to levels not exceeding 50% in the first five years. On productive sites, this combination may be difficult to achieve in a clearcut, and requires fairly rigorous vegetation management in shelterwood regeneration systems. Currently, synthetic herbicides offer the only affordable and effective means of achieving such vegetation control.

  4. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  5. Landscape Biology of Western White Pine: Implications for Conservation of a Widely-Distributed Five-Needle Pine at Its Southern Range Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E. Maloney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout much of the range of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl., timber harvesting, fire exclusion and the presence of Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch., the white pine blister rust (WPBR pathogen, have led to negative population and genetic consequences. To address these interactions, we examined population dynamics and genetic diversity in 10 populations of western white pine in upper montane forests of the Lake Tahoe Basin. We documented negative population trends for three of the 10 populations. These populations exhibited low estimated growth rates (λ, moderate to high incidences of WPBR and mountain pine beetle (MPB, and high levels of mortality. In contrast, seven populations appear to be stable (λ ≥ 1.0, with low to moderate disease and insect incidence, and evidence for genetic resistance to WPBR. Genetic diversity (HE for a set of 160 single nucleotide polymorphisms was in the range of 0.245–0.272 across populations, and population-specific estimates of FST ranged from 0.0062 to 0.0244. Allele frequency of the Cr2 gene, which confers complete resistance to C. ribicola in western white pine, was low, averaging 0.009 for all populations sampled. However, a low frequency of pollen receptors (i.e., susceptible maternal parents pollinated by a local resistant parent was found in nine of 10 populations. A moderate and negative relationship was found between the frequency of pollen receptors in a population and the incidence of WPBR (r2 = 0.32. In the context of an introduced pathogen, climate driven outbreaks of MPB, fire exclusion, and prolonged drought, conservation and management strategies are warranted for this species in the Lake Tahoe Basin and likely other locations in California. These strategies include gene conservation of western white pine, WPBR resistance screening, and forest restoration treatments.

  6. Potential for long-term seed storage for ex situ genetic conservation of high elevation white pine species – whitebark pine and foxtail pine case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Sniezko; A.J. Kegley

    2017-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and foxtail pine (P. balfouriana) are conifers native to western North America. Due to several threats, including a non-native pathogen (Cronartium ribicola) and a changing climate, whitebark pine and foxtail pine are classified on the IUCN Red List as ‘endangered’ and ‘...

  7. Complex response of white pines to past environmental variability increases understanding of future vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Iglesias

    Full Text Available Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation to past climate variability and suggest that white pines, a taxon of special concern in the region, have been surprisingly resilient to high summer temperature and fire activity in the past. Moreover, the fossil record suggests that winter conditions and biotic interactions have been critical limiting variables for high-elevation conifers in the past and will likely be so in the future. This long-term perspective offers insights on species responses to a broader range of climate and associated ecosystem changes than can be observed at present and should be part of resource management and conservation planning for the future.

  8. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  9. Emergence of white pine needle damage in the northeastern United States is associated with changes in pathogen pressure in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, Stephen A; Smith, Cheryl; Munck, Isabel A; Rock, Barrett N; Ziniti, Beth L; Broders, Kirk

    2017-01-01

    The defoliation of the eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) across the northeastern United States is an escalating concern threatening the ecological health of northern forests and economic vitality of the region's lumber industry. First documented in the spring of 2010 affecting 24 328 hectares in the state of Maine, white pine needle damage (WPND) has continued to spread and is now well established in all New England states. While causal agents of WPND are known, current research is lacking in both sampling distribution and the specific environmental factor(s) that affect the development and spread of this disease complex. This study aims to construct a more detailed distribution map of the four primary causal agents within the region, as well as utilize long-term WPND monitoring plots and data collected from land-based weather stations to develop a climatic model to predict the severity of defoliation events in the proceeding year. Sampling results showed a greater distribution of WPND than previously reported. WPND was generally found in forest stands that compromised >50% eastern white pine by basal area. No single species, nor a specific combination of species had a dominating presence in particular states or regions, thus supporting the disease complex theory that WPND is neither caused by an individual species nor by a specific combination of species. In addition, regional weather data confirmed the trend of increasing temperature and precipitation observed in this region with the previous year's May, June, and July rainfall being the best predictor of defoliation events in the following year. Climatic models were developed to aid land managers in predicting disease severity and accordingly adjust their management decisions. Our results clearly demonstrate the role changing climate patterns have on the health of eastern white pine in the northeastern United States. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Charles J; Klepzig, Kier D; Kopper, Brian J; Kersten, Philip J; Illman, Barbara L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-06-01

    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle - fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)-associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red pine showed lower diversity and fewer compositional changes during induction than white spruce. In red pine,fungal inoculation accompanying wounding elicited greater increases than wounding alone, but in white spruce total concentrations were higher following wounding alone. Spruce beetle fungal symbiont growth varied among species and compounds. Some diterpenes elicited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on fungi, depending on concentration. All four fungi exhibited higher tolerances compared to those associated with pine bark beetles in previous studies. Variation in tolerances to, and potentially metabolism of, diterpene acids by symbionts may reflect differences in constitutive levels between spruce and pine, and partially explain differences in concentrations achieved during induction.

  11. Internal and external control of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; R.O. Teskey

    1992-01-01

    Leaf gas exchange and water relations were monitored in the upper canopy of two 25 m tall eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) trees over two consecutive growing seasons (1986 and 1987). Examination of the seasonal and diurnal patterns of net photosynthesis and leaf conductance showed that both internal and external (environmental) factors were...

  12. White pine blister rust in Korea, Japan and other Asian regions: comparisons and implications for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.-S. Kim; N. B. Klopfenstein; Y. Ota; S. K. Lee; K.-S. Woo; S. Kaneko

    2010-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the history of white pine blister rust, attributed to Cronartium ribicola, and addresses current research and management issues in South Korea, Japan and other regions of eastern Asia (China, Russia and Himalaya). For each region, the distribution, damage, aecial hosts, telial hosts and management of C. ribicola and other blister rust fungi...

  13. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  14. Micromorphology of epicuticular waxes and epistomatal chambers of pine species by electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, In Jung; Kim, Chang Soo; Lee, Don Koo; Park, Eun Woo

    2011-02-01

    High-resolution imaging and quantitative surface analysis of epicuticular waxes and epistomatal chambers of pine species were performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry. Both juvenile and adult needles were collected from the two-year-old seedlings of Pinus rigida and Pinus densiflora and subjected to surface observations. Epicuticular wax structures developed on the cuticle layer as well as in the epistomatal chambers and appeared to occlude the cavities in the two pine species. The stomata of P. densiflora were characterized by more distinctly raised rings around openings than P. rigida. The most common epicuticular wax structures of the two pine species included tubules with terminal openings and coiled rodlets. Wax platelets were deposited on epistomatal chambers. Either rodlets or tubules seemed to be longer and thicker in P. rigida than those in P. densiflora. White light scanning interferometry revealed quantitative surface profiles, demonstrating more ridged (ca. 4 μm high) stomatal apertures and nearly twofold deeper (ca. 20 μm deep) epistomatal chambers of P. densiflora than those of P. rigida. These results suggest that white light scanning interferometry can be applied to unravel the quantitative surface features of epicuticular sculptures on plant leaves.

  15. Pre-logging Treatment of Invasive Glossy Buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. Promotes Regeneration of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-native glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. is invasive in forests of the northeastern USA but little is known of its effects on tree regeneration. We tested whether killing buckthorn stems before logging reduces its post-logging abundance and increases the density and height of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings. Three 0.4 ha plots were clearcut, three were thinned, and three were left as controls. Each plot had previously been divided into three subplots that received different buckthorn treatments during the two years before logging. Buckthorn treatments were (1 stems cut at base five times; (2 stems cut once then heat killed four times; (3 untreated control. Three years post-logging, buckthorn density and stem height were unaffected by logging but equally reduced by the two buckthorn treatments. Buckthorn reduction increased density and height of pine seedlings, and seedling height also increased with logging. In the fifth year post-logging, pine height growth and biomass were greater in clearcut than in thinned treatments, greater in areas of buckthorn removal and, within treated subplots, greater in areas with low buckthorn density than in thickets of recovering buckthorn. Thus, although buckthorn inhibited regenerating pine, pre-logging destruction of buckthorn stems reduced such competition for at least four years.

  16. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  17. Modeling Phloem Temperatures Relative to Mountain Pine Beetle Phenology

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Matthew Jared

    2011-01-01

    We explore a variety of methods to estimate phloem temperatures from ambient air temperatures suitable for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. A model's ability to induce the same phenology generated from observed phloem temperatures measures its effectiveness rather than a simple reconstruction of phloem temperatures. From a model's phenology results we are able to ascertain whether the model produces a similar amount of developmental energy exhibited by observed phloem temper...

  18. ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLY IN WHITE AND BROWN ROOT RESPIRATION OF PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory responses of fine ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) roots of differing morphology were measured to evaluate response to excision and to changes in the shoot light environment. Ponderosa pine seedlings were subject to either a 15:9 h light/dark environment over 24...

  19. Behavioral and Reproductive Response of White Pine Weevil (Pissodes strobi to Resistant and Susceptible Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi, Peck. is a native forest insect pest in the Pacific Northwest of North America that attacks species of spruce (Picea spp. and pine (Pinus spp.. Young Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr.] trees are particularly susceptible to weevil attack. Pockets of naturally occurring Sitka spruce resistance have been identified in high weevil hazard areas in coastal British Columbia. In this study, we characterize behavioral, physiological and reproductive responses of weevils to an extremely resistant Sitka spruce genotype (H898 in comparison to a highly susceptible genotype (Q903. The experiments relied on a large number of three-year-old clonally propagated trees and were therefore restricted to two contrasting Sitka spruce genotypes. When exposed to resistant trees, both male and female weevils were deterred during host selection and mating, females showed delayed or reduced ovary development, and successful reproduction of weevils was prevented on resistant trees.

  20. Health Assessment of the White Pine Community in the Lincoln National Forest of New Mexico through Spectral Reflectivity Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, A. E.; Pingitore, N. E.; Keller, R.; Conklin, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    The health of forests worldwide has become of greater interest to the scientific community in the last decades. Catastrophic events such as wild fires, insect infestations, and diseases all point to a less than ideal state in these areas. In the last fifteen years the Forest Health Protection office of the Forest Service identified and has been monitoring the distribution and effects of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) in the white pine community in the stands of the Lincoln National Forest. The Lincoln National Forest covers an area of approximately 1,196,419 acres in parts of four counties in southeastern New Mexico. It consists of three ranger districts: Sacramento, Smokey Bear and Guadalupe. The Lincoln National Forest attracts visitors because of its natural beauty and recreational areas. It is also home to several endangered and threatened species such as the Mexican Spotted Owl., the Sacramento Prickly Poppy, and the Sacramento Mountain Thistle. Loss of white pine stands is detrimental not only from a human perspective but would also result in loss of natural habitats for already rare species. According to Conklin (1994) there are nearly 500,000 acres of forests in the Sacramento Mountains, the adjoining White Mountains and the nearby Capitan Mountains that contain southwestern white pine. Starting in 1990 Conklin established several infected plots within this area and monitors them on a 3-year rotation period. In an attempt to further analyze the effects of the disease, samples from the different localities were obtained and their spectral responses studied by using a GER spectroradiometer with data acquisition capabilities in the 350 to 2500 nm range. The interaction of an object with electromagnetic energy is unique for each target and is based on its physical characteristics. We are able to note spectral differences in areas other than the visible range which are not accessible to the human eye. Plants stressed by such factors as drought

  1. Enhancing Stand Structure through Snag Creation in Northeastern U.S. Forests: Using Ethanol Injections and Bark Beetle Pheromones to Artificially Stress Red Maple and White Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Dodds

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated two methods to create white pine and red maple snags in a forested setting. The first involved injecting trees with ethanol at two times (single Ethanol (ETOH and double ETOH injections to increase attractiveness to insects and elicit attacks on trees. The second method was unique to white pines and involved both injection treatments in combination with baiting trees with Ips-specific pheromones. Three of five white pines from the double ETOH treatment died in the second year. Species including Ips pini (Say, Ips grandicollis Eichhoff, Orthotomicus caelatus Eichhoff, Crypturgus borealis Swaine and Monochamus notatus (Drury responded more strongly to at least one of the treatments over control trees. However, there were no differences found in individual Scolytinae or Cerambycidae species response to treatments in red maple. Fitness (FV/FM and vitality (PIabs were both significantly reduced in both ETOH treatments compared to controls in white pine. In red maple, fitness was reduced in the double ETOH treated trees but the final mean FV/FM values were within the approximate optimal of health. Ethanol injections, in combination with Ips-specific semiochemicals, show promise for creating standing coarse woody debris (CWD in white pine. Injecting ethanol was not effective for stressing red maple.

  2. Impact Assessment of Pine Wilt Disease Using the Species Distribution Model and the CLIMEX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, J. U.; Jung, H.

    2016-12-01

    The plant disease triangle consists of the host plant, pathogen and environment, but their interaction has not been considered in climate change adaptation policy. Our objectives are to predict the changes of a coniferous forest, pine wood nematodes (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and pine sawyer beetles (Monochamus spp.), which is a cause of pine wilt disease in the Republic of Korea. We analyzed the impact of pine wilt disease on climate change by using the species distribution model (SDM) and the CLIMEX model. Area of coniferous forest will decline and move to northern and high-altitude area. But pine wood nematodes and pine sawyer beetles are going to spread because they are going to be in a more favorable environment in the future. Coniferous forests are expected to have high vulnerability because of the decrease in area and the increase in the risk of pine wilt disease. Such changes to forest ecosystems will greatly affect climate change in the future. If effective and appropriate prevention and control policies are not implemented, coniferous forests will be severely damaged. An adaptation policy should be created in order to protect coniferous forests from the viewpoint of biodiversity. Thus we need to consider the impact assessment of climate change for establishing an effective adaptation policy. The impact assessment of pine wilt disease using a plant disease triangle drew suitable results to support climate change adaptation policy.

  3. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajora, Om P; Eckert, Andrew J; Zinck, John W R

    2016-01-01

    Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD) were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation.

  4. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinck, John W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD) were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation. PMID:27387485

  5. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om P Rajora

    Full Text Available Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation.

  6. Models-Based Practice: Great White Hope or White Elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many critical curriculum theorists in physical education have advocated a model- or models-based approach to teaching in the subject. This paper explores the literature base around models-based practice (MBP) and asks if this multi-models approach to curriculum planning has the potential to be the great white hope of pedagogical change…

  7. Models-Based Practice: Great White Hope or White Elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many critical curriculum theorists in physical education have advocated a model- or models-based approach to teaching in the subject. This paper explores the literature base around models-based practice (MBP) and asks if this multi-models approach to curriculum planning has the potential to be the great white hope of pedagogical change…

  8. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Abatzoglou, John T; Raffa, Kenneth F; Logan, Jesse A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks. We developed a statistical model of the probability of whitebark pine mortality in the GYE that included temperature effects on beetle development and survival, precipitation effects on host tree condition, beetle population size, and stand characteristics. Estimated probability of whitebark pine mortality increased with higher winter minimum temperature, indicating greater beetle winter survival; higher fall temperature, indicating synchronous beetle emergence; lower two-year summer precipitation, indicating increased potential for host tree stress; increasing beetle populations; stand age; and increasing percent composition of whitebark pine within a stand. The recent outbreak occurred during a period of higher-than-normal regional winter temperatures, suitable fall temperatures, and low summer precipitation. In contrast to lodgepole pine systems, area with mortality was linked to precipitation variability even at high beetle populations. Projections from climate models indicate future climate conditions will likely provide favorable conditions for beetle outbreaks within nearly all current whitebark pine habitat in the GYE by

  9. The atmospheric potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds from needles of white pine (Pinus strobus) in Northern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, S.; Bertman, S.

    2012-02-01

    The key role that biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) play in atmospheric chemistry requires a detailed understanding of how BVOC concentrations will be affected by environmental change. Large-scale screening of BVOC emissions from whole forest ecosystems is difficult with enclosure methods. Leaf composition of BVOC, as a surrogate for direct emissions, can more easily reflect the distribution of BVOC compounds in a forest. In this study, BVOC composition in needles of 92 white pine trees (Pinus strobus), which are becoming a large part of Midwest forests, are tracked for three summers at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). α-Pinene, the dominant terpene in all samples, accounts for 30-50% of all terpenes on a mole basis. The most abundant sesquiterpenoid was a C15 alcohol identified as germacrene D-4-ol. The relationship between limonene and total other monoterpenes shows two distinct trends in the population of these forests. About 14% (n = 13) of the trees showed high levels of limonene (up to 36% of the total BVOC) in the same trees every year. Assuming that needle concentrations scale with emission rate, we estimate that hydroxyl radical reactivity due to reaction with monoterpenes from white pine increases approximately 6% at UMBS when these elevated concentrations are included. We suggest that chemotypic variation within forests has the potential to affect atmospheric chemistry and that large-scale screening of BVOC can be used to study the importance of BVOC variation.

  10. Phylogeography of Pinus armandii and its relatives: heterogeneous contributions of geography and climate changes to the genetic differentiation and diversification of Chinese white pines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liu

    Full Text Available Geographic barriers and Quaternary climate changes are two major forces driving the evolution, speciation, and genetic structuring of extant organisms. In this study, we used Pinus armandii and eleven other Asian white pines (subsection Strobus, subgenus Pinus to explore the influences of geographic factors and Pleistocene climatic oscillations on species in South China, a region known to be centers of plant endemism and biodiversity hotspots. Range-wide patterns of genetic variation were investigated using chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA markers, with extensive sampling throughout the entire range of P. armandii. Both cpDNA and mtDNA revealed that P. armandii exhibits high levels of genetic diversity and significant population differentiation. Three geographically distinct subdivisions corresponding to the Qinling-Daba Mountains (QDM, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM and Yungui Plateau (YGP were revealed in mainland China by cpDNA. Their break zone was located in the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. A series of massive mountains, induced by the QTP uplift, imposed significant geographic barriers to genetic exchange. The disjunct distribution patterns of ancestral haplotypes suggest that a large continuous population of the white pines may have existed from southwest to subtropical China. Repeated range shifts in response to the Pleistocene glaciations led to the isolation and diversification of the subtropical species. The two Taiwanese white pines share a common ancestor with the species in mainland China and obtain their chloroplasts via long-distance pollen dispersal from North Asian pines. Distinct genetic patterns were detected in populations from the Qinling-Daba Mountains, Yungui Plateau, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, and subtropical China, indicating significant contributions of geographic factors to the genetic differentiation in white pines. Our study depicts a clear picture of the evolutionary history of

  11. Phylogeography of Pinus armandii and its relatives: heterogeneous contributions of geography and climate changes to the genetic differentiation and diversification of Chinese white pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Hao, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Yan; Wei, Xiao-Xin; Cun, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Geographic barriers and Quaternary climate changes are two major forces driving the evolution, speciation, and genetic structuring of extant organisms. In this study, we used Pinus armandii and eleven other Asian white pines (subsection Strobus, subgenus Pinus) to explore the influences of geographic factors and Pleistocene climatic oscillations on species in South China, a region known to be centers of plant endemism and biodiversity hotspots. Range-wide patterns of genetic variation were investigated using chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA markers, with extensive sampling throughout the entire range of P. armandii. Both cpDNA and mtDNA revealed that P. armandii exhibits high levels of genetic diversity and significant population differentiation. Three geographically distinct subdivisions corresponding to the Qinling-Daba Mountains (QDM), Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) and Yungui Plateau (YGP) were revealed in mainland China by cpDNA. Their break zone was located in the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). A series of massive mountains, induced by the QTP uplift, imposed significant geographic barriers to genetic exchange. The disjunct distribution patterns of ancestral haplotypes suggest that a large continuous population of the white pines may have existed from southwest to subtropical China. Repeated range shifts in response to the Pleistocene glaciations led to the isolation and diversification of the subtropical species. The two Taiwanese white pines share a common ancestor with the species in mainland China and obtain their chloroplasts via long-distance pollen dispersal from North Asian pines. Distinct genetic patterns were detected in populations from the Qinling-Daba Mountains, Yungui Plateau, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, and subtropical China, indicating significant contributions of geographic factors to the genetic differentiation in white pines. Our study depicts a clear picture of the evolutionary history of Chinese white pines

  12. Water uptake and oil distribution during imbibition of seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) monitored in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terskikh, Victor V; Feurtado, J Allan; Ren, Chengwei; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kermode, Allison R

    2005-04-01

    Dry or fully imbibed seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) were studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of the dry seed revealed many of the gross anatomical features of seed structure. Furthermore, the non-invasive nature of MRI allowed for a study of the dynamics of water and oil distribution during in situ imbibition of a single seed with time-lapse chemical shift selective MRI. During soaking of the dry seed, water penetrated through the seed coat and megagametophyte. The cotyledons of the embryo (located in the chalazal end of the seed) were the first to show hydration followed by the hypocotyl and later the radicle. After penetrating the seed coat, water in the micropylar end of the seed likely also contributed to further hydration of the embryo; however, the micropyle itself did not appear to be a site for water entry into the seed. A model that describes the kinetics of the earlier stages of imbibition is proposed. Non-viable pine seeds captured with MRI displayed atypical imbibition kinetics and were distinguished by their rapid and uncontrolled water uptake. The potential of MR microimaging for detailed studies of water uptake and distribution during the soaking, moist chilling ("stratification"), and germination of conifer seeds is discussed.

  13. Avian Assemblages Differ between Old-Growth and Mature White Pine Forests of Ontario, Canada: A Role for Supercanopy Trees?

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    David Anthony. Kirk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We predicted that bird diversity and abundance of some bird species would be higher in old-growth stands than in mature pine stands because of the greater structural diversity in old growth. We also predicted that patch size of stands should be influential. To test these predictions, we modeled counts of 79 bird species from 52 stands in 5 regions in the province of Ontario, Canada in relation to habitat at the local and landscape extents. Neither total species richness nor abundance differed between stand types. No significant difference was found in bird assemblages between stand types using ordination analysis. However, more Neotropical migrants were found in old-growth stands than in mature stands, while the reverse was true for short-distance migrants. Twenty-five species had higher counts in old-growth stands - three significantly so: Brown Creeper Certhia americana, Northern Parula Setophaga americana, and Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea. Supercanopy pine (> 60 cm dbh was a significant (P 40 cm/dbh was a significant positive predictor for Brown Creeper, Pine Warbler Setophaga pinus, and total species richness. The density of supercanopy and medium/large pine explained a small but significant amount of variation in bird assemblages (1%, after considering age, other tree variables (9%, and landscape metrics. Patch size was significant for Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus and total abundance. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC thresholds, Brown Creeper required a minimum of 62 stems/ha of medium/large pine. Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus and Black-throated Green Warbler required a minimum of 14 and 23 stems/ha of supercanopy pine, respectively. Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga fusca required a minimum stand age of 66 years. Current targets in shelterwood seed cuts for pine appear to be just within range for Brown Creeper - at least for the first cut, but not for subsequent cuts. We recommend that forest

  14. Synoptic climatology of the long-distance dispersal of white pine blister rust II. Combination of surface and upper level conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. L. Frank; B. W. Geils; L. S. Kalkstein; H. W. Thistle

    2008-01-01

    An invasive forest pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, white pine blister rust (WPBR), is believed to have arrived in the Sacramento Mountains of south-central New Mexico about 1970. Epidemiological and genetic evidence supports the hypothesis that introduction was the result of long-distance dispersal (LDD) by atmospheric transport from California. This...

  15. Synoptic climatology of the long-distance dispersal of white pine blister rust II. Combination of surface and upper-level conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K. L.; Geils, B. W.; Kalkstein, L. S.; Thistle, H. W.

    2008-09-01

    An invasive forest pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, white pine blister rust (WPBR), is believed to have arrived in the Sacramento Mountains of south-central New Mexico about 1970. Epidemiological and genetic evidence supports the hypothesis that introduction was the result of long-distance dispersal (LDD) by atmospheric transport from California. This study applies a method to identify the atmospheric conditions favorable for rust transport and infection. An upper level synoptic classification (ULSC) identifies patterns of upper-level flow favorable for the transport of rust spores from a source to a target. Transport data are coupled with data for surface conditions favorable for infection at a designated target. A resulting calendar lists likelihood classes for establishment by four-times-daily observations during a dispersal season from April through July in the years 1965 to 1974. The single most-favorable period for transport and infection at the New Mexico site was identified as 1 15 June 1969. Five additional sites in the western United States with susceptible white pine populations and known infestation status were then evaluated to verify the model. Only the infested sites exhibit an establishment likelihood of “high” or “very high.” This suggests that the methodology correctly identifies locations with elevated establishment likelihood. Finally, likelihoods at nine additional points in the southwestern United States are determined and used to map regional patterns of transport, infection and establishment. The ULSC combined with appropriate surface meteorological data could be used to further investigate transport and infection, identify other areas at risk, assess the potential for gene flow of WPBR and evaluate long-distance dispersal of other pathogens.

  16. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes.

  17. White pine blister rust resistance in North American, Asian and european species - results from artificial inoculartion trials in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Sniezko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dorena Genetic Resource Center (DGRC has used artificial inoculation trials to evaluate progenies of thousands of Pinus monticola and P. lambertiana selections from Oregon and Washington for resistance to white pine blister rust caused by Cronartium ribicola. In addition, early results are now available for P. albicaulis and P. strobiformis. DGRC has also recently evaluated seed orchard progenies of P. strobus, as well as bulked seedlots from P. armandii and P. peuce. The majority of P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. albicaulis, and P. strobus progenies are very susceptible to blister rust. However, resistance exists in all these species. P. strobiformis showed relatively high levels of resistance for the eight progenies tested. Resistance in P. armandii was mainly reflected in the very low percentage of cankered seedlings; for P. peuce, the high percentage of cankered seedlings alive three years after inoculation was notable. R-genes are present in some of the North American five-needle pine species, but partial resistance traits (e.g. bark reaction will play a major role in breeding activities for P. monticola and P. lambertiana and will likely be the key to developing durable resistance.

  18. White pine blister rust resistance in North American, Asian and european species - results from artificial inoculartion trials in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Sniezko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dorena Genetic Resource Center (DGRC has used artificial inoculation trials to evaluate progenies of thousands of Pinus monticola and P. lambertiana selections from Oregon and Washington for resistance to white pine blister rust caused by Cronartium ribicola. In addition, early results are now available for P. albicaulis and P. strobiformis. DGRC has also recently evaluated seed orchard progenies of P. strobus, as well as bulked seedlots from P. armandii and P. peuce. The majority of P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. albicaulis, and P. strobus progenies are very susceptible to blister rust. However, resistance exists in all these species. P. strobiformis showed relatively high levels of resistance for the eight progenies tested. Resistance in P. armandii was mainly reflected in the very low percentage of cankered seedlings; for P. peuce, the high percentage of cankered seedlings alive three years after inoculation was notable. R-genes are present in some of the North American five-needle pine species, but partial resistance traits (e.g. bark reaction will play a major role in breeding activities for P. monticola and P. lambertiana and will likely be the key to developing durable resistance.

  19. White pine blister rust resistance in North American, Asian and European species - results from artificial inoculation trials in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Sniezko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Dorena Genetic Resource Center (DGRC has used artificial inoculationtrials to evaluate progenies of thousands of Pinus monticola and P. lambertiana selections from Oregon and Washington for resistance to white pine blister rust caused by Cronartium ribicola. In addition, early results are now available for P.albicaulis and P. strobiformis. DGRC has also recently evaluated seed orchard progenies of P.strobus, as well as bulked seedlots from P. armandii and P. peuce.The majority of P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. albicaulis, and P. strobus progenies are very susceptible to blister rust. However, resistance exists in all these species. P.strobiformis showed relatively high levels of resistance for the eight progenies tested.Resistance in P. armandii was mainly reflected in the very low percentage of cankered seedlings; for P. peuce, the high percentage of cankered seedlings alive three years after inoculation was notable. R-genes are present in some of the North American five-needle pine species, but partial resistance traits (e.g. bark reactionwill play a major role in breeding activities for P. monticola and P. lambertiana and will likely be the key to developing durable resistance.

  20. Community structure of gut fungi during different developmental stages of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xia; Li, Ming; Chen, Hui

    2015-02-12

    The Chinese white pine beetle is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the fungal communities associated with Dendroctonus armandi, even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the fungal community structure present in the galleries and guts of D. armandi at different developmental stages using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Analysis of PCR-amplified 18S rRNA gene fragments of fungi from the guts of D. armandi revealed fungal communities of low complexity that differed according to the developmental stage. Yeast of the genus Candida and the filamentous fungi Ophiostoma predominated in D. armandi and its galleries. In particular, Candida accounted for 56% of the fungal community in the pupal stage. Characterizing the evolution and content of the intestinal microbial community structure in D. armandi may facilitate the development of new pest control strategies.

  1. Differences in the structure of the gut bacteria communities in development stages of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xia; Wang, Chunyan; Chen, Hui; Ma, Junning

    2013-10-18

    The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities present in the guts of D. armandi at different developmental stages using a culture-independent method involving PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments of bacteria from the guts of larvae, pupae, and male and female adults revealed bacterial communities of low complexity that differed according to the developmental stage. Citrobacter spp. and Pantoea spp. predominated in larvae and adults, whereas Methylobacterium was the dominant genus at the pupal stage. The main difference between the guts of male and female adults was the greater dominance of Citrobacter in females. Previous studies suggest that the bacterial community associated with D. armandi guts may influence insect development. The data obtained in this study regarding the phylogenetic relationships and the community structure of intestinal bacteria at different developmental stages of the D. armandi life cycle contribute to our understanding of D. armandi and could aid the development of new pest control strategies.

  2. Differences in the Structure of the Gut Bacteria Communities in Development Stages of the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junning Ma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities present in the guts of D. armandi at different developmental stages using a culture-independent method involving PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. Analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments of bacteria from the guts of larvae, pupae, and male and female adults revealed bacterial communities of low complexity that differed according to the developmental stage. Citrobacter spp. and Pantoea spp. predominated in larvae and adults, whereas Methylobacterium was the dominant genus at the pupal stage. The main difference between the guts of male and female adults was the greater dominance of Citrobacter in females. Previous studies suggest that the bacterial community associated with D. armandi guts may influence insect development. The data obtained in this study regarding the phylogenetic relationships and the community structure of intestinal bacteria at different developmental stages of the D. armandi life cycle contribute to our understanding of D. armandi and could aid the development of new pest control strategies.

  3. Modelling the soil carbon cycle of pine ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, K. [Hiroshima, Univ., Dept. of Environ. Studies, Fac. of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Higashi Hiroshima (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Soil carbon cycling rates and carbon budgets were calculated for stands of four pine species. Pinus sylvestris (at Jaedraaas, Sweden), P. densiflora (Hiroshima, Japan), P. elliottii (Florida, USA) and P. radiata (Canberra, Australia), using a simulation model driven by daily observations of mean air temperature and precipitation. Inputs to soil carbon through litterfall differ considerably among the four pine forests, but the accumulation of the A{sub 0} layer and humus in mineral soil is less variable. Decomposition of the A{sub 0} layer and humus is fastest for P. densiflora and slowest for P. sylvestris stands with P. radiata and P. elliottii intermediate. The decomposition rate is lower for the P. elliottii stand than for P. densiflora in spite of its higher temperatures and slightly higher precipitation. Seasonal changes in simulated soil carbon are observed only for the A{sub 0} layer at the P. densiflora site. Simulated soil respiration rates vary seasonally in three stands (P. sylvestris, P. densiflora and P. radiata). In simulations for pine trees planted on bare soil, all soil organic matter fractions except the humus in mineral soil recover to half their asymptotic values within 30 to 40 years of planting for P. sylvestris and P. densiflora, compared with 10 to 20 years for P. radiata and P. elliottii. The simulated recovery of soil carbon following clear-cutting is fastest for the P. elliottii stand and slowest for P. sylvestris. Management of P. elliottii and P. radiata stands on 40-years rotations is sustainable because carbon removed through harvest is restored in the interval between successive clear-cuts. However p. densiflora and P. sylvestris stands may be unable to maintain soil carbon under such a short rotation. High growth rates of P. elliottii and p. radiata stands in spite of relatively poor soil conditions and slow carbon cycling may be related to the physiological responses of species to environmental conditions. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Influence of Starvation on the Structure of Gut-Associated Bacterial Communities in the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of starvation on the structure of the gut bacterial community in the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi. A total of 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs0.03 clusters belonging to nine genera were identified. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE profiles of bacterial PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments from the guts of starved male and female adults revealed that the bacterial community diversity increased after starvation. The dominant genus Citrobacter decreased significantly, whereas the genus Serratia increased in both starved female and starved male adults. The most predominant bacterial genus in D. armandi adults was Citrobacter, except for starved male adults, in which Serratia was the most abundant genus (27%. Our findings reveal that starvation affects gut bacterial dynamics in D. armandi, as has been observed in other insect species.

  5. Fast pyrolysis in a novel wire-mesh reactor: decomposition of pine wood and model compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In fast pyrolysis, biomass decomposition processes are followed by vapor phase reactions. Experimental results were obtained in a unique wire-mesh reactor using pine wood, KCl impregnated pine wood and several model compounds (cellulose, xylan, lignin, levoglucosan, glucose). The wire-mesh reactor w

  6. Application of the Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM 6) to Pine Island NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) report presents a model for projecting the effects of sea-level rise on coastal marshes and related habitats on Pine...

  7. Modeling strength loss in wood by chemical composition. Part I, An individual component model for southern pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Winandy; P. K. Lebow

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we develop models for predicting loss in bending strength of clear, straight-grained pine from changes in chemical composition. Although significant work needs to be done before truly universal predictive models are developed, a quantitative fundamental relationship between changes in chemical composition and strength loss for pine was demonstrated. In...

  8. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.; Dang, Q-L. [Lakehead University, Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    2005-05-01

    The interactive effects of soil temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the photosynthetic functions of white birch and jack pine were investigated. Elevated carbon dioxide was found to significantly decrease the allocation of electron transport to photorespiration in both species by increasing electron allocation to Rubisco carboxylation. Photosynthetic down-regulation occurred in both species after four months in elevated carbon dioxide as evidenced by decreases in maximal carboxylation rate which were unaffected by soil temperature. 50 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Effects of Acute Ozone Exposure and Methyl Jasmonate Treatment on White Pine Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wagner, D.; Allwine, E.; Harley, P. C.; Vanreken, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced by plants and include monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their oxygenated derivatives. These BVOCs are one of the principal factors influencing the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in forested regions, and impact both ozone concentration and secondary organic aerosol formation. Under unstressed conditions, the release of BVOCs to the atmosphere is primarily controlled by the vapor pressure of the relevant compounds within the plant tissue, which is in turn dependent on temperature as well as complex biochemical production processes. However, various natural and anthropogenic stressors can alter both the quantity and composition of the BVOCs emitted by plants. Many potential stressors are expected to become stronger as climate change effects escalate. The impacts of most stressors on BVOC emissions have not been well characterized, particularly in a field setting where changes in BVOC emissions could have influential feedbacks with climate. This study investigated the effects of two stressors on monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission rates at a field site in northern Michigan: acute ozone exposure and treatment with methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. The study included six repetitions of the same experiment, each time using a new set of sub-canopy eastern white pine specimens. For each experiment, dynamic branch enclosures were simultaneously used on three specimens for sample collection: one ozone treatment tree, one methyl jasmonate treatment tree, and one control tree. Sampling lines were placed in each enclosure and VOCs were collected onto cartridges packed with Tenax GR adsorbent. Samples were collected several times per day for at least two days before treatment and for five days after treatment. Cartridges were analyzed via thermodesorption with an Agilent GC/MS/FID. This analysis allowed the identification and quantification of several monoterpene and sesquiterpene species in the samples

  10. Saturated genic SNP mapping identified functional candidates and selection tools for the Pinus monticola Cr2 locus controlling resistance to white pine blister rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Sniezko, Richard A; Zamany, Arezoo; Williams, Holly; Wang, Ning; Kegley, Angelia; Savin, Douglas P; Chen, Hao; Sturrock, Rona N

    2017-02-07

    Molecular breeding incorporates efficient tools to increase rust resistance in five-needle pines. Susceptibility of native five-needle pines to white pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by the non-native invasive fungus Cronartium ribicola (J.C. Fisch.), has significantly reduced wild populations of these conifers in North America. Major resistance (R) genes against specific avirulent pathotypes have been found in several five-needle pine species. In this study, we screened genic SNP markers by comparative transcriptome and genetic association analyses and constructed saturated linkage maps for the western white pine (Pinus monticola) R locus (Cr2). Phenotypic segregation was measured by a hypersensitive reaction (HR)-like response on the needles and disease symptoms of cankered stems post inoculation by the C. ribicola avcr2 race. SNP genotypes were determined by HRM- and TaqMan-based SNP genotyping. Saturated maps of the Cr2-linkage group (LG) were constructed in three seed families using a total of 34 SNP markers within 21 unique genes. Cr2 was consistently flanked by contig_2142 (encoding a ruvb-like protein) and contig_3772 (encoding a delta-fatty acid desaturase) across the three seed families. Cr2 was anchored to the Pinus consensus LG-1, which differs from LGs where other R loci of Pinus species were mapped. GO annotation identified a set of NBS-LRR and other resistance-related genes as R candidates in the Cr2 region. Association of one nonsynonymous SNP locus of an NBS-LRR gene with Cr2-mediated phenotypes provides a valuable tool for marker-assisted selection (MAS), which will shorten the breeding cycle of resistance screening and aid in the restoration of WPBR-disturbed forest ecosystems.

  11. Vegetation dynamics after spring and summer fires in red and white pine stands at Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyenberg, Scott A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2014-01-01

    Conducting dormant season or springtime prescribed fire treatments has become a common practice in many regions of the United States to restore ecosystems to their natural state. Despite the knowledge that historically, fires often occurred during the summer, the application of summer burns has been deterred, in part, by a lack of understanding of fire season effects on vegetation. We explored the differences in fire effects between spring and summer burns at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. The fire season effects on the ground layer vegetation were clearly different among the treatments: pre-burn, spring, and summer. Vegetation composition of pre-burn and after spring fires was similar, but differed significantly from the summer fires. Spring fires propagated the same species that were present prior to the fire, whereas summer fires promoted a new suite of species through the germination of seedbank and high seed dispersal species. Cover and richness of seed bank and intolerant species were greatest after the summer fires, which contributed to the peak in richness found across all reproductive and tolerance attributes five years after these fires. Post summer fire composition showed shifts in composition through time. Substantial differences in the effects of burn seasonality on ground layer vegetation should be considered in long term restoration efforts to help maintain species diversity in red and white pine forest ecosystems.

  12. The atmospheric potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds from needles of White Pine (Pinus strobus in Northern Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bertman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The key role biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC play in atmospheric chemistry requires a detailed understanding of how BVOC concentrations will be affected by environmental change. Large-scale screening of ecosystems is difficult with enclosure methods. In this study, BVOC in needles of 71 white pine trees (Pinus strobus, which are becoming a large part of Midwest forests, are tracked for three summers at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS. α-pinene, the dominant terpene in all samples, accounts for 30–50% of all terpenes on a mole basis. The most abundant sesquiterpenoid was a C15 alcohol identified as germacrene-D-4-ol. The abundance of this material and its atmospheric relevance has not been considered previously. The relationship between limonene and α-pinene clearly shows two distinct trends in the population of these forests. About 15% of the trees showed high levels of limonene (up to 36% of the total BVOC in the same trees every year. With this mixture, limonene contributes 11% of the α-pinene contribution to total gas-phase OH loss at UMBS compared to less than 2% considering the composition of the majority trees. Hence we show that chemotypic variation within forests can affect atmospheric chemistry and that large-scale screening of BVOC can be used effectively to study the importance of BVOC variation for predicting atmospheric chemistry in future forests.

  13. Histological observations on needle colonization by Cronartium ribicola in susceptible and resistant seedlings of whitebark pine and limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Stone; Anna Schoettle; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to white pine blister rust based on a hypersensitive response (HR) that is conferred by a dominant gene has been identified as functioning in needles of blister rust-resistant families of sugar pine, western white pine and southwestern white pine. The typical HR response displays a characteristic local necrosis at the site of infection in the needles during...

  14. Observations and Modelling of DQ White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Vornanen, Tommi; Berdyugin, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We present spectropolarimetric observations and modelling of 12 DQ white dwarfs. Modelling is based on the method presented in Berdyugina et al. (2005). We use the model to fit the C_2 absorption bands to get atmospheric parameters in different configurations, including stellar spots and stratified atmospheres, searching for the best possible fit. We still have problem to solve before we can give temperature estimates based on the Swan bands alone.

  15. Growth models and site index table of natural Korean pine forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yuwen; Li Shi; Cui Hong; Li Changsheng; Lju Peng; Zhang Junhua

    1999-01-01

    According to the growth characteristics of natural Korean pine (Pinus Koraiensis) forests, 6 equations such as Chapman-Richards equation, Logistic equation, Power equation, and so on were selected to fit for the growth models for Korean pine forest. The growth models were developed based on 208 random trees and 240 dominant trees. Results show that the Chapman-Richards equation is the best model for estimating tree height by age and DBH, while the Parabola equation is fittest for predicting DBH by age or estimating age from DBH The site index table of Korean pine forest was compiled by using the proportional method with the Chapman-Richards equation as the guide curve and validated by accuracy test.

  16. Complex Response of White Pines to Past Environmental Variability Increases Understanding of Future Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation t...

  17. Fuel consumption models for pine flatwoods fuel types in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Modeling fire effects, including terrestrial and atmospheric carbon fluxes and pollutant emissions during wildland fires, requires accurate predictions of fuel consumption. Empirical models were developed for predicting fuel consumption from fuel and environmental measurements on a series of operational prescribed fires in pine flatwoods ecosystems in the southeastern...

  18. Restoration planting options for limber pines in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns

    2011-01-01

    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rocky Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pineʼs critical role in these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating these impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods, six limber pine seedling...

  19. Modelling the productivity of Anatolian black pine plantations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Teoman Güner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the relationships between height growth (site index of Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasina (Lamb. Holmboe and site factors of the plantation areas in Turkey. Data were collected from 118 sample plots by taking into consideration the variations of aspect, altitude, slope position, slope degree and site class. A representative tree for the productivity and soil samples were taken at each sample plot. Some chemical and physical properties of soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The relationships between site index values of the trees and site factors including parent material, soil, climate and topography were examined by using correlation, stepwise regression and regression tree analysis. Significant linear relations were found between site index of black pine and site factors being altitude, slope degree, slope position, annual rainfall, precipitation amount in the most drought month, solum depth and bedrock including granite, mica schist and dacite. Explanation variance percentage on the site index of black pine was found 54.4% by using regression tree analysis whereas explained variance become 34.7% by stepwise regression analysis.

  20. Soil Fungi Respond More Strongly Than Fine Roots to Elevated CO2 in a Model Regenerating Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will have significant effects on belowground processes which will affect forest structure and function. A model regenerating longleaf pine-wiregrass community [consisting of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), wiregrass (Aristida stricta), sand post oak (Quescus margaretta),...

  1. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  2. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  3. Modeling contemporary climate profiles of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and predicting responses to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2006-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically-based bioclimate model for the distribution of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) in western North America, latitudes 31° to 51° N and longitudes 102° to 125° W. Independent variables included 35 simple expressions of temperature and precipitation and their interactions....

  4. Modeling corewood-outerwood transition in loblolly pine using wood specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian R. Mora; H. Lee Allen; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark

    2007-01-01

    A modified logistic function was used for modeling specific-gravity profiles obtained from X-ray densitometry analysis in 675 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees in four regeneration trials. Trees were 21 or 22 years old at the time of the study. The function was used for demarcating corewood, transitional, and outerwood zones. Site and silvicultural effects were...

  5. Geologic map of the Alligator Ridge area, including the Buck Mountain East and Mooney Basin Summit quadrangles and parts of the Sunshine Well NE and Long Valley Slough quadrangles, White Pine County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Constance J.

    2000-01-01

    Data set describes the geology of Paleozoic through Quaternary units in the Alligator Ridge area, which hosts disseminated gold deposits. These digital files were used to create the 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Buck Mountain East and Mooney Basin Summit Quadrangles and parts of the Sunshine Well NE and Long Valley Slough Quadrangles, White Pine County, east-central Nevada.

  6. Contrasting the effects of organic matter removal and soil compaction on root biomass of 9-year-old red oak, white oak, and shortleaf pine in a Missouri Ozark forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Jr. Ponder

    2011-01-01

    Nine-year old artificially regenerated red oak (Quercus rubra L.), white oak (Q. alba L.), and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) trees were excavated from plot borders of a U.S. Forest Service long-term soil productivity study in the Carr Creek State Forest near Ellington, MO, to quantify treatment effects on...

  7. Two CYP4 genes of the Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and their transcript levels under different development stages and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, L; Wang, C; Zhang, X; Yu, J; Zhang, R; Chen, H

    2014-10-01

    Bark beetles oxidize the defensive monoterpenes of their host trees both to detoxify them and to convert them into components of their pheromone system. This oxidation is catalysed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and occurs in different stages of the insect. We identified two new CYP4 genes in the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi), and carried out bioinformatic analysis one the full-length nucleic acid sequences and deduced amino acid sequences. Differential expression of the CYP4 genes was observed between sexes, and within these significant differences amongst development stages, fed on phloem of Pinus armandi and exposed to stimuli((±)- α-pinene, (R)-(+)- α-pinene, (S)-(-)-α-pinene, (S)-(-)-β-pinene and (+)-3-carene) at 8 and 24 h, and their interactions were found upon exposure to host monoterpenes. Increased expression of CYP4 genes suggested that they play a role in the detoxification of monoterpenes released by the host trees. The differential transcript accumulation patterns of these bark beetle CYP4 genes provides insight into the ecological interactions of D. armandi with its host pine. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Site index models for calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in Thasos Island, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriaki Kitikidou; Diamantis Bountis; Elias Milios

    2011-01-01

    A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece) is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the BAILEY and CLUTTER (1974) function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  9. Site index models for calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the BAILEY and CLUTTER (1974 function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  10. SITE INDEX MODELS FOR CALABRIAN PINE (PinusbrutiaTen. IN THASOS ISLAND, GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinusbrutia Ten. in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the Bailey and Clutter (1974 function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  11. A stochastic model of tree architecture and biomass partitioning: application to Mongolian Scots pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Kang, Mengzhen; Lu, Qi; Letort, Véronique; Han, Hui; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2011-04-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal species used for windbreak and sand stabilization in arid and semi-arid areas in northern China. A model-assisted analysis of its canopy architectural development and functions is valuable for better understanding its behaviour and roles in fragile ecosystems. However, due to the intrinsic complexity and variability of trees, the parametric identification of such models is currently a major obstacle to their evaluation and their validation with respect to real data. The aim of this paper was to present the mathematical framework of a stochastic functional-structural model (GL2) and its parameterization for Mongolian Scots pines, taking into account inter-plant variability in terms of topological development and biomass partitioning. In GL2, plant organogenesis is determined by the realization of random variables representing the behaviour of axillary or apical buds. The associated probabilities are calibrated for Mongolian Scots pines using experimental data including means and variances of the numbers of organs per plant in each order-based class. The functional part of the model relies on the principles of source-sink regulation and is parameterized by direct observations of living trees and the inversion method using measured data for organ mass and dimensions. The final calibration accuracy satisfies both organogenetic and morphogenetic processes. Our hypothesis for the number of organs following a binomial distribution is found to be consistent with the real data. Based on the calibrated parameters, stochastic simulations of the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in plantations are generated by the Monte Carlo method, allowing analysis of the inter-individual variability of the number of organs and biomass partitioning. Three-dimensional (3D) architectures of young Mongolian Scots pines were simulated for 4-, 6- and 8-year-old trees. This work provides a new method for characterizing

  12. The relative contributions of disease and insects in the decline of a long-lived tree: a stochastic demographic model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Erik S; Jackson, Jenell I.; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Beck, Jennifer S.; Murray, Michael P.; Sahara, E. April

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens and insect pests have become increasingly important drivers of tree mortality in forested ecosystems. Unfortunately, understanding the relative contributions of multiple mortality agents to the population decline of trees is difficult, because it requires frequent measures of tree survival, growth, and recruitment, as well as the incidence of mortality agents. We present a population model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a high-elevation tree undergoing rapid decline in western North America. The loss of whitebark pine is thought to be primarily due to an invasive pathogen (white pine blister rust; Cronartium ribicola) and a native insect (mountain pine beetle; Dendroctonus ponderosae). We utilized seven plots in Crater Lake National Park (Oregon, USA) where 1220 trees were surveyed for health and the presence of blister rust and beetle activity annually from 2003–2014, except 2008. We constructed size-based projection matrices for nine years and calculated the deterministic growth rate (λ) using an average matrix and the stochastic growth rate (λs) by simulation for whitebark pine in our study population. We then assessed the roles of blister rust and beetles by calculating λ and λsusing matrices in which we removed trees with blister rust and, separately, trees with beetles. We also conducted life-table response experiments (LTRE) to determine which demographic changes contributed most to differences in λ between ambient conditions and the two other scenarios. The model suggests that whitebark pine in our plots are currently declining 1.1% per year (λ = 0.9888, λs = 0.9899). Removing blister rust from the models resulted in almost no increase in growth (λ = 0.9916, λs = 0.9930), while removing beetles resulted in a larger increase in growth (λ = 1.0028, λs = 1.0045). The LTRE demonstrated that reductions in stasis of the three largest size classes due to beetles contributed most to the smaller λ in the ambient condition

  13. Combustion characteristics of eastern white pine bark and Douglas fir planer shavings. Technical Progress Report No. 5, September 16, 1977--September 15, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, D.C.

    1978-12-01

    Significant quantities of wood residue fuels are presently being used in industrial steam generating facilities. Recent studies indicate that substantial additional quantities of wood residue fuels are available for energy generation in the form of steam and/or electricity. A limited data base on the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels has resulted in the installation and operation of inefficient combustion systems for these fuels. This investigation of the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels was undertaken to provide a data base which could be used to optimize the combustion of such fuels. Optimization of the combustion process in industrial boilers serves to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce air pollutant emissions generated in the combustion process. Data are presented on the combustion characteristics of eastern white pine bark mixed with Douglas fir planer shavings.

  14. Modeling a historical mountain pine beetle outbreak using Landsat MSS and multiple lines of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Sibold, Jason; Reich, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles are significant forest disturbance agents, capable of inducing widespread mortality in coniferous forests in western North America. Various remote sensing approaches have assessed the impacts of beetle outbreaks over the last two decades. However, few studies have addressed the impacts of historical mountain pine beetle outbreaks, including the 1970s event that impacted Glacier National Park. The lack of spatially explicit data on this disturbance represents both a major data gap and a critical research challenge in that wildfire has removed some of the evidence from the landscape. We utilized multiple lines of evidence to model forest canopy mortality as a proxy for outbreak severity. We incorporate historical aerial and landscape photos, aerial detection survey data, a nine-year collection of satellite imagery and abiotic data. This study presents a remote sensing based framework to (1) relate measurements of canopy mortality from fine-scale aerial photography to coarse-scale multispectral imagery and (2) classify the severity of mountain pine beetle affected areas using a temporal sequence of Landsat data and other landscape variables. We sampled canopy mortality in 261 plots from aerial photos and found that insect effects on mortality were evident in changes to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over time. We tested multiple spectral indices and found that a combination of NDVI and the green band resulted in the strongest model. We report a two-step process where we utilize a generalized least squares model to account for the large-scale variability in the data and a binary regression tree to describe the small-scale variability. The final model had a root mean square error estimate of 9.8% canopy mortality, a mean absolute error of 7.6% and an R2 of 0.82. The results demonstrate that a model of percent canopy mortality as a continuous variable can be developed to identify a gradient of mountain pine beetle severity on the

  15. Modeling Survival, Yield, Volume Partitioning and Their Response to Thinning for Longleaf Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Samuelson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill. is an important tree species of the southeast U.S. Currently there is no comprehensive stand-level growth and yield model for the species. The model system described here estimates site index (SI if dominant height (Hdom and stand age are known (inversely, the model can project Hdom at any given age if SI is known. The survival (N equation was dependent on stand age and Hdom, predicting greater mortality on stands with larger Hdom. The function that predicts stand basal area (BA for unthinned stands was dependent on N and Hdom. For thinned stands BA was predicted with a competition index that was dependent on stand age. The function that best predicted stand stem volume (outside or inside bark was dependent on BA and Hdom. All functions performed well for a wide range of stand ages and productivity, with coefficients of determination ranging between 0.946 (BA and 0.998 (N. We also developed equations to estimate merchantable volume yield consisting of different combinations of threshold diameter at breast height and top diameter for longleaf pine stands. The equations presented in this study performed similarly or slightly better than other reported models to estimate future N, Hdom and BA. The system presented here provides important new tools for supporting future longleaf pine management and research.

  16. Modelling water and {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Gielen, Sienke [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of {sup 36}Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous {sup 36}Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared

  17. Fine-scale modeling of bristlecone pine treeline position in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Jamis M.; Tran, Tyler J.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Weiss, Stuart B.; Salzer, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) and foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana) are valuable paleoclimate resources due to their longevity and climatic sensitivity of their annually-resolved rings. Treeline research has shown that growing season temperatures limit tree growth at and just below the upper treeline. In the Great Basin, the presence of precisely dated remnant wood above modern treeline shows that the treeline ecotone shifts at centennial timescales tracking long-term changes in climate; in some areas during the Holocene climatic optimum treeline was 100 meters higher than at present. Regional treeline position models built exclusively from climate data may identify characteristics specific to Great Basin treelines and inform future physiological studies, providing a measure of climate sensitivity specific to bristlecone and foxtail pine treelines. This study implements a topoclimatic analysis—using topographic variables to explain patterns in surface temperatures across diverse mountainous terrain—to model the treeline position of three semi-arid bristlecone and/or foxtail pine treelines in the Great Basin as a function of growing season length and mean temperature calculated from in situ measurements. Results indicate: (1) the treeline sites used in this study are similar to other treelines globally, and require a growing season length of between 147-153 days and average temperature ranging from 5.5°C-7.2°C, (2) site-specific treeline position models may be improved through topoclimatic analysis and (3) treeline position in the Great Basin is likely out of equilibrium with the current climate, indicating a possible future upslope shift in treeline position.

  18. White Matter Abnormalities and Animal Models Examining a Putative Role of Altered White Matter in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1% of the population worldwide. Although the dopamine (DA hypothesis is still keeping a dominant position in schizophrenia research, new advances have been emerging in recent years, which suggest the implication of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will briefly review some of recent human studies showing white matter abnormalities in schizophrenic brains and altered oligodendrocyte-(OL- and myelin-related genes in patients with schizophrenia and will consider abnormal behaviors reported in patients with white matter diseases. Following these, we will selectively introduce some animal models examining a putative role of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The emphasis will be put on the cuprizone (CPZ model. CPZ-fed mice show demyelination and OLs loss, display schizophrenia-related behaviors, and have higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex. These features suggest that the CPZ model is a novel animal model of schizophrenia.

  19. Antiaging Effect of Pine Pollen in Human Diploid Fibroblasts and in a Mouse Model Induced by D-Galactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Xiang Mao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was designed to investigate the effect of pine pollen against aging in human diploid fibroblast 2BS cells and in an accelerated aging model, which was established by subcutaneous injections with D-galactose daily for 8 weeks in C57BL/6J mice. Pine pollen (1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL is proved to delay the replicative senescence of 2BS cells as evidenced by enhanced cell proliferation, decreased SA-β-Gal activity, and reversed expression of senescence-associated molecular markers, such as p53, p21Waf1, p16INK4a, PTEN, and p27Kip1 in late PD cells. Besides, pine pollen reversed D-galactose-induced aging effects in neural activity and inflammatory cytokine levels, as indicated by improved memory latency time and reduced error rate in step-down test and decreased concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in model mice. Similar to the role of AGEs (advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG, pine pollen inhibited D-galactose-induced increment of AGEs levels thus reversed the aging phenotypes in model mice. Furthermore, the declined antioxidant activity was obviously reversed upon pine pollen treatment, which may account for its inhibitory effect on nonenzymatic glycation (NEG in vivo. Our finding presents pine pollen as an attractive agent with potential to retard aging and attenuate age-related diseases in humans.

  20. Relationship of Herd Density and Physical Parameters of White-tailed Deer in Northwest Florida Pine Flatwoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study assessing the effects of changes in deer density on physical parameters of deer in northwest Florida flatwoods. Biological data from white-tailed deer...

  1. Hybridization in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine as affected by the distance to nearby artificially regenerated stands of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The natural range of shortleaf pine encompasses 22 states from New York to Texas, second only to eastern white pine in the eastern United States. It is a species of minor and varying occurrence in most of these states usually found in association with other pines, but it is the only naturally occurring pine in the northwestern part of its range in Oklahoma, Arkansas,...

  2. Colonization history, host distribution, anthropogenic influence and landscape features shape populations of white pine blister rust, an invasive alien tree pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simren Brar

    Full Text Available White pine blister rust is caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales. This invasive alien pathogen was introduced into North America at the beginning of the 20th century on pine seedlings imported from Europe and has caused serious economic and ecological impacts. In this study, we applied a population and landscape genetics approach to understand the patterns of introduction and colonization as well as population structure and migration of C. ribicola. We characterized 1,292 samples of C. ribicola from 66 geographic locations in North America using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and evaluated the effect of landscape features, host distribution, and colonization history on the structure of these pathogen populations. We identified eastern and western genetic populations in North America that are strongly differentiated. Genetic diversity is two to five times higher in eastern populations than in western ones, which can be explained by the repeated accidental introductions of the pathogen into northeastern North America compared with a single documented introduction into western North America. These distinct genetic populations are maintained by a barrier to gene flow that corresponds to a region where host connectivity is interrupted. Furthermore, additional cryptic spatial differentiation was identified in western populations. This differentiation corresponds to landscape features, such as mountain ranges, and also to host connectivity. We also detected genetic differentiation between the pathogen populations in natural stands and plantations, an indication that anthropogenic movement of this pathogen still takes place. These results highlight the importance of monitoring this invasive alien tree pathogen to prevent admixture of eastern and western populations where different pathogen races occur.

  3. Colonization History, Host Distribution, Anthropogenic Influence and Landscape Features Shape Populations of White Pine Blister Rust, an Invasive Alien Tree Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Simren; Tsui, Clement K. M.; Dhillon, Braham; Bergeron, Marie-Josée; Joly, David L.; Zambino, P. J.; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    White pine blister rust is caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales). This invasive alien pathogen was introduced into North America at the beginning of the 20th century on pine seedlings imported from Europe and has caused serious economic and ecological impacts. In this study, we applied a population and landscape genetics approach to understand the patterns of introduction and colonization as well as population structure and migration of C. ribicola. We characterized 1,292 samples of C. ribicola from 66 geographic locations in North America using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluated the effect of landscape features, host distribution, and colonization history on the structure of these pathogen populations. We identified eastern and western genetic populations in North America that are strongly differentiated. Genetic diversity is two to five times higher in eastern populations than in western ones, which can be explained by the repeated accidental introductions of the pathogen into northeastern North America compared with a single documented introduction into western North America. These distinct genetic populations are maintained by a barrier to gene flow that corresponds to a region where host connectivity is interrupted. Furthermore, additional cryptic spatial differentiation was identified in western populations. This differentiation corresponds to landscape features, such as mountain ranges, and also to host connectivity. We also detected genetic differentiation between the pathogen populations in natural stands and plantations, an indication that anthropogenic movement of this pathogen still takes place. These results highlight the importance of monitoring this invasive alien tree pathogen to prevent admixture of eastern and western populations where different pathogen races occur. PMID:26010250

  4. Field testing various container types in New Brunswick: A fifth year report on test areas established in 1985 with black spruce, white spruce and jack pine seedlings. Technique No. 92:05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Report on a containerized seedling response trial established in 1984/85 to determine which container type produces the best growing medium for seedling development over a five-year period. The trial used jack pine, white spruce and black spruce seedlings in various types of styroblock, paperpot, low density poly, and bareroot configurations. Response was determined by measuring and monitoring percent survival, change in height growth, volume, total height, and 1990 leaders length.

  5. Dormancy termination of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. Ex D. Don) seeds is associated with changes in abscisic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurtado, J Allan; Ambrose, Stephen J; Cutler, Adrian J; Ross, Andrew R S; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kermode, Allison R

    2004-02-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola) seeds exhibit deep dormancy at maturity and seed populations require several months of moist chilling to reach their uppermost germination capacities. Abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), 7'-hydroxy ABA (7'OH ABA) and ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE), were quantified in western white pine seeds during dormancy breakage (moist chilling) and germination using an HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method with multiple reaction monitoring and internal standards incorporating deuterium-labeled analogs. In the seed coat, ABA and metabolite levels were high in dry seeds, but declined precipitously during the pre-moist-chilling water soak to relatively low levels thereafter. In the embryo and megagametophyte, ABA levels decreased significantly during moist chilling, coincident with an increase in the germination capacity of seeds. ABA catabolism occurred via several routes, depending on the stage and the seed tissue. Moist chilling of seeds led to increases in PA and DPA levels in both the embryo and megagametophyte. Within the embryo, 7'OH ABA and ABA-GE also accumulated during moist chilling; however, 7'OH ABA peaked early in germination. Changes in ABA flux, i.e. shifts in the ratio between biosynthesis and catabolism, occurred at three distinct stages during the transition from dormant seed to seedling. During moist chilling, the relative rate of ABA catabolism exceeded ABA biosynthesis. This trend became even more pronounced during germination, and germination was also accompanied by a decrease in the ABA catabolites DPA and PA, presumably as a result of their further metabolism and/or leaching/transport. The transition from germination to post-germinative growth was accompanied by a shift toward ABA biosynthesis. Dormant imbibed seeds, kept in warm moist conditions for 30 days (after an initial 13 days of soaking), maintained high ABA levels, while the amounts of PA, 7'OH ABA, and DPA

  6. Inhibition of cholesterol transport in an intestine cell model by pine-derived phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinsoo; Knudsen, Tine A; Nielsen, Anne-Louise; Duelund, Lars; Christensen, Morten; Hervella, Pablo; Needham, David; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2016-10-01

    We have quantified the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol transport by pine-derived phytosterols using an HT29-MTX intestine cell model that forms a mucus layer similar to that in the intestine. An artificial intestinal fluid consisting of digested fat, bile salt, cholesterol, and phytosterols was formulated in order to mimic the conditions in the intestine. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of the positive control, i.e., 0.1mM of cholesterol solubilized in the artificial intestine fluid, was found to be 0.33 (±0.17)×10(-6)cm/s. When 0.1mM β-sitosterol was solubilized alongside, Papp was effectively zero, corresponding to a total inhibition of cholesterol transport. A similar strong inhibition was found when commercial pine-derived phytosterols, PinVita™ FSP DuPont, were co-solubilized with cholesterol in the dietary model micelles, leading to Papp=0.06 (±0.06)×10(-6)cm/s, i.e., 5.5 times lower than the cholesterol positive control. Additionally, the effect of potential oral administration formulations generated by the pine-derived phytosterols was also characterized. The formulations were produced as a liquid formulation of the cholesterol-containing artificial intestine fluid. Six liquid formulations were tested of which four displayed a Papp in the range of 0-0.09×10(-6)cm/s. The remaining two formulations did not show any inhibition effect on cholesterol transport and even enhanced cholesterol transport. It was furthermore observed that the phytosterols were found in the collected intestine cells but not transported to the basolateral region in the intestinal cell model system.

  7. Modeling of bud break of Scots pine in northern Finland in 1908–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu eSalminen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bud break and height-growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in the northern boreal zone in Lapland, Finland, was followed through the entire growing seasons in 2001–2003 and 2008–2010 in sapling stands representing two different locations in northern Finland about 250 kilometers apart along latitudinal transect. The field measurements continued at the southern site also through 2011–2013. Air temperature was recorded hourly at the sites. A simple optimization algorithm (GA was used to adjust parameters of the models predicting the timing of bud break of Scots pine in order to minimize the difference between observed and predicted dates. The models giving the best performance and century-long daily temperatures were used to reconstruct bud-break time series. The temperature observations were recorded during 1908–2014 in Sodankylä that locates in-between the sapling stands in north–south direction and during 1877–2014 in Karasjok that is in Norway about 145 kilometers north-west from the northernmost stand of this study.On average buds began to extend on the beginning of May in the southernmost stand and in mid-May in the northernmost stands, and the variation between years was in the range of three weeks. Simple day-length-triggered (fixed date model predicted most accurately the date of bud break; RMSE was 2 and 4 days in the northern and southern site, respectively. The reconstructed bud-break series indicate that based on temperature observations from Sodankylä, growth onset of Scots pine clearly has advanced since 1960s but was as currently early in the 1920s and 1950s. Temperature record from Karasjok indicated similar variation but there was a weak linear trend advancing bud break by about 3–4 days during a 100 years period.

  8. Novel biosorbent with high adsorption capacity prepared by chemical modification of white pine (Pinus durangensis) sawdust. Adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Rabago, J J; Leyva-Ramos, R

    2016-03-15

    The natural sawdust (NS) from white pine (Pinus durangensis) was chemically modified by a hydrothermal procedure using citric, malonic and tartaric acids. The adsorption capacity of modified sawdust (MS) towards Pb(II) was considerably enhanced due to the introduction of carboxylic groups on the surface of MS during the modification, and the adsorption capacity was almost linearly dependent on the concentration of carboxylic sites. The NS surface was acidic, and the MS surface became more acidic after the modification. At T = 25 °C and pH = 5, the maximum adsorption capacity of the optimal MS towards Pb(II) was 304 mg/g, which is exceptionally high compared to NS and other MS reported previously. The adsorption capacity of MS was considerably reduced from 304 to 154 mg/g by decreasing the solution pH from 5 to 3 due to electrostatic interactions. The adsorption of Pb(II) on MS was reversible at pH = 2, but not at pH = 5. The contribution percentage of ion exchange to the overall adsorption capacity ranged from 70 to 99% and 10-66% at the initial pH of 3 and 5, respectively. Hence, the adsorption of Pb(II) on MS was mainly due to ion exchange at pH = 3 and to both ion exchange and electrostatic attraction at pH = 5.

  9. The Differential Effects of the Blue-Stain Fungus Leptographium qinlingensis on Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes in the Stem of Chinese White Pine (Pinus armandi Saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Pham

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When conifers such as Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi Fr. are attacked by insects or pathogens, they respond by increasing their content of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In this study, we determined the effects of the blue-stain fungus Leptographium qinlingensis Tang and Chen on monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in the phloem and xylem of the stem of P. armandi saplings. We found that the total monoterpene concentrations in the phloem and xylem of the stem and the total sesquiterpene concentrations in the xylem of the stem were significantly higher in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in control (mechanically wounded saplings or untreated saplings. Additionally, the proportions of β-pinene in the xylem of the stem and limonene + β-phellandrene in the phloem and xylem of the stem were significantly higher in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in both control and untreated saplings. The proportions of individual sesquiterpenes in the phloem and xylem of the stem were significantly greater in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in untreated saplings. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that increases in total monoterpene and sesquiterpene concentrations, as well as increases in the concentrations of β-pinene and limonene + β-phellandrene, may play an important defensive role against blue-stain fungus L. qinlingensis inoculation.

  10. Characterisation of GST genes from the Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their response to host chemical defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lulu; Ma, Junning; Ma, Mingyuan; Zhang, Haoqiang; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Ranran; Chen, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Bark beetles rely on their detoxifying enzymes to resist the defensive terpenoids of host trees. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) conjugate xenobiotic compounds with a glutathione moiety (GSH) and often work in tandem with cytochromes P450 or other enzymes that aid in the detoxification, sequestration or excretion of toxic compounds. We identified nine new GST genes in the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi) and carried out a bioinformatics analysis on the deduced full-length amino acid sequences. These genes belong to four different classes (epsilon, sigma, omega and theta). Differential transcript levels of each class of GST genes were observed between sexes, and, within these levels, significant differences were found among the different adult substages that were fed phloem of Pinus armandi and exposed to six stimuli [(±)-α-pinene, (-)-α-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, (+)-3-carene, (±)-limonene and turpentine] at 8 and 24 h. The increased transcription levels of GST genes suggested that they have some relationship with the detoxification of terpenoids that are released by host trees. The mediating oxidative stress that is caused by monoterpene might be the main role of the bark beetle GSTs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. THE WHITE-SELGIN MODEL - A BRIEF ANALYSIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BOGDAN BĂDESCU

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the model proposed by Professor White and further developed by professor Selgin and an analysis of the possibility of its implementation as a reform of the current monetary system...

  12. Modelling drought-induced dieback of Aleppo pine at the arid timberline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Lisa; Preisler, Yakir; Bert, Didier; Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Ogee, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    During the mid 1960's an ambitious afforestation programme was initiated in the Negev desert of Israel. After five decades enduring harsh growing conditions, the Aleppo pine forest of Yatir is now exhibiting signs of 'drought-induced' dieback. Since 2010, 5-10% of the entire Yatir population have died, however the pattern of mortality is extremely patchy with some areas exhibiting >80% mortality whilst others display none. In this presentation, we reflect on historic climatic and edaphic conditions that have triggered this landscape mosaic of survival and mortality and how physiological and hydraulic traits vary within this patchwork. In addition, we explore how these pine trees have responded physiologically over recent years (1996-2010) to a series of severe drought events using a combined approach that brings together micrometeorological, dendro-isotopic and dendro-climatological datasets alongside process-based modelling. In particular the dataset trends were investigated with the isotope-enabled ecosystem model MuSICA to explore the consequences of subsequent droughts and embolism on modelled carbohydrate and water pool dynamics and their impact on carbon allocation and ecosystem function.

  13. Comparing modelled and remotely sensed leaf area dynamics in an Aleppo pine semiarid forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquato, Marta; Medici, Chiara; Friend, Andrew D.; Francés, Félix

    2013-04-01

    Much of the Earth's terrestrial surface is subject to arid climatic water stress. In these regions, plant ecosystems are controlled by water availability, inducing a tight interconnection between the hydrological cycle and the vegetation dynamics. For this reason, and to fully reproduce water-controlled ecosystems' behaviour, it is essential to jointly model vegetation and the hydrological cycle. In this work, the performance of a parsimonious dynamic vegetation model, suitable for the inclusion in a conceptual ecohydrological model, is tested in a semi-arid Aleppo Pine forest area in the south-east of Spain. The model simulates gross primary production (GPP) as a function of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and the light use efficiency (LUE). Net primary production (NPP) is then calculated taking into account maintenance respiration. The modelling is focused particularly on simulating foliar biomass, which is obtained from NPP through an allocation equation based on the maximum LAI sustainable by the system, and considering turnover. An analysis of the information offered by MODIS EVI, NDVI, and LAI products was performed in order to investigate vegetation dynamics in the study site and to select the best indices to be used to evaluate the ecohydrological model's performance. EVI is reported in literature (Huete et al., 2002) to be sensitive to canopy structure, particularly to leaf area index (LAI). In accordance with the phenological cycle timing described for the Aleppo pine in similar climates (Muñoz et al., 2003), the EVI showed maximum values in spring and minimum values in winter. Similar results were found applying the aforementioned vegetation model to the study area. Contrasting simulated LAI with the EVI series, a correlation coefficient r = 0.57 was found. Concerning NDVI, its own definition links this index to the "greenness" of the target, so that it appears highly linked to chlorophyll content and vegetation condition, but only

  14. Modeling Potential Climatic Treeline of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, J. M.; Tran, T. J.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a valuable paleoclimate resource due to the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Recent work has shown that low growing season temperatures limit tree growth at the upper treeline ecotone. The presence of precisely dated remnant wood above modern treeline shows that this ecotone shifts at centennial timescales; in some areas during the Holocene climatic optimum treeline was 100 m higher than at present. A recent model from Paulsen and Körner (2014, doi:10.1007/s00035-014-0124-0) predicts global potential treeline position as a function of climate. The model develops three parameters necessary to sustain a temperature-limited treeline; a growing season longer than 94 days, defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C, and a mean temperature of 6.4 °C across the entire growing season. While maintaining impressive global accuracy in treeline prediction, these parameters are not specific to the semi-arid Great Basin bristlecone pine treelines in Nevada. In this study, we used 49 temperature sensors arrayed across approximately one square kilometer of complex terrain at treeline on Mount Washington to model temperatures using topographic indices. Results show relatively accurate prediction throughout the growing season (e.g., July average daily temperatures were modeled with an R2 of 0.80 and an RMSE of 0.29 °C). The modeled temperatures enabled calibration of a regional treeline model, yielding different parameters needed to predict potential treeline than the global model. Preliminary results indicate that modern Bristlecone pine treeline on and around Mount Washington occurs in areas with a longer growing season length (~160 days defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C) and a warmer seasonal mean temperature (~9 °C) than the global average. This work will provide a baseline data set on treeline position in the Snake Range derived only from parameters physiologically relevant to

  15. Transpiration and CO2 fluxes of a pine forest: modelling the undergrowth effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Granier

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A modelling study is performed in order to quantify the relative effect of allowing for the physiological properties of an undergrowth grass sward on total canopy water and carbon fluxes of the Le-Bray forest (Les-Landes, South-western France. The Le-Bray forest consists of maritime pine and an herbaceous undergrowth (purple moor-grass, which is characterised by a low stomatal control of transpiration, in contrast to maritime pine. A CO2-responsive land surface model is used that includes responses of woody and herbaceous species to water stress. An attempt is made to represent the properties of the undergrowth vegetation in the land surface model Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere, CO2-responsive, ISBA-A-gs. The new adjustment allows for a fairly different environmental response between the forest canopy and the understory in a simple manner. The model's simulations are compared with long term (1997 and 1998 micro-meteorological measurements over the Le-Bray site. The fluxes of energy, water and CO2, are simulated with and without the improved representation of the undergrowth vegetation, and the two simulations are compared with the observations. Accounting for the undergrowth permits one to improve the model's scores. A simple sensitivity experiment shows the behaviour of the model in response to climate change conditions, and the understory effect on the water balance and carbon storage of the forest. Accounting for the distinct characteristics of the undergrowth has a substantial and positive effect on the model accuracy and leads to a different response to climate change scenarios.

  16. New DA white dwarf evolutionary models and their pulsational properties

    CERN Document Server

    Corsico, A H; Benvenuto, O G; Serenelli, A M

    2001-01-01

    In this letter we investigate the pulsational properties of ZZ Ceti stars on the basis of new white dwarf evolutionary models calculated in a self-consistent way with the predictions of time dependent element diffusion and nuclear burning. In addition, full account is taken of the evolutionary stages prior to the white dwarf formation. Emphasis is placed on the trapping properties of such models. By means of adiabatic, non-radial pulsation calculations, we find, as a result of time dependent diffusion, a much weaker mode trapping effect, particularly for the high-period regime of the pulsation g-spectrum. This result is valid at least for models with massive hydrogen-rich envelopes. Thus, mode trapping would not be an effective mechanism to explain the fact that all the high periods expected from standard models of stratified white dwarfs are not observed in the ZZ Ceti stars.

  17. Modeling the effects of forest management on in situ and ex situ longleaf pine forest carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Martin; W.P. Cropper Jr; Kurt Johnsen; T.A. Stokes; John Butnor; P.H. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of forest carbon storage dynamics requires a variety of techniques including simulation models. We developed a hybrid model to assess the effects of silvicultural management systems on carbon (C) budgets in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations in the southeastern U.S. To simulate in situ C pools, the model integrates a growth and yield model...

  18. Modelling the Distribution of Forest-Dependent Species in Human-Dominated Landscapes: Patterns for the Pine Marten in Intensively Cultivated Lowlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    Full Text Available In recent years, the "forest-specialist" pine marten Martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western Italy. The colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. We collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the River Po (N Italy and relate them to 11 environmental variables by developing nine Species Distribution Models. To account for inter-model variability we used average ensemble predictions (EP. EP predicted a total of 482 suitable patches (8.31% of the total study area for the pine marten. The main factors driving pine marten occurrence in the western River Po plain were the distance from watercourses and the distance from woods. EP suggested that the pine marten may further expand in the western lowland, whilst the negligible residual wood cover of large areas in the central and eastern plain makes the habitat unsuitable for the pine marten, except for some riparian corridors and the pine wood patches bordering the Adriatic coast. Based on our results, conservation strategies should seek to preserve remnant forest patches and enhance the functional connectivity provided by riparian corridors.

  19. Modelling the Distribution of Forest-Dependent Species in Human-Dominated Landscapes: Patterns for the Pine Marten in Intensively Cultivated Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Alessandro; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Boano, Giovanni; Ruiz-González, Aritz; Saino, Nicola; Costa, Stefano; Milanesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the “forest-specialist” pine marten Martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western Italy. The colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. We collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the River Po (N Italy) and relate them to 11 environmental variables by developing nine Species Distribution Models. To account for inter-model variability we used average ensemble predictions (EP). EP predicted a total of 482 suitable patches (8.31% of the total study area) for the pine marten. The main factors driving pine marten occurrence in the western River Po plain were the distance from watercourses and the distance from woods. EP suggested that the pine marten may further expand in the western lowland, whilst the negligible residual wood cover of large areas in the central and eastern plain makes the habitat unsuitable for the pine marten, except for some riparian corridors and the pine wood patches bordering the Adriatic coast. Based on our results, conservation strategies should seek to preserve remnant forest patches and enhance the functional connectivity provided by riparian corridors. PMID:27368056

  20. Asteroseismology of pulsating DA white dwarfs with fully evolutionary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaus L.G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach for asteroseismology of DA white dwarfs that consists in the employment of a large set of non-static, physically sound, fully evolutionary models representative of these stars. We already have applied this approach with success to pulsating PG1159 stars (GW Vir variables. Our white dwarf models, which cover a wide range of stellar masses, effective temperatures, and envelope thicknesses, are the result of fully evolutionary computations that take into account the complete history of the progenitor stars from the ZAMS. In particular, the models are characterized by self-consistent chemical structures from the centre to the surface, a crucial aspect of white dwarf asteroseismology. We apply this approach to an ensemble of 44 bright DAV (ZZ Ceti stars.

  1. Height-diameter relationships for Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria: optimal combination of model type and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vassileva Stankova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The height-diameter relationship is an important and extensivelyinvestigated forest model, but generalized and mixed-effects models of wider applicability are currently lacking in the forest modeling literature for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in Bulgaria. Considering the practical advantages of deterministic and mixed-effects models, the present study aims to derive a generalized deterministic height-diameter relationship and a simple mixed-effects model for plantation-grown Scots pine in Bulgaria. Ten generalized and six local models of adequate mathematical properties were selected and examined in several subsequent steps with a representative data set.A deterministic model was derived for tree height reconstruction fromthe individual tree diameters, stand dominant height and diameter,number of trees per hectare and stand age. Mixed-effects models weredeveloped from the individual-tree and stand diameters and heights applicable to determine the height-diameter relationship in field surveys. Both types of models can be applied with confidence, according to their advantages and specifications, for estimating the height-diameter relationship of Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria, presenting a unique contribution for the particular species, study area and type of model. The choice of the tested models is relevant to the height-diameter relationship investigation of biologically related and geographically close species and types of stands and the study procedure allows repetition of the work to provide reliable solutions of the problem where information on such type of model is deficient or incomplete.

  2. Development of a pathway model to assess the exposure of European pine trees to pine wood nematode via the trade of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, J C; van der Werf, W; Hemerik, L; Magnusson, C; Robinet, C

    2017-04-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once established, eradication is not practically feasible. Therefore, preventing entry of PWN into new areas is crucial. Entry risk analysis can assist in targeting management to reduce the probability of entry. Assessing the entry of PWN is challenging due to the complexity of the wood trade and the wood processing chain. In this paper, we develop a pathway model that describes the wood trade and wood processing chain to determine the structure of the entry process. We consider entry of PWN through imported coniferous wood from China, a possible origin of Portuguese populations, to Europe. We show that exposure increased over years due to an increase in imports of sawn wood. From 2000 to 2012, Europe received an estimated 84 PWN propagules from China, 88% of which arose from imported sawn wood and 12% from round wood. The region in Portugal where the PWN was first reported is among those with the highest PWN transfer per unit of imported wood due to a high host cover and vector activity. An estimated 62% of PWN is expected to enter in countries where PWN is not expected to cause the wilt of pine trees because of low summer temperatures (e.g., Belgium, Sweden, Norway). In these countries, PWN is not easily detected, and such countries can thus serve as potential reservoirs of PWN. The model identifies ports and regions with high exposure, which helps targeting monitoring and surveillance, even in areas where wilt disease is not expected to occur. In addition, we show that exposure is most efficiently reduced by additional treatments in the country of origin, and/or import wood from PWN-free zones. Pathway modelling assists plant health managers in analyzing risks along the

  3. [Branch growth of Korean pine plantation based on nonlinear mixed model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hong; Li, Feng-Ri; Jia, Wei-Wei; Dong, Li-Hu

    2013-07-01

    Based on the branch analysis data from 36 sample trees in a Korean pine plantation in Mengjiagang Forest Farm of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, and by using Mitcherlich and Richards equations as the models of branch diameter and branch length growth, respectively, the effects of sampling plot and sample tree were investigated, and the nonlinear mixed models of branch diameter and branch length growth were established by the PROC NLMIXED procedure of SAS software. The evaluation statistics such as Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), -2Log likelihood, and likelihood ratio test (LRT) were used to compare the prediction precisions of the models. When considering plot effect, and taking alpha1 and alpha3 and beta1 and beta3 as the random parameters, respectively, the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance. When considering tree effect, and taking alpha2 and alpha3 and beta2 and beta3 as the random parameters, respectively, the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance. The nonlinear mixed model could not only reflect the mean variation of branch growth, but also show the differences among the individual trees. No matter considering plot effect or tree effect, the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better than that of the ordinary regression analysis model. Moreover, the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better when considering tree effect than considering plot effect.

  4. Modeling diameter distribution of the broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shunzhong; DAI Limin; LIU Guohua; YUAN Jianqiong; ZHANG Hengmin; WANG Qingli

    2006-01-01

    The broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest is a native vegetation in the Changbai Mountains, northeast China. The probability density functions including the normal, negative exponential, Weibull and finite mixture distribution, were used to describe the diameter distributions of the species groups and entire forest stand. There is a strong correlation between parameters and mean DBH except the shape parameters in the mixture distribution. The diameter classes of species and entire forest stand showed not negative exponential but normal and "S" distribution. The mixture function was better than normal and Weibull to describe the model distribution. The location parameter had an effect on the estimated frequency in the first diameter class, when the estimated location parameter was bigger than the lower limit of the first diameter class.

  5. Modeling in-situ pine root decomposition using data from a 60-year chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim H. Ludovici; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Daniel D. Richter

    2002-01-01

    Because the root system of a mature pine tree typically accounts for 20-30% of the total tree biomass, decomposition of large lateral roots and taproots following forest harvest and re-establishment potentially impact nutrient supply and carbon sequestration in pine systems over several decades. If the relationship between stump diameter and decomposition of...

  6. Modelling short-term variability in carbon and water exchange in a temperate Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Vermeulen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation – atmosphere carbon and water exchange at one particular site can strongly vary from year to year, and understanding this interannual variability in carbon and water exchange (IAVcw is a critical factor in projecting future ecosystem changes. However, the mechanisms driving this IAVcw are not well understood. We used data on carbon and water fluxes from a multi-year Eddy Covariance study (1997–2009 in a Dutch Scots pine forest and forced a process-based ecosystem model (LPJ-GUESS with local data to, firstly, test whether the model can explain IAVcw and seasonal carbon and water exchange from direct environmental factors only. Initial model runs showed low correlations with estimated annual gross primary productivity (GPP and annual actual evapotranspiration (AET, while monthly and daily fluxes showed high correlations. The model underestimated GPP and AET during winter and drought events. Secondly, we adapted the temperature inhibition function of photosynthesis to account for the observation that at this particular site, trees continue to assimilate at very low atmospheric temperatures (up to daily averages of −10 °C, resulting in a net carbon sink in winter. While we were able to improve daily and monthly simulations during winter by lowering the modelled minimum temperature threshold for photosynthesis, this did not increase explained IAVcw at the site. Thirdly, we implemented three alternative hypotheses concerning water uptake by plants in order to test which one best corresponds with the data. In particular, we analyse the effects during the 2003 heatwave. These simulations revealed a strong sensitivity of the modelled fluxes during dry and warm conditions, but no single formulation was consistently superior in reproducing the data for all time scales and the overall model-data match for IAVcw could not be improved. Most probably access to deep soil water leads to higher AET and GPP simulated during the heat wave of 2003

  7. Development of a pathway model to assess the exposure of European pine trees to pine wood nematode via the trade of wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Werf, Van Der W.; Hemerik, L.; Magnusson, C.; Robinet, C.

    2017-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once

  8. Detonability of white dwarf plasma: turbulence models at low densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, D.; Plewa, T.

    2017-06-01

    We study the conditions required to produce self-sustained detonations in turbulent, carbon-oxygen degenerate plasma at low densities. We perform a series of three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of turbulence driven with various degrees of compressibility. The average conditions in the simulations are representative of models of merging binary white dwarfs. We find that material with very short ignition times is abundant in case turbulence is driven compressively. This material forms contiguous structures that persist over many ignition times, and that we identify as prospective detonation kernels. Detailed analysis of prospective kernels reveals that these objects are centrally condensed and their shape is characterized by low curvature, supportive of self-sustained detonations. The key characteristic of the newly proposed detonation mechanism is thus high degree of compressibility of turbulent drive. The simulated detonation kernels have sizes notably smaller than the spatial resolution of any white dwarf merger simulation performed to date. The resolution required to resolve kernels is 0.1 km. Our results indicate a high probability of detonations in such well-resolved simulations of carbon-oxygen white dwarf mergers. These simulations will likely produce detonations in systems of lower total mass, thus broadening the population of white dwarf binaries capable of producing Type Ia supernovae. Consequently, we expect a downward revision of the lower limit of the total merger mass that is capable of producing a prompt detonation. We review application of the new detonation mechanism to various explosion scenarios of single, Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs.

  9. Native ectomycorrhizal fungi of limber and whitebark pine: Necessary for forest sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathy L. Cripps; Robert K. Antibus

    2011-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are an important component of northern coniferous forests, including those of Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and P. albicaulis (whitebark pine) which are being decimated by white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetles. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to promote seedling establishment, tree health, and may play a role in forest sustainability....

  10. Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on biomass and carbon accumulation in a model regenerating longleaf pine community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runion, G B; Davis, M A; Pritchard, S G; Prior, S A; Mitchell, R J; Torbert, H A; Rogers, H H; Dute, R R

    2006-01-01

    Plant species vary in response to atmospheric CO2 concentration due to differences in physiology, morphology, phenology, and symbiotic relationships. These differences make it very difficult to predict how plant communities will respond to elevated CO2. Such information is critical to furthering our understanding of community and ecosystem responses to global climate change. To determine how a simple plant community might respond to elevated CO2, a model regenerating longleaf pine community composed of five species was exposed to two CO2 regimes (ambient, 365 micromol mol(-1) and elevated, 720 micromol mol(-1)) for 3 yr. Total above- and belowground biomass was 70 and 49% greater, respectively, in CO2-enriched plots. Carbon (C) content followed a response pattern similar to biomass, resulting in a significant increase of 13.8 Mg C ha(-1) under elevated CO2. Responses of individual species, however, varied. Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) was primarily responsible for the positive response to CO2 enrichment. Wiregrass (Aristida stricta Michx.), rattlebox (Crotalaria rotundifolia Walt. Ex Gmel.), and butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa L.) exhibited negative above- and belowground biomass responses to elevated CO2, while sand post oak (Quercus margaretta Ashe) did not differ significantly between CO2 treatments. As with pine, C content followed patterns similar to biomass. Elevated CO2 resulted in alterations in community structure. Longleaf pine comprised 88% of total biomass in CO2-enriched plots, but only 76% in ambient plots. In contrast, wiregrass, rattlebox, and butterfly weed comprised 19% in ambient CO2 plots, but only 8% under high CO2. Therefore, while longleaf pine may perform well in a high CO2 world, other members of this community may not compete as well, which could alter community function. Effects of elevated CO2 on plant communities are complex, dynamic, and difficult to predict, clearly demonstrating the need for more research in this

  11. White Paper on DOE-HEP Accelerator Modeling Science Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Koniges, Alice; Friedman, Alex; Grote, David P; Bruhwiler, David L

    2013-01-01

    Toward the goal of maximizing the impact of computer modeling on the design of future particle accelerators and the development of new accelerator techniques & technologies, this white paper presents the rationale for: (a) strengthening and expanding programmatic activities in accelerator modeling science within the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) and (b) increasing the community-wide coordination and integration of code development.

  12. Delineating pMDI model reactions with loblolly pine via solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Part 1, Catalyzed reactions with wood models and wood polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    To better understand adhesive interactions with wood, reactions between model compounds of wood and a model compound of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) were characterized by solution-state NMR spectroscopy. For comparison, finely ground loblolly pine sapwood, milled-wood lignin and holocellulose from the same wood were isolated and derivatized with...

  13. Individual tree diameter increment model for managed even-aged stands of ponderosa pine throughout the western United States using a multilevel linear mixed effects model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh; William W. Oliver

    2008-01-01

    A diameter increment model is developed and evaluated for individual trees of ponderosa pine throughout the species range in the United States using a multilevel linear mixed model. Stochastic variability is broken down among period, locale, plot, tree and within-tree components. Covariates acting at tree and stand level, as breast height diameter, density, site index...

  14. Bi-directional exchange of ammonia in a pine forest ecosystem - a model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, Alexander; Hrdina, Amy; Murphy, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key component in the global nitrogen cycle and of great importance for atmospheric chemistry, neutralizing atmospheric acids and leading to the formation of aerosol particles. For understanding the role of NH3 in both natural and anthropogenically influenced environments, the knowledge of processes regulating its exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere is essential. A two-layer canopy compensation point model is used to evaluate the NH3 exchange in a pine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The net flux comprises the NH3 exchange of leaf stomata, its deposition to leaf cuticles and exchange with the forest ground. As key parameters the model uses in-canopy NH3 mixing ratios as well as leaf and soil emission potentials measured at the site in summer 2015. A sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate the major exchange pathways as well as the model's constraints. In addition, the NH3 exchange is examined for an extended range of environmental conditions, such as droughts or varying concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, in order to investigate their influence on the overall net exchange.

  15. Alternative Parameterization of the 3-PG Model for Loblolly Pine: A Regional Validation and Climate Change Assessment on Stand Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Teskey, R. O.; Martin, T.; Jokela, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is one of the fastest growing pine species. It has been planted on more than 10 million ha in the southeastern U.S., and also been introduced into many countries. Using data from the literature and long-term productivity studies, we re-parameterized the 3-PG model for loblolly pine stands. We developed new functions for estimating NPP allocation dynamics, canopy cover and needlefall dynamics, effects of frost on production, density-independent and density-dependent tree mortality, biomass pools at variable starting ages, and the fertility rating. New functions to estimate merchantable volume partitioning were also included, allowing for economic analyses. The fertility rating was determined as a function of site index (mean height of dominant trees at age=25 years). We used the largest and most geographically extensive validation dataset for this species ever used (91 pots in 12 states in U.S. and 10 plots in Uruguay). Comparison of modeled to measured data showed robust agreement across the natural range in the U.S., as well as in Uruguay, where the species is grown as an exotic. Using the new set of functions and parameters with downscaled projections from twenty different climate models, the model was applied to assess the impact of future climate change scenarios on stand productivity in the southeastern U.S.

  16. White dwarfs in an ungravity-inspired model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Mariji, Hodjat

    2016-05-01

    An ungravity-inspired model is employed to examine the astrophysical parameters of white dwarf stars (WDs) using polytropic and degenerate gas approaches. Based on the observed properties such as mass, radius, and luminosity of selected WDs, namely, Sirius B and ɛ Reticulum, bounds on the characteristic length and scaling dimension of the ungravity (UG) model are estimated. The UG effect on the Chandrasekhar limit for WDs is shown. The UG model is examined in the study of ultramassive WDs, e.g., EUVE J1746-706. The UG-inspired model implies that a new location for some WDs on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is found.

  17. White dwarfs in an ungravity-inspired model

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Orfeu

    2016-01-01

    An ungravity-inspired model is employed to examine the astrophysical parameters of white dwarf stars (WDs) using polytropic and degenerate gas approaches. Based on the observed properties such as mass, radius, and luminosity of selected WDs, namely, Sirius B and $\\epsilon$ Reticulum, bounds on the characteristic length and scaling dimension of the ungravity (UG) model are estimated. The UG effect on the Chandrasekhar limit for WDs is shown. The UG model is examined in the study of ultra-massive WDs, e.g., EUVE J1746-706. In the contact of UG inspired model, a new location for some WDs on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is found.

  18. Hydrocarbon fluxes above a Scots pine forest canopy: measurements and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rinne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We measured the fluxes of several hydrocarbon species above a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris stand using disjunct eddy covariance technique with proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry. The measurements were conducted during four days in July at SMEAR II research station in Hyytiälä, Finland. Compounds which showed significant emission fluxes were methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and monoterpenes. A stochastic Lagrangian transport model with simple chemical degradation was applied to assess the sensitivity of the above canopy fluxes to chemistry. According to the model, the chemical degradation had a minor effect on the fluxes measured in this study but may have a major effect on the vertical flux profiles of more reactive compounds, such as sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene fluxes derived using M81 and M137 had a systematic difference with the latter one being higher. These fluxes followed the traditional exponential temperature dependent emission algorithm but were considerably higher than the fluxes measured before at the same site. The normalized monoterpene emission potentials at 30°C, obtained using the temperature dependence coefficient of 0.09°C−1, were 2.0 μg gdw−1 h−1 and 2.5 μg gdw−1 h−1, for fluxes derived using M81 and M137.

  19. Parameter estimation in biogeochimical surface model using nonlinear inversion: optimization with measurements over a pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaren, D.; Peylin, P.; Viovy, N.; Ciais, P.

    2003-04-01

    Global model of Carbone, water, and energy exchanges between the biosphere and the atmosphere are usually validated and calibrated with intensive measurement made over specific ecosystem like those of the fluxnet networks.However the nonlinear dependance between fluxes and model parameters generally complicate the optimization of the major parameters.In this study, we estimate few key parameters of the ORCHIDEE french model,using diurnal variation measurements of latent heat,sensible heat and net CO2 fluxes for 3 weeks over pine forest (Landes, France).The model is forced with the observed climatic forcing: Temperature, income solar radiations,wind velocity norm, air humidity, pressure and precipitations. We will first present the inverse methodology and the problem linkedto the non linearity. The result of the optimization shows correlations within the initial ensemble of parameters which allow us to choose only five parameters determined independently from the observations. Directly related to the net CO2 flux, the maximum rate of carboxylation,Vcmax,and the stomatal conductance, gs, are significantly changed from their apriori estimate for that period. The aerodynamic resistance, the albedo and a parameter linked to maintenance respiration were also modified within their physical range.Overall the model fit to the data was largely improved. Note however that some discrepancies remain for sensible heat flux which would probably require some model improvements for the stocking of energy in the soil. Such work is currently extended in time to account for parameter variations between the season. The application to other ecosystems and with the supplementary data of the Leaf Area Index will be also discussed.

  20. Height-diameter relationships for Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria: optimal combination of model type and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vassileva Stankova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The height-diameter relationship is an important and extensively investigated forest model, but generalized and mixed-effects models of wider applicability are currently lacking in the forest modeling literature for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in Bulgaria. Considering the practical advantages of deterministic and mixed-effects models, the present study aims to derive a generalized deterministic height-diameter relationship and a simple mixed-effects model for plantation-grown Scots pine in Bulgaria. Ten generalized and six local models of adequate mathematical properties were selected and examined in several subsequent steps with a representative data set. A deterministic model was derived for tree height reconstruction from the individual tree diameters, stand dominant height and diameter, number of trees per hectare and stand age. Mixed-effects models were developed from the individual-tree and stand diameters and heights applicable to determine the height-diameter relationship in field surveys. Both types of models can be applied with confidence, according to their advantages and specifications, for estimating the height-diameter relationship of Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria, presenting a unique contribution for the particular species, study area and type of model. The choice of the tested models is relevant to the height-diameter relationship investigation of biologically related and geographically close species and types of stands and the study procedure allows repetition of the work to provide reliable solutions of the problem where information on such type of model is deficient or incomplete. 

  1. Modeling the vivid white color of the beetle Calothyrza margaritifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafait, J., E-mail: jacques.lafait@insp.jussieu.fr [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, CNRS-Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, INSP - 140, rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Andraud, C.; Berthier, S.; Boulenguez, J. [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, CNRS-Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, INSP - 140, rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Callet, P.; Dumazet, S. [Lab. Mathematiques Appliquees aux Systemes, Ecole Centrale Paris (France); Rassart, M.; Vigneron, J.-P. [Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium)

    2010-05-25

    The elytra of the longhorn Calothyrza margaritifera exhibit bright white zones which appear, under SEM, to be composed of structures looking like long white hairs: flat cone-shaped rods of 100-200 {mu}m in length and a base of 10-20 {mu}m. Each hair is composed of an envelope of chitin or chitin and associated proteins, filled with small agglomerated spheres of the same material, of mean diameter 550 nm. The optical properties of this multiscale structure have been characterized: hemispherical reflectance spectra, bidirectional reflectance spectra, spatial scattering maps. A multiscale optical model, taking into account this complex structure has been developed for predicting the optical properties. Starting from the SEM image, the representative basic scattering structure is extracted, from the scale of the nanometer to the millimeter. By using the Mie theory and solving the Radiative Transfer Equation, the local optical properties of this structure are calculated. Thanks to a 3D modeler the basic structural element is then duplicated with small deviations in its shape, position and orientation for reproducing the overall SEM image. A photon-mapping is then implemented on this 3D structure with a spectral evaluation of illumination maps based on Monte-Carlo ray shooting. The first predictions of this multiscale model are in qualitative and almost quantitative agreement with the white color measured on the elytron of this insect and of its spatial dispersion. The brightness of the visual effect is explained by considerations about the human vision.

  2. Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Verbeeck

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage water use is an indirect consequence of the interplay between different meteorological drivers through their effect on water flow and water potential in trees. We studied these microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation and vapour pressure deficit (VPD were the main atmospheric drivers of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed. VPD was determined to be one of the main drivers of these differences. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. The daily minimum tree water content was lower in periods of high VPD, but the reserves were not completely depleted after the first day of high VPD, due to refilling during the night.

    Nevertheless, the tree water content deficit was a third important factor influencing storage water use. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water content

  3. Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brudvig, Lars A. [Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University; Orrock, John L. [Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin; Damschen, Ellen I. [Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin; et al, et al

    2014-01-23

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils lol(which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together. and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients–i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility

  4. Land-use history and contemporary management inform an ecological reference model for longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars A Brudvig

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils (which broadly structure these communities, and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients-i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes. Our study demonstrates

  5. Land-use history and contemporary management inform an ecological reference model for longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Orrock, John L; Damschen, Ellen I; Collins, Cathy D; Hahn, Philip G; Mattingly, W Brett; Veldman, Joseph W; Walker, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils (which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients-i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility of

  6. Growth Model of Pine (Pinus merkusii Jungh. Et de Vriese Stand on Community Forest in Tana Toraja Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melewanto Patabang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth modeling and yield simulation of forest is a very important aspect in forest management including community forests. Stand growth model is an abstraction of the dynamic nature of a forest stand, including growth, ingrowths, mortality, and other changes in the structure and composition of the stand. In forest management, growth estimation plays an important role in supporting the sustainability of the benefits value of the community forests. The objectives of the research were to find out the stand growth model and the potential of community's pine forest. The study was conducted at the location of the community pine forests in District Mengkendek Tana Toraja Regency. Sample location, as representative of stand age classes that distribute on some villages in Mengkendek District, were selected by purposive sampling.The study results indicate that the most suitable model for upper trees mean height (H is Weibull Model, for growth diameter and growth volume is Logistic Model  . The stand mean height (h can be presented as a function of H and Relative Spacing Ratio (Sr on the basis of function log Sr = 0,197 – 0,653 log H, then the tree volume, can be estimated on the basis of function log V = -1,70 + 0,94logD + 1,50logh, and then the growth function of volume on the basis of function V = 1.008 / 1 + 251.322 exp(-0.373t. Further, the maximum value of stand Annual Increment was 18 m3ha-1year-1, attained at the age of 20 years.Keywords: community's pine forest, stand growth, tree volume, annual increment

  7. Isolation and expression of HMG-CoA synthase and HMG-CoA reductase genes in different development stages, tissues and treatments of the Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi (Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiamin; Dai, Lulu; Zhang, Ranran; Li, Zhumei; Pham, Thanh; Chen, Hui

    2015-09-01

    We isolated two full-length cDNAs encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A synthase (HMG-S) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-R) from the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi), and carried out some bioinformatic analysis on the full-length nucleic acid sequences and deduced amino acid sequences. Differential expression of the DaHMG-S and DaHMG-R genes was observed between sexes (emerged adults), and within these significant differences among development stage, tissue distribution, fed on phloem of Pinus armandi and topically applied juvenile hormone (JH) III. Increase of DaHMG-S and DaHMG-R mRNA levels in males suggested that they may play a role in mevalonate pathway. Information from the present study might contribute to understanding the relationship between D. armandi and its semiochemical production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The white-light flare of 1982 June 15 - Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Avrett, Eugene H.; Machado, Marcos E.

    1990-01-01

    Models are presented for the two continuum-emitting kernels observed in the white-light flare (WLF) of June 15, 1982. They are the first semiempirical models of a WLF which are consistent not only with observations of the continuum emission level but also with a set of spectral lines having heights of formation which span the chromosphere and upper photosphere. It is shown that the models are not compatible with the hypothesis that the continuum emission is caused by enhanced Balmer and Paschen hydrogen continua, and they present strong evidence instead that the emission is of photospheric origin and that its source is due to H(-). The observation and the models derived from them show that white-light emission can occur in areas of the active region where there is no chromospheric emission and in particular no H-alpha emission. This fact seems to rule out the viability of downward transport mechanisms as the source of the energy required for the WLF.

  9. The white-light flare of 1982 June 15 - Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauas, P.J.D.; Avrett, E.H.; Machado, M.E. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) Comision Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales, San Miguel (Argentina))

    1990-09-01

    Models are presented for the two continuum-emitting kernels observed in the white-light flare (WLF) of June 15, 1982. They are the first semiempirical models of a WLF which are consistent not only with observations of the continuum emission level but also with a set of spectral lines having heights of formation which span the chromosphere and upper photosphere. It is shown that the models are not compatible with the hypothesis that the continuum emission is caused by enhanced Balmer and Paschen hydrogen continua, and they present strong evidence instead that the emission is of photospheric origin and that its source is due to H(-). The observation and the models derived from them show that white-light emission can occur in areas of the active region where there is no chromospheric emission and in particular no H-alpha emission. This fact seems to rule out the viability of downward transport mechanisms as the source of the energy required for the WLF. 31 refs.

  10. Deterministic Models of Inhalational Anthrax in New Zealand White Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Computational models describing bacterial kinetics were developed for inhalational anthrax in New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits following inhalation of Ames strain B. anthracis. The data used to parameterize the models included bacterial numbers in the airways, lung tissue, draining lymph nodes, and blood. Initial bacterial numbers were deposited spore dose. The first model was a single exponential ordinary differential equation (ODE) with 3 rate parameters that described mucociliated (physical) clearance, immune clearance (bacterial killing), and bacterial growth. At 36 hours postexposure, the ODE model predicted 1.7×107 bacteria in the rabbit, which agreed well with data from actual experiments (4.0×107 bacteria at 36 hours). Next, building on the single ODE model, a physiological-based biokinetic (PBBK) compartmentalized model was developed in which 1 physiological compartment was the lumen of the airways and the other was the rabbit body (lung tissue, lymph nodes, blood). The 2 compartments were connected with a parameter describing transport of bacteria from the airways into the body. The PBBK model predicted 4.9×107 bacteria in the body at 36 hours, and by 45 hours the model showed all clearance mechanisms were saturated, suggesting the rabbit would quickly succumb to the infection. As with the ODE model, the PBBK model results agreed well with laboratory observations. These data are discussed along with the need for and potential application of the models in risk assessment, drug development, and as a general aid to the experimentalist studying inhalational anthrax. PMID:24527843

  11. Behavior and sensitivity of an optimal tree diameter growth model under data uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2005-01-01

    Using loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, white oak, and northern red oak as examples, this paper considers the behavior of potential relative increment (PRI) models of optimal tree diameter growth under data uncertainity. Recommendations on intial sample size and the PRI iteractive curve fitting process are provided. Combining different state inventories prior to PRI model...

  12. A multivariate mixed model system for wood specific gravity and moisture content of planted loblolly pine stands in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alex Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2012-01-01

    Specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) both have a strong influence on the quantity and quality of wood fiber. We proposed a multivariate mixed model system to model the two properties simultaneously. Disk SG and MC at different height levels were measured from 3 trees in 135 stands across the natural range of loblolly pine and the stand level values were used...

  13. Thermal structure and basal sliding parametrisation at Pine Island Glacier – a 3-D full-Stokes model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wilkens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pine Island Glacier is one of the fastest changing glaciers in the Antarctic Ice Sheet and therefore in scientific focus. The glacier holds enough ice to raise global sea level significantly (∼0.5 m, when fully melted. The question addressed by numerous modelling studies of the glacier focuses on whether the observed changes are a start for an uncontrolled and accelerating retreat. The movement of the glacier is, in the fast flowing areas, dominated by basal motion. In modelling studies the parametrisation of the basal motion is therefore crucial. Inversion methods are commonly applied to reproduce the complex surface flow structure at Pine Island Glacier, which use information of the observed surface velocity field, to constrain basal sliding. We introduce two different approaches of combining a physical parameter, the basal roughness, with basal sliding parametrisations. This way basal sliding is connected again to its original formulation. We show that the basal roughness is an important and helpful parameter to consider and that many features of the flow structure could be reproduced with these approaches.

  14. 华山松大小蠹成虫粪便挥发性物质分析%Volatile Compounds in the Frass of Adult Chinese White Pine Beetle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绍平; 陈辉; 吴琼

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from phloem of healthy Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi Franch) and fresh frass of Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi Tsai et Li) were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show that the most substances were sesquitertenes, followed by monoterpenes, no diterpenes were detected in frass and phloem. There was significant difference both in constituents and contents between beetle adult frass and trees phloem. The content of monoterpene was much more but the sesquitertene was less in frass of Chinese white pine beetle than those in phloem of healthy Chinese white pine. Fifteen substances such as 6 ,6-dimethyl- bicyclo[3. 1. 1] hept-2-ene-2-carboxaldehyde, 1, 3 , 3-trimethyl-bicyclo[2. 2. l]heptan-2-ol, 2 ,3-dimethyl-tricycle [2. 2. 1. 0(2,6)] heptane-3-methanol, and so on were detected only in adult D. armandi frass, of which eight substances such as 4 ,6 ,6-trimethyl-(lS)-bicycle[3. 1. l]hept-3-en-2-one, 1,3, 3- trimethyl-bicycle[2. 2. l]heptan-2-one, pallyl-anisole were only detected in female frass and 3,7-dimeth-yl-1, 6~octadien-3-ol, 2 , 2 , 3-trimethyl-3-cyclopentene-l-acetaldehyde, butylated hydroxytoluene in male frass, which provided theoretical basis to the host selection of adults D. armandi to Chinese white pine and secretion of D. armandi pheromone.%采用固相微萃取(SPME)和气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术,对华山松大小蠹(Dendroctonus armandi Tsai et Li)成虫新鲜粪便和华山松韧皮部中的挥发性物质进行了分析.结果表明,华山松大小蠹雌雄成虫新鲜粪便和华山松韧皮部中挥发性物质以倍半萜类物质最多,其次是单萜类物质,而未见有二萜类物质,华山松大小蠹雌雄成虫粪便和华山松韧皮部中挥发性物质在成分和含量上都有较大差别,粪便中单萜类物质含量明显高于韧皮部,而倍半萜含量则低于韧皮部.此外,6,6-二甲基-2-

  15. A Model of White Dwarf Pulsar AR Scorpii

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Jin-Jun; Huang, Yong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A 3.56-hour white dwarf (WD) - M dwarf (MD) close binary system, AR Scorpii, was recently reported to show pulsating emission in radio, IR, optical, and UV, with a 1.97-minute period, which suggests the existence of a WD with a rotation period of 1.95 minutes. We propose a model to explain the temporal and spectral characteristics of the system. The WD is a nearly perpendicular rotator, with both open field line beams sweeping the MD stellar wind periodically. A bow shock propagating into the stellar wind accelerates electrons in the wind. Synchrotron radiation of these shocked electrons can naturally account for the broad-band (from radio to X-rays) spectral energy distribution of the system.

  16. Air pollution damage to Austrian pine in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.; Davis, S.H. Jr.

    1967-11-01

    Following a period of high pollution, extensive needle damage was observed on Austrian pine trees. Since the species is common in New Jersey, it was possible to obtain an approximation of its sensitivity. In nurseries, Christmas tree plantations and park areas, which included many species of conifers in addition to Austrian pine, species specifically noted as free from apparent damage were white pine (Pinus strobus), scotch pine (P. sylvestris), red pine (P. resinosa), Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica glauca), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Colorado spruce (P. pungens), white spruce (P. canadensis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), and many varieties of juniper, arbor vitae, hemlock, and yew. During the survey needle damage, which could be traced back to the episode of 24 June, was also observed on Japanese red pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. Thunbergil). The injury to Japanese red pine was identical to that on Austrian pine, but on Japanese black pine the damage appeared not on the current year's needles, but on 1-year-old needles and it did not have the distinctive dividing line between injured and healthy tissue. These two species did not occur in sufficient number to allow further evaluation. Austrian pine has been cited in the literature as very tolerant of industrial smoke. Currently, German foresters are advising aginst the use of spruce and firs in industrial areas and are recommending ''resistant species as Austrian pine.'' In New Jersey fluoride damage has been observed on Austrian pine on occasion over the past 20 years. Because of the damage also caused by photochemical smog in New Jersey, the resistance of the species should be reevaluated. A need may develop for a breeding program to provide resistant material to the highly polluted metropolitan areas.

  17. Restoration planting options for limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. M. A. Casper; W. R. Jacobi; Anna Schoettle; K. S. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Limber pine Pinus flexilis James populations in the southern Rocky Mountains are threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. To develop restoration planting methods, six P. flexilis seedling planting trial sites were installed along a geographic gradient from southern Wyoming to southern Colorado. Experimental...

  18. A range-wide restoration strategy for whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; D. F. Tomback; C. A. Aubry; A. D. Bower; E. M. Campbell; C. L. Cripps; M. B. Jenkins; M. F. Mahalovich; M. Manning; S. T. McKinney; M. P. Murray; D. L. Perkins; D. P. Reinhart; C. Ryan; A. W. Schoettle; C. M. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), an important component of western high-elevation forests, has been declining in both the United States and Canada since the early Twentieth Century from the combined effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, fire exclusion policies, and the spread of the exotic disease white pine blister rust (caused by the...

  19. Pre-dispersal seed predator dynamics at the northern limits of limber pine distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon S. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is listed provincially as endangered in the northern part of its geographic range (Alberta) due to the high mortality caused by white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola) and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and limited regeneration opportunities due to fire exclusion. In the case of an endangered species, seed...

  20. Modelling merchantable volumes for uneven aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton stands established by natural regeneration in the central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alegria

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration have a great expression in Portugal. These stands being overstocked, as opposed to those established from plantations, provide straight and cylindrical tree boles and logs with less knots that makes them very suitable for certain industrial purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to fit a set of equations to predict total volume and merchantable volumes to any merchantable limit for uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration in the central inland region of Portugal. Data were collected in 30 circular sampling plots of 500 m2 of area, on 1426 trees and 314 sample trees for volume assessment, corresponding to 2353 diameter/height mea-surements. A total height equation, a total volume equation, a volume ratio equation to any top height limit and a taper equation, over bark, were fitted. To select among the best models, several statistics were computed during model fitting and the independent validation procedure to evaluate model fitting, collinearity and prediction performances. A ranking index was used to support the final decision. The models selected were then fitted again using robust regression and weighted regression techniques, because studentized residuals distribution normality and homogeneity assumptions were not observed. This research showed that the models selected for these stands were not the same as those selected in previous studies for the species in this region, suggesting that these results may be due to the influence of stand density conditions on diameter and total height growth, and consequently, on stem form and volume. This set of equations will also be included as components in a single tree growth and yield model developed for these stands.

  1. Growth Model of Pine (Pinus merkusii Jungh. Et de Vriese Stand on Community Forest in Tana Toraja Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melewanto Patabang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth modeling and yield simulation of forest is a very important aspect in forest management including community forests. Stand growth model is an abstraction of the dynamic nature of a forest stand, including growth, ingrowths, mortality, and other changes in the structure and composition of the stand. In forest management, growth estimation plays an important role in supporting the sustainability of the benefits value of the community forests. The objectives of the research were to find out the stand growth model and the potential of community's pine forest. The study was conducted at the location of the community pine forests in District Mengkendek Tana Toraja Regency. Sample location, as representative of stand age classes that distribute on some villages in Mengkendek District, were selected by purposive sampling.The study results indicate that the most suitable model for upper trees mean height (H is Weibull Model, for growth diameter and growth volume is Logistic Model . The stand mean height (h can be presented as a function of H and Relative Spacing Ratio (Sr on the basis of function log Sr = 0,197 – 0,653 log H, then the tree volume, can be estimated on the basis of function log V = -1,70 + 0,94logD + 1,50logh, and then the growth function of volume on the basis of function V = 1.008 / 1 + 251.322 exp(-0.373t. Further, the maximum value of stand Annual Increment was 18 m3ha-1year-1, attained at the age of 20 years.

  2. Models of Vortices and Spirals in White Dwarf's Accretion Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, Daniela

    2010-11-01

    The main aim in the current survey is to suggest models of the development of structures, such as vortices and spirals, in accretion white dwarf's binaries. On the base of hydrodynamical analytical considerations it is applied numerical methods and simulations. It is suggested in the theoretical model the perturbation's parameters of the accretion flow, caused by the influences of the tidal wave over the flux of accretion matter around the secondary star. To examine such disturbed flow, the numerical code has involved in the calculations. The results reveal us an appearing of structure with spiral shape due to the tidal interaction in the close binaries. Our further simulations give the solution, which expresses the formation of vortical configurations in the accretion disc's zone. The evolution of vortices in areas of the flow's interaction is explored using single vortex and composite vortex models. Gas in the disc matter is considered to be compressible and non-ideal. The longevity of all these structures is different and each depends of time period of the rotation, density and velocity of the accretion matter.

  3. Hydrologic Modeling of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, S. M.; Newton, B. T.; Person, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The shallow groundwater flow system of White Sands dune field, located within the Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico, likely stabilizes the base of the largest gypsum dunefield in the world. Water table geometry and elevation play a critical role in controlling dune thickness, spatial extent, and migration rates. The White Sands National Monument (WHSA) is concerned that lowering the water table may lead to increased scour and migration of the dune field, which could be unfavorable to the preservation of the flora and fauna that have adapted to survive there. In response to projected increases in groundwater pumping in the regional Tularosa Basin groundwater system, changes in surface water use, and the threat of climate change, the WHSA is interested in understanding how these changes on a regional scale may impact the shallow dune aquifer. We have collected hydrological, geochemical, and geophysical data in order to identify the sources of recharge that contribute to the shallow dune aquifer and to assess interactions between this water table aquifer and the basin-scale, regional system. Vertical head gradients, temperature, and water quality data strongly suggest that local precipitation is the primary source of recharge to the dune aquifer today. This suggests that the modern dune system is relatively isolated from the deeper regional system. However, geochemical and electrical resistivity data indicates that the deeper basin groundwater system does contribute to the shallow system and suggests that hydrologic conditions have changed on geologic time scales. We have constructed a preliminary cross-sectional hydrologic model to attempt to characterize the interaction of the shallow dune aquifer with the deeper basin groundwater. The model cross-section extends about 80 km across the Tularosa Basin in a NW-SE direction parallel to the primary flow path. We represented 6 km of Precambrian crystalline basement, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks as well as Pleistocene

  4. White paper: A conceptual model on women and girls' empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van; Wong, F.; Vaast, C.; Newton, J.; Tyszler, M.; Pennington, A.

    2017-01-01

    This White Paper defines empowerment of women and girls as 'the expansion of choice and strengthening of voice through the transformation of power relations, so women and girls have more control over their lives and futures'. Empowerment is both a process and an outcome. This White Paper presents a

  5. Tracking the footsteps of an invasive plant pathogen: Intercontinental phylogeographic structure of the white-pine-blister-rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Yuko Ota; Kwan Soo Woo; Richard C. Hamelin

    2009-01-01

    Presently, little is known about the worldwide genetic structure, diversity, or evolutionary relationships of the white-pineblister-rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola. A collaborative international effort is underway to determine the phylogeographic relationships among Asian, European, and North American sources of C. ribicola and...

  6. Cytochrome P450s from the Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi (Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Expression profiles of different stages and responses to host allelochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lulu; Ma, Mingyuan; Wang, Chunyan; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Ranran; Chen, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Bark beetles oxidize the defensive allelochemicals from their host trees to both detoxify and convert these materials into components of their pheromone system. The ability of this insect to adapt to its chemical environment might be explained by the action of major detoxification enzymes such as cytochrome P450s (or CYPs). Sixty-four sequences coding for P450s were identified, and most of the transcripts were found to be expressed in the larvae, pupae and adults of Dendroctonus armandi. To gain information on how these genes help D. armandi overcome the host defense, differential transcript levels of the CYP genes were observed between sexes and within the sexes. Significant differences were observed among developmental stages, in feeding on the phloem of Pinus armandi and in exposure to stimuli ((±)-α-pinene, (S)-(-)-α-pinene, (S)-(-)-β-pinene, (+)-3-carene, (±)-limonene and turpentine oil) for 8 h. We investigated the effect of sex and generations on the survivorship of individual D. armandi that were exposed to host volatiles at concentrations comparable to constitutive and induced levels of defense using fumigant exposure to understand the ability of the beetles to tolerate host defensive chemicals. The differential transcript accumulation patterns of CYP genes of these bark beetle provided insight into the ecological interactions of D. armandi with its host pine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of an introduced pathogen and fire exclusion on the demography of sugar pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Keeley, Jon E.

    2004-01-01

    An introduced pathogen, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), has caused declines in five-needled pines throughout North America. Simultaneously, fire exclusion has resulted in dense stands in many forest types, which may create additional stress for these generally shade-intolerant pines. Fire exclusion also allows fuels to accumulate, and it is unclear how affected populations will respond to the reintroduction of fire. Although white pine blister rust and fire exclusion are widely recognized threats, long-term demographic data that document the effects of these stressors are rare. We present population trends from 2168 individuals over 5–15 years for an affected species, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), at several burned and unburned sites in the Sierra Nevada of California. Size-based matrix models indicate that most unburned populations have negative growth rates (λ range: 0.82–1.04). The growth rate of most populations was, however, indistinguishable from replacement levels (λ = 1.0), implying that, if populations are indeed declining, the progression of any such decline is slow, and longer observations are needed to clearly determine population trends. We found significant differences among population growth rates, primarily due to variation in recruitment rates. Deaths associated with blister rust and stress (i.e., resource competition) were common, suggesting significant roles for both blister rust and fire exclusion in determining population trajectories. Data from 15 prescribed fires showed that the immediate effect of burning was the death of many small trees, with the frequency of mortality returning to pre-fire levels within five years. In spite of a poor prognosis for sugar pine, our results suggest that we have time to apply and refine management strategies to protect this species.

  8. Blister rust resistance among 19 families of whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, from Oregon and Washington – early results from an artificial inoculation trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelia Kegley; Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Douglas P. Savin

    2012-01-01

    Whitebark pine is considered one of the most susceptible white pine species to white pine blister rust, the disease caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. High mortality from blister rust and other factors in much of the range in the United States and Canada have raised serious concerns about the future viability of this high-...

  9. Modeling and optimization of white paint back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipovšek, B.; Krč, J.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Topič, M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusive dielectric materials such as white paint have been demonstrated as effective back reflectors in the photovoltaic technology. In this work, a one-dimensional (1D) optical modeling approach for simulation of white paint films is developed and implemented in a 1D optical simulator for thin-fi

  10. Modeling and optimization of white paint back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipovšek, B.; Krč, J.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Topič, M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusive dielectric materials such as white paint have been demonstrated as effective back reflectors in the photovoltaic technology. In this work, a one-dimensional (1D) optical modeling approach for simulation of white paint films is developed and implemented in a 1D optical simulator for thin-fi

  11. Modeling ultrafine particle growth at a pine forest site influenced by anthropogenic pollution during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y. Y.; Hodzic, A.; Smith, J. N.; Ortega, J.; Brioude, J.; Matsui, H.; Levin, E. J. T.; Turnipseed, A.; Winkler, P.; de Foy, B.

    2014-10-01

    Formation and growth of ultrafine particles is crudely represented in chemistry-climate models, contributing to uncertainties in aerosol composition, size distribution, and aerosol effects on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Measurements of ultrafine particles, their precursor gases, and meteorological parameters were performed in a ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Front Range in July-August 2011, and were analyzed to study processes leading to small particle burst events (PBEs) which were characterized by an increase in the number concentrations of ultrafine 4-30 nm diameter size particles. These measurements suggest that PBEs were associated with the arrival at the site of anthropogenic pollution plumes midday to early afternoon. During PBEs, number concentrations of 4-30 nm diameter particles typically exceeded 104 cm-3, and these elevated concentrations coincided with increased SO2 and monoterpene concentrations, and led to a factor-of-2 increase in CCN concentrations at 0.5% supersaturation. The PBEs were simulated using the regional WRF-Chem model, which was extended to account for ultrafine particle sizes starting at 1 nm in diameter, to include an empirical activation nucleation scheme in the planetary boundary layer, and to explicitly simulate the subsequent growth of Aitken particles (10-100 nm) by condensation of organic and inorganic vapors. The updated model reasonably captured measured aerosol number concentrations and size distribution during PBEs, as well as ground-level CCN concentrations. Model results suggest that sulfuric acid originating from anthropogenic SO2 triggered PBEs, and that the condensation of monoterpene oxidation products onto freshly nucleated particles contributes to their growth. The simulated growth rate of ~ 3.4 nm h-1 for 4-40 nm diameter particles was comparable to the measured average value of 2.3 nm h-1. Results also suggest that the presence of PBEs tends to modify the composition of sub-20 nm diameter

  12. Mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine: Comparing methods for rating susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Barbara J. Bentz; Jesse A. Logan

    2000-01-01

    Two empirical methods for rating susceptibility of mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine were evaluated. The methods were compared to stand data modeled to objectively rate each sampled stand for susceptibly to bark-beetle attack. Data on bark-beetle attacks, from a survey of 45 sites throughout the Colorado Plateau, were modeled using logistic regression to...

  13. Modeling compatible single-tree aboveground biomass equations for masson pine (Pinus massoniana) in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wei-sheng; TANG Shou-zheng

    2012-01-01

    Because of global climate change,it is necessary to add forest biomass estimation to national forest resource monitoring.The biomass equations developed for forest biomass estimation should be compatible with volume equations.Based on the tree volume and aboveground biomass data of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) in southern China,we constructed one-,two-and three-variable aboveground biomass equations and biomass conversion functions compatible with tree volume equations by using error-in-variable simultaneous equations.The prediction precision of aboveground biomass estimates from one variable equation exceeded 95%.The regressions of aboveground biomass equations were improved slightly when tree height and crown width were used together with diameter on breast height,although the contributions to regressions were statistically insignificant.For the biomass conversion function on one variable,the conversion factor decreased with increasing diameter,but for the conversion function on two variables,the conversion factor increased with increasing diameter but decreased with increasing tree height.

  14. Partnerships in the Pacific Northwest help save an endangered species, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis): an example of dynamic genetic conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Michael P. Murray; Charlie V. Cartwright; Jenifer Beck; Dan Omdal; Amy Ramsey; Zolton Bair; George McFadden; Doug Manion; Katherine Fitch; Philip Wapato; Jennifer A. Gruhn; Michael Crawford; Regina M. Rochefort; John Syring; Jun-Jun Liu; Heather E. Lintz; Lorinda Bullington; Brianna A. McTeague; Angelia. Kegley

    2017-01-01

    Whitebark pine (WBP, Pinus albicaulis) is a keystone species distributed widely at high elevations across western North America. It is in decline due to a combination of threats including infection from white pine blister rust (WPBR, caused by the non-native fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (...

  15. Considerations for the optimization of induced white matter injury preclinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shafique Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The white matter injury in relation to acute neurologic conditions, especially stroke, has remained obscure until recently. Current advances in the imaging technologies in the field of stroke have confirmed that white matter injury plays an important role in the prognosis of stroke and suggest that white matter protection is essential for functional recovery and post-stroke rehabilitation. However, due to the lack of a reproducible animal model of white matter injury, the pathophysiology and mechanisms of this injury are not well studied. Moreover, producing selective white matter injury in animals, especially in rodents, has proven to be challenging. Problems associated with inducing selective white matter ischemic injury in the rodent derive from differences in the architecture of the brain, most particularly the ratio of white matter to gray matter in rodents compared to humans, the agents used to induce the injury, and the location of the injury. Aging, gender differences, and comorbidities further add to this complexity. This review provides a brief account of the techniques commonly used to induce general white matter injury in animal models (stroke and non-stroke related and highlights relevance, optimization issues, and translational potentials associated with this particular form of injury.

  16. Fitting and Calibrating a Multilevel Mixed-Effects Stem Taper Model for Maritime Pine in NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Rodil, Manuel; Castedo-Dorado, Fernando; Cámara-Obregón, Asunción; Diéguez-Aranda, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Stem taper data are usually hierarchical (several measurements per tree, and several trees per plot), making application of a multilevel mixed-effects modelling approach essential. However, correlation between trees in the same plot/stand has often been ignored in previous studies. Fitting and calibration of a variable-exponent stem taper function were conducted using data from 420 trees felled in even-aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in NW Spain. In the fitting step, the tree level explained much more variability than the plot level, and therefore calibration at plot level was omitted. Several stem heights were evaluated for measurement of the additional diameter needed for calibration at tree level. Calibration with an additional diameter measured at between 40 and 60% of total tree height showed the greatest improvement in volume and diameter predictions. If additional diameter measurement is not available, the fixed-effects model fitted by the ordinary least squares technique should be used. Finally, we also evaluated how the expansion of parameters with random effects affects the stem taper prediction, as we consider this a key question when applying the mixed-effects modelling approach to taper equations. The results showed that correlation between random effects should be taken into account when assessing the influence of random effects in stem taper prediction. PMID:26630156

  17. Testing Cognitive and Emotion-Focused Models of Worry in Black and White Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Bakhti, Rinad; Stevens, Kimberly T; Curewitz, Alana

    2015-01-01

    Several models have been proposed to conceptualize worry. Broadly, the models can be classified as cognitive (including the Avoidance Model, the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model, and the Metacognitive Model) and emotion-focused (including Emotion Dysregulation and Acceptance-Based models). Although these models have received strong empirical investigation in primarily non-Hispanic White samples, no known study has examined the applicability to racial and ethnic minority groups. The current study compared the proportion of variance explained by cognitive and emotion-focused models of worry in White and Black samples. Results indicated that cognitive and emotion-focused models significantly predicted worry in both Black and White samples. However, the overall amount of variance in worry explained by the models was less for Black samples. Specifically, controlling for gender, the cognitive models explained 53% of the variance in worry in the White sample compared with 19% in the Black sample. Similarly, the emotion-focused models explained 34% of the variance in worry in the White sample but only 13% in the Black sample. These findings suggest that well-established conceptual frameworks for worry failed to explain the bulk of the variance in worry in Black samples, leaving much unknown. Additional research is needed to identify key variables that may further explain worry in ethnic minority samples.

  18. Decadal water balance of a temperate Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris L. based on measurements and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Janssens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-year, multi-technique studies often yield key insights into methodological limitations but also process-level interactions that would otherwise go un-noticed if analysed at one point in time or in isolation. We examined the components of forest water balance for an 80-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand in the Campine region of Belgium over a ten year period using five very different approaches; our methods ranged from data intensive measurements to process model simulations. Specifically, we used the conservative ion method (CI, the Eddy Covariance technique (EC, an empirical model (WATBAL, and two process models that vary greatly in their temporal and spatial scaling, the ORCHIDEE global land-surface model and SECRETS a stand- to ecosystem-scale biogeochemical process model. Herein we used the EC technique as a standard for the evapotranspiration (ET estimates. We also examined ET and drainage in ORCHIDEE as influenced by climate change scenarios from the Hadley model. Results demonstrated that the two process models corresponded well to the seasonal patterns and yearly totals of ET from the EC approach. However, both WATBAL and CI approaches overestimated ET when compared to the EC estimates. Overestimation of ET by WATBAL increased as ET increased. We found positive relationships between ET and the process drivers to ET (i.e., vapour pressure deficit [VPD], mean air temperature [Tair], and global radiation [Rg] for SECRETS, ORCHIDEE, and the EC estimates, though few were significant. Estimates of ET from WATBAL and the CI approach were uncoupled from VPD, Tair, and Rg. Independent of the method examined, ET exhibited low interannual variability. Consequently, drainage fluxes were highly correlated with annual precipitation for all five approaches examined. Estimates of ET increased in climate change scenarios for ORCHIDEE while drainage decreased.

  19. Modeling of pyrolysis and combustion of large pine wood samples: comparison of different mechanisms of heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilbao, R.; Mastral, J.F.; Ceamanos, J.; Aldea, M.E. [University of Zaragoza (Spain)

    1997-07-01

    Pyrolysis and the combustion of wood have become very important in the production of electricity. For the optimum design of the equipment used in these processes, it is necessary to predict solid conversion under conditions as similar as possible to those observed in the actual process. Many have studied the thermal decomposition of wood. However, the prediction of solid conversion or temperature profiles when large particles and variable heat fluxes are used, has received far less attention. In order to predict these variables properly, different mechanisms of heat transfer over the sample were studied, including the convective cooling of the surface by the gases from the interior of the sample. A mathematical model includes decomposition kinetics, variable thermal properties and influence of the water content. For the validation of the model, thermal decomposition of large, slab-shaped pine wood samples under a radiant, variable heat flux with continuous measurements of solid weight loss and temperature at different points was performed. Theoretical and experimental results agree for most conditions. (author)

  20. Modelling water fluxes in a pine wood soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Comparison of a water budget and water flow model using different parameter data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; Jacques, D.; Mallants, D.

    2010-02-15

    For modelling complex hydrological problems, realistic models and accurate hydraulic properties are needed. A mechanistic model (HYDRUS-1D) and a compartment model are evaluated for simulating the water balance in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere system using time series of measured water content at several depths in two lysimeters in a podzol soil with Scots Pine vegetation. 10 calibration scenarios are used to investigate the impact of the model type and the number of horizons in the profile on the calibration accuracy. Main results are: (i) with a large number of soil layers, both models describe accurately the water contents at all depths, (II) the number of soil layers is the major factor that controls the quality of the calibration. The compartment model is as an abstracted model and the mechanistic model is our reference model. Drainage values are the considered output. Drainage values simulated by the abstracted model were close to those of the reference model when averaged over a sufficiently long period (about 9 months). This result suggests that drainage values obtained with an abstracted model are reliably when averaged over sufficiently long periods; the abstracted model needs less computational time without an important loss of accuracy.

  1. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  2. Suitability of pines and other conifers as hosts for the invasive Mediterranean pine engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2008-06-01

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was detected in North America in 2004, and it is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and it reproduces on pines (Pinus spp.). To identify potentially vulnerable native and adventive hosts in North America, no-choice host range tests were conducted in the laboratory on 22 conifer species. The beetle reproduced on four pines from its native Eurasian range--Aleppo, Canary Island, Italian stone, and Scots pines; 11 native North American pines--eastern white, grey, jack, Jeffrey, loblolly, Monterey, ponderosa, red, Sierra lodgepole, singleleaf pinyon, and sugar pines; and four native nonpines--Douglas-fir, black and white spruce, and tamarack. Among nonpines, fewer progeny developed and they were of smaller size on Douglas-fir and tamarack, but sex ratios of progeny were nearly 1:1 on all hosts. Last, beetles did not develop on white fir, incense cedar, and coast redwood. With loblolly pine, the first new adults emerged 42 d after parental females were introduced into host logs at temperatures of 20-33 degrees C and 523.5 or 334.7 accumulated degree-days based on lower development thresholds of 13.6 or 18 degrees C, respectively.

  3. Modelling long-term impacts of mountain pine beetle outbreaks on merchantable biomass, ecosystem carbon, albedo, and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Parrott, Lael; Price, David T.; Ramankutty, Navin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing major outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) in forests of western North America has led to considerable research efforts. However, many questions remain unaddressed regarding its long-term impacts, especially when accounting for the range of possible responses from the non-target vegetation (i.e., deciduous trees and lower-canopy shrubs and grasses). We used the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) process-based ecosystem model along with the recently incorporated Marauding Insect Module (MIM) to quantify, over 240 years, the impacts of various MPB outbreak regimes on lodgepole pine merchantable biomass, ecosystem carbon, surface albedo, and the net radiative forcing on global climate caused by the changes in ecosystem carbon and albedo. We performed simulations for three locations in British Columbia, Canada, with different climatic conditions, and four scenarios of various coexisting vegetation types with variable growth release responses. The impacts of MPB outbreaks on merchantable biomass (decrease) and surface albedo (increase) were similar across the 12 combinations of locations and vegetation coexistence scenarios. The impacts on ecosystem carbon and radiative forcing, however, varied substantially in magnitude and sign, depending upon the presence and response of the non-target vegetation, particularly for the two locations not subjected to growing-season soil moisture stress; this variability represents the main finding from our study. Despite major uncertainty in the value of the resulting radiative forcing, a simple analysis also suggested that the MPB outbreak in British Columbia will have a smaller impact on global temperature over the coming decades and centuries than a single month of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production. Moreover, we found that (1) outbreak severity (i.e., per-event mortality) had a stronger effect than outbreak return interval on the variables studied, (2) MPB

  4. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  5. Margination of white blood cells - a computational approach by a hydrodynamic phase field model

    CERN Document Server

    Marth, Wieland

    2015-01-01

    We numerically investigate margination of white blood cells and demonstrate the dependency on a number of conditions including hematocrit, the deformability of the cells and the Reynolds number. A detailed mesoscopic hydrodynamic Helfrich-type model is derived, validated and used for the simulations to provides a quantitative description of the margination of white blood cells. Previous simulation results, obtained with less detailed models, could be confirmed, e.g. the largest probability of margination of white blood cells at an intermediate range of hematocrit values and a decreasing tendency with increasing deformability. The consideration of inertia effects, which become of relevance in small vessels, also shows a dependency and leads to less pronounced margination of white blood cells with increasing Reynolds number.

  6. Potential effects of groundwater pumping on water levels, phreatophytes, and spring discharges in Spring and Snake Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J.; Plume, Russell W.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing hydrologic effects of developing groundwater supplies in Snake Valley required numerical, groundwater-flow models to estimate the timing and magnitude of capture from streams, springs, wetlands, and phreatophytes. Estimating general water-table decline also required groundwater simulation. The hydraulic conductivity of basin fill and transmissivity of basement-rock distributions in Spring and Snake Valleys were refined by calibrating a steady state, three-dimensional, MODFLOW model of the carbonate-rock province to predevelopment conditions. Hydraulic properties and boundary conditions were defined primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model except in Spring and Snake Valleys. This locally refined model was referred to as the Great Basin National Park calibration (GBNP-C) model. Groundwater discharges from phreatophyte areas and springs in Spring and Snake Valleys were simulated as specified discharges in the GBNP-C model. These discharges equaled mapped rates and measured discharges, respectively. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity were distributed throughout Spring and Snake Valleys with pilot points and interpolated to model cells with kriging in geologically similar areas. Transmissivity of the basement rocks was estimated because thickness is correlated poorly with transmissivity. Transmissivity estimates were constrained by aquifer-test results in basin-fill and carbonate-rock aquifers. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity distributions of the GBNP-C model were estimated by minimizing a weighted composite, sum-of-squares objective function that included measurement and Tikhonov regularization observations. Tikhonov regularization observations were equations that defined preferred relations between the pilot points. Measured water levels, water levels that were simulated with RASA, depth-to-water beneath distributed groundwater and spring discharges, land-surface altitudes, spring discharge at

  7. Integrating models to investigate critical phenological overlaps in complex ecological interactions: the mountain pine beetle-fungus symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Audrey; Powell, James A; Bentz, Barbara J; Six, Diana L

    2015-03-07

    The fates of individual species are often tied to synchronization of phenology, however, few methods have been developed for integrating phenological models involving linked species. In this paper, we focus on mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its two obligate mutualistic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera and Ophiostoma montium. Growth rates of all three partners are driven by temperature, and their idiosyncratic responses affect interactions at important life stage junctures. One critical phase for MPB-fungus symbiosis occurs just before dispersal of teneral (new) adult beetles, when fungi are acquired and transported in specialized structures (mycangia). Before dispersal, fungi must capture sufficient spatial resources within the tree to ensure contact with teneral adults and get packed into mycangia. Mycangial packing occurs at an unknown time during teneral feeding. We adapt thermal models predicting fungal growth and beetle development to predict overlap between the competing fungi and MPB teneral adult feeding windows and emergence. We consider a spectrum of mycangial packing strategies and describe them in terms of explicit functions with unknown parameters. Rates of growth are fixed by laboratory data, the unknown parameters describing various packing strategies, as well as the degree to which mycangial growth is slowed in woody tissues as compared to agar, are determined by maximum likelihood and two years of field observations. At the field location used, the most likely fungus acquisition strategy for MPB was packing mycangia just prior to emergence. Estimated model parameters suggested large differences in the relative growth rates of the two fungi in trees at the study site, with the most likely model estimating that G. clavigera grew approximately twenty-five times faster than O. montium under the bark, which is completely unexpected in comparison with observed fungal growth on agar.

  8. Modeling of reflection-type laser-driven white lighting considering phosphor particles and surface topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ho; Joo, Jae-Young; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2015-07-27

    This paper presents a model of blue laser diode (LD)-based white lighting coupled with a yellow YAG phosphor, for use in the proper design and fabrication of phosphor in automotive headlamps. First, the sample consisted of an LD, collecting lens, and phosphor was prepared that matches the model. The light distribution of the LD and the phosphor were modeled to investigate an effect of the surface topography and phosphor particle properties on the laser-driven white lighting systems by using the commercially available optical design software. Based on the proposed model, the integral spectrum distribution and the color coordinates were discussed.

  9. Kinetic sorption modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr ions to pine bark and blast furnace slag by using batch experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrenheim, E; Gustafsson, J P

    2008-04-01

    Storm water and landfill leachate can both contain significant amounts of toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni. Pine bark and blast furnace slag are both residual waste products that have shown a large potential for metal removal from contaminated water. There are however many variables that must be optimized in order to achieve efficient metal retention. One of these variables is the time of which the solution is in contact with each unit of filter material. Metal sorption was studied in two laboratory experiments to improve the knowledge of the effects of contact time. The results showed that pine bark was generally more efficient than blast furnace slag when the metal concentrations were relatively small, whereas blast furnace slag sorbed most metals to a larger extent at increased metal loads. In addition, sorption to blast furnace slag was found to be faster than metal binding to pine bark. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to describe the data well within 1000 s of reaction time.

  10. Modeling of Compressive Strength Parallel to Grain of Heat Treated Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Wood by Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yapıcı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the compressive strength of heat treated Scotch Pine was modeled using artificial neural network. The compressive strength (CS value parallel to grain was determined after exposing the wood to heat treatment at temperature of 130, 145, 160, 175, 190 and 205ºC for 3, 6, 9, 12 hours. The experimental data was evaluated by using multiple variance analysis. Secondly, the effect of heat treatment on the CS of samples was modeled by using artificial neural network (ANN.

  11. Determining Nutrient Requirements For Intensively Managed Loblolly Pine Stands Using the SSAND (Soil Supply and Nutrient Demand) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector G. Adegbidi; Nicholas B. Comerford; Hua Li; Eric J. Jokela; Nairam F. Barros

    2002-01-01

    Nutrient management represents a central component of intensive silvicultural systems that are designed to increase forest productivity in southern pine stands. Forest soils throughout the South are generally infertile, and fertilizers may be applied one or more times over the course of a rotation. Diagnostic techniques, such as foliar analysis and soil testing are...

  12. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  13. Regionalization of Habitat Suitability of Masson’s Pine based on geographic information system and Fuzzy Matter-Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuteng; Zhao, Manxi; Zhou, Liangyun; Yang, Guang; Huang, Luqi; Yan, Cuiqi; Huang, Quanshu; Ye, Liang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Guo, Lanpin; Ke, Xiao; Guo, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Pine needles have been widely used in the development of anti-hypertensive and anti-hyperlipidemic agents and health food. However, the widespread distribution of this tree poses great obstacles to the quality control and efficacy evaluation. To facilitate the effective and rational exploitation of Masson’s pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb), as well as ensure effective development of Masson’s pine needles as a medicinal agent, we investigated the spatial distribution of habitat suitability and evaluated the optimal ranges of ecological factors of P. massoniana with 280 samples collected from 12 provinces in China through the evaluation of four constituents known to be effective medicinally. The results of habitat suitability evaluation were also verified by Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Finally, five ecological factors were chosen in the establishment of a habitat suitability evaluation system. The most suitable areas for P. massoniana growth were mainly concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, such as Sichuan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi provinces, while the best quality needles were from Guizhou, Sichuan, and the junction area of Chongqing, Hunan, and Hubei provinces. This information revealed that suitable areas for effective constituent accumulation of Masson’s pine needles accounted for only 7.41% of its distribution area. PMID:27694967

  14. Regionalization of Habitat Suitability of Masson’s Pine based on geographic information system and Fuzzy Matter-Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuteng; Zhao, Manxi; Zhou, Liangyun; Yang, Guang; Huang, Luqi; Yan, Cuiqi; Huang, Quanshu; Ye, Liang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Guo, Lanpin; Ke, Xiao; Guo, Jiao

    2016-10-01

    Pine needles have been widely used in the development of anti-hypertensive and anti-hyperlipidemic agents and health food. However, the widespread distribution of this tree poses great obstacles to the quality control and efficacy evaluation. To facilitate the effective and rational exploitation of Masson’s pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb), as well as ensure effective development of Masson’s pine needles as a medicinal agent, we investigated the spatial distribution of habitat suitability and evaluated the optimal ranges of ecological factors of P. massoniana with 280 samples collected from 12 provinces in China through the evaluation of four constituents known to be effective medicinally. The results of habitat suitability evaluation were also verified by Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Finally, five ecological factors were chosen in the establishment of a habitat suitability evaluation system. The most suitable areas for P. massoniana growth were mainly concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, such as Sichuan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi provinces, while the best quality needles were from Guizhou, Sichuan, and the junction area of Chongqing, Hunan, and Hubei provinces. This information revealed that suitable areas for effective constituent accumulation of Masson’s pine needles accounted for only 7.41% of its distribution area.

  15. Effects of heat and drought on carbon and water dynamics in a regenerating semi-arid pine forest: a combined experimental and modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Ruehr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing summer temperatures and a reduction in precipitation will enhance drought stress in Mediterranean and semi-arid ecosystems. Predicting the net effects on forests' carbon and water balance will depend on our ability to disentangle the sensitivity of component fluxes responding to increasing soil and atmospheric drought. Here we studied carbon and water dynamics in a semi-arid regenerating ponderosa pine forest using field observations and process based modeling. Field observations of two summer dry seasons were used to calibrate a soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA model. In addition, the ecosystem's response to reduced soil drought was quantified based on a field watering experiment and evaluated with the model. Further, the SPA model was used to estimate the relative effects of increasing soil and atmospheric drought over time, by simulating temperature and precipitation scenarios for 2040 and 2080. The seasonality and drought response of ecosystem fluxes was well captured by the calibrated SPA model. Dramatic increases in summer water availability during seasonal drought had a small effect on pine physiology in both the watering experiment and the model. This clearly demonstrates that atmospheric drought induced a strong limitation on carbon uptake in young ponderosa pine due to tight regulation of stomatal conductance. Moreover, simulations showed that net ecosystem exchange (NEE and gross primary productivity (GPP were about three times more affected by summer heat and increased evaporative demand than by reductions in summer precipitation. Annual NEE decreased by 38% in response to extreme summer conditions as predicted to occur in 2080 (June–August: +4.5 °C, because of a strong decline in GPP (−17% while heterotrophic respiration was relatively unaffected (−1%. Considering warming trends across all seasons (September–May: +3 °C and June–August: +4.5 °C, the negative drought effects were largely compensated by an earlier

  16. Effects of heat and drought on carbon and water dynamics in a regenerating semi-arid pine forest: a combined experimental and modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehr, N. K.; Law, B. E.; Quandt, D.; Williams, M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing summer temperatures and a reduction in precipitation will enhance drought stress in Mediterranean and semi-arid ecosystems. Predicting the net effects on forests' carbon and water balance will depend on our ability to disentangle the sensitivity of component fluxes responding to increasing soil and atmospheric drought. Here we studied carbon and water dynamics in a semi-arid regenerating ponderosa pine forest using field observations and process based modeling. Field observations of two summer dry seasons were used to calibrate a soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) model. In addition, the ecosystem's response to reduced soil drought was quantified based on a field watering experiment and evaluated with the model. Further, the SPA model was used to estimate the relative effects of increasing soil and atmospheric drought over time, by simulating temperature and precipitation scenarios for 2040 and 2080. The seasonality and drought response of ecosystem fluxes was well captured by the calibrated SPA model. Dramatic increases in summer water availability during seasonal drought had a small effect on pine physiology in both the watering experiment and the model. This clearly demonstrates that atmospheric drought induced a strong limitation on carbon uptake in young ponderosa pine due to tight regulation of stomatal conductance. Moreover, simulations showed that net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and gross primary productivity (GPP) were about three times more affected by summer heat and increased evaporative demand than by reductions in summer precipitation. Annual NEE decreased by 38% in response to extreme summer conditions as predicted to occur in 2080 (June-August: +4.5 °C), because of a strong decline in GPP (-17%) while heterotrophic respiration was relatively unaffected (-1%). Considering warming trends across all seasons (September-May: +3 °C and June-August: +4.5 °C), the negative drought effects were largely compensated by an earlier initiation of favorable

  17. Josef Klingler's models of white matter tracts: influences on neuroanatomy, neurosurgery, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Abhishek; Kapfhammer, Josef P; Kress, Annetrudi; Wichers, Hermann; Deep, Aman; Feindel, William; Sonntag, Volker K H; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2011-08-01

    During the 1930s, white matter tracts began to assume relevance for neurosurgery, especially after Cajal's work. In many reviews of white matter neurobiology, the seminal contributions of Josef Klingler (1888-1963) and their neurological applications have been overlooked. In 1934 at the University of Basel under Eugen Ludwig, Klingler developed a new method of dissection based on a freezing technique for brain tissue that eloquently revealed the white matter tracts. Klingler worked with anatomists, surgeons, and other scientists, and his models and dissections of white matter tracts remain arguably the most elegant ever created. He stressed 3-dimensional anatomic relationships and laid the foundation for defining mesial temporal, limbic, insular, and thalamic fiber and functional relationships and contributed to the potential of stereotactic neurosurgery. Around 1947, Klingler was part of a Swiss-German group that independently performed the first stereotactic thalamotomies, basing their targeting and logic on Klingler's white matter studies, describing various applications of stereotaxy and showing Klingler's work integrated into a craniocerebral topographic system for targeting with external localization of eloquent brain structures and stimulation of deep thalamic nuclei. Klingler's work has received renewed interest because it is applicable for correlating the results of the fiber-mapping paradigms from diffusion tensor imaging to actual anatomic evidence. Although others have described white matter tracts, none have had as much practical impact on neuroscience as Klinger's work. More importantly, Josef Klingler was an encouraging mentor, influencing neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, and brain imaging for more than three quarters of a century.

  18. A model for estimating understory vegetation response to fertilization and precipitation in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf; Ryan W. McKnight; Thomas R. Fox; H. Lee Allen

    2010-01-01

    A model form is presented, where the model contains regressors selected for inclusion based on biological rationale, to predict how fertilization, precipitation amounts, and overstory stand density affect understory vegetation biomass. Due to time, economic, and logistic constraints, datasets of large sample sizes generally do not exist for understory vegetation. Thus...

  19. ESA White paper: Atmospheric modeling: Setting Biomarkers in context

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: ESAs goal to detect biomarkers in Earth-like exoplanets in the Habitable Zone requires theoretical groundwork that needs to be done to model the influence of different parameters on the detectable biomarkers. We need to model a wide parameter space (chemical composition, pressure, evolution, interior structure and outgassing, clouds) to generate a grid of models that inform our detection strategy as well as can help characterize the spectra of the small rocky planets detected.

  20. A New Generation of Cool White Dwarf Atmosphere Models Using Ab Initio Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, S.; Dufour, P.; Kowalski, P. M.

    2017-03-01

    Due to their high photospheric density, cool helium-rich white dwarfs (particularly DZ, DQpec and ultracool) are often poorly described by current atmosphere models. As part of our ongoing efforts to design atmosphere models suitable for all cool white dwarfs, we investigate how the ionization ratio of heavy elements and the H2-He collision-induced absorption (CIA) spectrum are altered under fluid-like densities. For the conditions encountered at the photosphere of cool helium-rich white dwarfs, our ab initio calculations show that the ionization of most metals is inhibited and that the H2-He CIA spectrum is significantly distorted for densities higher than 0.1 g/cm3.

  1. A New Generation of Cool White Dwarf Atmosphere Models Using Ab Initio Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Blouin, Simon; Kowalski, Piotr M

    2016-01-01

    Due to their high photospheric density, cool helium-rich white dwarfs (particularly DZ, DQpec and ultracool) are often poorly described by current atmosphere models. As part of our ongoing efforts to design atmosphere models suitable for all cool white dwarfs, we investigate how the ionization ratio of heavy elements and the H$_2$-He collision-induced absorption (CIA) spectrum are altered under fluid-like densities. For the conditions encountered at the photosphere of cool helium-rich white dwarfs, our ab initio calculations show that the ionization of most metals is inhibited and that the H$_2$-He CIA spectrum is significantly distorted for densities higher than 0.1 g/cm$^3$.

  2. The 2010 Saturn's Great White Spot: Observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-12-01

    On December 5, 2010, a major storm erupted in Saturn's northern hemisphere at a planetographic latitude of 37.7 deg [1]. These phenomena are known as "Great White Spots" (GWS) and they have been observed once per Saturn year since the first case confidently reported in 1876. The last event occurred at Saturn's Equator in 1990 [2]. A GWS differs from similar smaller-scale storms in that it generates a planetary-scale disturbance that spreads zonally spanning the whole latitude band. We report on the evolution and motions of the 2010 GWS and its associated disturbance during the months following the outbreak, based mainly on high quality images obtained in the visual range submitted to the International Outer Planet Watch PVOL database [3], with the 1m telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory and the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. The GWS "head source" extinguished by June 2011 implying that it survived about 6 months. Since this source is assumed to be produced by water moist convection, a reservoir of water vapor must exist at a depth of 10 bar and at the same time a disturbance producing the necessary convergence to trigger the ascending motions. The high temporal sampling and coverage allowed us to study the dynamics of the GWS in detail and the multi-wavelength observations provide information on its cloud top structure. We present non-linear simulations using the EPIC code of the evolution of the potential vorticity generated by a continuous Gaussian heat source extending from 10 bar to about 1 bar, that compare extraordinary well to the observed cloud field evolution. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. The presentation is done on behalf of the team listed in Reference [1]. [1]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011) [2]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 353, 397-401 (1991) [3]Hueso R., et al., Planet. Space Sci., 58, 1152-1159 (2010).

  3. Modeling snag dynamics in northern Arizona mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2007-01-01

    Snags (standing dead trees) are important components of forested habitats that contribute to ecological decay and recycling processes as well as providing habitat for many life forms. As such, snags are of special interest to land managers, but information on dynamics of snag populations is lacking. We modeled trends in snag populations in mixed-conifer and ponderosa...

  4. Undisturbed and disturbed above canopy ponderosa pine emissions: PTR-TOF-MS measurements and MEGAN 2.1 model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Graus, M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Turnipseed, A.; Fischer, L.; Harley, P.; Madronich, M.; Gochis, D.; Keutsch, F. N.; Hansel, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) above a ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA. The high mass resolution of the PTR-TOF-MS enabled the identification of chemical sum formulas. During a 30 day measurement period in August and September 2010, 649 different ion mass peaks were detected in the ambient air mass spectrum (including primary ions and mass calibration compounds). Eddy covariance with the vertical wind speed was calculated for all ion mass peaks. On a typical day, 17 ion mass peaks, including protonated parent compounds, their fragments and isotopes as well as VOC-H+-water clusters, showed a significant flux with daytime average emissions above a reliable flux threshold of 0.1 mg compound m-2 h-1. These ion mass peaks could be assigned to seven compound classes. The main flux contributions during daytime (10:00-18:00 LT) are attributed to the sum of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and isoprene (50%), methanol (12%), the sum of acetic acid and glycolaldehyde (10%) and the sum of monoterpenes (10%). The total MBO + isoprene flux was composed of 10% isoprene and 90% MBO. There was good agreement between the light- and temperature dependency of the sum of MBO and isoprene observed for this work and those of earlier studies. The above canopy flux measurements of the sum of MBO and isoprene and the sum of monoterpenes were compared to emissions calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN 2.1). The best agreement between MEGAN 2.1 and measurements was reached using emission factors determined from site-specific leaf cuvette measurements. While the modeled and measured MBO + isoprene fluxes agree well, the emissions of the sum of monoterpenes is underestimated by MEGAN 2.1. This is expected as some factors impacting monoterpene emissions, such as physical damage of needles and branches due to

  5. Undisturbed and disturbed above canopy ponderosa pine emissions: PTR-TOF-MS measurements and MEGAN 2.1 model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the first eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS above a ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA. The high mass resolution of the PTR-TOF-MS enabled the identification of chemical sum formulas. During a 30 day measurement period in August and September 2010, 649 different ion mass peaks were detected in the ambient air mass spectrum (including primary ions and mass calibration compounds. Eddy covariance with the vertical wind speed was calculated for all ion mass peaks. On a typical day, 17 ion mass peaks including protonated parent compounds, their fragments and isotopes as well as VOC-H+-water clusters showed a significant flux with daytime average emissions above a reliable flux threshold of 0.1 mg compound m−2 h−1. These ion mass peaks could be assigned to seven compound classes. The main flux contributions during daytime (10:00–18:00 LT are attributed to the sum of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and isoprene (50%, methanol (12%, the sum of acetic acid and glycolaldehyde (10% and the sum of monoterpenes (10%. The total MBO + isoprene flux was composed of 10% isoprene and 90% MBO. There was good agreement between the light and temperature dependency of the sum of MBO and isoprene observed for this work and those of earlier studies. The above canopy flux measurements of the sum of MBO and isoprene and the sum of monoterpenes were compared to emissions calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN 2.1. The best agreement between MEGAN 2.1 and measurements was reached using emission factors determined from site specific leaf cuvette measurements. While the modelled and measured MBO + isoprene fluxes agree well the emissions of the sum of monoterpenes is underestimated by MEGAN 2.1. This is expected as some factors impacting monoterpene emissions, such as physical damage of needles and

  6. Undisturbed and disturbed above canopy ponderosa pine emissions: PTR-TOF-MS measurements and MEGAN 2.1 model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Graus, M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Turnipseed, A.; Fischer, L.; Harley, P.; Madronich, M.; Gochis, D.; Keutsch, F. N.; Hansel, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (PTR-TOFMS) above a ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA. The high mass resolution of the PTR-TOF-MS enabled the identification of chemical sum formulas. During a 30 day measurement period in August and September 2010, 649 different ion mass peaks were detected in the ambient air mass spectrum (including primary ions and mass calibration ompounds). Eddy covariance with the vertical wind speed was calculated for all ion mass peaks. On a typical day, 17 ion mass peaks including protonated parent compounds, their fragments and isotopes as well as VOC-H+-water clusters showed a significant flux with daytime average emissions above a reliable flux threshold of 0.1mgcompoundm-2 h-1. These ion mass peaks could be assigned to seven compound classes. The main flux contributions during daytime (10:00-18:00 LT) are attributed to the sum of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and isoprene (50 %), methanol (12%), the sum of acetic acid and glycolaldehyde (10%) and the sum of monoterpenes (10 %). The total MBO+isoprene flux was composed of 10% isoprene and 90% MBO. There was good agreement between the light and temperature dependency of the sum of MBO and isoprene observed for this work and those of earlier studies. The above canopy flux measurements of the sum of MBO and isoprene and the sum of 20 monoterpenes were compared to emissions calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN 2.1). The best agreement between MEGAN 2.1 and measurements was reached using emission factors determined from site specific leaf cuvette measurements. While the modelled and measured MBO+isoprene fluxes agree well the emissions of the sum of monoterpenes is underestimated by MEGAN 2.1. This is expected as some factors impacting monoterpene emissions, such as physical damage of needles and branches due to storms, are

  7. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  8. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  9. Egg white hydrolysate inhibits oxidation in mayonnaise and a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Sasahara, Ryou; Yoda, Shoichi; Kotake-Nara, Eiichi

    2017-06-01

    The flavor deterioration of mayonnaise is induced by iron, which is released from egg yolk phosvitin under acidic conditions and promotes lipid oxidation. To prevent oxidative deterioration, natural components, rather than synthetic chemicals such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid have been required by consumers. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of three egg white components with the same amino acid composition, namely egg white protein, hydrolysate, and the amino acid mixture, on lipid oxidation in mayonnaise and an acidic egg yolk solution as a model system. We found that the hydrolysate had the strongest inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation among the three components. The mechanism underlying the antioxidant effect was associated with Fe(2+)-chelating activity. Thus, egg white hydrolysate may have the potential as natural inhibitors of lipid oxidation in mayonnaise.

  10. Height-diameter model for black locust, Anatolian black pine and Taurus cedar tree species in Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÇATAL, Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    The height of a tree is important for assessing tree volume and site index. Diameter of breast height-tree height releation equations are often used to predict the mean tree height for trees in case only diameter at breast height is measured. This study aim describes between the tree heights with diameter of breast height relationships for artificially grown black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) and Taurus cedar (C...

  11. Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K; Pierce, L E

    2007-04-06

    In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.

  12. Supernova Type Ia progenitors from merging double white dwarfs. Using a new population synthesis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The study of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) has lead to greatly improved insights into many fields in astrophysics, e.g. cosmology, and also into the metal enrichment of the universe. Although a theoretical explanation of the origin of these events is still lacking, there is a general consensus that SNIa are caused by the thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen white dwarfs with masses near the Chandrasekhar mass. Aims: We investigate the potential contribution to the supernova Type Ia rate from the population of merging double carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. We aim to develop a model that fits the observed SNIa progenitors as well as the observed close double white dwarf population. We differentiate between two scenarios for the common envelope (CE) evolution; the α-formalism based on the energy equation and the γ-formalism that is based on the angular momentum equation. In one model we apply the α-formalism throughout. In the second model the γ-formalism is applied, unless the binary contains a compact object or the CE is triggered by a tidal instability for which the α-formalism is used. Methods: The binary population synthesis code SeBa was used to evolve binary systems from the zero-age main sequence to the formation of double white dwarfs and subsequent mergers. SeBa has been thoroughly updated since the last publication of the content of the code. Results: The limited sample of observed double white dwarfs is better represented by the simulated population using the γ-formalism for the first CE phase than the α-formalism. For both CE formalisms, we find that although the morphology of the simulated delay time distribution matches that of the observations within the errors, the normalisation and time-integrated rate per stellar mass are a factor ~7-12 lower than observed. Furthermore, the characteristics of the simulated populations of merging double carbon-oxygen white dwarfs are discussed and put in the context of alternative SNIa models for merging

  13. A Reference Model for Software and System Inspections. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lulu; Shull, Forrest

    2009-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is an important component of the software development process. SQA processes provide assurance that the software products and processes in the project life cycle conform to their specified requirements by planning, enacting, and performing a set of activities to provide adequate confidence that quality is being built into the software. Typical techniques include: (1) Testing (2) Simulation (3) Model checking (4) Symbolic execution (5) Management reviews (6) Technical reviews (7) Inspections (8) Walk-throughs (9) Audits (10) Analysis (complexity analysis, control flow analysis, algorithmic analysis) (11) Formal method Our work over the last few years has resulted in substantial knowledge about SQA techniques, especially the areas of technical reviews and inspections. But can we apply the same QA techniques to the system development process? If yes, what kind of tailoring do we need before applying them in the system engineering context? If not, what types of QA techniques are actually used at system level? And, is there any room for improvement.) After a brief examination of the system engineering literature (especially focused on NASA and DoD guidance) we found that: (1) System and software development process interact with each other at different phases through development life cycle (2) Reviews are emphasized in both system and software development. (Figl.3). For some reviews (e.g. SRR, PDR, CDR), there are both system versions and software versions. (3) Analysis techniques are emphasized (e.g. Fault Tree Analysis, Preliminary Hazard Analysis) and some details are given about how to apply them. (4) Reviews are expected to use the outputs of the analysis techniques. In other words, these particular analyses are usually conducted in preparation for (before) reviews. The goal of our work is to explore the interaction between the Quality Assurance (QA) techniques at the system level and the software level.

  14. Asteroseismology of the \\emph{Kepler} V777 Her variable white dwarf with fully evolutionary models

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, Alejandro H; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Bischoff-Kim, Agnès

    2011-01-01

    DBV stars are pulsating white dwarfs with atmospheres rich in He. Asteroseismology of DBV stars can provide valuable clues about the origin, structure and evolution of hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs, and may allow to study neutrino and axion physics. Recently, a new DBV star, KIC 8626021, has been discovered in the field of the \\emph{Kepler} spacecraft. It is expected that further monitoring of this star in the next years will enable astronomers to determine its detailed asteroseismic profile. We perform an asteroseismological analysis of KIC 8626021 on the basis of fully evolutionary DB white-dwarf models. We employ a complete set of evolutionary DB white-dwarf structures covering a wide range of effective temperatures and stellar masses. They have been obtained on the basis of a complete treatment of the evolutionary history of progenitors stars. We compute g-mode adiabatic pulsation periods for this set of models and compare them with the pulsation properties exhibited by KIC 8626021. On the basis of the ...

  15. The mode trapping properties of full DA white dwarf evolutionary models

    CERN Document Server

    Corsico, A H; Benvenuto, O G; Serenelli, A M

    2002-01-01

    An adiabatic, non-radial pulsation study of a 0.563 M_sun DA white dwarf model is presented on the basis of new evolutionary calculations performed in a self-consistent way with the predictions of time dependent element diffusion, nuclear burning and the history of the white dwarf progenitor. Emphasis is placed on the role played by the internal chemical stratification of these new models in the behaviour of the eigenmodes, and the expectations for the full g-spectrum of periods. The implications for the mode trapping properties are discussed at length. In this regard, we find that, for high periods, the viability of mode trapping as a mode selection mechanism is markedly weaker for our models, as compared with the situation in which the hydrogen-helium transition region is treated assuming equilibrium diffusion in the trace element approximation.

  16. Modelling merchantable volumes for uneven aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton stands establi-shed by natural regeneration in the central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alegria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration have a great expression in Portugal. These stands being overstocked, as opposed to those established from plantations, provide straight and cylindrical tree boles and logs with less knots that makes them very suitable for certain industrial purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to fit a set of equations to predict total volume and merchantable volumes to any merchantable limit for uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration in the central inland region of Portugal. Data were collected in 30 circular sampling plots of 500 m2 of area, on 1426 trees and 314 sample trees for volume assessment, corresponding to 2353 diameter/height mea-surements. A total height equation, a total volume equation, a volume ratio equation to any top height limit and a taper equation, over bark, were fitted. To select among the best models, several statistics were computed during model fitting and the independent validation procedure to evaluate model fitting, collinearity and prediction performances. A ranking index was used to support the final decision. The models selected were then fitted again using robust regression and weighted regression techniques, because studentized residuals distribution normality and homogeneity assumptions were not observed. This research showed that the models selected for these stands were not the same as those selected in previous studies for the species in this region, suggesting that these results may be due to the influence of stand density conditions on diameter and total height growth, and consequently, on stem form and volume. This set of equations will also be included as components in a single tree growth and yield model developed for these stands. 

  17. Quantifying the Impact of Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbances on Forest Carbon Pools and Fluxes in the Western US using the NCAR Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edburg, S. L.; Hicke, J. A.; Lawrence, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.

    2009-12-01

    Forest disturbances, such as fire, insects, and land-use change, significantly alter carbon budgets by changing carbon pools and fluxes. The mountain pine beetle (MPB) kills millions of hectares of trees in the western US, similar to the area killed by fire. Mountain pine beetles kill host trees by consuming the inner bark tissue, and require host tree death for reproduction. Despite being a significant disturbance to forested ecosystems, insects such as MPB are typically not represented in biogeochemical models, thus little is known about their impact on the carbon cycle. We investigate the role of past MPB outbreaks on carbon cycling in the western US using the NCAR Community Land Model with Carbon and Nitrogen cycles (CLM-CN). CLM-CN serves as the land model to the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), providing exchanges of energy, momentum, water, carbon, and nitrogen between the land and atmosphere. We run CLM-CN over the western US extending to eastern Colorado with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and a half hour time step. The model is first spun-up with repeated NCEP forcing (1948-1972) until carbon stocks and fluxes reach equilibrium (~ 3000 years), and then run from 1850 to 2004 with NCEP forcing and a dynamic plant functional type (PFT) database. Carbon stocks from this simulation are compared with stocks from the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program. We prescribe MPB mortality area, once per year, in CLM-CN using USFS Aerial Detection Surveys (ADS) from the last few decades. We simulate carbon impacts of tree mortality by MPB within a model grid cell by moving carbon from live vegetative pools (leaf, stem, and roots) to dead pools (woody debris, litter, and dead roots). We compare carbon pools and fluxes for two simulations, one without MPB outbreaks and one with MPB outbreaks.

  18. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    The stocks of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and aluminium (Al) in different compartments of the aboveground tree biomass were estimated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Lithuania. Simulated removals of metals due to the forest biomass extraction in a model Scots pine stands...

  19. Modeling white sturgeon movement in a reservoir: The effect of water quality and sturgeon density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, A.B.; Jager, H.I.; Myers, R.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a movement model to examine the distribution and survival of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in a reservoir subject to large spatial and temporal variation in dissolved oxygen and temperature. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were simulated by a CE-QUAL-W2 model of Brownlee Reservoir, Idaho for a typical wet, normal, and dry hydrologic year. We compared current water quality conditions to scenarios with reduced nutrient inputs to the reservoir. White sturgeon habitat quality was modeled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen and, in some cases, suitability for foraging and depth. We assigned a quality index to each cell along the bottom of the reservoir. The model simulated two aspects of daily movement. Advective movement simulated the tendency for animals to move toward areas with high habitat quality, and diffusion simulated density dependent movement away from areas with high sturgeon density in areas with non-lethal habitat conditions. Mortality resulted when sturgeon were unable to leave areas with lethal temperature or dissolved oxygen conditions. Water quality was highest in winter and early spring and lowest in mid to late summer. Limiting nutrient inputs reduced the area of Brownlee Reservoir with lethal conditions for sturgeon and raised the average habitat suitability throughout the reservoir. Without movement, simulated white sturgeon survival ranged between 45 and 89%. Allowing movement raised the predicted survival of sturgeon under all conditions to above 90% as sturgeon avoided areas with low habitat quality. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MODELING BLACK-WHITE PRETERM BIRTH DISPARITY: ECOLOGIC AND MULTILEVEL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences. This work considers two main que...

  1. Impact of the Skim Milk Powder Manufacturing Process on the Flavor of Model White Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ashleigh; Grandison, Alistair S; Ryan, Angela; Festring, Daniel; Methven, Lisa; Parker, Jane K

    2017-02-15

    Milk powder is an important ingredient in the confectionery industry, but its variable nature has consequences for the quality of the final confectionary product. This paper demonstrates that skim milk powders (SMP) produced using different (but typical) manufacturing processes, when used as ingredients in the manufacture of model white chocolates, had a significant impact on the sensory and volatile profiles of the chocolate. SMP was produced from raw bovine milk using either low or high heat treatment, and a model white chocolate was prepared from each SMP. A directional discrimination test with naïve panelists showed that the chocolate prepared from the high heat SMP had more caramel/fudge character (p chocolates showed a concomitant increase in Maillard-derived volatiles which are likely to account for this change in flavor.

  2. Incidence of the pine wood nematode in green coniferous sawn wood in Oregon and California. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwinell, L.D.

    1993-05-01

    Samples of green sawn Douglas-fir, redwood, ponderosa pine, and white fir were collected in August and September 1992 from seven mills in Oregon and California, and assayed for the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The mills produced about 108 million board feet during the survey period. The pine wood nematode was not found in any of the 424 samples of Douglas-fir, the 192 of redwood, or the 3 of white fir. The nematode was recovered from 8 of 105 samples of green ponderosa pine lumber from a mill in Oregon. These eight samples contained an average of 54 pine wood nematodes per gram of dry weight. This is the first report of the pine wood nematode in Oregon.

  3. Hot DA white dwarf model atmosphere calculations: Including improved Ni PI cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Preval, S P; Badnell, N R; Hubeny, I; Holberg, J B

    2016-01-01

    To calculate realistic models of objects with Ni in their atmospheres, accurate atomic data for the relevant ionization stages needs to be included in model atmosphere calculations. In the context of white dwarf stars, we investigate the effect of changing the Ni {\\sc iv}-{\\sc vi} bound-bound and bound-free atomic data has on model atmosphere calculations. Models including PICS calculated with {\\sc autostructure} show significant flux attenuation of up to $\\sim 80$\\% shortward of 180\\AA\\, in the EUV region compared to a model using hydrogenic PICS. Comparatively, models including a larger set of Ni transitions left the EUV, UV, and optical continua unaffected. We use models calculated with permutations of this atomic data to test for potential changes to measured metal abundances of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B. Models including {\\sc autostructure} PICS were found to change the abundances of N and O by as much as $\\sim 22$\\% compared to models using hydrogenic PICS, but heavier species were relatively unaf...

  4. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Prenesti; Silvia Berto; Simona Toso; Pier Giuseppe Daniele

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of car...

  5. Supernova Type Ia progenitors from merging double white dwarfs: Using a new population synthesis model

    CERN Document Server

    Toonen, Silvia; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2012-01-01

    The study of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) has lead to greatly improved insights into many fields in astrophysics, however a theoretical explanation of the origin of these events is still lacking. We investigate the potential contribution to the SNIa rate from the population of merging double carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. We aim to develope a model that fits the observed SNIa progenitors as well as the observed close double white dwarf population. We differentiate between two scenarios for the common envelope (CE) evolution; the alpha-formalism based on the energy equation and the gamma-formalism that is based on the angular momentum equation. In one model we apply the alpha-formalism always. In the second model the gamma-formalism is applied, unless the binary contains a compact object or the CE is triggered by a tidal instability for which the alpha-formalism is used. The binary population synthesis code SeBa was used to evolve binary systems from the zero-age main sequence to the formation of double white dwarfs...

  6. Lessons from a Mouse Model Characterizing Features of Vascular Cognitive Impairment with White Matter Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Ihara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the demographic shift in age in advanced countries inexorably set to progress in the 21st century, dementia will become one of the most important health problems worldwide. Vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease and is frequently responsible for the cognitive decline of the elderly. It is characterized by cerebrovascular white matter changes; thus, in order to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in white matter changes, a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been developed, which involves the narrowing of the bilateral common carotid arteries with newly designed microcoils. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the achievements made with the model that shows good reproducibility of the white matter changes characterized by blood-brain barrier disruption, glial activation, oxidative stress, and oligodendrocyte loss following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Detailed characterization of this model may help to decipher the substrates associated with impaired memory and move toward a more integrated therapy of vascular cognitive impairment.

  7. Selenocompounds in juvenile white sturgeon: estimating absorption, disposition, and elimination of selenium using Bayesian hierarchical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Hung, Silas S O; Boston, Raymond C; Fadel, James G

    2012-03-01

    The biological function of selenium (Se) is determined by its form and concentration. Selenium is an essential micronutrient for all vertebrates, however, at environmental levels, it is a potent toxin. In the San Francisco Bay-Delta, Se pollution threatens top predatory fish, including white sturgeon. A multi-compartmental Bayesian hierarchical model was developed to estimate the fractional rates of absorption, disposition, and elimination of selenocompounds, in white sturgeon, from tissue measurements obtained in a previous study (Huang et al., 2012). This modeling methodology allows for a population based approach to estimate kinetic physiological parameters in white sturgeon. Briefly, thirty juvenile white sturgeon (five per treatment) were orally intubated with a control (no selenium) or a single dose of Se (500 μg Se/kg body weight) in the form of one inorganic (Selenite) or four organic selenocompounds: selenocystine (SeCys), l-selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine (MSeCys), or selenoyeast (SeYeast). Blood and urine Se were measured at intervals throughout the 48h post intubation period and eight tissues were sampled at 48 h. The model is composed of four state variables, conceptually the gut (Q1), blood (Q2), and tissue (Q3); and urine (Q0), all in units of μg Se. Six kinetics parameters were estimated: the fractional rates [1/h] of absorption, tissue disposition, tissue release, and urinary elimination (k12, k23, k32, and k20), the proportion of the absorbed dose eliminated through the urine (f20), and the distribution blood volume (V; percent body weight, BW). The parameter k12 was higher in sturgeon given the organic Se forms, in the descending order of MSeCys > SeMet > SeCys > Selenite > SeYeast. The parameters k23 and k32 followed similar patterns, and f20 was lowest in fish given MSeCys. Selenium form did not affect k20 or V. The parameter differences observed can be attributed to the different mechanisms of transmucosal transport

  8. PINE -- Electronic mail interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, G. R.

    The PINE mail interface is a user-friendly mail utility for Unix systems. It has been adopted by Starlink as the recommended mail utility because of its ease of use compared with the mail utilities supplied as standard with the Unix operating system. PINE is intended to be intuitive and "to be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals". Here however are a few brief notes to get you started.

  9. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K

    2014-09-01

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature, and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was dependent on light and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions, which explicitly accounts for the physicochemical properties of emitted compounds, we were able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced experimentally or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light-dependent monoterpenes comprise a significant fraction of emissions in ponderosa pine. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  10. Anti-inflammatory properties of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract in an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium: the effect of gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar

    2013-03-01

    Enrichment of fruit juices with pine bark extract (PBE) could be a strategy to compensate for phenolic losses during the gastrointestinal digestion. A coculture system with Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages was established as an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium for evaluating the anti-inflammatory capacity of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g L(-1)) before and after in vitro digestion. The digestion of both PBE-enriched pineapple and red fruit juice led to significant changes in most of the analysed phenolic compounds. The in vitro inflammatory state showed cell barrier dysfunction and overproduction of IL-8, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the inflamed cells, incubation with nondigested samples reduced (Pproperties of PBE-enriched fruit juices decreased after digestion; further research on the bioavailability of the assayed compounds is needed to properly assess their usefulness for the treatment of gut inflammation.

  11. Assessing the potential for maladaptation during active management of limber pine populations: A common garden study detects genetic differentiation in response to soil moisture in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin M. Borgman; Anna W. Schoettle; Amy L. Angert

    2015-01-01

    Active management is needed to sustain healthy limber pine (Pinus flexilis E. James) forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains (henceforth, Southern Rockies), as they are threatened by the interaction of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic, climate change, and the spread of the non-native pathogen that causes white pine blister...

  12. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana F. Tomback

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz conifer communities in the alpine-treeline ecotone (ATE, and thus potentially provides capacity for critical ecosystem services such as snow retention and soil stabilization. The invasive, exotic pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine communities, to their northern limits. Here, we synthesize data from 10 studies to document geographic variation in structure, conifer species, and understory plants in whitebark pine treeline communities, and examine the potential role of these communities in snow retention and regulating downstream flows. Whitebark pine mortality is predicted to alter treeline community composition, structure, and function. Whitebark pine losses in the ATE may also alter response to climate warming. Efforts to restore whitebark pine have thus far been limited to subalpine communities, particularly through planting seedlings with potential blister rust resistance. We discuss whether restoration strategies might be appropriate for treeline communities.

  13. The Stochastic stability of a Logistic model with Poisson white noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Dong-Hai; Xu Wei; Su Jun; Zhou Bing-Chang

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic stability of a logistic model subjected to the effect of a random natural environment, modeled as Poisson white noise process, is investigated. The properties of the stochastic response are discussed for calculating the Lyapunov exponent, which had proven to be the most useful diagnostic tool for the stability of dynamical systems. The generalised It(o) differentiation formula is used to analyse the stochastic stability of the response. The results indicate that the stability of the response is related to the intensity and amplitude distribution of the environment noise and the growth rate of the species.

  14. Non-white noise in fMRI: Does modelling have an impact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben Ellegaard; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Sidaros, Karam;

    2006-01-01

    are typically modelled as an autoregressive (AR) process. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach: Nuisance Variable Regression (NVR). By inclusion of confounding effects in a general linear model (GLM), we first confirm that the spatial distribution of the various fMRI noise sources is similar......The sources of non-white noise in Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are many. Familiar sources include low-frequency drift due to hardware imperfections, oscillatory noise due to respiration and cardiac pulsation and residual movement artefacts...

  15. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  16. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  17. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  18. Relative Energy Associated with a White Hole Model of the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Binbay, F; Salti, M; Acikgoz, Irfan; Binbay, Figen; Salti, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    A specific Lemaitre-Tolman model of a spherically symmetric non-rotating white hole model with a few adjustable parameters is investigated to calculate the momentum four-vector distribution (due to matter plus fields including gravity) in the teleparallel gravity. The energy-momentum distributions (due to matter and fields including gravity) of a model are found to be zero. The result that the total energy and momentum components of a white hole model of the big bang are zero supports the viewpoints of Albrow and Tryon. It is also independent of the teleparallel dimensionless coupling constant, which means that it is valid in any teleparallel model. The results we obtained support the viewpoint of Lessner that the Moller energy-momentum formulation is a powerful concept to calculate energy and momentum distributions associated with the universe, and sustains the importance of the energy-momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy-momentum distribution of a given space-time. Furthermore, the results o...

  19. Modelling habitat requirements of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes using support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favaro L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish’s habitat has been profoundly modified in Piedmont (NW Italy due to environmental changes caused by human impact. Consequently, native populations have decreased markedly. In this research project, support vector machines were tested as possible tools for evaluating the ecological factors that determine the presence of white-clawed crayfish. A system of 175 sites was investigated, 98 of which recorded the presence of Austropotamobius pallipes. At each site 27 physical-chemical, environmental and climatic variables were measured according to their importance to A. pallipes. Various feature selection methods were employed. These yielded three subsets of variables that helped build three different types of models: (1 models with no variable selection; (2 models built by applying Goldberg’s genetic algorithm after variable selection; (3 models built by using a combination of four supervised-filter evaluators after variable selection. These different model types helped us realise how important it was to select the right features if we wanted to build support vector machines that perform as well as possible. In addition, support vector machines have a high potential for predicting indigenous crayfish occurrence, according to our findings. Therefore, they are valuable tools for freshwater management, tools that may prove to be much more promising than traditional and other machine-learning techniques.

  20. Modeling Requirements for Simulating the Effects of Extreme Acts of Terrorism: A White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.; Hiebert-Dodd, K.; Marozas, D.; Paananen, O.; Pryor, R.J.; Reinert, R.K.

    1998-10-01

    This white paper presents the initial requirements for developing a new computer model for simulating the effects of extreme acts of terrorism in the United States. General characteristics of the model are proposed and the level of effort to prepare a complete written description of the model, prior to coding, is detailed. The model would simulate the decision processes and interactions of complex U. S. systems engaged in responding to and recovering from four types of terrorist incidents. The incident scenarios span the space of extreme acts of terrorism that have the potential to affect not only the impacted area, but also the entire nation. The model would be useful to decision-makers in assessing and analyzing the vulnerability of the nation's complex infrastructures, in prioritizing resources to reduce risk, and in planning strategies for immediate response and for subsequent recovery from terrorist incidents.

  1. A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis of Cool White Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Mukremin; Tremblay, P -E; von Hippel, Ted; Bergeron, P; Harris, Hugh C; Munn, Jeffrey A; Williams, Kurtis A; Gates, Evalyn; Farihi, J

    2010-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 126 cool white dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our sample includes high proper motion targets selected using the SDSS and USNO-B astrometry and a dozen previously known ultracool white dwarf candidates. Our optical spectroscopic observations demonstrate that a clean selection of large samples of cool white dwarfs in the SDSS (and the SkyMapper, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope datasets) is possible using a reduced proper motion diagram and a tangential velocity cut-off (depending on the proper motion accuracy) of 30 km/s. Our near-infrared observations reveal eight new stars with significant absorption. We use the optical and near-infrared photometry to perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. More than 80% of the stars in our sample are consistent with either pure hydrogen or pure helium atmospheres. However, the eight stars with significant infrared absorption and the majority of the previously known ultra...

  2. Pine nut allergy in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falliers, C J

    1989-03-01

    Anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions following the ingestion of pine--or pinon--nuts are documented and reviewed in perspective. Systemic allergic reactions to other relatively uncommon or "exotic" foods are also considered. Although hypersensitivity to more than one type of "nuts" is reported by some individuals, no significant cross-reactivity between any of these, or between pine pollen, pine resin, and pine nuts has been demonstrated.

  3. Modeling tree growth and stable isotope ratios of white spruce in western Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Etienne; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Field, Robert; Oelkers, Rose; D'Arrigo, Rosanne

    2017-04-01

    Summer temperatures are assumed to exert a dominant control on physiological processes driving forest productivity in interior Alaska. However, despite the recent warming of the last few decades, numerous lines of evidence indicate that the enhancing effect of summer temperatures on high latitude forest populations has been weakening. First, satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity, such as the Normalized-Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1982-2005), show overall declines in productivity in the interior boreal forests. Second, some white spruce tree ring series strongly diverge from summer temperatures during the second half of the 20th century, indicating a persistent loss of temperature sensitivity of tree ring proxies. Thus, the physiological response of treeline forests to ongoing climate change cannot be accurately predicted, especially from correlation analysis. Here, we make use of a process-based dendroecological model (MAIDENiso) to elucidate the complex linkages between global warming and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] with the response of treeline white spruce stands in interior Alaska (Seward). In order to fully capture the array of processes controlling tree growth in the area, multiple physiological indicators of white spruce productivity are used as target variables: NDVI images, ring widths (RW), maximum density (MXD) and newly measured carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios from ring cellulose. Based on these data, we highlight the processes and mechanisms responsible for the apparent loss of sensitivity of white spruce trees to recent climate warming and [CO2] increase in order to elucidate the sensitivity and vulnerability of these trees to climate change.

  4. IS WHITE-COLLAR CRIMINALITY CLOSER TO THE RATIONAL MODEL THAN ANY OTHER TYPE MODEL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise is that white-collar felons are making non-rational decisions. To our opinion, they are not making decisions according to a calculation of profit or loss from perpetration of a crime as it was stated earlier in the scientific literature. In relation to the above mentioned premises, an illegal behavior is an occasion of a white-collar felon deciding to take the law into his own hands while taking risks. Naturally, the level of values and personality of the felon constitute a significant factor. Our current study offers an examination of deterring through a prism of the white-collar felon, who makes the decision to perpetrate a crime according to irrational components as well.White-collar crime, as family violence, and other socially harmful behaviors, is often excluded from examination. Of our opinion all the rational, social, biological, etc. theories of crimes, are the base of the reasons to make an offence, but in reality, the implementation of white-collar criminality closer to the non-rational model than any other type model. People are seen as less than fully rational. Often they do not make decisions that would appear to be in their own best interest for a variety of reasons. First, people do not always have all of the information they need to make informed decisions, and even if they do, may not have the capacity to optimally process that information. The personalities, experiences and options that of human beings given the choice in life, that it is quite naive to assume that we will all assess the situation similarly and arrive at similar choices. Many criminal events appear not to be very rational choices at all, or at least reflect patterns of decision making quite different from those more typically seen among law-abiding citizens. Ближе ли беловоротничковая преступность к рациональной модели, нежели к другим типам моделе

  5. Ab initio Stellar Astrophysics: Reliable Modeling of Cool White Dwarf Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Piotr M

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade {\\it ab initio} modeling of material properties has become widespread in diverse fields of research. It has proved to be a powerful tool for predicting various properties of matter under extreme conditions. We apply modern computational chemistry and materials science methods, including density functional theory (DFT), to solve lingering problems in the modeling of the dense atmospheres of cool white dwarfs ($T_{\\rm eff}\\rm <7000 \\, K$). Our work on the revision and improvements of the absorption mechanisms in the hydrogen and helium dominated atmospheres resulted in a new set of atmosphere models. By inclusion of the Ly-$\\rm \\alpha$ red wing opacity we successfully fitted the entire spectral energy distributions of known cool DA stars. In the subsequent work we fitted the majority of the coolest stars with hydrogen-rich models. This finding challenges our understanding of the spectral evolution of cool white dwarfs. We discuss a few examples, including the cool companion to the pulsar...

  6. FMEM: functional mixed effects modeling for the analysis of longitudinal white matter Tract data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Gilmore, John H; Geng, Xiujuan; Martin, Styner; Chen, Kehui; Wang, Jane-ling; Zhu, Hongtu

    2014-01-01

    Many longitudinal imaging studies have collected repeated diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data to understand white matter maturation and structural connectivity pattern in normal controls and diseased subjects. There is an urgent demand for the development of statistical methods for the analysis of diffusion properties along fiber tracts and clinical data obtained from longitudinal studies. Jointly analyzing repeated fiber-tract diffusion properties and covariates (e.g., age or gender) raises several major challenges including (i) infinite-dimensional functional response data, (ii) complex spatial-temporal correlation structure, and (iii) complex spatial smoothness. To address these challenges, this article is to develop a functional mixed effects modeling (FMEM) framework to delineate the dynamic changes of diffusion properties along major fiber tracts and their association with a set of covariates of interest and the structure of the variability of these white matter tract properties in various longitudinal studies. Our FMEM consists of a functional mixed effects model for addressing all three challenges, an efficient method for spatially smoothing varying coefficient functions, an estimation method for estimating the spatial-temporal correlation structure, a test procedure with local and global test statistics for testing hypotheses of interest associated with functional response, and a simultaneous confidence band for quantifying the uncertainty in the estimated coefficient functions. Simulated data are used to evaluate the finite sample performance of FMEM and to demonstrate that FMEM significantly outperforms the standard pointwise mixed effects modeling approach. We apply FMEM to study the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-matter fiber tracts in a clinical study of neurodevelopment.

  7. Modeling Forest Structural Parameters in the Mediterranean Pines of Central Spain using QuickBird-2 Imagery and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest structural parameters such as quadratic mean diameter, basal area, and number of trees per unit area are important for the assessment of wood volume and biomass and represent key forest inventory attributes. Forest inventory information is required to support sustainable management, carbon accounting, and policy development activities. Digital image processing of remotely sensed imagery is increasingly utilized to assist traditional, more manual, methods in the estimation of forest structural attributes over extensive areas, also enabling evaluation of change over time. Empirical attribute estimation with remotely sensed data is frequently employed, yet with known limitations, especially over complex environments such as Mediterranean forests. In this study, the capacity of high spatial resolution (HSR imagery and related techniques to model structural parameters at the stand level (n = 490 in Mediterranean pines in Central Spain is tested using data from the commercial satellite QuickBird-2. Spectral and spatial information derived from multispectral and panchromatic imagery (2.4 m and 0.68 m sided pixels, respectively served to model structural parameters. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART was selected for the modeling of attributes. Accurate models were produced of quadratic mean diameter (QMD (R2 = 0.8; RMSE = 0.13 m with an average error of 17% while basal area (BA models produced an average error of 22% (RMSE = 5.79 m2/ha. When the measured number of trees per unit area (N was categorized, as per frequent forest management practices, CART models correctly classified 70% of the stands, with all other stands classified in an adjacent class. The accuracy of the attributes estimated here is expected to be better when canopy cover is more open and attribute values are at the lower end of the range present, as related in the pattern of the residuals found in this study. Our findings indicate that attributes derived from

  8. A Multi-Survey Approach to White Dwarf Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Sayres, Conor; Bergeron, P; Dufour, P; Davenport, James R A; AlSayyad, Yusra; Tofflemire, Benjamin M

    2012-01-01

    By selecting astrometric and photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the L{\\'e}pine & Shara Proper Motion North Catalog (LSPM-North), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the USNO-B1.0 catalog, we use a succession of methods to isolate white dwarf candidates for follow-up spectroscopy. Our methods include: reduced proper motion diagram cuts, color cuts, and atmospheric model adherence. We present spectroscopy of 26 white dwarfs obtained from the CTIO 4m and APO 3.5m telescopes. Additionally, we confirm 28 white dwarfs with spectra available in the SDSS DR7 database but unpublished elsewhere, presenting a total of 54 WDs. We label one of these as a recovered WD while the remaining 53 are new discoveries. We determine physical parameters and estimate distances based on atmospheric model analyses. Three new white dwarfs are modeled to lie within 25 pc. Two additional white dwarfs are confirmed to be metal-polluted (DAZ). Follow-up time series photometry confirms another object to be ...

  9. Flow and sediment-transport modeling of Kootenai River White Sturgeon Spawning Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J.; Barton, G.; Paragamian, V.

    2004-12-01

    The population of White Sturgeon in the Kootenai River downstream of Libby Dam in Montana and Idaho has declined since the construction of the dam in 1972. The White Sturgeon was listed as endangered in 1994 and an 11.2 mile reach of the river, downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was designated as Critical Habitat in 2001. It is hypothesized that hydro-electric and flood control operations have contributed to poor spawning habitat and recruitment of juvenile fish. The successful incubation of eggs requires a stable and coarse bed material. Currently the sturgeon are spawning in a reach of poor substrate consisting of dunes up to 2 meters in amplitude and composed of fine sand while a short distance upstream there is suitable substrate of coarse gravel. We present here the preliminary results of a flow and sediment-transport modeling effort to aid in an understanding of both the current spawning habitat of the White Sturgeon and the potential to artificially enhance the current spawning habitat or to influence the sturgeon to move upstream to more suitable habitat. A 2.5 dimensional flow model was constructed for an 8-kilometer reach of the designated Critical Habitat. The modeled reach consists of several broad meanders and a mid channel island. The substrate is composed of fine sand with a median grain size of 0.22mm and has large dunes up to 2m in amplitude at relatively lows flows of 200 cms that wash out to a plane bed at around 600 cms. The model has been calibrated to a range of historical flow conditions from 170 cms to 1709 cms and verified against 16 ADCP velocity cross-section profiles collected during a period of steady flow at 554 cms. The model predicts well most of the salient features of the velocity field including the magnitude and location of the secondary flow, using a simple constant value for roughness. However for a few reaches of the river the bed forms and their spatial variability in size are shown to significantly affect the flow and the

  10. Subglacial bathymetry and sediment distribution beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf modeled using aerogravity and in situ geophysical data: New results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Atsuhiro; Peters, Leo E.; Gohl, Karsten; Sasgen, Ingo; Alley, Richard B.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Riverman, Kiya L.

    2016-01-01

    Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in the Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is losing mass and contributing to global sea-level rise at an accelerating rate. Although recent observations and modeling have identified the incursion of relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) beneath the PIG ice shelf (PIGIS) as the main driver of this ice-mass loss, the lack of precise bathymetry limits furthering our understanding of the ice-ocean interactions and improving the accuracy of modeling. Here we present updated bathymetry and sediment distribution beneath the PIGIS, modeled by the inversion of aerogravity data with constraints from active-source seismic data, observations from an autonomous underwater vehicle, and the regional gravity-anomaly field derived from satellite gravity observations. Modeled bathymetry shows a submarine ridge beneath the middle of PIGIS that rises ∼350 to 400 m above the surrounding sea floor, with a minimum water-column thickness of ∼200 m above it. This submarine ridge continues across the whole width of the 45-km wide ice shelf, with no deep troughs crossing it, confirming the general features of the previously predicted sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation. However, the relatively low resolution of the aerogravity data and limitations in our inversion method leave a possibility that there is an undetected, few-kilometers-wide or narrower trough that may alter the predicted sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation. Modeled sediment distribution indicates a sedimentary basin of up to ∼800 m thick near the current grounding zone of the main PIG trunk and extending farther inland, and a region seaward of the submarine ridge where sediments are thin or absent with exposed crystalline basement that extends seaward into Pine Island Bay. Therefore, the submarine ridge marks the transition from a thick sedimentary basin providing a smooth interface over which ice could flow easily by sliding or sediment deformation, to a region with no to

  11. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  12. Increased white matter neuron density in a rat model of maternal immune activation - Implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchatel, Ryan J; Jobling, Phillip; Graham, Brett A; Harms, Lauren R; Michie, Patricia T; Hodgson, Deborah M; Tooney, Paul A

    2016-02-01

    Interstitial neurons are located among white matter tracts of the human and rodent brain. Post-mortem studies have identified increased interstitial white matter neuron (IWMN) density in the fibre tracts below the cortex in people with schizophrenia. The current study assesses IWMN pathology in a model of maternal immune activation (MIA); a risk factor for schizophrenia. Experimental MIA was produced by an injection of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) into pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 10 or GD19. A separate control group received saline injections. The density of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN(+)) and somatostatin (SST(+)) IWMNs was determined in the white matter of the corpus callosum in two rostrocaudally adjacent areas in the 12week old offspring of GD10 (n=10) or GD19 polyI:C dams (n=18) compared to controls (n=20). NeuN(+) IWMN density trended to be higher in offspring from dams exposed to polyI:C at GD19, but not GD10. A subpopulation of these NeuN(+) IWMNs was shown to express SST. PolyI:C treatment of dams induced a significant increase in the density of SST(+) IWMNs in the offspring when delivered at both gestational stages with more regionally widespread effects observed at GD19. A positive correlation was observed between NeuN(+) and SST(+) IWMN density in animals exposed to polyI:C at GD19, but not controls. This is the first study to show that MIA increases IWMN density in adult offspring in a similar manner to that seen in the brain in schizophrenia. This suggests the MIA model will be useful in future studies aimed at probing the relationship between IWMNs and schizophrenia.

  13. Quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting magnetic white dwarfs II. The asset of numerical modelling for interpreting observations

    CERN Document Server

    Busschaert, C; Michaut, C; Bonnet-Bidaud, J -M; Mouchet, M

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic cataclysmic variables are close binary systems containing a strongly magnetized white dwarf that accretes matter coming from an M-dwarf companion. High-energy radiation coming from those objects is emitted from the accretion column close to the white dwarf photosphere at the impact region. Its properties depend on the characteristics of the white dwarf and an accurate accretion column model allows the properties of the binary system to be inferred, such as the white dwarf mass, its magnetic field, and the accretion rate. We study the temporal and spectral behaviour of the accretion region and use the tools we developed to accurately connect the simulation results to the X-ray and optical astronomical observations. The radiation hydrodynamics code Hades was adapted to simulate this specific accretion phenomena. Classical approaches were used to model the radiative losses of the two main radiative processes: bremsstrahlung and cyclotron. The oscillation frequencies and amplitudes in the X-ray and optic...

  14. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in soft blue-white cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosshaug, Per Sand; Detmer, Ann; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model simulating growth over time of the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes in a soft blue-white cheese. The physicochemical properties in a matrix such as cheese are essential controlling factors influencing the growth of L. monocytogenes....... We developed a predictive tertiary model of the bacterial growth of L. monocytogenes as a function of temperature, pH, NaCl, and lactic acid. We measured the variations over time of the physicochemical properties in the cheese. Our predictive model was developed based on broth data produced...... production and retail conditions showed that the number of L. monocytogenes cells increases 3 to 3.5 log within the shelf life of the cheese....

  15. Simultaneous Whole-Brain Segmentation and White Matter Lesion Detection Using Contrast-Adaptive Probabilistic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puonti, Oula; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new generative model for simultaneous brain parcellation and white matter lesion segmentation from multi-contrast magnetic resonance images. The method combines an existing whole-brain segmentation technique with a novel spatial lesion model based on a convolutional...... restricted Boltzmann machine. Unlike current state-of-the-art lesion detection techniques based on discriminative modeling, the proposed method is not tuned to one specific scanner or imaging protocol, and simultaneously segments dozens of neuroanatomical structures. Experiments on a public benchmark dataset...... in multiple sclerosis indicate that the method’s lesion segmentation accuracy compares well to that of the current state-of-the-art in the field, while additionally providing robust whole-brain segmentations....

  16. Multi-scale Hydrologic Modeling of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, S. M.; Newton, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    The shallow groundwater flow system of White Sands dune field, located within the arid to semi-arid Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico, likely stabilizes the base of the largest gypsum dune field in the world. The dune is saturated throughout nearly its entire accumulation thickness, resulting in a shallow water table (adapted to survive there. In response to projected increases in groundwater pumping in the regional Tularosa Basin groundwater system, changes in surface water use, and the threat of climate change, the WHSA is interested in understanding how these changes on a regional scale may impact the shallow dune field aquifer. Mathematical modeling techniques on varying spatial and temporal scales are used to characterize the relative importance of the sources of water (local vs. regional) to the dune aquifer, and to quantify the timescales on which changes may affect the water table in the dune field. A 2-dimensional, dune-scale heat and fluid flow model uses the seasonal temperature fluctuations to estimate the vertical and horizontal flow of water from the regional system to the dune field aquifer. We have also constructed a 2-dimensional, hydrologic model to characterize the regional groundwater flow regime near to the dune aquifer system, as well as across the Tularosa Basin to a depth of 6 km. Additionally, a 3-dimensional, hydrologic model of the Tularosa Basin and the White Sands dune field quantifies hydrologic characteristics, sources and sinks of groundwater in the basin and at the dune field. Computed and observed salinity, groundwater residence times, and water level data are the primary means of model calibration. Preliminary results from the three models indicate the regional groundwater system does contribute flow to the dune aquifer, and that increased pumping may increase drawdown of the regional groundwater system near the dune field. These results indicate the dune is sensitive to regional hydrologic changes.

  17. Astroglial NF-kB contributes to white matter damage and cognitive impairment in a mouse model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggu, Raman; Schumacher, Toni; Gerich, Florian; Rakers, Cordula; Tai, Khalid; Delekate, Andrea; Petzold, Gabor C

    2016-08-04

    Vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common form of dementia. The pathogenic pathways leading to vascular cognitive impairment remain unclear but clinical and experimental data have shown that chronic reactive astrogliosis occurs within white matter lesions, indicating that a sustained pro-inflammatory environment affecting the white matter may contribute towards disease progression. To model vascular cognitive impairment, we induced prolonged mild cerebral hypoperfusion in mice by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis. This chronic hypoperfusion resulted in reactive gliosis of astrocytes and microglia within white matter tracts, demyelination and axonal degeneration, consecutive spatial memory deficits, and loss of white matter integrity, as measured by ultra high-field magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging. White matter astrogliosis was accompanied by activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kB in reactive astrocytes. Using mice expressing a dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kB under the control of the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP-IkBα-dn), we found that transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-kB signaling ameliorated gliosis and axonal loss, maintained white matter structural integrity, and preserved memory function. Collectively, our results imply that pro-inflammatory changes in white matter astrocytes may represent an important detrimental component in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment, and that targeting these pathways may lead to novel therapeutic strategies.

  18. Storage stability of hen egg white powders in three protein/water dough model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Labuza, Theodore P

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in the intermediate-moisture food (IMF) market, such as high protein nutrition bars (HPNB), has significantly increased. Currently, no reported study is related to the storage stability of dried hen egg white (DEW) and its hydrolysates (HEW) in an IMF matrix. Therefore, three DEW/HEW dough model systems (100%HEW+0%DEW, 75%HEW+25%DEW and 50%HEW+50%DEW) were established using two commercial spray-dried egg white powders to study the effect of temperature and fraction of HEW on these IMF models (water activity (a(w)): ∼0.8). During storage at three different temperatures (23, 35 and 45°C) for 70 days, the selected physicochemical properties of the dough systems were compared. Overall, kinetic analysis showed an apparent zero-order model fit for the change in the colour (L(∗)), fluorescence intensity (FI) and hardness, as a function of time, for different dough model systems. As expected, the L(∗), FI and hardness increased as a function of time mainly due to the Maillard reaction. The amount of free amino groups decreased, with an increase in rate of loss, as temperature increased in the 100%HEW+0%DEW model. When DEW was substituted for some HEW, the regeneration of the free amino groups after loss was observed as a function of time. Furthermore, when the percentage of HEW was decreased, the incidence of mouldy samples occurred sooner, which indicates that HEW has some antimicrobial ability, especially in the 100%HEW+0%DEW system where mould growth did not occur. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of chitosan in inhibiting the oxidation of (+)-catechin in white wine model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Fabio; Natali, Nadia; Riponi, Claudio

    2014-10-08

    The efficacy of chitosan and sulfites in inhibiting the oxidation of (+)-catechin in aerated model white wines has been compared by monitoring the browning development and the generation of oxidized phenolic compounds. In addition, the protecting effects of these two additives toward the oxidative decay of varietal thiols were investigated. Chitosan effectively contrasted the browning onset in model solutions all along the entire duration of the experimentation. Color development was limited and comparable in both the sulfite and chitosan added samples. Thanks to its polyelectrolyte behavior, chitosan adsorbed up to 80% of the more hydrophilic oxidized phenolic species and chelated 70 and 30% of Fe and Cu added to the solutions, respectively. Thiol oxidation was significantly lowered by chitosan, suggesting that this additive could contribute to maintain the varietal character of wines coming from aromatic grapes and vinified with reduced sulfite amounts.

  20. A white-box model of S-shaped and double S-shaped single-species population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, Lev V; Kalmykov, Vyacheslav L

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems may be mechanistically modelled by white-box modeling with using logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata. Mathematical models of complex systems are of three types: black-box (phenomenological), white-box (mechanistic, based on the first principles) and grey-box (mixtures of phenomenological and mechanistic models). Most basic ecological models are of black-box type, including Malthusian, Verhulst, Lotka-Volterra models. In black-box models, the individual-based (mechanistic) mechanisms of population dynamics remain hidden. Here we mechanistically model the S-shaped and double S-shaped population growth of vegetatively propagated rhizomatous lawn grasses. Using purely logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata we create a white-box model. From a general physical standpoint, the vegetative propagation of plants is an analogue of excitation propagation in excitable media. Using the Monte Carlo method, we investigate a role of different initial positioning of an individual in the habitat. We have investigated mechanisms of the single-species population growth limited by habitat size, intraspecific competition, regeneration time and fecundity of individuals in two types of boundary conditions and at two types of fecundity. Besides that, we have compared the S-shaped and J-shaped population growth. We consider this white-box modeling approach as a method of artificial intelligence which works as automatic hyper-logical inference from the first principles of the studied subject. This approach is perspective for direct mechanistic insights into nature of any complex systems.

  1. A surplus production model including environmental effects: Application to the Senegalese white shrimp stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2009-12-01

    In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic

  2. White matter injuries induced by MK-801 in a mouse model of schizophrenia based on NMDA antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Yun; Kong, Xiang-Ru; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, Xuan; Chao, Feng-Lei; Peng, Chao; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Chun-Xia; Wang, San-Rong; Tang, Yong

    2014-08-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia (SZ) is complex and largely unknown. Neuroimaging and postmortem studies have suggested white matter disturbances in SZ. In the present study, we tested the white matter deficits hypothesis of SZ using a mouse model of SZ induced by NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We found that mice with repeated chronic MK-801 administration showed increased locomotor activity in the open field test, less exploration of a novel environment in the hole-board test, and increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze but no impairments were observed in coordination or motor function on accelerating rota-rod. The total white matter volume and corpus callosum volume in mice treated with MK-801 were significantly decreased compared to control mice treated with saline. Myelin basic protein and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase were also significantly decreased in the mouse model of SZ. Furthermore, we observed degenerative changes of myelin sheaths in the mouse model of SZ. These results provide further evidence of white matter deficits in SZ and indicate that the animal model of SZ induced by MK-801 is a useful model to investigate mechanisms underlying white matter abnormalities in SZ.

  3. Heritability of longevity in Large White and Landrace sows using continuous time and grouped data models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sölkner Johann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using conventional measurements of lifetime, it is not possible to differentiate between productive and non-productive days during a sow's lifetime and this can lead to estimated breeding values favoring less productive animals. By rescaling the time axis from continuous to several discrete classes, grouped survival data (discrete survival time models can be used instead. Methods The productive life length of 12319 Large White and 9833 Landrace sows was analyzed with continuous scale and grouped data models. Random effect of herd*year, fixed effects of interaction between parity and relative number of piglets, age at first farrowing and annual herd size change were included in the analysis. The genetic component was estimated from sire, sire-maternal grandsire, sire-dam, sire-maternal grandsire and animal models, and the heritabilities computed for each model type in both breeds. Results If age at first farrowing was under 43 weeks or above 60 weeks, the risk of culling sows increased. An interaction between parity and relative litter size was observed, expressed by limited culling during first parity and severe risk increase of culling sows having small litters later in life. In the Landrace breed, heritabilities ranged between 0.05 and 0.08 (s.e. 0.014-0.020 for the continuous and between 0.07 and 0.11 (s.e. 0.016-0.023 for the grouped data models, and in the Large White breed, they ranged between 0.08 and 0.14 (s.e. 0.012-0.026 for the continuous and between 0.08 and 0.13 (s.e. 0.012-0.025 for the grouped data models. Conclusions Heritabilities for length of productive life were similar with continuous time and grouped data models in both breeds. Based on these results and because grouped data models better reflect the economical needs in meat animals, we conclude that grouped data models are more appropriate in pig.

  4. Incorporating harvest rates into the sex-age-kill model for white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    Although monitoring population trends is an essential component of game species management, wildlife managers rarely have complete counts of abundance. Often, they rely on population models to monitor population trends. As imperfect representations of real-world populations, models must be rigorously evaluated to be applied appropriately. Previous research has evaluated population models for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the precision and reliability of these models when tested against empirical measures of variability and bias largely is untested. We were able to statistically evaluate the Pennsylvania sex-age-kill (PASAK) population model using realistic error measured using data from 1,131 radiocollared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. We used these data and harvest data (number killed, age-sex structure, etc.) to estimate precision of abundance estimates, identify the most efficient harvest data collection with respect to precision of parameter estimates, and evaluate PASAK model robustness to violation of assumptions. Median coefficient of variation (CV) estimates by Wildlife Management Unit, 13.2% in the most recent year, were slightly above benchmarks recommended for managing game species populations. Doubling reporting rates by hunters or doubling the number of deer checked by personnel in the field reduced median CVs to recommended levels. The PASAK model was robust to errors in estimates for adult male harvest rates but was sensitive to errors in subadult male harvest rates, especially in populations with lower harvest rates. In particular, an error in subadult (1.5-yr-old) male harvest rates resulted in the opposite error in subadult male, adult female, and juvenile population estimates. Also, evidence of a greater harvest probability for subadult female deer when compared with adult (≥2.5-yr-old) female deer resulted in a 9.5% underestimate of the population using the PASAK model. Because obtaining

  5. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  6. The rate equation based optical model for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kang; Li, Haokai; Guo, Keqin; Wang, Heng; Li, Dacheng; Zhang, Wending; Mei, Ting; Chua, Soo Jin

    2017-03-01

    An optical model based on the rate equation was developed to calculate the emission spectrum of a phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode (pc-WLED) taking into consideration the phosphor weight percentage, film thickness, and optical properties of phosphor, viz. absorption spectrum, quantum efficiency spectrum and fluorescent emission spectrum. Films containing a mixture of phosphor and silicone elastomer encapsulant were investigated using this model. A linear relationship was found between the peak absorption coefficient and the phosphor weight percentage with slopes of 66.76  ±  0.52 mm‑1 and 29.66  ±  2.05 mm‑1 for a red phosphor CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ and a yellow phosphor Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, respectively. With these parameters, the model predicted emission spectra which are in good agreement with measurement, thus verifying the validity of the model. The model correctly predicts redshift and spectral width reduction of the emission peak for increasing phosphor weight percentage or film thickness, as expected from the phenomenon of photon reabsorption by the phosphors. This model does not require the use of Monte Carlo simulation and Mie theory.

  7. Properties of Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarfs From Monte Carlo Stellar Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, C. E.; Farmer, R.; Petermann, I.; Iliadis, C.; Timmes, F. X.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate properties of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with respect to the composite uncertainties in the reaction rates using the stellar evolution toolkit, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) and the probability density functions in the reaction rate library STARLIB. These are the first Monte Carlo stellar evolution studies that use complete stellar models. Focusing on 3 {M}⊙ models evolved from the pre main-sequence to the first thermal pulse, we survey the remnant core mass, composition, and structure properties as a function of 26 STARLIB reaction rates covering hydrogen and helium burning using a Principal Component Analysis and Spearman Rank-Order Correlation. Relative to the arithmetic mean value, we find the width of the 95% confidence interval to be {{Δ }}{M}{{1TP}} ≈ 0.019 {M}⊙ for the core mass at the first thermal pulse, Δ{t}{{1TP}} ≈ 12.50 Myr for the age, {{Δ }}{log}({T}{{c}}/{{K}}) ≈ 0.013 for the central temperature, {{Δ }}{log}({ρ }{{c}}/{{g}} {{cm}}-3) ≈ 0.060 for the central density, {{Δ }}{Y}{{e,c}} ≈ 2.6 × 10-5 for the central electron fraction, {{Δ }}{X}{{c}}{(}22{{Ne}}) ≈ 5.8 × 10-4, {{Δ }}{X}{{c}}{(}12{{C}}) ≈ 0.392, and {{Δ }}{X}{{c}}{(}16{{O}}) ≈ 0.392. Uncertainties in the experimental 12C(α ,γ {)}16{{O}}, triple-α, and 14N({\\text{}}p,γ {)}15{{O}} reaction rates dominate these variations. We also consider a grid of 1-6 {M}⊙ models evolved from the pre main-sequence to the final white dwarf to probe the sensitivity of the initial-final mass relation to experimental uncertainties in the hydrogen and helium reaction rates.

  8. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K.R.

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid–base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid–base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality.

  9. Recent advances in the theoretical modeling of pulsating low-mass He-core white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H; Calcaferro, L M; Serenelli, A M; Kepler, S O; Jeffery, C S

    2016-01-01

    Many extremely low-mass (ELM) white-dwarf (WD) stars are currently being found in the field of the Milky Way. Some of these stars exhibit long-period nonradial $g$-mode pulsations, and constitute the class of ELMV pulsating WDs. In addition, several low-mass pre-WDs, which could be precursors of ELM WDs, have been observed to show short-period photometric variations likely due to nonradial $p$ modes and radial modes. They could constitute a new class of pulsating low-mass pre-WD stars, the pre-ELMV stars. Here, we present the recent results of a thorough theoretical study of the nonadiabatic pulsation properties of low-mass He-core WDs and pre-WDs on the basis of fully evolutionary models representative of these stars.

  10. Bioavailability of ginsenosides from white and red ginsengs in the simulated digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ok; Cha, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Sang Min; Choi, Sang Won; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ginsenosides during simulated digestion of white (WG) and red (RG) ginseng powders. Stability, bioaccessibility, and permeability of ginsenosides present in WG and RG were studied in a Caco-2 cell culture model coupled with oral, gastric, and small intestinal simulated digestion. Most ginsenosides in WG and RG were stable (>90%) during the simulated digestion. Bioaccessibilities of total ginsenosides during in vitro digestion of WG and RG were similar at approximately 85%. However, the bioaccessibility of protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides in the early food phase was greater than that of the protopanaxadiol type. The less polar RG ginsenosides were released later following the jejunum phase. Ginsenosides had low permeability (digestion and that ginsenosides are poorly absorbed in humans.

  11. Analysis on Taxation Model of Pine Nut, Squirrel and Saplings%一类松籽、松鼠、幼苗的征税模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洪艳; 罗勇; 胡亦郑

    2014-01-01

    运用微分方程理论,研究了一类非线性的红松种群征税模型,得到了该系统的平衡点,证明了该系统正平衡点的局部渐进稳定性和正平衡点的全局吸引域,利用 Pontryagin 最大值原理给出了最优征税策略。%This paper studies a class of nonlinear taxation model of pine nut, squirrel and saplings by means of the theory of differential equations. The existence of the positive equilibrium of the system is discussed through the research. Locally asymptotic stability of the system’s positive equilibrium is proved and the attractive domain of the positive equilibrium is obtained. The problem of optimal taxation strategy is settled by taking the advantage of Pontryagin’s maximal principle.

  12. Non-LTE models for the gaseous metal component of circumstellar discs around white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, S; Rauch, T; Werner, K

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous metal discs around single white dwarfs have been discovered recently. They are thought to develop from disrupted planetary bodies. Spectroscopic analyses will allow us to study the composition of extrasolar planetary material. We investigate in detail the first object for which a gas disc was discovered (SDSS J122859.93+104032.9). Therefor we perform non-LTE modelling of viscous gas discs by computing the detailed vertical structure and line spectra. The models are composed of carbon, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, calcium, and hydrogen with chemical abundances typical for Solar System asteroids. Line asymmetries are modelled by assuming spiral-arm and eccentric disc structures as suggested by hydrodynamical simulations. The observed infrared Ca II emission triplet can be modelled with a hydrogen-deficient metal gas disc located inside of the tidal disruption radius, with an effective temperature of about 6000 K and a surface mass density of 0.3 g/cm^2. The inner radius is well constrained at about 0.64 ...

  13. Modeling the Quality of Videos Displayed With Local Dimming Backlight at Different Peak White and Ambient Light Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Søgaard, Jacob; Bech, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness of a display) on the perceived quality of videos displayed using local backlight dimming. Two subjective tests providing quality evaluations are presented and analyzed. The analyses of variance show significant...... interactions of the factors peak white and ambient light with the perceived quality. Therefore, we proceed to predict the subjective quality grades with objective measures. The rendering of the frames on liquid crystal displays with light emitting diodes backlight at various ambient light and peak white levels...... is computed using a model of the display. Widely used objective quality metrics are applied based on the rendering models of the videos to predict the subjective evaluations. As these predictions are not satisfying, three machine learning methods are applied: partial least square regression, elastic net...

  14. The white morphotype of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is common in infected humans and virulent in infection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S; Petrofsky, M; Yaraei, K; Bermudez, L E; Cangelosi, G A

    2001-12-01

    Isolates of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) form multiple colony types named red-opaque, white-opaque, red-transparent (RT), and white-transparent (WT). The newly discovered WT morphotype is multidrug resistant relative to other variants in vitro. To determine whether the WT morphotype occurs in humans, 32 MAI-positive clinical samples from 2 sites were plated directly onto indicator agar without prior passage in vitro. WT was the predominant morphotype in 26 (81%) of these samples and was absent in only 2 samples. WT variants grew better than isogenic RT variants in mouse and human macrophage models of infection, and RT clones that passed through such systems underwent rapid shifts to the WT morphotype. The RT morphotype was heterogeneous with regard to infectivity. In summary, the white morphotype was common in humans and was favored in disease models. It may play an important role in the establishment and persistence of MAI infection.

  15. Highly magnetized white dwarf as a possible alternate to neutron star to resolve shortcoming of magnetar model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Rao, A. R.; Das, Upasana; Subramanian, Sathyawageeswar; Bhattacharya, Mukul

    2016-07-01

    Since 2012, in a series of paper (so far 15, published in Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 071102, 2013; ApJLett., 767, 14, 2013; MNRAS, 454, 752, 2015, etc.), we have been exploring the possible existence of highly magnetized super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs. Not only their mass is highly super-Chandrasekhar, they could be much smaller in size compared to the conventional white dwarfs. Here, first I plan to give an overview of the scientific evolution of the model and its current status. Subsequently, on establishing its reliability, I will show that it could be a potential candidate to explain the features lying with soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars, some of which the conventional neutron state based model, based on huge observationally unconfirmed yet surface magnetic fields, cannot explain. I will also highlight that our highly magnetized white dwarfs should exhibit very low luminosity, hence are difficult to observe directly.

  16. Improved extraction of pine bark for wood adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Fernando Caldeira; Brito, Paulo; Pepino, Lina; Portugal, António; Gil, Maria Helena; IRLE, Mark A; Costa, Rui Pereira da

    1999-01-01

    Pine bark tannins must be subjected to sulphonation to have an acceptable solubility in water for the preparation of wood adhesives. In this study, several extraction variables (sodium sulphite and urea concentrations in the extraction white liquor, extraction time, bark/liquor ratio and temperature) were assessed for their effect on extraction yield, and on the phenol, sulphur and ash content of extracts. Temperature had the highest positive effect on extraction yield and on the yield of tot...

  17. Population biology of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) with reference to historical disturbances in the Lake Tahoe Basin: implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia E. Maloney; Detlev R. Vogler; Andrew J. Eckert; Camille E. Jensen; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    Historical logging, fire suppression, and an invasive pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, the cause of white pine blister rust (WPBR), are assumed to have dramatically affected sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) populations in the Lake Tahoe Basin. We examined population- and genetic-level consequences of these disturbances within 10...

  18. Establishing the science foundation to sustain high-elevation five-needle pine forests threatened by novel interacting stresses in four western National Parks [Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; Jeff Connor; John Mack; Phyllis Pineda Bovin; Jen Beck; Gretchen Baker; R. A. Sniezko; K. S. Burns

    2014-01-01

    High-elevation five-needle white pines are among the most picturesque trees in many national parks, as well as other federal, state, and private lands in western North America. These trees often live to great ages; the trees' gnarled trunks give testimony to fierce winds that buffet them on exposed rocky sites. Ancient limber pines (Pinus flexilis) in Rocky...

  19. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K.

    2014-07-12

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  20. White matter apoptosis is increased by delayed hypothermia and rewarming in a neonatal piglet model of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Armstrong, J S; Reyes, M; Kulikowicz, E; Lee, J-H; Spicer, D; Bhalala, U; Yang, Z-J; Koehler, R C; Martin, L J; Lee, J K

    2016-03-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is widely used to treat neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injuries. However, potentially deleterious effects of delaying the induction of hypothermia and of rewarming on white matter injury remain unclear. We used a piglet model of HI to assess the effects of delayed hypothermia and rewarming on white matter apoptosis. Piglets underwent HI injury or sham surgery followed by normothermic or hypothermic recovery at 2h. Hypothermic groups were divided into those with no rewarming, slow rewarming at 0.5°C/h, or rapid rewarming at 4°C/h. Apoptotic cells in the subcortical white matter of the motor gyrus, corpus callosum, lateral olfactory tract, and internal capsule at 29h were identified morphologically and counted by hematoxylin & eosin staining. Cell death was verified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. White matter neurons were also counted, and apoptotic cells were immunophenotyped with the oligodendrocyte marker 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). Hypothermia, slow rewarming, and rapid rewarming increased apoptosis in the subcortical white matter relative to normothermia (ppiglets had more apoptosis in the lateral olfactory tract than those that were rewarmed (ppiglets had more apoptosis than shams after normothermia, slow rewarming, and rapid rewarming (ppiglet model of HI; in some regions these temperature effects are independent of HI. Vulnerable cells include myelinating oligodendrocytes. This study identifies a deleterious effect of therapeutic hypothermia in the developing brain.

  1. Forest Mortality in High-Elevation Pine Forests of Eastern California, USA; Influence of Climatic Water Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, C. I.; Westfall, R. D.; Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Bokach, M. J.; Delany, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread mortality in high-elevation forests has been increasing across western North American mountains in recent years, with climate, insects, and disease the primary causes. Subalpine forests in the eastern Sierra Nevada, by contrast, have experienced far less mortality than other ranges, and mortality events have been patchy and episodic. This situation, and lack of significant effect of non-native white-pine blister rust, enable investigation of fine-scale response of two subalpine Sierran species, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, PiAl) and limber pine (P. flexilis, PiFl), to climate variability, in particular, climatic water deficit (CWD). We report similarities and differences between the two major mortality events in these pines in the last 150 years: 1988-1992 for PiFl and 2006-ongoing for PiAl. The ultimate cause of tree death was mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), with climatic factors pre-conditioning stress in both species. Our studies include intensive ecology-plot analyses (both species) and region-wide air-survey forest-mortality detection mapping (PiAl only). We used climatic data from historic weather station data; for CWD, we modeled values from PRISM regional climate projections downscaled to 270 m and applied these to a regional water-balance model. The strongest correlations of ring-width (a measure of tree growth) in both species to climatic variables were to CWD: PiFl, -0.29 and -0.54 for live and dead trees, respectively; PiAl ,-0.19 for both live and dead trees. Correlations of ring-widths to 2-year lagged CWD were higher than to current-year means: PiFl, -0.34 and -0.44 for live and dead trees, respectively; PiAl, -0.43 and -0.46, live and dead trees, respectively. Mean annual CWD values of the mortality plots in the intensive study were 181 mm (PiAl) and 289 mm (PiFl); air surveys showed significantly higher CWD values for PiAl mortality stands than live forests (387 mm and 307 mm, respectively). Correlations of growth to

  2. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Prenesti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria. Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture, ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic “wine” especially adapted for testing.

  3. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-28

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  4. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E; Einstein, Daniel R; Kuprat, Andrew P; Corley, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  5. Effect of carboxymethylcellulose on potassium bitartrate crystallization on model solution and white wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajul, Audrey; Gerbaud, Vincent; Teychene, Sébastien; Devatine, Audrey; Bajul, Gilles

    2017-08-01

    Instability in bottled wines refer to tartaric salts crystallization such as potassium bitartrate (KHT). It is not desirable as consumers see the settled salts as an evidence of a poor quality control. In some cases, it causes excessive gushing in sparkling wine. We investigate the effect of two oenological carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for KHT inhibition in a model solution of white wine by studying the impact of some properties of CMC such as the degree of polymerization, the degree of substitution, and the apparent dissociation constant determined by potentiometric titration. Polyelectrolyte adsorption is used for determining the surface and total charge and for providing information about the availability of CMC charged groups for interacting with KHT crystal faces. The inhibitory efficiency of CMC on model solution is evaluated by measuring the induction time with the help of conductimetric methods. Crystals growth with and without CMC are studied by observation with MEB and by thermal analysis using DSC. The results confirm the effectiveness of CMC as an inhibitor of KHT crystallization in a model solution. The main hypothesis of the mechanism lies in the interaction of dissociated anionic carboxymethyl groups along the cellulose backbone with positively charged layers on KHT faces like the {0 1 0} face. Key factors such as pH, CMC chain length and total charge are discusses.

  6. Acid-base chemistry of white wine: analytical characterisation and chemical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenesti, Enrico; Berto, Silvia; Toso, Simona; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids) with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture), ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic "wine" especially adapted for testing.

  7. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenesti, Enrico; Berto, Silvia; Toso, Simona; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids) with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture), ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic “wine” especially adapted for testing. PMID:22566762

  8. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M.

  9. Bridging gaps: On the performance of airborne LiDAR to model wood mouse-habitat structure relationships in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-González, Carlos; Acebes, Pablo; Mateos, Ana; Mezquida, Eduardo T

    2017-01-01

    LiDAR technology has firmly contributed to strengthen the knowledge of habitat structure-wildlife relationships, though there is an evident bias towards flying vertebrates. To bridge this gap, we investigated and compared the performance of LiDAR and field data to model habitat preferences of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a Mediterranean high mountain pine forest (Pinus sylvestris). We recorded nine field and 13 LiDAR variables that were summarized by means of Principal Component Analyses (PCA). We then analyzed wood mouse's habitat preferences using three different models based on: (i) field PCs predictors, (ii) LiDAR PCs predictors; and (iii) both set of predictors in a combined model, including a variance partitioning analysis. Elevation was also included as a predictor in the three models. Our results indicate that LiDAR derived variables were better predictors than field-based variables. The model combining both data sets slightly improved the predictive power of the model. Field derived variables indicated that wood mouse was positively influenced by the gradient of increasing shrub cover and negatively affected by elevation. Regarding LiDAR data, two LiDAR PCs, i.e. gradients in canopy openness and complexity in forest vertical structure positively influenced wood mouse, although elevation interacted negatively with the complexity in vertical structure, indicating wood mouse's preferences for plots with lower elevations but with complex forest vertical structure. The combined model was similar to the LiDAR-based model and included the gradient of shrub cover measured in the field. Variance partitioning showed that LiDAR-based variables, together with elevation, were the most important predictors and that part of the variation explained by shrub cover was shared. LiDAR derived variables were good surrogates of environmental characteristics explaining habitat preferences by the wood mouse. Our LiDAR metrics represented structural features of the forest

  10. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  11. New population synthesis model: Preliminary results for close double white dwarf populations

    CERN Document Server

    Toonen, Silvia; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2011-01-01

    An update is presented to the software package SeBa for simulating single star and binary evolution in which new stellar evolution tracks have been implemented. SeBa is applied to study the population of close double white dwarf and the delay time distribution of double white dwarf mergers that may lead to Supernovae Type Ia.

  12. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  13. Navigating Guilt, Shame, and Fear of Appearing Racist: A Conceptual Model of Antiracist White Feminist Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, I employed narrative inquiry supported by intersectionality theory to explore the experiences of 6 antiracist, White, feminist undergraduate women. A conceptual model of antiracist identity development emerged from the data. Participants described vivid experiences with guilt, shame, and fear that kept them from engaging in allied…

  14. Navigating Guilt, Shame, and Fear of Appearing Racist: A Conceptual Model of Antiracist White Feminist Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, I employed narrative inquiry supported by intersectionality theory to explore the experiences of 6 antiracist, White, feminist undergraduate women. A conceptual model of antiracist identity development emerged from the data. Participants described vivid experiences with guilt, shame, and fear that kept them from engaging in allied…

  15. Modelled spatial and seasonal distribution of Blue Whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) larvae in the North-East Atlantic (1951 to 2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou, http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126439) is a small mesopelagic planktivorous gadoid found throughout the North-East Atlantic. This data contains the results of a model-based analysis of larvae captured by the Continuous Plankton...

  16. An analytical model for estimating water exchange rate in white matter using diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi-Bojd, Esmaeil; Chopp, Michael; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Wang, Shiyang; Ding, Guangliang; Jiang, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Substantial effort is being expended on using micro-structural modeling of the white matter, with the goal of relating diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) to the underlying structure of the tissue, such as axonal density. However, one of the important parameters affecting diffusion is the water exchange rate between the intra- and extra-axonal space, which has not been fully investigated and is a crucial marker of brain injury such as multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). To our knowledge, there is no diffusion analytical model which includes the Water eXchange Rate (WXR) without the requirement of short gradient pulse (SGP) approximation. We therefore propose a new analytical model by deriving the diffusion signal for a permeable cylinder, assuming a clinically feasible pulse gradient spin echo (PGSE) sequence. Simulations based on Markov Random Walk confirm that the exchange parameter included in our model has a linear correlation (R2>0.88) with the actual WXR. Moreover, increasing WXR causes the estimated values of diameter and volume fraction of the cylinders to increase and decrease, respectively, which is consistent with our findings from histology measurements in tissues near TBI regions. This model was also applied to the diffusion signal acquired from ex vivo brains of 14 male (10 TBI and 4 normal) rats using hybrid diffusion imaging. The estimated values of axon diameter and axonal volume fraction are in agreement with their corresponding histological measurements in normal brains, with 0.96 intra-class correlation coefficient value resulting from consistency analysis. Moreover, a significant increase (p = 0.001) in WXR and diameter and decrease in axonal volume fraction in the TBI boundary were detected in the TBI rats compared with the normal rats.

  17. Mountain pine beetles use volatile cues to locate host limber pine and avoid non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis A. Gray; Justin B. Runyon; Michael J. Jenkins; Andrew D. Giunta

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not...

  18. Influence of weather and climate variables on the basal area growth of individual shortleaf pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradip Saud; Thomas B. Lynch; Duncan S. Wilson; John Stewart; James M. Guldin; Bob Heinemann; Randy Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson

    2015-01-01

    An individual-tree basal area growth model previously developed for even-aged naturally occurring shortleaf pine trees (Pinus echinata Mill.) in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma did not include weather variables. Individual-tree growth and yield modeling of shortleaf pine has been carried out using the remeasurements of over 200 plots...

  19. Properties of Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarfs From Monte Carlo Stellar Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, C E; Petermann, I; Iliadis, C; Timmes, F X

    2016-01-01

    We investigate properties of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with respect to the composite uncertainties in the reaction rates using the stellar evolution toolkit, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) and the probability density functions in the reaction rate library STARLIB. These are the first Monte Carlo stellar evolution studies that use complete stellar models. Focusing on 3 M$_{\\odot}$ models evolved from the pre main-sequence to the first thermal pulse, we survey the remnant core mass, composition, and structure properties as a function of 26 STARLIB reaction rates covering hydrogen and helium burning using a Principal Component Analysis and Spearman Rank-Order Correlation. Relative to the arithmetic mean value, we find the width of the 95\\% confidence interval to be $\\Delta M_{{\\rm 1TP}}$ $\\approx$ 0.019 M$_{\\odot}$ for the core mass at the first thermal pulse, $\\Delta$$t_{\\rm{1TP}}$ $\\approx$ 12.50 Myr for the age, $\\Delta \\log(T_{{\\rm c}}/{\\rm K}) \\approx$ 0.013 for the central temperat...

  20. A Soil Moisture-Heat Based Early Establishment Model of Riparian White Alder (Alnus rhombifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablkowski, P.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.

    2013-12-01

    Establishment of fluvially dispersed seeds on accreted gravel-sand bars is limited by water availability in streams. Past establishment models have used the stream/water table recession rate, and maximum root growth rate to determine the elevation limit of seedling establishment. This approach neglects the role of the saturated-unsaturated vadose zone in providing water to recently germinated seedlings, the physical processes that determine the soil moisture content, and the effect moisture deficit has on seedling root growth. This study combines a soil moisture-heat budget and a seedling root growth model that responds to soil moisture availability to find the elevation limit of establishment of white alder (Alnus rhombifolia) on vertically accreted bars along the south fork Eel River in the Angelo Coast Range Reserve, California. To establish successfully, seedling roots must maintain a connection with sufficient moisture to avoid water stress. This will depend on the elevation of the bar, the stream recession rate, the root growth rate, and the diurnal cycle of soil moisture. A one-dimensional moisture-heat budget of the top 15 centimeters of sediment was validated at two locations characterized by sand and clay-gravel textures respectively, using soil moisture and temperature measurements at 5, 10 and 15 cm, net radiation, air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and precipitation measured during spring-summer stream recession. Two patterns in soil water content were apparent: an average daily moisture decrease at each depth driven by stream/water table recession, and a diurnal pattern of isothermal liquid and vapour flux increasing soil water content in the upper 15 cm between 12:00 pm and 5:00 pm PDT. To determine seedling root growth rates, white alder seedlings were grown in growth chambers under a range of reduced matric potentials using polyethylene glycol. Root length measurements were made at 4 hour intervals and a quadratic equation was fit to the root

  1. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  2. A white-box model of S-shaped and double S-shaped single-species population growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev V. Kalmykov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems may be mechanistically modelled by white-box modeling with using logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata. Mathematical models of complex systems are of three types: black-box (phenomenological, white-box (mechanistic, based on the first principles and grey-box (mixtures of phenomenological and mechanistic models. Most basic ecological models are of black-box type, including Malthusian, Verhulst, Lotka–Volterra models. In black-box models, the individual-based (mechanistic mechanisms of population dynamics remain hidden. Here we mechanistically model the S-shaped and double S-shaped population growth of vegetatively propagated rhizomatous lawn grasses. Using purely logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata we create a white-box model. From a general physical standpoint, the vegetative propagation of plants is an analogue of excitation propagation in excitable media. Using the Monte Carlo method, we investigate a role of different initial positioning of an individual in the habitat. We have investigated mechanisms of the single-species population growth limited by habitat size, intraspecific competition, regeneration time and fecundity of individuals in two types of boundary conditions and at two types of fecundity. Besides that, we have compared the S-shaped and J-shaped population growth. We consider this white-box modeling approach as a method of artificial intelligence which works as automatic hyper-logical inference from the first principles of the studied subject. This approach is perspective for direct mechanistic insights into nature of any complex systems.

  3. Modeling the Impact of White-Plague Coral Disease in Climate Change Scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Zvuloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are in global decline, with coral diseases increasing both in prevalence and in space, a situation that is expected only to worsen as future thermal stressors increase. Through intense surveillance, we have collected a unique and highly resolved dataset from the coral reef of Eilat (Israel, Red Sea, that documents the spatiotemporal dynamics of a White Plague Disease (WPD outbreak over the course of a full season. Based on modern statistical methodologies, we develop a novel spatial epidemiological model that uses a maximum-likelihood procedure to fit the data and assess the transmission pattern of WPD. We link the model to sea surface temperature (SST and test the possible effect of increasing temperatures on disease dynamics. Our results reveal that the likelihood of a susceptible coral to become infected is governed both by SST and by its spatial location relative to nearby infected corals. The model shows that the magnitude of WPD epidemics strongly depends on demographic circumstances; under one extreme, when recruitment is free-space regulated and coral density remains relatively constant, even an increase of only 0.5°C in SST can cause epidemics to double in magnitude. In reality, however, the spatial nature of transmission can effectively protect the community, restricting the magnitude of annual epidemics. This is because the probability of susceptible corals to become infected is negatively associated with coral density. Based on our findings, we expect that infectious diseases having a significant spatial component, such as Red-Sea WPD, will never lead to a complete destruction of the coral community under increased thermal stress. However, this also implies that signs of recovery of local coral communities may be misleading; indicative more of spatial dynamics than true rehabilitation of these communities. In contrast to earlier generic models, our approach captures dynamics of WPD both in space and time, accounting for

  4. Modeling the Impact of White-Plague Coral Disease in Climate Change Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvuloni, Assaf; Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Katriel, Guy; Loya, Yossi; Stone, Lewi

    2015-06-01

    Coral reefs are in global decline, with coral diseases increasing both in prevalence and in space, a situation that is expected only to worsen as future thermal stressors increase. Through intense surveillance, we have collected a unique and highly resolved dataset from the coral reef of Eilat (Israel, Red Sea), that documents the spatiotemporal dynamics of a White Plague Disease (WPD) outbreak over the course of a full season. Based on modern statistical methodologies, we develop a novel spatial epidemiological model that uses a maximum-likelihood procedure to fit the data and assess the transmission pattern of WPD. We link the model to sea surface temperature (SST) and test the possible effect of increasing temperatures on disease dynamics. Our results reveal that the likelihood of a susceptible coral to become infected is governed both by SST and by its spatial location relative to nearby infected corals. The model shows that the magnitude of WPD epidemics strongly depends on demographic circumstances; under one extreme, when recruitment is free-space regulated and coral density remains relatively constant, even an increase of only 0.5°C in SST can cause epidemics to double in magnitude. In reality, however, the spatial nature of transmission can effectively protect the community, restricting the magnitude of annual epidemics. This is because the probability of susceptible corals to become infected is negatively associated with coral density. Based on our findings, we expect that infectious diseases having a significant spatial component, such as Red-Sea WPD, will never lead to a complete destruction of the coral community under increased thermal stress. However, this also implies that signs of recovery of local coral communities may be misleading; indicative more of spatial dynamics than true rehabilitation of these communities. In contrast to earlier generic models, our approach captures dynamics of WPD both in space and time, accounting for the highly

  5. Modelling white-water rafting suitability in a hydropower regulated Alpine River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolli, Mauro; Zolezzi, Guido; Geneletti, Davide; Siviglia, Annunziato; Carolli, Fabiano; Cainelli, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    Cultural and recreational river ecosystem services and their relations with the flow regime are still poorly investigated. We develop a modelling-based approach to assess recreational flow requirements and the spatially distributed river suitability for white-water rafting, a typical service offered by mountain streams, with potential conflicts of interest with hydropower regulation. The approach is based on the principles of habitat suitability modelling using water depth as the main attribute, with preference curves defined through interviews with local rafting guides. The methodology allows to compute streamflow thresholds for conditions of suitability and optimality of a river reach in relation to rafting. Rafting suitability response to past, present and future flow management scenarios can be predicted on the basis of a hydrological model, which is incorporated in the methodology and is able to account for anthropic effects. Rafting suitability is expressed through a novel metric, the "Rafting hydro-suitability index" (RHSI) which quantifies the cumulative duration of suitable and optimal conditions for rafting. The approach is applied on the Noce River (NE Italy), an Alpine River regulated by hydropower production and affected by hydropeaking, which influences suitability at a sub-daily scale. A dedicated algorithm is developed within the hydrological model to resemble hydropeaking conditions with daily flow data. In the Noce River, peak flows associated with hydropeaking support rafting activities in late summer, highlighting the dual nature of hydropeaking in regulated rivers. Rafting suitability is slightly reduced under present, hydropower-regulated flow conditions compared to an idealized flow regime characterised by no water abstractions. Localized water abstractions for small, run-of-the-river hydropower plants are predicted to negatively affect rafting suitability. The proposed methodology can be extended to support decision making for flow

  6. Modeling grain size variations of aeolian gypsum deposits at White Sands, New Mexico, using AVIRIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrefat, H.A.; Goodell, P.C.; Hubbard, B.E.; Langford, R.P.; Aldouri, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) through Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) (0.4-2.5????m) AVIRIS data, along with laboratory spectral measurements and analyses of field samples, were used to characterize grain size variations in aeolian gypsum deposits across barchan-transverse, parabolic, and barchan dunes at White Sands, New Mexico, USA. All field samples contained a mineralogy of ?????100% gypsum. In order to document grain size variations at White Sands, surficial gypsum samples were collected along three Transects parallel to the prevailing downwind direction. Grain size analyses were carried out on the samples by sieving them into seven size fractions ranging from 45 to 621????m, which were subjected to spectral measurements. Absorption band depths of the size fractions were determined after applying an automated continuum-removal procedure to each spectrum. Then, the relationship between absorption band depth and gypsum size fraction was established using a linear regression. Three software processing steps were carried out to measure the grain size variations of gypsum in the Dune Area using AVIRIS data. AVIRIS mapping results, field work and laboratory analysis all show that the interdune areas have lower absorption band depth values and consist of finer grained gypsum deposits. In contrast, the dune crest areas have higher absorption band depth values and consist of coarser grained gypsum deposits. Based on laboratory estimates, a representative barchan-transverse dune (Transect 1) has a mean grain size of 1.16 ??{symbol} (449????m). The error bar results show that the error ranges from - 50 to + 50????m. Mean grain size for a representative parabolic dune (Transect 2) is 1.51 ??{symbol} (352????m), and 1.52 ??{symbol} (347????m) for a representative barchan dune (Transect 3). T-test results confirm that there are differences in the grain size distributions between barchan and parabolic dunes and between interdune and dune crest areas. The t-test results

  7. The development of an aquatic spill model for the White Oak Creek watershed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.O.

    1996-05-01

    This study develops an aquatic spill model applicable to the White Oak Creek watershed draining the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemicals are handled and stored on the laboratory reservation. An accidental spill into the White Oak Creek watershed could contaminate downstream water supplies if insufficient dilution did not occur. White Oak Creek empties into the Clinch River, which flows into the Tennessee River. Both rivers serve as municipal water supplies. The aquatic spill model provides estimates of the dilution at sequential downstream locations along White Oak creek and the Clinch River after an accidental spill of a liquid containing a radioactively decaying constituent. The location of the spill on the laboratory is arbitrary, while hydrologic conditions range from drought to extreme flood are simulated. The aquatic spill model provides quantitative estimates with which to assess water quality downstream from the site of the accidental spill, allowing an informed decision to be made whether to perform mitigating measures so that the integrity of affected water supplies is not jeopardized.

  8. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  9. Modeling ovarian follicle growth in commercial and heritage Single Comb White Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, E S; Jalal, M A; Zuidhof, M J

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 84% of the energy in chicken eggs resides in the yolk. A robust model of ovarian follicle development is therefore valuable for estimating energy requirements of laying hens. The current experiment was designed to model the growth of ovarian follicles in 32-wk-old modern commercial line (CL) and unselected heritage line (HL) Single Comb White Leghorn hens. The volume of yolk deposited daily during the rapid growth phase (RGP) was estimated using a double dye technique. For 21 d, 8 CL and 8 HL hens were fed capsules (no. 1) containing Sudan IV (red) and Sudan Black dyes on alternate days. An additional 8 control CL hens were fed empty capsules. Eggs were collected, and the daily volume of yolk deposited was estimated. Significant differences are reported where P hens, respectively. Duration of the RGP was shorter (7.35 d) in the CL hens compared with the HL hens (7.95 d). A nonlinear Lomolino model described follicular weight, which varied between strains over d 2 to 9 of follicle development; at each day during development, follicle weights were higher where RGP were shorter. The volume of yolk deposited for the 8 d preceding oviposition in CL was 0.17, 0.28, 0.43, 0.99, 1.84, 2.47, 2.82, 2.86, and 2.51 cm(3); and in HL was 0.17, 0.33, 0.72, 1.40, 2.15, 2.46, 2.48, 2.32, and 1.93 cm(3). The HL had a higher rate of yolk deposition 7 to 5 d before oviposition, and CL had a higher rate of yolk deposition 3 to 1 d before oviposition with no significant difference between lines on d 4 before oviposition. Although growth patterns differed, there were no differences among lines in final follicle weights (14.1 g) or retained energy (42.4 kcal).

  10. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schelhas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and enemy tribes, led to the establishment of the fire dependent and fire tolerant longleaf pine across the southern landscape. In the last 3 centuries however, the range of longleaf ecosystem has been gradually replaced first by agriculture and then by loblolly pine farming. The joint effects of agricultural expansion, intense logging of the longleaf in the late 1800s, expanded fire control since the early 20th century, and subsequent bare-root planting beginning in the 1930s, has permitted loblolly pine to become dominantly established in the south. Longleaf and loblolly pines represent two distinct woodland uses and represent separate human values. This study investigated the change from longleaf pine use to loblolly pine farming in Southern US from perspectives of human values of land and natural resources.

  11. Analytic expressions for the black-sky and white-sky albedos of the cosine lobe model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    The cosine lobe model is a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) that is commonly used in computer graphics to model specular reflections. The model is both simple and physically plausible, but physical quantities such as albedo have not been related to the parameterization of the model. In this paper, analytic expressions for calculating the black-sky and white-sky albedos from the cosine lobe BRDF model with integer exponents will be derived, to the author's knowledge for the first time. These expressions for albedo can be used to place constraints on physics-based simulations of radiative transfer such as high-fidelity ray-tracing simulations.

  12. A hierarchical model for the ages of Galactic halo white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Shijing; van Dyk, David A.; von Hippel, Ted; Robinson, Elliot; Webster, Aaron; Stenning, David

    2017-07-01

    In astrophysics, we often aim to estimate one or more parameters for each member object in a population and study the distribution of the fitted parameters across the population. In this paper, we develop novel methods that allow us to take advantage of existing software designed for such case-by-case analyses to simultaneously fit parameters of both the individual objects and the parameters that quantify their distribution across the population. Our methods are based on Bayesian hierarchical modelling that is known to produce parameter estimators for the individual objects that are on average closer to their true values than estimators based on case-by-case analyses. We verify this in the context of estimating ages of Galactic halo white dwarfs (WDs) via a series of simulation studies. Finally, we deploy our new techniques on optical and near-infrared photometry of 10 candidate halo WDs to obtain estimates of their ages along with an estimate of the mean age of Galactic halo WDs of 12.11_{-0.86}^{+0.85} Gyr. Although this sample is small, our technique lays the ground work for large-scale studies using data from the Gaia mission.

  13. snow white, a zebrafish model of Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome type 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Christina M S; Willer, Jason; Gregg, Ronald; Gross, Jeffrey M

    2013-10-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is a set of genetically heterogeneous diseases caused by mutations in one of nine known HPS genes. HPS patients display oculocutaneous hypopigmentation and bleeding diathesis and, depending on the disease subtype, pulmonary fibrosis, congenital nystagmus, reduced visual acuity, and platelet aggregation deficiency. Mouse models for all known HPS subtypes have contributed greatly to our understanding of the disease, but many of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying HPS remain unknown. Here, we characterize ocular defects in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) mutant snow white (snw), which possesses a recessive, missense mutation in hps5 (hps5I76N). Melanosome biogenesis is disrupted in snw/hps5 mutants, resulting in hypopigmentation, a significant decrease in the number, size, and maturity of melanosomes, and the presence of ectopic multi-melanosome clusters throughout the mutant retina and choroid. snw/hps5I76N is the first Hps5 mutation identified within the N-terminal WD40 repeat protein-protein binding domain. Through in vitro coexpression assays, we demonstrate that Hps5I76N retains the ability to bind its protein complex partners, Hps3 and Hps6. Furthermore, while Hps5 and Hps6 stabilize each other's expression, this stabilization is disrupted by Hps5I76N. The snw/hps5I76N mutant provides a valuable resource for structure-function analyses of Hps5 and enables further elucidation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying HPS.

  14. A Neutron Star-White Dwarf Binary Model for Repeating Fast Radio Burst 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Ma, Renyi; Wang, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a compact binary model for the fast radio burst (FRB) repeaters, where the system consists of a magnetic white dwarf (WD) and a neutron star (NS) with strong bipolar magnetic fields. When the WD fills its Roche lobe, mass transfer will occur from the WD to the NS through the inner Lagrange point. The accreted magnetized materials may trigger magnetic reconnection when they approach the NS surface, and therefore the electrons can be accelerated to an ultra-relativistic speed. In this scenario, the curvature radiation of the electrons moving along the NS magnetic field lines can account for the characteristic frequency and the timescale of an FRB. Owing to the conservation of angular momentum, the WD may be kicked away after a burst, and the next burst may appear when the system becomes semi-detached again through the gravitational radiation. By comparing our analyses with the observations, we show that such an intermittent Roche lobe overflow mechanism can be responsible for the observed repeating b...

  15. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  16. Age-related decline in white matter tract integrity and cognitive performance: a DTI tractography and structural equation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voineskos, Aristotle N; Rajji, Tarek K; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Miranda, Dielle; Shenton, Martha E; Kennedy, James L; Pollock, Bruce G; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2012-01-01

    Age-related decline in microstructural integrity of certain white matter tracts may explain cognitive decline associated with normal aging. Whole brain tractography and a clustering segmentation in 48 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan were used to examine: interhemispheric (corpus callosum), intrahemispheric association (cingulum, uncinate, arcuate, inferior longitudinal, inferior occipitofrontal), and projection (corticospinal) fibers. Principal components analysis reduced cognitive tests into 6 meaningful factors: (1) memory and executive function; (2) visuomotor dexterity; (3) motor speed; (4) attention and working memory; (5) set-shifting/flexibility; and (6) visuospatial construction. Using theory-based structural equation modeling, relationships among age, white matter tract integrity, and cognitive performance were investigated. Parsimonious model fit demonstrated relationships where decline in white matter integrity may explain age-related decline in cognitive performance: inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) with visuomotor dexterity; the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus with visuospatial construction; and posterior fibers (i.e., splenium) of the corpus callosum with memory and executive function. Our findings suggest that decline in the microstructural integrity of white matter fibers can account for cognitive decline in normal aging.

  17. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  18. New population synthesis model Preliminary results for close double white dwarf populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon F.

    2010-11-01

    An update is presented to the software package SeBa (Portegies Zwart and Verbunt [1], Nelemans et al. [2]) for simulating single star and binary evolution in which new stellar evolution tracks (Hurley et al. [3]) have been implemented. SeBa is applied to study the population of close double white dwarf and the delay time distribution of double white dwarf mergers that may lead to Supernovae Type Ia.

  19. A New Population Synthesis Model: Preliminary Results for Close Double White Dwarf Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon F.

    2010-12-01

    An update is presented to the software package SeBa (Portegies Zwart and Verbunt [1], Nelemans et al. [2]) for simulating single star and binary evolution in which new stellar evolution tracks (Hurley et al. [3]) have been implemented. SeBa is applied to study the population of close double white dwarf and the delay time distribution of double white dwarf mergers that may lead to Supernovae Type Ia.

  20. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Peiró; Gordon, Michael H.; Mónica Blanco; Francisca Pérez-Llamas; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols w...

  1. Transcriptome profiling of white adipose tissue in a mouse model for 15q duplication syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is not only associated with unhealthy lifestyles, but also linked to genetic predisposition. Previously, we generated an autism mouse model (patDp/+ that carries a 6.3 Mb paternal duplication homologous to the human 15q11–q13 locus. Chromosomal abnormalities in this region are known to cause autism spectrum disorder, Prader–Willi syndrome, and Angelman syndrome in humans. We found that, in addition to autistic-like behaviors, patDp/+ mice display late-onset obesity and hypersensitivity to a high-fat diet. These phenotypes are likely to be the results of genetic perturbations since the energy expenditures and food intakes of patDp/+ mice do not significantly differ from those of wild-type mice. Intriguingly, we found that an enlargement of adipose cells precedes the onset of obesity in patDp/+ mice. To understand the underlying molecular networks responsible for this pre-obese phenotype, we performed transcriptome profiling of white adipose tissue from patDp/+ and wild-type mice using microarray. We identified 230 genes as differentially expressed genes. Sfrp5 — a gene whose expression is positively correlated with adipocyte size, was found to be up-regulated, and Fndc5, a potent inducer of brown adipogenesis was identified to be the top down-regulated gene. Subsequent pathway analysis highlighted a set of 35 molecules involved in energy production, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry as the top candidate biological network responsible for the pre-obese phenotype of patDp/+. The microarray data were deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database with accession number GSE58191. Ultimately, our dataset provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism of obesity and demonstrated that patDp/+ is a valuable mouse model for obesity research.

  2. Simulation of Streamflow Using a Multidimensional Flow Model for White Sturgeon Habitat, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho - Supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5230

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed, calibrated, and validated a multidimensional flow model for simulating streamflow in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River in Idaho. The model was developed as a tool to aid understanding of the physical factors affecting quality and quantity of spawning and rearing habitat used by the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and for assessing the feasibility of various habitat-enhancement scenarios to re-establish recruitment of white sturgeon. At the request of the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, the USGS extended the two-dimensional flow model developed in 2005 into a braided reach upstream of the current white sturgeon spawning reach. Many scientists consider the braided reach a suitable substrate with adequate streamflow velocities for re-establishing recruitment of white sturgeon. The 2005 model was extended upstream to help assess the feasibility of various strategies to encourage white sturgeon to spawn in the reach. At the request of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the USGS also extended the two-dimensional flow model several kilometers downstream of the white sturgeon spawning reach. This modified model can quantify the physical characteristics of a reach that white sturgeon pass through as they swim upstream from Kootenay Lake to the spawning reach. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used for the 2005 modeling effort and for this subsequent modeling effort. This report describes the model applications and limitations, presents the results of a few simple simulations, and demonstrates how the model can be used to link physical characteristics of streamflow to the location of white sturgeon spawning events during 1994-2001. Model simulations also were used to report on the length and percentage of longitudinal profiles that met the minimum criteria during May and June 2006 and 2007 as stipulated in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Biological Opinion.

  3. Modelling the limits on the response of net carbon exchange to fertilization in a south-eastern pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Tai. Lai; G. Katul; J. Butnor; M. Siqueira; D. Ellsworth; C. Maier; Kurt Johnsen; S. Mickeand; R. Oren

    2002-01-01

    Using a combination of model simulations and detailed measurements at a hierarchy of scales conducted at a sandhills forest site, the effect of fertilization on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its components in 6-year-old Pinus taeda stands was quantified. The detailed measurements, collected over a 20-d period in September and October, included gas...

  4. User's guide: RPGrow$: a red pine growth and analysis spreadsheet for the Lake States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Hyldahl; Gerald H. Grossman

    1993-01-01

    Describes RPGrow$, a stand-level, interactive spreadsheet for projecting growth and yield and estimating financial returns of red pine plantations in the Lake States. This spreadsheet is based on published growth models for red pine. Financial analyses are based on discounted cash flow methods.

  5. Physical sample structure as predictive factor in growth modeling of Listeria innocua in a white cheese model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie M.; Bertram, Hanne C.; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Growth of Listeria innocua at 9 °C was investigated in white cheeses manufactured from ultra-filtrate milk concentrate added varying amounts of skimmed milk powder, NaCl and glucono-delta-lactone. Characterization of the white cheese structures was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T...

  6. Pine mouth (pine nut) syndrome: description of the toxidrome, preliminary case definition, and best evidence regarding an apparent etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2012-11-01

    Pine mouth syndrome (PMS), otherwise known as pine nut syndrome, is a relatively new condition. At least several thousand cases have now been described in the literature. The author describes the PMS toxidrome, offers a preliminary case definition, and discusses current best evidence regarding the etiology and risk factors related to the development of PMS.A clinically compatible case of PMS must include taste disturbance, usually characterized as bitter or metallic, following the ingestion of affected pine nuts by 1 to 3 days. Affected nuts would appear to include all, or some portion, of nuts harvested from species Pinus armandii (Chinese white pine), but could include nuts from other species. The specific toxin that is apparently present in affected nuts has not yet been isolated, and the mechanism of toxicity and factors determining PMS susceptibility need to be further detailed. There are no proven therapies for PMS. The only treatment is to cease ingesting implicated nuts and to wait for symptoms to abate.

  7. Finite Element Modeling of CNS White Matter Kinematics: Use of a 3D-RVE to Determine Material Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi ePan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Axonal injury represents a critical target area for the prevention and treatment of traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. Finite element (FE models of the head and/or brain are often used to predict brain injury caused by external mechanical loadings, such as explosive waves and direct impact. The accuracy of these numerical models depends on correctly determining the material properties and on the precise depiction of the tissues’ microstructure (microscopic level. Moreover, since the axonal microstructure for specific regions of the brain white matter is locally oriented, the stress and strain fields are highly anisotropic and axon orientation dependent. Additionally, mechanical strain has been identified as the proximal cause of axonal injury, which further demonstrates the importance of this multi-scale relationship. In this study, our previously developed FE and kinematic axonal models are coupled and applied to a pseudo 3-dimensional representative volume element (RVE of central nervous system white matter to investigate the multi-scale mechanical behavior. An inverse FE procedure was developed to identify material parameters of spinal cord white matter by combining the results of uniaxial testing with FE modeling. A satisfactory balance between simulation and experiment was achieved via optimization by minimizing the squared error between the simulated and experimental force-stretch curve. The combination of experimental testing and FE analysis provides a useful analysis tool for soft biological tissues in general, and specifically enables evaluations of the axonal response to tissue-level loading and subsequent predictions of axonal damage.

  8. Influence of low temperature on germination and endogenous growth regulator contents in Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kopcewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty days-long stratification of Scots pine seeds results in the seeds germinating in similar high percentage in darkness as in light. The period of stratification enough to overcome the "barrier" of light is connected with simultaneous increase of gibberellin contents, especially with the appearance of the new groups of gibberellins qualitatively similar to those occurring in pine tissues under the influence of red and white light. It was also found that seedlings grown from stratificated pine seeds produce the increased amounts of gibberellins.

  9. An innovative aerial assessment of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem mountain pine beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, William W; Logan, Jesse A; Kern, Wilson R

    2013-03-01

    An innovative aerial survey method called the Landscape Assessment System (LAS) was used to assess mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae)-caused mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) across the species distribution in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; 894 774 ha). This large-scale implementation of the LAS method consisted of 8673 km of flight lines, along which 4653 geo-tagged, oblique aerial photos were captured at the catchment level (a subset of 12-digit USGS hydrologic units) and geographic information system (GIS) processed. The Mountain Pine Beetle-caused Mortality Rating System, a landscape-scale classification system designed specifically to measure the cumulative effects of recent and older MPB attacks on whitebark pine, was used to classify mortality with a rating from 0 to 6 based on the amount of red (recent attack) and gray (old attack) trees visible. The approach achieved a photo inventory of 79% of the GYE whitebark pine distribution. For the remaining 21%, mortality levels were estimated based on an interpolated surface. Results that combine the photo-inventoried and interpolated mortality indicate that nearly half (46%) of the GYE whitebark pine distribution showed severe mortality (3-4 or 5.3-5.4 rating), 36% showed moderate mortality (2-2.9 rating), 13% showed low mortality (1-1.9 rating), and 5% showed trace levels of mortality (0-0.9). These results reveal that the proliferation of MPB in the subalpine zone of the GYE due to climate warming has led to whitebark pine mortality that is more severe and widespread than indicated from either previous modeling research or USDA Forest Service Aerial Detection surveys. Sixteen of the 22 major mountain ranges of the GYE have experienced widespread moderate-to-severe mortality. The majority of catchments in the other six mountain ranges show low-to-moderate mortality. Refugia from MPB outbreaks, at least for now, also exist and correspond to locations that have colder

  10. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  11. Religious Engagement in a Risky Family Model Predicting Health in Older Black and White Seventh-day Adventists

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Kelly R; Lee, Jerry W.; Haviland, Mark G.; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-01-01

    In a structural equation model, associations among latent variables – Child Poverty, Risky Family exposure, Religious Engagement, Negative Social Interactions, Negative Emotionality, and Perceived Physical Health – were evaluated in 6,753 Black and White adults aged 35–106 years (M = 60.5, SD = 13.0). All participants were members of the Seventh-day Adventist church surveyed in the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BRHS). Child Poverty was positively associated with both Risky Family...

  12. Inter- and intraspecific grafting and breeding of five-needle pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford E. Ahlgren

    1970-01-01

    The forest tree improvement work at the Center was started in 1949 with the introduction of some of Dr. Riker's grafted eastern white pine selections. Subsequently a program of selecting, grafting, breeding and testing for resistance was begun. The work was initiated at Basswood Lake (15 miles NE of Ely, Minnesota) rather than elsewhere on a more accessible site...

  13. Strength reduction in slash pine (Pinus elliotii) wood caused by decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong Yang; Zhehui Jiang; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Small wood specimens selected from slash pine (Pinus elliotii )trees at three growth rates (fast, medium, and slow) were inoculated with brown-rot and white-rot fungi and then evaluated for work to maximum load (WML), modulus of rupture (MOR), and modulus of elasticity (MOE). The experimental variables studied included a brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum...

  14. Nitrogen dynamics model in zero water exchange, low salinity intensive ponds of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at Colima, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A Castillo-Soriano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model based on differential equations describing the dynamics of nitrogen (NH4+, NO2-, NO3- and organic nitrogen in phytoplankton in ponds of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, with low salinity and zero turnovers, from planting to harvest. The model predicts the results of commercial production in three ponds. We show that this culture system, without replacement, retains the nitrogen and shrimp produced a lower feed conversion in comparison with systems with replacement. The model can be used to define strategies for improved performance.

  15. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wagner, Erika B.; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems. PMID:23766550

  16. Summary of preliminary step-trend analysis from the Interagency Whitebark Pine Long-termMonitoring Program—2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Kristin; Shanahan, Erin; Daley, Rob; Irvine, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In mixed and dominant stands, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) occurs in over two million acres within the six national forests and two national parks that comprise the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Currently, whitebark pine, an ecologically important species, is impacted by multiple ecological disturbances; white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), wildfire, and climate change all pose significant threats to the persistence of whitebark pine populations. Substantial declines in whitebark pine populations have been documented throughout its range.Under the auspices of the Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee (GYCC), several agencies began a collaborative, long-term monitoring program to track and document the status of whitebark pine across the GYE. This alliance resulted in the formation of the Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group (GYWPMWG), which consists of representatives from the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Montana State University (MSU). This groundbased monitoring program was initiated in 2004 and follows a peer-reviewed protocol (GYWPMWG 2011). The program is led by the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network (GRYN) of the National Park Service in coordination with multiple agencies. More information about this monitoring effort is available at: http://science. nature.nps.gov/im/units/gryn/monitor/whitebark_pine.cfm. The purpose of this report is to provide a draft summary of the first step-trend analysis for the interagency, long-term monitoring of whitebark pine health to the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team (IGBST) as part of a synthesis of the state of whitebark pine in the GYE. Due to the various stages of the analyses and reporting, this is the most efficient way to provide these results to the IGBST.

  17. Allergic Reactions to Pine Nut: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, B; Novak, N

    2015-01-01

    Pine nut is a nutrient-rich food with a beneficial impact on human health. The many bioactive constituents of pine nut interact synergistically to affect human physiology in a favorable way. However, pine nut can trigger dangerous allergic reactions. Severe anaphylactic reactions to pine nut accounted for most of the 45 cases reported in the scientific literature. Pine nut allergy seems to be characterized by low IgE cross-reactivity with other commonly consumed nuts and a high monosensitization rate. The present review provides updated information on allergic reactions to pine nut, molecular characterization of its allergens, and potential homologies with other nut allergens.

  18. Model Averaging for Predicting the Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 Using DNA Methylation in White Blood Cells of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardiantoro, S.; Sartono, B.; Kurnia, A.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, DNA methylation has been the special issue to reveal the pattern of a lot of human diseases. Huge amount of data would be the inescapable phenomenon in this case. In addition, some researchers interesting to take some predictions based on these huge data, especially using regression analysis. The classical approach would be failed to take the task. Model averaging by Ando and Li [1] could be an alternative approach to face this problem. This research applied the model averaging to get the best prediction in high dimension of data. In the practice, the case study by Vargas et al [3], data of exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and DNA methylation in white blood cells of infants in The Gambia, take the implementation of model averaging. The best ensemble model selected based on the minimum of MAPE, MAE, and MSE of predictions. The result is ensemble model by model averaging with number of predictors in model candidate is 15.

  19. The Tübingen Model-Atom Database: A Revised Aluminum Model Atom and its Application for the Spectral Analysis of White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbling, L.

    2017-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) nucleosynthesis takes place during the asymptotic-giant-branch (AGB) phase of stellar evolution. Al abundance determinations in hot white dwarf stars provide constraints to understand this process. Precise abundance measurements require advanced non-local thermodynamic stellar-atmosphere models and reliable atomic data. In the framework of the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO), the Tübingen Model-Atom Database (TMAD) contains ready-to- use model atoms for elements from hydrogen to barium. A revised, elaborated Al model atom has recently been added. We present preliminary stellar-atmosphere models and emergent Al line spectra for the hot white dwarfs G191–B2B and RE 0503–289.

  20. Assessment of imperfect detection of blister rust in whitebark pine within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wilson J.; Irvine, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined data on white pine blister rust (blister rust) collected during the monitoring of whitebark pine trees in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (from 2004-2015). Summaries of repeat observations performed by multiple independent observers are reviewed and discussed. These summaries show variability among observers and the potential for errors being made in blister rust status. Based on this assessment, we utilized occupancy models to analyze blister rust prevalence while explicitly accounting for imperfect detection. Available covariates were used to model both the probability of a tree being infected with blister rust and the probability of an observer detecting the infection. The fitted model provided strong evidence that the probability of blister rust infection increases as tree diameter increases and decreases as site elevation increases. Most importantly, we found evidence of heterogeneity in detection probabilities related to tree size and average slope of a transect. These results suggested that detecting the presence of blister rust was more difficult in larger trees. Also, there was evidence that blister rust was easier to detect on transects located on steeper slopes. Our model accounted for potential impacts of observer experience on blister rust detection probabilities and also showed moderate variability among the different observers in their ability to detect blister rust. Based on these model results, we suggest that multiple observer sampling continue in future field seasons in order to allow blister rust prevalence estimates to be corrected for imperfect detection. We suggest that the multiple observer effort be spread out across many transects (instead of concentrated at a few each field season) while retaining the overall proportion of trees with multiple observers around 5-20%. Estimates of prevalence are confounded with detection unless it is explicitly accounted for in an analysis and we demonstrate how an occupancy model can be used

  1. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivities of the Small White butterfly Pieris rapae crucivora interpreted with optical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

    The compound eye of the Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, has four classes of visual pigments, with peak absorption in the ultraviolet, violet, blue and green, but electrophysiological recordings yielded eight photoreceptors classes: an ultraviolet, violet, blue, double-peaked blue,

  2. White certificates for energy efficiency improvement with energy taxes : A theoretical economic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Jepma, C.J.; Becchis, F.; Russolillo, D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze interactions of two energy policy instruments, namely a White Certificates (WhC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement and energy taxation. These policy instruments differ in terms of objectives and final impacts on the price of electric

  3. Non-white noise in fMRI: Does modelling have an impact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben Ellegaard; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Sidaros, Karam

    2006-01-01

    The sources of non-white noise in Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are many. Familiar sources include low-frequency drift due to hardware imperfections, oscillatory noise due to respiration and cardiac pulsation and residual movement artefacts...

  4. Electrical-thermal-luminous-chromatic model of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.; Koh, S.W.; Yuan, C.; Zeijl, H. van; Gielen, A.W.J.; Lee, S.W.R.; Zhang, G.

    2014-01-01

    The drive of increased electrical currents to achieve high luminous output for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (PW-LED) has led to a series of thermal problems. The light performance of PW-LED is affected by the heat generated by the two major sources in a package/module: chip(s) and

  5. Non-white noise in fMRI: does modelling have an impact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben E; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Sidaros, Karam

    2006-01-01

    The sources of non-white noise in Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are many. Familiar sources include low-frequency drift due to hardware imperfections, oscillatory noise due to respiration and cardiac pulsation and residual movement artefacts ...

  6. Modeling the Quality of Videos Displayed With Local Dimming Backlight at Different Peak White and Ambient Light Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Sogaard, Jacob; Bech, Soren; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper Melgaard; Forchhammer, Soren

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the impact of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness of a display) on the perceived quality of videos displayed using local backlight dimming. Two subjective tests providing quality evaluations are presented and analyzed. The analyses of variance show significant interactions of the factors peak white and ambient light with the perceived quality. Therefore, we proceed to predict the subjective quality grades with objective measures. The rendering of the frames on liquid crystal displays with light emitting diodes backlight at various ambient light and peak white levels is computed using a model of the display. Widely used objective quality metrics are applied based on the rendering models of the videos to predict the subjective evaluations. As these predictions are not satisfying, three machine learning methods are applied: partial least square regression, elastic net, and support vector regression. The elastic net method obtains the best prediction accuracy with a spearman rank order correlation coefficient of 0.71, and two features are identified as having a major influence on the visual quality.

  7. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed.

  8. Species determination of pine nuts in commercial samples causing pine nut syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Aase Æ.; Jessen, Flemming; Ballin, Nicolai Z.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii has been reported to cause dysgeusia, commonly known as pine mouth, or pine nut syndrome (PNS). However, the number of reports on pine nut consumptions of the different species and PNS is limited. This leaves open the possibility...

  9. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  10. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  11. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A Gray

    Full Text Available The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp. are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  12. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  13. Traits of Masson Pine Affecting Attack of Pine Wood Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shi; You-Qing Luo; Ji-Ying Song; Hai-Wei Wu; Lei Wang; Gary Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Masson pine characteristics were analyzed in five sample plots in Zhejiang Province, China.Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacked Masson pines in the lower diameter classes.Among the 10 tree characteristics examined, mean crown width, percentage of bole with crown, 5-year cumulative diameter growth, and resin amount showed significant variation between successfully attacked and unattacked trees.The attacked trees had a lower percentage of the bole covered with tree crown, lower crown width, lower radial growth in the last 5 years, and produced less induced resinosis than unattacked trees.Results allowed for effective ranking of the pine forest based on individual tree resistance to PWN.This Index of resistance should be considered throughout the development of an "Evaluation Criterion and Indicator System".The preceding ranking can be used to evaluate the resistance and resiliency of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN's invasion, which is similar to Pest Risk Analysis (PRA).

  14. Hybrids of sugar pine by embryo culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. C. Stone; J. W. Duffield

    1950-01-01

    A modified embryo culture technique was used to facilitate germination of seed obtained after pollinating sugar pine with pollen from blister rust- resistant Armand and Korean pines. Resulting seedlings appear to be hybrids.

  15. Development of merchantable volume equations for natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of stem standing volume is very useful for both sustainable management of timber resources and practical purposes in forestry. Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. are important raw material of forest products industry of Turkey. With ever changing market conditions, there is a need to accurately estimate tree volumes utilizing multiple upper stem merchantability limits. This is not currently possible with the existing total stem volume tables for these three species. Nowadays, taper equations are the best way to estimate volume for saw timber and biomass purposes. In this study, variable exponent taper equations evaluated and fitted to data come from 253 destructively sampled trees which were collected in natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir district. For this aim, the taper equations of Lee et al. (2003, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004 were used. A second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used to correct the inherent autocorrelation in the hierarchical data. The proposed models generally performed better for Merchantable tree volume. Results show that the Kozak (2004 taper equation was superior to the other equations in predicting diameter and merchantable height, while The Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model provided the best predictions for merchantable volume than the other models. The one of the important results of this study, the importance of checking fit statistics of taper equations for both diameters and volume estimations.As a results, Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model recommended for estimating diameter at a specific height, height to a specific diameter along the stem, and merchantable volume for brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir analyzed

  16. Low tortoise abundances in pine forest plantations in forest-shrubland transition areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caro, Roberto C.; Oedekoven, Cornelia S.; Graciá, Eva; Anadón, José D.; Buckland, Stephen T.; Esteve-Selma, Miguel A.; Martinez, Julia; Giménez, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    In the transition between Mediterranean forest and the arid subtropical shrublands of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, humans have transformed habitat since ancient times. Understanding the role of the original mosaic landscapes in wildlife species and the effects of the current changes as pine forest plantations, performed even outside the forest ecological boundaries, are important conservation issues. We studied variation in the density of the endangered spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in three areas that include the four most common land types within the species’ range (pine forests, natural shrubs, dryland crop fields, and abandoned crop fields). Tortoise densities were estimated using a two-stage modeling approach with line transect distance sampling. Densities in dryland crop fields, abandoned crop fields and natural shrubs were higher (>6 individuals/ha) than in pine forests (1.25 individuals/ha). We also found large variation in density in the pine forests. Recent pine plantations showed higher densities than mature pine forests where shrub and herbaceous cover was taller and thicker. We hypothesize that mature pine forest might constrain tortoise activity by acting as partial barriers to movements. This issue is relevant for management purposes given that large areas in the tortoise’s range have recently been converted to pine plantations. PMID:28273135

  17. The Influence of the Oenococcus Oeni Malolactic Bacteria in Modelling the Flavor of White Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengyel Ecaterina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research investigated the accumulation of malic acid and diacetyl in the white wines during the alcoholic fermentation of must with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts isolated by the author and Oenococcus oeni malolactic bacteria in a concentration of 106 CFU/mL. The two aroma compounds were detected and quantified in the resulting wines, making a comparison between the two technological systems, i.e.: co-inoculation of malolactic bacteria and sequential inoculation. Based on our determinations, it was ascertained that the Oenococcus oeni malolactic bacteria co-inoculation system in fermentative processes leads to a substantial reduction of malolactic bacteria and diacetyl concentrations. Thus, harmonious, balanced white wines are obtained, as specific to the area.

  18. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  19. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  20. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peiró

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 °C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 °C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 ± 10.6, 5.40 ± 2.09, 5.04 ± 0.20 and 2.48 ± 1.10 mg/100 g.

  1. Comparative BAC-based mapping in the white-throated sparrow, a novel behavioral genomics model, using interspecies overgo hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonser Rusty A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new "non-model" organisms offer unique opportunities to examine environmental effects on genomic patterns and processes. Here we use comparative mapping as a first step in characterizing the genome organization of a novel animal model, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis, which occurs as white or tan morphs that exhibit alternative behaviors and physiology. Morph is determined by the presence or absence of a complex chromosomal rearrangement. This species is an ideal model for behavioral genomics because the association between genotype and phenotype is absolute, making it possible to identify the genomic bases of phenotypic variation. Findings We initiated a genomic study in this species by characterizing the white-throated sparrow BAC library via filter hybridization with overgo probes designed for the chicken, turkey, and zebra finch. Cross-species hybridization resulted in 640 positive sparrow BACs assigned to 77 chicken loci across almost all macro-and microchromosomes, with a focus on the chromosomes associated with morph. Out of 216 overgos, 36% of the probes hybridized successfully, with an average number of 3.0 positive sparrow BACs per overgo. Conclusions These data will be utilized for determining chromosomal architecture and for fine-scale mapping of candidate genes associated with phenotypic differences. Our research confirms the utility of interspecies hybridization for developing comparative maps in other non-model organisms.

  2. Moisture-induced quality changes of hen egg white proteins in a protein/water model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Labuza, Theodore P

    2012-10-24

    In recent years, the intermediate-moisture foods (IMF), such as nutrition and energy bars, are a rapidly growing segment of the global food market. However, due to moisture-induced protein aggregation, commercial high protein nutrition bars generally become harder over time, thus losing product acceptability. In this study, the objectives were to investigate the moisture-induced protein aggregation in a hen egg white proteins/water dough model system (water activity (a(w)): 0.95) and to evaluate its molecular mechanisms and controlling factors. During storage at three different temperatures (23, 35, and 45 °C) for 70 days, four selected physicochemical changes of the dough system were analyzed: the a(w), the color (L* value), the fluorescent Maillard compounds (fluorescence intensity (FI) value), and the remaining free amino groups. Overall, the physicochemical changes of egg white proteins in the dough system are closely related to the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The effect of moisture content on both the L* and FI values occurred as a function of storage time at 45 °C due to the Maillard reaction. The change of the remaining free amino groups at different temperatures was derived from the coaction of both the Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis from molds. Additionally, through analyzing the buffer-soluble egg white proteins using gel electrophoresis, our results showed that moisture-induced aggregates were produced by two chemical reactions during storage: the disulfide interaction and the Maillard reaction. Furthermore, the effect of two processes during manufacturing, desugarization and dry-heat pasteurization, on the physicochemical changes of the egg white proteins was elucidated. In order to prevent or reduce moisture-induced protein aggregation during product storage and distribution, two potential solutions were also discussed.

  3. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  4. Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine Project Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine-grassland Project includes 261 ac of mid– to late-rotation loblolly pine which were managed with a heavy pine thin (50-60...

  5. Silvical characteristics of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert G., Jr. Snow

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine has finally attained its rightful place among trees of commercial importance. It has done so in spite of being called "scrub pine" and "poverty pine" - and in spite of the term "forest weed", which has lingered long in the speech of oldtimers who remember the days of timber-plenty.

  6. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W. L.; T. T. Veblen; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  7. Estimation of nonpoint-source loads of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and total suspended solids in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins, Michigan, by use of the PLOAD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Jodoin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project partners planned a 3-year assessment study of the surface water in the Lake St. Clair drainage basins in Michigan. This study included water-quality monitoring and analysis, collection of discrete (grab) and automatic water-quality samples, monitoring of bacteria, and the creation of a database to store all relevant data collected from past and future field-data-collection programs. In cooperation with the Lake St. Clair Monitoring Project, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed nonpoint-source loads of nutrients and total suspended solids in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins. The principal tool for the assessment study was the USEPA’s PLOAD model, a simplified GIS-based numerical program that generates gross estimates of pollutant loads. In this study, annual loads were computed for each watershed using the USEPA’s Simple Method, which is based on scientific studies showing a correlation between different land-use types and loading rates. The two land-use data sets used in the study (representing 1992 and 2001) show a maximum of 0.02-percent change in any of the 15 land use categories between the two timeframes. This small change in land use is reflected in the PLOAD results of the study area between the two time periods. PLOAD model results for the 2001 land-use data include total-nitrogen loads from the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins of approximately 495,599 lb/yr, 156,561 lb/yr, and 121,212 lb/yr, respectively; total-phosphorus loads of 80,777 lb/yr, 25,493 lb/yr, and 19,655 lb/yr, respectively; and total-suspended-solids loads of 5,613,282 lb/yr, 1,831,045 lb/yr, and 1,480,352 lb/yr, respectively. The subbasins in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basin with comparatively high loads are characterized by comparatively high percentages of industrial, commercial, transportation, or residential land use. The results from the PLOAD model provide useful information about the approximate average annual loading

  8. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yang, Zhaoqing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Voisin, Nathalie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richey, Jeff [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wang, Taiping [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taira, Randal Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Constans, Michael [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Van Cleve, Frances B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tesfa, Teklu K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Final Report for the EPA-sponsored project Snow Caps to White Caps that provides data products and insight for water resource managers to support their predictions and management actions to address future changes in water resources (fresh and marine) in the Puget Sound basin. This report details the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to examine the movement of water in the Snohomish Basin, within the watershed and the estuary, under present and future conditions, using a set of linked numerical models.

  9. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Voisin, Nathalie; Richey, Jeff; Wang, Taiping; Taira, Randal Y.; Constans, Michael; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Tesfa, Teklu K.

    2013-12-31

    Final Report for the EPA-sponsored project Snow Caps to White Caps that provides data products and insight for water resource managers to support their predictions and management actions to address future changes in water resources (fresh and marine) in the Puget Sound basin. This report details the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to examine the movement of water in the Snohomish Basin, within the watershed and the estuary, under present and future conditions, using a set of linked numerical models.

  10. Distribution of natural Korean pines in Baihe Forestry Bureau based on spatial models.%基于空间模型的白河林业局天然红松分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王烁; 李凤日; 赵颖慧; 甄贞

    2015-01-01

    Based on field data of 772 permanent plots in Baihe Forestry Bureau, Changbai Mountains area of northeastern China, we established global models, including Logistic and Poisson, using least square method, and local models ( GWR, geographically weighted regression ) , including GWLR (geographically weighted logistic regression) and GWPR (geographically weighted Poisson regression), to predict distribution of natural Korean pines ( Pinus koraiensis ) . The results showed that slope and average DBH ( diameter at breast height ) of trees in sub-compartment had significant influence on the distribution of the natural Korean pines, which were mainly found in the eastern and southwestern area of the bureau, and few in the north. A comparison of AICs and spatial autocorrelation of global and local model residuals showed that GWR had obviously smaller AICs and more desirable model residuals ( significant decrease of spatial autocorrelation) than global models. Thus, GWR could efficiently solve spatial heterogeneity of plots and improve the accuracy of predicting occurrence probability and count of natural Korean pines. This study would provide theoretical basis for predicting distribution of natural Korean pines in large scale forest management.%根据长白山地区白河林业局的772 块固定标准地调查数据,分别建立以最小二乘法为基础的全局模型( Logistic和Poisson)和以地理加权回归模型( GWR)为基础的局域模型( GWLR和GWPR)来预估该局天然红松的分布情况. 结果表明:天然红松分布受坡度和小班内树木平均胸径的影响最为显著,主要分布在东部和西南部地区,在北部的部分地区也有分布,但数量相对较少. 通过比较全局模型和局域模型的AIC值和模型残差的空间相关性指数发现:GWR模型的AIC值明显小于全局模型,并且能够产生更为理想的模型残差,即模型残差的空间相关性明显减小,因此,GWR模型可以有效解决样地间空间异

  11. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yu-Man; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Sliney, David; Yang, Chang-Hao; Lee, Li-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) deliver higher levels of blue light to the retina than do conventional domestic light sources. Chronic exposure to high-intensity light (2,000-10,000 lux) has previously been found to result in light-induced retinal injury, but chronic exposure to relatively low-intensity (750 lux) light has not been previously assessed with LEDs in a rodent model. We examined LED-induced retinal neuronal cell damage in the Sprague-Dawley rat using functional, histological, and biochemical measurements. We used blue LEDs (460 nm) and full-spectrum white LEDs, coupled with matching compact fluorescent lights, for exposures. Pathological examinations included electroretinogram, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also measured free radical production in the retina to determine the oxidative stress level. H&E staining and TEM revealed apoptosis and necrosis of photoreceptors, which indicated blue-light induced photochemical injury of the retina. Free radical production in the retina was increased in LED-exposed groups. IHC staining demonstrated that oxidative stress was associated with retinal injury. Although we found serious retinal light injury in LED groups, the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) groups showed moderate to mild injury. Our results raise questions about adverse effects on the retina from chronic exposure to LED light compared with other light sources that have less blue light. Thus, we suggest a precautionary approach with regard to the use of blue-rich "white" LEDs for general lighting. Shang YM, Wang GS, Sliney D, Yang CH, Lee LL. 2014. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model. Environ Health Perspect 122:269-276; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307294.

  12. Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, K S; Tew, I; French, C; Hicks, R J; Martin, P; Munro, J; Stentiford, G D

    2012-07-01

    Despite almost two decades since its discovery, White Spot Disease (WSD) caused by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still considered the most significant known pathogen impacting the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in tropical regions, the virus is also able to infect, cause disease and kill a wide range of other decapod crustacean hosts from temperate regions, including lobsters, crabs, crayfish and shrimp. For this reason, WSSV has recently been listed in European Community Council Directive 2006/88. Using principles laid down by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) we applied an array of diagnostic approaches to provide a definitive statement on the susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in seven ecologically or economically important crustacean species from Europe. We chose four marine species: Cancer pagurus, Homarus gammarus, Nephrops norvegicus and Carcinus maenas; one estuarine species, Eriocheir sinensis and two freshwater species, Austropotamobius pallipes and Pacifastacus leniusculus. Exposure trials based upon natural (feeding) and artificial (intra-muscular injection) routes of exposure to WSSV revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in these hosts. However, the relative degree of susceptibility (measured by progression of infection to disease, and mortality) varied significantly between host species. In some instances (Type 1 hosts), pathogenesis mimicked that observed in penaeid shrimp hosts whereas in other examples (Types 2 and 3 hosts), infection did not readily progress to disease, even though hosts were considered as infected and susceptible according to accepted principles. Results arising from challenge studies are discussed in relation to the potential risk posed to non-target hosts by the inadvertent introduction of WSSV to European waters via trade. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for

  13. Post-fire regeneration dynamics in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in Wind River and Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer G Klutsch; Betsy A Goodrich; William R Jacobi

    2015-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations are in decline across the species’ range due to historic wildfire exclusion, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) outbreaks, and an invasive fungal pathogen causing the disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, WPBR). Despite reliance on stand-replacing fires, information on whitebark pine regeneration occurrence is limited and the trajectory of future forests is largely unknown in some areas of the range. Regeneration densities were assessed in burned and adjacent non-burned areas at six high elevation locations in northwest Wyoming where stand-replacing fires occurred 8–32 years before the surveys. In these locations at the eastern extent of the species range, we assessed what site factors were associ-ated with regeneration success. Whitebark pine regen-eration density was greater and seedlings were older in non-burned compared to burned areas. Within burns, north aspects had more regeneration than south aspects. Potential seed source densities and other species’ regeneration were positively related to whitebark pine regeneration densities in burned areas. South facing slopes or grass covered areas may have either delayed or no regeneration of whitebark pine without the help of artificial planting.

  14. Anaphylaxis to pine nuts and immunological cross-reactivity with pine pollen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, G; Roncarolo, D; Dama, A; Mistrello, G

    2000-01-01

    Despite the wide use of pine nuts, the fruit of Pinus pinea, only a few reports of allergic reactions to them have been published. We present herein a case of food allergy to pine nuts in a patient who showed no clinical symptoms to pine pollen despite the presence in her serum of specific IgE antibodies. In order to verify whether the reaction against pine nuts was IgE mediated, specific IgE against pine nuts and pollen were evaluated by skin-prick test, prick by prick and RAST. Immunoblotting and immunoblotting-inhibition were used to evaluate the allergenic components of both extracts and their cross-reactivity. Prick by prick with fresh pine nuts and RAST with pine nut and pine pollen extracts showed that the patient had high levels of specific IgE against both extracts. Immunoblotting experiments showed the presence in serum of IgE antibodies against several components in pine nuts and pollen. Immunoblotting-inhibition experiments demonstrated the presence of some cross-reacting components. These data confirm the existence of food allergy induced by pine nuts. This sensitization to pine nuts developed with no symptoms of pine pollinosis. Development of pollinosis may require a longer time of exposure to allergens. Based on the cross-reactivity between pine nut and pine pollen extracts, cosensitization to these two allergens could be possible.

  15. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni; Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  16. White Matter Loss in a Mouse Model of Periventricular Leukomalacia Is Rescued by Trophic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gressens

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the most frequent cause of cerebral palsy and other intellectual disabilities, and currently there is no treatment. In PVL, glutamate excitotoxicity (GME leads to abnormal oligodendrocytes (OLs, myelin deficiency, and ventriculomegaly. We have previously identified that the combination of transferrin and insulin growth factors (TSC1 promotes endogenous OL regeneration and remyelination in the postnatal and adult rodent brain. Here, we produced a periventricular white matter lesion with a single intracerebral injection of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA. Comparing lesions produced by NMDA alone and those produced by NMDA + TSC1 we found that: NMDA affected survival and reduced migration of OL progenitors (OLPs. In contrast, mice injected with NMDA + TSC1 proliferated twice as much indicating that TSC1 supported regeneration of the OLP population after the insult. Olig2-mRNA expression showed 52% OLP survival in mice receiving a NMDA injection and increased to 78% when TSC1 + NMDA were injected simultaneously and ventricular size was reduced by TSC1. Furthermore, in striatal slices TSC1 reduced the inward currents induced by NMDA in medium-sized spiny neurons, demonstrating neuroprotection. Thus, white matter loss after excitotoxicity can be partially rescued as TSC1 conferred neuroprotection to preexisting OLP and regeneration via OLP proliferation. Furthermore, we showed that early TSC1 administration maximizes neuroprotection.

  17. A model of hemorrhagic shock and acute lung injury in Landrace-Large White Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Theodoros T; Balkamou, Xanthippi A; Stroumpoulis, Kostantinos I; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis N; Rokas, Georgios I; Agrogiannis, Georgios D; Troupis, Georgios T; Demestiha, Theano D; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N

    2011-04-01

    Traumatic injury is a leading cause of death worldwide for people between 5 and 44 y of age, and it accounts for 10% of all deaths. The incidence of acute lung injury, a life-threatening complication in severely injured trauma patients remains between 30% and 50%. This study describes an experimental protocol of volume-controlled hemorrhage in Landrace-Large White swine. The experimental approach simulated the clinical situation associated with hemorrhagic shock in the trauma patient while providing controlled conditions to maximize reproducibility. The duration of the protocol was 8 h and was divided into 5 distinct phases-stabilization, hemorrhage, maintenance, resuscitation, and observation-after which the swine were euthanized. Lung tissue samples were analyzed histologically. All swine survived the protocol. The hemodynamic responses accurately reflected those seen in humans, and the development of acute lung injury was consistent among all swine. This experimental protocol of hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation in Landrace-Large White swine may be useful for future study of hemorrhagic shock and acute lung injury.

  18. A Model of Hemorrhagic Shock and Acute Lung Injury in Landrace–Large White Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Theodoros T; Balkamou, Xanthippi A; Stroumpoulis, Kostantinos I; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis N; Rokas, Georgios I; Agrogiannis, Georgios D; Troupis, Georgios T; Demestiha, Theano D; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic injury is a leading cause of death worldwide for people between 5 and 44 y of age, and it accounts for 10% of all deaths. The incidence of acute lung injury, a life-threatening complication in severely injured trauma patients remains between 30% and 50%. This study describes an experimental protocol of volume-controlled hemorrhage in Landrace–Large White swine. The experimental approach simulated the clinical situation associated with hemorrhagic shock in the trauma patient while providing controlled conditions to maximize reproducibility. The duration of the protocol was 8 h and was divided into 5 distinct phases—stabilization, hemorrhage, maintenance, resuscitation, and observation—after which the swine were euthanized. Lung tissue samples were analyzed histologically. All swine survived the protocol. The hemodynamic responses accurately reflected those seen in humans, and the development of acute lung injury was consistent among all swine. This experimental protocol of hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation in Landrace–Large White swine may be useful for future study of hemorrhagic shock and acute lung injury. PMID:21535927

  19. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni, E-mail: deni@ipb.ac.id; Estuningsih, Sri [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi [Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Riau (UMRI), Pekanbaru (Indonesia); Hermawan, Hendra [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University (ULaval) (Canada)

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  20. Modeling excitation-emission fluorescence matrices with pattern recognition algorithms for classification of Argentine white wines according grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Alcaraz, Mirta R; Ugulino de Araújo, Mário C; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the modeling of excitation-emission matrices for classification of Argentinean white wines according to the grape variety employing chemometric tools for pattern recognition. The discriminative power of the data was first investigated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). The score plots showed strong overlapping between classes. A forty-one samples set was partitioned into training and test sets by the Kennard-Stone algorithm. The algorithms evaluated were SIMCA, N- and U-PLS-DA and SPA-LDA. The fit of the implemented models was assessed by mean of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. These models were then used to assign the type of grape of the wines corresponding to the twenty samples test set. The best results were obtained for U-PLS-DA and SPA-LDA with 76% and 80% accuracy.

  1. Modeling, simulation, and analysis of a reactor system for the generation of white liquor of a pulp and paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andreola

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An industrial system for the production of white liquor of a pulp and paper industry, Klabin Paraná Papéis, formed by ten reactors was modeled, simulated, and analyzed. The developed model considered possible water losses by the evaporation and reaction, in addition to variations in the volumetric flow of lime mud across the reactors due to the composition variations. The model predictions agreed well with the process measurements at the plant and the results showed that the slaking reaction was nearly complete at the third causticizing reactor, while causticizing ends by the seventh reactor. Water loss due to slaking reaction and evaporation occurred more pronouncedly in the slaker reactor than in the final causticizing reactors; nevertheless, the lime mud flow remained nearly constant across the reactors.

  2. Habitat suitability and nest survival of white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forests of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, J.P.; Saab, V.A.; Frenzel, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated habitat suitability and nest survival of breeding white-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) in unburned forests of central Oregon, USA. Daily nest-survival rate was positively related to maximum daily temperature during the nest interval and to density of large-diameter trees surrounding the nest tree. We developed a niche-based habitat suitability model (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) for nesting white-headed woodpeckers using remotely sensed data. Along with low elevation, high density of large trees, and low slope, our habitat suitability model suggested that interspersion-juxtaposition of low- and high-canopy cover ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) patches was important for nest-site suitability. Cross-validation suggested the model performed adequately for management planning at a scale >1 ha. Evaluation of mapped habitat suitability index (HSI) suggested that the maximum predictive gain (HSI=0.36), where the number of nest locations are maximized in the smallest proportion of the modeled landscape, provided an objective initial threshold for identification of suitable habitat. However, managers can choose the threshold HSI most appropriate for their purposes (e.g., locating regions of low-moderate suitability that have potential for habitat restoration). Consequently, our habitat suitability model may be useful for managing dry coniferous forests for white-headed woodpeckers in central Oregon; however, model validation is necessary before our model could be applied to other locations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  3. Regulatory perspectives on model validation in high-level radioactive waste management programs: A joint NRC/SKI white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingefors, S.; Andersson, J.; Norrby, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power lnspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden). Office of Nuclear Waste Safety; Eisenberg, N.A.; Lee, M.P.; Federline, M.V. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards; Sagar, B.; Wittmeyer, G.W. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Validation (or confidence building) should be an important aspect of the regulatory uses of mathematical models in the safety assessments of geologic repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). A substantial body of literature exists indicating the manner in which scientific validation of models is usually pursued. Because models for a geologic repository performance assessment cannot be tested over the spatial scales of interest and long time periods for which the models will make estimates of performance, the usual avenue for model validation- that is, comparison of model estimates with actual data at the space-time scales of interest- is precluded. Further complicating the model validation process in HLW programs are the uncertainties inherent in describing the geologic complexities of potential disposal sites, and their interactions with the engineered system, with a limited set of generally imprecise data, making it difficult to discriminate between model discrepancy and inadequacy of input data. A successful strategy for model validation, therefore, should attempt to recognize these difficulties, address their resolution, and document the resolution in a careful manner. The end result of validation efforts should be a documented enhancement of confidence in the model to an extent that the model's results can aid in regulatory decision-making. The level of validation needed should be determined by the intended uses of these models, rather than by the ideal of validation of a scientific theory. This white Paper presents a model validation strategy that can be implemented in a regulatory environment. It was prepared jointly by staff members of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate-SKI. This document should not be viewed as, and is not intended to be formal guidance or as a staff position on this matter. Rather, based on a review of the literature and previous

  4. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  5. Implementing an emergency medical services system in Kathmandu, Nepal: a model for "white coat diplomacy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca; Auerbach, Paul S; Kelley, Benjamin V; Gongal, Rajesh; Amsalem, David; Mahadevan, Swaminatha

    2014-09-01

    Wilderness medicine providers often visit foreign lands, where they come in contact with medical situations that are representative of the prevailing healthcare issues in the host countries. The standards of care for matters of acute and chronic care, public health, and crisis intervention are often below those we consider to be modern and essential. Emergency medical services (EMS) is an essential public medical service that is often found to be underdeveloped. We describe our efforts to support development of an EMS system in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, including training the first-ever class of emergency medical technicians in that country. The purpose of this description is to assist others who might attempt similar efforts in other countries and to support the notion that an effective approach to improving foreign relations is assistance such as this, which may be considered a form of "white coat diplomacy."

  6. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  7. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  8. Integrating Helms's White Racial Identity Development Model with Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory: Implications for Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthakaran, V.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased focus on multicultural education in colleges and universities, there is a need for educators to have a profound knowledge of White racial identity development to better understand White students' resistance to multicultural topics and to facilitate their racial identity development. An integration of Helms's White racial…

  9. Evaluation of regeneration potential of Pinus koraiensis in mixed pine-hardwood forests in the Xiao Xing'an Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-bin; MOU Pu; WANG Tian-ming; GE Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Large scale harvest of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seeds as a food product in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest of northeastern China poses a serious threat to the sustainability and restoration of this endangered regional ecosystem.Seed collection over past decades greatly reduced the seed bank and subsequent seedling and sapling recruitment,and impacting a wide array of granivorous animals that rely on the pine seeds.We surveyed Korean pine seeds,including solid seeds (SS),insect consumed seeds (ICS) and other (animal) consumed (OCS)kernels,of the seed bank (forest floor and the top 10 cm of mineral soil),the seedlings and saplings from 1 m2 sample plots in five forest types in Liangshui Nature Reserve (LNR) of the southern Xiao Xing'an Mountains in northeastern China to provide accurate information for assessing the Korean pine regeneration potential.The average number of pine seeds in the seed bank were 11.2 seeds/m2,9.1 seeds/m2,4.6 seeds/m2,1.1 seeds/m2,and 0.2 seeds/m2 in Korean pine-basswood forest,mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,mixed conifer-hardwood forest,white birch forests,and oak forests,respectively.In the first three forest types,percentages of SS (potentially viable seeds) were 11.2%,3.5% and 27.8%,respectively.The percentages of ICS (not viable seeds) were consistent at around 35%.The higher but variable percentages of OCS (not viable seeds) indicated high seed predation in these forests.Compared with other studies,we recorded higher percentages of seed damage,probably due to our survey approach and the increased depth of seed bank sampled in our study.Depletion of pine seeds in the seed bank greatly reduced seedling and sapling recruitment.Densities of pine seedlings varied from about 180 trees/ha in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest to about 5,400 trees/ha in the mixed conifer-hardwood forests and showed a high degree of spatial variation.Saplings were rare in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,but ranged in the

  10. NLTE model atmospheres for the hottest white dwarfs: Spectral analysis of the compact component in nova V4743 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Gonzales-Riestra, R; Nelson, T; Still, M; Werner, K; Wilms, J; 10.1088/0004-637X/717/1/363

    2010-01-01

    Half a year after its outburst in September 2002, nova V4743 Sgr evolved into the brightest supersoft X-ray source in the sky with a flux maximum around 30A. We calculated grids of synthetic energy distributions (SEDs) based on NLTE model atmospheres for the analysis of the hottest white dwarfs and present the result of fits to Chandra and XMM-Newton grating X-ray spectra of V4743 Sgr of outstanding quality, exhibiting prominent resonance lines of C V, C VI, N VI, N VII, and O VII in absorption. The nova reached its highest effective temperature (Teff = 740 +/- 70kK) around April 2003 and remained at that temperature at least until September 2003. We conclude that the white dwarf is massive, about 1.1 - 1.2 Msun. The nuclear-burning phase lasted for 2 to 2.5 years after the outburst, probably the average duration for a classical nova. The photosphere of V4743 Sgr was strongly carbon deficient (about times solar) and enriched in nitrogen and oxygen (> 5 times solar). Especially the very low C/N ratio indicates...

  11. Latent resilience in ponderosa pine forest: effects of resumed frequent fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew J; Belote, R Travis; Cansler, C Alina; Parks, Sean A; Dietz, Matthew S

    2013-09-01

    Ecological systems often exhibit resilient states that are maintained through negative feedbacks. In ponderosa pine forests, fire historically represented the negative feedback mechanism that maintained ecosystem resilience; fire exclusion reduced that resilience, predisposing the transition to an alternative ecosystem state upon reintroduction of fire. We evaluated the effects of reintroduced frequent wildfire in unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forest in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana, USA. Initial reintroduction of fire in 2003 reduced tree density and consumed surface fuels, but also stimulated establishment of a dense cohort of lodgepole pine, maintaining a trajectory toward an alternative state. Resumption of a frequent fire regime by a second fire in 2011 restored a low-density forest dominated by large-diameter ponderosa pine by eliminating many regenerating lodgepole pines and by continuing to remove surface fuels and small-diameter lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir that established during the fire suppression era. Our data demonstrate that some unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forests possess latent resilience to reintroduced fire. A passive model of simply allowing lightning-ignited fires to burn appears to be a viable approach to restoration of such forests.

  12. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former...... colonies – and their children – are experiencing in contemporary France. It suggests that the entire film be read as the protagonist’s paranoid vision that imagines white privileges to be menaced by some non-white conspiracy. His obsession, which hinges on a fear of a reversal of the power inherent in ‘the...

  13. Scientific models red atoms, white lies and black boxes in a yellow book

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlee, Philip

    2016-01-01

    A zebrafish, the hull of a miniature ship, a mathematical equation and a food chain - what do these things have in common? They are examples of models used by scientists to isolate and study particular aspects of the world around us. This book begins by introducing the concept of a scientific model from an intuitive perspective, drawing parallels to mental models and artistic representations. It then recounts the history of modelling from the 16th century up until the present day. The iterative process of model building is described and discussed in the context of complex models with high predictive accuracy versus simpler models that provide more of a conceptual understanding. To illustrate the diversity of opinions within the scientific community, we also present the results of an interview study, in which ten scientists from different disciplines describe their views on modelling and how models feature in their work. Lastly, it includes a number of worked examples that span different modelling approaches a...

  14. Sugar pine seed harvest by Clark's nutcracker: Annual use of a transient resource in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor J. Turner; Diana F. Tomback; Bradley Van Anderson; Michael Murray

    2011-01-01

    Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) are well known for using conifer seeds as their principal nutriment source. Seeds are primarily harvested from whitebark (Pinus albicaulis), piñon (P. edulis), limber (P. flexilis), southwestern white (P. strobiformis), Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi), and ponderosa (P. ponderosa) pine as well as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  15. Histological correlation of diffusional kurtosis and white matter modeling metrics in cuprizone-induced corpus callosum demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falangola, Maria F; Guilfoyle, David N; Tabesh, Ali; Hui, Edward S; Nie, Xingju; Jensen, Jens H; Gerum, Scott V; Hu, Caixia; LaFrancois, John; Collins, Heather R; Helpern, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    The cuprizone mouse model is well established for studying the processes of both demyelination and remyelination in the corpus callosum, and it has been utilized together with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate myelin and axonal pathology. Although some underlying morphological mechanisms contributing to the changes in diffusion tensor (DT) metrics have been identified, the understanding of specific associations between histology and diffusion measures remains limited. Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an extension of DTI that provides metrics of diffusional non-Gaussianity, for which an associated white matter modeling (WMM) method has been developed. The main goal of the present study was to quantitatively assess the relationships between diffusion measures and histological measures in the mouse model of cuprizone-induced corpus callosum demyelination. The diffusional kurtosis (DK) and WMM metrics were found to provide additional information that enhances the sensitivity to detect the morphological heterogeneity in the chronic phase of the disease process in the rostral segment of the corpus callosum. Specifically, in the rostral segment, axonal water fraction (d = 2.6; p < 0.0001), radial kurtosis (d = 2.0; p = 0.001) and mean kurtosis (d = 1.5; p = 0.005) showed the most sensitivity between groups with respect to yielding statistically significant p values and high Cohen's d values. These results demonstrate the ability of DK and WMM metrics to detect white mater changes and inflammatory processes associated with cuprizone-induced demyelination. They also validate, in part, the application of these new WMM metrics for studying neurological diseases, as well as helping to elucidate their biophysical meaning.

  16. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strong Again Rebuilding America’s Infrastructure Repeal and Replace Obamacare Standing Up For Our Law Enforcement Community Trade ... People Petitions Contact the White House Get Involved Obamacare: Share Your Story Getting Americans Back to Work ...

  17. Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; Osnas, Erik E; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can be facilitated by using a formal model.We developed a multi-state computer simulation model using age, sex, infection-stage, and seasonality as a tool for scientific learning and managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Our matrix model used disease transmission parameters based on data collected through disease management activities. We used this model to evaluate management issues on density- (DD) and frequency-dependent (FD) transmission, time since disease introduction, and deer culling on the demographics, epizootiology, and management of CWD.Both DD and FD models fit the Wisconsin data for a harvested white-tailed deer population, but FD was slightly better. Time since disease introduction was estimated as 36 (95% CI, 24-50) and 188 (41->200) years for DD and FD transmission, respectively. Deer harvest using intermediate to high non-selective rates can be used to reduce uncertainty between DD and FD transmission and improve our prediction of long-term epidemic patterns and host population impacts. A higher harvest rate allows earlier detection of these differences, but substantially reduces deer abundance.Results showed that CWD has spread slowly within Wisconsin deer populations, and therefore, epidemics and disease management are expected to last for decades. Non-hunted deer populations can develop and sustain a high level of infection, generating a substantial risk of disease spread. In contrast, CWD prevalence remains lower in hunted deer populations, but at a higher prevalence the disease competes with

  18. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    OpenAIRE

    John Schelhas; Indrajit Majumdar; Yaoqi Zhang

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and ...

  19. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  20. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  1. Summer hot snaps and winter conditions: modelling white syndrome outbreaks on Great Barrier Reef corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Heron

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under increasing pressure in a changing climate, one such threat being more frequent and destructive outbreaks of coral diseases. Thermal stress from rising temperatures has been implicated as a causal factor in disease outbreaks observed on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and elsewhere in the world. Here, we examine seasonal effects of satellite-derived temperature on the abundance of coral diseases known as white syndromes on the Great Barrier Reef, considering both warm stress during summer and deviations from mean temperatures during the preceding winter. We found a high correlation (r(2 = 0.953 between summer warm thermal anomalies (Hot Snap and disease abundance during outbreak events. Inclusion of thermal conditions during the preceding winter revealed that a significant reduction in disease outbreaks occurred following especially cold winters (Cold Snap, potentially related to a reduction in pathogen loading. Furthermore, mild winters (i.e., neither excessively cool nor warm frequently preceded disease outbreaks. In contrast, disease outbreaks did not typically occur following warm winters, potentially because of increased disease resistance of the coral host. Understanding the balance between the effects of warm and cold winters on disease outbreak will be important in a warming climate. Combining the influence of winter and summer thermal effects resulted in an algorithm that yields both a Seasonal Outlook of disease risk at the conclusion of winter and near real-time monitoring of Outbreak Risk during summer. This satellite-derived system can provide coral reef managers with an assessment of risk three-to-six months in advance of the summer season that can then be refined using near-real-time summer observations. This system can enhance the capacity of managers to prepare for and respond to possible disease outbreaks and focus research efforts to increase understanding of environmental impacts on coral disease in

  2. Evaluating habitat suitability models for nesting white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Victoria A. Saab; Kim Mellen-Mclean; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability models can provide guidelines for species conservation by predicting where species of interest are likely to occur. Presence-only models are widely used but typically provide only relative indices of habitat suitability (HSIs), necessitating rigorous evaluation often using independently collected presence-absence data. We refined and evaluated...

  3. Diverging Paths: Understanding Racial Differences in Civic Engagement Among White, African American, and Latina/o Adolescents Using Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg-Tobias, Joshua; Cohen, Alison K

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing concern about the large civic engagement gap between Whites and Latina/o and African American youth. Some suggest this may be because traditional models and measures of civic engagement may not be as applicable for youth from historically marginalized groups. With an urban sample of middle and high school-age youth (n = 903, 52% female), we used structural equation modeling to identify differences in civic pathways between youth from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. We found significant differences between groups including much stronger relationships between exposure to democratic practices and civic self-efficacy and knowledge for African American and Latina/o youth than for White youth and a stronger relationship between civic knowledge and future civic engagement for Whites and Latina/os than for African Americans. These findings suggest that educators and researchers interested need to take into account the diversity of youths' racial experiences when examining youth civic development.

  4. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  5. Gaussian closure technique applied to the hysteretic Bouc model with non-zero mean white noise excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waubke, Holger; Kasess, Christian H.

    2016-11-01

    Devices that emit structure-borne sound are commonly decoupled by elastic components to shield the environment from acoustical noise and vibrations. The elastic elements often have a hysteretic behavior that is typically neglected. In order to take hysteretic behavior into account, Bouc developed a differential equation for such materials, especially joints made of rubber or equipped with dampers. In this work, the Bouc model is solved by means of the Gaussian closure technique based on the Kolmogorov equation. Kolmogorov developed a method to derive probability density functions for arbitrary explicit first-order vector differential equations under white noise excitation using a partial differential equation of a multivariate conditional probability distribution. Up to now no analytical solution of the Kolmogorov equation in conjunction with the Bouc model exists. Therefore a wide range of approximate solutions, especially the statistical linearization, were developed. Using the Gaussian closure technique that is an approximation to the Kolmogorov equation assuming a multivariate Gaussian distribution an analytic solution is derived in this paper for the Bouc model. For the stationary case the two methods yield equivalent results, however, in contrast to statistical linearization the presented solution allows to calculate the transient behavior explicitly. Further, stationary case leads to an implicit set of equations that can be solved iteratively with a small number of iterations and without instabilities for specific parameter sets.

  6. Scattering intensities for a white beam (120 kV) presenting a semi-empirical model to preview scattered beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, O. D.; Boldt, S.; Kasch, K. U.

    2016-09-01

    This work aims at measuring the scattering cross sections for white beams and the verification of a semi-empirical model predicting scattered energy spectra of an X-ray beam produced by an industrial X-ray tube (Pantack Sievert, 120 kV, tungsten target) incident on a water sample. Both, theoretical and semi-empirical results presented are based on the form factor approach with results well corresponding to performed measurements. The elastic (Rayleigh) scattering cross sections are based on Thomson scattering with a form factor correction as published by Morin (1982). The inelastic (Compton) contribution is based on the Klein Nishina equation (Klein and Nishina, 1929) multiplied by the incoherent scattering factors calculated by Hubbel et al. (1975). Two major results are presented: first, the experimental integrated in energy cross sections corresponds with theoretical cross sections obtained at the mean energy of the measured scattered spectra at a given angle. Secondly, the measured scattered spectra at a given angle correspond to those obtained utilizing the semi-empirical model as proposed here. A good correspondence of experimental results and model predictions can be shown. The latter, therefore, proves to be a useful method to calculate the scattering contributions in a number of applications as for example cone beam tomography.

  7. Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of the efficiency roll-off in a multilayer white organic light-emitting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesta, M.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A. [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Eersel, H. van [Simbeyond B.V., P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-03-28

    Triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) and triplet-polaron quenching (TPQ) in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) lead to a roll-off of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) with increasing current density J. We employ a kinetic Monte Carlo modeling study to analyze the measured IQE and color balance as a function of J in a multilayer hybrid white OLED that combines fluorescent blue with phosphorescent green and red emission. We investigate two models for TTA and TPQ involving the phosphorescent green and red emitters: short-range nearest-neighbor quenching and long-range Förster-type quenching. Short-range quenching predicts roll-off to occur at much higher J than measured. Taking long-range quenching with Förster radii for TTA and TPQ equal to twice the Förster radii for exciton transfer leads to a fair description of the measured IQE-J curve, with the major contribution to the roll-off coming from TPQ. The measured decrease of the ratio of phosphorescent to fluorescent component of the emitted light with increasing J is correctly predicted. A proper description of the J-dependence of the ratio of red and green phosphorescent emission needs further model refinements.

  8. Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of the efficiency roll-off in a multilayer white organic light-emitting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesta, M.; van Eersel, H.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) and triplet-polaron quenching (TPQ) in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) lead to a roll-off of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) with increasing current density J. We employ a kinetic Monte Carlo modeling study to analyze the measured IQE and color balance as a function of J in a multilayer hybrid white OLED that combines fluorescent blue with phosphorescent green and red emission. We investigate two models for TTA and TPQ involving the phosphorescent green and red emitters: short-range nearest-neighbor quenching and long-range Förster-type quenching. Short-range quenching predicts roll-off to occur at much higher J than measured. Taking long-range quenching with Förster radii for TTA and TPQ equal to twice the Förster radii for exciton transfer leads to a fair description of the measured IQE-J curve, with the major contribution to the roll-off coming from TPQ. The measured decrease of the ratio of phosphorescent to fluorescent component of the emitted light with increasing J is correctly predicted. A proper description of the J-dependence of the ratio of red and green phosphorescent emission needs further model refinements.

  9. Pine invasions in treeless environments: dispersal overruns microsite heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Escudero, Adrián; García, Rafael A; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Langdon, Bárbara; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Esquivel, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Understanding biological invasions patterns and mechanisms is highly needed for forecasting and managing these processes and their negative impacts. At small scales, ecological processes driving plant invasions are expected to produce a spatially explicit pattern driven by propagule pressure and local ground heterogeneity. Our aim was to determine the interplay between the intensity of seed rain, using distance to a mature plantation as a proxy, and microsite heterogeneity in the spreading of Pinus contorta in the treeless Patagonian steppe. Three one-hectare plots were located under different degrees of P. contorta invasion (Coyhaique Alto, 45° 30'S and 71° 42'W). We fitted three types of inhomogeneous Poisson models to each pine plot in an attempt for describing the observed pattern as accurately as possible: the "dispersal" models, "local ground heterogeneity" models, and "combined" models, using both types of covariates. To include the temporal axis in the invasion process, we analyzed both the pattern of young and old recruits and also of all recruits together. As hypothesized, the spatial patterns of recruited pines showed coarse scale heterogeneity. Early pine invasion spatial patterns in our Patagonian steppe site is not different from expectations of inhomogeneous Poisson processes taking into consideration a linear and negative dependency of pine recruit intensity on the distance to afforestations. Models including ground-cover predictors were able to describe the point pattern process only in a couple of cases but never better than dispersal models. This finding concurs with the idea that early invasions depend more on seed pressure than on the biotic and abiotic relationships seed and seedlings establish at the microsite scale. Our results show that without a timely and active management, P. contorta will invade the Patagonian steppe independently of the local ground-cover conditions.

  10. Pine Island Glacier - local flow mechanisms and basal sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, N. M.; Kleiner, T.; Humbert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Pine Island Glacier is a fast moving outlet glacier in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Several tributaries feeding the central ice stream characterise the flow field structure of this glacier. In the past decades the glacier has shown acceleration, thinning and a significant grounding line retreat. These ongoing processes are coinciding with a concentrated mass loss in the area around Pine Island Glacier, the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The area is of additional interest due to its retrograde bed slope. The postulated instability of the setting turns the glacier into an even more suitable object for modelling studies. One major challenge encountered when modelling the flow field of Pine Island Glacier is to reproduce the locally varying flow pattern, with its many tributaries. Commonly this difficulty is overcome by inversion for parameters controlling basal sliding. Our study is aimed at connecting basal sliding again to physical parameters. To achieve this we conduct experiments of Pine Island Glacier with the diagnostic 3D full-Stokes model COMice. The model is thermo-mechanically coupled and implemented with the commercial finite-element package COMSOL Multiphysics©. We use remotely sensed surface velocity data to validate our results. In a first step, the model is used to identify dominant local mechanisms that drive the flow of the different tributaries. We identify connections between the basal topography, the basal temperature, the driving stress and the basal roughness distribution. The thus gained information is used to confine basal sliding. Areas with similar qualitative characteristics are identified, and constant-sliding assumptions made for those. Additionally, the basal roughness distribution is matched onto a basal sliding parameter. This way the sliding law is again brought closer to its original meaning. Our results are important for prognostic model experiments, as we connect basal sliding to locally varying basal properties, which might lead to

  11. Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D/Souza, T.M.; Merritt, C.S.; Reddy, C.A.

    1999-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was readily seen in cultures grown with pine or poplar as the sole carbon and energy source. Cultures containing both pine and poplar showed 5- to 10-fold-higher levels of laccase than cultures containing pine or poplar alone. Since syringyl units are structural components important in poplar lignin and other hardwoods but much less so in pine lignin and other softwoods, pine cultures were supplemented with syringic acid, and this resulted in laccase levels comparable to those seen in pine-plus-poplar cultures. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated extracellular culture fluid from HM cultures showed two laccase activity bands, where as isoelectric focusing revealed five major laccase activity bands with estimated pIs of 3.0, 4.25, 4.5, and 5.1. Low levels of MnP activity were detected in poplar-grown cultures but not in cultures grown with pine, with pine plus syringic acid, or in HN medium. No LiP activity was seen in any of the media tested; however, probing the genomic DNA with the LiP cDNA (CLG4) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed distinct hybridization bands suggesting the presence of lip-like sequences in G. lucidum.

  12. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared to southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.

  13. Development of secondary pine forests after pine wilt disease in western Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Michiro [Natural History Museum and Inst., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The development of secondary Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) forests after pine wilt disease was studied through phytosociological analysis, estimation of forest structure before disease and size-structure, tree ring and stem analyses. Following the end of the disease, the growth of previously suppressed small oak trees was accelerated. This is quite different from the development of forests following fire, which starts with the establishment of pine seedlings. Pine wilt disease shifted the dominance of secondary forests from Pinus densiflora to Quercus serrata oak forest. In pine forests, disturbance by fire is important for forest maintenance. In contrast, disturbance by pine wilt disease leads to an acceleration of succession from pine forest to oak forest. 50 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Methamphetamine Use among Rural White and Native American Adolescents: An Application of the Stress Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David J.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering…

  15. UV-C light inactivation and modeling kinetics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in white grape and apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ayse Handan; Molva, Celenk; Unluturk, Sevcan

    2013-09-16

    In the present study, the effect of short wave ultraviolet light (UV-C) on the inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 spores in commercial pasteurized white grape and apple juices was investigated. The inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores in juices was examined by evaluating the effects of UV light intensity (1.31, 0.71 and 0.38 mW/cm²) and exposure time (0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 min) at constant depth (0.15 cm). The best reduction (5.5-log) was achieved in grape juice when the UV intensity was 1.31 mW/cm². The maximum inactivation was approximately 2-log CFU/mL in apple juice under the same conditions. The results showed that first-order kinetics were not suitable for the estimation of spore inactivation in grape juice treated with UV-light. Since tailing was observed in the survival curves, the log-linear plus tail and Weibull models were compared. The results showed that the log-linear plus tail model was satisfactorily fitted to estimate the reductions. As a non-thermal technology, UV-C treatment could be an alternative to thermal treatment for grape juices or combined with other preservation methods for the pasteurization of apple juice.

  16. Microstructural white matter changes in normal aging: a diffusion tensor imaging study with higher-order polynomial regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jung-Lung; Van Hecke, Wim; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Lee, Cheng-Hui; Tsai, Yuh-Feng; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Leu, Jyu-Gang; Chen, Wei-Hung; Leemans, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has already proven to be a valuable tool when investigating both global and regional microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes in the human aging process. Although subject to many criticisms, voxel-based analysis is currently one of the most common and preferred approaches in such DTI aging studies. In this context, voxel-based DTI analyses have assumed a 'linear' correlation when finding the significant brain regions that relate age with a particular diffusion measure of interest. Recent literature, however, has clearly demonstrated 'non-linear' relationships between age and diffusion metrics by using region-of-interest and tractography-based approaches. In this work, we incorporated polynomial regression models in the voxel-based DTI analysis framework to assess age-related changes in WM diffusion properties (fractional anisotropy and axial, transverse, and mean diffusivity) in a large cohort of 346 subjects (25 to 81 years old). Our novel approach clearly demonstrates that voxel-based DTI analyses can greatly benefit from incorporating higher-order regression models when investigating potential relationships between aging and diffusion properties.

  17. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  18. Pine nuts: the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbörner, M

    2001-05-01

    The mycobiota of pine nuts was investigated. In total, 1832 fungi belonging to 31 species and 15 genera (Ascomycota, 2; Zygomycota, 3; mitosporic fungi, 10) could be isolated. Cladosporium spp. dominated the mycobiota with 685 isolations followed by Phoma macrostoma with 351 isolations. Overall, 16 potentially mycotoxigenic species were present on pine nuts.

  19. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  20. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  1. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  2. Modelling Gene Flow between Fields of White Clover with Honeybees as Pollen Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løjtnant, Christina; Boelt, Birte; Clausen, Sabine Karin

    2012-01-01

    % with an estimated 95% percentile of 70%. The results show that the European Union threshold limit of 0.9% GM admixture for food and feed will likely be exceeded at times and especially organic farmers that do not accept GM admixture and often have clover and clover–grass fields might face challenges with admixture.......7%, but subjected to large uncertainty. In a worst case scenario with adjacent fields—one with a genetically modified (GM) T. repens cultivar and the other with a conventional T. repens cultivar—and where all arriving bees were expected to transfer GM pollen, the median gene flow was modelled to be 7...

  3. Asymptotic behaviors of a cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection model perturbed by white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze a mathematical model of cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection to CD4+ T cells perturbed by stochastic perturbations. First of all, we investigate that there exists a unique global positive solution of the system for any positive initial value. Then by using Lyapunov analysis methods, we study the asymptotic property of this solution. Moreover, we discuss whether there is a stationary distribution for this system and if it owns the ergodic property. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  4. Second-order capillary electrophoresis diode array detector data modeled with the Tucker3 algorithm: A novel strategy for Argentinean white wine discrimination respect to grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Cesar Ugulino de Araújo, Mário; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    Data obtained by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD) were modeled with the purpose to discriminate Argentinean white wines samples produced from three grape varieties (Torrontés, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon blanc). Thirty-eight samples of commercial white wine from four wine-producing provinces of Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Salta, and Rio Negro) were analyzed. CE-DAD matrices with dimensions of 421 elution times (from 1.17 to 7.39 minutes) × 71 wavelengths (from 227 to 367 nm) were joined in a three way data array and decomposed by Tucker3 method under non-negativity constraint, employing 18, 18 and six factors in the modes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using the scores of Tucker model, it was possible to discriminate samples of Argentinean white wine by linear discriminant analysis and Kernel linear discriminant analysis. Core element analysis of the Tucker3 model allows identifying the loading profiles in spectral mode related to Argentinean white wine samples.

  5. Whitebark pine stand condition, tree abundance, and cone production as predictors of visitation by Clark's nutcracker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Barringer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurately quantifying key interactions between species is important for developing effective recovery strategies for threatened and endangered species. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana for seed dispersal. As whitebark pine succumbs to exotic disease and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae, cone production declines, and nutcrackers visit stands less frequently, reducing the probability of seed dispersal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified whitebark pine forest structure, health metrics, and the frequency of nutcracker occurrence in national parks within the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains in 2008 and 2009. Forest health characteristics varied between the two regions, with the northern region in overall poorer health. Using these data, we show that a previously published model consistently under-predicts the proportion of survey hours resulting in nutcracker observations at all cone density levels. We present a new statistical model of the relationship between whitebark pine cone production and the probability of Clark's nutcracker occurrence based on combining data from this study and the previous study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model clarified earlier findings and suggested a lower cone production threshold value for predicting likely visitation by nutcrackers: Although nutcrackers do visit whitebark pine stands with few cones, the probability of visitation increases with increased cone production. We use information theoretics to show that beta regression is a more appropriate statistical framework for modeling the relationship between cone density and proportion of survey time resulting in nutcracker observations. We illustrate how resource managers may apply this model in the process of prioritizing areas for whitebark pine restoration.

  6. An interdisciplinary, outcome-based approach to astmospheric CO2 mitigation with planted southern pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.; Fox, T.; Peter, G.; Monroe, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation and Adaptation Project ("PINEMAP") was funded by National Institute of Food and Agriculture to produce outcomes of enhanced climate change mitigation and adaptation in planted southern pine ecosystems. The PINEMAP project leverages a strong group of existing networks to produce synergy and cooperation on applied forestry research in the region. Over the last 50 years, cooperative research on planted southern pine management among southeastern U.S. universities, government agencies, and corporate forest landowners has developed and facilitated the widespread implementation of improved genetic and silvicultural technology. The impact of these regional research cooperatives is difficult to overstate, with current members managing 55% of the privately owned planted pine forestland, and producing 95% of the pine seedlings planted each year. The PINEMAP team includes the eight major forestry cooperative research programs, scientists from eleven land grant institutions, the US Forest Service, and climate modeling and adaptation specialists associated with the multi-state SE Climate Consortium and state climate offices. Our goal is to create and disseminate the knowledge that enables landowners to: harness planted pine forest productivity to mitigate atmospheric CO2; more efficiently use nitrogen and other fertilizer inputs; and adapt their forest management to increase resilience in the face of changing climate. We integrate our team's infrastructure and expertise to: 1) develop breeding, genetic deployment and innovative management systems to increase C sequestration and resilience to changing climate of planted southern pine forests ; 2) understand interactive effects of policy, biology, and climate change on sustainable management; 3) transfer new management and genetic technologies to private industrial and non-industrial landowners; and 4) educate a diverse cross-section of the public about the relevance of forests

  7. Effects of Patagonian pine forestry on native breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Pescador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective is to assess the influences of the tree stand age and other forestry management practices on species richness, composition, and distribution of the Patagonian pine plantation bird assemblages. Area of Study: The work was carried out in forested plots of Ponderosa pine located at the Lanín National Park (Patagonia, Argentina.Material and Methods: Birds were sampled using 25 m fixed radius point counts, at four plots varying in age, management, and forest structure. Main Results: A total of 2090 individuals belonging to 34 bird species were observed, their numbers vary significantly depending on the different modes of plantation management. The population density of the 14 most abundant bird species was compared among the four plantation plots and ten species don’t show statistically significant differences in their population density among the different forest plots. The California Quail, the White-Crested Elaenia and the Southern House Wren showed higher densities in pine plantations with lower tree densities and fewer cutting treatments. The Diuca Finch had high densities in the younger plantations not subjected to any treatment. Research highlights: Most of these bird species are opportunistic and a few are found more regularly in these non-native woods than in other native forested or afforested areas. Our data suggest that a mixed scenario based on a mosaic of plantation with patches of native deciduous forest may help maximize the bird diversity in the management of northwestern Patagonian plantation landscapes.Keywords: Bird population; diversity; exotic plantations; Patagonia; tree-age.

  8. Purification and characterization of the 7S vicilin from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Chen, Yu-Wei; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2008-09-10

    Pine nuts are economically important as a source of human food. They are also of medical importance because numerous pine nut allergy cases have been recently reported. However, little is known about the proteins in pine nuts. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize pine nut storage proteins. Reported here is the first detailed purification protocol of the 7S vicilin-type globulin from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by gel filtration, anion exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Reducing SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that purified vicilin consists of four major bands, reminiscent of post-translational protease cleavage of storage proteins during protein body packing in other species. The N-terminal ends of vicilin peptides were sequenced by Edman degradation. Circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that pine nut vicilin is stable up to 80 degrees C and its folding-unfolding equilibrium monitored by intrinsic fluorescence can be interpreted in terms of a two-state model.

  9. Semi-empirical white dwarf initial-final mass relationships: a thorough analysis of systematic uncertainties due to stellar evolution models

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Weiss, Achim; Bertolami, Marcelo Miller

    2008-01-01

    Using the most recent results about white dwarfs in 10 open clusters, we revisit semi-empirical estimates of the initial-final mass relation in star clusters, with emphasis on the use of stellar evolution models. We discuss the influence of these models on each step of the derivation. One intention of our work is to use consistent sets of calculations both for the isochrones and the white dwarf cooling tracks. The second one is to derive the range of systematic errors arising from stellar evolution theory. This is achieved by using different sources for the stellar models and by varying physical assumptions and input data. We find that systematic errors, including the determination of the cluster age, are dominating the initial mass values, while observational uncertainties influence the final mass primarily. After having determined the systematic errors, the initial-final mass relation allows us finally to draw conclusions about the physics of the stellar models, in particular about convective overshooting.

  10. The white dwarf luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Oswalt, Terry D.

    2016-06-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for ∼ 10 Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other relevant ingredients are needed to compare theory and observations. In this review we summarize the recent attempts to empirically determine the white dwarf luminosity function for the different Galactic populations. We also discuss the biases that may affect its interpretation. Finally, we elaborate on the theoretical ingredients needed to model the white dwarf luminosity function, paying special attention to the remaining uncertainties, and we comment on some applications of the white dwarf cooling theory. Astrophysical problems for which white dwarf stars may provide useful leverage in the near future are also discussed.

  11. Anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, M Dolores; Lombardero, Manuel; San Ireneo, Mercedes Martinez; Muñoz, M Carmen

    2003-08-01

    Pine nuts are the seeds of Pinus pinea. There are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. We describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. Specific IgE to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and RAST but no IgE to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. The patients had IgE against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kDa that could be considered as the main allergen. Our patients were monosensitized to pine nut and the 17-kDa protein could be correlated with the severe clinical symptoms.

  12. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  13. Effect of damaged pine needles on growth and development of pine caterpillar larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lili; LI Zhenyu; LI Hailin; HAN Ruidong; ZHAO Yongli

    2006-01-01

    Chinese pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis)larvae were fed with pine needles of different degrees of damage to evaluate the effects of pine needles on the growth and development of larvae.The results showed that the nutritional index of the larvae declines after feeding on the damaged pine needlings.The lowest amount of food ingested and voided feces,the lowest nutritional index,slowest development,lightest pupae and most mortality were found in those pine caterpillar larvae fed with pine needles which were 50% damaged.The damaged pine needles significantly affected the population dynamics of Chinese pine caterpillars.The nutritional indices of larvae fed with 25% and 75% damaged pine needles were similar.The nutritional index of the dark morphs was higher than that of the tinted morphs,however,their mortality was lower than that of the tinted morphs.This phenomenon was reversed at the later stage of development when the larvae were fed on 50% damaged pine needles.

  14. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...

  15. Modeling the environmental growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans and its impact on the white-nose syndrome epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Hannah T; Ingersoll, Tom; Barton, Hazel A

    2015-04-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has had a devastating effect on North American bat populations. The causal agent of WNS is the fungal pathogen, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), which has been shown to persist in caves after the eradication of host populations. As nonpathogenic Pseudogymnoascus spp. display saprophytic growth and are among the most commonly isolated fungi from caves, we examined whether Pd could grow in cave sediments and the contribution such growth could have to WNS disease progression. We inoculated a range of diverse cave sediments and demonstrated the growth of Pd in all sediments tested. These data indicate that environmental growth of Pd could lead to the accumulation of spores above the estimated infection threshold for WNS, allowing environment-to-bat infection. The obtained growth parameters were then used in a susceptible-infected-susceptible mathematic model to determine the possible contribution of environmental Pd growth to WNS disease progression in a colony of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). This model suggests that the environmental growth of Pd would increase WNS infection rates, particularly in colonies experiencing longer hibernation periods or in hibernacula with high levels of organic detritus. The model also suggests that once introduced, environmental Pd growth would allow the persistence of this pathogen within infected hibernacula for decades, greatly compromising the success of bat reintroduction strategies. Together these data suggest that Pd is not reliant on its host for survival and is capable of environmental growth and amplification that could contribute to the rapid progression and long-term persistence of WNS in the hibernacula of threatened North American bats.

  16. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  17. Novel modelling of ultracompact X-ray binary evolution - stable mass transfer from white dwarfs to neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengar, Rahul; Tauris, Thomas M.; Langer, Norbert; Istrate, Alina G.

    2017-09-01

    Tight binaries of helium white dwarfs (He WDs) orbiting millisecond pulsars (MSPs) will eventually `merge' due to gravitational damping of the orbit. The outcome has been predicted to be the production of long-lived ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs), in which the WD transfers material to the accreting neutron star (NS). Here we present complete numerical computations, for the first time, of such stable mass transfer from a He WD to a NS. We have calculated a number of complete binary stellar evolution tracks, starting from pre-low-mass X-ray binary systems, and evolved these to detached MSP+WD systems and further on to UCXBs. The minimum orbital period is found to be as short as 5.6 min. We followed the subsequent widening of the systems until the donor stars become planets with a mass of ˜0.005 M⊙ after roughly a Hubble time. Our models are able to explain the properties of observed UCXBs with high helium abundances and we can identify these sources on the ascending or descending branch in a diagram displaying mass-transfer rate versus orbital period.

  18. Models of low-mass helium white dwarfs including gravitational settling, thermal and chemical diffusion, and rotational mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Istrate, Alina; Tauris, Thomas M; Langer, Norbert; Stancliffe, Richard J; Grassitelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A large number of extremely low-mass helium white dwarfs (ELM WDs) have been discovered in recent years. The majority of them are found in close binary systems suggesting they are formed either through a common-envelope phase or via stable mass transfer in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) or a cataclysmic variable (CV) system. Here, we investigate the formation of these objects through the LMXB channel with emphasis on the proto-WD evolution in environments with different metallicities. We study, for the first time, the combined effects of rotational mixing and element diffusion (e.g. gravitational settling, thermal and chemical diffusion) on the evolution of proto-WDs and on the cooling properties of the resulting WDs. We present state-of-the-art binary stellar evolution models computed with MESA for metallicities between Z=0.0002 and Z=0.02, producing WDs with masses between 0.16-0.45 M$_{\\odot}$. Our results confirm that element diffusion plays a significant role in the evolution of proto-WDs that experience...

  19. A Sensitive and Automatic White Matter Fiber Tracts Model for Longitudinal Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Images in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamile, Claudio; Kocevar, Gabriel; Cotton, François; Durand-Dubief, Françoise; Hannoun, Salem; Frindel, Carole; Guttmann, Charles R. G.; Rousseau, David; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a sensitive tool for the assessment of microstructural alterations in brain white matter (WM). We propose a new processing technique to detect, local and global longitudinal changes of diffusivity metrics, in homologous regions along WM fiber-bundles. To this end, a reliable and automatic processing pipeline was developed in three steps: 1) co-registration and diffusion metrics computation, 2) tractography, bundle extraction and processing, and 3) longitudinal fiber-bundle analysis. The last step was based on an original Gaussian mixture model providing a fine analysis of fiber-bundle cross-sections, and allowing a sensitive detection of longitudinal changes along fibers. This method was tested on simulated and clinical data. High levels of F-Measure were obtained on simulated data. Experiments on cortico-spinal tract and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi of five patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) included in a weekly follow-up protocol highlighted the greater sensitivity of this fiber scale approach to detect small longitudinal alterations. PMID:27224308

  20. Modeling the Effect of Kick Velocity during the Accretion Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs on Binary Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taani, Ali

    2016-07-01

    The kick velocity which arises during the binary interaction plays an important role in disruption or surviving the binary systems. This paper attempts to draw an evolutionary connection of the long-period (Porb ≥ 2 d) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with orbits of low eccentricity (e ≤ 0.2). We propose that a kick velocity caused by dynamical effects of asymmetric collapse imparted to the companion star through an accretion induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs-that become unstable once they approach the Chandrasekhar limit-can account for the differences in their orbital period distributions. Furthermore, in some cases, an appropriate kick can disrupt the binary system and result in the birth of isolated MSPs. Otherwise, the binary survives and an eccentric binary MSP is formed. In this case only the binding energy equivalent (0.2M⊙) of mass is lost and the system remains intact in a symmetric collapse. Consequently, the AIC decreases the mass of the neutron star and increases the orbital period leading to orbit circularization. We present the results of our model and discuss the possible implications for the binary MSPs in galactic disk and globular clusters.

  1. Extraction of polyphenols from white distilled grape pomace: optimization and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M Sánchez; Torres, J Sineiro; Nuñez, María José

    2008-03-01

    Both ethanolic and aqueous extraction were carried out in a laboratory-scale vertical extractor to obtain polyphenols from distilled grape pomace of Vitis vinifera var. "Albariño". An experimental design was performed to analyse the effects of flow (2 ml/min and 4 ml/min) and temperature (40 degrees C and 50 degrees C). Yields of polyphenolics from aqueous extraction were much higher (up to 30-fold) than those of ethanolic extraction, in contrast with previous results obtained by us from batch extraction of different grape varieties. Polyphenols extraction was modelled by application of second Fick's law to spherical particles of 0.5 mm diameter, so obtaining the effective diffusion coefficient as parameter. The mass transfer coefficients were also estimated, giving as result that the external mass transfer resistance was negligible. Correlation coefficients ranged 0.989-0.9999. Effective diffusivity values in water extraction assays were between 0.6x10(-11) m(2)/s and 2.1x10(-11) m(2)/s. Using ethanol as solvent, the effective diffusivity was lower, between 0.1x10(-11) m(2)/s and 0.76x10(-11) m(2)/s.

  2. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  3. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  4. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  5. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  6. Cervid forage utilization in noncommercially thinned ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M.C.; Jenks, J.A.; Deperno, C.S.; Sowell, B.F.; Jenkins, Kurt J.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate effects of noncommercial thinning, utilization of forages consumed by elk (Cervus elaphus L.), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus Raf.), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Raf.) was measured in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) stands in Custer State Park, S. D. Treatments consisted of unthinned (control; 22 to 32 m2/ha basal area), moderately thinned (12 to 22 m2/ha basal area), and heavily thinned (3 to 13 m2/ha basal area) stands of ponderosa pine. During June, July, and August, 1991 and 1992, about 7,000 individual plants were marked along permanent transects and percent-weight-removed by grazing was ocularly estimated. Sample plots were established along transects and plants within plots were clipped to estimate standing biomass. Pellet groups were counted throughout the study area to determine summer habitat use of elk and deer. Diet composition was evaluated using microhistological analysis of fecal samples. Average percent-weight-removed from all marked plants and percent-plants-grazed were used to evaluate forage utilization. Standing biomass of graminoids, shrubs, and forbs increased (P 0.05) across treatments. Forb use averaged less than 5% within sampling periods when measured as percent-weight-removed and percent-of-plants grazed and did not differ among treatments. Results of pellet group surveys indicated that cervids were primarily using meadow habitats. When averaged over the 2 years, forbs were the major forage class in deer diets, whereas graminoids were the major forage class in diets of elk.

  7. A look inside white OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Peter; Coehoorn, Reinder

    2013-09-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for lighting are finding their way to the market. These OLEDs have organic layers only a few nanometres thick. Improving their efficiency and stability requires nanometre-precision information about where the light is emitted. Reconstruction of the emission profile from the measured emission and molecular-scale modelling provide a unique nanoscale look inside white OLEDs.

  8. Automatic white balance: whitebalPR using the dichromatic reflection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjaa, Matthias; Fischer, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    The current color constancy methods are based on an image processing of the sensor's RGB data to estimate the color of illumination. Unlike previous methods, whitebalPR measures the illuminant by separating diffuse and specular components in a scene by taking advantage of the polarizing effect occurring to light reflection. Polarization difference imaging (PDI) detects the polarization degree of the neutrally reflected (specular) parts and eliminates the remitted (diffuse) non-polarized colored parts. Different experiments explore the signal level within the polarization difference image in relation to multicolored objects, different object surfaces and to the arrangement of light source, camera and object. The results exhibit a high accuracy of measuring the color of illumination for glossy and matte surfaces. As these setups work best for achromatic objects, this new approach for data analysis combines the ideas of the dichromatic reflection model (DRM) and whitebalPR and delivers reliable results for mainly colored objects. Unlike the DRM needs to segment the image referring to the objects in the scene, the new proposal (polarization difference line imaging, PDLI) is independent from any knowledge of the image content. A further arbitrarily segmentation of the image into macro-pixels of any size reduces the computational effort and diminishes the impact of noise on the PDI signal. An according experiment visualizes the coherency between the size of the macro-pixels, the angle of incidence and the accuracy of the process. To sum up, by means of the segmentation the PDLI process gains further stabilization in detecting the color of the illuminant while the computational effort decreases.

  9. Density dependence, whitebark pine, and vital rates of grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D; Ebinger, Michael R.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Costello, Cecily M; White, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing changes in population trajectory is important for effective wildlife management, particularly for populations of conservation concern. Annual population growth of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA has slowed from 4.2–7.6% during 1983–2001 to 0.3–2.2% during 2002–2011. Substantial changes in availability of a key food source and bear population density have occurred. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), the seeds of which are a valuable but variable fall food for grizzly bears, has experienced substantial mortality primarily due to a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak that started in the early 2000s. Positive growth rates of grizzly bears have resulted in populations reaching high densities in some areas and have contributed to continued range expansion. We tested research hypotheses to examine if changes in vital rates detected during the past decade were more associated with whitebark pine decline or, alternatively, increasing grizzly bear density. We focused our assessment on known-fate data to estimate survival of cubs-of-the-year (cubs), yearlings, and independent bears (≥2 yrs), and reproductive transition of females from having no offspring to having cubs. We used spatially and temporally explicit indices for grizzly bear density and whitebark pine mortality as individual covariates. Models indicated moderate support for an increase in survival of independent male bears over 1983–2012, whereas independent female survival did not change. Cub survival, yearling survival, and reproductive transition from no offspring to cubs all changed during the 30-year study period, with lower rates evident during the last 10–15 years. Cub survival and reproductive transition were negatively associated with an index of grizzly bear density, indicating greater declines where bear densities were higher. Our analyses did not support a similar relationship for the

  10. Generalized Potentiometric Surface of the Arikaree Aquifer, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Heakin, Allen J.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County are located in southwest South Dakota. The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation includes all of Shannon County and the part of Jackson County south of the White River. Extensive Indian trust lands are in Bennett County. For purposes of this map, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and all of Bennett County are included in the study area (sheet 1). Ground water from wells and springs is the predominant source of public and domestic supply within the study area. The Arikaree aquifer is the largest source of ground water throughout this area. The Oglala Sioux Tribe is developing a ground-water management plan designed to ?preserve, protect and maintain the quality of ground water for living and future members and non-members of the Oglala Sioux Indian Tribe within the internal and external boundaries of the Pine Ridge Reservation? (Michael Catches Enemy, Oglala Sioux Tribe Natural Resources Regulatory Agency, oral commun., 2007). Hydrologic information about the Arikaree aquifer is important to managing this resource. In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began working in cooperation with the Oglala Sioux Tribe to develop a potentiometric map of the Arikaree aquifer in Jackson and Shannon Counties, with a primary component of that effort being a well inventory in those counties. In 2003, the study area was expanded to include Bennett County.

  11. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.

  12. Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Kanaya

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM, Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX mice (a model of postmenopausal women. OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6, were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women.

  13. A 3D model of the membrane protein complex formed by the white spot syndrome virus structural proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Shiang Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of white spot disease have had a large negative economic impact on cultured shrimp worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of the causative virus, WSSV (whit spot syndrome virus, is not yet well understood. WSSV is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV virion has three structural layers surrounding its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. In this study, we investigated the protein-protein interactions of the major WSSV structural proteins, including several envelope and tegument proteins that are known to be involved in the infection process. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, we used coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid assays to elucidate and/or confirm all the interactions that occur among the WSSV structural (envelope and tegument proteins VP51A, VP19, VP24, VP26 and VP28. We found that VP51A interacted directly not only with VP26 but also with VP19 and VP24. VP51A, VP19 and VP24 were also shown to have an affinity for self-interaction. Chemical cross-linking assays showed that these three self-interacting proteins could occur as dimers. CONCLUSIONS: From our present results in conjunction with other previously established interactions we construct a 3D model in which VP24 acts as a core protein that directly associates with VP26, VP28, VP38A, VP51A and WSV010 to form a membrane-associated protein complex. VP19 and VP37 are attached to this complex via association with VP51A and VP28, respectively. Through the VP26-VP51C interaction this envelope complex is anchored to the nucleocapsid, which is made of layers of rings formed by VP664. A 3D model of the nucleocapsid and the surrounding outer membrane is presented.

  14. Effect of gum arabic on glucose levels and microbial short-chain fatty acid production in white rice porridge model and mixed grain porridge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Na; Min, Fang-Fang; Li, Chang; Gong, Deming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-07-01

    White rice porridge and mixed grain porridge, which are often consumed in many countries, were used as two models to evaluate the effects of gum arabic on glucose levels and microbial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Gum arabic was incorporated into the two porridges individually. Apparent viscosity of the two porridges was significantly increased, and their glucose productions during gastrointestinal digestion were notably lowered (p porridges in mice was considerably lowered after fortified with gum arabic (p porridges was significantly increased after gum arabic addition, which may also have beneficial effects on reducing postprandial glycemic response. Therefore, gum arabic may be a helpful ingredient, which could be added in porridges to have benefits for the reduction of postprandial glycemic response.

  15. Modeled Impacts of Chronic Wasting Disease on White-Tailed Deer in a Semi-Arid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, David G.; DeYoung, Charles A.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Schnupp, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    White-tailed deer are a culturally and economically important game species in North America, especially in South Texas. The recent discovery of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in captive deer facilities in Texas has increased concern about the potential emergence of CWD in free-ranging deer. The concern is exacerbated because much of the South Texas region is a semi-arid environment with variable rainfall, where precipitation is strongly correlated with fawn recruitment. Further, the marginally productive rangelands, in combination with erratic fawn recruitment, results in populations that are frequently density-independent, and thus sensitive to additive mortality. It is unknown how a deer population in semi-arid regions would respond to the presence of CWD. We used long-term empirical datasets from a lightly harvested (2% annual harvest) population in conjunction with 3 prevalence growth rates from CWD afflicted areas (0.26%, 0.83%, and 2.3% increases per year) via a multi-stage partially deterministic model to simulate a deer population for 25 years under four scenarios: 1) without CWD and without harvest, 2) with CWD and without harvest, 3) with CWD and male harvest only, and 4) with CWD and harvest of both sexes. The modeled populations without CWD and without harvest averaged a 1.43% annual increase over 25 years; incorporation of 2% annual harvest of both sexes resulted in a stable population. The model with slowest CWD prevalence rate growth (0.26% annually) without harvest resulted in stable populations but the addition of 1% harvest resulted in population declines. Further, the male age structure in CWD models became skewed to younger age classes. We incorporated fawn:doe ratios from three CWD afflicted areas in Wisconsin and Wyoming into the model with 0.26% annual increase in prevalence and populations did not begin to decline until ~10%, ~16%, and ~26% of deer were harvested annually. Deer populations in variable environments rely on high adult

  16. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  17. Biomass estimates of small diameter planted and natural-origin loblolly pines show major departures from the National Biomass Estimator equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie Schuler; Don C. Bragg; Kristin McElligott

    2017-01-01

    As southern pine forests (both planted and naturally regenerated) are more heavily used to provide biomass for the developing energy sectors and carbon sequestration, a better understanding of models used to characterize regional biomass estimates is needed. We harvested loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) between 0.5 and 15 cm dbh from several...

  18. Systemic allergic reaction to pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-02-01

    This case report describes a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts, confirmed by an open, oral provocation test. Skin prick testing with the aqueous allergen revealed an immediate positive prick test, and histamine release from basophil leukocytes to the aqueous allergen was demonstrated. Radioallergosorbent test demonstrated specific IgE antibodies to pine nuts. In a review of medical literature, we found no reports of either oral provocation tests confirming a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts or demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  19. [Pine mouth syndrome: a global problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redal-Baigorri, Ana Belén

    2011-12-01

    Pinemouth syndrome is characterised by the development of metallogeusia two days after the ingestion of Chinese pine nuts. The symptoms disappear 7-14 days later. The distribution of Chinese pine nuts not suitable for human consumption, is caused by an increasing demand due to price differences. The reason for the taste disturbances is unknown, some suggest turpentine-based products in its composition, and others have studied the fatty acid content of pine nuts and the properties of pinolenic acid. So far the presence of pesticides or mycotoxins is been ruled out, but the puzzle remains unsolved.

  20. "Pine mouth" syndrome: cacogeusia following ingestion of pine nuts (genus: pinus). An emerging problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of cacogeusia, specifically metallogeusia (a perceived metallic or bitter taste) following pine nut ingestion. A 36-year-old male presented with cacogeusia one day following ingestion of 10-15 roasted pine nuts (genus: Pinus). Symptoms became worst on post-exposure day 2 and progressively improved without treatment over 5 days. There were no other symptoms and physical examination was unrevealing. All symptoms resolved without sequalae. We contemporaneously report a rise in pine nut-associated cacogeusia reported online during the first quarter of 2009, and a significant rise in online searches related to pine nut-associated cacogeusia (or what the online public has termed "pine mouth") during this time. Most online contributors note a similar cacogeusia 1-3 days following pine nut ingestion lasting for up to 2 weeks. All cases seem self-limited. Patients occasionally describe abdominal cramping and nausea after eating the nuts. Raw, cooked, and processed nuts (in pesto, for example) are implicated. While there appears to be an association between pine nut ingestion and cacogeusia, little is known about this condition, nor can any specific mechanism of specific cause be identified. It is not known if a specific species of pine nut can be implicated. "Pine mouth" appears to be an emerging problem.