Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach
Tosun, Ismail
2007-01-01
Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to
Shah, D. B.
1984-01-01
Describes a course designed to achieve a balance between exposing students to (1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between three transfer processes and (2) common methods of solving differential equations. (JN)
McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.
1987-01-01
Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)
MODELS FOR THE COUNTER-GRADIENT TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋剑波; 卢志明; 刘晓明; 刘宇陆
2001-01-01
The counter gradient transport phenomena on momentum, energy and passive scalar in turbulent flows were studied by use of the single response function for TSDIA. As a result, models that can describe qualitatively the phenomena are obtained. Then the results are simplified by use of the inertial range theory, and the results for lower degrees agree with results of predecessor. Finally the counter gradient-transport phenomena in channel flow and circular wake flow are analyzed.
Modelling of transport phenomena and defects in crystal growth processes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Pendurti; H Zhang; V Prasad
2001-02-01
A brief review of single crystal growth techniques and the associated problems is presented. Emphasis is placed on models for various transport and defect phenomena involoved in the growth process with the ultimate aim of integrating them into a comprehensive numerical model. The sources of dislocation nucleation in the growing crystal are discussed, and the propagation and multiplication of these under the action of thermal stresses is discussed. A brief description of a high-level numerical technique based on multiple adaptive grid generation and finite volume discretization is presented, followed by the result of a representative numerical simulation.
Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Anders Christian
An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...... the present fundamental understanding of direct methanol fuel cell operation by developing a three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component, non-isotherm mathematical model including detailed non-ideal thermodynamics, non-equilibrium phase change and non-equilibrium sorption-desorption of methanol and water...
Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marra, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare - Università degli studi di Salerno Via Ponte Don Melillo - 84084 Fisciano SA (Italy)
2015-01-22
Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.
Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context
Marra, Francesco
2015-01-01
Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.
Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)
Mason, Larry W.
1997-01-01
The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.
Transport phenomena II essentials
REA, The Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration
Modelling of Transport Phenomena at Cement Matrix—Aggregate Interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Breugel, Klaas; Koenders, Eddie; Ye, Guang
2004-01-01
The performance of a heterogeneous material like concrete is largely determined by the many interfaces in this material. This contribution focuses on the potential of numerical simulation models to investigate the character of the matrix-aggregate interfacial zone and to simulate hydration-induce...
Transport phenomena I essentials
REA, The Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A continuum model proposed for dendrite solidification of multicomponent alloys, with any partial solid back diffusion, was used to numerically simulate the macroscopic solidification transport phenomena and macrosegregations in an upwards directionally solidified plain carbon steel ingot. The computational results of each macroscopic field of the physical variables involved in the solidification process at a middle solidification stage were presented.
Transport phenomena in multiphase flows
Mauri, Roberto
2015-01-01
This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy. It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...
Lattice Boltzmann modeling of transport phenomena in fuel cells and flow batteries
Xu, Ao; Shyy, Wei; Zhao, Tianshou
2017-06-01
Fuel cells and flow batteries are promising technologies to address climate change and air pollution problems. An understanding of the complex multiscale and multiphysics transport phenomena occurring in these electrochemical systems requires powerful numerical tools. Over the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has attracted broad interest in the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical heat transfer communities, primarily due to its kinetic nature making it appropriate for modeling complex multiphase transport phenomena. More importantly, the LB method fits well with parallel computing due to its locality feature, which is required for large-scale engineering applications. In this article, we review the LB method for gas-liquid two-phase flows, coupled fluid flow and mass transport in porous media, and particulate flows. Examples of applications are provided in fuel cells and flow batteries. Further developments of the LB method are also outlined.
Lunar magma transport phenomena
Spera, Frank J.
1992-01-01
An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.
Gatsonis, Nikos A.; Alexandrou, Andreas; Shi, Hui; Ongewe, Bernard; Sacco, Albert, Jr.
1999-01-01
. At the same time, however, there is increased urgency to develop such an understanding in order to more accurately quantify the process. In order to better understand the results obtained from our prior space experiments, and design future experiments, a detailed fluid dynamic model simulating the crystal growth mechanism is required. This will not only add to the fundamental knowledge on the crystallization of zeolites, but also be useful in predicting the limits of size and growth of these important industrial materials. Our objective is to develop macro/microscopic theoretical and computational models to study the effect of transport phenomena in the growth of crystals grown in solutions. Our effort has concentrated so far in the development of separate macroscopic and microscopic models. The major highlights of our accomplishments are described.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masayuki Tokita
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.
Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing
Kou, Sindo
1996-10-01
An extremely useful guide to the theory and applications of transport phenomena in materials processing This book defines the unique role that transport phenomena play in materials processing and offers a graphic, comprehensive treatment unlike any other book on the subject. The two parts of the text are, in fact, two useful books. Part I is a very readable introduction to fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer for materials engineers and anyone not yet thoroughly familiar with the subject. It includes governing equations and boundary conditions particularly useful for studying materials processing. For mechanical and chemical engineers, and anyone already familiar with transport phenomena, Part II covers the many specific applications to materials processing, including a brief description of various materials processing technologies. Readable and unencumbered by mathematical manipulations (most of which are allocated to the appendixes), this book is also a useful text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in materials, mechanical, and chemical engineering. It includes hundreds of photographs of materials processing in action, single and composite figures of computer simulation, handy charts for problem solving, and more. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing: * Describes eight key materials processing technologies, including crystal growth, casting, welding, powder and fiber processing, bulk and surface heat treating, and semiconductor device fabrication * Covers the latest advances in the field, including recent results of computer simulation and flow visualization * Presents special boundary conditions for transport phenomena in materials processing * Includes charts that summarize commonly encountered boundary conditions and step-by-step procedures for problem solving * Offers a unique derivation of governing equations that leads to both overall and differential balance equations * Provides a list of publicly available computer
Modeling conversion and transport phenomena in solid-state fermentation: a review and perspectives.
Rahardjo, Yovita S P; Tramper, Johannes; Rinzema, Arjen
2006-01-01
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is accompanied inevitably by development of concentration and temperature gradients within the substrate particles and microbial biofilms. These gradients are needed for driving the transport of substrates and products. In addition, concentration gradients have been suggested to be crucial for obtaining the characteristics that define the products of SSF; nevertheless, gradients are also known to result in reduced productivity and unwanted side reactions. Solid-state fermentations are generally batch processes and this further complicates their understanding as conditions change with time. Mathematical models are therefore needed for improving the understanding of SSF processes and allowing their manipulation to achieve the desired outcomes. Existing models of SSF processes describe coupled substrate conversion and diffusion and the consequent microbial growth. Existing models disregard many of the significant phenomena that are known to influence SSF. As a result, available models cannot explain the generation of the numerous products that form during any SSF process and the outcome of the process in terms of the characteristics of the final product. This review critically evaluates the proposed models and their experimental validation. In addition, important issues that need to be resolved for improved modeling of SSF are discussed.
Transport phenomena in particulate systems
Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo
2012-01-01
This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jompob WAEWSAK
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a 3-D numerical modeling of heat transport phenomena in soil due to a change of sensible and latent heat, under the ambient conditions of southern Thailand. The vertical soil temperature profile within 3 m was predicted based on energy balance and 3 modes of heat transfer mechanisms, i.e., conduction, convection, and radiation. Mathematical models for estimation of solar radiation intensity, ambient and sky temperatures, relative humidity, and surface wind velocity were used as model inputs. 3-D numerical implicit finite difference schemes, i.e., forward time, and forward, center, and backward spaces were used for discretizing the set of governing, initial, and boundary condition equations. The set of pseudo-linear equations were then solved using the single step Gauss-Seidel iteration method. Computer code was developed by using MATLAB computer software. The soil physical effects; density, thermal conductivity, emissivity, absorptivity, and latent heat on amplitude of soil temperature variation were investigated. Numerical results were validated in comparison to the experimental results. It was found that 3-D numerical modeling could predict the soil temperature to almost the same degree as results that were obtained by experimentation, especially at a depth of 1 m. The root mean square error at ground surface and at depths of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 m were 0.169, 0.153, 0.097, 0.116, 0.120, 0.115, and 0.098, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that variation of soil temperature occurred within 0.75 m only.
Transport Phenomena During Equiaxed Solidification of Alloys
Beckermann, C.; deGroh, H. C., III
1997-01-01
Recent progress in modeling of transport phenomena during dendritic alloy solidification is reviewed. Starting from the basic theorems of volume averaging, a general multiphase modeling framework is outlined. This framework allows for the incorporation of a variety of microscale phenomena in the macroscopic transport equations. For the case of diffusion dominated solidification, a simplified set of model equations is examined in detail and validated through comparisons with numerous experimental data for both columnar and equiaxed dendritic growth. This provides a critical assessment of the various model assumptions. Models that include melt flow and solid phase transport are also discussed, although their validation is still at an early stage. Several numerical results are presented that illustrate some of the profound effects of convective transport on the final compositional and structural characteristics of a solidified part. Important issues that deserve continuing attention are identified.
A Model for Transport Phenomena in a Cross-Flow Ultrafiltration Module with Microchannels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shiro Yoshikawa
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Cross-flow ultrafiltration of macromolecular solutions in a module with microchannels is expected to have the advantages of fast diffusion from the membrane surface and a high ratio of membrane surface area to feed liquid volume. Cross-flow ultrafiltration modules with microchannels are expected to be used for separation and refining and as membrane reactors in microchemical processes. Though these modules can be applied as a separator connected with a micro-channel reactor or a membrane reactor, there have been few papers on their performance. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between operational conditions and performance of cross-flow ultrafiltration devices with microchannels. In this study, Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP aqueous solution was used as a model solute of macromolecules such as enzymes. Cross-flow ultrafiltration experiments were carried out under constant pressure conditions, varying other operational conditions. The permeate flux decreased in the beginning of each experiment. After enough time passed, the permeate flux reached a constant value. The performance of the module was discussed based on the constant values of the flux. It was observed that the permeate flux increased with increasing transmembrane pressure (TMP and feed flow rate, and decreased with an increase of feed liquid concentration. A model of the transport phenomena in the feed liquid side channel and the permeation through the membrane was developed based on the concentration and velocity distributions in the feed side channel. The experimental results were compared with those based on the model and the performance of the ultrafiltration module is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Miao
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The transport phenomena in a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC were numerically simulated by the proposed two-dimensional two-phase nonisothermal mass transport model. The anisotropic transport characteristic and deformation of the gas diffusion layer (GDL were considered in this model. The natural convection boundary conditions were adopted for the transport of methanol, oxygen, and heat at the GDL outer surface. The effect of methanol concentration in the reservoir on cell performance was examined. The distribution of multiphysical fields in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA, especially in the catalyst layers (CLs, was obtained and analyzed. The results indicated that transport resistance for the methanol mainly existed in the MEA while that for oxygen and heat was primarily due to natural convection at the GDL outer surface. Because of the relatively high methanol concentration, the local reaction rate in CLs was mainly determined by the overpotential. Methanol concentration between 3 M and 4 M was recommended for passive liquid feed DMFC in order to achieve a balance between the cell performance and the methanol crossover.
Transport phenomena in porous media
Ingham, Derek B
1998-01-01
Research into thermal convection in porous media has substantially increased during recent years due to its numerous practical applications. These problems have attracted the attention of industrialists, engineers and scientists from many very diversified disciplines, such as applied mathematics, chemical, civil, environmental, mechanical and nuclear engineering, geothermal physics and food science. Thus, there is a wealth of information now available on convective processes in porous media and it is therefore appropriate and timely to undertake a new critical evaluation of this contemporary information. Transport Phenomena in Porous Media contains 17 chapters and represents the collective work of 27 of the world's leading experts, from 12 countries, in heat transfer in porous media. The recent intensive research in this area has substantially raised the expectations for numerous new practical applications and this makes the book a most timely addition to the existing literature. It includes recent major deve...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahraoui, Melik [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Tunis (IPEIT) (Tunisia); Kharrat, Chafik; Halouani, Kamel [UR: Micro-Electro-Thermal Systems (METS-ENIS), Industrial Energy Systems Group, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (IPEIS), University of Sfax, B.P: 1172, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)
2009-04-15
A two-dimensional CFD model of PEM fuel cell is developed by taking into account the electrochemical, mass and heat transfer phenomena occurring in all of its regions simultaneously. The catalyst layers and membrane are each considered as distinct regions with finite thickness and calculated properties such as permeability, local protonic conductivity, and local dissolved water diffusion. This finite thickness model enables to model accurately the protonic current in these regions with higher accuracy than using an infinitesimal interface. In addition, this model takes into account the effect of osmotic drag in the membrane and catalyst layers. General boundary conditions are implemented in a way taking into consideration any given species concentration at the fuel cell inlet, such as water vapor which is a very important parameter in determining the efficiency of fuel cells. Other operating parameters such as temperature, pressure and porosity of the porous structure are also investigated to characterize their effect on the fuel cell efficiency. (author)
A Connection between Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics
Swaney, Ross; Bird, R. Byron
2017-01-01
Although students take courses in transport phenomena and thermodynamics, they probably do not ask whether these two subjects are related. Here we give an answer to that question. Specifically we give relationships between the equations of change for total energy, internal energy, and entropy of transport phenomena and key equations of equilibrium…
Multiphysical Modeling of Transport Phenomena During Laser Welding of Dissimilar Steels
Métais, A.; Matteï, S.; Tomashchuk, I.; Gaied, S.
The success of new high-strength steels allows attaining equivalent performances with lower thicknesses and significant weight reduction. The welding of new couples of steel grades requires development and control of joining processes. Thanks to high precision and good flexibility, laser welding became one of the most used processes for joining of dissimilar welded blanks. The prediction of the local chemical composition in the weld formed between dissimilar steels in function of the welding parameters is essential because the dilution rate and the distribution of alloying elements in the melted zone determines the final tensile strength of the weld. The goal of the present study is to create and to validate a multiphysical numerical model studying the mixing of dissimilar steels in laser weld pool. A 3D modelling of heat transfer, turbulent flow and transport of species provides a better understanding of diffusion and convective mixing in laser weld pool. The present model allows predicting the weld geometry and element distribution. The model has been developed based on steady keyhole approximation and solved in quasi-stationary form in order to reduce the computation time. Turbulent flow formulation was applied to calculate velocity field. Fick law for diluted species was used to simulate the transport of alloying elements in the weld pool. To validate the model, a number of experiments have been performed: tests using pure 100 μm thick Ni foils like tracer and weld between a rich and poor manganese steels. SEM-EDX analysis of chemical composition has been carried out to obtain quantitative mapping of Ni and Mn distributions in the melted zone. The results of simulations have been found in good agreement with experimental data.
Thermal transport phenomena in nanoparticle suspensions
Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Bozorg Bigdeli, Masoud; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro
2016-12-01
Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics. The objectives of the present topical review is to report and discuss the main heat and mass transport phenomena ruling macroscopic behaviour of nanosuspensions, arising from molecular details. Relevant experimental results are included and properly put in the context of recent observations and theoretical studies, which solved long-standing debates about thermophysical properties enhancement. Major transport phenomena are discussed and in-depth analysis is carried out for highlighting the role of geometrical (nanoparticle shape, size, aggregation, concentration), chemical (pH, surfactants, functionalization) and physical parameters (temperature, density). We finally overview several computational techniques available at different scales with the aim of drawing the attention on the need for truly multiscale predictive models. This may help the development of next-generation nanoparticle suspensions and their rational use in thermal applications.
Fernandez, J M; Piault, E; Macouillard, D; Juncos, C
2006-01-01
In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of (90)Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The (90)Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of (90)Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the (90)Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year(-1) in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined.
Mathematical Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birgersson, Erik
2004-02-01
This thesis deals with modeling of two types of fuel cells: the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), for which we address four major issues: a) mass transport limitations; b) water management (PEFC); c) gas management (DMFC); d) thermal management. Four models have been derived and studied for the PEFC, focusing on the cathode. The first exploits the slenderness of the cathode for a two-dimensional geometry, leading to a reduced model, where several non dimensional parameters capture the behavior of the cathode. The model was extended to three dimensions, where four different flow distributors were studied for the cathode. A quantitative comparison shows that the interdigitated channels can sustain the highest current densities. These two models, comprising isothermal gas phase flow, limit the studies to (a). Returning to a two-dimensional geometry of the PEFC, the liquid phase was introduced via a separate flow model approach for the cathode. In addition to conservation of mass, momentum and species, the model was extended to consider simultaneous charge and heat transfer for the whole cell. Different thermal, flow fields, and hydrodynamic conditions were studied, addressing (a), (b) and (d). A scale analysis allowed for predictions of the cell performance prior to any computations. Good agreement between experiments with a segmented cell and the model was obtained. A liquid-phase model, comprising conservation of mass, momentum and species, was derived and analyzed for the anode of the DMFC. The impact of hydrodynamic, electrochemical and geometrical features on the fuel cell performance were studied, mainly focusing on (a). The slenderness of the anode allows the use of a narrow-gap approximation, leading to a reduced model, with benefits such as reduced computational cost and understanding of the physical trends prior to any numerical computations. Adding the gas-phase via a multiphase mixture approach, the gas
Investigation of high-p{sub T} phenomena within a partonic transport model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fochler, Oliver
2011-10-26
In the work presented herein the microscopic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann Approach to Multi-Parton Scatterings) is applied to simulate the time evolution of the hot partonic medium that is created in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and in Pb+Pb collisions at the recently started Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The study is especially focused on the investigation of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA}, that quantifies the suppression of particle yields at large transverse momentum with respect to a scaled proton+proton reference, and the simultaneous description of the collective properties of the medium in terms of the elliptic flow v{sub 2} within a common framework. (orig.)
Computational transport phenomena for engineering analyses
Farmer, Richard C; Cheng, Gary C; Chen, Yen-Sen
2009-01-01
Computational Transport PhenomenaOverviewTransport PhenomenaAnalyzing Transport PhenomenaA Computational Tool: The CTP CodeVerification, Validation, and GeneralizationSummaryNomenclatureReferencesThe Equations of ChangeIntroductionDerivation of The Continuity EquationDerivation of The Species Continuity EquationDerivation of The Equation Of MotionDerivation of The General Energy EquationNon-Newtonian FluidsGeneral Property BalanceAnalytical and Approximate Solutions for the Equations of ChangeSummaryNomenclatureReferencesPhysical PropertiesOverviewReal-Fluid ThermodynamicsChemical Equilibrium
Lamorski, Krzysztof; Sławiński, Cezary; Barna, Gyöngyi
2014-05-01
There are some important macroscopic properties of the soil porous media such as: saturated permeability and water retention characteristics. These soil characteristics are very important as they determine soil transport processes and are commonly used as a parameters of general models of soil transport processes used extensively for scientific developments and engineering practise. These characteristics are usually measured or estimated using some statistical or phenomenological modelling, i.e. pedotransfer functions. On the physical basis, saturated soil permeability arises from physical transport processes occurring at the pore level. Current progress in modelling techniques, computational methods and X-ray micro-tomographic technology gives opportunity to use direct methods of physical modelling for pore level transport processes. Physically valid description of transport processes at micro-scale based on Navier-Stokes type modelling approach gives chance to recover macroscopic porous medium characteristics from micro-flow modelling. Water microflow transport processes occurring at the pore level are dependent on the microstructure of porous body and interactions between the fluid and the medium. In case of soils, i.e. the medium there exist relatively big pores in which water can move easily but also finer pores are present in which water transport processes are dominated by strong interactions between the medium and the fluid - full physical description of these phenomena is a challenge. Ten samples of different soils were scanned using X-ray computational microtomograph. The diameter of samples was 5 mm. The voxel resolution of CT scan was 2.5 µm. Resulting 3D soil samples images were used for reconstruction of the pore space for further modelling. 3D image threshholding was made to determine the soil grain surface. This surface was triangulated and used for computational mesh construction for the pore space. Numerical modelling of water flow through the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dipankar Chatterjee
2017-06-01
Full Text Available A comparative assessment is done on the effectiveness of some developed and reported macroscopic and mesoscopic models deployed for addressing the three-dimensional thermo-fluidic transport during high-power laser surface alloying process. The macroscopic models include the most celebrated k–ε turbulence model and the large eddy simulation (LES model, whereas a kinetic theory-based lattice Boltzmann (LB approach is invoked under the mesoscopic paradigm. The time-dependent Navier–Stokes equations are transformed into the k–ε turbulence model by performing the Reynolds averaging technique, whereas a spatial filtering operation is used to produce the LES model. The models are suitably modified to address the turbulent melt-pool convection by using a modified eddy viscosity expression including a damping factor in the form of square root of the liquid fraction. The LB scheme utilizes three separate distribution functions to monitor the underlying hydrodynamic, thermal and compositional fields. Accordingly, the kinematic viscosity, thermal and mass diffusivities are adjusted independently. A single domain fixed-grid enthalpy-porosity approach is utilized to model the phase change phenomena in conjunction with an appropriate enthalpy updating closure scheme. The performance of these models is recorded by capturing the characteristic nature of the thermo-fluidic transport during the laser material processing. The maximum values of the pertinent parameters in the computational domain obtained from several modeling efforts are compared to assess their capabilities. The comparison shows that the prediction from the k–ε turbulence model is higher than the LES and LB models. In addition, the results from all three models are compared with the available experimental results in the form of dimensionless composition of the alloyed layer along the dimensionless depth of the pool. The comparison reveals that the LB and the LES approaches are better
Kinetic theory and transport phenomena
Soto, Rodrigo
2016-01-01
This textbook presents kinetic theory, which is a systematic approach to describing nonequilibrium systems. The text is balanced between the fundamental concepts of kinetic theory (irreversibility, transport processes, separation of time scales, conservations, coarse graining, distribution functions, etc.) and the results and predictions of the theory, where the relevant properties of different systems are computed. The book is organised in thematic chapters where different paradigmatic systems are studied. The specific features of these systems are described, building and analysing the appropriate kinetic equations. Specifically, the book considers the classical transport of charges, the dynamics of classical gases, Brownian motion, plasmas, and self-gravitating systems, quantum gases, the electronic transport in solids and, finally, semiconductors. Besides these systems that are studied in detail, concepts are applied to some modern examples including the quark–gluon plasma, the motion of bacterial suspen...
Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kontani, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ., Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-03-01
Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, {tau}, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.
A Reduced-Order Model of Transport Phenomena for Power Plant Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul Cizmas; Brian Richardson; Thomas Brenner; Raymond Fontenot
2009-09-30
A reduced-order model based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been developed to simulate transient two- and three-dimensional isothermal and non-isothermal flows in a fluidized bed. Reduced-order models of void fraction, gas and solids temperatures, granular energy, and z-direction gas and solids velocity have been added to the previous version of the code. These algorithms are presented and their implementation is discussed. Verification studies are presented for each algorithm. A number of methods to accelerate the computations performed by the reduced-order model are presented. The errors associated with each acceleration method are computed and discussed. Using a combination of acceleration methods, a two-dimensional isothermal simulation using the reduced-order model is shown to be 114 times faster than using the full-order model. In the pursue of achieving the objectives of the project and completing the tasks planned for this program, several unplanned and unforeseen results, methods and studies have been generated. These additional accomplishments are also presented and they include: (1) a study of the effect of snapshot sampling time on the computation of the POD basis functions, (2) an investigation of different strategies for generating the autocorrelation matrix used to find the POD basis functions, (3) the development and implementation of a bubble detection and tracking algorithm based on mathematical morphology, (4) a method for augmenting the proper orthogonal decomposition to better capture flows with discontinuities, such as bubbles, and (5) a mixed reduced-order/full-order model, called point-mode proper orthogonal decomposition, designed to avoid unphysical due to approximation errors. The limitations of the proper orthogonal decomposition method in simulating transient flows with moving discontinuities, such as bubbling flows, are discussed and several methods are proposed to adapt the method for future use.
Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids
Kontani, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, \\tau, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical poi...
Naidu, Gayathri
2016-08-27
The application of vacuum to direct contact membrane distillation (vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation, V-DCMD) removed condensable gasses and reduced partial pressure in the membrane pores, achieving 37.6% higher flux than DCMD at the same feed temperature. Transfer mechanism and temperature distribution profile in V-DCMD were studied. The empirical flux decline (EFD) model represented fouling profiles of V-DCMD. In a continuous V-DCMD operation with moderate temperature (55 degrees C) and permeate pressure (300 mbar) for treating wastewater ROC, a flux of 16.0 +/- 0.3 L/m(2) h and high quality distillate were achieved with water flushing, showing the suitability of V-DCMD for ROC treatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transport Phenomena in Textile Finishing Equipment
Groot Wassink, J.
1985-01-01
The application of transport phenomena to textile finishing processes is emphasised. By combination of the predominant transfer processes (momentum, mass and heat/mass transfer) and the engineering objective (operation, design and innovation), three cases are selected dealing with (a) momentum trans
Coupled electric and transport phenomena in porous media
Li, Shuai
2014-01-01
The coupled electrical and transport properties of clay-containing porous media are the topics of interest in this study. Both experimental and numerical (pore network modeling) techniques are employed to gain insight into the macro-scale interaction between electrical and solute transport phenomena
Coupled electric and transport phenomena in porous media
Li, Shuai
2014-01-01
The coupled electrical and transport properties of clay-containing porous media are the topics of interest in this study. Both experimental and numerical (pore network modeling) techniques are employed to gain insight into the macro-scale interaction between electrical and solute transport phenomena
Mathematical Model for Hit Phenomena
Ishii, Akira; Hayashi, Takefumi; Matsuda, Naoya; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Arakaki, Hisashi; Yoshida, Narihiko
2010-01-01
The mathematical model for hit phenomena in entertainments is presented as a nonlinear, dynamical and non-equilibrium phenomena. The purchase intention for each person is introduced and direct and indirect communications are expressed as two-body and three-body interaction in our model. The mathematical model is expressed as coupled nonlinear differential equations. The important factor in the model is the decay time of rumor for the hit. The calculated results agree very well with revenues of recent 25 movies.
Basic transport phenomena in materials engineering
Iguchi, Manabu
2014-01-01
This book presents the basic theory and experimental techniques of transport phenomena in materials processing operations. Such fundamental knowledge is highly useful for researchers and engineers in the field to improve the efficiency of conventional processes or develop novel technology. Divided into four parts, the book comprises 11 chapters describing the principles of momentum transfer, heat transfer, and mass transfer in single phase and multiphase systems. Each chapter includes examples with solutions and exercises to facilitate students’ learning. Diagnostic problems are also provided at the end of each part to assess students’ comprehension of the material. The book is aimed primarily at students in materials science and engineering. However, it can also serve as a useful reference text in chemical engineering as well as an introductory transport phenomena text in mechanical engineering. In addition, researchers and engineers engaged in materials processing operations will find the material use...
Consolo, Filippo; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Truscello, Silvia; Caronna, Marco; Morbiducci, Umberto; Montevecchi, Franco M; Redaelli, Alberto
2009-03-01
A comprehensive computational study modelling the operation of a rotating hollow-fiber bioreactor for artificial liver (BAL) was performed to explore the interactions between the oxygenated culture medium and the cultured hepatocytes. Computational fluid dynamics investigations were carried out using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D time-dependent numerical simulations, integrating calculations of diffusion, convection, and multiphase fluid dynamics. The analysis was aimed at determining the rotational speed value of the chamber to ensure homogenous distribution of the floating microcarrier-attached aggregated cells (microCAACs) and avoid their sedimentation and excessive packing, analyzing oxygen (O(2)) delivery and cellular O(2) consumption as an index of cellular metabolic activity, and analyzing the fluid-induced mechanical stress experienced by cells. According to our results, homogeneous distribution of cells is reached at a rotational speed of 30 rpm; spreading of cellular concentration at around the initial value of 12% was limited (median = 11.97%, 5th percentile = 10.94%, 95th percentile = 13.2%), resulting in uniform suspension of microCAACs, which did not appear to be excessively packed. Mixing within the rotating fluid caused a maximum fluid-induced stress value of 0.05 Pa, which was neither endangering for liver-specific functions of cultured cells, nor causing disruption of the floating aggregates. Moreover, an inlet medium flow rate of 200 mL/m with a partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) value of 160 mmHg was found to guarantee an adequate O(2) supply for the hepatocytes (2.7 x 10(8) hepatocytes are simulated); under such conditions, the minimum pO(2) value (23 mmHg) is above the critical threshold value, causing the onset of cellular hypoxia (10 mmHg). We proved that numerical simulation of transport phenomena is a valuable tool for the computer-aided design of BALs, helping overcome the unsolved issues in optimizing the cell-environment conditioning
Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview
Mason, Larry W.
1999-01-01
The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry
Bozsak, Franz; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Barakat, Abdul I
2014-04-01
Despite recent data that suggest that the overall performance of drug-eluting stents (DES) is superior to that of bare-metal stents, the long-term safety and efficacy of DES remain controversial. The risk of late stent thrombosis associated with the use of DES has also motivated the development of a new and promising treatment option in recent years, namely drug-coated balloons (DCB). Contrary to DES where the drug of choice is typically sirolimus and its derivatives, DCB use paclitaxel since the use of sirolimus does not appear to lead to satisfactory results. Since both sirolimus and paclitaxel are highly lipophilic drugs with similar transport properties, the reason for the success of paclitaxel but not sirolimus in DCB remains unclear. Computational models of the transport of drugs eluted from DES or DCB within the arterial wall promise to enhance our understanding of the performance of these devices. The present study develops a computational model of the transport of the two drugs paclitaxel and sirolimus eluted from DES in the arterial wall. The model takes into account the multilayered structure of the arterial wall and incorporates a reversible binding model to describe drug interactions with the constituents of the arterial wall. The present results demonstrate that the transport of paclitaxel in the arterial wall is dominated by convection while the transport of sirolimus is dominated by the binding process. These marked differences suggest that drug release kinetics of DES should be tailored to the type of drug used.
Study of non-equilibrium transport phenomena
Sharma, Surendra P.
1987-01-01
Nonequilibrium phenomena due to real gas effects are very important features of low density hypersonic flows. The shock shape and emitted nonequilibrium radiation are identified as the bulk flow behavior parameters which are very sensitive to the nonequilibrium phenomena. These parameters can be measured in shock tubes, shock tunnels, and ballistic ranges and used to test the accuracy of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. Since the CDF codes, by necessity, are based on multi-temperature models, it is also desirable to measure various temperatures, most importantly, the vibrational temperature. The CFD codes would require high temperature rate constants, which are not available at present. Experiments conducted at the NASA Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) facility reveal that radiation from steel contaminants overwhelm the radiation from the test gas. For the measurement of radiation and the chemical parameters, further investigation and then appropriate modifications of the EAST facility are required.
Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K Muralidhar
2014-01-01
Careful and continuous measurements of flow, heat and mass transfer are required in quite a few contexts. Using appropriate light sources, it is possible to map velocity, temperature, and species concentration over a cross-section and as a function of time. Image formation in optical measurements may rely on scattering of radiation from particles. Alternatively, if the region of interest is transparent, refractive index would be a field variable and beam bending effects can be used to extract information about temperature and concentration of solutes dissolved in liquids. Time-lapsed images of light intensity can be used to determine fluid velocity. Though used originally for flow visualization, optical imaging has now emerged as a powerful tool for quantitative measurements. Optical methods that utilize the dependence of refractive index on concentration and temperature can be configured in many different ways. Three available routes considered are interferometry, schlieren imaging, and shadowgraph. Images recorded in these configurations can be analysed to yield time sequences of three-dimensional distributions of the transported variables. Optical methods are non-intrusive, inertia-free and can image cross-sections of the experimental apparatus. The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of measurements by extracting unsteady three-dimensional data in applications related to transport phenomena.
Transport phenomena in disordered interacting electron systems
Michaeli, Karen
We develop a user friendly scheme based on the quantum kinetic equation for studying electric and thermal transport phenomena in the presence of interactions and disorder. We demonstrate that this scheme is suitable for both a systematic perturbative calculation as well as a general analysis. The work was motivated by the growing number of experiments of thermal and thermoelectric transport, and the absence of adequate theoretical tools for studying them. In particular, for thermal transport, the widely used Kubo formula is rather cumbersome. In this thesis, we present a systematic derivation of the quantum kinetic approach which we believe can be a good alternative to the Kubo formula. One main advantage of the kinetic approach is that it provides us with an intuitive picture for both electric and thermal transport. The strength of our scheme is in its generality that allow us to apply it for different kinds of interactions. We study the effect of the superconducting fluctuations on the Hall and Nernst effects. We show that the strong Nernst effect observed recently in amorphous superconducting films far above the critical temperature is caused by the fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter. We demonstrate that in the limit T → 0 the contribution of the magnetization ensures the vanishing of the Nernst signal in accordance with the third law of thermodynamics. We obtained a striking agreement between our theoretical calculations and the experimental data in a broad region of temperatures and magnetic fields. In addition, we present the calculation of the Hall conductivity in the vicinity of the superconducting transition driven by a magnetic field. We discuss the peculiar feature of both the Hall coefficient and Nernst signal anticipated near the quantum phase transition.
Transport phenomena in biomedical engineering principles and practices
Peattie, Robert A; Bronzino, Joseph D
2012-01-01
Biomimetic Systems: Concepts, Design, and Emulation, Robert J. FisherTransport/Reaction Processes in Biology and Medicine, E. N. LightfootMicrovascular Heat Transfer, James W. BaishFluid Dynamics for Bio Systems: Fundamentals and Model Analysis, Robert A. Peattie and Robert J. FisherAnimal Surrogate Systems, Michael L. Shuler, Sarina G. Harris, Xinran Li, and Mandy B. EschArterial Wall Mass Transport: The Possible Role of Blood Phase Resistance in the Localization of Arterial Disease, John M. Tarbell and Yuchen QiuTransport Phenomena and the Microenvironment, Robert J. Fisher and Robert A. PeattieTransport and Drug Delivery through the Blood-Brain Barrier and Cerebrospinal Fluid, Bingmei M. FuInterstitial Transport in the Brain: Principles for Local Drug Delivery, W. Mark SaltzmanSurfactant Transport and Fluid-Structure Interactions during Pulmonary Airway Reopening, David Martin, Anne-Marie Jacob, and Donald P. Gaver IIIIndex.
Molecular model for chirality phenomena.
Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank H; Debenedetti, Pablo G
2016-10-21
Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations. Using this model, we explore a range of chirality-specific phenomena, including the kinetics of chiral inversion, the mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the liquid, chirally driven liquid-liquid phase separation, and chiral crystal structures.
García-Salaberri, Pablo A.; Vera, Marcos; Iglesias, Immaculada
2014-01-01
An isothermal two-phase 2D/1D across-the-channel model for the anode of a liquid-feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) is presented. The model takes into account the effects of the inhomogeneous assembly compression of the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL), including the spatial variations of porosity, diffusivity, permeability, capillary pressure, and electrical conductivity. The effective anisotropic properties of the GDL are evaluated from empirical data reported in the literature corresponding to Toray carbon paper TGP-H series. Multiphase transport is modeled according to the classical theory of porous media (two-fluid model), considering the effect of non-equilibrium evaporation and condensation of methanol and water. The numerical results evidence that the hydrophobic Leverett J-function approach is physically inconsistent to describe capillary transport in the anode of a DMFC when assembly compression effects are considered. In contrast, more realistic results are obtained when GDL-specific capillary pressure curves reflecting the mixed-wettability characteristics of GDLs are taken into account. The gas coverage factor at the GDL/channel interface also exhibits a strong influence on the gas-void fraction distribution in the GDL, which in turn depends on the relative importance between the capillary resistance induced by the inhomogeneous compression, Rc(∝ ∂pc / ∂ ε) , and the capillary diffusivity, Dbarc(∝ ∂pc / ∂ s) .
Eikerling, Michael
2011-06-01
eminently important field of transport phenomena in proton conducting media. Complex dynamics of fluids in disordered and crowded environments contents Electrostatic models of electron-driven proton transfer across a lipid membrane Anatoly Yu Smirnov, Lev G Mourokh and Franco Nori Molecular basis of proton uptake in single and double mutants of cytochrome c oxidase Rowan M Henry, David Caplan, Elisa Fadda and Régis Pomès Proton diffusion along biological membranes E S Medvedev and A A Stuchebrukhov Ab initio molecular dynamics of proton networks in narrow polymer electrolyte pores Mehmet A Ilhan and Eckhard Spohr A simulation study of field-induced proton-conduction pathways in dry ionomers Elshad Allahyarov, Philip L Taylor and Hartmut Löwen Molecular structure and transport dynamics in perfluoro sulfonyl imide membranes Nagesh Idupulapati, Ram Devanathan and Michel Dupuis The kinetics of water sorption in Nafion membranes: a small-angle neutron scattering study Gérard Gebel, Sandrine Lyonnard, Hakima Mendil-Jakani and Arnaud Morin Using 2H labeling with neutron radiography for the study of solid polymer electrolyte water transport properties P Boillat, P Oberholzer, B C Seyfang, A Kästner, R Perego, G G Scherer, E H Lehmann and A Wokaun Spatial distribution and dynamics of proton conductivity in fuel cell membranes: potential and limitations of electrochemical atomic force microscopy measurements E Aleksandrova, S Hink, R Hiesgen and E Roduner A review on phosphate based, solid state, protonic conductors for intermediate temperature fuel cells O Paschos, J Kunze, U Stimming and F Maglia A structural study of the proton conducting B-site ordered perovskite Ba3Ca1.18Ta1.82O8.73 Maarten C Verbraeken, Hermenegildo A L Viana, Philip Wormald and John T S Irvine
Chemically Tunable Transport Phenomena of Functionalized Graphene
Leconte, Nicolas; Lherbier, Aurélien; Varchon, Francois; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Palacios, Juan Jose; Soriano, David; Ordejon, Pablo; Roche, Stephan
2012-02-01
We present an ab initio multiscale study and quantum transport simulations using the Kubo formalism [1] of chemically modified graphene based materials, whose properties are tuned by changing the density and nature of grafted molecular units. Depending on the nature of the introduced molecular bonding different conduction mechanism are obtained, including transition from weak to strong Anderson localization [2,3], as well as spin-dependent phenomena [4] and magnetoresistive fingerprints [5]. [4pt] References: [1] H. Ishii, F. Triozon, N. Kobayashi, K. Hirose, and S. Roche, C. R. Physique 10, 283 (2009) [2] N. Leconte, J. Moser, P. Ordejon, H. Tao, A. Lherbier, A. Bachtold, F. Alsina, C.M. Sotomayor Torres, J.-C. Charlier, and S. Roche, ACS Nano 4, 7, 4033-4038 (2010) [3] N. Leconte, A. Lherbier, F. Varchon, P. Ordejon, S. Roche, and J.-C. Charlier (accepted in PRB) [4] N. Leconte, D. Soriano, S. Roche, P. Ordejon, J.-C. Charlier, and J.J. Palacios, ACS Nano 5, 5, 3987-3992 (2011) [5] D. Soriano, N. Leconte, P. Ordejon, J.-C. Charlier, J.J. Palacios, and S. Roche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 016602 (2011)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez, J.M. [CEA-Cadarache, DTN/SMTM/LMTE, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)]. E-mail: jean-michel.fernandez@noumea.ird.nc; Piault, E. [CEA-Cadarache, DTN/SMTM/LMTE, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Macouillard, D. [ENSIL, 16 rue d' Atlantis, Technopole BP 6804, 87068 Limoges (France); Juncos, C. [Universite de Savoie, BP 1104, 73011 Chambery (France)
2006-07-01
In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of {sup 9}Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The {sup 9}Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of {sup 9}Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the {sup 9}Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year{sup -1} in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined.
Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.
2015-04-01
The deposition of salts in porous media is a major engineering phenomenon encountered in a plethora of industrial and environmental applications where in some cases is desirable and in other not (oil production, geothermal systems, soil stabilization etc). Systematic approach of these problems requires knowledge of the key mechanisms of precipitating salts within the porous structures, in order to develop new methods to control the process. In this work, the development and the solution of spatiotemporally variable mass balances during salt solution mixing along specific pores were performed. Both analytical models and finite differences CFD models were applied for the study of flow and transport with simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation (by crystal growth on the surface of the pores) in simple geometries, while unstructured finite elements and meshless methods were developed and implemented for spatial discretization, reconstruction, and solution of transport equations and homogeneous / heterogeneous reactions in more complex geometries. At initial stages of this work, critical problem parameters were identified, such as the characteristics of the porosity, the number of dissolved components, etc. The parameters were then used for solving problems which correspond to available experimental data. For each combination of ions and materials, specific data and process characteristics were included: (a) crystal kinetics (nucleation, growth rates or reaction surface rates of crystals, critical suspension concentrations), (b) physico-chemical properties (bulk density, dimensions of generated crystals, ion diffusion coefficients in the solution), (c) operating parameters (macroscopic velocity, flow, or pressure gradient of the solution, ion concentration) (d) microfluidic data (geometry, flow area), (e) porosity data in Darcy description (initial porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity). During the modeling of flow and transport in three
Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials
Lima, AG
2014-01-01
The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.
2010-01-01
in the transport process. As a modification of a previous work, water equilibrium was reestablished between iterations in the numerical method and the pH value monitored. Simulations were conducted in order to visualize the acid and basic fronts advance, and to evaluate the use of a buffer substance...... in the electrode compartments. Simulations were compared with lab scale results for desalination experiments, where an inert matrix of sandstone was used to minimize the effect of chemical reactions in the process....
Transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids a concise primer
Olsson, Per
2013-01-01
This short primer provides a concise and tutorial-style introduction to transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids , in particular the transport of mass, energy and momentum. The reader will find detailed derivations of the transport equations for these phenomena, as well as selected analytical solutions to the transport equations in some simple geometries. After a brief introduction to the basic mathematics used in the text, Chapter 2, which deals with momentum transport, presents a derivation of the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equation describing the basic flow in a Newtonian fluid. Also provided at
Multiscale Modeling of Mesoscale and Interfacial Phenomena
Petsev, Nikolai Dimitrov
With rapidly emerging technologies that feature interfaces modified at the nanoscale, traditional macroscopic models are pushed to their limits to explain phenomena where molecular processes can play a key role. Often, such problems appear to defy explanation when treated with coarse-grained continuum models alone, yet remain prohibitively expensive from a molecular simulation perspective. A prominent example is surface nanobubbles: nanoscopic gaseous domains typically found on hydrophobic surfaces that have puzzled researchers for over two decades due to their unusually long lifetimes. We show how an entirely macroscopic, non-equilibrium model explains many of their anomalous properties, including their stability and abnormally small gas-side contact angles. From this purely transport perspective, we investigate how factors such as temperature and saturation affect nanobubbles, providing numerous experimentally testable predictions. However, recent work also emphasizes the relevance of molecular-scale phenomena that cannot be described in terms of bulk phases or pristine interfaces. This is true for nanobubbles as well, whose nanoscale heights may require molecular detail to capture the relevant physics, in particular near the bubble three-phase contact line. Therefore, there is a clear need for general ways to link molecular granularity and behavior with large-scale continuum models in the treatment of many interfacial problems. In light of this, we have developed a general set of simulation strategies that couple mesoscale particle-based continuum models to molecular regions simulated through conventional molecular dynamics (MD). In addition, we derived a transport model for binary mixtures that opens the possibility for a wide range of applications in biological and drug delivery problems, and is readily reconciled with our hybrid MD-continuum techniques. Approaches that couple multiple length scales for fluid mixtures are largely absent in the literature, and
Silva, J V C; Peixoto, P D S; Lortal, S; Floury, J
2013-10-01
During cheese ripening, microorganisms grow as immobilized colonies, metabolizing substrates present in the matrix and generating products from enzymatic reactions. Local factors that limit the rates of diffusion, either within the general cheese matrix or near the colonies, may influence the metabolic activity of the bacteria during ripening, affecting the final quality of the cheese. The objective of this study was to determine the diffusion coefficients of solutes as a function of their different physicochemical characteristics (size, charge, and shape) in an ultrafiltrate (UF) model cheese (based on ultrafiltered milk) to enable better understanding of the ripening mechanisms. Diffusion coefficients of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 kDa to 2 MDa) and FITC-labeled dairy proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and BSA) were measured using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). This study showed that macromolecules up to 2 MDa and proteins could diffuse through the UF model cheese. The larger FITC-dextrans were not more hindered by the structure of the UF model cheese compared with the smaller ones. Any decrease in the diffusion coefficients of solutes was related only to their hydrodynamic radii. The FITC-dextran diffusion data were fitted to an obstruction model, resulting in a constant obstruction factor (k ~0.42). Diffusion in the model cheese was sensitive to the physicochemical characteristics of the solute. The FITC-dairy proteins studied (rigid and negatively charged molecules) were hindered to a greater degree than the FITC-dextrans (flexible and charge-neutral molecules) in the UF model cheese. The existence of steric and electrostatic interactions between the protein matrix of the UF model cheese and the FITC-dairy proteins could explain the decrease in diffusion compared with FITC-dextrans.
Characterization of transport phenomena in small polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells
2008-01-01
In small fuel cell systems, energy consumption and size of auxiliary devices should be minimized. One option is to use passive controlling methods that rely on material and structural solutions. Therefore it is important to understand transport phenomena occurring in the cells. In this thesis, charge, mass, and heat transport phenomena related to small PEMFCs were studied experimentally and by modeling. A new method was developed for the characterization of water transport properties of p...
Abazari, Alireza; Thompson, Richard B; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E
2012-03-21
Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is necessary for the cryopreservation of articular cartilage. Cartilage dehydration and shrinkage, as well as the change in extracellular osmolality, may have a significant impact on chondrocyte survival during and after CPA loading, freezing, and thawing, and during CPA unloading. In the literature, Fick's law of diffusion is commonly used to predict the spatial distribution and overall concentration of the CPA in the cartilage matrix, and the shrinkage and stress-strain in the cartilage matrix during CPA loading are neglected. In this study, we used a previously described biomechanical model to predict the spatial and temporal distributions of CPA during loading. We measured the intrinsic inhomogeneities in initial water and fixed charge densities in the cartilage using magnetic resonance imaging and introduced them into the model as initial conditions. We then compared the prediction results with the results obtained using uniform initial conditions. The simulation results in this study demonstrate the presence of a significant mechanical strain in the matrix of the cartilage, within all layers, during CPA loading. The osmotic response of the chondrocytes to the cartilage dehydration during CPA loading was also simulated. The results reveal that a transient shrinking occurs to different levels, and the chondrocytes experience a significant decrease in volume, particularly in the middle and deep zones of articular cartilage, during CPA loading.
Three-Dimensional CFD Modeling of Transport Phenomena in a Cross-Flow Anode-Supported Planar SOFC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhonggang Zhang
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD model is developed for an anode-supported planar SOFC from the Chinese Academy of Science Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering (NIMTE. The simulation results of the developed model are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained under the same conditions. With the simulation results, the distribution of temperature, flow velocity and the gas concentrations through the cell components and gas channels is presented and discussed. Potential and current density distributions in the cell and overall fuel utilization are also presented. It is also found that the temperature gradients exist along the length of the cell, and the maximum value of the temperature for the cross-flow is at the outlet region of the cell. The distribution of the current density is uneven, and the maximum current density is located at the interfaces between the channels, ribs and the electrodes, the maximum current density result in a large over-potential and heat source in the electrodes, which is harmful to the overall performance and working lifespan of the fuel cells. A new type of flow structure should be developed to make the current flow be more evenly distributed and promote most of the TPB areas to take part in the electrochemical reactions.
Supercritical droplet combustion and related transport phenomena
Yang, Vigor; Hsieh, K. C.; Shuen, J. S.
1993-01-01
An overview of recent advances in theoretical analyses of supercritical droplet vaporization and combustion is conducted. Both hydrocarbon and cryogenic liquid droplets over a wide range of thermodynamic states are considered. Various important high-pressure effects on droplet behavior, such as thermodynamic non-ideality, transport anomaly, and property variation, are reviewed. Results indicate that the ambient gas pressure exerts significant control of droplet gasification and burning processes through its influence on fluid transport, gas-liquid interfacial thermodynamics, and chemical reactions. The droplet gasification rate increases progressively with pressure. However, the data for the overall burnout time exhibit a considerable change in the combustion mechanism at the criticl pressure, mainly as a result of reduced mass diffusivity and latent heat of vaporization with increased pressure. The influence of droplet size on the burning characteristics is also noted.
Charge Transport Phenomena in Peptide Molecular Junctions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandra Luchini
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS is a valuable in situ spectroscopic analysis technique that provides a direct portrait of the electron transport properties of a molecular species. In the past, IETS has been applied to small molecules. Using self-assembled nanoelectronic junctions, IETS was performed for the first time on a large polypeptide protein peptide in the phosphorylated and native form, yielding interpretable spectra. A reproducible 10-fold shift of the I/V characteristics of the peptide was observed upon phosphorylation. Phosphorylation can be utilized as a site-specific modification to alter peptide structure and thereby influence electron transport in peptide molecular junctions. It is envisioned that kinases and phosphatases may be used to create tunable systems for molecular electronics applications, such as biosensors and memory devices.
The role of the microvascular tortuosity in tumor transport phenomena.
Penta, R; Ambrosi, D
2015-01-07
The role of the microvascular network geometry in transport phenomena in solid tumors and its interplay with the leakage and pressure drop across the vessels is qualitatively and quantitatively discussed. Our starting point is a multiscale homogenization, suggested by the sharp length scale separation that exists between the characteristic vessels and the tumor tissue spatial scales, referred to as the microscale and the macroscale, respectively. The coupling between interstitial and capillary compartment is described by a double Darcy model on the macroscale, whereas the geometric information on the microvascular structure is encoded in the effective hydraulic conductivities, which are numerically computed by solving classical differential problems on the microscale representative cell. Then, microscale information is injected into the macroscopic model, which is analytically solved in a prototypical geometry and compared with previous experimentally validated, phenomenological models. In this way, we are able to capture the role of the standard blood flow determinants in the tumor, such as tumor radius, tissue hydraulic conductivity and vessels permeability, as well as influence of the vascular tortuosity on fluid convection. The results quantitatively confirm that transport of blood (and, as a consequence, of any advected anti-cancer drug) can be dramatically impaired by increasing the geometrical complexity of the microvasculature. Hence, our quantitative analysis supports the argument that geometric regularization of the capillary network improves blood transport and drug delivery in the tumor mass.
Fluid transport phenomena in ocular epithelia.
Candia, Oscar A; Alvarez, Lawrence J
2008-03-01
This article discusses three largely unrecognized aspects related to fluid movement in ocular tissues; namely, (a) the dynamic changes in water permeability observed in corneal and conjunctival epithelia under anisotonic conditions, (b) the indications that the fluid transport rate exhibited by the ciliary epithelium is insufficient to explain aqueous humor production, and (c) the evidence for fluid movement into and out of the lens during accommodation. We have studied each of these subjects in recent years and present an evaluation of our data within the context of the results of others who have also worked on electrolyte and fluid transport in ocular tissues. We propose that (1) the corneal and conjunctival epithelia, with apical aspects naturally exposed to variable tonicities, are capable of regulating their water permeabilities as part of the cell-volume regulatory process, (2) fluid may directly enter the anterior chamber of the eye across the anterior surface of the iris, thereby representing an additional entry pathway for aqueous humor production, and (3) changes in lens volume occur during accommodation, and such changes are best explained by a net influx and efflux of fluid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cerezo A, E. [University of Caribe, Department of Basics Sciences and Engineering, Lote 1, Manzana 1, Region 78, esq. Fracc. Tabachines, 77500 Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: ecerezo@unicaribe.edu.mx; Munoz C, J.L. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)
2004-07-01
This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank.
Coupled Transport Phenomena in Corrugated Photocatalytic Reactors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Adam A. Donaldson; ZHANG Zisheng
2011-01-01
Corrugated reactors are known for their use in applications requiring UV-exposure, whereby media flowing within the corrugated channel react with a photo-active catalyst impregnated on the surface （i.e. TiO2）. The performance in these systems is dependent on catalyst properties and reactivity for a given light source, in conjunc-tion with the coupled transport of reactants within the media and photons falling incident to the catalyst surface. Experimental and computational analyses of local mass transfer and radiation pattems for a broad range of corrugation angles, depths, and non-idealities introduced during manufacture （i.e. fold curvature） are thus integrated to the design and optimization of these systems. This work explores techniques for determining incident energy distribu-tions on the surface of corrugated reactor geometries with non-ideal cross-sectional profiles, and the local and overall mass transfer rates obtained using computational fluid dynamics and experimental analysis. By examining the reaction kinetics for the photo-degradation of 4-chlorophenol over a TiO2 catalyst, the effects of surface area, energy incidence with photon recapture, and local mass transfer on overall reactor performance are presented to highlight ootimization concerns for these tvoes of reactors.
Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....
Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
2003-01-01
A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....
Malhotra, C. P.
With increasing national and global demand for energy and concerns about the effect of fossil fuels on global climate change, there is an increasing emphasis on the development and use of renewable sources of energy. Solar cells or photovoltaics constitute an important renewable energy technology but the major impediment to their widespread adoption has been their high initial cost. Although thin-film photovoltaic semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide-cadmium telluride (CdS/CdTe) can potentially be inexpensively manufactured using large area deposition techniques such as close-spaced sublimation (CSS), their low stability has prevented them from becoming an alternative to traditional polycrystalline silicon solar cells. A key factor affecting the stability of CdS/CdTe cells is the uniformity of deposition of the thin films. Currently no models exist that can relate the processing parameters in a CSS setup with the film deposition uniformity. Central to the development of these models is a fundamental understanding of the complex transport phenomena which constitute the deposition process which include coupled conduction and radiation as well as transition regime rarefied gas flow. This thesis is aimed at filling these knowledge gaps and thereby leading to the development of the relevant models. The specific process under consideration is the CSS setup developed by the Materials Engineering Group at the Colorado State University (CSU). Initially, a 3-D radiation-conduction model of a single processing station was developed using the commercial finite-element software ABAQUS and validated against data from steady-state experiments carried out at CSU. A simplified model was then optimized for maximizing the steady-state thermal uniformity within the substrate. It was inferred that contrary to traditional top and bottom infrared lamp heating, a lamp configuration that directs heat from the periphery of the sources towards the center results in the minimum temperature
Transport Phenomena of Water in Molecular Fluidic Channels
Vo, Truong Quoc; Kim, Bohung
2016-09-01
In molecular-level fluidic transport, where the discrete characteristics of a molecular system are not negligible (in contrast to a continuum description), the response of the molecular water system might still be similar to the continuum description if the time and ensemble averages satisfy the ergodic hypothesis and the scale of the average is enough to recover the classical thermodynamic properties. However, even in such cases, the continuum description breaks down on the material interfaces. In short, molecular-level liquid flows exhibit substantially different physics from classical fluid transport theories because of (i) the interface/surface force field, (ii) thermal/velocity slip, (iii) the discreteness of fluid molecules at the interface and (iv) local viscosity. Therefore, in this study, we present the result of our investigations using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with continuum-based energy equations and check the validity and limitations of the continuum hypothesis. Our study shows that when the continuum description is subjected to the proper treatment of the interface effects via modified boundary conditions, the so-called continuum-based modified-analytical solutions, they can adequately predict nanoscale fluid transport phenomena. The findings in this work have broad effects in overcoming current limitations in modeling/predicting the fluid behaviors of molecular fluidic devices.
Transport phenomena in stochastic magnetic mirrors
Malyshkin, Leonid; Kulsrud, Russell
2000-01-01
Parallel thermal conduction along stochastic magnetic field lines may be reduced because the heat conducting electrons become trapped and detrapped between regions of strong magnetic field (magnetic mirrors). The problem reduces to a simple but realistic model for diffusion of mono-energetic electrons based on the fact that when there is a reduction of diffusion, it is controlled by a subset of the mirrors, the principle mirrors. The diffusion reduction can be considered as equivalent to an e...
Quantum Simulator for Transport Phenomena in Fluid Flows.
Mezzacapo, A; Sanz, M; Lamata, L; Egusquiza, I L; Succi, S; Solano, E
2015-08-17
Transport phenomena still stand as one of the most challenging problems in computational physics. By exploiting the analogies between Dirac and lattice Boltzmann equations, we develop a quantum simulator based on pseudospin-boson quantum systems, which is suitable for encoding fluid dynamics transport phenomena within a lattice kinetic formalism. It is shown that both the streaming and collision processes of lattice Boltzmann dynamics can be implemented with controlled quantum operations, using a heralded quantum protocol to encode non-unitary scattering processes. The proposed simulator is amenable to realization in controlled quantum platforms, such as ion-trap quantum computers or circuit quantum electrodynamics processors.
Phenomena of charged particles transport in variable magnetic fields
Savane, S Y; Faza-Barry, M; Vladmir, L
2002-01-01
This present work is dedicated to the study of the dynamical phenomena for the transport of ions in the presence of variable magnetic fields in front of the Jupiter wave shock. We obtain the spectrum of the accelerated ions and we study the conditions of acceleration by solving the transport equation in the planetocentric system. We discuss the theoretical results obtained and make a comparison with the experimental parameters in the region of acceleration behind the Jupiter wave shock.
Light-induced phenomena in one-component gas: The transport phenomena
Chermyaninov, I. V.; Chernyak, V. G.
2016-09-01
The article presents the theory of transport processes in a one-component gas located in the capillary under the action of resonant laser radiation and the temperature and pressure gradients. The expressions for the kinetic coefficients determining heat and mass transport in the gas are obtained on the basis of the modified Boltzmann equations for the excited and unexcited particles. The Onsager reciprocal relations for cross kinetic coefficients are proven for all Knudsen numbers and for any law interaction of gas particles with each other and boundary surface. Light-induced phenomena associated with the possible non-equilibrium stationary states of system are analyzed.
Preface: cardiac control pathways: signaling and transport phenomena.
Sideman, Samuel
2008-03-01
Signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular functions and coordinates cellular activity. Transfer of ions and signaling molecules and their interactions with appropriate receptors, transmembrane transport, and the consequent intracellular interactions and functional cellular response represent a complex system of interwoven phenomena of transport, signaling, conformational changes, chemical activation, and/or genetic expression. The well-being of the cell thus depends on a harmonic orchestration of all these events and the existence of control mechanisms that assure the normal behavior of the various parameters involved and their orderly expression. The ability of cells to sustain life by perceiving and responding correctly to their microenvironment is the basis for development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Natural deviations, or human-induced interference in the signaling pathways and/or inter- and intracellular transport and information transfer, are responsible for the generation, modulation, and control of diseases. The present overview aims to highlight some major topics of the highly complex cellular information transfer processes and their control mechanisms. Our goal is to contribute to the understanding of the normal and pathophysiological phenomena associated with cardiac functions so that more efficient therapeutic modalities can be developed. Our objective in this volume is to identify and enhance the study of some basic passive and active physical and chemical transport phenomena, physiological signaling pathways, and their biological consequences.
Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference Abstracts
Singh, Bhim (Compiler)
2002-01-01
The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This TM is a compilation of abstracts of the papers and the posters presented at the conference. Web-based proceedings, including the charts used by the presenters, will be posted on the web shortly after the conference.
Computational transport phenomena of fluid-particle systems
Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasi, Emad
2017-01-01
This book concerns the most up-to-date advances in computational transport phenomena (CTP), an emerging tool for the design of gas-solid processes such as fluidized bed systems. The authors examine recent work in kinetic theory and CTP and illustrate gas-solid processes’ many applications in the energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. They also discuss the kinetic theory approach in developing constitutive equations for gas-solid flow systems and how it has advanced over the last decade as well as the possibility of obtaining innovative designs for multiphase reactors, such as those needed to capture CO2 from flue gases. Suitable as a concise reference and a textbook supplement for graduate courses, Computational Transport Phenomena of Gas-Solid Systems is ideal for practitioners in industries involved with the design and operation of processes based on fluid/particle mixtures, such as the energy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. Explains how to couple the population balance e...
The physics of nanoelectronics transport and fluctuation phenomena at low temperatures
Heikkila, Tero T
2013-01-01
Advances in nanotechnology have allowed physicists and engineers to miniaturize electronic structures to the limit where finite-size related phenomena start to impact their properties. This book discusses such phenomena and models made for their description. The book starts from the semiclassical description of nonequilibrium effects, details the scattering theory used for quantum transport calculations, and explains the main interference effects. It also describes how to treat fluctuations and correlations, how interactions affect transport through small islands, and how superconductivity modifies these effects. The last two chapters describe new emerging fields related with graphene and nanoelectromechanics. The focus of the book is on the phenomena rather than formalism, but the book still explains in detail the main models constructed for these phenomena. It also introduces a number of electronic devices, including the single-electron transistor, the superconducting tunnel junction refrigerator, and the s...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogers, J.D.
1994-08-04
This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport.
8th International symposium on transport phenomena in combustion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-31
The 8th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Combustion will be held in San Francisco, California, U.S.A., July 16-20, 1995, under the auspices of the Pacific Center of Thermal-Fluids Engineering. The purpose of the Symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners from around the world to present new developments and discuss the state of the art and future directions and priorities in the areas of transport phenomena in combustion. The Symposium is the eighth in a series; previous venues were Honolulu 1985, Tokyo 1987, Taipei 1988, Sydney 1991, Beijing 1992, Seoul 1993 and Acapulco 1994, with emphasis on various aspects of transport phenomena. The current Symposium theme is combustion. The Symposium has assembled a balanced program with topics ranging from fundamental research to contemporary applications of combustion theory. Invited keynote lecturers will provide extensive reviews of topics of great interest in combustion. Colloquia will stress recent advances and innovations in fire spread and suppression, and in low NO{sub x} burners, furnaces, boilers, internal combustion engines, and other practical combustion systems. Finally, numerous papers will contribute to the fundamental understanding of complex processes in combustion. This document contains abstracts of papers to be presented at the Symposium.
Modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zacharia, T.; Vitek, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Goldak, J.A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); DebRoy, T.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rappaz, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)
1993-12-31
Recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds are summarized. State-of-the-art mathematical models, advances in computational techniques, emerging high-performance computers, and experimental validation techniques have provided significant insight into the fundamental factors that control the development of the weldment. The current status and scientific issues in the areas of heat and fluid flow in welds, heat source metal interaction, solidification microstructure, and phase transformations are assessed. Future research areas of major importance for understanding the fundamental phenomena in weld behavior are identified.
Cooperative behavior of molecular motors: Cargo transport and traffic phenomena
Lipowsky, Reinhard; Beeg, Janina; Dimova, Rumiana; Klumpp, Stefan; Müller, Melanie J. I.
2010-01-01
All eukaryotic cells including those of our own body contain complex transport systems based on molecular motors which walk along cytoskeletal filaments. These motors are rather small and make discrete mechanical steps with a step size of the order of 10 nm but are able to pull cargo particles over much larger distances, from micrometers up to meters. In vivo, the intracellular cargos include large membrane-bounded organelles, smaller vesicles, a subset of mRNAs, cytoskeletal filaments, and various protein building blocks, which are transported between different cell compartments. This cargo transport is usually performed by teams of motors. If all motors belong to the same molecular species, the cooperative action of the motors leads to uni-directional transport with a strongly increased run length and with a characteristic force dependence of the velocity distributions. If two antagonistic teams of motors pull on the same cargo particle, they perform a stochastic tug-of-war, which is characterized by a subtle force balance between the two motor teams and leads to several distinct patterns of bi-directional transport. So far, all experimental observations on bi-directional transport are consistent with such a tug-of-war. If many motors and/or cargo particles are transported along the filaments, one encounters various traffic phenomena. Depending on their mutual interactions and the compartment geometry, the motors form various spatio-temporal patterns such as traffic jams, and undergo nonequilibrium phase transitions between different patterns of transport.
Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting
Zuidema, J.
2005-01-01
Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an instanta
Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting
Zuidema, J.
2005-01-01
Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an
Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications
Gavert, R.
2000-01-01
Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.
Quantum Simulator for Transport Phenomena in Fluid Flows
Mezzacapo, A; Lamata, L; Egusquiza, I L; Succi, S; Solano, E
2015-01-01
Transport phenomena are one of the most challenging problems in computational physics. We present a quantum simulator based on pseudospin-boson quantum systems, which is suitable for encoding fluid dynamics problems within a lattice kinetic formalism. This quantum simulator is obtained by exploiting the analogies between Dirac and lattice Boltzmann equations. It is shown that both the streaming and collision processes of lattice Boltzmann dynamics can be implemented with controlled quantum operations, using a heralded quantum protocol to encode non-unitary scattering processes. The proposed simulator is amenable to realization in controlled quantum platforms, such as ion-trap quantum computers or circuit quantum electrodynamics processors.
Littoral Subsonic Seismoacoustic Phenomena Ultrasonic Modeling
2016-06-07
Littoral Subsonic Seismoacoustic Phenomena Ultrasonic Modeling Jacques R. Chamuel Sonoquest Advanced Ultrasonics Research P.O. Box 81153 Wellesley... variable water/air content, and benthic shelled animals leading to accurate acoustic modeling of littoral surficial layer and geophysical inversion...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Sonoquest Advanced Ultrasonics Research ,P.O. Box 81153,Wellesley Hills,MA,02481-0001 8
Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)
1997-07-01
The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.
Ghalem, A.; Huitema, L.; Crunteanu, A.; Rammal, M.; Trupina, L.; Nedelcu, L.; Banciu, M. G.; Dutheil, P.; Constantinescu, C.; Marchet, P.; Dumas-Bouchiat, F.; Champeaux, C.
2016-11-01
We present the conduction mechanisms of Ba2/3Sr1/3TiO3 thin films integrated in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors and the modelling of the frequency-dependent electrostrictive resonances (in the 100 MHz-10 GHz domain) induced in the devices upon applying different voltage biases. Au/BST/Ir MIM structures on MgO substrates have been fabricated and, depending on their specific polarization, we highlighted different conduction mechanisms in the devices. Depending on the dc bias polarity, the conduction current across the material shows a space-charge-limited-current behavior under negative polarization, whereas under positive bias, the conduction obeys an electrode-limited Schottky-type law at the Au/BST interface. The application of an electric field on the device induces the onset of acoustic resonances related to electrostrictive phenomena in the ferroelectric material. We modeled these acoustic resonances over a wide frequency range, by using a modified Lakin model, which takes into account the dispersions of acoustic properties near the lower electrode/thin film interface.
Towards an emerging understanding of non-locality phenomena and non-local transport
Ida, K.; Shi, Z.; Sun, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Kamiya, K.; Rice, J. E.; Tamura, N.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Zou, X. L.; Itoh, K.; Sugita, S.; Gürcan, O. D.; Estrada, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Hahm, T. S.; Field, A.; Ding, X. T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Oldenbürger, S.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Jiang, M.; Hahn, S. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Hong, S. H.; Kosuga, Y.; Dong, J.; Itoh, S.-I.
2015-01-01
In this paper, recent progress on experimental analysis and theoretical models for non-local transport (non-Fickian fluxes in real space) is reviewed. The non-locality in the heat and momentum transport observed in the plasma, the departures from linear flux-gradient proportionality, and externally triggered non-local transport phenomena are described in both L-mode and improved-mode plasmas. Ongoing evaluation of ‘fast front’ and ‘intrinsically non-local’ models, and their success in comparisons with experimental data, are discussed
Transport phenomena of microbial flora in the small intestine with peristalsis.
Ishikawa, T; Sato, T; Mohit, G; Imai, Y; Yamaguchi, T
2011-06-21
The gastrointestinal tract of humans is colonized by indigenous prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial cells that form a complex ecological system called microbial flora. Although the microbial flora has diverse functions, its homeostasis inside the gastrointestinal tract is still largely unknown. Therefore, creating a model for investigating microbial flora in the gastrointestinal tract is important. In this study, we developed a novel numerical model to explore the transport phenomena of microbial flora in the small intestine. By simultaneously solving the flow field generated by peristalsis, the concentrations of oxygen and nutrient, and the densities of moderate anaerobes and aerobes, the effects of fluid mechanics on the transport phenomena of microbial flora are discussed. The results clearly illustrated that fluid mechanics have considerable influence not only on the bacterial population, but also on the concentration distributions of oxygen and nutrient. Especially, the flow field enhances the radial variation of the concentration fields. We also show scaling arguments for bacterial growth and oxygen consumption, which capture the main features of the results. Additionally, we investigated the transport phenomena of microbial flora in a long tube with 40 constrictions. The results showed a high growth rate of aerobes in the upstream side and a high growth rate of anaerobes in the downstream side, which qualitatively agrees with experimental observations of human intestines. These new findings provide the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the transport phenomena of microbial flora in the intestine.
Bijeljic, B.; Andrew, M. G.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.
2013-12-01
Advances in X ray imaging techniques made it possible not only to accurately describe solid and fluid(s) distributions in the pore space but also to study dynamics of multi-phase flow and reactive transport in-situ. This has opened up a range of new opportunities to better understand fundamental physics at the pore scale by experiment, and test and validate theoretical models in order to develop predictive tools at the pore scale and use it for upscaling. Firstly, we illustrate this concept by describing a new methodology for predicting non-Fickian transport in millimeter-sized three-dimensional micro-CT images of a beadpack, a sandstone, and a carbonate, representing porous media with an increasing degree of pore-scale complexity. The key strategy is to retain the full information on flow and transport signature of a porous medium by using probability distribution functions (PDFs) of voxel velocities for flow, and both PDFs of particle displacements and PDFs of particle transit times between voxels for transport. For this purpose, direct-simulation flow and transport model is used to analyse the relationship between pore structure, velocity, and the dynamics of the evolving plume. The model predictions for PDFs of particle displacements obtained by the model are in excellent agreement with those measured on similar cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. A key determinant for non-Fickian transport is the spread in velocity distribution in the pore space. Further, we present micro-CT imaging of capillary trapping of scCO2 at reservoir conditions in a range of carbonates and sandstones having different pore structure and demonstrate that substantial quantities of scCO2 can be trapped in the pore space. Higher residual scCO2 saturations are found in sandstones compared to carbonates. The trapped ganglia exhibit different distribution of size, related to the inherent structure of pore space. Pore structures with large, open pores that are well connected lead
Modeling electrical dispersion phenomena in Earth materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Patella
2008-06-01
Full Text Available It is illustrated that IP phenomena in rocks can be described using conductivity dispersion models deduced as solutions to a 2nd-order linear differential equation describing the motion of a charged particle immersed in an external electrical field. Five dispersion laws are discussed, namely: the non-resonant positive IP model, which leads to the classical Debye-type dispersion law and by extension to the Cole-Cole model, largely used in current practice; the non-resonant negative IP model, which allows negative chargeability values, known in metals at high frequencies, to be explained as an intrinsic physical property of earth materials in specific field cases; the resonant flat, positive or negative IP models, which can explain the presence of peak effects at specific frequencies superimposed on flat, positive or negative dispersion spectra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2007-01-16
The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.
Two-Stage Modelling Of Random Phenomena
Barańska, Anna
2015-12-01
The main objective of this publication was to present a two-stage algorithm of modelling random phenomena, based on multidimensional function modelling, on the example of modelling the real estate market for the purpose of real estate valuation and estimation of model parameters of foundations vertical displacements. The first stage of the presented algorithm includes a selection of a suitable form of the function model. In the classical algorithms, based on function modelling, prediction of the dependent variable is its value obtained directly from the model. The better the model reflects a relationship between the independent variables and their effect on the dependent variable, the more reliable is the model value. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed which comprises adjustment of the value obtained from the model with a random correction determined from the residuals of the model for these cases which, in a separate analysis, were considered to be the most similar to the object for which we want to model the dependent variable. The effect of applying the developed quantitative procedures for calculating the corrections and qualitative methods to assess the similarity on the final outcome of the prediction and its accuracy, was examined by statistical methods, mainly using appropriate parametric tests of significance. The idea of the presented algorithm has been designed so as to approximate the value of the dependent variable of the studied phenomenon to its value in reality and, at the same time, to have it "smoothed out" by a well fitted modelling function.
Social phenomena from data analysis to models
Perra, Nicola
2015-01-01
This book focuses on the new possibilities and approaches to social modeling currently being made possible by an unprecedented variety of datasets generated by our interactions with modern technologies. This area has witnessed a veritable explosion of activity over the last few years, yielding many interesting and useful results. Our aim is to provide an overview of the state of the art in this area of research, merging an extremely heterogeneous array of datasets and models. Social Phenomena: From Data Analysis to Models is divided into two parts. Part I deals with modeling social behavior under normal conditions: How we live, travel, collaborate and interact with each other in our daily lives. Part II deals with societal behavior under exceptional conditions: Protests, armed insurgencies, terrorist attacks, and reactions to infectious diseases. This book offers an overview of one of the most fertile emerging fields bringing together practitioners from scientific communities as diverse as social sciences, p...
Concentration polarization: Electrodeposition and transport phenomena at overlimiting current
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Christoffer Peder
and the boundary layer model, we reveal a number of issues, which invalidate most previous attempts at modeling microchannel concentration polarization using a slip model. Returning to concentration polarization in a bulk system, we study the effects of water splitting at a permselective membrane. We investigate...... this coupled chemical and transport effect using two simple models of the reaction kinetics. The principal investigations are performed using numerical simulations, but in addition we derive an analytical model for the transport in the system. The analytical model reveals an important link between the current...... of salt ions and the current of water ions. This link seemingly exists independent of the specific reaction kinetics, and could help in furthering the understanding of the water splitting process. A fit of the model to experimental data from the literature shows quite good agreement, and provides some...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R.E. Waltz
2007-01-01
@@ There has been remarkable progress during the past decade in understanding and modeling turbulent transport in tokamaks. With some exceptions the progress is derived from the huge increases in computational power and the ability to simulate tokamak turbulence with ever more fundamental and physically realistic dynamical equations, e.g.
Instability phenomena in plasticity: Modelling and computation
Stein, E.; Steinmann, P.; Miehe, C.
1995-12-01
We presented aspects and results related to the broad field of strain localization with special focus on large strain elastoplastic response. Therefore, we first re-examined issues related to the classification of discontinuities and the classical description of localization with a particular emphasis on an Eulerian geometric representation. We touched the problem of mesh objectivity and discussed results of a particular regularization method, namely the micropolar approach. Generally, regularization has to preserve ellipticity and to reflect the underlying physics. For example ductile materials have to be modelled including viscous effects whereas geomaterials are adequately described by the micropolar approach. Then we considered localization phenomena within solids undergoing large strain elastoplastic deformations. Here, we documented the influence of isotropic damage on the failure analysis. Next, the interesting influence of an orthotropic yield condition on the spatial orientation of localized zones has been studied. Finally, we investigated the localization condition for an algorithmic model of finite strain single crystal plasticity.
Simulation of the Internal Transport Phenomena for PEM Fuel Cells with Different Modes of Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡鸣若; 朱新坚; 顾安忠
2004-01-01
A numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is developed, which can simulate such basic transport phenomena as gas-liquid two-phase flow in a working fuel cell. Boundary conditions for both the conventional and the interdigitated modes of flow are presented on a three-dimensional basis. Numerical techniques for this model are discussed in detail. Validation shows good agreement between simulating results and experimental data. Furthermore, internal transport phenomena are discussed and compared for PEM fuel cells with conventional and interdigitated flows. It is found that the dead-ended structure of an interdigitated flow does increase the oxygen mass fraction and decrease the liquid water saturation in the gas diffusion layer as compared to the conventional mode of flow. However, the cathode humidification is important for an interdigitated flow to acquire better performance than a conventional flow fuel cell.
Application of transport phenomena analysis technique to cerebrospinal fluid.
Lam, C H; Hansen, E A; Hall, W A; Hubel, A
2013-12-01
The study of hydrocephalus and the modeling of cerebrospinal fluid flow have proceeded in the past using mathematical analysis that was very capable of prediction phenomenonologically but not well in physiologic parameters. In this paper, the basis of fluid dynamics at the physiologic state is explained using first established equations of transport phenomenon. Then, microscopic and molecular level techniques of modeling are described using porous media theory and chemical kinetic theory and then applied to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. Using techniques of transport analysis allows the field of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics to approach the level of sophistication of urine and blood transport. Concepts such as intracellular and intercellular pathways, compartmentalization, and tortuosity are associated with quantifiable parameters that are relevant to the anatomy and physiology of cerebrospinal fluid transport. The engineering field of transport phenomenon is rich and steeped in architectural, aeronautical, nautical, and more recently biological history. This paper summarizes and reviews the approaches that have been taken in the field of engineering and applies it to CSF flow.
Freezing in porous media: Phase behavior, dynamics and transport phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wettlaufer, John S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
2012-12-21
This research was focused on developing the underlying framework for the mechanisms that control the nature of the solidification of a broad range of porous media. To encompass the scope of porous media under consideration we considered material ranging from a dilute colloidal suspension to a highly packed saturated host matrix with a known geometry. The basic physical processes that occur when the interstitial liquid phase solidifies revealed a host of surprises with a broad range of implications from geophysics to materials science and engineering. We now understand that ostensibly microscopic films of unfrozen liquid control both the equilibrium and transport properties of a highly packed saturated host matrix as well as a rather dilute colloidal suspension. However, our description of the effective medium behavior in these settings is rather different and this sets the stage for the future research based on our past results. Once the liquid phase of a saturated relatively densely packed material is frozen, there is a rich dynamical behavior of particles for example due to the directed motion driven by thermomolecular pressure gradients or the confined Brownian motion of the particles. In quite striking contrast, when one freezes a dilute suspension the behavior can be rather more like that of a binary alloy with the particles playing the role of a ``solute''. We probed such systems quantitatively by (i) using X ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (ii) studying the Argonne cell in the laboratory using optical microscopy and imagery (because it is not directly visible while in the vacuum can). (3) analyzed the general transport phenomena within the framework of both irreversible thermodynamics and alloy solidification and (4) applied the results to the study of the redistribution of solid particles in a frozen interstitial material. This research has gone a long way
Freezing in porous media: Phase behavior, dynamics and transport phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wettlaufer, John S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
2012-12-21
This research was focused on developing the underlying framework for the mechanisms that control the nature of the solidification of a broad range of porous media. To encompass the scope of porous media under consideration we considered material ranging from a dilute colloidal suspension to a highly packed saturated host matrix with a known geometry. The basic physical processes that occur when the interstitial liquid phase solidifies revealed a host of surprises with a broad range of implications from geophysics to materials science and engineering. We now understand that ostensibly microscopic films of unfrozen liquid control both the equilibrium and transport properties of a highly packed saturated host matrix as well as a rather dilute colloidal suspension. However, our description of the effective medium behavior in these settings is rather different and this sets the stage for the future research based on our past results. Once the liquid phase of a saturated relatively densely packed material is frozen, there is a rich dynamical behavior of particles for example due to the directed motion driven by thermomolecular pressure gradients or the confined Brownian motion of the particles. In quite striking contrast, when one freezes a dilute suspension the behavior can be rather more like that of a binary alloy with the particles playing the role of a ``solute''. We probed such systems quantitatively by (i) using X ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (ii) studying the Argonne cell in the laboratory using optical microscopy and imagery (because it is not directly visible while in the vacuum can). (3) analyzed the general transport phenomena within the framework of both irreversible thermodynamics and alloy solidification and (4) applied the results to the study of the redistribution of solid particles in a frozen interstitial material. This research has gone a long way
Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.
Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)
2013-07-01
Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jianbo Jiang; Xiang Qiu; Zhiming Lu; Yulu Liu
2005-01-01
In this paper four families of orthogonal wavelets are applied to analyze the turbulent counter gradient transport phenomena in fully developed asymmetric channel flows,The results show that: (1) In the instance of counter gradient transport, the principal scale of the coherent structure is responsible for the strong local counter gradient transport; (2)Counter gradient transport phenomena have a strong effect on the intermittency of turbulence; (3) Non-Gaussian part of the principal coherent structure is essential for counter gradient transport phenomena.
Transport phenomena within the porous cathode for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Juanfang; Oshima, Nobuyuki; Kurihara, Eru; Saha, Litan Kumar [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)
2010-10-01
A two-phase, one-dimensional steady model is developed to analyze the coupled phenomena of cathode flooding and mass-transport limiting for the porous cathode electrode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. In the model, the catalyst layer is treated not as an interface between the membrane and gas diffusion layer, but as a separate computational domain with finite thickness and pseudo-homogenous structure. Furthermore, the liquid water transport across the porous electrode is driven by the capillary force based on Darcy's law. And the gas transport is driven by the concentration gradient based on Fick's law. Additionally, through Tafel kinetics, the transport processes of gas and liquid water are coupled. From the numerical results, it is found that although the catalyst layer is thin, it is very crucial to better understand and more correctly predict the concurrent phenomena inside the electrode, particularly, the flooding phenomena. More importantly, the saturation jump at the interface of the gas diffusion layer and catalyst layers is captured, when the continuity of the capillary pressure is imposed on the interface. Elsewise, the results show further that the flooding phenomenon in the CL is much more serious than that in the GDL, which has a significant influence on the mass transport of the reactants. Moreover, the saturation level inside the cathode is determined, to a great extent, by the surface overpotential, the absolute permeability of the porous electrode, and the boundary value of saturation at the gas diffusion layer-gas channel interface. In order to prevent effectively flooding, it should remove firstly the liquid water accumulating inside the CL and keep the boundary value of liquid saturation as low as possible. (author)
Impact of Disorder on Spin Dependent Transport Phenomena
Saidaoui, Hamed
2016-07-03
The impact of the spin degree of freedom on the transport properties of electrons traveling through magnetic materials has been known since the pioneer work of Mott [1]. Since then it has been demonstrated that the spin angular momentum plays a key role in the scattering process of electrons in magnetic multilayers. This role has been emphasized by the discovery of the Giant Magnetoresistance in 1988 by Fert and Grunberg [2, 3]. Among the numerous applications and effects that emerged in mesoscopic devices two mechanisms have attracted our attention during the course of this thesis: the spin transfer torque and the spin Hall effects. The former consists in the transfer of the spin angular momentum from itinerant carriers to local magnetic moments [4]. This mechanism results in the current-driven magnetization switching and excitations, which has potential application in terms of magnetic data storage and non-volatile memories. The latter, spin Hall effect, is considered as well to be one of the most fascinating mechanisms in condensed matter physics due to its ability of generating non-equilibrium spin currents without the need for any magnetic materials. In fact the spin Hall effect relies only on the presence of the spin-orbit interaction in order to create an imbalance between the majority and minority spins. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the impact of disorder on spin dependent transport phenomena. To do so, we identified three classes of systems on which such disorder may have a dramatic influence: (i) antiferromagnetic materials, (ii) impurity-driven spin-orbit coupled systems and (iii) two dimensional semiconducting electron gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Antiferromagnetic materials - We showed that in antiferromagnetic spin-valves, spin transfer torque is highly sensitive to disorder, which prevents its experimental observation. To solve this issue, we proposed to use either a tunnel barrier as a spacer or a local spin torque using
A Course in Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent, Multiphase, Reacting Systems.
Carbonell, R. G.; Whitaker, S.
1978-01-01
This course concentrates on a rigorous development of the multicomponent transport equations, boundary conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-averaged transport equations for multiphase reacting systems. (BB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sato, Hiroshi
1995-09-01
This progress report summarizes a project to treat the diffusion and transport phenomena in multicomponent systems from an atomistic point of view mainly by means of a kinetic method based on the Cluster Variation Method (CVM)-Path Probability Method (PPM) formalism. As is well known, the CVM has established itself as one of the most systematic methods of statistical thermodynamics, and macroscopic phenomena treated by thermodynamics can thus be investigated atomistically in great detail. The author describes work in a number of different applications, summarized here by the section titles: percolation threshold in electronic conduction {beta}-alumina type solid electrolytes; mixed alkali effect; chemical diffusion problem; soft lattice gas model and rigid lattice gas model; diffusion in semiconductors; diffusion in ordered alloys; kinetics of relaxation process of hopping ionic conduction.
Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, S.-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Giannone, L. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, Garching (Germany)
2000-03-01
The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the W7-AS stellarator. (author)
Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Giannone, Louis [EURATOM-IPP Association, Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
2001-11-01
The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. (author)
Uddin, M. J.; Bég, O. Anwar; Amin, N.
2014-11-01
Steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic laminar free convective boundary layer slip flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid from a translating stretching/shrinking sheet in a quiescent fluid is studied. A convective heating boundary condition is incorporated. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and following the implementation of a linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth fifth order method from Maple. Validation of the Maple solutions is achieved with previous non-magnetic published results. The effects of the emerging thermophysical parameters; namely, stretching/shrinking, velocity slip, magnetic field, convective heat transfer and buoyancy ratio parameters, on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration (nanoparticle fraction) are depicted graphically and interpreted at length. It is found that velocity increases whilst temperature and concentration reduce with the velocity slip. Magnetic field causes to reduce velocity and enhances temperature and concentration. Velocity, temperature as well as concentration rises with convective heating parameter. The study is relevant to the synthesis of bio-magnetic nanofluids of potential interest in wound treatments, skin repair and smart coatings for biological devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uddin, M.J., E-mail: jashim_74@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, American International University-Bangladesh, Banani Dhaka 1213 (Bangladesh); Bég, O. Anwar [Gort Engovation Research (Propulsion/Biomechanics), Gabriel' s Wing House, 15 Southmere Ave., Bradford, BD7 3NU England (United Kingdom); Amin, N. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor (Malaysia)
2014-11-15
Steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic laminar free convective boundary layer slip flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid from a translating stretching/shrinking sheet in a quiescent fluid is studied. A convective heating boundary condition is incorporated. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and following the implementation of a linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg fourth fifth order method from Maple. Validation of the Maple solutions is achieved with previous non-magnetic published results. The effects of the emerging thermophysical parameters; namely, stretching/shrinking, velocity slip, magnetic field, convective heat transfer and buoyancy ratio parameters, on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration (nanoparticle fraction) are depicted graphically and interpreted at length. It is found that velocity increases whilst temperature and concentration reduce with the velocity slip. Magnetic field causes to reduce velocity and enhances temperature and concentration. Velocity, temperature as well as concentration rises with convective heating parameter. The study is relevant to the synthesis of bio-magnetic nanofluids of potential interest in wound treatments, skin repair and smart coatings for biological devices. - Highlights: • This paper analyses MHD slip flow of nofluid with convective boundary conditions. • Group method is used to transform governing equations into similarity equations. • The Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method is used for numerical computations. • The study is relevant to synthesis of bio-magnetic nanofluids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SÁVIO LEANDRO BERTOLI
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In the engineering courses the field of Transport Phenomena is of significant importance and it is in several disciplines relating to Fluid Mechanics, Heat and Mass Transfer. In these disciplines, problems involving these phenomena are mathematically formulated and analytical solutions are obtained whenever possible. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the possibility of extending aspects of the teaching-learning in this area by a method based on time scales and limit solutions. Thus, aspects relative to the phenomenology naturally arise during the definition of the scales and / or by determining the limit solutions. Aspects concerning the phenomenology of the limit problems are easily incorporated into the proposed development, which contributes significantly to the understanding of physics inherent in the mathematical modeling of each limiting case studied. Finally the study aims to disseminate the use of the limit solutions and of the time scales in the general fields of engineering.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. Tarasankar DebRoy
2009-12-11
In recent years, applications of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models of fusion welding have resulted in improved understanding of both the welding processes and welded materials. They have been used to accurately calculate thermal cycles and fusion zone geometry in many cases. Here we report the following three major advancements from this project. First, we show how microstructures, grain size distribution and topology of welds of several important engineering alloys can be computed starting from better understanding of the fusion welding process through numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations. Second, we provide a conclusive proof that the reliability of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations can be significantly improved by optimizing several uncertain model parameters. Third, we demonstrate how the numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models can be combined with a suitable global optimization program such as a genetic algorithm for the tailoring of weld attributes such as attaining a specified weld geometry or a weld thermal cycle. The results of the project have been published in many papers and a listing of these are included together with a list of the graduate thesis that resulted from this project. The work supported by the DOE award has resulted in several important national and international awards. A listing of these awards and the status of the graduate students are also presented in this report.
Charge transport, injection, and photovoltaic phenomena in oligo(phenylenevinylene) based diodes
Melzer, Christian; Krasnikov, Victor V.; Hadziioannou, Georges
2003-01-01
We report on the charge transport and injection phenomena of (E,E,E,E)-1,4-bis[(4-styryl)styryl]-2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexoxy)benzene (MEH-OPV5) sandwiched between asymmetric contacts. The hole mobility of MEH-OPV5 was determined by means of transient electroluminescence. The steady-state current was injection-limited. The electric field and temperature dependence of the current were quantitatively described by a phenomenological injection model of thermally assisted charge-carrier tunneling i...
Transport Phenomena and Interfacial Kinetics in Multiphase Combustion Systems. Revision
1992-08-01
not be interpreted as necessarily the official policy or the endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research...43 867. 1991 0021 8502,91 S3.00+O.0 Pnnted in Gmat Britain C 1991 Pupmon Prm pic CORRECTION FOR SAMPLING ERRORS DUE TO COAGULATION AND WALL LOSS IN...for Brownian aerosols (in the absence of appreciable inertial- and sedimentation-phenomena), as well as guide the design/selection of sampling systems
Center for low-gravity fluid mechanics and transport phenomena
Kassoy, D. R.; Sani, R. L.
1991-01-01
Research projects in several areas are discussed. Mass transport in vapor phase systems, droplet collisions and coalescence in microgravity, and rapid solidification of undercooled melts are discussed.
Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR
Farajzadeh, R.
2009-01-01
The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have be
Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR
Farajzadeh, R.
2009-01-01
The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have be
Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR
Farajzadeh, R.
2009-01-01
The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have
On Process Modelling Using Physical Oriented And Phenomena Based Principles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai Culea
2000-12-01
Full Text Available This work presents a modelling framework based on phenomena description of the process. The approach is taken to easy understand and construct process model in heterogeneous possible distributed modelling and simulation environments. A simplified case study of a heat exchanger is considered and Modelica modelling language to check the proposed concept. The partial results are promising and the research effort will be extended in a computer aided modelling environment based on phenomena.
Some optical and dynamical phenomena in the Rindler model
Birsin, E
2014-01-01
In Rindler's model of a uniformly accelerated reference frame we analyze the apparent shape of rods and marked light rays for the case that the observers as well as the rods and the sources of light are at rest with respect to the Rindler observers. Contrary to the expectation suggested by the strong principle of equivalence, there is no apparent "bending down" of a light ray with direction transversal to the direction of acceleration, but a straight rod oriented orthogonal to the direction of acceleration appears bended "upwards". These optical phenomena are in accordance with the dynamical experience of observers guided by a straight track or a track curved in the same way as the marked light ray, respectively: While the former observer feels a centrifugal force directed "downwards", the centrifugal force for the latter vanishes. The properties of gyroscope transport along such tracks are correspondingly.
Mathematical study of transport phenomena along a tuyere of the Teniente converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical model of transport phenomena which occur along a tuyere of the Teniente converter during injection of oxygen-enriched air. Inlet pressure, gas velocity and temperature, the dimensions of the tuyere, and the properties of gas are the basic data. From these inputs, temperature distribution of the refractory walls of the converter around the tuyere as well as the velocity, pressure, and the Mach number along the pipe can be calculated. In this model, the heat transfer through the metal jacket of the tuyere and the refractory lining are duly taken into account. More precisely, a mathematical model is developed where the equations of momentum and energy of the gas are coupled with the equations of heat transfer inside the solid part. This new model couples a partial differential equation in the solid part with four ordinary differential equations in the gas flow.
Gabetta, Ester
2007-01-01
The study of kinetic equations related to gases, semiconductors, photons, traffic flow, and other systems has developed rapidly in recent years because of its role as a mathematical tool in many applications in areas such as engineering, meteorology, biology, chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology, and pharmacy. Written by leading specialists in their respective fields, this book presents an overview of recent developments in the field of mathematical kinetic theory with a focus on modeling complex systems, emphasizing both mathematical properties and their physical meaning. The overall presentation covers not only modeling aspects and qualitative analysis of mathematical problems, but also inverse problems, which lead to a detailed assessment of models in connection with their applications, and to computational problems, which lead to an effective link of models to the analysis of real-world systems. "Transport Phenomena and Kinetic Theory" is an excellent self-study reference for graduate students, re...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Li-bing; Liu Yu-lu; Qiu Xiang
2003-01-01
In this paper, the turbulence characteristics were numerically investigated in an asymmetric turbulent channel flow and the computational results were compared with the relevant experimental data. It shows that the results are consistent with the experiments and there exist Counter-Gradient Momentum Transport(CGMT) phenomena in the central region near the smooth wall, and this region is as large as 6 percent of the channel width. In addition, a region, in which Counter-Gradient-Transport (CGT) phenomena occur more evidently, is found close to the rough wall. These results can help to gain a deeper insight into the mechanism of CGT phenomena.
Transport Phenomena of Off-Axis Sputtering Deposition
Zhu, S.; Su, C. H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Zhang, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Various high quality epitaxial films, especially oxides, have been synthesized using off-axis sputtering deposition. In this presentation, we report the experiment results of ZnO films grown by the off-axis sputtering deposition. Films were synthesized in temperatures ranged from room temperature to 600 C, and pressures from 5 mTorr to 150 mTorr. Film growth rate was measured by surface profilometer, ellipsometer, and wavelength dispersive spectrometry. Due to the collisions between the sputtered species and the residue gases, the kinetic energy of species was reduced and the transport of depositing species changed from a ballistic movement for low pressure to a diffuse drift for high pressure in which the transport species were almost thermalized. The measurements show an increase of growth rates along the gravity vector when the Knodson (Knudsen??) number of transport species is less than 0.05, which suggests that gravity affected the transport characterization in off-axis sputtering deposition. Because the product of pressure (p) and travel distance (d) of sputtered species, p exceeds several mTorr-cm during film deposition, the classical simulations for sputtering process in high vacuum system may not be applied. Based on these experimental measurements, a transport process of the off-axis sputtering deposition is proposed. Several methods including the Monte Carlo method and gravity-driven flow dynamics simulation will be discussed.
Interaction between growth and transport phenomena in living mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grillo, A [DMFCI, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Zingali, G [Dottorato di Ricerca in Ingegneria Fisica, Universita di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Borrello, D [Dottorato di Ricerca in Ingegneria Fisica, Universita di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Federico, S [HPL - Faculty of Kinesiology, Univesity of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Herzog, W [HPL - Faculty of Kinesiology, Univesity of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Giaquinta, G [DMFCI, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)
2007-03-15
Biological growth is regulated by the presence of several chemical substances, and is modulated by thermo-mechanical stimuli. The evolution of chemical substances is described by the advection-diffusion-reaction process of solutes dissolved in the fluid-phase of a biphasic mixture with mass exchange between phases. We present a picture in which growth, by changing material symmetries, modifies the environment in which transport processes take place, and we outline a possible interaction between growth and chemical agents. In order to study this interaction, we use averaging methods to determine the macroscopic counterparts of the transport properties defined at the microscale, and, by writing the macroscopic transport equation in material form, we illustrate how these properties are modulated by growth. In the case of anisotropic growth, such a modulation has a geometric meaning, and is related to both the change of material symmetries, and the development of material inhomogeneities. By regarding growth as a process characterized by a time-scale much slower than that of the transport process of interest, we provide an asymptotic analysis of transport in a growing porous medium based on the adiabatic approximation. We prove that the macroscopic concentration of chemical substances is 'renormalized' by the anisotropy of growth.
Improved Insight into Transport Phenomena in Porous Materials at Submicrometer Resolution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gooya, Reza
Traditionally it has been challenging to investigate ƒflow properties of porous media becauseof their complex and oft‰en heterogeneous pore geometry. However, these materialsare important for oil and gas, catalysts, fuel cells, groundwater quality, CO2 storageand in medical applications. In this ......Traditionally it has been challenging to investigate ƒflow properties of porous media becauseof their complex and oft‰en heterogeneous pore geometry. However, these materialsare important for oil and gas, catalysts, fuel cells, groundwater quality, CO2 storageand in medical applications....... In this thesis, transport phenomena- including single phaseƒow, two phase ƒow and reactive transport, were investigated at the pore scale. Œe motivationwas to €nd cheaper, easier and faster alternatives to macroscale investigations.In the fi€rst part, single phase ƒuid flƒow models were tested on experimentally...... materials at the pore scale. ThŒe coupled program wastested for two cases of chloride transport in a 2D channel and for a 2D ion exchanger.In this thesis, pore scale modeling was presented for several transport phenomenain porous media. ThŒeir agreement with the macroscale properties and the ability...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liberatore, P.M.; Boillot, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bonnet, C.; Didieerjean, S.; Lapicque, F.; Deseure, J.; Lottin, O.; Maillet, D.; Oseen-Senda, J. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 54 - Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Alexandre, A. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, ENSMA, 86 Poitiers (France); Topin, F.; Occelli, R.; Daurelle, J.V. [IUSTI / Polytech' Marseille, Institut universitaire des Systemes Thermiques Industriels Ecole, 13 - Marseille (France); Pauchet, J.; Feidt, M. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la recherche sur les echangeurs thermiques (Greth), 38 (France); Voarino, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Tours (France); Morel, B.; Laurentin, J.; Bultel, Y.; Lefebvre-Joud, F. [CEA Grenoble, LEPMI, 38 (France); Auvity, B.; Lasbet, Y.; Castelain, C.; Peerohossaini, H. [Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Laboratoire de Thermocinetique de Nantes (LTN), 44 - Nantes (France)
2005-07-01
In this work are gathered the transparencies of the lectures presented at the conference 'heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells'. The different lectures have dealt with 1)the gas distribution in the bipolar plates of a fuel cell: experimental studies and computerized simulations 2)two-phase heat distributors in the PEMFC 3)a numerical study of the flow properties of the backing layers on the transfers in a PEMFC 4)modelling of the heat and mass transfers in a PEMFC 5)two-phase cooling of the PEMFC with pentane 6)stationary thermodynamic model of the SOFC in the GECOPAC system 7)modelling of the internal reforming at the anode of the SOFC 8)towards a new thermal design of the PEMFC bipolar plates. (O.M.)
The calculation of transport phenomena in electromagnetically levitated metal droplets
El-Kaddah, N.; Szekely, J.
1982-01-01
A mathematical representation has been developed for the electromagnetic force field, fluid flow field, and solute concentration field of levitation-melted metal specimens. The governing equations consist of the conventional transport equations combined with the appropriate expressions for the electromagnetic force field. The predictions obtained by solving the governing equations numerically on a digital computer are in good agreement with lifting force and average temperature measurements reported in the literature.
Study of negative ion transport phenomena in a plasma source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riz, D.; Pamela, J. [Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee C. E., Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)
1996-07-01
NIETZSCHE (Negative Ions Extraction and Transport ZSimulation Code for HydrogEn species) is a negative ion (NI) transport code developed at Cadarache. This code calculates NI trajectories using a 3D Monte-Carlo technique, taking into account the main destruction processes, as well as elastic collisions (H{sup {minus}}/H{sup +}) and charge exchanges (H{sup {minus}}/H{sup 0}). It determines the extraction probability of a NI created at a given position. According to the simulations, we have seen that in the case of volume production, only NI produced close to the plasma grid (PG) can be extracted. Concerning the surface production, we have studied how NI produced on the PG and accelerated by the plasma sheath backward into the source could be extracted. We demonstrate that elastic collisions and charge exchanges play an important role, which in some conditions dominates the magnetic filter effect, which acts as a magnetic mirror. NI transport in various conditions will be discussed: volume/surface production, high/low plasmas density, tent filter/transverse filter. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Study of negative ion transport phenomena in a plasma source
Riz, D.; Paméla, J.
1996-07-01
NIETZSCHE (Negative Ions Extraction and Transport ZSimulation Code for HydrogEn species) is a negative ion (NI) transport code developed at Cadarache. This code calculates NI trajectories using a 3D Monte-Carlo technique, taking into account the main destruction processes, as well as elastic collisions (H-/H+) and charge exchanges (H-/H0). It determines the extraction probability of a NI created at a given position. According to the simulations, we have seen that in the case of volume production, only NI produced close to the plasma grid (PG) can be extracted. Concerning the surface production, we have studied how NI produced on the PG and accelerated by the plasma sheath backward into the source could be extracted. We demonstrate that elastic collisions and charge exchanges play an important role, which in some conditions dominates the magnetic filter effect, which acts as a magnetic mirror. NI transport in various conditions will be discussed: volume/surface production, high/low plasmas density, tent filter/transverse filter.
Multi-perspective modelling of complex phenomena
Seck, M.D.; Honig, H.J.
2012-01-01
This conceptual paper discusses the limitations of a single-perspective hierarchical approach to modelling and proposes multi-perspective modelling as a way to overcome them. As it turns out, multi-perspective modelling is primarily a new methodology, using existing modelling techniques but
Investigations of grain size dependent sediment transport phenomena on multiple scales
Thaxton, Christopher S.
Sediment transport processes in coastal and fluvial environments resulting from disturbances such as urbanization, mining, agriculture, military operations, and climatic change have significant impact on local, regional, and global environments. Primarily, these impacts include the erosion and deposition of sediment, channel network modification, reduction in downstream water quality, and the delivery of chemical contaminants. The scale and spatial distribution of these effects are largely attributable to the size distribution of the sediment grains that become eligible for transport. An improved understanding of advective and diffusive grain-size dependent sediment transport phenomena will lead to the development of more accurate predictive models and more effective control measures. To this end, three studies were performed that investigated grain-size dependent sediment transport on three different scales. Discrete particle computer simulations of sheet flow bedload transport on the scale of 0.1--100 millimeters were performed on a heterogeneous population of grains of various grain sizes. The relative transport rates and diffusivities of grains under both oscillatory and uniform, steady flow conditions were quantified. These findings suggest that boundary layer formalisms should describe surface roughness through a representative grain size that is functionally dependent on the applied flow parameters. On the scale of 1--10m, experiments were performed to quantify the hydrodynamics and sediment capture efficiency of various baffles installed in a sediment retention pond, a commonly used sedimentation control measure in watershed applications. Analysis indicates that an optimum sediment capture effectiveness may be achieved based on baffle permeability, pond geometry and flow rate. Finally, on the scale of 10--1,000m, a distributed, bivariate watershed terain evolution module was developed within GRASS GIS. Simulation results for variable grain sizes and for
The Hydrodynamics and Odorant Transport Phenomena of Olfaction in the Hammerhead Shark
Rygg, Alex; Craven, Brent
2013-11-01
The hammerhead shark possesses a unique head morphology that is thought to facilitate enhanced olfactory performance. The olfactory organs, located at the distal ends of the cephalofoil, contain numerous lamellae that increase the surface area for olfaction. Functionally, for the shark to detect chemical stimuli, water-borne odors must reach the olfactory sensory epithelium that lines these lamellae. Thus, odorant transport from the aquatic environment to the sensory epithelium is the first critical step in olfaction. Here we investigate the hydrodynamics and odorant transport phenomena of olfaction in the hammerhead shark based on an anatomically-accurate reconstruction of the head and olfactory chamber from high-resolution micro-CT and MRI scans of a cadaver specimen. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow in the reconstructed model reveal the external and internal hydrodynamics of olfaction during swimming. Odorant transport in the olfactory organ is investigated using a multi-scale approach, whereby molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to calculate odorant partition coefficients that are subsequently utilized in macro-scale CFD simulations of odorant deposition. The hydrodynamic and odorant transport results are used to elucidate several important features of olfactory function in the hammerhead shark.
Lattice Boltzmann technique for heat transport phenomena coupled with melting process
Ibrahem, A. M.; El-Amin, M. F.; Mohammadein, A. A.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy
2016-04-01
In this work, the heat transport phenomena coupled with melting process are studied by using the enthalpy-based lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The proposed model is a modified version of thermal LB model, where could avoid iteration steps and ensures high accuracy. The Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) approximation with a D1Q2 lattice was used to determine the temperature field for one-dimensional melting by conduction and multi-distribution functions (MDF) with D2Q9 lattice was used to determine the density, velocity and temperature fields for two-dimensional melting by natural convection. Different boundary conditions including Dirichlet, adiabatic and bounce-back boundary conditions were used. The influence of increasing Rayleigh number (from 103 to 105) on temperature distribution and melting process is studied. The obtained results show that a good agreement with the analytical solution for melting by conduction case and with the benchmark solution for melting by convection.
Lattice Boltzmann technique for heat transport phenomena coupled with melting process
Ibrahem, A. M.; El-Amin, M. F.; Mohammadein, A. A.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy
2017-01-01
In this work, the heat transport phenomena coupled with melting process are studied by using the enthalpy-based lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The proposed model is a modified version of thermal LB model, where could avoid iteration steps and ensures high accuracy. The Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) approximation with a D1Q2 lattice was used to determine the temperature field for one-dimensional melting by conduction and multi-distribution functions (MDF) with D2Q9 lattice was used to determine the density, velocity and temperature fields for two-dimensional melting by natural convection. Different boundary conditions including Dirichlet, adiabatic and bounce-back boundary conditions were used. The influence of increasing Rayleigh number (from 103 to 105) on temperature distribution and melting process is studied. The obtained results show that a good agreement with the analytical solution for melting by conduction case and with the benchmark solution for melting by convection.
Numerical simulation of mass and energy transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arpino, F. [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio (DiMSAT), University of Cassino, via Di Biasio 43, Cassino (Italy); Massarotti, N. [Dipertimento per le Tecnologie (DiT), University of Naples ' ' Parthenope' ' , Centro Direzionale, isola C4, 80143 Napoli (Italy)
2009-12-15
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) represent a very promising technology for near future energy conversion thanks to a number of advantages, including the possibility of using different fuels. In this paper, a detailed numerical model, based on a general mathematical description and on a finite element Characteristic based Split (CBS) algorithm code is employed to simulate mass and energy transport phenomena in SOFCs. The model predicts the thermodynamic quantity of interest in the fuel cell. Full details of the numerical solution obtained are presented both in terms of heat and mass transfer in the cell and in terms of electro-chemical reactions that occur in the system considered. The results obtained with the present algorithm is compared with the experimental data available in the literature for validation, showing an excellent agreement. (author)
Spin-transport-phenomena in metals, semiconductors, and insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Althammer, Matthias Klaus
2012-07-19
Assuming that one could deterministically inject, transport, manipulate, store and detect spin information in solid state devices, the well-established concepts of charge-based electronics could be transferred to the spin realm. This thesis explores the injection, transport, manipulation and storage of spin information in metallic conductors, semiconductors, as well as electrical insulators. On the one hand, we explore the spin-dependent properties of semiconducting zinc oxide thin films deposited via laser-molecular beam epitaxy (laser-MBE). After demonstrating that the zinc oxide films fabricated during this thesis have excellent structural, electrical, and optical properties, we investigate the spin-related properties by optical pump/probe, electrical injection/optical detection, and all electrical spin valve-based experiments. The two key results from these experiments are: (i) Long-lived spin states with spin dephasing times of 10 ns at 10 K related to donor bound excitons can be optically addressed. (ii) The spin dephasing times relevant for electrical transport-based experiments are {<=} 2 ns at 10 K and are correlated with structural quality. On the other hand we focus on two topics of current scientific interest: the comparison of the magnetoresistance to the magnetothermopower of conducting ferromagnets, and the investigation of pure spin currents generated in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures. We investigate the magnetoresistance and magnetothermopower of gallium manganese arsenide and Heusler thin films as a function of external magnetic field orientation. Using a series expansion of the resistivity and Seebeck tensors and the inherent symmetry of the sample's crystal structure, we show that a full quantitative extraction of the transport tensors from such experiments is possible. Regarding the spin currents in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures we studied the spin mixing conductance in yttrium iron garnet
Out-of-equilibrium phenomena and Transport in Cold Atoms
Giamarchi, Thierry
Transport of particle or charge current between two reservoirs is one of the most studied phenomenon in the context of condensed matter. Despite its apparent simplicity this phenomenon is in fact a case of an out of equilibrium situation requiring in principle new theoretical tools and concepts for its solution. One way to sweep the difficulty under the rug has been usually to tackle this problem in the linear response, where one can come back to the comfortable case of equilibrium. There are however many cases when the linear response is not enough and when a full solution of the non-equilibrium problem is needed. This is in particular the case for quantum point contacts or junctions where the full current-voltage characteristics gives direct information on the physics of the problem. In the recent years, in complement to condensed matter experimental realizations, due to the full control on the parameters of the problem and the fact that they realize isolated quantum systems cold atoms have proven a fantastic laboratory to produce out of equilibrium situations. This ranges from the case of quenches, to more recently via experiments of the ETHZ group to the case of real transport between reservoirs. This experimental activity has in turn thus stimulated strongly theoretical developments in this field. I will discuss in this talk some of the recent advances and realizations both at the experimental and of course the theoretical level. I will in particular focus on a recent study which was able to realize a tunable, ballistic quantum point contact between two fermi reservoirs with a tunable interaction allowing to reach unitarity and to provide a theoretical description of the out-of equilibrium corresponding problem. In such a system the current has been shown to originate from multiple Andreev reflections which leads to a very non-linear current-chemical potential characteristics. The geometry of the contact can be changed showing a competition between
Transport phenomena in capillary-porous structures and heat pipes
Smirnov, Henry
2009-01-01
With emphasis on the processes involved, this text explores the experimental efforts in two-phase thermal control technology research and development. This work evaluates and compares different theoretical approaches, experimental results, and models, such as semi-empirical models for critical boiling heat fluxes.
Quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulator nanostructures (Review Article)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Lei; Kwok, Wai-Kwong
2014-04-01
We review the recent experimental advances on quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulators with emphasis on quantum oscillation, weak antilocalization and Aharonov-Bohm effect and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect. Following a brief introduction on the topic, we discuss the identification of the topological surface state based on quantum phenomena. Research prospect of topological insulators is described at the end of this article.
Quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulator nanostructures (Review Article)
Fang, Lei; Kwok, Wai-Kwong
2014-04-01
We review the recent experimental advances on quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulators with emphasis on quantum oscillation, weak antilocalization and Aharonov-Bohm effect and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect. Following a brief introduction on the topic, we discuss the identification of the topological surface state based on quantum phenomena. Research prospect of topological insulators is described at the end of this article.
Electric Transport Phenomena of Nanocomposite Organic Polymer Thin Films
Jira, Nicholas C.; Sabirianov, Ildar; Ilie, Carolina C.
We discuss herein the nanocomposite organic thin film diodes for the use of plasmonic solar cells. This experimental work follows the theoretical calculations done for plasmonic solar cells using the MNPBEM toolbox for MatLab. These calculations include dispersion curves and amount of light scattering cross sections for different metallic nanoparticles. This study gives us clear ideas on what to expect from different metals, allowing us to make the best choice on what to use to obtain the best results. One specific technique for light trapping in thin films solar cells utilizes metal nanoparticles on the surface of the semiconductor. The characteristics of the metal, semiconductor interface allows for light to be guided in between them causing it to be scattered, allowing for more chances of absorption. The samples were fabricated using organic thin films made from polymers and metallic nanoparticles, more specifically Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) copolymer and silver or gold nanoparticles. The two fabrication methods applied include spin coating and Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The transport properties are obtained by analyzing the I-V curves. We will also discuss the resistance, resistivity, conductance, density of charge carriers. SUNY Oswego SCAC Grant.
Critical Transport Phenomena in Fluid Helium Under Low Gravity
Meyer, H.; Behringer, R. P.
1985-01-01
The feasibility of carrying out measurements of certain critical transport properties of pure fluid under conditions of low gravity was studied. These properties are the thermal conductivity, kappa, the shear viscosity zeta and the diffusive relaxation time tau, which are predicted to diverge (tend to infinity) as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached. However, in this critical region, the Earth's gravity effect becomes very important. As the critical point is approached, the gravity effects increasingly distort the results. The reason for this is that the compressibility of the fluid also diverges and under the influence of gravity causes a vertical density gradient in the fluid, which is significant even when very thin fluid layers (typically 1 mm high) are being used. The result is that the temperature dependence of kappa, zeta, and tau tends to flatten off as T sub c is approached instead of continuing to increase, and therefore the predictions from the renormalization group and mode coupling theories cannot be subjected to a satisfactory test.
Physics of Transport and Traffic Phenomena in Biology: from molecular motors and cells to organisms
Chowdhury, D; Nishinari, K; Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2005-01-01
Traffic-like collective movements are observed at almost all levels of biological systems. Molecular motor proteins like, for example, kinesin and dynein, which are the vehicles of almost all intra-cellular transport in eukayotic cells, sometimes encounter traffic jam that manifests as a disease of the organism. Similarly, traffic jam of collagenase MMP-1, which moves on the collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, has also been observed in recent experiments. Traffic-like movements of social insects like ants and termites on trails are, perhaps, more familiar in our everyday life. Experimental, theoretical and computational investigations in the last few years have led to a deeper understanding of the generic or common physical principles involved in these phenomena. In particular, some of the methods of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, pioneered almost a hundred years ago by Einstein, Langevin and others, turned out to be powerful theoretical tools for quantitaive analysis of model...
Nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the beer model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosekilde, Erik; Laugesen, Jakob Lund
2007-01-01
The production-distribution system or "beer game" is one of the most well-known system dynamics models. Notorious for the complex dynamics it produces, the beer game has been used for nearly five decades to illustrate how structure generates behavior and to explore human decision making. Here we...
Characterization of transport phenomena in porous transport layers using X-ray microtomography
Hasanpour, S.; Hoorfar, M.; Phillion, A. B.
2017-06-01
Among different methods available for estimating the transport properties of porous transport layers (PTLs) of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, X-ray micro computed tomography (X-μCT) imaging in combination with image-based numerical simulation has been recognized as a viable tool. In this study, four commercially-available single-layer and dual-layer PTLs are analyzed using this method in order to compare and contrast transport properties between different PTLs, as well as the variability within a single sheet. Complete transport property datasets are created for each PTL. The simulation predictions indicate that PTLs with high porosity show considerable variability in permeability and effective diffusivity, while PTLs with low porosity do not. Furthermore, it is seen that the Tomadakis-Sotirchos (TS) analytical expressions for porous media match the image-based simulations when porosity is relatively low but predict higher permeability and effective diffusivity for porosity values greater than 80%. Finally, the simulations show that cracks within MPL of dual-layer PTLs have a significant effect on the overall permeability and effective diffusivity of the PTLs. This must be considered when estimating the transport properties of dual-layer PTLs. These findings can be used to improve macro-scale models of product and reactant transport within fuel cells, and ultimately, fuel cell efficiency.
Analysis of coupled transport phenomena in concrete at elevated temperatures
Beneš, Michal; Zeman, Jan
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study a non-linear numerical scheme arising from the implicit time discretization of the Ba\\v{z}ant-Thonguthai model for hygro-thermal behavior of concrete at high temperatures. Existence and uniqueness of the time-discrete solution in two dimensions is established using the theory of pseudomonotone operators in Banach spaces. Next, the spatial discretization is accomplished by the conforming finite element method. An illustrative numerical example shows that the numerical model reproduces well the rapid increase of pore pressure in wet concrete due to extreme heating. Such phenomenon is of particular interest for the safety assessment of concrete structures prone to thermally-induced spalling.
Singh, Bhim (Compiler)
2002-01-01
The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This CP (conference proceeding) is a compilation of the abstracts, presentations, and posters presented at the conference.
Proceedings of the Fourth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference
1999-01-01
This conference presents information to the scientific community on research results, future directions, and research opportunities in microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena within NASA's microgravity research program. The conference theme is "The International Space Station." The conference publication consists of the full Proceedings of the 4th Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference on CD-ROM, containing full papers presented at the conference. Ninety papers are presented in 21 technical sessions, and a special exposition session presents 32 posters describing the work of principal investigators new to NASA's program in this discipline. Eighty-eight papers and 25 posters are presented in their entirety on the CD-ROM.
Singh, Bhim S.
1999-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.
Transport phenomena of reactive fluid flow in heterogeneous combustion processes.
Hung, W. S. Y.; Chen, C. S.; Haviland, J. K.
1972-01-01
A previously developed computer program was used to model two transient hybrid combustion processes involving tubes of solid Plexiglas. In the first study, representing combustion of a hybrid rocket, the oxidizing gas was oxygen, and calculations were continued sufficiently long to obtain steady-state values. Systematic variations were made in reaction rate constant, mass flow rate, and pressure, alternatively using constant and temperature dependent regression rate models for the fuel surface. Consistent results were obtained, as is evidenced by the values for the mass function of the reaction product and the flame temperature, for which plots are supplied. In the second study, fire initiation in a duct was studied, with an air mixture as the oxidizing gas. It was demonstrated that a satisfactory flame spread mechanism could be reproduced on the computer. In both of the above applications, the general, transient, two-dimensional conservation equations were represented, together with chemical reactions, solid-fuel interface conditions, and heat conduction in the solid fuel.
Modeling Radicalization Phenomena in Heterogeneous Populations
Galam, Serge
2015-01-01
The phenomenon of radicalization is investigated within an heterogeneous population composed of a core subpopulation, sharing a way of life locally rooted, and a recently immigrated subpopulation of different origins with ways of life which can be partly in conflict with the local one. While core agents are embedded in the country prominent culture and identity, they are not likely to modify their way of life, which make them naturally inflexible about it. On the opposite, the new comers can either decide to live peacefully with the core people adapting their way of life, or to keep strictly on their way and oppose the core population, leading eventually to criminal activities. To study the corresponding dynamics of radicalization we introduce a 3-state agent model with a proportion of inflexible agents and a proportion of flexible ones, which can be either peaceful or opponent. Assuming agents interact via weighted pairs within a Lotka-Volterra like Ordinary Differential Equation framework, the problem is an...
Stephens, J. B.; St.john, R. M.
1973-01-01
Simultaneously occuring dispersive and convective components of fluid kinematics are obtained by a time domain analysis of optically retrieved temporal histories of the transport phenomena. Utilizing triangulation of collimated optical fields of view from two radiometers to obtain the temporal histories of the intensity fluctuations associated with the transport phenomena has enabled investigators to retrieve the local convective transport by employing correlation statistics. The location of the peak in the covariance curve determines the transit time from which the convection velocity is calculated; whereas, the change in shape of the peak in the covariance curve determines the change in average frequency of the wave packet from which the dispersion velocity is calculated. Thus, two-component analysis requires the maximum possible enhancement of the delineation for the transport. The convection velocity is the result of a fixed reference frame calculation whereas, the dispersion velocity is the result of a moving reference frame calcuation.
Charge transport, injection, and photovoltaic phenomena in oligo(phenylenevinylene) based diodes
Melzer, Christian; Krasnikov, Victor V.; Hadziioannou, Georges
2003-01-01
We report on the charge transport and injection phenomena of (E,E,E,E)-1,4-bis[(4-styryl)styryl]-2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexoxy)benzene (MEH-OPV5) sandwiched between asymmetric contacts. The hole mobility of MEH-OPV5 was determined by means of transient electroluminescence. The steady-state current was
Charge transport, injection, and photovoltaic phenomena in oligo(phenylenevinylene) based diodes
Melzer, Christian; Krasnikov, Victor V.; Hadziioannou, Georges
2003-01-01
We report on the charge transport and injection phenomena of (E,E,E,E)-1,4-bis[(4-styryl)styryl]-2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexoxy)benzene (MEH-OPV5) sandwiched between asymmetric contacts. The hole mobility of MEH-OPV5 was determined by means of transient electroluminescence. The steady-state current was
Utgikar, Vivek P.
2015-01-01
An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
VYAS SRINIVASAN; SAMEER KHANDEKAR
2017-04-01
Single-phase as well as two-phase fluid flows inside mini/micro-channels and capillary tubes are of practical importance in many miniaturized engineering systems. While several issues related to single-phase transport are fairly well understood, two-phase systems still pose challenges for engineering design. Thepresence of gas–liquid interfaces, dominance of surface forces, moving contact lines, wettability, dynamic contact angle hysteresis and flow in confined geometries are some of the unique features of two-phase systems,which manifest into complex transport phenomena. While Taylor plug/bubble flow is a fairly common flow pattern in several micro-fluidic devices operating at low Bond number, the ensuing transport characteristics are complex and still not fully discerned. This review paper aims at highlighting the nuances and features of a unit cell of a Taylor plug flow, especially focusing on partially wetting systems, which are more common in engineering applications. Emphasis is given to a ‘unit cell’ flow system consisting of an isolated liquid Taylor plug with adjacent gas phase, confined in a capillary tube. Such a seemingly simple flow condition posesconsiderable challenges for discerning and modelling local thermo-hydrodynamic transport coefficients. Relevant background information and fundamentals are carefully scrutinized while summarizing the state-of-the-art. The role of wettability and dissipation near the contact line is highlighted via available experimental andsimulation results. Local momentum and heat transfer exchange processes during the motion of an isolated plug of partially wetting liquid moving inside a capillary tube are delineated.
Socio-optics: optical knowledge applied in modeling social phenomena
Chisleag, Radu; Chisleag Losada, Ioana-Roxana
2011-05-01
The term "Socio-optics" (as a natural part of Socio-physics), is rather not found in literature or at Congresses. In Optics books, there are not made references to optical models applied to explain social phenomena, in spite of Optics relying on the duality particle-wave which seems convenient to model relationships among society and its members. The authors, who have developed a few models applied to explain social phenomena based on knowledge in Optics, along with a few other models applying, in Social Sciences, knowledge from other branches of Physics, give their own examples of such optical models, f. e., of relationships among social groups and their sub-groups, by using kowledge from partially coherent optical phenomena or to explain by tunnel effect, the apparently impossible penetration of social barriers by individuals. They consider that the term "Socio-optics" may come to life. There is mentioned the authors' expertise in stimulating Socio-optics approach by systematically asking students taken courses in Optics to find applications of the newly got Wave and Photon Optics knowledge, to model social and even everyday life phenomena, eventually engaging in such activities other possibly interested colleagues.
Stochastic Car-Following Model for Explaining Nonlinear Traffic Phenomena
Meng, Jianping; Song, Tao; Dong, Liyun; Dai, Shiqiang
There is a common time parameter for representing the sensitivity or the lag (response) time of drivers in many car-following models. In the viewpoint of traffic psychology, this parameter could be considered as the perception-response time (PRT). Generally, this parameter is set to be a constant in previous models. However, PRT is actually not a constant but a random variable described by the lognormal distribution. Thus the probability can be naturally introduced into car-following models by recovering the probability of PRT. For demonstrating this idea, a specific stochastic model is constructed based on the optimal velocity model. By conducting simulations under periodic boundary conditions, it is found that some important traffic phenomena, such as the hysteresis and phantom traffic jams phenomena, can be reproduced more realistically. Especially, an interesting experimental feature of traffic jams, i.e., two moving jams propagating in parallel with constant speed stably and sustainably, is successfully captured by the present model.
Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenig, Markus
2007-12-15
Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg{sub 0.3}Cd{sub 0.7}Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of solar active phenomena via numerical methods
Wu, S. T.
1988-01-01
Numerical ideal MHD models for the study of solar active phenomena are summarized. Particular attention is given to the following physical phenomena: (1) local heating of a coronal loop in an isothermal and stratified atmosphere, and (2) the coronal dynamic responses due to magnetic field movement. The results suggest that local heating of a magnetic loop will lead to the enhancement of the density of the neighboring loops through MHD wave compression. It is noted that field lines can be pinched off and may form a self-contained magnetized plasma blob that may move outward into interplanetary space.
Nonlinear Hyperbolic-Parabolic System Modeling Some Biological Phenomena
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Shaohua; CHEN Hua
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system modeling some biological phenomena. By semigroup theory and Leray-Schauder fixed point argument, the local existence and uniqueness of the weak solutions for this system are proved. For the spatial dimension N = 1, the global existence of the weak solution will be established by the bootstrap argument.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell with nature inspired flow field designs has been developed. The design inspired from the existed biological fluid flow patterns in the leaf. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a tubular-shaped proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)
2013-07-01
A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a tubular-shaped proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soloveichik, Grigorii [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States)
2015-11-30
EFRC vision. The direct use of organic hydrides in fuel cells as virtual hydrogen carriers that generate stable organic molecules, protons, and electrons upon electro-oxidation and can be electrochemically charged by re-hydrogenating the oxidized carrier was the major focus of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage (EFRC-ETM). Compared to a hydrogen-on-demand design that includes thermal decomposition of organic hydrides in a catalytic reactor, the proposed approach is much simpler and does not require additional dehydrogenation catalysts or heat exchangers. Further, this approach utilizes the advantages of a flow battery (i.e., separation of power and energy, ease of transport and storage of liquid fuels) with fuels that have system energy densities similar to current hydrogen PEM fuel cells. EFRC challenges. Two major EFRC challenges were electrocatalysis and transport phenomena. The electrocatalysis challenge addresses fundamental processes which occur at a single molecular catalyst (microscopic level) and involve electron and proton transfer between the hydrogen rich and hydrogen depleted forms of organic liquid fuel and the catalyst. To form stable, non-radical dehydrogenation products from the organic liquid fuel, it is necessary to ensure fast transport of at least two electrons and two protons (per double bond formation). The same is true for the reverse hydrogenation reaction. The transport phenomena challenge addresses transport of electrons to/from the electrocatalyst and the current collector as well as protons across the polymer membrane. Additionally it addresses prevention of organic liquid fuel, water and oxygen transport through the PEM. In this challenge, the transport of protons or molecules involves multiple sites or a continuum (macroscopic level) and water serves as a proton conducting medium for the majority of known sulfonic acid based PEMs. Proton transfer in the presence of
Significance of radiation models in investigating the flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body
Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.
1978-01-01
Formulation is presented to demonstrate the significance of a simplified radiation model in investigating the flow-phenomena in the viscous radiating shock layer of a Jovian entry body. For this, a nongray absorption model for hydrogen-helium gas is developed which consists of 30 steps over the spectral range of 0-20 eV. By employing this model results were obtained for temperature, pressure, density, and radiative flux in the shock layer and along the body surface. These are compared with results of two sophisticated radiative transport models available in the literature. Use of the present radiation model results in significant reduction in computational time. Results of this model are found to be in general agreement with results of other models. It is concluded that use of the present model is justified in investigating the flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body because it is relatively simple, computationally fast, and yields fairly accurate results.
Yoon, Se Yoon
The transport and adsorption phenomena in cement-based materials are the most important processes in the durability of concrete structures or nuclear waste containers, as they are precursors to a number of deterioration processes such as chloride-induced corrosion, sulfate attack, carbonation, etc. Despite this importance, our understanding of these processes remains limited because the pore structure and composition of concrete are complex. In addition, the range of the pore sizes, from nanometers to millimeters, requires the multi-scale modeling of the transport and adsorption processes. Among the various environments that cement-based materials are exposed to, aqueous and saline environments represent the most common types. Therefore, this dissertation investigates the adsorption and transport phenomena of cement-based materials exposed to an aqueous and saline environment from atomic to macro-scales using different arrays of novel spectroscopic techniques and simulation methods, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), molecular dynamics (MD), and finite element method (FEM). The structure and transport of water molecules through interlayer spacing of tobermorite was investigated using MD simulations because the interlayer water of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel influences various material properties of concrete. The adsorption processes of cementitious phases interacting with sodium and chloride ions at the nano-scale were identified using STXM and XANES measurements. A mathematical model and FEM procedure were developed to identify the effect of surface treatments at macro-scale on ionic transport phenomena of surface-treated concrete. Finally, this dissertation introduced a new material, calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH), to prevent chloride-induced deterioration.
Transport phenomena in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells for sustainable energy production
An, L.; Zhao, T. S.
2017-02-01
Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in ethanol directly into electricity, are one of the most promising energy-conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a carbon-neutral, sustainable fuel and the electrocatalytic and membrane materials that constitute the cell are relatively inexpensive. As a result, the alkaline DEFC technology has undergone a rapid progress over the last decade. This article provides a comprehensive review of transport phenomena of various species in this fuel cell system. The past investigations into how the design and structural parameters of membrane electrode assemblies and the operating parameters affect the fuel cell performance are discussed. In addition, future perspectives and challenges with regard to transport phenomena in this fuel cell system are also highlighted.
Transport phenomena in correlated quantum liquids: Ultracold Fermi gases and F/N junctions
Li, Hua
Landau Fermi-liquid theory was first introduced by L. D. Landau in the effort of understanding the normal state of Fermi systems, where the application of the concept of elementary excitations to the Fermi systems has proved very fruitful in clarifying the physics of strongly correlated quantum systems at low temperatures. In this thesis, I use Landau Fermi-liquid theory to study the transport phenomena of two different correlated quantum liquids: the strongly interacting ultracold Fermi gases and the ferromagnet/normal-metal (F/N) junctions. The detailed work is presented in chapter II and chapter III of this thesis, respectively. Chapter I holds the introductory part and the background knowledge of this thesis. In chapter II, I study the transport properties of a Fermi gas with strong attractive interactions close to the unitary limit. In particular, I compute the transport lifetimes of the Fermi gas due to superfluid fluctuations above the BCS transition temperature Tc. To calculate the transport lifetimes I need the scattering amplitudes. The scattering amplitudes are dominated by the superfluid fluctuations at temperatures just above Tc. The normal scattering amplitudes are calculated from the Landau parameters. These Landau parameters are obtained from the local version of the induced interaction model for computing Landau parameters. I also calculate the leading order finite temperature corrections to the various transport lifetimes. A calculation of the spin diffusion coefficient is presented in comparison to the experimental findings. Upon choosing a proper value of F0a, I am able to present a good match between the theoretical result and the experimental measurement, which indicates the presence of the superfluid fluctuations near Tc. Calculations of the viscosity, the viscosity/entropy ratio and the thermal conductivity are also shown in support of the appearance of the superfluid fluctuations. In chapter III, I study the spin transport in the low
Mechanics of transport phenomena in multi-component sessile drops with solidification
Su, Yeong-Jen; Yang, Wen-Jei; Liu, Jiaching
1990-01-01
The mechanics of transport phenomena in multicomponent sessile drops with internal solidification is determined on the basis of an experimental study. A shadowgraph-schlieren system and a microscope-video system are used for the study. It is suggested that present data can be used to enhance the solid or crystal quality in a reduced-gravity environment where both thermo- and diffuso-capillary effects of solidification and crystal growth are dominant.
Initiation and Modification of Reaction by Energy Addition: Kinetic and Transport Phenomena
1993-10-01
MODIFICATION OF REACTION BY ENERGY ADDITION: KINETIC AND TRANSPORT PHENOMENA by Francis E. Fendell and Mau-Song Chou Center for Propulsion Technology...TA - A2 L AUHOWAC - F49620-90-C-0070 Francis E. Fendell and Mau-Song Chou 7. PEMOS101IG ORGANIZATION NAME(S AND...a gaseous mixture is more pertinent for the supersonic-combustor applications of interest to the Air Force (compare Figs. 1 and 2) (Carrier, Fendell
Observation of Non-Local Transport Phenomena with SMBI in HL-2A
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Hong-Juan; LIU Yong; DING Xuan-Tong; YAO Liang-Hua; FENG Bei-Bin; LI Wei; PAN Yu-Dong; LIU Ze-Tian; DUAN Xu-Ru; YANG Qing-Wei
2007-01-01
The non-local transport phenomenon induced by supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) was first observed in the HL-2A tokomak. In comparison with the phenomena induced by other methods in various tokamaks, it has its own feature: the effect induced by SMBI in HL-2A lasts much longer than that induced by pellet injection in other similar size tokomaks. Both the bolometer radiation and Hα emission decrease when the non-local effect appears. This suggests that an electron transport barrier has been formed at the position just outside the q = 1 surface when the non-local effect appears.
The application of the Chebyshev-spectral method in transport phenomena
Guo, Weidong; Narayanan, Ranga
2012-01-01
Transport phenomena problems that occur in engineering and physics are often multi-dimensional and multi-phase in character. When taking recourse to numerical methods the spectral method is particularly useful and efficient. The book is meant principally to train students and non-specialists to use the spectral method for solving problems that model fluid flow in closed geometries with heat or mass transfer. To this aim the reader should bring a working knowledge of fluid mechanics and heat transfer and should be readily conversant with simple concepts of linear algebra including spectral decomposition of matrices as well as solvability conditions for inhomogeneous problems. The book is neither meant to supply a ready-to-use program that is all-purpose nor to go through all manners of mathematical proofs. The focus in this tutorial is on the use of the spectral methods for space discretization, because this is where most of the difficulty lies. While time dependent problems are also of great interes...
Transport phenomena in the micropores of plug-type phase separators
Fazah, M. M.
1995-01-01
This study numerically investigates the transport phenomena within and across a porous-plug phase separator. The effect of temperature differential across a single pore and of the sidewall boundary conditions, i.e., isothermal or linear thermal gradient, are presented and discussed. The effects are quantified in terms of the evaporation mass flux across the boundary and the mean surface temperature. A two-dimensional finite element model is used to solve the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the liquid. Temperature differentials across the pore interface of 1.0, and 1.5 K are examined and their effect on evaporation flux and mean surface temperature is shown. For isothermal side boundary conditions, the evaporation flux across the pore is directly proportional and linear with Delta T. For the case of an imposed linear thermal gradient on the side boundaries, Biot numbers of 0.0, 0.15, and 0.5 are examined. The most significant effect of Biot number is to lower the overall surface temperature and evaporation flux.
Numerical simulation of transport phenomena during strip casting with EMBr in a single belt caster
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龚海军; 李新中; 徐达鸣; 郭景杰
2014-01-01
A theoretical investigation of fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification (solidification transfer phenomena, STP) was presented which coupled with direct-current (DC) magnetic fields in a high-speed strip-casting metal delivery system. The bidirectional interaction between the STP and DC magnetic fields was simplified as a unilateral one, and the fully coupled solidification transport equations were numerically solved by the finite volume method (FVM). While the magnetic field contours for a localized DC magnetic field were calculated by software ANSYS and then incorporated into a three-dimensional (3-D) steady model of the liquid cavity in the mold by means of indirect coupling. A new FVM-based direct-SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to solve the iterations of pressure-velocity (P-V). The braking effects of DC magnetic fields with various configurations were evaluated and compared with those without static magnetic field (SMF). The results show that 0.6 T magnetic field with combination configuration contributes to forming an isokinetic feeding of melt, the re-circulation zone is shifted towards the back wall of reservoir, and the velocity difference on the direction of height decreases from 0.1 m/s to 0. Furthermore, the thickness of solidified skull increases uniformly from 0.45 mm to 1.36 mm on the chilled substrate (belt) near the exit.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian XIAO; Jing LIU
2009-01-01
Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, J.L.
1997-01-01
Pore level laboratory experiments using microscopy permit the in situ visualization of flow and transport phenomena, that can be recorded on film or videotape. One of the principal tools for visualization is the etched glass micromodel, which is composed of a transparent two dimensional network of three dimensional pores. The spatial scale of interest in these models extends from the individual pore, up to a network of pores, perhaps with small scale heterogeneities. Micromodels are best used to help validate concepts and assumptions, and to elucidate new, previously unrecognized phenomena for further study. They are not quantitative tools, but should be used in combination with quantitative tools such as column studies or mathematical models. There are three applications: multi-phase flow, colloid transport, and bacterial transport and colonization. Specifically the authors have examined behavior of relevance to liquid-liquid mass transfer (solubilization of capillary trapped organic liquids); liquid-gas mass transfer (in situ volatilization); mathematical models of multi-phase pressure-saturation relationships; colloid movement, attachment and detachment in the presence of fluid-fluid interfaces, clay interference with multi-phase flow; and heterogeneity effects on multi-phase flow and colloid movement.
Numerical modeling to investigate slopes and mass flow phenomena
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Heinz Konietzky; Lei NIE; Youhong SUN
2006-01-01
An overview is given about up-to-date techniques for slope stability and deformation analysis as well as mass flow phenomena simulation. The paper concentrates on a few aspects in respect to the use of numerical modeling techniques, especially in relation to the shear strength reduction techniques, discontinuum modeling, probabilistic concepts, the combination of GIS and numerical modeling as well as sophisticated hydro-mechanical coupling with time-dependent material behavior. At present these topics are preferred topics of scientific and technical research.
Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Scale Dependent Transport Phenomena and Bioactivity in Porous Media
Seymour, J. D.; Codd, S. L.; Romanenko, K. V.; Hornemann, J. A.; Brosten, T. R.
2008-05-01
Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) provides the ability to obtain data on the pore scale via imaging and the sample scale by bulk measurement, allowing for connection between microscale dynamics and macroscale transport phenomena. This has led to MRM techniques becoming a preeminent method for characterization of dynamics in porous media. A significant question in modeling transport in porous media is definition of the porous media structure as homogeneous (ordered) or heterogeneous (disordered)[1]. One means of defining the 'complexity' of a porous media is based on the dynamics of the system[2]. The ability of MRM to measure the time dependent statistics of the dynamics [3,4,5] provides quantification of the pre-asymptotic dynamics. The transition from preasymptotic to Gaussian transport consistent with models of homogeneous porous media is clearly visualized. Biological activity in porous media, such as microbial growth, typically manifests itself as biofilms or colonies of microbes that adhere to surfaces and are surrounded by a hydrogel of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). The biofilm growth introduces complexity into the system structure in generation of physical pore blocking, trapping within the EPS gel, elastic interfaces due to the EPS and generation of channels in which faster flow occur. The hierarchy of length and time scales and multiple physical processes which are introduced by the biofilm growth impacts the porous media transport as reflected in the change in dynamics [6]. The transition can be modeled using statistical mechanical approaches based on continuous time random walk (CTRW) processes that generate fractional differential equations[7]. The bioactivity alters the structure of the porous media from homogeneous to heterogeneous resulting in the transition from a Gaussian to a non Gaussian subdiffusive dispersion process. References 1. M. Quintard and S. Whitaker, Transport in ordered and disordered porous media: Volume averaged
Physics-based prognostic modelling of filter clogging phenomena
Eker, Omer F.; Camci, Fatih; Jennions, Ian K.
2016-06-01
In industry, contaminant filtration is a common process to achieve a desired level of purification, since contaminants in liquids such as fuel may lead to performance drop and rapid wear propagation. Generally, clogging of filter phenomena is the primary failure mode leading to the replacement or cleansing of filter. Cascading failures and weak performance of the system are the unfortunate outcomes due to a clogged filter. Even though filtration and clogging phenomena and their effects of several observable parameters have been studied for quite some time in the literature, progression of clogging and its use for prognostics purposes have not been addressed yet. In this work, a physics based clogging progression model is presented. The proposed model that bases on a well-known pressure drop equation is able to model three phases of the clogging phenomena, last of which has not been modelled in the literature yet. In addition, the presented model is integrated with particle filters to predict the future clogging levels and to estimate the remaining useful life of fuel filters. The presented model has been implemented on the data collected from an experimental rig in the lab environment. In the rig, pressure drop across the filter, flow rate, and filter mesh images are recorded throughout the accelerated degradation experiments. The presented physics based model has been applied to the data obtained from the rig. The remaining useful lives of the filters used in the experimental rig have been reported in the paper. The results show that the presented methodology provides significantly accurate and precise prognostic results.
Model analysis of edge relaxation phenomena in Tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsukawa, Shogo [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
2000-09-01
From the view point of the oscillatory characteristics, the heat transport in the plasma edge region is investigated based on a transition transport model with hysteresis nature. A hysteresis type flux-force relation is incorporated into the model by introducing a transition model of the heat diffusivity. For a given influx from the upstream side, the one dimensional heat transport equitation is solved numerically. The time evolution of the heat flux oscillation due to the hysteresis nature and the parameter dependences of its amplitude and frequency are examined. The non-monotonous relation between the frequency of the flux oscillation and the influx is obtained. The critical behavior of the transition between transport mechanisms, i.e., the hysteresis type and the discontinuous one, is expressed as power law relations of them. The self-organized criticality like behavior, i.e., power spectrum obeying power law, is found in a limiting case of the model. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. McGraw
2000-04-13
The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations.
Modeling local chemistry in the presence of collective phenomena.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandross, Michael Evan; Modine, Normand Arthur
2005-01-01
Confinement within the nanoscale pores of a zeolite strongly modifies the behavior of small molecules. Typical of many such interesting and important problems, realistic modeling of this phenomena requires simultaneously capturing the detailed behavior of chemical bonds and the possibility of collective dynamics occurring in a complex unit cell (672 atoms in the case of Zeolite-4A). Classical simulations alone cannot reliably model the breaking and formation of chemical bonds, while quantum methods alone are incapable of treating the extended length and time scales characteristic of complex dynamics. We have developed a robust and efficient model in which a small region treated with the Kohn-Sham density functional theory is embedded within a larger system represented with classical potentials. This model has been applied in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations and classical molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to study the behavior of water, ammonia, the hydroxide ion, and the ammonium ion in Zeolite-4a. Understanding this behavior is important to the predictive modeling of the aging of Zeolite-based desiccants. In particular, we have studied the absorption of these molecules, interactions between water and the ammonium ion, and reactions between the hydroxide ion and the zeolite cage. We have shown that interactions with the extended Zeolite cage strongly modifies these local chemical phenomena, and thereby we have proven out hypothesis that capturing both local chemistry and collective phenomena is essential to realistic modeling of this system. Based on our results, we have been able to identify two possible mechanisms for the aging of Zeolite-based desiccants.
Noncontact temperature measurements in the microgravity fluids and transport phenomena discipline
Salzman, Jack
1988-01-01
The program of activities within the Microgravity Fluids and Transport Phenomena Discipline has been structured to enable the systematic pursuit of an increased understanding of low gravity fluid behavior/phenomena in a way which ensures that the results are appropriate to the widest range of applications. This structure is discussed and an overview of some of the activities which are underway is given. Of significance is the fact that in the majority of the current and planned activities, the measurement and, or control of the fluid temperature is a key experiment requirement. In addition, many of the experiments require that the temperature measurement be nonintrusive. A description of these requirements together with the current techniques which are being employed or under study to make these measurements is also discussed.
Chatterjee, Dipankar; Amiroudine, Sakir
2011-02-01
A comprehensive non-isothermal Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm is proposed in this article to simulate the thermofluidic transport phenomena encountered in a direct-current (DC) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump. Inside the pump, an electrically conducting fluid is transported through the microchannel by the action of an electromagnetic Lorentz force evolved out as a consequence of the interaction between applied electric and magnetic fields. The fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the MHD micropump depend on several factors such as the channel geometry, electromagnetic field strength and electrical property of the conducting fluid. An involved analysis is carried out following the LB technique to understand the significant influences of the aforementioned controlling parameters on the overall transport phenomena. In the LB framework, the hydrodynamics is simulated by a distribution function, which obeys a single scalar kinetic equation associated with an externally imposed electromagnetic force field. The thermal history is monitored by a separate temperature distribution function through another scalar kinetic equation incorporating the Joule heating effect. Agreement with analytical, experimental and other available numerical results is found to be quantitative.
Contact-Free Mapping of Electronic Transport Phenomena of Polar Domains in SrMnO3 Films
Schaab, J.; Krug, I. P.; Doǧanay, H.; Hackl, J.; Gottlob, D. M.; Khan, M. I.; Nemšák, S.; Maurel, L.; Langenberg, E.; Algarabel, P. A.; Pardo, J. A.; Schneider, C. M.; Meier, D.
2016-05-01
High-resolution mapping of electronic transport phenomena plays an increasingly important role for the characterization of ferroic domains and their functionality. At present, spatially resolved electronic transport data are commonly gained from local two-point measurements, collected in line-by-line scans with a conducting nanosized probe. Here, we introduce an innovative experimental approach based on low-energy electron microscopy. As a model case, we study polar domains of varying conductance in strained SrMnO3 . By a direct comparison with conductive atomic force and electrostatic force microscopy, we reveal that the applied low-energy electron-microscopy experiment can be considered as an inverse I (V ) measurement, providing access to the local electronic conductance with nanoscale resolution and short data-acquisition times in the order of 10 - 102 ms . Low-energy electrons thus hold yet unexplored application opportunities as a minimal-invasive probe for local electronic transport phenomena, opening a promising route towards spatially resolved, high-throughput sampling at the nanoscale.
Saville, D. A.
1988-01-01
The influence of transport phenomena on the morphology of crystalline materials was investigated. Two problems were studied: the effects of convection on the crystallization of pure materials, and the crystallization of proteins from solution.
Homogeneous and non-local heterogeneous transport phenomena with VAT application analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catton, I.; Travkin, V.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1997-12-31
Some fundamental questions about the mathematical description of transport phenomena in heterogeneous media are addressed to highlight the importance of the smallest scale, of using the correct equations and of choosing a consistent set of scaling parameters. Micro-pore flow is treated using a viscosity correlation that properly treats the near wall region in a capillary. Equations resulting from use of volume averaging theory (VAT) are compared with exact solutions and it shown that certain terms normally ignored must be retained. A consistent set of scaling parameters are derived and shown to yield consistent results over a wide range of different media morphologies.
Transport Phenomena in Multilayered Massless Dirac Fermion System α-(BEDT-TTF2I3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoya Tajima
2012-06-01
Full Text Available A zero-gap state with a Dirac cone type energy dispersion was discovered in an organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 under high hydrostatic pressures. This is the first two-dimensional (2D zero-gap state discovered in bulk crystals with a layered structure. In contrast to the case of graphene, the Dirac cone in this system is highly anisotropic. The present system, therefore, provides a new type of massless Dirac fermion system with anisotropic Fermi velocity. This system exhibits remarkable transport phenomena characteristic to electrons on the Dirac cone type energy structure.
Quantitative phase-field modeling for wetting phenomena.
Badillo, Arnoldo
2015-03-01
A new phase-field model is developed for studying partial wetting. The introduction of a third phase representing a solid wall allows for the derivation of a new surface tension force that accounts for energy changes at the contact line. In contrast to other multi-phase-field formulations, the present model does not need the introduction of surface energies for the fluid-wall interactions. Instead, all wetting properties are included in a unique parameter known as the equilibrium contact angle θeq. The model requires the solution of a single elliptic phase-field equation, which, coupled to conservation laws for mass and linear momentum, admits the existence of steady and unsteady compact solutions (compactons). The representation of the wall by an additional phase field allows for the study of wetting phenomena on flat, rough, or patterned surfaces in a straightforward manner. The model contains only two free parameters, a measure of interface thickness W and β, which is used in the definition of the mixture viscosity μ=μlϕl+μvϕv+βμlϕw. The former controls the convergence towards the sharp interface limit and the latter the energy dissipation at the contact line. Simulations on rough surfaces show that by taking values for β higher than 1, the model can reproduce, on average, the effects of pinning events of the contact line during its dynamic motion. The model is able to capture, in good agreement with experimental observations, many physical phenomena fundamental to wetting science, such as the wetting transition on micro-structured surfaces and droplet dynamics on solid substrates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanai, Yosuke [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tang, M [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wood, B C [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
2013-10-25
We have began the project “Multiscale Capability for Exploring Transport Phenomena in Battery”, which is sponsored by Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in February 2012 as the subcontract was approved. We have been performing first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations to first establish the general modeling framework. It was found that it is essential to employ advanced Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations with Hubbard U correction, in order to describe the battery material, in particular, LiFePO4 (Figure 1). The presence of localized d-electrons at Fe ion sites requires the better treatment of non-local correlation beyond that of standard DFT. As our aim was to first identify and investigate key transport/reaction mechanisms affecting the performance of Lithium-ion based batteries, we have began out work by characterizing the standard structures and how the defects influence the important electronic structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)
2008-09-15
A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)
Proceedings of the Fifth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference
Singh, Bhim S. (Editor)
2000-01-01
The Fifth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provided the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program and research opportunities and plans for the near future. Consistent with the conference theme "Microgravity Research an Agency-Wide Asset" the conference focused not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. The conference included 14 invited plenary talks, 61 technical paper presentations, 61 poster presentations, exhibits and a forum on emerging research themes focusing on nanotechnology and biofluid mechanics. This web-based proceeding includes the presentation and poster charts provided by the presenters of technical papers and posters that were scanned at the conference site. Abstracts of all the papers and posters are included and linked to the presentations charts. The invited and plenary speakers were not required to provide their charts and are generally not available for scanning and hence not posted. The conference program is also included.
Yin, Liying; Jie, Wanqi; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Boru; Yang, Fan
2017-03-01
A numerical model is developed to simulate the temperature field, the thermosolutal convection, the solute segregation and the growth interface morphology during the growth of ZnTe crystal from Te rich solution by the temperature gradient solution growth (TGSG) technique. Effects of the temperature gradient on the transport phenomena, the growth interface morphology and the growth rate are examined. The influences of the latent heat and the thermal conductivity of ZnTe crystal on the transport phenomena and the growth interface are also discussed. We find that the mass transfer of ZnTe in the solution is very slow because of the low diffusion coefficient and the lack of mixing in the lower part of the solution. During the growth, dilute solution with high density and low growth temperature accumulates in the central region of the growth interface, making the growth interface change into two distinct parts. The inner part is very concave, while the outer part is relatively flat. Growth conditions in front of the two parts of the growth interface are different. The crystalline quality of the inner part of the ingot is predicted to be worse than that of the outer part. High temperature gradient can significantly increase the growth rate, and avoid the diffusion controlled growth to some extent.
Costa, Antonio
2016-04-01
Volcanic hazards may have destructive effects on economy, transport, and natural environments at both local and regional scale. Hazardous phenomena include pyroclastic density currents, tephra fall, gas emissions, lava flows, debris flows and avalanches, and lahars. Volcanic hazards assessment is based on available information to characterize potential volcanic sources in the region of interest and to determine whether specific volcanic phenomena might reach a given site. Volcanic hazards assessment is focussed on estimating the distances that volcanic phenomena could travel from potential sources and their intensity at the considered site. Epistemic and aleatory uncertainties strongly affect the resulting hazards assessment. Within the context of critical infrastructures, volcanic eruptions are rare natural events that can create severe hazards. In addition to being rare events, evidence of many past volcanic eruptions is poorly preserved in the geologic record. The models used for describing the impact of volcanic phenomena generally represent a range of model complexities, from simplified physics based conceptual models to highly coupled thermo fluid dynamical approaches. Modelling approaches represent a hierarchy of complexity, which reflects increasing requirements for well characterized data in order to produce a broader range of output information. In selecting models for the hazard analysis related to a specific phenomenon, questions that need to be answered by the models must be carefully considered. Independently of the model, the final hazards assessment strongly depends on input derived from detailed volcanological investigations, such as mapping and stratigraphic correlations. For each phenomenon, an overview of currently available approaches for the evaluation of future hazards will be presented with the aim to provide a foundation for future work in developing an international consensus on volcanic hazards assessment methods.
Fast transient transport phenomena measured by soft X-ray emission in TCV tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furno, I. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2001-08-01
Energy and particle transport during sawtooth activity in TCV plasmas has been studied in this thesis with high temporal resolution many chord diagnostics. We indicated the influence of sawteeth on plasma profiles in ohmic conditions and in the presence of auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. A 2-dimensional model for heat transport, including localised heat source and a magnetic island, has been used to interpret the experimental observations. These results provided a new interpretation of a coupled heat and transport phenomenon which is potentially important for plasma confinement. The observations validate the applicability and show the possibility of improvement of a 2-dimensional theoretic a1 model for the study of heat transport in the presence of localised heat source and a magnetic island. Furthermore, the TCV results showed a new possibility for the interpretation of a coupled heat and particle transport phenomenon previously understood only in stellarators. (author)
Huang, Xinyan; Rein, Guillermo
2016-05-01
The thermochemical conversion of biomass in smouldering combustion is investigated here by combining experiments and modeling at two scales: matter (1mg) and bench (100g) scales. Emphasis is put on the effect of oxygen (0-33vol.%) and oxidation reactions because these are poorly studied in the literature in comparison to pyrolysis. The results are obtained for peat as a representative biomass for which there is high-quality experimental data published previously. Three kinetic schemes are explored, including various steps of drying, pyrolysis and oxidation. The kinetic parameters are found using the Kissinger-Genetic Algorithm method, and then implemented in a one-dimensional model of heat and mass transfer. The predictions are validated with thermogravimetric and bench-scale experiments and then analyzed to unravel the role of heterogeneous reaction. This is the first time that the influence of oxygen on biomass smouldering is explained in terms of both chemistry and transport phenomena across scales.
Two typical phenomena from the numerical simulation of fire and smoke transport in a gymnasium fire
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jianguo; CHEN Haixin; FU Song
2006-01-01
Navier-Stokes equations are solved to simulate a gymnasium fire. The equations are simplified by weakly compressible low Mach number assumption. Turbulence effect is simulated using Smagorinsky large eddy simulation (LES) model. The mixture fraction combustion model is adopted to simulate the burning process. With the analysis of computed velocity and temperature field, two important phenomena, named door effect and smoke plug-holing, are found to be responsible for the deterioration of smoke exhaust efficiency when natural ventilation or forced ventilation is present. Some explanations are made to elucidate these effects' mechanism. An improved design of smoke ventilation system is suggested.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. Anderson; M. Corradini; K.Y. Bank; R. Bonazza; D. Cho
2005-04-26
The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications.
Transport Phenomena in Porous Media Aspects of MicroMacro Behaviour
Ichikawa, Yasuaki
2012-01-01
This monograph presents an integrated perspective of the wide range of phenomena and processes applicable to the study of transport of species in porous materials. In order to formulate the entire range of porous media and their uses, this book gives the basics of continuum mechanics, thermodynamics, seepage and consolidation and diffusion, including multiscale homogenization methods. The particular structure of the book has been chosen because it is essential to be aware of the true properties of porous materials particularly in terms of nano, micro and macro mechanisms. This book is of pedagogical and practical importance to the fields covered by civil, environmental, nuclear and petroleum engineering and also in chemical physics and geophysics as it relates to radioactive waste disposal, geotechnical engineering, mining and petroleum engineering and chemical engineering.
Transport phenomena of growth-in-gel zeolite crystallization in microgravity
Zhang, H.; Ostrach, S.; Kamotani, Y.
1993-01-01
Secondary nucleation (SN) due to crystal sedimentation has been believed to be one of the major effects that causes smaller sizes of final zeolite crystals. The present investigation indicates that, in a reactor, this gravity-induced SN occurs only within a white opaque column termed the gel portion. Under normal gravity this portion shrinks to the bottom of the hydrothermal reactor, leaving a clear portion of solution at the top, due to depletion of the flocculated gel particles. Solution phase nucleation and crystallization is assumed and a correlation for the shrinkage is therefore derived, which shows good agreement with experimental observations. A non-dimensional parameter is suggested as a criterion for the occurrence of SN. Based on the parameter whether or not microgravity is beneficial to zeolite growth is discussed. Also, the growth mechanism and the transport phenomena in the absence of gravity are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huh, Byung-Gil; Euh, Dong-Jin; Yun, Byong-Jo; Youn, Young-Jung; Yoon, Han-Yeong; Song, Chul-Hwa
2005-03-01
The number density transport equations for various bubble groups are used to predict the void fraction and the interfacial area concentration. As the closure relations for number density transport equation, the coalescence due to random collisions and the breakup due to the impact of turbulent eddies is modified based on the previous studies and the bubble expansion term due to the pressure reduction is considered. Also, the coalescence due to a wake entrainment is modeled newly to apply to the number density transport equation. In order to predict the local experimental data, the code is developed that the two-fluid model is coupled systematically with the number density transport equation for each bubble group. As for the results of the numerical analysis, the void fraction and interfacial area concentration are predicted well by the developed code and models although some deviations exist in the values between the prediction and experiment, especially, for the high void fraction conditions.
Modeling of mesoscopic electrokinetic phenomena using charged dissipative particle dynamics
Deng, Mingge; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George
2015-11-01
In this work, we propose a charged dissipative particle dynamics (cDPD) model for investigation of mesoscopic electrokinetic phenomena. In particular, this particle-based method was designed to simulate micro- or nano- flows which governing by Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equation coupled with Navier-Stokes (NS) equation. For cDPD simulations of wall-bounded fluid systems, a methodology for imposing correct Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions for both PNP and NS equations is developed. To validate the present cDPD model and the corresponding boundary method, we perform cDPD simulations of electrostatic double layer (EDL) in the vicinity of a charged wall, and the results show good agreement with the mean-field theoretical solutions. The capacity density of a parallel plate capacitor in salt solution is also investigated with different salt concentration. Moreover, we utilize the proposed methodology to study the electroosmotic and electroosmotic/pressure-driven flow in a micro-channel. In the last, we simulate the dilute polyelectrolyte solution both in bulk and micro-channel, which show the flexibility and capability of this method in studying complex fluids. This work was sponsored by the Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4) supported by DOE.
Modeling brain resonance phenomena using a neural mass model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Spiegler
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Stimulation with rhythmic light flicker (photic driving plays an important role in the diagnosis of schizophrenia, mood disorder, migraine, and epilepsy. In particular, the adjustment of spontaneous brain rhythms to the stimulus frequency (entrainment is used to assess the functional flexibility of the brain. We aim to gain deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying this technique and to predict the effects of stimulus frequency and intensity. For this purpose, a modified Jansen and Rit neural mass model (NMM of a cortical circuit is used. This mean field model has been designed to strike a balance between mathematical simplicity and biological plausibility. We reproduced the entrainment phenomenon observed in EEG during a photic driving experiment. More generally, we demonstrate that such a single area model can already yield very complex dynamics, including chaos, for biologically plausible parameter ranges. We chart the entire parameter space by means of characteristic Lyapunov spectra and Kaplan-Yorke dimension as well as time series and power spectra. Rhythmic and chaotic brain states were found virtually next to each other, such that small parameter changes can give rise to switching from one to another. Strikingly, this characteristic pattern of unpredictability generated by the model was matched to the experimental data with reasonable accuracy. These findings confirm that the NMM is a useful model of brain dynamics during photic driving. In this context, it can be used to study the mechanisms of, for example, perception and epileptic seizure generation. In particular, it enabled us to make predictions regarding the stimulus amplitude in further experiments for improving the entrainment effect.
2005-12-01
Arfken , G.B, Weber, H.J., Mathmatical Methods for Physicists. (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2001), pg. 554. 17. Freeman, Will. “Imaging Transport...7 B. MODELING LIMITATIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS ...............7 C. MATHEMATICAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT .....................8 1. Generation Region...Analysis resolution .........................24 Figure 9. Slope Method Assumption Dependence on large Bessel Function argument
Yamamoto, Takuya; Adkar, Nikhil; Okano, Yasunori; Ujihara, Toru; Dost, Sadik
2017-09-01
A numerical simulation study was carried out to examine the transport phenomena occurring during the Top-Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) process of SiC. The simulation model includes the contributions of radiative and conductive heat transfer in the furnace, mass transfer and fluid flow in the melt, and the induced electric and magnetic fields. Results show that the induced Lorentz force is dominant in the melt compared with that of buoyancy. At the relatively low coil frequencies, the effect of the Lorentz force on the melt flow is significant, and the corresponding flow patterns loose their axisymmetry and become almost fully disturbed. However, at the relatively higher frequency values, the flow is steady and the flow patterns remain axisymmetric.
Transport phenomena in a sidewall-moving bottom-heated cavity using heatlines
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
NIRMALENDU BISWAS; NIRMAL K MANNA
2017-02-01
The understanding of basic feature of energy transport from a heat source is important from the fundamental point of view as well as from various engineering and technological applications. To enrich the knowledge in this area, this paper presents energy transport phenomena from the heated bottom of an air-filled enclosure using heatfunction and heatlines. Both upward motion and downward motion of sidewalls and the alteration of cooling between sidewalls and top wall are considered, which yields four different cases. All the cases are investigated to identify the proper combination of wall motion and thermal condition for better thermal performance, considering different convection regimes. The highly nonlinear nature of flow is solved numerically using an in-house code, taking into account different speeds of wall motion and relative strength of buoyantflow and shear flow. The results reveal that the case with side cooling and downward translation of sidewalls performs maximum heat transfer compared with other cases. Higher speed of wall translation also causes higher heat transfer. Under natural convection regime, heat transfer is significantly high. Furthermore, the order of thermal mixing in a cavity is analysed and it is found that top cooling causes higher thermal mixing. To demonstrate the vortical flow structure in the cavity, streamfunction and streamlines are used. Evolutions of symmetric and asymmetric flow vortices with centre and saddle points and energy recirculation cells are found in the cavity.
Directions in Radiation Transport Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P Nicholas Smith
2016-12-01
More exciting advances are on the horizon to increase the power of simulation tools. The advent of high performance computers is allowing bigger, higher fidelity models to be created, if the challenges of parallelization and memory management can be met. 3D whole core transport modelling is becoming possible. Uncertainty quantification is improving with large benefits to be gained from more accurate, less pessimistic estimates of uncertainty. Advanced graphical displays allow the user to assimilate and make sense of the vast amounts of data produced by modern modelling tools. Numerical solvers are being developed that use goal-based adaptivity to adjust the nodalisation of the system to provide the optimum scheme to achieve the user requested accuracy on the results, thus removing the need to perform costly convergence studies in space and angle etc. More use is being made of multi-physics methods in which radiation transport is coupled with other phenomena, such as thermal-hydraulics, structural response, fuel performance and/or chemistry in order to better understand their interplay in reactor cores.
Community Sediment Transport Model
2007-01-01
are used to determine that model results are consistent across compilers, platforms, and computer architectures , and to ensure that changes in code do...Mississippi State University: Bhate During the early months of this project, the focus was on understanding ROMS-CSTM model, architecture , and...Marchesiello, J.C. McWilliams, & K.D. Stolzenbach, 2007: Sediment transport modeling on Southern Californian shelves: A ROMS case study. Continental
Simulation of Transport Phenomena in Aluminum Nitride Single-Crystal Growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Almeida, V F
2002-04-03
The goal of this project is to apply advanced computer-aided modeling techniques for simulating coupled radiation transfer present in the bulk growth of aluminum nitride (AlN) single-crystals. Producing and marketing high-quality single-crystals of AlN is currently the focus of Crystal IS, Inc., which is engaged in building a new generation of substrates for electronic and optical-electronic devices. Modeling and simulation of this company's proprietary innovative processing of AlN can substantially improve the understanding of physical phenomena, assist design, and reduce the cost and time of research activities. This collaborative work supported the goals of Crystal IS, Inc. in process scale-up and fundamental analysis with promising computational tools.
Spin Chirality and Hall-Like Transport Phenomena of Spin Excitations
Han, Jung Hoon; Lee, Hyunyong
2017-01-01
Experimental and theoretical aspects of Hall-type transport of spins in magnetic insulators are reviewed. A general formalism for linear response theory of thermal Hall transport in the spin model is developed, which is general enough to be applicable to both the magnon and the paramagnetic, spin-liquid regimes. The expression of the energy current operator in the spin language is shown to be closely related to the spin chirality operator. Recent experiments on magnon-mediated thermal Hall transport in the two-dimensional kagome, and three-dimensional pyrochlore ferromagnetic insulators are reviewed in light of the multi-band magnon theory of Hall transport, and compared to the more mysterious thermal Hall transport found in the putative quantum spin ice material. As realizations of spin-chirality driven magnon transport in the real space, we review the general theory of emergent gauge fields governing the magnon dynamics in the textured magnet, and discuss its application to the magnon-Skyrmion scattering problem. Topological magnon Hall effect driven by the Skyrmion texture is discussed.
Saatadjian, Esteban; Lesage, Francois; Mota, Jose Paulo B.
2013-01-01
A project that involves the numerical simulation of transport phenomena is an excellent method to teach this subject to senior/graduate chemical engineering students. The subject presented here has been used in our senior/graduate course, it concerns the study of natural convection heat transfer between two concentric, horizontal, saturated porous…
Physics of transport and traffic phenomena in biology: from molecular motors and cells to organisms
Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2005-12-01
Traffic-like collective movements are observed at almost all levels of biological systems. Molecular motor proteins like, for example, kinesin and dynein, which are the vehicles of almost all intra-cellular transport in eukaryotic cells, sometimes encounter traffic jam that manifests as a disease of the organism. Similarly, traffic jam of collagenase MMP-1, which moves on the collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, has also been observed in recent experiments. Novel efforts have been made to utilize some uni-cellular organisms as “micro-transporters”. Traffic-like movements of social insects like ants and termites on trails are, perhaps, more familiar in our everyday life. Experimental, theoretical and computational investigations in the last few years have led to a deeper understanding of the generic or common physical principles involved in these phenomena. In this review we critically examine the current status of our understanding, expose the limitations of the existing methods, mention open challenging questions and speculate on the possible future directions of research in this interdisciplinary area where physics meets not only chemistry and biology but also (nano-)technology.
Groupage Cargo Transportation Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksejevs Ruslans
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.
TTF/TCNQ-based thin films and microcrystals. Growth and charge transport phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solovyeva, Vita
2011-05-26
The thesis adresses several problems related to growth and charge transport phenomena in thin films of TTF-TCNQ and (BEDT-TTF)TCNQ. The following main new problems are addressed: - The influence of thin-film specific factors, such as the substrate material and growth-induced defects, on the Peierls transition temperature in TTF-TCNQ thin films was studied; - finite-size effects in TTF-TCNQ were investigated by considering transport properties in TTF-TCNQ microcrystals. The influence of the size of the crystal on the Peierls transition temperature was studied. In this context a new method of microcontact fabrication was employed to favor the measurements; - an analysis of radiation-induced defects in TTF-TCNQ thin films and microcrystals was performed. It was demonstrated than an electron beam can induce appreciable damage to the sample such that its electronic properties are strongly modified; - a bilayer growth method was established to fabricate (BEDT-TTF)TCNQ from the gas phase. This newly developed bilayer growth method was showed to be suitable for testing (BEDT-TTF)TCNQ charge-transfer phase formation; - the structure of the formed (BEDT-TTF)TCNQ charge-transfer compounds was analyzed by using a wide range of experimental techniques. An overview and the description of the basic physical principles underlying charge-transfer compounds is given in chapter 2. Experimental techniques used for the growth and characterization of thin films and microcrystals are presented in chapter 3. Chapter 4 gives an overview of the physical properties of the studied organic materials. Chapter 5 discussed the experimental study of TTF-TCNQ thin films. he Peierls transition in TTF-TCNQ is a consequence of the quasi-one-dimensional structure of the material and depends on different factors, studied in chapters 5 and 6. In contradistinction to TTF-TTCNQ, the (BEDT-TTF)TCNQ charge-transfer compound crystallizes in several different modifications with different physical properties
The role of ion transport phenomena in memristive double barrier devices
Dirkmann, Sven; Hansen, Mirko; Ziegler, Martin; Kohlstedt, Hermann; Mussenbrock, Thomas
2016-10-01
In this work we report on the role of ion transport for the dynamic behavior of a double barrier quantum mechanical Al/Al2O3/NbxOy/Au memristive device based on numerical simulations in conjunction with experimental measurements. The device consists of an ultra-thin NbxOy solid state electrolyte between an Al2O3 tunnel barrier and a semiconductor metal interface at an Au electrode. It is shown that the device provides a number of interesting features such as an intrinsic current compliance, a relatively long retention time, and no need for an initialization step. Therefore, it is particularly attractive for applications in highly dense random access memories or neuromorphic mixed signal circuits. However, the underlying physical mechanisms of the resistive switching are still not completely understood yet. To investigate the interplay between the current transport mechanisms and the inner atomistic device structure a lumped element circuit model is consistently coupled with 3D kinetic Monte Carlo model for the ion transport. The simulation results indicate that the drift of charged point defects within the NbxOy is the key factor for the resistive switching behavior. It is shown in detail that the diffusion of oxygen modifies the local electronic interface states resulting in a change of the interface properties.
Explicitly Solvable Model of the Charge Carriers' Phenomena in Isotropic Conducting Crystals
Budzak, Yaroslav S.; Wacławski, Tadeusz
2017-01-01
In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the kinetic properties of the isotropic conducting crystals is presented. The general formulas for these kinetic properties are expressed in terms of the Fermi integrals. These integrals were obtained using methods of statistical ensembles with varying number of particles and the Gibbs's grand canonical distribution. The determination of the scattering function and the exploration of its relation with the mobility of the current carriers inside these crystals have been made. Together with the results of theoretical analysis of the scattering function and its relation with the current carriers' mobility, these formulas constitute the mathematical model of the charge carriers' transport phenomena in conducting crystals (where a non-parabolic energy spectrum is described by Kane's formula) and provide algorithms for the calculation of these properties.
Modeling of Multiscale and Multiphase Phenomena in Materials Processing
Ludwig, Andreas; Kharicha, Abdellah; Wu, Menghuai
2013-03-01
In order to demonstrate how CFD can help scientists and engineers to better understand the fundamentals of engineering processes, a number of examples are shown and discussed. The paper covers (i) special aspects of continuous casting of steel including turbulence, motion and entrapment of non-metallic inclusions, and impact of soft reduction; (ii) multiple flow phenomena and multiscale aspects during casting of large ingots including flow-induced columnar-to-equiaxed transition and 3D formation of channel segregation; (iii) multiphase magneto-hydrodynamics during electro-slag remelting; and (iv) melt flow and solidification of thin but large centrifugal castings.
Transport Phenomena in Nanowires, Nanotubes, and Other Low-Dimensional Systems
Montes, Enrique
2017-01-01
Nanoscale materials are not new in either nature or physics. However, the recent technological improvements have given scientists new tools to understand and quantify phenomena that occur naturally due to quantum confinement effects. In general, these phenomena induce remarkable optical, magnetic, and electronic properties in nanoscale materials in contrast to their bulk counterpart. In addition, scientists have recently developed the necessary tools to control and exploit these properties in electronic devices, in particular field effect transistors, magnetic memories, and gas sensors. In the present thesis we implement theoretical and computational tools for analyzing the ground state and electronic transport properties of nanoscale materials and their performance in electronic devices. The ground state properties are studied within density functional theory using the SIESTA code, whereas the transport properties are investigated using the non-equilibrium Green\\'s functions formalism implemented in the SMEAGOL code. First we study Si-based systems, as Si nanowires are believed to be important building blocks of the next generation of electronic devices. We derive the electron transport properties of Si nanowires connected to Au electrodes and their dependence on the nanowire growth direction, diameter, and length. At equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between electrodes and nanowire, resulting in low contact resistance. For the tunneling regime, the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length is rationalized using the complex band structure. The nanowires grown along the (110) direction show the smallest decay and the largest conductance and current. Due to the high spin coherence in Si, Si nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. Therefore, we built a magnetic tunneling junction by connecting a (110) Si nanowire to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes. We have find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance of
Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel
2014-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...
Role of Transport Phenomena in the Evolution of Geometry, Composition and Structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarasankar DebRoy
2005-11-17
Abstract Fusion welding is used extensively in industries that support the nation's energy supply, defense, infrastructure, and standard of living. Safety and reliability of the welded joints are affected by their geometry, composition and structure. This report provides an account of the significant advances made in quantitative understanding of the geometry, composition and various aspects of the weldment structure with financial support from DOE/BES. In particular, this report provides an account of the research conducted under the grant DE-FG02-84ER45158 in this important area and lists all the publications that document the details of the technical accomplishments that resulted from the work. Investigations of heat transfer, fluid flow and alloying element vaporization during laser welding resulted in a new technique for the determination of the peak temperature in the weld pool and provided a new method to estimate weld metal composition. Studies on the interfacial phenomena in fusion welding resulted in quantitative understanding of the interrelationship between the weld metal composition and geometry and provided new knowledge as to when the surface active elements would affect the weldment geometry and when these elements would have no effect on the geometry. Partitioning of oxygen nitrogen and hydrogen between the welding environment and the weld metal was affected by the extent of the dissociation of diatomic gaseous species which depended on the nature of the plasma formed during welding. The interfacial tension of the liquid metal was also affected by the plasma and the properties of the plasma affected the concentrations of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen in the weld metal. Apart from the understanding of the evolution of composition and geometry of the weldments, application of transport phenomena provided useful information about various features of the weldment structure. Quantitative understanding of microstructure of the fusion zone and heat
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauck, St
2000-10-01
The aim of this work is to develop a scheme for experimental reactors, based on transport equations. This type of reactors is characterized by a small core, a complex, very heterogeneous geometry and a large leakage. The possible insertion of neutron beams in the reflector and the presence of absorbers in the core increase the difficulty of the 3D-geometrical description and the physical modeling of the component parameters of the reactor. The Orphee reactor has been chosen for our study. Physical models (homogenization, collapsing cross section in few groups, albedo multigroup condition) have been developed in the APOLLO2 and CRONOS2 codes to calculate flux and power maps in a 3D-geometry, with different burnup and through transport equations. Comparisons with experimental measurements have shown the interest of taking into account anisotropy, steep flux gradients by using Sn methods, and on the other hand using a 12-group cross section library. The modeling of neutron beams has been done outside the core modeling through Monte Carlo calculations and with the total geometry, including a large thickness of heavy water. Thanks to this calculations, one can evaluate the neutron beams anti-reactivity and determinate the core cycle. We assure these methods more accurate than usual transport-diffusion calculations will be used for the conception of new research reactors. (author)
Modelling supply networks and business cycles as unstable transport phenomena
Helbing, Dirk
2003-07-01
Physical concepts developed to describe instabilities in traffic flows can be generalized in a way that allows one to understand the well-known instability of supply chains (the so-called 'bull-whip effect'). That is, small variations in the consumption rate can cause large variations in the production rate of companies generating the requested product. Interestingly, the resulting oscillations have characteristic frequencies which are considerably lower than the variations in the consumption rate. This suggests that instabilities of supply chains may be the reason for the existence of business cycles. At the same time, we establish some links to queueing theory and between micro- and macroeconomics.
Yoon, Se Yoon
2012-01-01
The transport and adsorption phenomena in cement-based materials are the most important processes in the durability of concrete structures or nuclear waste containers, as they are precursors to a number of deterioration processes such as chloride-induced corrosion, sulfate attack, carbonation, etc. Despite this importance, our understanding of these processes remains limited because the pore structure and composition of concrete are complex. In addition, the range of the pore sizes, from nano...
Small-world phenomena in physics: the Ising model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gitterman, M. [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan (Israel)
2000-12-01
The Ising system with a small fraction of random long-range interactions is the simplest example of small-world phenomena in physics. Considering the latter both in an annealed and in a quenched state we conclude that: (a) the existence of random long-range interactions leads to a phase transition in the one-dimensional case and (b) there is a minimal average number p of these interactions per site (p<1 in the annealed state, and p{approx_equal}1 in the quenched state) needed for the appearance of the phase transition. Note that the average number of these bonds, pN/2, is much smaller than the total number of bonds, N{sup 2}/2. (author)
Chen, Yao; Hong, Seongmin; Fu, Chung-Wei; Hoang, Tran; Li, Xiao; Valencia, Veronica; Zhang, Zhenjie; Perman, Jason A; Ma, Shengqian
2017-03-16
Mesoporous materials, Tb-mesoMOF and MCM-41, were used to study the transport phenomena of biomolecules entering the interior pores from solution. Vitamins B12 and B2 were successfully encapsulated into these mesoporous materials, whereas Tb-mesoMOF (0.33 g of B12/g, 0.01 g of B2/g) adsorbed a higher amount of vitamin per mass than MCM-41 (0.21 g of B12/g, 0.002 g of B2/g). The diffusion mechanism of the biomolecules entering Tb-mesoMOF was evaluated using a mathematical model. The Raman spectroscopy studies showed vitamin B12 has been encapsulated within Tb-mesoMOF's pores, and evaluation of the peak shifts indicated strong interactions linking vitamin B12's pyrroline moiety with Tb-mesoMOF's triazine and benzoate rings. Because of these stronger interactions between the vitamins and Tb-mesoMOF, longer egress times were observed than with MCM-41.
Transport phenomena of electrons at the carbon nanotube interface with molecular adsorption
Kokabu, Takuya; Takashima, Kengo; Inoue, Shuhei; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Takahiro
2017-07-01
The electric conductance of carbon-nanotube (CNT) films is affected by gas adsorption. Previous studies have shown that the adsorption of gas molecules on the CNT/CNT interface is the key to the changing CNT-film conductance. However, it is still unclear how the gas molecules affect the electric conduction of the CNT/CNT interface or its electron transport properties. We present here a study on the effects of gas-molecule adsorption on the CNT/CNT interface using a fluctuation-induced tunneling (FIT) model of the CNT-film electrical conduction. We demonstrated that the CNT-film conduction follows the FIT model, and the subsequently estimated electrostatic potential between the CNT/CNT interfaces was in good agreement with estimates from density functional theory simulations. Since the FIT model treats the CNT/CNT interface as a parallel-plate capacitor, we propose a modified FIT model that accounts for the change in the dielectric constant at the CNT/CNT interface due to the adsorption of gas molecules. This model well explained the electric-conductance change of the CNT film with respect to the gas pressure. Finally, we found that the adsorbed gas molecules affected the local dielectric constant at the CNT/CNT interface.
Phenomena and computational models of non-proportional fatigue of materials
Skibicki, Dariusz
2014-01-01
This book gives an overview on the fatigue of materials under non-proportional loads. It presents the rich spectrum of phenomena and treats various computational models to mathematically describe the non-proportional fatigue of materials.
Modeling energy transport in nanostructures
Pattamatta, Arvind
Heat transfer in nanostructures differ significantly from that in the bulk materials since the characteristic length scales associated with heat carriers, i.e., the mean free path and the wavelength, are comparable to the characteristic length of the nanostructures. Nanostructure materials hold the promise of novel phenomena, properties, and functions in the areas of thermal management and energy conversion. Example of thermal management in micro/nano electronic devices is the use of efficient nanostructured materials to alleviate 'hot spots' in integrated circuits. Examples in the manipulation of heat flow and energy conversion include nanostructures for thermoelectric energy conversion, thermophotovoltaic power generation, and data storage. One of the major challenges in Metal-Oxide Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices is to study the 'hot spot' generation by accurately modeling the carrier-optical phonon-acoustic phonon interactions. Prediction of hotspot temperature and position in MOSFET devices is necessary for improving thermal design and reliability of micro/nano electronic devices. Thermoelectric properties are among the properties that may drastically change at nanoscale. The efficiency of thermoelectric energy conversion in a material is measured by a non-dimensional figure of merit (ZT) defined as, ZT = sigmaS2T/k where sigma is the electrical conductivity, S is the Seebeck coefficient, T is the temperature, and k is the thermal conductivity. During the last decade, advances have been made in increasing ZT using nanostructures. Three important topics are studied with respect to energy transport in nanostructure materials for micro/nano electronic and thermoelectric applications; (1) the role of nanocomposites in improving the thermal efficiency of thermoelectric devices, (2) the interfacial thermal resistance for the semiconductor/metal contacts in thermoelectric devices and for metallic interconnects in micro/nano electronic devices, (3) the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL
2008-03-01
the release path. This exercise has identified a host of material properties, thermofluid states, and physics models that must be collected, defined, and understood to evaluate this attenuation factor. The assembled PIRT table underwent two iterations with extensive reorganization between meetings. Generally, convergence was obtained on most issues, but different approaches to the specific physics and transport paths shade the answers accordingly. The reader should be cautioned that merely selecting phenomena based on high importance and low knowledge may not capture the true uncertainty of the situation. This is because a transport path is composed of several serial linkages, each with its own uncertainty. The propagation of a chain of modest uncertainties can lead to a very large uncertainty at the end of a long path, resulting in a situation that is of little regulatory guidance.
On Modelling of Nonlinear Systems and Phenomena with the Use of Volterra and Wiener Series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrzej Borys
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This is a short tutorial on Volterra and Wiener series applications to modelling of nonlinear systems and phenomena, and also a survey of the recent achievements in this area. In particular, we show here how the philosophies standing behind each of the above theories differ from each other. On the other hand, we discuss also mathematical relationships between Volterra and Wiener kernels and operators. Also, the problem of a best approximation of large-scale nonlinear systems using Volterra operators in weighted Fock spaces is described. Examples of applications considered are the following: Volterra series use in description of nonlinear distortions in satellite systems and their equalization or compensation, exploiting Wiener kernels to modelling of biological systems, the use of both Volterra and Wiener theories in description of ocean waves and in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, connections between Volterra series and neural network models, and also input-output descriptions of quantum systems by Volterra series are discussed. Finally, we consider application of Volterra series to solving some nonlinear problems occurring in hydrology, navigation, and transportation.
Modeling of Combined Phenomena Affecting an AUV Stealth Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miroslaw Gerigk
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In the paper some results of research connected with modeling the basic stealth characteristics of an AUV vehicle are presented. First of all a general approach to design of the stealth AUV autonomous underwater vehicles under consideration is introduced. Then the AUV stealth vehicle concept is briefly described. Next a method of modeling of the stealth characteristics is briefly described. As an example of the stealth characteristics investigations some results of modeling the boundary layer and wake are presented. Some remarks regarding the behavior of the AUV stealth vehicle in the submerged conditions are given. The final conclusions are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M.; Betova, I.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)
1999-01-01
. In addition, the films are to a large extent influenced by the kinetic factors determining their growth rate and steady state thickness. Thus a thermodynamic consideration of the film is not sufficient to model and predict its growth and dissolution. Instead, kinetic models based on in situ experimental data are required. The kinetic models presented in the literature for both ambient and high-temperature aqueous oxidation of metals lack a correlation between the structure of the oxide films and their electronic and ionic properties. Also, a quantitative treatment and thus the capability to predict material behaviour in varying conditions is lacking. A comprehensive understanding of the correlation between applied water chemistry, the behaviour of oxide films and optimum performance of the plant is thus also lacking. The situation calls for more experimental work combined with comprehensive modelling of the behaviour of both the compact and the porous part of the oxide film formed on a metal surface. This will make it possible to recognise the rate-limiting steps of the processes in the film, and thus to influence the rate of activity incorporation and different corrosion phenomena related to transport of species in the film. (author) 210 refs.
Unique Phenomena in Preon Model with Preonic Charge
Senju, H.
1988-01-01
Properties of new particles predicted by the recently proposed preon model are discussed based on SU(6)_{wc}. q' and q_{3}'' are expected to be observed in a relatively low energy region. Their experimental signatures are discussed.
Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Brockwell, Jonathan L.; Yung, Chain-Nan; Chai, An-Ti; Mcquillen, John B.; Sotos, Raymond G.; Neumann, Eric S.
1988-01-01
This paper will describe the experimental and analytical work that has been done to establish justification and feasibility for a Shuttle mid-deck experiment involving mass transfer between a gas bubble and a liquid. The experiment involves the observation and measurement of the dissolution of an isolated, immobile gas bubble of specified size and composition in a thermostatted solvent liquid of known concentration in the reduced gravity environment of earth orbit. Methods to generate and deploy the bubble have been successful both in normal gravity using mutually buoyant fluids and under reduced gravity conditions in the NASA Lear Jet. Initialization of the experiment with a bubble of a prescribed size and composition in a liquid of known concentration has been accomplished using the concept of unstable equilibrium. Subsequent bubble dissolution or growth is obtained by a step increase or decrease in the liquid pressure. A numerical model has been developed which simulates the bubble dynamics and can be used to determine molecular parameters by comparison with the experimental data. The primary objective of the experiment is the elimination of convective effects that occur in normal gravity. The results will yield information on transport under conditions of pure diffusion.
Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Brockwell, Jonathan L.; Yung, Chain-Nan; Chai, An-Ti; Mcquillen, John B.; Sotos, Raymond G.; Neumann, Eric S.
1988-01-01
This paper will describe the experimental and analytical work that has been done to establish justification and feasibility for a Shuttle mid-deck experiment involving mass transfer between a gas bubble and a liquid. The experiment involves the observation and measurement of the dissolution of an isolated, immobile gas bubble of specified size and composition in a thermostatted solvent liquid of known concentration in the reduced gravity environment of earth orbit. Methods to generate and deploy the bubble have been successful both in normal gravity using mutually buoyant fluids and under reduced gravity conditions in the NASA Lear Jet. Initialization of the experiment with a bubble of a prescribed size and composition in a liquid of known concentration has been accomplished using the concept of unstable equilibrium. Subsequent bubble dissolution or growth is obtained by a step increase or decrease in the liquid pressure. A numerical model has been developed which simulates the bubble dynamics and can be used to determine molecular parameters by comparison with the experimental data. The primary objective of the experiment is the elimination of convective effects that occur in normal gravity. The results will yield information on transport under conditions of pure diffusion.
Perspective on Continuum Modeling of Mesoscale/ Macroscale Phenomena
Bammann, D. J.
The attempt to model or predict the inelastic response or permanent deformation and failure observed in metals dates back over 180 years. Various descriptions of the post elastic response of metals have been proposed from the fields of physics, materials science (metallurgy), engineering, mechanics, and applied mathematics. The communication between these fields has improved and many of the modeling efforts today involve concepts from most or all of these fields. Early engineering description of post yield response treated the material as perfectly plastic — the material continues to deform with zero additional increase in load. These models became the basis of the mathematical theory of plasticity and were extended to account for hardening, unloading, and directional hardening. In contradistinction, rheological models treated the finite deformation of a solid similar to the deformation of a viscous fluid. In many cases of large deformation, rheological models have provided both adequate and accurate information about the deformed shape of a metal during many manufacturing processes. The treatment of geometric defects in solid bodies initiated within the mathematical theory of elasticity, the dislocation, introduced as an incompatible "cut" in a continuum body. This resulted in a very large body of literature devoted to the linear elastic study of dislocations, dislocation structures, and their interactions, and has provided essential information in the understanding of the "state" of a deformed material.
FDTD modelling of induced polarization phenomena in transient electromagnetics
Commer, Michael; Petrov, Peter V.; Newman, Gregory A.
2017-04-01
The finite-difference time-domain scheme is augmented in order to treat the modelling of transient electromagnetic signals containing induced polarization effects from 3-D distributions of polarizable media. Compared to the non-dispersive problem, the discrete dispersive Maxwell system contains costly convolution operators. Key components to our solution for highly digitized model meshes are Debye decomposition and composite memory variables. We revert to the popular Cole-Cole model of dispersion to describe the frequency-dependent behaviour of electrical conductivity. Its inversely Laplace-transformed Debye decomposition results in a series of time convolutions between electric field and exponential decay functions, with the latter reflecting each Debye constituents' individual relaxation time. These function types in the discrete-time convolution allow for their substitution by memory variables, annihilating the otherwise prohibitive computing demands. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and practicality of our algorithm.
FDTD modeling of induced polarization phenomena in transient electromagnetics
Commer, Michael; Petrov, Petr V.; Newman, Gregory A.
2017-01-01
The finite-difference time-domain scheme is augmented in order to treat the modeling of transient electromagnetic signals containing induced polarization effects from three-dimensional distributions of polarizable media. Compared to the non-dispersive problem, the discrete dispersive Maxwell system contains costly convolution operators. Key components to our solution for highly digitized model meshes are Debye decomposition and composite memory variables. We revert to the popular Cole-Cole model of dispersion to describe the frequency-dependent behaviour of electrical conductivity. Its inversely Laplace-transformed Debye decomposition results in a series of time convolutions between electric field and exponential decay functions, with the latter reflecting each Debye constituents' individual relaxation time. These function types in the discrete-time convolution allow for their substitution by memory variables, annihilating the otherwise prohibitive computing demands. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and practicality of our algorithm.
Stochastic models of intracellular transport
Bressloff, Paul C.
2013-01-09
The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Air flow phenomena in the model of the blind drift
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaszczur Marek
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the presented paper, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV has been used to investigate flow pattern and turbulent structure in the model of blind drift. The presented model exist in mining, and has been analyzed to resolve ventilation issues. Blind region is particularly susceptible to unsafe methane accumulation. The measurement system allows us to evaluate all components of the velocity vector in channel cross-section simultaneously. First order and second order statistic of the velocity fields from different channel cross-section are computed and analyzed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alex J. Dragt
2012-08-31
Since 1980, under the grant DEFG02-96ER40949, the Department of Energy has supported the educational and research work of the University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory (DSAT) Group. The primary focus of this educational/research group has been on the computation and analysis of charged-particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods, and on advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and multiparticle phenomena. This Final Report summarizes the accomplishments of the DSAT Group from its inception in 1980 through its end in 2011.
Modelling toluene oxidation : Incorporation of mass transfer phenomena
Hoorn, J.A.A.; van Soolingen, J.; Versteeg, G. F.
2005-01-01
The kinetics of the oxidation of toluene have been studied in close interaction with the gas-liquid mass transfer occurring in the reactor. Kinetic parameters for a simple model have been estimated on basis of experimental observations performed under industrial conditions. The conclusions for the m
Modelling toluene oxidation : Incorporation of mass transfer phenomena
Hoorn, J.A.A.; van Soolingen, J.; Versteeg, G. F.
The kinetics of the oxidation of toluene have been studied in close interaction with the gas-liquid mass transfer occurring in the reactor. Kinetic parameters for a simple model have been estimated on basis of experimental observations performed under industrial conditions. The conclusions for the
Constructive Models of Discrete and Continuous Physical Phenomena
2014-02-08
time. The hardware description language VHDL has a related model of time, where time is a member of N×N, and the second value is used in a manner...behaviors. Tech. Rep. RR 95–52, rev. RR (96–56), I3S, April 1996. 4. ARMSTRONG, J. R., AND GRAY, F. G. VHDL Design Representation and Synthesis, sec- ond
Modelling toluene oxidation : Incorporation of mass transfer phenomena
Hoorn, J.A.A.; van Soolingen, J.; Versteeg, G. F.
2005-01-01
The kinetics of the oxidation of toluene have been studied in close interaction with the gas-liquid mass transfer occurring in the reactor. Kinetic parameters for a simple model have been estimated on basis of experimental observations performed under industrial conditions. The conclusions for the m
Goods Transport Modelling, Vol 1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Morten Steen (red.); Kristiansen, Jørgen
The report is a study of data requirements and methodologies for goods transport. The study is intended to provide the basis for general discussion about the application of goods transport models in Denmark. The report provides an overview of different types of models and data availability....
Model Reduction and Coarse-Graining Approaches for Multiscale Phenomena
Gorban, Alexander N; Theodoropoulos, Constantinos; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Öttinger, Hans Christian
2006-01-01
Model reduction and coarse-graining are important in many areas of science and engineering. How does a system with many degrees of freedom become one with fewer? How can a reversible micro-description be adapted to the dissipative macroscopic model? These crucial questions, as well as many other related problems, are discussed in this book. Specific areas of study include dynamical systems, non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and mechanics of continuous media, (bio)chemical kinetics, nonlinear dynamics, nonlinear control, nonlinear estimation, and particulate systems from various branches of engineering. The generic nature and the power of the pertinent conceptual, analytical and computational frameworks helps eliminate some of the traditional language barriers, which often unnecessarily impede scientific progress and the interaction of researchers between disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biology, applied mathematics and engineering. All contributions are authored by ex...
Ultrastrong-coupling phenomena beyond the Dicke model
Jaako, Tuomas; Xiang, Ze-Liang; Garcia-Ripoll, Juan José; Rabl, Peter
2016-09-01
We study effective light-matter interactions in a circuit QED system consisting of a single L C resonator, which is coupled symmetrically to multiple superconducting qubits. Starting from a minimal circuit model, we demonstrate that, in addition to the usual collective qubit-photon coupling, the resulting Hamiltonian contains direct qubit-qubit interactions, which have a drastic effect on the ground- and excited-state properties of such circuits in the ultrastrong-coupling regime. In contrast to the superradiant phase transition expected from the standard Dicke model, we find an opposite mechanism, which at very strong interactions completely decouples the photon mode and projects the qubits into a highly entangled ground state. These findings resolve previous controversies over the existence of superradiant phases in circuit QED, but they more generally show that the physics of two- or multiatom cavity QED settings can differ significantly from what is commonly assumed.
Modelling tipping-point phenomena of scientific coauthorship networks
Xie, Zheng; Yi, Dongyun; Zhenzheng, Ouyang; Li, Jianping
2016-01-01
In a range of scientific coauthorship networks, tipping points are detected in degree distributions, correlations between degrees and local clustering coefficients, etc. The existence of those tipping points could be treated as a result of the diversity of collaboration behaviours in scientific field. A growing geometric hypergraph built on a cluster of concentric circles is proposed to model two typical collaboration behaviours, namely the behaviour of leaders and that of other members in research teams. The model successfully predicts the tipping points, as well as many common features of coauthorship networks. For example, it realizes a process of deriving the complex scale-free property from the simple yes/no experiments. Moreover, it gives a reasonable explanation for the emergence of tipping points by the difference of collaboration behaviours between leaders and other members, which emerges in the evolution of research teams. The evolution synthetically addresses typical factors of generating collabora...
Holmes, Heather A.
Under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to determine which air pollutants are harmful to human health, then regulate, monitor and establish criteria levels for these pollutants. To accomplish this and for scientific advancement, integration of knowledge from several disciplines is required including: engineering, atmospheric science, chemistry and public health. Recently, a shift has been made to establish interdisciplinary research groups to better understand the atmospheric processes that govern the transport of pollutants and chemical reactions of species in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The primary reason for interdisciplinary collaboration is the need for atmospheric processes to be treated as a coupled system, and to design experiments that measure meteorological, chemical and physical variables simultaneously so forecasting models can be improved (i.e., meteorological and chemical process models). This dissertation focuses on integrating research disciplines to provide a more complete framework to study pollutants in the ABL. For example, chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) and the physical processes governing PM distribution and mixing are combined to provide more comprehensive data for source apportionment. Data from three field experiments were utilized to study turbulence, meteorological and chemical parameters in the ABL. Two air quality field studies were conducted on the U.S./Mexico border. The first was located in Yuma, AZ to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PM in an urban environment and relate chemical properties of ambient aerosols to physical findings. The second border air quality study was conducted in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico to investigate the relationship between indoor and outdoor air quality in order to better correlate cooking fuel types and home activities to elevated indoor PM concentrations. The final study was executed in southern Idaho and focused on
Modeling friction phenomena and elastomeric dampers in multibody dynamics analysis
Ju, Changkuan
The first part of this dissertation focuses on the development, implementation and validation of models that capture the behavior of joints in a realistic manner. These models are presented within the framework of finite element based, nonlinear multibody dynamics formulations that ensure unconditional nonlinear stability of the computation for complex systems of arbitrary topology. The proposed approach can be divided into three parts. First, the joint configuration: this purely kinematic part deals with the description of the configuration of the joint and the evaluation of the relative distance and relative tangential velocity between the contacting bodies. Second, the contact conditions: in most cases, contact at the joint is of an intermittent nature. The enforcement of the unilateral contact condition is a critical aspect of the computational procedure. And finally, the contact forces: this last part deals with the evaluation of the forces that arise at the interface between contacting bodies. The advantage of the proposed approach is that the three parts of the problem can be formulated and implemented independently. Many articulated rotor helicopters use hydraulic dampers, which provide high levels of damping but are also associated with high maintenance costs and difficulties in evaluating their conditions due to the presence of seals, lubricants and numerous moving parts, all operating in a rotating frame. To avoid problems associated with hydraulic dampers, the industry is now switching to elastomeric lead-lag dampers that feature simpler mechanical design, lower part count, and result in "dry" rotors. However, the design of robust elastomeric dampers is hampered by the lack of reliable analytical tools that can be used to predict their damping behavior in the presence of large multi-frequency motions experienced by the rotor and thus the damper. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the development of an elastomeric damper model which predicts
Kulasiri, Don
2002-01-01
Most of the natural and biological phenomena such as solute transport in porous media exhibit variability which can not be modeled by using deterministic approaches. There is evidence in natural phenomena to suggest that some of the observations can not be explained by using the models which give deterministic solutions. Stochastic processes have a rich repository of objects which can be used to express the randomness inherent in the system and the evolution of the system over time. The attractiveness of the stochastic differential equations (SDE) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE) come from the fact that we can integrate the variability of the system along with the scientific knowledge pertaining to the system. One of the aims of this book is to explaim some useufl concepts in stochastic dynamics so that the scientists and engineers with a background in undergraduate differential calculus could appreciate the applicability and appropriateness of these developments in mathematics. The ideas ...
Overview: Understanding nucleation phenomena from simulations of lattice gas models
Binder, Kurt; Virnau, Peter
2016-12-01
Monte Carlo simulations of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation in Ising/lattice gas models are reviewed with an emphasis on the general insight gained on the mechanisms by which metastable states decay. Attention is paid to the proper distinction of particles that belong to a cluster (droplet), that may trigger a nucleation event, from particles in its environment, a problem crucial near the critical point. Well below the critical point, the lattice structure causes an anisotropy of the interface tension, and hence nonspherical droplet shapes result, making the treatment nontrivial even within the conventional classical theory of homogeneous nucleation. For temperatures below the roughening transition temperature facetted crystals rather than spherical droplets result. The possibility to find nucleation barriers from a thermodynamic analysis avoiding a cluster identification on the particle level is discussed, as well as the question of curvature corrections to the interfacial tension. For the interpretation of heterogeneous nucleation at planar walls, knowledge of contact angles and line tensions is desirable, and methods to extract these quantities from simulations will be mentioned. Finally, also the problem of nucleation near the stability limit of metastable states and the significance of the spinodal curve will be discussed, in the light of simulations of Ising models with medium range interactions.
Container Logistic Transport Planning Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Zhang
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The study proposed a stochastic method of container logistic transport in order to solve the unreasonable transportation’s problem and overcome the traditional models’ two shortcomings. Container transport has rapidly developed into a modern means of transportation because of their significant advantages. With the development, it also exacerbated the flaws of transport in the original. One of the most important problems was that the invalid transport had not still reduced due to the congenital imbalances of transportation. Container transport exacerbated the invalid transport for the empty containers. To solve the problem, people made many efforts, but they did not make much progress. There had two theoretical flaws by analyzing the previous management methods in container transport. The first one was the default empty containers inevitability. The second one was that they did not overall consider how to solve the problem of empty containers allocation. In order to solve the unreasonable transportation’s problem and overcome the traditional models’ two shortcomings, the study re-built the container transport planning model-gravity model. It gave the general algorithm and has analyzed the final result of model.
Three-phase interactions and interfacial transport phenomena in coacervate/oil/water systems.
Dardelle, Gregory; Erni, Philipp
2014-04-01
Complex coacervation is an associative liquid/liquid phase separation resulting in the formation of two liquid phases: a polymer-rich coacervate phase and a dilute continuous solvent phase. In the presence of a third liquid phase in the form of disperse oil droplets, the coacervate phase tends to wet the oil/water interface. This affinity has long been known and used for the formation of core/shell capsules. However, while encapsulation by simple or complex coacervation has been used empirically for decades, there is a lack of a thorough understanding of the three-phase wetting phenomena that control the formation of encapsulated, compound droplets and the role of the viscoelasticity of the biopolymers involved. In this contribution, we review and discuss the interplay of wetting phenomena and fluid viscoelasticity in coacervate/oil/water systems from the perspective of colloid chemistry and fluid dynamics, focusing on aspects of rheology, interfacial tension measurements at the coacervate/solvent interface, and on the formation and fragmentation of three-phase compound drops.
Critical flow phenomena and modeling in advanced nuclear safety technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yuzhou [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)
2016-05-15
The discharge could be non-choking or choking, depending on the break shape, length and conditions. This presents a challenge in the calculation of standard problems. A stable experiment of water was performed to study the break flow rate in nozzles of diameter of 1.41 and 2.0 mm with rounded-edge and sharp-edge. The pressure covered the ranges of 0.5 to 29.5 MPa, inlet quality 0 to 1.0 and subcooling up to 350 C. The results exhibited a close relation of thermal non-equilibrium with pressure. For supercritical pressure a modified equilibrium model in combination with the Bernoulli equation is presented.
Model of Fracture, Friction, and Wear Phenomena of Porous Iron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Shatsov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Mechanical and tribotechnical features of powdered materials are strongly influenced by pore volume, fracture character, impurities, alloying, concentration inhomogeneity, friction conditions, and other factors. Pores also have influence on acceleration of diffusion processes and reduce undercooled austenite resistance. Annealed in hydrogen, ultra pure iron powder was used to study porous iron features. Toughness fracture and tribotechnical features had nonmonotonic dependence from porosity different from all known dependences got from technical iron powders. Researches brought out the fact that in process of porosity reduction by pressing and annealing cycles, the average dimension of porous is changed. According to the analysis of porous structure were created models of friction, wear, and fracture of pure porous iron.
Tseng, Chien-Fu; Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Huang, Yen-Hsiu; Lee, Ming-Tsang; Horng, Ray-Hua
2015-12-01
In this study a numerical simulation was carried out to analyze the transport phenomena in a vertical type metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor for Gallium Nitride (GaN) growth. The simulated results were compared and validated by experiment. The effects of showerhead design and chamber height are investigated and discussed. It was found that, by properly adjusting the height of the chamber, both the growth rate and film uniformity could be significantly improved. This is attributed to the suppression of the thermal and mass transfer boundary layers by the injection flow of reacting gas mixtures, as well as the confined vertical vortices caused by the geometry of the reduced space. However, inappropriate design of the distance between the showerhead and the susceptor can result in uneven distribution of the organic source in the vicinity of the substrate surface resulting in an uneven growth rate of the GaN film. Consequently, there exists an optimal chamber height that will give the best growth rate and uniformity to the GaN film as discussed in this study. This study provides comprehensive insight into the transport phenomena of GaN growth that includes coupled heat and mass transfer as well as chemical reactions. The results provide important information in a succinct format and enable decisions to be made about the showerhead and the geometrical design and size of a vertical MOCVD reactor.
Smith, Kyle C; Weaver, James C
2012-06-01
Electrically driven transport of molecules and ions within aqueous electrolytes is of long-standing interest, with direct relevance to applications that include the delivery/release of biologically active solutes to/from cells and tissues. Examples include iontophoretic and electroporation-mediated drug delivery. Here, we describe a robust method for characterizing electrodiffusive transport in physiologic aqueous media. Specifically, we treat the case of solute present in sufficiently low concentration as to negligibly contribute to the total ionic current within the system. In this limiting case, which applies to many systems of interest, the predominant electrical behavior due to small ions is decoupled from solute transport. Thus, electrical behavior may be characterized using existing methods and treated as known in characterizing electrodiffusive molecular transport. First, we present traditional continuum equations governing electrodiffusion of charged solutes within aqueous electrolytes and then adapt them to discretized systems. Second, we examine the time-dependent and steady-state interfacial concentration gradients that result from the combination of diffusion and electrical drift. Third, we show how interfacial concentration gradients are related to electric field strength and duration. Finally, we examine how discretization size affects the accuracy of these methods. Overall these methods are motivated by and well suited to addressing an outstanding goal: estimation of the net ionic and molecular transport facilitated by electroporation in biological systems.
Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena in a Simulated Reduced Gravity Environment
Lipa, J.
2004-01-01
We describe a ground-based apparatus that allows the cancellation of gravity on a fluid using magnetic forces. The present system was designed for liquid oxygen studies over the range 0.001 - 5 g s. This fluid is an essential component of any flight mission using substantial amounts of liquid propellant, especially manned missions. The apparatus has been used to reduce the hydrostatic compression near the oxygen critical point and to demonstrate inverted phase separation. It could also be used to study pool boiling and two-phase heat transfer in Martian, Lunar or near-zero gravity, as well as phenomena such as Marangoni flow and convective instabilities. These studies would contribute directly to the reliability and optimization of the Moon and Mars flight programs.
Dancis, Jerome
2001-01-01
Students in a freshmen calculus course should become fluent in modeling physical phenomena represented by integrals, in particular geometric formulas for volumes and arc length and physical formulas for work. Describes how to train students to became fluent in such modeling and derivation of standard integral formulas. Indicates that these lessons…
The role of different grain shapes in modifying intra-pore flow and transport phenomena
Chaudhary, K.; Cardenas, B.; Bennett, P.; Ketcham, R. A.
2010-12-01
Intra-pore (10 -100 µm) fluid flow and mass transport depend on pore geometry. This has implication on microbial and biogeochemical processes within pores and residual trapping of Supercritical CO2. Since effects of grain size and grain sorting are already known, we investigate the effect of grain shapes in modifying intra-pore fluid flow and mass transport both inside and between pores and stagnant zones. Numerical simulations are carried out by solving the Navier-Stokes equations on idealized 2-D domains representing grain shapes such as squares and circles. We conduct a sensitivity study by varying grain angularity and imposing different Reynolds numbers flows to analyze their influence on permeability and distribution of vortices, also known as recirculation zones. We observe that the coupled effects of pore geometries and vortices lead to large variation in the fluid velocity, which consequently leads to non-Fickian transport even though flow can still be described by a continuum-scale Darcy equation. We find that the permeability increases and vorticity decreases with decreasing angularity of the grains. The flow velocities in the stagnant zone increases linearly with higher Reynolds number flows, with the rate of increase largest among the angular grains. The mass transfer mechanism between main pores and stagnant zones is mainly molecular diffusion, but the concentration gradient between the main pore and the stagnant zone is significantly influenced by the mixing effect associated with vortices. The overall effect of an increase in vorticity manifests itself as an increase in the global dispersion of the solute, which results both in an early arrival and a prolonged tail of a solute’s break-through curve. We find that the related effects of grain shapes and vortices are important in understanding pore scale flow and transport processes and may have significant implication on the issues of contaminant transport in aquifers and the geological storage of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert
2011-08-01
The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.
Favier, J. J.; Garandet, J. P.; Rouzaud, A.; Camel, D.
1994-06-01
The MEPHISTO space facility flew on the Columbia space shuttle in October 1992. The preliminary scientific results, mainly based on the analysis of the Seebeck signal, are presented in this paper. Valuable information was obtained for both planar and cellular solidification regimes. It is shown that mass transfer in the melt during the flight was principally diffusive; however, even in microgravity, slow growth rates may result in significant convective transport. A tentative interpretation of the Seebeck signal for destabilized interfaces is also proposed.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J N Mohanty; K C Baral; G Nath
2007-03-01
Boltzmann-transport equation is analytically solved for two-component magnetoplasma using Chapman-Enskog analysis to include collisional diffusion transport having anisotropies in both streaming velocity and temperature components. The modified collisional integrals are analytically solved with flux integrals and perturbed kinetic equation to arrive at drift diffusion velocity and resulting transport coefficients which are markedly affected by both streaming and temperature anisotropy. The early isotropic results are recovered in the limit $V_{0} = 0$ and $T_{\\|} = T_{\\bot}$ which reduce to eqs (11.30) and (11.31) of [1] and eqs (2.7) and (2.13) of [2]. The electrical resistivity (n_{\\bot}) diminishes sharply in fusion temperature limit $kT_{\\bot} = 1$ keV. The shape of the curves for both electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity is rectangular hyperbolic. However, for low thermal ratio $(T_{\\|}/T_{\\bot} < 1)$, the curves are raised up and for high thermal ratio $(T_{\\|}/T_{\\bot} > 1)$, they are lowered down the isotropic case $(T_{\\|}/T_{\\bot} > 1)$, showing comparatively diminished magnitudes of the quantities.
Transport phenomena during vapor growth of optoelectronic material - A mercurous chloride system
Singh, N. B.
1990-01-01
Crystal growth velocity was measured in a mercurous chloride system in a two-zone transparent furnace as a function of the Rayleigh number by varying a/L, where a is the radius of the growth tube and L is the transport length. Growth velocity data showed different trends at low and high aspect ratio, a result that does not support the velocity-aspect ratio trend predicted by theories. The system cannot be scaled on the basis of measurements done at a low aspect ratio. Some change in fluid flow behavior occurs in the growth tube as the aspect ratio increases.
Deng, Mingge; Li, Zhen; Borodin, Oleg; Karniadakis, George Em
2016-10-01
We develop a "charged" dissipative particle dynamics (cDPD) model for simulating mesoscopic electrokinetic phenomena governed by the stochastic Poisson-Nernst-Planck and the Navier-Stokes equations. Specifically, the transport equations of ionic species are incorporated into the DPD framework by introducing extra degrees of freedom and corresponding evolution equations associated with each DPD particle. Diffusion of ionic species driven by the ionic concentration gradient, electrostatic potential gradient, and thermal fluctuations is captured accurately via pairwise fluxes between DPD particles. The electrostatic potential is obtained by solving the Poisson equation on the moving DPD particles iteratively at each time step. For charged surfaces in bounded systems, an effective boundary treatment methodology is developed for imposing both the correct hydrodynamic and electrokinetics boundary conditions in cDPD simulations. To validate the proposed cDPD model and the corresponding boundary conditions, we first study the electrostatic structure in the vicinity of a charged solid surface, i.e., we perform cDPD simulations of the electrostatic double layer and show that our results are in good agreement with the well-known mean-field theoretical solutions. We also simulate the electrostatic structure and capacity densities between charged parallel plates in salt solutions with different salt concentrations. Moreover, we employ the proposed methodology to study the electro-osmotic and electro-osmotic/pressure-driven flows in a micro-channel. In the latter case, we simulate the dilute poly-electrolyte solution drifting by electro-osmotic flow in a micro-channel, hence demonstrating the flexibility and capability of this method in studying complex fluids with electrostatic interactions at the micro- and nano-scales.
Sun, Shuyu
2012-06-02
A new technique for the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing transport phenomena in porous media is introduced. In this technique, the governing equations as depicted from the physics of the problem are used without extra manipulations. In other words, there is no need to reduce the number of governing equations by some sort of mathematical manipulations. This technique enables the separation of the physics part of the problem and the solver part, which makes coding more robust and could be used in several other applications with little or no modifications (e.g., multi-phase flow in porous media). In this method, one abandons the need to construct the coefficient matrix for the pressure equation. Alternatively, the coefficients are automatically generated within the solver routine. We show examples of using this technique to solving several flow problems in porous media.
Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating...... investment costs, with a quantitative risk analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation and to make use of a set of exploratory scenarios. The analysis is carried out by using the CBA-DK model representing the Danish standard approach to socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. Specifically, the paper proposes......-based graphs which function as risk-related decision support for the appraised transport infrastructure project....
Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model
Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott
2004-01-01
This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.
Borah, Manjit; Mohanta, Dambarudhar
2016-06-01
We report on the development of nanostructured barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) films on ~200-μm-thick Ag substrates by employing a cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique, where solid-state-derived BT nanoparticles are used as the starting material. Structural, morphological and compositional analyses of the as-synthesized BT nanoparticles and films were performed by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy studies. The synthesized nano-BT system has an average crystallite size of ~8.1 nm and a tetragonality ( c/ a) value ~1.003. To reveal current transport mechanism, the BT films possessing microporous structures and surrounded by homogeneously grown islands were assessed in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) conformation. The forward current conduction was observed to be purely thermionic up to respective voltages of ~1.4 and 2.2 V as for the fresh and 3-day aged samples. On the other hand, direct tunneling (DT)-mediated Ohmic feature was witnessed at a comparatively higher voltage, beyond which Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (FN) dominates in the respective MIM junctions. The magnitude of current accompanied by FN process was observed to be stronger in reverse biasing than that of forward biasing case. The use of microporous BT films can offer new insights as regards regulated tunneling events meant for miniaturized nanoelectronic elements/components.
Transport phenomena in a high pressure crystal growth system: In situ synthesis for InP melt
Zhang, H.; Prasad, V.; Anselmo, A. P.; Bliss, D. F.; Iseler, G.
1997-06-01
The physical phenomena underlying the "one-step" in situ synthesis and high pressure growth of indium phosphide crystals are complex. A high resolution computer model based on multizone adaptive grid generation and curvilinear finite volume discretization is used to predict the flow and temperature fields during the synthesis of the InP melt. Simulations are performed for a range of parameters, including Grashof number, crucible rotation, and location of the injector. These parameters affect the gas flow in a high pressure liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (HPLEC) furnace significantly, and have a strong influence on the melt synthesis and its control.
Numerical modelling of tools steel hardening. A thermal phenomena and phase transformations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Domański
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper the model hardening of tool steel takes into considerations of thermal phenomena and phase transformations in the solid state are presented. In the modelling of thermal phenomena the heat equations transfer has been solved by Finite Elements Method. The graph of continuous heating (CHT and continuous cooling (CCT considered steel are used in the model of phase transformations. Phase altered fractions during the continuous heating austenite and continuous cooling pearlite or bainite are marked in the model by formula Johnson-Mehl and Avrami. For rate of heating >100 K/s the modified equation Koistinen and Marburger is used. Modified equation Koistinen and Marburger identify the forming fraction of martensite.
Colosqui, Carlos E.; Kavousanakis, Michail E.; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.
2012-01-01
We present a model based on the lattice Boltzmann equation that is suitable for the simulation of dynamic wetting. The model is capable of exhibiting fundamental interfacial phenomena such as weak adsorption of fluid on the solid substrate and the presence of a thin surface film within which a disjoining pressure acts. Dynamics in this surface film, tightly coupled with hydrodynamics in the fluid bulk, determine macroscopic properties of primary interest: the hydrodynamic slip; the equilibriu...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacobus W. Gericke
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In the Hebrew Bible, some texts represent what we would call �natural� phenomena as being in some way related to entities classed to be אלהים in some sense of the Hebrew term; that is, God, gods, divine, deity, etc. Although various perspectives on these relations already exist in the available research on the topic, no philosophical approach to the data has of yet been conceived. In order to facilitate the latter, this study brackets the question as to what the relations between אלהים and natural phenomena in any given biblical context actually were. Yet its contribution lies in the way it aims to offer an introductory overview of some of the potentially relevant core concepts in mereology (parthood theory in metaphysics that may be of aid in any future attempt at modelling such relations, however they were conceived.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article challenges the tradition of non-philosophical discourse in Old Testament theology, particularly with reference to the relational properties of Yhwh vis-a-vis natural phenomena. Its meta-theoretical application of concepts in formal descriptive mereological analysis represents an interdisciplinary supplementation of current ways of modelling God/World in the text.Keywords: Hebrew Bible; natural phenomena; philosophy; mereology; parthood; relations
Numerical analysis of transport phenomena for designing of ejector in PEM forklift system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Jabbari, Masoud
2014-01-01
In the present study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used to design an ejector for anode recirculation in an automotive PEMFC system. A CFD model is firstly established and tested against well-documented and relevant solutions from the literature, and then used for different...
de Groh, Henry C., III; Yao, Minwu
1994-01-01
A numerical and experimental study of the growth of succinonitrile (SCN) using a horizontal Bridginan furnace and transparent glass ampoule was conducted. Two experiments were considered: one in which the temperature profile was fixed relative to the ampoule (no-growth case); and a second in which the thermal profile was translated at a constant rate (steady growth case). Measured temperature profiles on the outer surface of the ampoule were used as thermal boundary conditions for the modelling. The apparent heat capacity formulation combined with the variable viscositymeth was used to model the phase change in SeN. Both 2-D and 3-D models were studied and numerical solutions obtained using the commercial finite element code, FIDAP1. Comparison of the numerical results to experimental data showed excellent agreement. The complex 3-D shallow-cavity flow in the melt, differences between 2-D and 3-D models, effects of natural convection on the thermal gradient and shape of the solid/liquid interface, and the sensitivity of simulations to specific assumptions, are also discussed.
3D numerical modeling of coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment with malice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Triwong Peeteenut
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a multi-method Malice package for three dimension coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment by an algorithm weakly coupled with the Migen package integral method defining the electromagnetic model and the Flux-Expert package finite element method defining the thermal model. The integral method is well suited to inductive systems undergoing sinusoidal excitation at midrange or high frequency. The unknowns of both models are current density, scalar potential and temperature. Joule power in the electromagnetic model is generated by Eddy currents. It becomes the heat source in the thermal model.
Mathematical modeling of kidney transport.
Layton, Anita T
2013-01-01
In addition to metabolic waste and toxin excretion, the kidney also plays an indispensable role in regulating the balance of water, electrolytes, nitrogen, and acid-base. In this review, we describe representative mathematical models that have been developed to better understand kidney physiology and pathophysiology, including the regulation of glomerular filtration, the regulation of renal blood flow by means of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms and of the myogenic mechanism, the urine concentrating mechanism, epithelial transport, and regulation of renal oxygen transport. We discuss the extent to which these modeling efforts have expanded our understanding of renal function in both health and disease.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sedano, L. A.
2007-09-27
COMPU task is devoted to develop a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) modelling tool for DEMO tritium cycle for HCLL and HCPB blanket lines for DEMO. At the actual stage of definition of HCLL blanket design line this global objective requires to progress specifically on the physical reliability of tritium transport assessments at blanket design level. A rough reliability assessment with the identify cation of physical phenomena determining permeation rates into the coolant was tentatively advanced in COMPU Task Deliverable 1. In HCLL design, the tritium diffusion in the alloy under the flow conditions and radiation effects in Pb15.7Li can be theoretically justifies ed as the rate limiting processes for tritium transfer into the coolant. This Deliverable 2 focuses on the analysis of a specific radiation effect: the potential role of helium bubbles in Pb15.7Li, the discussion of its implications on tritium assessment for HCLL design and consequently the analysis of its quantitative impact (as cycle input) on HCLL PFD tritium cycle design. Thus, the contents of this report investigate: (1) the rationality of the consideration on HCLL design of helium bubble cavitation phenomena in irradiated Pb15.7Li channels on the base of fundamental analysis (He solution states in Pb15.7Li) from empirical clues provided by Pb15.7Li irradiation tests, (2) a preliminary rough He-bubble cavitation design assessment and bases for a more precise FEM calculation for helium bubble cavitation phenomena in HCLL blanket channels, (3) the analysis of direct experimental data and numerical developments needed for a precise cavitation assessment and (4) a proposal of the lay-out and general specifications of an integral proof-of-principle Cavitation Experiment (Cevitex) of Helium in Pb15.7Li. (Author) 40 refs.
Spectral functions in finite temperature SU(3) gauge theory and applications to transport phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haas, Michael
2014-12-10
In this thesis, gluon spectral functions in SU(3) gauge theory are calculated at finite temperature. The temperature range covers the confining regime below T{sub c} to the high temperature regime, where perturbation theory is applicable. The numerical tool is the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) employing euclidean, non-perturbative, Landau gauge gluon propagators, obtained with the Functional Renormalisation Group and Lattice QCD, as input. The spectral function is related to the propagators by an integral equation. MEM is a complex multidimensional optimisation algorithm to invert such integral equations, corresponding to an analytic continuation of the numerical data. A continuation of a discreet set of data cannot be unambiguous. The occuring ambiguities are resolved by introducing a priori knowledge of the asymptotic shape of the spectral function, in the form of a model function. Thereby, MEM simultaneously optimizes the spectral function to the input propagators and the model, leading to a unique model-dependent solution. Standard-MEM assumes positive definite spectral functions, whereas gluons show a violation of positivity in the spectral function, due to confinement. Therefore, an extended-MEM algorithm is proposed. The main application of this thesis is the calculation of the shear viscosity in units of the entropy density. A Kubo relation connects shear viscosity to the low frequency limit of a certain energy-momentum tensor correlation function. For this correlation function a loop representation of finite order in terms of gluon spectral functions is derived. That allows to calculate (η)/(s) from first principles in SU(3) for the first time for arbitrary temperatures. Further, a mapping of the SU(3) results for (η)/(s) to QCD is proposed.
Numerical Analysis of Transport Phenomena for the Design of the Ejector in a PEM Fuel Cell
Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Jabbari, Masoud; Rokni, Masoud
2012-11-01
In the present study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used to design an ejector for anode recirculation in a specific automotive PEMFC system. A CFD model is firstly established and tested against well-documented and relevant solutions from literature, and then used to different ejector geometries under different working conditions. Results showed that one ejector with the optimized geometry cannot cover the required recirculation in the entire range of the current, and having two ejector for different range of currents is a new proposed alternative, in which the system can take a better advantage of ejector for recirculation purpose.
Duives, Dorine C.; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.
2016-04-01
In recent years numerous pedestrian simulation tools have been developed that can support crowd managers and government officials in their tasks. New technologies to monitor pedestrian flows are in dire need of models that allow for rapid state-estimation. Many contemporary pedestrian simulation tools model the movements of pedestrians at a microscopic level, which does not provide an exact solution. Macroscopic models capture the fundamental characteristics of the traffic state at a more aggregate level, and generally have a closed form solution which is necessary for rapid state estimation for traffic management purposes. This contribution presents a next step in the calibration and validation of the macroscopic continuum model detailed in Hoogendoorn et al. (2014). The influence of global and local route choice on the development of crowd movement phenomena, such as dissipation, lane-formation and stripe-formation, is studied. This study shows that most self-organization phenomena and behavioural trends only develop under very specific conditions, and as such can only be simulated using specific parameter sets. Moreover, all crowd movement phenomena can be reproduced by means of the continuum model using one parameter set. This study concludes that the incorporation of local route choice behaviour and the balancing of the aptitude of pedestrians with respect to their own class and other classes are both essential in the correct prediction of crowd movement dynamics.
Modelling of degradation/recovery phenomena in CdS/CdTe ultrathin film solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorji, Nima E. [University of Bologna, Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering, Bologna (Italy)
2015-04-01
The degradation/recovery phenomena in ultrathin film solar cells based on CdS/CdTe are theoretically analysed using Sah-Noyce-Shockley theory for generation and recombination in the depletion region. This theory can explain the overlap of the depletion regions at both front and back contacts where the carrier generation and collection are as important as recombination mechanism. The value of physical parameters such as uncompensated defect density, carrier recombination lifetime and band bending at interface are critically important when reducing the thickness of CdTe layer down to sub-micron. The rollover, materials inter-/out-diffusion, complex defect formation and the role of mobile ions are taken into consideration to obtain an insight into the physics of degradation/recovery phenomena in ultrathin CdTe film solar cells. Both mechanisms are precisely analysed drawing the schematics of the energy band diagrams and mobile ions transport paths which in this case is the grain interior. This means that we neglect the metal diffusion through the grain boundaries which are assumed to be completely passivated. This assumption enabled us to study the role of the defects on the carrier transport in the interiors rather than through the boundaries. (orig.)
Modelling reverse characteristics of power LEDs with thermal phenomena taken into account
Ptak, Przemysław; Górecki, Krzysztof
2016-01-01
This paper refers to modelling characteristics of power LEDs with a particular reference to thermal phenomena. Special attention is paid to modelling characteristics of the circuit protecting the considered device against the excessive value of the reverse voltage and to the description of the temperature influence on optical power. The network form of the worked out model is presented and some results of experimental verification of this model for the selected diodes operating at different cooling conditions are described. The very good agreement between the calculated and measured characteristics is obtained.
Hafner, Robert; Stewart, Jim
Past problem-solving research has provided a basis for helping students structure their knowledge and apply appropriate problem-solving strategies to solve problems for which their knowledge (or mental models) of scientific phenomena is adequate (model-using problem solving). This research examines how problem solving in the domain of Mendelian genetics proceeds in situations where solvers' mental models are insufficient to solve problems at hand (model-revising problem solving). Such situations require solvers to use existing models to recognize anomalous data and to revise those models to accommodate the data. The study was conducted in the context of 9-week high school genetics course and addressed: the heuristics charactenstic of successful model-revising problem solving: the nature of the model revisions, made by students as well as the nature of model development across problem types; and the basis upon which solvers decide that a revised model is sufficient (that t has both predictive and explanatory power).
Numerical modelling of thermal and fluid flow phenomena in the mould channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Sowa
2007-12-01
Full Text Available In the paper, a mathematical and a numerical model of the solidification of a cylindrical slender shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity with molten metal, has been proposed. Pressure and velocity fields were obtained by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation, while the thermal fields were obtained by solving the heat conduction equation containing the convection term. Next, the numerical analysis of the solidification process of metals alloy in a cylindrical mould channel has been made. In the model one takes into account interdependence the heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena. Coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena has been taken into consideration by the changes of the fluidity function and thermophysical parameters of alloy with respect to the temperature. The influence of the pressure and the temperature of metal pouring on the solid phase growth kinetics were estimated. The problem has been solved by the finite element method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Ming-Zhe; Li Shao-Da; Wang Rui-Li
2012-01-01
We summarize the findings of a large number of studies concerning the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with complex lattice geometries.The TASEP has been recognized as a paradigm in modeling and analyzing non-equilibrium traffic systems.The paper surveys both the observed physical phenomena and several popular meanfield approaches used to analyze the extended TASEP models.Several interesting physical phenomena,such as phase separation,spontaneous symmetry breaking,and the finite-size effect,have been identified and explained.The future investigations of the extended TASEP with complex lattice geometries are also introduced.This paper may help to obtain a better understanding of non-equilibrium systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡鸣若; 朱新坚; 顾安忠
2004-01-01
A numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is developed, which can simulate such basic transport phenomena as gas-liquid two-phase flow in a working fuel cell. Boundary conditions for both the conventional and the interdigitated modes of flow are presented on a three-dimensional basis. Numerical techniques for this model are discussed in detail. Validation shows good agreement between simulating results and experimental data. Furthermore, internal transport phenomena are discussed and compared for PEM fuel cells with conventional and interdigitated flows. It is found that the dead-ended structure of an interdigitated flow does increase the oxygen mass fraction and decrease the liquid water saturation in the gas diffusion layer as compared to the conventional mode of flow. However, the cathode humidification is important for an interdigitated flow to acquire better performance than a conventional flow fuel cell.
Modeling the Collision Phenomena of Ø11X19 Size Rolls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiberiu Manescu jr.
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical comparison using dynamic modeling techniques, of physical phenomena occurring at collisions between two rollers in a lot of distinct situations: impact on the edge at angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, 60°, 70°, 80° and impact on generator. These situations occur frequently in the manufacturing process of small cylindrical rollers.
INVESTIGATION ON ELASTO-PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL COUPLED WITH DAMAGE FOR LOCALIZATION PHENOMENA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈新普; 沈国晓; 陈立新
2004-01-01
On the basis of existing plasticity-based damage model for plasticity coupled with damage for localization analysis, constitutive parameter identification was carried out through a series of numerical tests at local level. And then improvements were made on the expressions of the evolution laws of damage. Strain localization phenomena were simulated with a typical double-notched specimen under tensions. Numerical results indicate the validity of the proposed theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsson, Hilde Kristina
are subsequently evaluated based on their applicability in the four case studies. The evaluations especially focus on the impact of the choice of turbulence model and other modelling decisions made by the user. The conclusion is that CFD is a highly valuable tool for modelling several important parameters...... are presented as well as the theory behind the SST and the k-ε turbulence models. Modelling of additional variables, porous materials and twophase flows are also introduced. The two-phase flows are modelled using the Euler-Euler method, and both dispersed and free-surface flows are simulated. The importance...... of mass transfer with a focus on mixing, gas-liquid transfer of oxygen, and heterogeneous reactor systems is reviewed and mathematical models for these applications are presented. A review of how these mass transfer phenomena have been modelled in the scientific literature is also included. The models...
Mathematical model for hit phenomena as stochastic process of interactions of human interactions
Ishii, Akira; Matsuda, Naoya; Umemura, Sanae; Urushidani, Tamiko; Yamagata, Naoya; Yoshda, Narihiko
2011-01-01
Mathematical model for hit phenomena in entertainments in the society is presented as stochastic process of interactions of human dynamics. The model use only the time distribution of advertisement budget as input and the words of mouth (WOM) as posting in the social network system is used as the data to compare with the calculated results. The unit of time is daily. The WOM distribution in time is found to be very close to the residue distribution in time. The calculations for Japanese motion picture market due to the mathematical model agree very well with the actual residue distribution in time.
Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating...... investment costs, with a quantitative risk analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation and to make use of a set of exploratory scenarios. The analysis is carried out by using the CBA-DK model representing the Danish standard approach to socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. Specifically, the paper proposes......-based graphs which functions as risk-related decision support for the appraised transport infrastructure project. The presentation of RSF is demonstrated by using an appraisal case concerning a new airfield in the capital of Greenland, Nuuk....
Melo, Raquel; Vieira, Gonçalo; Caselli, Alberto; Ramos, Miguel
2010-05-01
Field surveying during the austral summer of 2007/08 and the analysis of a QuickBird satellite image, resulted on the production of a detailed geomorphological map of the Irizar and Crater Lake area in Deception Island (South Shetlands, Maritime Antarctic - 1:10 000) and allowed its analysis and spatial modelling of the geomorphological phenomena. The present study focus on the analysis of the spatial distribution and characteristics of hummocky terrains, lag surfaces and nivation hollows, complemented by GIS spatial modelling intending to identify relevant controlling geographical factors. Models of the susceptibility of occurrence of these phenomena were created using two statistical methods: logistical regression, as a multivariate method; and the informative value as a bivariate method. Success and prediction rate curves were used for model validation. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was used to quantify the level of performance and prediction of the models and to allow the comparison between the two methods. Regarding the logistic regression method, the AUC showed a success rate of 71% for the lag surfaces, 81% for the hummocky terrains and 78% for the nivation hollows. The prediction rate was 72%, 68% and 71%, respectively. Concerning the informative value method, the success rate was 69% for the lag surfaces, 84% for the hummocky terrains and 78% for the nivation hollows, and with a correspondingly prediction of 71%, 66% and 69%. The results were of very good quality and demonstrate the potential of the models to predict the influence of independent variables in the occurrence of the geomorphological phenomena and also the reliability of the data. Key-words: present-day geomorphological dynamics, detailed geomorphological mapping, GIS, spatial modelling, Deception Island, Antarctic.
A Theoretic Model of Transport Logistics Demand
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalija Jolić
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Concerning transport logistics as relation between transportand integrated approaches to logistics, some transport and logisticsspecialists consider the tenn tautological. However,transport is one of the components of logistics, along with inventories,resources, warehousing, infonnation and goods handling.Transport logistics considers wider commercial and operationalframeworks within which the flow of goods is plannedand managed. The demand for transport logistics services canbe valorised as highly qualitative, differentiated and derived.While researching transport phenomenon the implementationof models is inevitable and demand models highly desirable. Asa contribution to transport modelling this paper improves decisionmaking and planning in the transport logistics field.
Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim
2001-01-01
Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)
Moeller, Robert C.; Polk, James E.
2013-01-01
This work investigated the effects of tailored, externally-applied magnetic fields on current transport and near-anode processes in the plasma discharge of a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT). Electrical and plasma diagnostics were used to investigate how localized applied magnetic fields could mitigate the effects of the "onset" phenomena, including large-amplitude terminal voltage fluctuations and high anode fall voltages associated with unstable operation and anode erosion. An MPDT with a multi-channel hollow cathode was developed and tested with quasi-steady pulses of 1 millisecond duration at power levels of 36 kilowatts (20 volts, 1800 amperes) to 3.3 milliwatts (255 volts, 13.1 kiloamperes) with argon propellant in three different magnetic configurations: self-field, applied B field tangential to the anode lip near the exit plane, and applied cusp B field. The current pattern and current densities redistributed to follow the applied poloidal magnetic field lines, which created increased conduction paths to the anode. Also, the anode fall voltage was substantially reduced with both applied B field topologies over a large range of currents. For example, at 10.7 kiloamperes, the cusp applied magnetic field decreased anode fall voltages from 45-83 volts down to 15 volts or lower along much of the anode. The amplitude and frequency of the voltage fluctuations were also reduced over a broad range of currents with the applied fields. E.g., the standard deviations of the fluctuations were lowered by 37-49 percent at 8-9 kiloamperes. In addition, decreases in the mean terminal voltages as large as 31 percent were measured with the applied magnetic fields. These effects are shown to be associated with the increased current conduction along the applied magnetic field lines in the near-anode region. These results also suggest a reduction in frequency and intensity of current-concentrating filaments and anode spots, which contribute to erosion. Overall, both applied
Moeller, Robert C.; Polk, James E.
2013-01-01
This work investigated the effects of tailored, externally-applied magnetic fields on current transport and near-anode processes in the plasma discharge of a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT). Electrical and plasma diagnostics were used to investigate how localized applied magnetic fields could mitigate the effects of the "onset" phenomena, including large-amplitude terminal voltage fluctuations and high anode fall voltages associated with unstable operation and anode erosion. An MPDT with a multi-channel hollow cathode was developed and tested with quasi-steady pulses of 1 millisecond duration at power levels of 36 kilowatts (20 volts, 1800 amperes) to 3.3 milliwatts (255 volts, 13.1 kiloamperes) with argon propellant in three different magnetic configurations: self-field, applied B field tangential to the anode lip near the exit plane, and applied cusp B field. The current pattern and current densities redistributed to follow the applied poloidal magnetic field lines, which created increased conduction paths to the anode. Also, the anode fall voltage was substantially reduced with both applied B field topologies over a large range of currents. For example, at 10.7 kiloamperes, the cusp applied magnetic field decreased anode fall voltages from 45-83 volts down to 15 volts or lower along much of the anode. The amplitude and frequency of the voltage fluctuations were also reduced over a broad range of currents with the applied fields. E.g., the standard deviations of the fluctuations were lowered by 37-49 percent at 8-9 kiloamperes. In addition, decreases in the mean terminal voltages as large as 31 percent were measured with the applied magnetic fields. These effects are shown to be associated with the increased current conduction along the applied magnetic field lines in the near-anode region. These results also suggest a reduction in frequency and intensity of current-concentrating filaments and anode spots, which contribute to erosion. Overall, both applied
Global properties of symmetric competition models with riddling and blowout phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giant-italo Bischi
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the problem of chaos synchronization, and the related phenomena of riddling, blowout and on–off intermittency, are considered for discrete time competition models with identical competitors. The global properties which determine the different effects of riddling and blowout bifurcations are studied by the method of critical curves, a tool for the study of the global dynamical properties of two-dimensional noninvertible maps. These techniques are applied to the study of a dynamic market-share competition model.
Numerical simulation of shock wave phenomena in hydrodynamic model of semiconductor devices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Ning; YANG Geng
2007-01-01
We propose a finite element method to investigate the phenomena of shock wave and to simulate the hydrodynamic model in semiconductor devices. An introduction of this model is discussed first. Then some scaling factors and a relationship between the changing variables are discussed. And then, we use a finite element method (P1-iso-P2 element) to discrete the equations. Some boundary conditions are also discussed. Finally,a sub-micron n+-n-n+ silicon diode and Si MESFET device are simulated and the results are analyzed. Numerical results show that electronic fluids are transonic under some conditions.
Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating...... investment costs, with a quantitative risk analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation and to make use of a set of exploratory scenarios. The analysis is carried out by using the CBA-DK model representing the Danish standard approach to socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. Specifically, the paper proposes...... to supplement Optimism Bias and the associated Reference Class Forecasting (RCF) technique with a new technique that makes use of a scenario-grid. We tentatively introduce and refer to this as Reference Scenario Forecasting (RSF). The final RSF output from the CBA-DK model consists of a set of scenario...
Modeling charge transport in organic photovoltaic materials.
Nelson, Jenny; Kwiatkowski, Joe J; Kirkpatrick, James; Frost, Jarvist M
2009-11-17
The performance of an organic photovoltaic cell depends critically on the mobility of charge carriers within the constituent molecular semiconductor materials. However, a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales control charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. This Account describes a set of computational methods, specifically molecular modeling methods, to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. Using case studies, we show how this combination of methods can reproduce experimental mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Although currently applied to material systems of high symmetry or well-defined structure, further developments of this approach could address more complex systems such anisotropic or multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers. Even with an approximate treatment of packing disorder, these computational methods simulate experimental mobilities within an order of magnitude at high electric fields. We can both reproduce the relative values of electron and hole mobility in a conjugated small molecule and rationalize those values based on the symmetry of frontier orbitals. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of molecular packing, we can quantitatively replicate vertical charge transport along stacks of discotic liquid crystals which vary only in the structure of their side chains. We can reproduce the trends in mobility with molecular weight for self-organizing polymers using a cheap, coarse
Tripathi, Dharmendra; Anwar Bég, O
2013-11-01
Magnetic fields are increasingly being utilized in endoscopy and gastric transport control. In this regard, the present study investigates the influence of a transverse magnetic field in the transient peristaltic rheological transport. An electrically-conducting couple stress non-Newtonian model is employed to accurately simulate physiological fluids in peristaltic flow through a sinusoidally contracting channel of finite length. This model is designed for computing the intra-bolus oesophageal and intestinal pressures during the movement of food bolus in the digestive system under magneto-hydro-dynamic effects. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations have been employed to reduce the governing equations from nonlinear to linear form, this being a valid approach for creeping flows which characterizes physiological dynamics. Analytical approximate solutions for axial velocity, transverse velocity, pressure gradient, local wall shear stress and volumetric flow rate are obtained for the non-dimensional conservation equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions. The effects of couple stress parameter and transverse magnetic field on the velocity profile, pressure distribution, local wall shear stress and the averaged flow rate are discussed with the aid of computational results. The comparative study of non-integral and integral number of waves propagating along the finite length channel is also presented. Magnetic field and non-Newtonian properties are found to strongly influence peristaltic transport.
Numerical modelling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena of the fluidity test
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Bokota
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper, two mathematical models of the solidification of a cylindrical shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity with molten metal during the vertical fluidity test, has been proposed. In the general model, velocity and pressure fields were obtained by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation, whereas the thermal fields were obtained by solving the heat conduction equation containing the convection term. In the simplified model, making assumptions relating to both the material and the geometry of the region, the general equations for continuity and momentum have been reduced to single equation for pressure. This approach leads as to accelerate significantly of the fluid flow calculations. In this model, coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena has been taken into consideration by the changes of the fluidity function and thermophysical parameters of alloy with respect to the temperature. The problem has been solved by the finite element method.
Computational modeling of blood flow steal phenomena caused by subclavian stenoses.
Blanco, P J; Müller, L O; Watanabe, S M; Feijóo, R A
2016-06-14
The study of steal mechanisms caused by vessel obstructions is of the utmost importance to gain understanding about their pathophysiology, as well as to improve diagnosis and management procedures. The goal of this work is to perform a computational study to gain insight into the hemodynamic forces that drive blood flow steal mechanisms caused by subclavian artery stenosis. Such condition triggers a flow disorder known as subclavian steal. When this occurs in patients with internal thoracic artery anastomosed to the coronary vessels, the phenomenon includes a coronary-subclavian steal. True steal can exist in cases of increased arm blood flow, potentially resulting in neurological complications and, in the case of coronary-subclavian steal, graft function failure. In this context, the anatomically detailed arterial network (ADAN) model is employed to simulate subclavian steal and coronary-subclavian steal phenomena. Model results are verified by comparison with published data. It is concluded that this kind of model allows us to effectively address complex hemomdynamic phenomena occurring in clinical practice. More specifically, in the studied conditions it is observed that a regional brain steal occurs, primarily affecting the posterior circulation, not fully compensated by the anterior circulation. In the case of patients with coronary revascularization, it is concluded that there is a large variability in graft hemodynamic environments, which physically explain both the success of the procedure in cases of severe occlusive disease, and the reason for graft dysfunction in mildly stenosed left anterior descending coronary artery, due to alternating graft flow waveform signatures.
Chemisorption phenomena: Analytic modeling based on perturbation theory and bond-order conservation
Shustorovich, Evgeny
1986-07-01
Tremendous advances in experimental studies of chemisorption revealed that many phenomena could not be understood and projected by the current theoretical constructs. We discuss some of the experimental puzzles that prompted a development of new analytic approaches to chemisorption based on general principles such as perturbation theory (PT) and bond-order conservation (BOC). The PT results concern the periodic regularities of the heat of chemisorption, the role of the antibonding adsorbate orbitals, and universal patterns of adsorbate-induced surface polarization Some of the PT findings are further corroborated within a much broader BOC approach. The BOC model and its postulates (including the use of a Morse potential) and diverse projections are thoroughly discussed. For atomic A and diatomic AB adsorbates, it is shown how the BOC model explicitly and rigorously interrelates a variety of seemingly disparate phenomena such as preferred adsorbate sites, the activation barriers for surface migration and dissociation, relations between atomic QA ( QB) and molecular QAB heats of chemisorption, coverage and coadsorption effects on QA, overlayer phase transitions and island formation, the nature of promotion and poisoning. The model also projects possible intermediates and elementary steps of surface reactions. Although some of the findings are counter to commonly held perceptions, the whole picture of chemisorption is coherent and fits experiment well. The new conceptual understanding is stressed and some comments on the theory of chemisorption are made.
The role of fractional calculus in modeling biological phenomena: A review
Ionescu, C.; Lopes, A.; Copot, D.; Machado, J. A. T.; Bates, J. H. T.
2017-10-01
This review provides the latest developments and trends in the application of fractional calculus (FC) in biomedicine and biology. Nature has often showed to follow rather simple rules that lead to the emergence of complex phenomena as a result. Of these, the paper addresses the properties in respiratory lung tissue, whose natural solutions arise from the midst of FC in the form of non-integer differ-integral solutions and non-integer parametric models. Diffusion of substances in human body, e.g. drug diffusion, is also a phenomena well known to be captured with such mathematical models. FC has been employed in neuroscience to characterize the generation of action potentials and spiking patters but also in characterizing bio-systems (e.g. vegetable tissues). Despite the natural complexity, biological systems belong as well to this class of systems, where FC has offered parsimonious yet accurate models. This review paper is a collection of results and literature reports who are essential to any versed engineer with multidisciplinary applications and bio-medical in particular.
Wang, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Yan, Wei-Mon
Three-dimensional models of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with parallel and interdigitated flow channel designs were developed including the effects of liquid water formation on the reactant gas transport. The models were used to investigate the effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on the cell performance and local transport characteristics. The results reveal that at high operating voltages, the cell performance is independent of the flow channel designs and operating parameters, while at low operating voltages, both significantly affect cell performance. For the parallel flow channel design, as the flow channel area ratio increases the cell performance improves because fuel is transported into the diffusion layer and the catalyst layer mainly by diffusion. A larger flow channel area ratio increases the contact area between the fuel and the diffusion layer, which allows more fuel to directly diffuse into the porous layers to participate in the electrochemical reaction which enhances the reaction rates. For the interdigitated flow channel design, the baffle forces more fuel to enter the cell and participate in the electrochemical reaction, so the flow channel area ratio has less effect. Forced convection not only increases the fuel transport rates but also enhances the liquid water removal, thus interdigitated flow channel design has higher performance than the parallel flow channel design. The optimal performance for the interdigitated flow channel design occurs for a flow channel area ratio of 0.4. The cell performance also improves as the cathode flow rate increases. The effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on cell performance are analyzed based on the local current densities, oxygen flow rates and liquid water concentrations inside the cell.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xiao-Dong [Department of Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Duan, Yuan-Yuan [Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yan, Wei-Mon [Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Huafan University, Shih-Ting 22305 (China)
2007-10-11
Three-dimensional models of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with parallel and interdigitated flow channel designs were developed including the effects of liquid water formation on the reactant gas transport. The models were used to investigate the effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on the cell performance and local transport characteristics. The results reveal that at high operating voltages, the cell performance is independent of the flow channel designs and operating parameters, while at low operating voltages, both significantly affect cell performance. For the parallel flow channel design, as the flow channel area ratio increases the cell performance improves because fuel is transported into the diffusion layer and the catalyst layer mainly by diffusion. A larger flow channel area ratio increases the contact area between the fuel and the diffusion layer, which allows more fuel to directly diffuse into the porous layers to participate in the electrochemical reaction which enhances the reaction rates. For the interdigitated flow channel design, the baffle forces more fuel to enter the cell and participate in the electrochemical reaction, so the flow channel area ratio has less effect. Forced convection not only increases the fuel transport rates but also enhances the liquid water removal, thus interdigitated flow channel design has higher performance than the parallel flow channel design. The optimal performance for the interdigitated flow channel design occurs for a flow channel area ratio of 0.4. The cell performance also improves as the cathode flow rate increases. The effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on cell performance are analyzed based on the local current densities, oxygen flow rates and liquid water concentrations inside the cell. (author)
Interfacial and Wall Transport Models for SPACE-CAP Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Han, Tae Young; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2009-10-15
The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. And CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been also developed for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (gas, continuous liquid, and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by its multidimensional assessment capabilities. Thermal hydraulics solver was already developed and now under testing of its stability and soundness. As a next step, interfacial and wall transport models was setup. In order to develop the best model and correlation package for the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, which are GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0, and CONTEMPT-LT, have been reviewed. The origins of the selected models used in these codes have also been examined to find out if the models have not conflict with a proprietary right. In addition, a literature survey of the recent studies has been performed in order to incorporate the better models for the CAP code. The models and correlations of SPACE were also reviewed. CAP models and correlations are composed of interfacial heat/mass, and momentum transport models, and wall heat/mass, and momentum transport models. This paper discusses on those transport models in the CAP code.
Modelling of radon transport in porous media
van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M
1998-01-01
This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport Facil
Modelling of radon transport in porous media
van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M
1998-01-01
This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport Facil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guinard, L.
1996-12-31
In an attempt to minimise dosimetry within the primary circuit of PWR units, research is being carried out into understanding the phenomena of transportation and deposition of corrosion products. It is therefore desirable to known the form of these corrosion products and the laws governing this form. It is generally considered that they are in soluble or particulate form. A third starts with a general presentation of colloids and goes on to define points which are useful, both on a theoretical and experimental level, in terms of application to phenomena of transportation within PWRs. (author). 69 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs., 3 appends.
Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, N.J.; Bastein, L.; Price, P.N.
2010-02-19
This review examines current approximations and approaches that underlie the evaluation of transport properties for combustion modeling applications. Discussed in the review are: the intermolecular potential and its descriptive molecular parameters; various approaches to evaluating collision integrals; supporting data required for the evaluation of transport properties; commonly used computer programs for predicting transport properties; the quality of experimental measurements and their importance for validating or rejecting approximations to property estimation; the interpretation of corresponding states; combination rules that yield pair molecular potential parameters for unlike species from like species parameters; and mixture approximations. The insensitivity of transport properties to intermolecular forces is noted, especially the non-uniqueness of the supporting potential parameters. Viscosity experiments of pure substances and binary mixtures measured post 1970 are used to evaluate a number of approximations; the intermediate temperature range 1 < T* < 10, where T* is kT/{var_epsilon}, is emphasized since this is where rich data sets are available. When suitable potential parameters are used, errors in transport property predictions for pure substances and binary mixtures are less than 5 %, when they are calculated using the approaches of Kee et al.; Mason, Kestin, and Uribe; Paul and Warnatz; or Ern and Giovangigli. Recommendations stemming from the review include (1) revisiting the supporting data required by the various computational approaches, and updating the data sets with accurate potential parameters, dipole moments, and polarizabilities; (2) characterizing the range of parameter space over which the fit to experimental data is good, rather than the current practice of reporting only the parameter set that best fits the data; (3) looking for improved combining rules, since existing rules were found to under-predict the viscosity in most cases; (4
Bertei, A.; Nicolella, C.
2015-04-01
The paper shows as two assumptions typically made in modeling gas transport in solid oxide fuel cell electrodes, i.e., a) uniform pressure in the dusty-gas model, and b) validity of the Bosanquet formula in the Fick model, may lead to serious inconsistencies (such as molar fractions that do not sum up to one or fluxes that do not obey reaction stoichiometry), thus nullifying the efforts of the mechanistic modeling of transport phenomena. The nature of the inconsistent use of the models is explained with clear examples, then the correct implementation of the gas transport models is discussed. The study aims to promote a coherent physically-based modeling of gas transport phenomena in porous electrodes in order to assist their rational design.
Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit
2016-08-01
Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as
Social network modeling: a powerful tool for the study of group scale phenomena in primates.
Jacobs, Armand; Petit, Odile
2011-08-01
Social Network Analysis is now a valuable tool to study social complexity in many animal species, including primates. However, this framework has rarely been used to implement quantitative data on the social structure of a group within computer models. Such approaches allow the investigation of how social organization constrains other traits and also how these traits can impact the social organization in return. In this commentary, we discuss the powerful potential of social network modeling as a way to study group scale phenomena in primates. We describe the advantages of using such a method and we focus on the specificity of this approach in primates, given the particularities of their social networks compared with those of other taxa. We also give practical considerations and a list of examples as for the choice of parameters that can be used to implement the social layer within the models.
Mutoh, Atsuko; Tokuhara, Shinya; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Oboshi, Tamon; Kato, Shohei; Itoh, Hidenori
It is generally thought that living things have trends in their preferences. The mechanism of occurrence of another trends in successive periods is concerned in their conformity. According to social impact theory, the minority is always exists in the group. There is a possibility that the minority make the transition to the majority by conforming agents. Because of agent's promotion of their conform actions, the majority can make the transition. We proposed an evolutionary model with both genes and memes, and elucidated the interaction between genes and memes on sexual selection. In this paper, we propose an agent model for sexual selection imported the concept of conformity. Using this model we try an environment where male agents and female agents are existed, we find that periodic phenomena of fashion are expressed. And we report the influence of conformity and differentiation on the transition of their preferences.
Modeling of gap cooling phenomena in LAVA-4 test using MELCOR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, J.H.; Park, S.Y.; Kim, S.D.; Song, Y.M.; Kim, D.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea)
2000-07-01
During the severe accident, the coolability of hot debris in the hemispherical lower vessel head has been an important issue concerning the plant safety. KAERI has launched the 'SONATA' experimental program and series of LAVA test have been performed to examine the existence of initial gap and its effect on the cooling of hot debris. A gap-cooling phenomenon was modeled and implemented into the lower plenum model in MELCOR. The calculation with considering the gap cooling phenomena shows a good prediction of the rapid cool clown of the vessel wall and the debris. But this model needs more refinement and evaluation against the experimental results before application to the plant. (author)
Colosqui, Carlos E; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G
2012-01-01
We present a model based on the lattice Boltzmann equation that is suitable for the simulation of dynamic wetting. The model is capable of exhibiting fundamental interfacial phenomena such as weak adsorption of fluid on the solid substrate and the presence of a thin surface film within which a disjoining pressure acts. Dynamics in this surface film, tightly coupled with hydrodynamics in the fluid bulk, determine macroscopic properties of primary interest: the hydrodynamic slip; the equilibrium contact angle; and the static and dynamic hysteresis of the contact angles. The pseudo- potentials employed for fluid-solid interactions are composed of a repulsive core and an attractive tail that can be independently adjusted. This enables effective modification of the functional form of the disjoining pressure so that one can vary the static and dynamic hysteresis on surfaces that exhibit the same equilibrium contact angle. The modeled solid-fluid interface is diffuse, represented by a wall probability function which...
Gaina, Alex
1996-08-01
Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.
Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.
2005-01-01
The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....
Modeling of evaporation and oxidation phenomena in plasma spraying of metal powders
Zhang, Hanwei
Plasma spraying of metals in air is usually accompanied by evaporation and oxidation of the sprayed material. Optimization of the spraying process must ensure that the particles are fully molten during their short residence time in the plasma jet and prior to hitting the substrate, but not overheated to minimize evaporation losses. In atmospheric plasma spraying (ASP), it is also clearly desirable to be able to control the extent of oxide formation. The objective of this work to develop an overall mathematical model of the oxidization and volatilization phenomena involved in the plasma-spraying of metallic particles in air atmosphere. Four models were developed to simulate the following aspects of the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process: (a) the particle trajectories and the velocity and temperature profiles in an Ar-H 2 plasma jet, (b) the heat and mass transfer between particles and plasma jet, (c) the interaction between the evaporation and oxidation phenomena, and (d) the oxidation of liquid metal droplets. The resulting overall model was generated by adapting the computational fluid dynamics code FIDAP and was validated by experimental measurements carried out at the collaborating plasma laboratory of the University of Limoges. The thesis also examined the environmental implications of the oxidization and volatilization phenomena in the plasma spraying of metals. The modeling results showed that the combination of the standard k-s model of turbulence and the Boussinesq eddy-viscosity model provided a more accurate prediction of plasma gas behavior. The estimated NOx generation levels from APS were lower than the U.S.E.P.A. emission standard. Either enhanced evaporation or oxidation can occur on the surface of the metal particles and the relative extent is determined by the process parameters. Comparatively, the particle size has the greatest impact on both evaporation and oxidation. The extent of particle oxidation depends principally on gas
Multi-Fraction Bayesian Sediment Transport Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark L. Schmelter
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A Bayesian approach to sediment transport modeling can provide a strong basis for evaluating and propagating model uncertainty, which can be useful in transport applications. Previous work in developing and applying Bayesian sediment transport models used a single grain size fraction or characterized the transport of mixed-size sediment with a single characteristic grain size. Although this approach is common in sediment transport modeling, it precludes the possibility of capturing processes that cause mixed-size sediments to sort and, thereby, alter the grain size available for transport and the transport rates themselves. This paper extends development of a Bayesian transport model from one to k fractional dimensions. The model uses an existing transport function as its deterministic core and is applied to the dataset used to originally develop the function. The Bayesian multi-fraction model is able to infer the posterior distributions for essential model parameters and replicates predictive distributions of both bulk and fractional transport. Further, the inferred posterior distributions are used to evaluate parametric and other sources of variability in relations representing mixed-size interactions in the original model. Successful OPEN ACCESS J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3 1067 development of the model demonstrates that Bayesian methods can be used to provide a robust and rigorous basis for quantifying uncertainty in mixed-size sediment transport. Such a method has heretofore been unavailable and allows for the propagation of uncertainty in sediment transport applications.
Lozovik, Yu E.; Merkulova, S. P.; Sokolik, A. A.; Morozov, S. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.
2008-08-01
A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held on February 27, 2008 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Lozovik Yu E, Merkulova S P, Sokolik A A (RAS Institute for Spectroscopy, Troitsk, Moscow Region) "Collective electron phenomena in graphene"; (2) Morozov S V (RAS Institute for Problems in Micro-electronics Technology, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region), Novoselov K S, Geim A K (University of Manchester, Manchester, UK) "Electron transport in graphene." An abridged version of these reports is given below. • Collective electron phenomena in graphene, Yu E Lozovik, S P Merkulova, A A Sokolik Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 7, Pages 727-744 • Electron transport in graphene, S V Morozov, K S Novoselov, A K Geim Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 7, Pages 744-748
Walawender, Ewelina; Walawender, Jakub P.; Ustrnul, Zbigniew
2017-02-01
The main purpose of the study is to introduce methods for mapping the spatial distribution of the occurrence of selected atmospheric phenomena (thunderstorms, fog, glaze and rime) over Poland from 1966 to 2010 (45 years). Limited in situ observations as well the discontinuous and location-dependent nature of these phenomena make traditional interpolation inappropriate. Spatially continuous maps were created with the use of geospatial predictive modelling techniques. For each given phenomenon, an algorithm identifying its favourable meteorological and environmental conditions was created on the basis of observations recorded at 61 weather stations in Poland. Annual frequency maps presenting the probability of a day with a thunderstorm, fog, glaze or rime were created with the use of a modelled, gridded dataset by implementing predefined algorithms. Relevant explanatory variables were derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and downscaled with the use of a Regional Climate Model. The resulting maps of favourable meteorological conditions were found to be valuable and representative on the country scale but at different correlation ( r) strength against in situ data (from r = 0.84 for thunderstorms to r = 0.15 for fog). A weak correlation between gridded estimates of fog occurrence and observations data indicated the very local nature of this phenomenon. For this reason, additional environmental predictors of fog occurrence were also examined. Topographic parameters derived from the SRTM elevation model and reclassified CORINE Land Cover data were used as the external, explanatory variables for the multiple linear regression kriging used to obtain the final map. The regression model explained 89 % of annual frequency of fog variability in the study area. Regression residuals were interpolated via simple kriging.
Garion, C
2004-01-01
A majority of the thin-walled components subjected to intensive plastic straining at cryogenic temperatures are made of stainless steels. The examples of such components can be found in the interconnections of particle accelerators, containing the superconducting magnets, where the thermal contraction is absorbed by thin-walled, axisymetric shells called bellows expansion joints. The stainless steels show three main phenomena induced by plastic strains at cryogenic temperatures: serrated (discontinuous) yielding, gamma->alpha' phase transformation and anisotropic ductile damage. In the present paper, a coupled constitutive model of gamma->alpha' phase transformation and orthotropic ductile damage is presented. A kinetic law of phase transformation, and a kinetic law of evolution of orthotropic damage are presented. The model is extended to anisotropic plasticity comprising a constant anisotropy (texture effect), which can be classically taken into account by the Hill yield surface, and plastic strain induced ...
Mathematical model for hit phenomena and its application to analyze popularity of weekly tv drama
Ishii, Akira; Usui, Tsukasa; Uchiyama, Koki
2015-01-01
Mathematical model for hit phenomena presented by A Ishii et al in 2012 has been extended to analyze and predict a lot of hit subject using social network system. The equation for each individual consumers is assumed and the equation of social response to each hit subject is derived as stochastic process of statistical physics. The advertisement effect is included as external force and the communication effects are included as two-body and three-body interaction. The applications of this model are demonstrated for analyzing population of weekly TV drama. Including both the realtime view data and the playback view data, we found that the indirect communication correlate strongly to the TV viewing rate data for recent Japanese 20 TV drama.
Critical phenomena of strange hadronic matter in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model
Miyazaki, K
2005-01-01
We have studied the liquid-gas phase transition of warm strange hadronic matter (SHM) in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model. We implement the Nijmegen soft-core potential model NSC97f of hyperon-hyperon interactions in terms of the (hidden) strange mesons. The saturation properties of pure Lambda and Xi matter by the potential essentially determine the dependence of the critical temperature on the strangeness fraction of SHM. We treat the liquid-gas phase transition of SHM as the first-order one and employ Maxwell construction so as to calculate the phase coexistence curves. The derived critical exponents beta \\simeq 1/3 and gamma=1.22 are almost independent of the strangeness fraction of SHM and almost agree with the empirical values derived from the recent multifragmentation reactions. Consequently, we have confirmed the universality of the critical phenomena in the liquid-gas phase transition of hadronic system.
Business Models For Transport eBusiness
Dragan Cisic; Ivan Franciskovic; Ana Peric
2003-01-01
In this paper authors are presenting expectations from electronic commerce and its connotations on transport logistics. Based on trends, the relations between the companies in the international transport have to be strengthened using Internet business models. In the paper authors are investigating e-business information models for usage in transport
Louca, Loucas T.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Michael, Michalis; Constantinou, Constantinos P.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for analyzing and evaluating student-constructed models of physical phenomena and monitoring the progress of these models. Moreover, we aimed to examine whether this framework could capture differences between models created using different computer-based modeling tools; namely, computer-based…
Exploring large-scale phenomena in composite membranes through an efficient implicit-solvent model
Laradji, Mohamed; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Spangler, Eric J.
2016-07-01
Several microscopic and mesoscale models have been introduced in the past to investigate various phenomena in lipid membranes. Most of these models account for the solvent explicitly. Since in a typical molecular dynamics simulation, the majority of particles belong to the solvent, much of the computational effort in these simulations is devoted for calculating forces between solvent particles. To overcome this problem, several implicit-solvent mesoscale models for lipid membranes have been proposed during the last few years. In the present article, we review an efficient coarse-grained implicit-solvent model we introduced earlier for studies of lipid membranes. In this model, lipid molecules are coarse-grained into short semi-flexible chains of beads with soft interactions. Through molecular dynamics simulations, the model is used to investigate the thermal, structural and elastic properties of lipid membranes. We will also review here few studies, based on this model, of the phase behavior of nanoscale liposomes, cytoskeleton-induced blebbing in lipid membranes, as well as nanoparticles wrapping and endocytosis by tensionless lipid membranes. Topical Review article submitted to the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, May 9, 2016
Shamshuddin, MD.; Anwar Bég, O.; Sunder Ram, M.; Kadir, A.
2017-08-01
Non-Newtonian flows arise in numerous industrial transport processes including materials fabrication systems. Micropolar theory offers an excellent mechanism for exploring the fluid dynamics of new non-Newtonian materials which possess internal microstructure. Magnetic fields may also be used for controlling electrically-conducting polymeric flows. To explore numerical simulation of transport in rheological materials processing, in the current paper, a finite element computational solution is presented for magnetohydrodynamic, incompressible, dissipative, radiative and chemically-reacting micropolar fluid flow, heat and mass transfer adjacent to an inclined porous plate embedded in a saturated homogenous porous medium. Heat generation/absorption effects are included. Rosseland's diffusion approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. A Darcy model is employed to simulate drag effects in the porous medium. The governing transport equations are rendered into non-dimensional form under the assumption of low Reynolds number and also low magnetic Reynolds number. Using a Galerkin formulation with a weighted residual scheme, finite element solutions are presented to the boundary value problem. The influence of plate inclination, Eringen coupling number, radiation-conduction number, heat absorption/generation parameter, chemical reaction parameter, plate moving velocity parameter, magnetic parameter, thermal Grashof number, species (solutal) Grashof number, permeability parameter, Eckert number on linear velocity, micro-rotation, temperature and concentration profiles. Furthermore, the influence of selected thermo-physical parameters on friction factor, surface heat transfer and mass transfer rate is also tabulated. The finite element solutions are verified with solutions from several limiting cases in the literature. Interesting features in the flow are identified and interpreted.
Crises and Collective Socio-Economic Phenomena: Simple Models and Challenges
Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe
2013-05-01
Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the so-called Random Field Ising model ( rfim) provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena that lead to sudden ruptures and crises. We discuss different models that can capture potentially destabilizing self-referential feedback loops, induced either by herding, i.e. reference to peers, or trending, i.e. reference to the past, and that account for some of the phenomenology missing in the standard models. We discuss some empirically testable predictions of these models, for example robust signatures of rfim-like herding effects, or the logarithmic decay of spatial correlations of voting patterns. One of the most striking result, inspired by statistical physics methods, is that Adam Smith's invisible hand can fail badly at solving simple coordination problems. We also insist on the issue of time-scales, that can be extremely long in some cases, and prevent socially optimal equilibria from being reached. As a theoretical challenge, the study of so-called "detailed-balance" violating decision rules is needed to decide whether conclusions based on current models (that all assume detailed-balance) are indeed robust and generic.
Cholesterol transport in model membranes
Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Butler, Paul; Perez-Salas, Ursula
2010-03-01
Physiological processes distribute cholesterol unevenly within the cell. The levels of cholesterol are maintained by intracellular transport and a disruption in the cell's ability to keep these normal levels will lead to disease. Exchange rates of cholesterol are generally studied in model systems using labeled lipid vesicles. Initially donor vesicles have all the cholesterol and acceptor vesicles are devoid of it. They are mixed and after some time the vesicles are separated and cholesterol is traced in each vesicle. The studies performed up to date have significant scatter indicating that the methodologies are not consistent. The present work shows in-situ Time-Resolved SANS studies of cholesterol exchange rates in unsaturated PC lipid vesicles. Molecular dynamics simulations were done to investigate the energetic and kinetic behavior of cholesterol in this system. This synergistic approach will provide insight into our efforts to understand cholesterol traffic.
Turbulence in edge and core transport barriers: new experimental results and modeling
Tokuzawa, T.
2017-02-01
In this paper, recent progressive studies on experimental analysis and theoretical models for turbulence phenomena around the transport barriers in high-performance magnetic confined fusion plasma are reviewed. The linkage of radial electric fields and turbulence, the importance of radial electric field curvature, and observations of spatiotemporal turbulence structures are described with related theoretical models.
Quantum transport in RTD and atomistic modeling of nanostructures
Jiang, Zhengping
As devices are scaled down to nanometer scale, new materials and device structures are introduced to extend Moore's law beyond Si devices. In this length scale, carrier transport moves from classical transport to quantum transport; material granularity has more and more impacts on performance. Computer Aided Design (CAD) becomes essential for both industrial and educational purposes. First part focuses on physical models and numerical issues in nano-scale devices modeling. Resonance Tunneling Diode (RTD) is simulated and used to illustrate phenomena in carrier transport. Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) formulism is employed in quantum transport simulation. Inhomogeneous energy grid is used in energy integration, which is critical to capture essential physics in RTD simulation. All simulation results could be reproduced by developed simulators RTDNEGF and NEMO5. In nanostructures, device length becomes comparable to material granularity; it is not proper to consider materials as continuous in many situations. Second part of this work resolves this problem by introducing atomistic modeling method. Valley degeneracy in Si (110) QW is investigated. Inconsistency of experimental observations is resolved by introducing miscut in surface. Impacts of strain and electric field on electronic bandstructure are studied. Research of SiGe barrier disorder effects on valley splitting in Si (100) QW is then conducted. Behaviors of valley splitting in different well widths under electric field are predicted by atomistic simulation. Nearest neighbor empirical tight-binding method is used in electronic calculation and VFF Keating model is used in strain relaxation.
High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2010-01-01
In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid...... for fully nonlinear and highly dispersive waves traveling over a rapidly varying bathymetry. Finally, we cover applications of this Boussinesq model, and we study a number of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water. These include (1) Kinematics in highly nonlinear progressive deep-water waves; (2......) Kinematics in progressive solitary waves; (3) Reflection of solitary waves from a vertical wall; (4) Reflection and diffraction around a vertical plate; (5) Quartet and quintet interactions and class I and II instabilities; (6) Extreme events from focused directionally spread waveelds; (7) Bragg scattering...
Context-induced paranormal experiences: support for Houran and Lange's model of haunting phenomena.
Lange, R; Houran, J
1997-06-01
Houran and Lange's psychological model of haunting phenomena predicts that contextual variables alone are sufficient to induce poltergeist-like perceptions. 22 subjects individually visited five areas of a performance theater and were asked to notice the environment. 11 subjects in an informed condition were instructed that the location was haunted, while 11 in the control condition were told that the building was simply under renovation. Subjects' perceptions in both conditions were recorded via Green, et al.'s 1992 experiential questionnaire which contains 10 subscales related to psychological and physiological perceptions. Analysis yielded significantly more intense perceptual experiences on nine of the ten subscales in the informed condition, indicating that demand characteristics alone can stimulate paranormal-type experiences.
Critical phenomena of asymmetric nuclear matter in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model
Miyazaki, K
2005-01-01
We have studied the liquid-gas phase transition of warm asymmetric nuclear matter in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model. The three sets of the isovector-meson coupling constants are used. It is found that the critical temperature depends only on the difference of the symmetry energy but not on the differences of each isovector coupling constant. We treat the asymmetric nuclear matter as one-component system and employ the Maxwell construction so as to calculate the liquid-gas phase coexistence curve. The derived critical exponents depend on neither the symmetry energy nor the asymmetry of the system. Their values beta=0.33 and gamma=1.21 agree with the empirical values derived from the recent multifragmentation reactions. Consequently, we have confirmed the universality of the critical phenomena in the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter.
High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2010-01-01
In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid...... for fully nonlinear and highly dispersive waves traveling over a rapidly varying bathymetry. Finally, we cover applications of this Boussinesq model, and we study a number of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water. These include (1) Kinematics in highly nonlinear progressive deep-water waves; (2......) Kinematics in progressive solitary waves; (3) Reflection of solitary waves from a vertical wall; (4) Reflection and diffraction around a vertical plate; (5) Quartet and quintet interactions and class I and II instabilities; (6) Extreme events from focused directionally spread waveelds; (7) Bragg scattering...
Model tests on anomalous low friction and pendulum-type wave phenomena
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hao Wu; Qin Fang; Yusheng Lu; Yadong Zhang; Jinchun Liu
2009-01-01
The anomalous low friction (ALF) and pendulum-type wave (μwave) phenomena were two typical,nonlinear,geo-mechanical,and dynamic responses in deep-block rock mass discovered from in situ observations,which occurred from the movement of the geo-blocks under the impact of external pulses,such as deep confined explosion,earthquake,and rock bursts.With the aim to confirm the existence of the above two phenomena and study the variation laws of them experimentally,laboratory tests on the granite and cement mortar continuum and blocks models were conducted on the self-independently developed multipurpose testing system,respectively.The ALF phenomenon was realized under two loading schemes,the blocks model and working block were acted upon by the joint action of vertical impact and horizontal static force as well as the joint action of both vertical and horizontal impacts with different time intervals.It revealed that the discrete time delays corresponding to the local maximums and minimums of the horizontal displacement amplitudes and residual horizontal displacements of the working block satisfied the canonical sequences with the multiple of √2,most of which satisfied the quantitative expression (√2)~i △/V_p.Besides,the one-dimensional impact experiments were carried out on the blocks granite model,continuum,and blocks cement mortar models,respectively.Based on the comparison and analysis of the propagation properties (amplitudes and the Fourier spectrums of acceleration time histories of blocks) of the 1D stress wave in the above models,it is indicated that the fractures in rock mass have tremendous effect on the attenuation of acceleration amplitudes and high-frequency waves.By comparison of the model test data with the in situ measurement conclusions,the existence of the μ wave was confirmed experimentally in the cement mortar blocks model with larger dimensions,and the frequencies corresponding to the local maximums of spectral density curves of three
SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B.W. ARNOLD
2004-10-27
The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.
Borel and Stokes Nonperturbative Phenomena in Topological String Theory and c=1 Matrix Models
Pasquetti, Sara
2010-01-01
We address the nonperturbative structure of topological strings and c=1 matrix models, focusing on understanding the nature of instanton effects alongside with exploring their relation to the large-order behavior of the 1/N expansion. We consider the Gaussian, Penner and Chern-Simons matrix models, together with their holographic duals, the c=1 minimal string at self-dual radius and topological string theory on the resolved conifold. We employ Borel analysis to obtain the exact all-loop multi-instanton corrections to the free energies of the aforementioned models, and show that the leading poles in the Borel plane control the large-order behavior of perturbation theory. We understand the nonperturbative effects in terms of the Schwinger effect and provide a semiclassical picture in terms of eigenvalue tunneling between critical points of the multi-sheeted matrix model effective potentials. In particular, we relate instantons to Stokes phenomena via a hyperasymptotic analysis, providing a smoothing of the nonp...
Finite element modeling of heating phenomena of cracks excited by high-intensity ultrasonic pulses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Zhao-Jiang; Zheng Jiang; Zhang Shu-Yi; Mi Xiao-Bing; Zheng Kai
2010-01-01
A three-dimensional thermo-mechanical coupled finite element model is built up to simulate the phenomena of dynamical contact and frictional heating of crack faces when the plate containing the crack is excited by high-intensity ultrasonic pulses. In the finite element model, the high-power ultrasonic transducer is modeled by using a piezoelectric thermal-analogy method, and the dynamical interaction between both crack faces is modeled using a contact-impact theory. In the simulations, the frictional heating taking place at the crack faces is quantitatively calculated by using finite element thermal-structural coupling analysis, especially, the influences of acoustic chaos to plate vibration and crack heating are calculated and analysed in detail Meanwhile, the related ultrasonic infrared images are also obtained experimentally, and the theoretical simulation results are in agreement with that of the experiments. The results show that, by using the theoretical method, a good simulation of dynamic interaction and friction heating process of the crack faces under non-chaotic or chaotic sound excitation can be obtained.
Logistics and Transport - a conceptual model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise
2004-01-01
This paper describes how the freight transport sector is influenced by logistical principles of production and distribution. It introduces new ways of understanding freight transport as an integrated part of the changing trends of mobility. By introducing a conceptual model for understanding...... the interaction between logistics and transport, it points at ways to over-come inherent methodological difficulties when studying this relation...
RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S. Magnuson
2004-11-01
The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.
Biological transportation networks: Modeling and simulation
Albi, Giacomo
2015-09-15
We present a model for biological network formation originally introduced by Cai and Hu [Adaptation and optimization of biological transport networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 138701]. The modeling of fluid transportation (e.g., leaf venation and angiogenesis) and ion transportation networks (e.g., neural networks) is explained in detail and basic analytical features like the gradient flow structure of the fluid transportation network model and the impact of the model parameters on the geometry and topology of network formation are analyzed. We also present a numerical finite-element based discretization scheme and discuss sample cases of network formation simulations.
Colosqui, Carlos E; Kavousanakis, Michail E; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G
2013-01-01
We present a model based on the lattice Boltzmann equation that is suitable for the simulation of dynamic wetting. The model is capable of exhibiting fundamental interfacial phenomena such as weak adsorption of fluid on the solid substrate and the presence of a thin surface film within which a disjoining pressure acts. Dynamics in this surface film, tightly coupled with hydrodynamics in the fluid bulk, determine macroscopic properties of primary interest: the hydrodynamic slip; the equilibrium contact angle; and the static and dynamic hysteresis of the contact angles. The pseudo-potentials employed for fluid-solid interactions are composed of a repulsive core and an attractive tail that can be independently adjusted. This enables effective modification of the functional form of the disjoining pressure so that one can vary the static and dynamic hysteresis on surfaces that exhibit the same equilibrium contact angle. The modeled fluid-solid interface is diffuse, represented by a wall probability function that ultimately controls the momentum exchange between solid and fluid phases. This approach allows us to effectively vary the slip length for a given wettability (i.e., a given static contact angle) of the solid substrate.
A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben
1993-01-01
This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model...
Giona, Massimiliano; Brasiello, Antonio; Crescitelli, Silvestro
2017-08-01
This third part extends the theory of Generalized Poisson-Kac (GPK) processes to nonlinear stochastic models and to a continuum of states. Nonlinearity is treated in two ways: (i) as a dependence of the parameters (intensity of the stochastic velocity, transition rates) of the stochastic perturbation on the state variable, similarly to the case of nonlinear Langevin equations, and (ii) as the dependence of the stochastic microdynamic equations of motion on the statistical description of the process itself (nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Kac models). Several numerical and physical examples illustrate the theory. Gathering nonlinearity and a continuum of states, GPK theory provides a stochastic derivation of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation, furnishing a positive answer to the Kac’s program in kinetic theory. The transition from stochastic microdynamics to transport theory within the framework of the GPK paradigm is also addressed.
Marriage of Electromagnetism and Gravity in an Extended Space Model and Astrophysical Phenomena
Andreev, V. A.; Tsipenyuk, D. Yu.
2013-09-01
The generalization of Einstein's special theory of relativity (SRT) is proposed. In this model the possibility of unification of scalar gravity and electromagnetism into a single unified field is considered. Formally, the generalization of the SRT is that instead of (1+3)-dimensional Minkowski space the (1+4)-dimensional extension G is considered. As a fifth additional coordinate the interval S is used. This value is saved under the usual Lorentz transformations in Minkowski space M, but it changes when the transformations in the extended space G are used. We call this model the extended space model (ESM). From a physical point of view our expansion means that processes in which the rest mass of the particles changes are acceptable now. If the rest mass of a particle does not change and the physical quantities do not depend on an additional variable S, then the electromagnetic and gravitational fields exist independently of each other. But if the rest mass is variable and there is a dependence on S, then these two fields are combined into a single unified field. In the extended space model a photon can have a nonzero mass and this mass can be either positive or negative. The gravitational effects such as the speed of escape, gravitational red shift and detection of light can be analyzed in the frame of the extended space model. In this model all these gravitational effects can be found algebraically by the rotations in the (1+4) dimensional space. Now it becomes possible to predict some future results of visible size of supermassive objects in our Universe due to new stage of experimental astronomy development in the RadioAstron Project and analyze phenomena is an explosion of the star V838 Mon.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Rasmussen, Peder Lund
2009-01-01
Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modeling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Søren Juhl
2009-01-01
Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modelling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing...
Modeling the phenomena of dehydration and flooding of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell
Gerteisen, Dietmar; Heilmann, Timothy; Ziegler, Christoph
A one-dimensional, two-phase, transient PEM fuel cell model including gas diffusion layer, cathode catalyst layer and membrane is developed. The electrode is assumed to consist of a network of dispersed Pt/C forming spherically shaped agglomerated zones that are filled with electrolyte. Water is modeled in all three phases: vapor, liquid and dissolved in the ionomer to capture the effect of dehydration of the ionomer as well as flooding of the porous media. The anode is modeled as a sophisticated spatially reduced interface. Motivated by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) images of contact angles for microscopic water droplets on fibers of the gas diffusion layer, we introduce the feature of immobile saturation. A step change of the saturation between the catalyst layer and the gas diffusion layer is modeled based on the assumption of a continuous capillary pressure at the interface. The model is validated against voltammetry experiments under various humidification conditions which all show hysteresis effects in the mass transport limited region. The transient saturation profiles clearly show that insufficient liquid water removal causes pore flooding, which is responsible for the oxygen mass transport limitation at high current density values. The simulated and measured current responses from chronoamperometry experiments are compared and analyzed.
Isospin transport phenomena and odd-even staggering in 84Kr+112,124Sn collisions at 35 AMeV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piantelli S.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Experimental results concerning isospin transport phenomena and odd-even staggering in Z and N distributions are presented. Data refer to 84Kr+112,124Sn collisions at 35AMeV and they were collected with a high resolution FAZIA telescope, able to isotopically resolve ions up to Z ∼ 20. Evidences of isospin diffusion and drift obtained from the /Z behaviour of the detected fragments are discussed. The odd-even staggering both in Z and N is compared with experimental data available in literature, finding that it shows a common trend in different reaction types.
The european Trans-Tools transport model
Rooijen, T. van; Burgess, A.
2008-01-01
The paper presents the use of ArcGIS in the Transtools Transport Model, TRANS-TOOLS, created by an international consortium for the European Commission. The model describe passenger as well as freight transport in Europe with all medium and long distance modes (cars, vans, trucks, train, inland
The european Trans-Tools transport model
Rooijen, T. van; Burgess, A.
2008-01-01
The paper presents the use of ArcGIS in the Transtools Transport Model, TRANS-TOOLS, created by an international consortium for the European Commission. The model describe passenger as well as freight transport in Europe with all medium and long distance modes (cars, vans, trucks, train, inland wate
Optimal transportation networks models and theory
Bernot, Marc; Morel, Jean-Michel
2009-01-01
The transportation problem can be formalized as the problem of finding the optimal way to transport a given measure into another with the same mass. In contrast to the Monge-Kantorovitch problem, recent approaches model the branched structure of such supply networks as minima of an energy functional whose essential feature is to favour wide roads. Such a branched structure is observable in ground transportation networks, in draining and irrigation systems, in electrical power supply systems and in natural counterparts such as blood vessels or the branches of trees. These lectures provide mathematical proof of several existence, structure and regularity properties empirically observed in transportation networks. The link with previous discrete physical models of irrigation and erosion models in geomorphology and with discrete telecommunication and transportation models is discussed. It will be mathematically proven that the majority fit in the simple model sketched in this volume.
Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.
2005-01-01
The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard...... deviation of the step size is large compared to its value when the gradient is below critical. For symmetric as well as asymmetric off-axis fueling, the model is capable of producing profiles peaking at the axis. Additionally, profile consistency is obtained over a broad range of source strengths....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....
Modelling of phenomena in solid state for the steel casting cooled by liquid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Kulawik
2011-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper a mathematical model of cooling process for steel castings is presented. Effect of convective motion of the coolant onmaterial structure after cooling process is investigated. Mathematical and numerical model based on Generalized Difference Method for axysimmertric elements is used. To solve the Navier-Stokes equation the characteristic based split scheme (CBS has been applied. The solution of the heat transport equation with the convective term has been obtained by a stabilized meshless method. To determine of the phase transformation the macroscopic model built on the basis of Time Temperature Transformation diagrams for continuous cooling of medium-carbon steel has been used. The temporary temperature fields, the phase transformation, thermal and structural strains for the cooled element and the fields of temperature and velocity for the coolant have been determined.
Aluja, Jaime Gil
2012-01-01
Little by little we are being provided with an arsenal of operative instruments of a non-numerical nature, in the shape of models and algorithms, capable of providing answers to the “aggressions” which our economics and management systems must withstand, coming from an environment full of turmoil. In the work which we are presenting, we dare to propose a set of elements from which we hope arise focuses capable of renewing those structures of economic thought which are upheld by the geometrical idea. The concepts of pretopology and topology, habitually marginalized in economics and management studies, have centred our interest in recent times. We consider that it is not possible to conceive formal structures capable of representing the Darwinism concept of economic behaviour today without recurring to this fundamental generalisation of metric spaces. In our attempts to find a solid base to the structures proposed for the treatment of economic phenomena, we have frequently resorted to the theory ...
Orlandi, A.; Parola, A.; Reatto, L.
2004-11-01
We study how the formalism of the hierarchical reference theory (HRT) can be extended to inhomogeneous systems. HRT is a liquid-state theory which implements the basic ideas of the Wilson momentum-shell renormalization group (RG) to microscopic Hamiltonians. In the case of homogeneous systems, HRT provides accurate results even in the critical region, where it reproduces scaling and nonclassical critical exponents. We applied the HRT to study wetting critical phenomena in a planar geometry. Our formalism avoids the explicit definition of effective surface Hamiltonians but leads, close to the wetting transition, to the same renormalization group equation already studied by RG techiques. However, HRT also provides information on the nonuniversal quantities because it does not require any preliminary coarse graining procedure. A simple approximation to the infinite HRT set of equations is discussed. The HRT evolution equation for the surface free energy is numerically integrated in a semi-infinite three-dimensional Ising model and the complete wetting phase transition is analyzed. A renormalization of the adsorption critical amplitude and of the wetting parameter is observed. Our results are compared to available Monte Carlo simulations.
Measurements and models of reactive transport in geological media
Berkowitz, Brian; Dror, Ishai; Hansen, Scott K.; Scher, Harvey
2016-12-01
Reactive chemical transport plays a key role in geological media across scales, from pore scale to aquifer scale. Systems can be altered by changes in solution chemistry and a wide variety of chemical transformations, including precipitation/dissolution reactions that cause feedbacks that directly affect the flow and transport regime. The combination of these processes with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport in heterogeneous media leads to a rich spectrum of complex dynamics. The principal challenge in modeling reactive transport is to account for the subtle effects of fluctuations in the flow field and species concentrations; spatial or temporal averaging generally suppresses these effects. Moreover, it is critical to ground model conceptualizations and test model outputs against laboratory experiments and field measurements. This review emphasizes the integration of these aspects, considering carefully designed and controlled experiments at both laboratory and field scales, in the context of development and solution of reactive transport models based on continuum-scale and particle tracking approaches. We first discuss laboratory experiments and field measurements that define the scope of the phenomena and provide data for model comparison. We continue by surveying models involving advection-dispersion-reaction equation and continuous time random walk formulations. The integration of measurements and models is then examined, considering a series of case studies in different frameworks. We delineate the underlying assumptions, and strengths and weaknesses, of these analyses, and the role of probabilistic effects. We also show the key importance of quantifying the spreading and mixing of reactive species, recognizing the role of small-scale physical and chemical fluctuations that control the initiation of reactions.
A comprehensive one-dimensional numerical model for solute transport in rivers
Barati Moghaddam, Maryam; Mazaheri, Mehdi; MohammadVali Samani, Jamal
2017-01-01
One of the mechanisms that greatly affect the pollutant transport in rivers, especially in mountain streams, is the effect of transient storage zones. The main effect of these zones is to retain pollutants temporarily and then release them gradually. Transient storage zones indirectly influence all phenomena related to mass transport in rivers. This paper presents the TOASTS (third-order accuracy simulation of transient storage) model to simulate 1-D pollutant transport in rivers with irregular cross-sections under unsteady flow and transient storage zones. The proposed model was verified versus some analytical solutions and a 2-D hydrodynamic model. In addition, in order to demonstrate the model applicability, two hypothetical examples were designed and four sets of well-established frequently cited tracer study data were used. These cases cover different processes governing transport, cross-section types and flow regimes. The results of the TOASTS model, in comparison with two common contaminant transport models, shows better accuracy and numerical stability.
Uncertainty in tsunami sediment transport modeling
Jaffe, Bruce E.; Goto, Kazuhisa; Sugawara, Daisuke; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; La Selle, SeanPaul M.
2016-01-01
Erosion and deposition from tsunamis record information about tsunami hydrodynamics and size that can be interpreted to improve tsunami hazard assessment. We explore sources and methods for quantifying uncertainty in tsunami sediment transport modeling. Uncertainty varies with tsunami, study site, available input data, sediment grain size, and model. Although uncertainty has the potential to be large, published case studies indicate that both forward and inverse tsunami sediment transport models perform well enough to be useful for deciphering tsunami characteristics, including size, from deposits. New techniques for quantifying uncertainty, such as Ensemble Kalman Filtering inversion, and more rigorous reporting of uncertainties will advance the science of tsunami sediment transport modeling. Uncertainty may be decreased with additional laboratory studies that increase our understanding of the semi-empirical parameters and physics of tsunami sediment transport, standardized benchmark tests to assess model performance, and development of hybrid modeling approaches to exploit the strengths of forward and inverse models.
Modelling transport of graded sediment under partial transport conditions
Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Ritsema, I.L; van Os, A.G.
2006-01-01
Tentative plans are presented for research on the modelling of i) selective sediment transport in suspension and as bed-load, and ii) large-scale morphology in mixed sand-gravel bed rivers. Since the planning of the research is still in its early stages, the plans are flexible. Please feel free to
Charge-transport model for conducting polymers
Dongmin Kang, Stephen; Jeffrey Snyder, G.
2016-11-01
The growing technological importance of conducting polymers makes the fundamental understanding of their charge transport extremely important for materials and process design. Various hopping and mobility edge transport mechanisms have been proposed, but their experimental verification is limited to poor conductors. Now that advanced organic and polymer semiconductors have shown high conductivity approaching that of metals, the transport mechanism should be discernible by modelling the transport like a semiconductor with a transport edge and a transport parameter s. Here we analyse the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient together and determine that most polymers (except possibly PEDOT:tosylate) have s = 3 and thermally activated conductivity, whereas s = 1 and itinerant conductivity is typically found in crystalline semiconductors and metals. The different transport in polymers may result from the percolation of charge carriers from conducting ordered regions through poorly conducting disordered regions, consistent with what has been expected from structural studies.
Using synchronous Boolean networks to model several phenomena of collective behavior.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stepan Kochemazov
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an approach for modeling and analysis of a number of phenomena of collective behavior. By collectives we mean multi-agent systems that transition from one state to another at discrete moments of time. The behavior of a member of a collective (agent is called conforming if the opinion of this agent at current time moment conforms to the opinion of some other agents at the previous time moment. We presume that at each moment of time every agent makes a decision by choosing from the set {0,1} (where 1-decision corresponds to action and 0-decision corresponds to inaction. In our approach we model collective behavior with synchronous Boolean networks. We presume that in a network there can be agents that act at every moment of time. Such agents are called instigators. Also there can be agents that never act. Such agents are called loyalists. Agents that are neither instigators nor loyalists are called simple agents. We study two combinatorial problems. The first problem is to find a disposition of instigators that in several time moments transforms a network from a state where the majority of simple agents are inactive to a state with the majority of active agents. The second problem is to find a disposition of loyalists that returns the network to a state with the majority of inactive agents. Similar problems are studied for networks in which simple agents demonstrate the contrary to conforming behavior that we call anticonforming. We obtained several theoretical results regarding the behavior of collectives of agents with conforming or anticonforming behavior. In computational experiments we solved the described problems for randomly generated networks with several hundred vertices. We reduced corresponding combinatorial problems to the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT and used modern SAT solvers to solve the instances obtained.
Using Synchronous Boolean Networks to Model Several Phenomena of Collective Behavior
Kochemazov, Stepan; Semenov, Alexander
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose an approach for modeling and analysis of a number of phenomena of collective behavior. By collectives we mean multi-agent systems that transition from one state to another at discrete moments of time. The behavior of a member of a collective (agent) is called conforming if the opinion of this agent at current time moment conforms to the opinion of some other agents at the previous time moment. We presume that at each moment of time every agent makes a decision by choosing from the set (where 1-decision corresponds to action and 0-decision corresponds to inaction). In our approach we model collective behavior with synchronous Boolean networks. We presume that in a network there can be agents that act at every moment of time. Such agents are called instigators. Also there can be agents that never act. Such agents are called loyalists. Agents that are neither instigators nor loyalists are called simple agents. We study two combinatorial problems. The first problem is to find a disposition of instigators that in several time moments transforms a network from a state where the majority of simple agents are inactive to a state with the majority of active agents. The second problem is to find a disposition of loyalists that returns the network to a state with the majority of inactive agents. Similar problems are studied for networks in which simple agents demonstrate the contrary to conforming behavior that we call anticonforming. We obtained several theoretical results regarding the behavior of collectives of agents with conforming or anticonforming behavior. In computational experiments we solved the described problems for randomly generated networks with several hundred vertices. We reduced corresponding combinatorial problems to the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT) and used modern SAT solvers to solve the instances obtained. PMID:25526612
Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina V.
2015-01-01
Water is a crucial topic that spans the K-12 science curriculum, including the elementary grades. Students should engage in the articulation, negotiation, and revision of model-based explanations about hydrologic phenomena. However, past research has shown that students, particularly early learners, often struggle to understand hydrologic…
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Henri Bachacou; on behalf of the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations
2012-10-01
The LHC has delivered several fb-1 of data in spring and summer 2011, opening new windows of opportunity for discovering phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A summary of the searches conducted by the ATLAS and CMS experiments based on about 1 fb-1 of data is presented.
Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario; Di Paola, Benedetto; Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola; Fazio, Claudio
2017-09-01
Two 20-h modelling-based workshops focused on the explanation of thermally activated phenomena were held at the University of Palermo, Italy, during the Academic Year 2014-2015. One of them was conducted by applying an inquiry-based approach, while the other, still based on laboratory and modelling activities, was not focused on inquiry. Seventy-two students belonging to the Undergraduate Program for Chemical Engineering attended the two workshops. The related content was focused on an à la Feynman unifying approach to thermally activated phenomena. Questionnaires were administered to the students of both groups, before and post instruction. Responses were analysed using k-means cluster analysis and students' inferred lines of reasoning about the description and explanation of phenomena were studied in both groups. We find that both workshops can be considered effective in improving student's reasoning skills. However, the inquiry-based approach revealed to be more effective than the traditional one in helping students to build mechanisms of functioning and explicative models and to identify common aspects in apparently different phenomena.
Polar auxin transport: models and mechanisms
Berkel, van K.; Boer, de R.J.; Scheres, B.; Tusscher, ten K.
2013-01-01
Spatial patterns of the hormone auxin are important drivers of plant development. The observed feedback between the active, directed transport that generates auxin patterns and the auxin distribution that influences transport orientation has rendered this a popular subject for modelling studies. Her
Lafitte, G; Thuresson, K; Jarwoll, P; Nydén, M
2007-10-23
The aqueous environment in the gastrointestinal tract frequently requires solubilization of hydrophobic drug molecules in appropriate drug delivery vehicles. An effective uptake/absorption and systemic exposure of a drug molecule entails many processes, one being transport properties of the vehicles through the mucus layer. The mucus layer is a complex mixture of biological molecules. Among them, mucin is responsible of the gel properties of this layer. In this study, we have investigated the diffusion of polyoxyethylene sorbitane monooleate (polysorbate 80), a commonly used nonionic surfactant, in aqueous solution, in mucin solutions at 0.25 and 5 wt %, and in mucus. These measurements were done by using the pulsed field gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSE-NMR) technique. We conclude that polysorbate 80 is a mixture of non-surface-active molecules that can diffuse freely through all the systems investigated and of surface-active molecules that form micellar structures with transport properties strongly dependent on the environment. Polysorbate 80 micelles do not interact with mucin even though their diffusion is hindered by obstruction of the large mucin molecules. On the other hand, the transport is slowed down in mucus due to interactions with other components such as lipids depots. In the last part of this study, a hydrophobic NMR probe molecule has been included in the systems to mimic a hydrophobic drug molecule. The measurements done in aqueous solution revealed that the probe molecules were transported in a closely similar way as the polysorbate 80 micelles, indicating that they were dissolved in the micellar core. The situation was more complex in mucus. The probe molecules seem to dissolve in the lipid depots at low concentrations of polysorbate 80, which slows down their transport. At increasing concentration of polysorbate 80, the diffusion of the probe molecules increases indicating a continuous dissolution of hexamethyldisilane in the
Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-ya Yao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈智杰; 姜泽毅; 张欣欣; 张欣茹
2012-01-01
Transport phenomena within photobioreactor has a great impact on the growth rate and biomass production for mass cultivation of microalgae.This paper focuses on the transport phenomena within photobioreactor,including light distribution,heat transfer,mass and momentum transfer,and the research progress of mathematical models of each phenomenon.In this review,the effect of the type and scale of photobioreactor on light distribution,mass transfer and other phenomena is discussed,and the important parameters of each phenomenon,such as light absorption coefficient and volumetric mass transfer coefficient are summarized.The review would provide reference for the design,optimization and scale-up of high efficiency photobioreactor suitable for mass cultivation of microalgae.%微藻规模化培养过程中光生物反应器内传递现象是影响微藻的生长及产量的重要因素。本文重点综述了光生物反应器内传递现象（光传递、传热、传质和传动量传递）及其数学模型研究进展,分析了光生物反应器结构和尺寸对光传递和传质的影响,总结影响各传递现象的重要参数,如光吸收系数、体积传质系数等,为高效光生物反应器的设计、优化及放大提供了参考依据。
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, TE; Chang, CM; Rosen, EL; Garcia, G; Runnerstrom, EL; Williams, BL; Koo, B; Buonsanti, R; Milliron, DJ; Helms, BA
2014-01-01
We report here the first solid-state, NIR-selective electrochromic devices. Critical to device performance is the arrangement of nanocrystal-derived electrodes into heteromaterial frameworks, where hierarchically porous ITO nanocrystal active layers are infiltrated by an ion-conducting polymer electrolyte with mesoscale periodicity. Enhanced coloration efficiency and transport are realized over unarchitectured electrodes in devices, paving the way towards new smart windows technologies.
Mathematical Model of the Habituation Process as a Learning Basic Phenomena in PC-12 Cells.
Valdivia, Adolfo Obaya
Learning processes have been investigated for regularities of the changes in the strength of a reflex that result from manipulations of several parameters of a stimulus. Most of this work has been carried out in the tradition of associative theory. One consequence of this emphasis was that for a long time several phenomena that can be…
Using LabVIEW for Applying Mathematical Models in Representing Phenomena
Faraco, G.; Gabriele, L.
2007-01-01
Simulations make it possible to explore physical and biological phenomena, where conducting the real experiment is impracticable or difficult. The implementation of a software program describing and simulating a given physical situation encourages the understanding of a phenomenon itself. Fifty-nine students, enrolled at the Mathematical Methods…
Using LabVIEW for Applying Mathematical Models in Representing Phenomena
Faraco, G.; Gabriele, L.
2007-01-01
Simulations make it possible to explore physical and biological phenomena, where conducting the real experiment is impracticable or difficult. The implementation of a software program describing and simulating a given physical situation encourages the understanding of a phenomenon itself. Fifty-nine students, enrolled at the Mathematical Methods…
Boltzmann Transport in Hybrid PIC HET Modeling
2015-07-01
Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In...produced a variety of self-consistent electron swarm codes, such as the Magboltz code, focused on directly solving the steady Boltzmann trans-port...Std. 239.18 Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling IEPC-2015- /ISTS-2015-b- Presented at Joint Conference of 30th International
Multiscale modelling of charge transport in organic electronic materials
Nelson, Jenny
2010-03-01
Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors is controlled by a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. In this presentation we will show how a set of computational methods, namely molecular modelling methods to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport can be used to reproduce experimental charge mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Using case studies, we will show how such simulations can explain the relative values of electron and hole mobility and the effects of grain size, side chains and polymer molecular weight on charge mobility. Although currently applied to material systems of relatively high symmetry or well defined structure, this approach can be developed to address more complex systems such as multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers.
Hydrologic modeling of pathogen fate and transport.
Dorner, Sarah M; Anderson, William B; Slawson, Robin M; Kouwen, Nicholas; Huck, Peter M
2006-08-01
A watershed-scale fate and transport model has been developed for Escherichia coli and several waterborne pathogens: Cryptosporidiumspp., Giardiaspp., Campylobacter spp, and E. coli O157:H7. The objectives were to determine the primary sources of pathogenic contamination in a watershed used for drinking water supply and to gain a greater understanding of the factors that most influence their survival and transport. To predict the levels of indicator bacteria and pathogens in surface water, an existing hydrologic model, WATFLOOD, was augmented for pathogen transport and tested on a watershed in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The pathogen model considered transport as a result of overland flow, subsurface flow to tile drainage systems, and in-stream routing. The model predicted that most microorganisms entering the stream from land-based sources enter the stream from tile drainage systems rather than overland transport. Although the model predicted overland transport to be rare, when it occurred, it corresponded to the highest observed and modeled microbial concentrations. Furthermore, rapid increases in measured E. coli concentrations during storm events suggested that the resuspension of microorganisms from stream sediments may be of equal or greater importance than land-based sources of pathogens.
Computational modelling flow and transport
Stelling, G.S.; Booij, N.
1999-01-01
Lecture notes CT wa4340. Derivation of equations using balance principles; numerical treatment of ordinary differential equations; time dependent partial differential equations; the strucure of a computer model:DUFLO; usage of numerical models.
Molecular model of the neural dopamine transporter
Ravna, Aina Westrheim; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Dahl, Svein G.
2003-05-01
The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates the action of dopamine by reuptake of the neurotransmitter into presynaptic neurons, and is the main molecular target of amphetamines and cocaine. DAT and the Na+/H+ antiporter (NhaA) are secondary transporter proteins that carry small molecules across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient, using ion gradients as energy source. A 3-dimensional projection map of the E. coli NhaA has confirmed a topology of 12 membrane spanning domains, and was previously used to construct a 3-dimensional NhaA model with 12 trans-membrane α-helices (TMHs). The NhaA model, and site directed mutagenesis data on DAT, were used to construct a detailed 3-dimensional DAT model using interactive molecular graphics and empiric force field calculations. The model proposes a dopamine transport mechanism involving TMHs 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 11. Asp79, Tyr252 and Tyr274 were the primary cocaine binding residues. Binding of cocaine or its analogue, (-)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT), seemed to lock the transporter in an inactive state, and thus inhibit dopamine transport. The present model may be used to design further experimental studies of the molecular structure and mechanisms of DAT and other secondary transporter proteins.
A multi-scale model for electrokinetic transport in networks of micro-scale and nano-scale pores
Alizadeh, Shima
2016-01-01
We present an efficient and robust numerical model for simulation of electrokinetic phenomena in porous networks over a wide range of applications including energy conversion, desalination, and lab-on-a-chip systems. Coupling between fluid flow and ion transport in these networks is governed by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes equations. These equations describe a wide range of transport phenomena that can interact in complex and highly nonlinear ways in networks involving multiple pores with variable properties. Capturing these phenomena by direct simulation of the governing equations in multiple dimensions is prohibitively expensive. We present here a reduced order computational model that treats a network of many pores via solutions to 1D equations. Assuming that each pore in the network is long and thin, we derive a 1D model describing the transport in pore's longitudinal direction. We take into account the non-uniformity of potential and ion concentration profiles across the pore cross-section in the for...
Uncertainty calculation in transport models and forecasts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manzo, Stefano; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
in a four-stage transport model related to different variable distributions (to be used in a Monte Carlo simulation procedure), assignment procedures and levels of congestion, at both the link and the network level. The analysis used as case study the Næstved model, referring to the Danish town of Næstved2...... the uncertainty propagation pattern over time specific for key model outputs becomes strategically important. 1 Manzo, S., Nielsen, O. A. & Prato, C. G. (2014). The Effects of uncertainty in speed-flow curve parameters on a large-scale model. Transportation Research Record, 1, 30-37. 2 Manzo, S., Nielsen, O. A...
Prediction and Uncertainty in Computational Modeling of Complex Phenomena: A Whitepaper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trucano, T.G.
1999-01-20
This report summarizes some challenges associated with the use of computational science to predict the behavior of complex phenomena. As such, the document is a compendium of ideas that have been generated by various staff at Sandia. The report emphasizes key components of the use of computational to predict complex phenomena, including computational complexity and correctness of implementations, the nature of the comparison with data, the importance of uncertainty quantification in comprehending what the prediction is telling us, and the role of risk in making and using computational predictions. Both broad and more narrowly focused technical recommendations for research are given. Several computational problems are summarized that help to illustrate the issues we have emphasized. The tone of the report is informal, with virtually no mathematics. However, we have attempted to provide a useful bibliography that would assist the interested reader in pursuing the content of this report in greater depth.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KE Hong-Wei; XU Ming-Mei; LIU Lian-Shou
2009-01-01
By studying the critical phenomena in continuum-percolation of discs, we find a new approach to locate the critical point, i.e.using the inflection point of P_∞ as an evaluation of the percolation threshold.The susceptibility, defined as the derivative of P_∞, possesses a finite-size scaling property, where the scaling exponent is the reciprocal of ν, the critical exponent of the correlation length.A possible application of this approach to the study of the critical phenomena in relativistic heavy ion collisions is discussed.The critical point for deconfinement can be extracted by the inflection point of P_(QGP)-the probability for the event with QGP formation.The finite-size scaling of its derivative can give the critical exponent ν, which is a rare case that can provide an experimental measure of a critical exponent in heavy ion collisions.
Real time model for public transportation management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ireneusz Celiński
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Background: The article outlines managing a public transportation fleet in the dynamic aspect. There are currently many technical possibilities of identifying demand in the transportation network. It is also possible to indicate legitimate basis of estimating and steering demand. The article describes a general public transportation fleet management concept based on balancing demand and supply. Material and methods: The presented method utilizes a matrix description of demand for transportation based on telemetric and telecommunication data. Emphasis was placed mainly on a general concept and not the manner in which data was collected by other researchers. Results: The above model gave results in the form of a system for managing a fleet in real-time. The objective of the system is also to optimally utilize means of transportation at the disposal of service providers. Conclusions: The presented concept enables a new perspective on managing public transportation fleets. In case of implementation, the project would facilitate, among others, designing dynamic timetables, updated based on observed demand, and even designing dynamic points of access to public transportation lines. Further research should encompass so-called rerouting based on dynamic measurements of the characteristics of the transportation system.
Extreme physical phenomena associated with close-in solid exoplanets: Models and consequences
Saxena, Prabal
Solid exoplanets orbiting at very close distances away from their host star are astrophysical laboratories for unique and exotic processes that define everything from their orbit and shape to their atmospheres and interiors. We create models to examine the unique physical environments that these planets inhabit and explore the effects on planetary shape and on atmosphere and resurfacing processes. In particular we examine three related topics. The first topic involves the creation of a model of the atmospheres of synchronously orbiting close in solid planets which examines the potential of mass advection by the atmosphere to deform the planets shape and produce observable surface signatures. This model reproduces and builds upon earlier low dimension atmospheric models produced for Io and Heated Super-Earths by incorporating stellar disk insolation and latent heat considerations and then examines bulk atmospheric mass transport processes on a variety of different close in solid exoplanets. Spatial deposition profiles are then compared to putative sub-stellar magma oceans in order to examine deformation to a planets' shape and potential production of observable surface features. The second is the potential for tidally and rotationally distorted planets in synchronous orbit to produce observational effects and transit signatures which can both confound system characterization and also act as a probe to constrain system and planet properties. In this model we examine a number of different planet-star systems and quantify their potential biases and asphericity signatures in hypothetical transit data. The results indicate that such signatures and biases exceed observational thresholds of a number of current and future surveys and instruments and consequently may be an invaluable probe for exoplanet characterization - in particular they may help to discriminate between rocky super-earths and mini neptunes - a fundamental unresolved question regarding exoplanets. Finally
A development of multi-Species mass transport model considering thermodynamic phase equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hosokawa, Yoshifumi; Yamada, Kazuo; Johannesson, Björn
2008-01-01
In this paper, a multi-species mass transport model, which can predict time dependent variation of pore solution and solid-phase composition due to the mass transport into the hardened cement paste, has been developed. Since most of the multi-species models established previously, based...... by the penetration of mineral salts during marine seawater exposure conditions. Those phenomena in concrete can be predicted using the coupled multi-species mass transport model and the thermodynamic equilibrium model described in this paper....... on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory, did not involve the modeling of chemical process, it has been coupled to thermodynamic equilibrium model in this study. By the coupling of thermodynamic equilibrium model, the multi-species model could simulate many different behaviours in hardened cement paste such as: (i...
Coastal Meteorological Phenomena in CalNex
Angevine, W. M.; Brioude, J.
2010-12-01
Coastal meteorology plays an important role in air quality and climate in California. During the 2010 CalNex experiment, several phenomena affected the campaign observations. Among these were coastal eddies and outflow in Santa Monica Bay and the Los Angeles Bight; marine stratus and stratocumulus; and the land-sea breeze cycle on a variety of spatial scales, including transport from the San Francisco Bay Area into the Central Valley. In this presentation, we will describe these phenomena as they were seen in model forecasts and hindcast simulations, and compare those simulations to the relevant meteorological observations.
Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Moridis; Q. Hu
2001-12-20
The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada.
Godo, M N; Morgan, K T; Richardson, R B; Kimbell, J S
1995-07-01
Flow of fluids, such as blood, lymph and air, plays a major role in the normal physiology of all living organisms. Within individual organ systems, flow fields may significantly influence the transport of solutes, including nutrients and chemical toxicants, to and from the confining vessel walls (epithelia and endothelia). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provides a potentially useful tool for biologists and toxicologists investigating solute disposition in these flow fields in both normal and disease states. Application of CFD is dependent upon generation of accurate representations of the geometry of the system of interest in the form of a computational reconstruction. The present investigations, which were based on studies of the toxicology of inhaled reactive gases in the respiratory tract of rodents, provide computer programs for the generation of finite element meshes from serial tissue cross-sections. These programs, which interface with a commercial finite element fluid dynamics simulation package (FIDAP 7.05, Fluid Dynamics International, Evanston, IL), permit simulation of fluid flow in the complex geometries and local solute mass flux to the vessel walls of biological systems. The use of these programs and their application to studies of respiratory tract toxicology are described.
Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Moridis; Q. Hu
2000-03-12
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive
Transport properties site descriptive model. Guidelines for evaluation and modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berglund, Sten [WSP Environmental, Stockholm (Sweden); Selroos, Jan-Olof [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)
2004-04-01
This report describes a strategy for the development of Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models within the SKB Site Investigation programme. Similar reports have been produced for the other disciplines in the site descriptive modelling (Geology, Hydrogeology, Hydrogeochemistry, Rock mechanics, Thermal properties, and Surface ecosystems). These reports are intended to guide the site descriptive modelling, but also to provide the authorities with an overview of modelling work that will be performed. The site descriptive modelling of transport properties is presented in this report and in the associated 'Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock', which describes laboratory measurements and data evaluations. Specifically, the objectives of the present report are to: Present a description that gives an overview of the strategy for developing Site Descriptive Models, and which sets the transport modelling into this general context. Provide a structure for developing Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models that facilitates efficient modelling and comparisons between different sites. Provide guidelines on specific modelling issues where methodological consistency is judged to be of special importance, or where there is no general consensus on the modelling approach. The objectives of the site descriptive modelling process and the resulting Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models are to: Provide transport parameters for Safety Assessment. Describe the geoscientific basis for the transport model, including the qualitative and quantitative data that are of importance for the assessment of uncertainties and confidence in the transport description, and for the understanding of the processes at the sites. Provide transport parameters for use within other discipline-specific programmes. Contribute to the integrated evaluation of the investigated sites. The site descriptive
System Convergence in Transport Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Cantarella, Guilio E.
2010-01-01
-of-successive-averages (MSA) have been proposed. Convergence of the MSA under fairly weak regularity conditions was shown in Robbins and Monro (1951). The iteration between demand and assignment ? the external equilibrium ? are in many models either decoupled or follow a very simple iteration pattern. However, as demand...
Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W
2005-01-01
Complex fission phenomena can be studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle-point) nuclear shapes, may be obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in cold fission phenomena can be explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined. Predictions of two alpha accompanied fission are experimentally confirmed.
Moslehi Milani, N.; Asgari, A.
2015-05-01
In this article, the effects of carrier escape, capture, and diffusion rates, and also carrier leakage term on the spectral and power characteristics of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLDs or SLEDs) has been investigated. The investigation is done by means of numerical analysis of the rate equations at steady state. In the model, a wide range of escape, capture, and diffusion times and also drift leakage coefficient correspond to the reported values have been examined in modeling procedure. The simulation is implemented at 300 K and at a constant current density of 15 kA/cm2. Our modeling results show that the escape times do not affect the SLD characteristics, but the variation of capture and diffusion times have moderate effects on output characteristics, while the increasing of the drift leakage coefficient decreases the output power significantly.
Honda, Mitsuru
2005-10-01
In order to predict the performance of ITER plasma, it is important to validate the existing theory-based turbulent transport models by systematicallycomparing them with the experimental observations. Taking experimental data from the ITPA profile database, we have carried out transport simulations with the CDBM, GLF23 and Weiland models by the one-dimensional diffusive transport code TASK/TR. The results are evaluated by the six figures of merit as specified in ITER Physics Basis^1. From the simulation on 55 discharges, it is found that each model has unique dependence on devices and operation modes and the CDBM model gives the most satisfactory results. We have incorporated the dependence on the elongation on the CDBM model^2 and confirmed that the accuracy of the prediction is improved for H-mode discharges. Single-particle-species heat transport simulations have indicated that the CDBM model reproduces Ti profiles more accurately than Te profiles. We will also show the results of the predictive simulations coupling TASK/TR and TASK/EQ, two-dimensional equilibrium code, for high performance plasmas with internal transport barriers like the high βp and reversed shear plasmas. [1] ITER Physics Basis Expert Groups, Nucl. Fusion, 39, 2175 (1999) [2] M. Yagi et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 66, 379 (1997)
Krantz, William B
2007-01-01
This book is unique as the first effort to expound on the subject of systematic scaling analysis. Not written for a specific discipline, the book targets any reader interested in transport phenomena and reaction processes. The book is logically divided into chapters on the use of systematic scaling analysis in fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mass transfer, and reaction processes. An integrating chapter is included that considers more complex problems involving combined transport phenomena. Each chapter includes several problems that are explained in considerable detail. These are followed by several worked examples for which the general outline for the scaling is given. Each chapter also includes many practice problems. This book is based on recognizing the value of systematic scaling analysis as a pedagogical method for teaching transport and reaction processes and as a research tool for developing and solving models and in designing experiments. Thus, the book can serve as both a textbook and a reference boo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paszkuta, M
2005-06-15
Low permeability materials containing clay play an important role in practical life and natural environment. Indeed, the ability of clay soils to act as semi permeable membranes, that inhibit the passage of electrolytes, is of great interest. The major objective of this thesis is to evaluate the transport properties of natural clays and in particular coupled transports when a pressure gradient, an electrical field, a concentration gradient and a temperature gradient interact. The material is a compact argillite extracted in East France from a Callovo-Oxfordian formation which was supplied to us by ANDRA. NaCl was used as the main solute. Two series of experiments were performed to measure permeability, diffusion, conductivity, the electro-osmotic coefficient and the Soret coefficient. (author)
Modeling of coastal effluent transport: an approach to linking far-field and near-field models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Zhaoqing; KHANGAOKAR Tarang
2008-01-01
One of the challenges in effluent transport modeling in coastal tidal environments is the proper specification of initial dilution in connection with the far-field transport phenomena. An approach of external linkage of far-field and near-field effluent transport models is presented, and applied to simulating the effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor, Washington in the Strait of Juan de Fuea. A near-field plume model was used to calculate the effluent initial dilution and a three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the tidal circulation and far-field effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor. The hydrodynamic model was driven by tides and surface winds. Observed water surface elevation and velocity data were used to calibrate the model over a period covering the neap-spring tidal cycle. The model was also validated with observed surface drogue trajectory data. The model successfully reproduced the tidal dynamics in the study area and good agreements between model results and observed data were obtained. It is demonstrated that the linkage between the near-field and far-field models in effluent transport modeling can be achieved through iteratively adjusting the model grid sizes such that the dilution ratio and effluent concentration in the circulation model grid cell match the concentration calculated by the near-field plume model.
Development of A Stochastic Bedload Transport Model
Tsai, C. W.; Kuai, Z.
2009-12-01
Sediment particle transport can be viewed as a Markov chain process. In a non-equilibrium condition, the interchange of sediment particles occurs not only between the bedload layer and the bed surface, but also across the interface between bedload and suspended load. We can quantify the number of saltating particles by modeling the occupancy probabilities vector of particles staying in three states, namely, the bed surface, bedload layer, and suspended sediment layer. Most bedload transport models in the literature are formulated in terms of the mean bed shear stress or flow velocity. The proposed Markovian bedload model and the bedload transport rates are governed by various transition probabilities. These transition probabilities are all functions of the bed shear stress. The stochastic property of the bed shear stress can be incorporated into the above bedload transport model knowing the probability density function of the bed shear stress. This study presents a theoretical method to compute stochastic bedload transport rates considering the stochastic fluctuation of the bed shear stress.
Band transport model for discotic liquid crystals
Lever, L. J.; Kelsall, R. W.; Bushby, R. J.
2005-07-01
A theoretical model is presented for charge transport in discotic liquid crystals in which a charge is delocalized over more than one lattice site. As such, charge transport is via a banded conduction process in a narrow bandwidth system and takes place over coherent lengths of a few molecules. The coherent lengths are disrupted by the geometrical disorder of the system and are treated as being terminated by quantum tunnel barriers. The transmission probabilities at these barriers have been calculated as a function of the charge carrier energy. Phononic interactions are also considered and the charge carrier scattering rates are calculated for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations. The results of the calculations have been used to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of the charge transport model. Simulated data are presented and used to discuss the nature of the tunnel barriers required to reproduce experimental data. We find that the model successfully reproduces experimental time of flight data including temperature dependence.
DAC 22 High Speed Civil Transport Model
1992-01-01
Between tests, NASA research engineer Dave Hahne inspects a tenth-scale model of a supersonic transport model in the 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The model is being used in support of NASA's High-Speed Research (HSR) program. Langley researchers are applying advance aerodynamic design methods to develop a wing leading-edge flap system which significantly improves low-speed fuel efficiency and reduces noise generated during takeoff operation. Langley is NASA's lead center for the agency's HSR program, aimed at developing technology to help U.S. industry compete in the rapidly expanding trans-oceanic transport market. A U.S. high-speed civil transport is expected to fly in about the year 2010. As envisioned, it would fly 300 passengers across the Pacific in about four hours at Mach 2.4 (approximately 1,600 mph/1950 kph) for a modest increase over business class fares.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdullah, A. [Applied Thermal Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); School of Science and Technology, University of Management and Technology, Sialkot Campus, Shahabpura Road, Sialkot 51310 (Pakistan); Saleemi, A.S. [Applied Thermal Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Anis-ur-Rehman, M., E-mail: marehman@comsats.edu.pk [Applied Thermal Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2015-05-25
Highlights: • Phase pure ceria (Gd–La and Gd–Nd co-doped) as electrolytes for fuel cells. • Facile synthesis is done with composite mediated hydrothermal method. • Significant variation in transport properties with doping concentration is observed. • The Raman spectra confirmed the targeted doping and increase of vacancy sites. • Maximum conductivity achieved was 1.78 S cm{sup −1} for Ce{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.25}Nd{sub 0.25}O{sub δ} at 600 °C. - Abstract: The present study is focused on the conductivity enhancement of the doped ceria. Composite mediated hydrothermal method (CMHM) was employed to produce the material. X-ray diffraction was used to determine phase of nanocrystalline Ce{sub 1−2x}Gd{sub x}La{sub x}O{sub δ} and Ce{sub 1−2x}Gd{sub x}Nd{sub x}O{sub δ} (x = 0.1, 0.25). Conduction mechanism (dc conductivity and ac conductivity) in prepared samples was observed as a function of temperature and frequency. DC conductivity was measured in temperature range 300–700 °C. AC conductivity was measured in frequency range 1 kHz to 3 MHz at temperatures 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 °C. The enhancement in conductivity was observed due to availability of oxygen vacancy sites which was dependent on composition. The Raman measurements supported the electrical conductivity results and more vacancy sites were observed in Raman spectrum in samples which showed maximum conductivities. The maximum conductivity achieved was 1.78 S cm{sup −1} (at 600 °C) for Ce{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.25}Nd{sub 0.25}O{sub δ}, which is quite a higher value in these compounds. This made this material a potential candidate for its use as an electrolyte material for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (ITSOFCs)
GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model User's Guide
Kouatchou, J.; Molod, A.; Nielsen, J. E.; Auer, B.; Putman, W.; Clune, T.
2015-01-01
The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) General Circulation Model (GCM) makes use of the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) to enable model configurations with many functions. One of the options of the GEOS-5 GCM is the GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model (GEOS-5 CTM), which is an offline simulation of chemistry and constituent transport driven by a specified meteorology and other model output fields. This document describes the basic components of the GEOS-5 CTM, and is a user's guide on to how to obtain and run simulations on the NCCS Discover platform. In addition, we provide information on how to change the model configuration input files to meet users' needs.
Modelling Transition Towards Sustainable Transportation Sector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson
2016-01-01
In a transition towards 100% renewable energy system, transportation sector is rarely dealt withusing the holistic approach and measuring its impact on the whole energy system. Furthermore, assolutions for power and heat sectors are clearer, it is a tendency of the researchers to focus on thelatter...... two energy sectors. In order to deal with the raised issue, authors of this paper developed amethodology for calculation of the transition towards sustainable transport sector, focusing on thesolutions that are already available. Furthermore, as a part of the model, a detailed mapping ofresources...... needed has been carried out for each of the alternatives. It was shown that theelectrification of the transportation sector is a crucial point in transition, while for the transportmodes that cannot be electrified, or shifted to different transportation modes, four alternatives weredefined: synthetic...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mosel Ulrich
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We give an overview over the hadronic transport model GiBUU as a simulation tool for hadronic and electroweak reactions on nuclei over a wide energy range [1]. The model is able to handle hadron-, photon- and lepton-induced reactions as well as nucleus nucleus collisions from sub-GeV energies up to hundreds of GeV. After a general introduction of the model, we discuss its possible application to cosmic ray air showers.
The chemical transport model Oslo CTM3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. A. Søvde
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We present here the global chemical transport model Oslo CTM3, an update of the Oslo CTM2. The update comprises a faster transport scheme, an improved wet scavenging scheme for large scale rain, updated photolysis rates and a new lightning parameterization. Oslo CTM3 is better parallelized and allows for stable, large time steps for advection, enabling more complex or high resolution simulations. Thorough comparisons between the Oslo CTM3, Oslo CTM2 and measurements are performed, and in general the Oslo CTM3 is found to reproduce measurements well. Inclusion of tropospheric sulfur chemistry and nitrate aerosols in CTM3 is shown to be important to reproduce tropospheric O_{3}, OH and the CH_{4} lifetime well. Using the same meteorology to drive the two models, shows that some features related to transport are better resolved by the CTM3, such as polar cap transport, while features like transport close to the vortex edge are resolved better in the Oslo CTM2 due to its required shorter transport time step. The longer transport time steps in CTM3 result in larger errors e.g. near the jets, and when necessary, this can be remedied by using a shorter time step. An additional, more accurate and time consuming, treatment of polar cap transport is presented, however, both perform acceptably. A new treatment of the horizontal distribution of lightning is presented and found to compare well with measurements. Vertical distributions of lighting are updated, and tested against the old vertical distribution. The new profiles are found to produce more NO_{x} in the tropical middle troposphere, and less at the surface and at high altitudes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A model of double medium aquifer is briefly introduced in this paper, a partial differential equation about seepage motion derived by the tidal stress in the model layer is deduced. Compared this equation with Boulton equation used in the unconfined aquifer, a new lagging supply water term is obtained, which establish the physical basis for interpreting the phase delay phenomena of well water level caused by the solid tide. By analyzing the partial dif-ferential equation, it is found that this lagging supply term is related with the fluctuation of tide occurred in the deep aquifer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Y.Y. [Nottingham Trent University Burton Street, Dept. of Mechinal and Manufacturing Engineering (United Kingdom)
1999-07-01
This paper describes the theoretical models for general phase change phenomena in heat exchangers and in industrial processes affected by applying an electric field. The models are on the basis of nucleation and surface fluctuation theories to study the generality of phase change processes under the action of an electric field. Theoretical analysis is carried out and highlights the effect of an electric field on phase change processes from an existing phase to a new phase. The analysis has shown that a critical value of the filed strength could be found theoretically for a certain phase change process. This could be a mechanism of control the processes. (authors)
Marciniak-Czochra, Anna
2012-01-01
We present modeling of the incompressible viscous flows in the domain containing an unconfined fluid and a porous medium. For such setting a rigorous derivation of the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition was undertaken by J\\"ager and Mikeli\\'c [SIAM J. Appl. Math. \\rm 60 (2000), p. 1111-1127] using the homogenization method. So far the interface law for the pressure was conceived and confirmed only numerically. In this article we justify rigorously the pressure jump condition using the corresponding boundary layer.
Multi-compartment Aerosol Transport Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Santarpia, Joshua; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Omana, Michael Alexis; Rivera, Danielle; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony
2017-06-01
A simple aerosol transport model was developed for a multi-compartmented cleanroom. Each compartment was treated as a well-mixed volume with ventilating supply and return air. Gravitational settling, intercompartment transport, and leakage of exterior air into the system were included in the model. A set of first order, coupled, ordinary differential equations was derived from the conservation equations of aerosol mass and air mass. The system of ODEs was then solved in MATLAB using pre-existing numerical methods. The model was verified against cases of (1) constant inlet-duct concentration, and (2) exponentially decaying inlet-duct concentration. Numerical methods resulted in normalized error of less than 10 -9 when model solutions were compared to analytical solutions. The model was validated against experimental measurements from a single field test and showed good agreement in the shape and magnitude of the aerosol concentration profile with time.
Todd, Paul; Sportiello, Michael G.; Gregory, Derek; Cassanto, John M.; Alvarado, Ulises A.; Ostroff, Robert; Korszun, Z. R.
1993-01-01
Two methods of protein crystallization, osmotic dewatering and liquid-liquid diffusion, like the vapor diffusion (hanging-drop and sessile-drop) methods allow a gradual approach to supersaturation conditions. The crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme, an extensively characterized protein crystal, in the presence of sodium chloride was used as an experimental model with which to compare these two methods in low gravity and in the laboratory. Comparisons of crystal growth rates by the two methods under the two conditions have, to date, indicated that the rate of crystal growth by osmotic dewatering is nearly the same in low gravity and on the ground, while much faster crystal growth rates can be achieved by the liquid-liquid diffusion method in low gravity.
Marciniak-Czochra, Anna
2013-01-01
We present modeling of an incompressible viscous flow through a fracture adjacent to a porous medium. We consider a fast stationary flow, predominantly tangential to the porous medium. Slow flow in such setting can be described by the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman slip. For fast flows, a nonlinear filtration law in the porous medium and a non- linear interface law are expected. In this paper we rigorously derive a quadratic effective slip interface law which holds for a range of Reynolds numbers and fracture widths. The porous medium flow is described by the Darcys law. The result shows that the interface slip law can be nonlinear, independently of the regime for the bulk flow. Since most of the interface and boundary slip laws are obtained via upscaling of complex systems, the result indicates that studying the inviscid limits for the Navier-Stokes equations with linear slip law at the boundary should be rethought.
Error estimation and adaptive chemical transport modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malte Braack
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We present a numerical method to use several chemical transport models of increasing accuracy and complexity in an adaptive way. In largest parts of the domain, a simplified chemical model may be used, whereas in certain regions a more complex model is needed for accuracy reasons. A mathematically derived error estimator measures the modeling error and provides information where to use more accurate models. The error is measured in terms of output functionals. Therefore, one has to consider adjoint problems which carry sensitivity information. This concept is demonstrated by means of ozone formation and pollution emission.
Transport Phenomena in the Vapor-phase PbTe-Bi2Te3 Condensates on Sital
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.M. Freik
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Dependences of the structural characteristics and electrical properties of thin films of PbTe-Bi2Te3 solid solutions with compositions of 1,3,5 ml. % of Bi2Te3 deposited in an open vacuum on the sital substrates on their thickness d (0,2-2 microns were studied. The effective mean free path of charge carriers is defined and the dominant mechanism of scattering is found. The values of thermoelectric parameters of the near-surface layers are estimated within the two-layer Petritz model. It is stablished that condensate is characterized by a stable n-type conductivity, and there is a diffuse scattering on the surface that conditions a significant decrease in the magnitude of mobility (s, conductivity (s, and increase in the Seebeck coefficient (Ss with respect to the film volume. The obtained results are explained by acceptor influence of atmospheric oxygen and throttling of charge carriers on potential barriers of the interfaces.
Xu, Mianguang; Li, Zhongyang; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhu, Miaoyong
2017-02-01
To gain a fundamental understanding of the transient fluid flow in twin-roll continuous casting, the current paper applies both large eddy simulation (LES) and full-scale water modeling experiments to investigate the characteristics of the top free surface, stirring effect of the roll rotation, boundary layer fluctuations, and backflow stability. The results show that, the characteristics of the top free surface and the flow field in the wedge-shaped pool region are quite different with/without the consideration of the roll rotation. The roll rotation decreases the instantaneous fluctuation range of the top free surface, but increases its horizontal velocity. The stirring effect of the roll rotating makes the flow field more homogenous and there exists clear shear flow on the rotating roll surface. The vortex shedding induced by the Kármán Vortex Street from the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) causes the "velocity magnitude wave" and strongly influences the boundary layer stability and the backflow stability. The boundary layer fluctuations or the "velocity magnitude wave" induced by the vortex shedding could give rise to the internal porosity. In strip continuous casting process, the vortex shedding phenomenon indicates that the laminar flow can give rise to instability and that it should be made important in the design of the feeding system and the setting of the operating parameters.
A depth integrated model for suspended transport
Galappatti, R.
1983-01-01
A new depth averaged model for suspended sediment transport in open channels has been developed based on an asymptotic solution to the two dimensional convection-diffusion equation in the vertical plane. The solution for the depth averaged concentration is derived from the bed boundary condition and
Climate impact of transportation A model comparison
Girod, B.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Grahn, M.; Kitous, A.; Kim, S.H.; Kyle, P.
2013-01-01
Transportation contributes to a significant and rising share of global energy use and GHG emissions. Therefore modeling future travel demand, its fuel use, and resulting CO2 emission is highly relevant for climate change mitigation. In this study we compare the baseline projections for global
Transport properties of fully screened Kondo models
Hörig, Christoph B M; Mora, Christophe; Schuricht, Dirk
2014-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium transport properties of fully (exactly) screened Kondo quantum dots subject to a finite bias voltage or a finite temperature. First, we calculate the Fermi-liquid coefficients of the conductance for models with arbitrary spin, i.e., its leading behavior for small bias vol
Logistics Chains in Freight Transport Modelling
Davydenko, I.Y.
2015-01-01
The flow of trade is not equal to transport flows, mainly due to the fact that warehouses and distribution facilities are used as intermediary stops on the way from production locations to the points of consumption or further rework of goods. This thesis proposes a logistics chain model, which estim
Climate impact of transportation A model comparison
Girod, B.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Grahn, M.; Kitous, A.; Kim, S.H.; Kyle, P.
2013-01-01
Transportation contributes to a significant and rising share of global energy use and GHG emissions. Therefore modeling future travel demand, its fuel use, and resulting CO2 emission is highly relevant for climate change mitigation. In this study we compare the baseline projections for global servic
Logistics Chains in Freight Transport Modelling
Davydenko, I.Y.
2015-01-01
The flow of trade is not equal to transport flows, mainly due to the fact that warehouses and distribution facilities are used as intermediary stops on the way from production locations to the points of consumption or further rework of goods. This thesis proposes a logistics chain model, which
Equilibrium models in multimodal container transport systems
Corman, F.; Viti, F.; Negenborn, R.R.
2015-01-01
Optimizing the performance of multimodal freight transport networks involves adequately balancing the interplay between costs, volumes, times of departure and arrival, and times of travel. In order to study this interplay, we propose an assignment model that is able to efficiently determine flows an
A Multiphase First Order Model for Non-Equilibrium Sand Erosion, Transport and Sedimentation
Preziosi, Luigi; Bruno, Luca
2015-01-01
Three phenomena are involved in sand movement: erosion, wind transport, and sedimentation. This paper presents a comprehensive easy-to-use multiphase model that include all three aspects with a particular attention to situations in which erosion due to wind shear and sedimentation due to gravity are not in equilibrium. The interest is related to the fact that these are the situations leading to a change of profile of the sand bed.
2010-01-01
The technique to derive a dc-ac full bridge switching converter for a PV grid-connected system are proposed in this paper. An analysis of islanding phenomena due to load variations of R and RLC connections can be easily derived by using the state-space averaging technique and the piecewise technique with feedback current control by setting up the duty cycle with sinusoidal terms around constant value of 0.5. The solution of the two proposed models can be handled via MATLAB/SIMULINK in fast sp...
ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview
UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.
2001-12-01
ACE-Asia (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) was designed to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth?s climate system. The intensive observation period was carried out during March to May, 2001, and more than 100 researchers from several countries (United States, Japan, Korea, China, and many other Asian countries) participated using aircraft, a research vessel, surface stations and numerical models. Aerosol transport forecast activities played an important role during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. Three independent modeling groups operated chemical transport models in forecast mode and participated in flight planning activities at the operations center. These models were: MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry; Rasch and Collins); GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model; Chin and Ginour) and CFORS (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University + University of Iowa - Chemical weather FORecast System; Uno, Carmichael and Yienger). The MATCH model used in ACE-Asia was a transport model applied for the Asia region, driven by NCEP forecast meteorology. A unique feature of this model was that it assimilated satellite derived optical depths into its forecast algorithm. The GOCART model provided global aerosol forecast using forecast meteorological fields provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The CFORS model provided regional forecasts using a limited area transport model coupled with Regional Meteorological Modeling System (RAMS), initialized by NCEP and JMA forecasts. All models produced 3-d aerosol forecast products consisting of aerosol mass distributions and optical depths for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and dust. In the field these model products were made available to all participating scientists via the Web, and were also presented during the
Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames
Han, Jie
2015-10-20
This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2015.1090018. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Delft Mass Transport model DMT-2
Ditmar, Pavel; Hashemi Farahani, Hassan; Inacio, Pedro; Klees, Roland; Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xianglin; Sun, Yu; Riva, Ricardo; Ran, Jiangjun
2013-04-01
Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has enormously extended our knowledge of the Earth's system by allowing natural mass transport of various origin to be quantified. This concerns, in particular, the depletion and replenishment of continental water stocks; shrinking of polar ice sheets; deformation of the Earth's crust triggered by large earthquakes, and isostatic adjustment processes. A number of research centers compute models of temporal gravity field variations and mass transport, using GRACE data as input. One of such models - Delft Mass Transport model - is being produced at the Delft University of Technology in collaboration with the GNSS Research Center of Wuhan University. A new release of this model, DMT-2, has been produced on the basis of a new (second) release of GRACE level-1b data. This model consists of a time-series of monthly solutions spanning a time interval of more than 8 years, starting from Feb. 2003. Each solution consists of spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 120. Both unconstrained and optimally filtered solutions are obtained. The most essential improvements of the DMT-2 model, as compared to its predecessors (DMT-1 and DMT-1b), are as follows: (i) improved estimation and elimination of low-frequency noise in GRACE data, so that strong mass transport signals are not damped; (ii) computation of accurate stochastic models of data noise for each month individually with a subsequent application of frequency-dependent data weighting, which allows statistically optimal solutions to be compiled even if data noise is colored and gradually changes in time; (iii) optimized estimation of accelerometer calibration parameters; (iv) incorporation of degree 1 coefficients estimated with independent techniques; (v) usage of state-of-the-art background models to de-alias GRACE data from rapid mass transport signals (this includes the EOT11a model of ocean tides and the latest release of the AOD1B product describing
Lee, Sang-Choel; Park, Ju H.
2010-04-01
In this article, a transfer function-based modelling is proposed to investigate voltage oscillation phenomena, i.e. over-voltage at the motor terminal, associated with pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverter-fed motor drives with long feeding cables. As such, the long feeding cable is assumed to be a distortionless transmission line; then, a bounce diagram and time-harmonic method are utilised to derive a simple model with a minimum computational burden that is easy to realise using the Matlab/Simulink software package. Furthermore, the model takes account of the inverter output and the motor terminal filters, which are commonly used to suppress the motor terminal over-voltage. The model accuracy is verified by a comparison with the circuit-oriented software, OrCAD/PSpice, simulation results.
Van der Ham, H.W.M.
2011-01-01
Since the durability depends, among other things, on the quality of the concrete and presence of cracks, it is necessary to calculate the probability of cracking in hardening concrete as reliable as possible in case of durability predictions. In this thesis, it is investigated how the accuracy of st
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
This paper has attempted to simulate the microstructure formation based on fully coupling of temperature field, concentration field and velocity field with micro-kinetics. The authors presented a new way, wlich is the combination of FDM and cellular automata (CAFD) to visualize the microstructure formation of the thin complex superalloy turbine blades cast by the vacuum investment process. The distribution, orientation and mechanism of the heterogeneous nucleation, the growth kinetics of dendrites and the columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) are considered. Capitalizing on these simulating schemes, the comprehensive influence of key process variables on the scale and uniformity of grains has been investigated quantitatively. The simulated grain size and morphology agree well with the experimental results.
Symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnold, E.M.; Gee, G.W.; Nelson, R.W. (eds.)
1982-09-01
This document records the proceedings of a symposium on flow and transport processes in partially saturated groundwater systems, conducted at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on March 22-24, 1982. The symposium was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art of flow and transport modeling for use in licensing low-level nuclear waste repositories in partially saturated zones. The first day of the symposium centered around research in flow through partially saturated systems. Papers were presented with the opportunity for questions following each presentation. In addition, after all the talks, a formal panel discussion was held during which written questions were addressed to the panel of the days speakers. The second day of the Symposium was devoted to solute and contaminant transport in partially saturated media in an identical format. Individual papers are abstracted.
Model prodrugs for the intestinal oligopeptide transporter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, C U; Andersen, R; Brodin, Birger
2001-01-01
(sigma*) may influence the acid, water or base catalyzed model drug release rates, when released from series of D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala pro-moieties. Release rates were investigated in both aqueous solutions with varying pH, ionic strength, and buffer concentrations as well as in in vitro biological...... as Taft (sigma*) values, has a significant influence on the release rate of the model drug.......The human intestinal di/tri-peptide carrier, hPepT1, has been suggested as a target for increasing intestinal transport of low permeability compounds by creating prodrugs designed for the transporter. Model ester prodrugs using the stabilized dipeptides D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala as pro...
A Radiative Transport Model for Blazars
Lewis, Tiffany; Justin, Finke; Becker, Peter A.
2017-01-01
Blazars are observed across the electromagnetic spectrum, often with strong variability throughout. The underlying electron distribution associated with the observed emission is typically not computed from first principles. We start from first-principles to build up a transport model, whose solution is the electron distribution, rather than assuming a convenient functional form. Our analytical transport model considers shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, stochastic acceleration, Bohm diffusion, and synchrotron radiation. We use this solution to generate predictions for the X-ray spectrum and time lags, and compare the results with data products from BeppoSAX observations of X-ray flares from Mrk 421. This new self-consistent model provides an unprecedented view into the jet physics at play in this source, especially the strength of the shock and stochastic acceleration components and the size of the acceleration region.More recently, we augmented the transport model to incorporate Compton scattering, including Klein-Nishina effects. In this case, an analytical solution cannot be derived, and therefore we obtain the steady-state electron distribution computationally. We compare the resulting radiation spectrum with multi-wavelength data for 3C 279. We show that our new Compton + synchrotron blazar model is the first to successfully fit the FermiLAT gamma-ray data for this source based on a first-principles physical calculation.
PIV Experiments to Measure Flow Phenomena in a Scaled Model of a VHTR Lower Plenum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Richard R. Schultz; Daniel Christensen; Robert J. Pink; Ryan C. Johnson
2006-09-01
A report of experimental data collected at the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Laboratory in support of contract DE-AC07-05ID14517 and the INL Standard Problem on measurements of flow phenomena occurring in a lower plenum of a typical prismatic VHTR concept reactor to assess CFD code is presented. Background on the experimental setup and procedures is provided along with several samples of data obtained from the 3-D PIV system and an assessment of experimental uncertainty is provided. Data collected in this study include 3-dimensional velocity-field descriptions of the flow in all four inlet jets and the entire lower plenum with inlet jet Reynolds numbers (ReJet) of approximately 4300 and 12,400. These investigations have generated over 2 terabytes of data that has been processed to describe the various velocity components in formats suitable for external release and archived on removable hard disks. The processed data from both experimental studies are available in multi-column text format.
One-Dimensional, Two-Phase Flow Modeling Toward Interpreting Motor Slag Expulsion Phenomena
Kibbey, Timothy P.
2012-01-01
Aluminum oxide slag accumulation and expulsion was previously shown to be a player in various solid rocket motor phenomena, including the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) pressure perturbation, or "blip," and phantom moment. In the latter case, such un ]commanded side accelerations near the end of burn have also been identified in several other motor systems. However, efforts to estimate the mass expelled during a given event have come up short. Either bulk calculations are performed without enough physics present, or multiphase, multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic analyses are performed that give a snapshot in time and space but do not always aid in grasping the general principle. One ]dimensional, two ]phase compressible flow calculations yield an analytical result for nozzle flow under certain assumptions. This can be carried further to relate the bulk motor parameters of pressure, thrust, and mass flow rate under the different exhaust conditions driven by the addition of condensed phase mass flow. An unknown parameter is correlated to airflow testing with water injection where mass flow rates and pressure are known. Comparison is also made to full ]scale static test motor data where thrust and pressure changes are known and similar behavior is shown. The end goal is to be able to include the accumulation and flow of slag in internal ballistics predictions. This will allow better prediction of the tailoff when much slag is ejected and of mass retained versus time, believed to be a contributor to the widely-observed "flight knockdown" parameter.
Transperitoneal transport of creatinine. A comparison of kinetic models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fugleberg, S; Graff, J; Joffe, P;
1994-01-01
Six kinetic models of transperitoneal creatinine transport were formulated and validated on the basis of experimental results obtained from 23 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective...... including all three forms of transport is superior to other models. We conclude that the best model of transperitoneal creatinine transport includes diffusion, non-lymphatic convective transport and lymphatic convective transport....
Numerical Modelling Of Thermal And Structural Phenomena In Yb:YAG Laser Butt-Welded Steel Elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kubiak M.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The numerical model of thermal and structural phenomena is developed for the analysis of Yb:YAG laser welding process with the motion of the liquid material in the welding pool taken into account. Temperature field and melted material velocity field in the fusion zone are obtained from the numerical solution of continuum mechanics equations using Chorin projection method and finite volume method. Phase transformations in solid state are analyzed during heating and cooling using classical models of the kinetics of phase transformations as well as CTA and CCT diagrams for welded steel. The interpolated heat source model is developed in order to reliably reflect the real distribution of Yb:YAG laser power obtained by experimental research on the laser beam profile.
Modelling an Ammonium Transporter with SCLS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelo Troina
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (SCLS is a recently proposed modelling language for the representation and simulation of biological systems behaviour. It has been designed with the aim of combining the simplicity of notation of rewrite systems with the advantage of compositionality. It also allows a rather simple and accurate description of biological membranes and their interactions with the environment.In this work we apply SCLS to model a newly discovered ammonium transporter. This transporter is believed to play a fundamental role for plant mineral acquisition, which takes place in the arbuscular mycorrhiza, the most wide-spread plant-fungus symbiosis on earth. Due to its potential application in agriculture this kind of symbiosis is one of the main focuses of the BioBITs project. In our experiments the passage of NH3 / NH4+ from the fungus to the plant has been dissected in known and hypothetical mechanisms; with the model so far we have been able to simulate the behaviour of the system under different conditions. Our simulations confirmed some of the latest experimental results about the LjAMT2;2 transporter. The initial simulation results of the modelling of the symbiosis process are promising and indicate new directions for biological investigations.
Chemical element transport in stellar evolution models
Cassisi, Santi
2017-01-01
Stellar evolution computations provide the foundation of several methods applied to study the evolutionary properties of stars and stellar populations, both Galactic and extragalactic. The accuracy of the results obtained with these techniques is linked to the accuracy of the stellar models, and in this context the correct treatment of the transport of chemical elements is crucial. Unfortunately, in many respects calculations of the evolution of the chemical abundance profiles in stars are still affected by sometimes sizable uncertainties. Here, we review the various mechanisms of element transport included in the current generation of stellar evolution calculations, how they are implemented, the free parameters and uncertainties involved, the impact on the models and the observational constraints.
Variational multiscale models for charge transport.
Wei, Guo-Wei; Zheng, Qiong; Chen, Zhan; Xia, Kelin
2012-01-01
This work presents a few variational multiscale models for charge transport in complex physical, chemical and biological systems and engineering devices, such as fuel cells, solar cells, battery cells, nanofluidics, transistors and ion channels. An essential ingredient of the present models, introduced in an earlier paper (Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 72, 1562-1622, 2010), is the use of differential geometry theory of surfaces as a natural means to geometrically separate the macroscopic domain from the microscopic domain, meanwhile, dynamically couple discrete and continuum descriptions. Our main strategy is to construct the total energy functional of a charge transport system to encompass the polar and nonpolar free energies of solvation, and chemical potential related energy. By using the Euler-Lagrange variation, coupled Laplace-Beltrami and Poisson-Nernst-Planck (LB-PNP) equations are derived. The solution of the LB-PNP equations leads to the minimization of the total free energy, and explicit profiles of electrostatic potential and densities of charge species. To further reduce the computational complexity, the Boltzmann distribution obtained from the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is utilized to represent the densities of certain charge species so as to avoid the computationally expensive solution of some Nernst-Planck (NP) equations. Consequently, the coupled Laplace-Beltrami and Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck (LB-PBNP) equations are proposed for charge transport in heterogeneous systems. A major emphasis of the present formulation is the consistency between equilibrium LB-PB theory and non-equilibrium LB-PNP theory at equilibrium. Another major emphasis is the capability of the reduced LB-PBNP model to fully recover the prediction of the LB-PNP model at non-equilibrium settings. To account for the fluid impact on the charge transport, we derive coupled Laplace-Beltrami, Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations from the variational principle
Preon model, CKM matrices and new phenomena in high energy collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senju, Hirofumi (Nagoya Municipal Women' s Coll. (Japan))
1994-07-01
Preon model predicts many new particles. On the basis of the ortho-para mixing model for family mixing, CKM matrices for various processes are discussed in detail. Using the results, experimental signatures of new particles predicted by the preon model with preonic charge are examined. (author).
Preon Model, CKM Matrices and New Phenomena in High Energy Collisions
Senju, H.
1994-07-01
Preon model predicts many new particles. On the basis of the ortho-para mixing model for family mixing, CKM matrices for various processes are discussed in detail. Using the results, experimental signatures of new particles predicted by the preon model with preonic charge are examined.
THE RELATIONS BETWEEN MODEL PARAMETERS AND CERTAIN PHENOMENA IN TRAFFIC FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
OU Zhong-hui; TAO Ming-de; WU Zheng
2004-01-01
Based on the dimensionless dynamic model of traffic flow, the model parameters were compared with numerically simulating solutions, and the effects of the former on the latter was investigated. Some relations between the parameters were obtained. Investigation several idealized results from dimensionless dynamic model of traffic flow were concluded.
Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angioni, C
2001-10-01
Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jayaraju, S.T., E-mail: jayaraju@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sathiah, P.; Roelofs, F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Dehbi, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)
2015-08-15
Highlights: • Near-wall modeling uncertainties in the RANS particle transport and deposition are addressed in a turbulent duct flow. • Discrete Random Walk (DRW) model and Continuous Random Walk (CRW) model performances are tested. • Several near-wall anisotropic model accuracy is assessed. • Numerous sensitivity studies are performed to recommend a robust, well-validated near-wall model for accurate particle deposition predictions. - Abstract: Dust accumulation in the primary system of a (V)HTR is identified as one of the foremost concerns during a potential accident. Several numerical efforts have focused on the use of RANS methodology to better understand the complex phenomena of fluid–particle interaction at various flow conditions. In the present work, several uncertainties relating to the near-wall modeling of particle transport and deposition are addressed for the RANS approach. The validation analyses are performed in a fully developed turbulent duct flow setup. A standard k − ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment is used for modeling the turbulence. For the Lagrangian phase, the performance of a continuous random walk (CRW) model and a discrete random walk (DRW) model for the particle transport and deposition are assessed. For wall bounded flows, it is generally seen that accounting for near wall anisotropy is important to accurately predict particle deposition. The various near-wall correlations available in the literature are either derived from the DNS data or from the experimental data. A thorough investigation into various near-wall correlations and their applicability for accurate particle deposition predictions are assessed. The main outcome of the present work is a well validated turbulence model with optimal near-wall modeling which provides realistic particle deposition predictions.
Modelling characteristics of photovoltaic panels with thermal phenomena taken into account
Krac, Ewa; Górecki, Krzysztof
2016-01-01
In the paper a new form of the electrothermal model of photovoltaic panels is proposed. This model takes into account the optical, electrical and thermal properties of the considered panels, as well as electrical and thermal properties of the protecting circuit and thermal inertia of the considered panels. The form of this model is described and some results of measurements and calculations of mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline panels are presented.
Pavan, Piero G; Pachera, Paola; Forestiero, Antonella; Natali, Arturo N
2017-02-10
The focus of this work is the numerical modeling of the anterior compartment of the human leg with particular attention to crural fascia. Interaction phenomena between fascia and muscles are of clinical interest to explain some pathologies, as the compartment syndrome. A first step to enhance knowledge on this topic consists in the investigation of fascia biomechanical role and its interaction with muscles in physiological conditions. A three-dimensional finite element model of the anterior compartment is developed based on anatomical data, detailing the structural conformation of crural fascia, composed of three layers, and modeling the muscles as a unique structure. Different constitutive models are implemented to describe the mechanical response of tissues. Crural fascia is modeled as a hyperelastic fiber-reinforced material, while muscle tissue via a three-element Hill's model. The numerical analysis of isotonic contraction of muscles is performed, allowing the evaluation of pressure induced within muscles and consequent stress and strain fields arising on the crural fascia. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements of the compartment radial deformation and intracompartmental pressure during concentric contraction, to validate the model. The numerical model provides a suitable description of muscles contraction of the anterior compartment and the consequent mechanical interaction with the crural fascia.
Li, Lin; Alper, Joshua; Alexov, Emil
2016-03-18
Many biological phenomena involve the binding of proteins to a large object. Because the electrostatic forces that guide binding act over large distances, truncating the size of the system to facilitate computational modeling frequently yields inaccurate results. Our multiscale approach implements a computational focusing method that permits computation of large systems without truncating the electrostatic potential and achieves the high resolution required for modeling macromolecular interactions, all while keeping the computational time reasonable. We tested our approach on the motility of various kinesin motor domains. We found that electrostatics help guide kinesins as they walk: N-kinesins towards the plus-end, and C-kinesins towards the minus-end of microtubules. Our methodology enables computation in similar, large systems including protein binding to DNA, viruses, and membranes.
Ye, Hong-zhou; Jiang, Hong
2014-01-01
Materials with spin-crossover (SCO) properties hold great potentials in information storage and therefore have received a lot of concerns in the recent decades. The hysteresis phenomena accompanying SCO is attributed to the intermolecular cooperativity whose underlying mechanism may have a vibronic origin. In this work, a new vibronic Ising-like model in which the elastic coupling between SCO centers is included by considering harmonic stretching and bending (SAB) interactions is proposed and solved by Monte Carlo simulations. The key parameters in the new model, $k_1$ and $k_2$, corresponding to the elastic constant of the stretching and bending mode, respectively, can be directly related to the macroscopic bulk and shear modulus of the material in study, which can be readily estimated either based on experimental measurements or first-principles calculations. The convergence issue in the MC simulations of the thermal hysteresis has been carefully checked, and it was found that the stable hysteresis loop can...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.
2011-05-01
Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).
Miano, Alberto Claudio; Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte
2016-03-01
The aim of this work was to demonstrate how ultrasound mechanisms (direct and indirect effects) improve the mass transfer phenomena in food processing, and which part of the process they are more effective in. Two model cases were evaluated: the hydration of sorghum grain (with two water activities) and the influx of a pigment into melon cylinders. Different treatments enabled us to evaluate and discriminate both direct (inertial flow and "sponge effect") and indirect effects (micro channel formation), alternating pre-treatments and treatments using an ultrasonic bath (20 kHz of frequency and 28 W/L of volumetric power) and a traditional water-bath. It was demonstrated that both the effects of ultrasound technology are more effective in food with higher water activity, the micro channels only forming in moist food. Moreover, micro channel formation could also be observed using agar gel cylinders, verifying the random formation of these due to cavitation. The direct effects were shown to be important in mass transfer enhancement not only in moist food, but also in dry food, this being improved by the micro channels formed and the porosity of the food. In conclusion, the improvement in mass transfer due to direct and indirect effects was firstly discriminated and described. It was proven that both phenomena are important for mass transfer in moist foods, while only the direct effects are important for dry foods. Based on these results, better processing using ultrasound technology can be obtained.
TOUGH2. Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat Transport Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)
1991-05-01
TOUGH2 is a new and improved version of TOUGH. TOUGH2 offers added capabilities and user features, including the flexibility to handle different fluid mixtures (water, water with tracer; water, CO2; water, air; water, air, with vapor pressure lowering and water, hydrogen), facilities for processing of geometric data (computational grids), and an internal version control system to ensure referenceability of code applications. TOUGH2 is a multi-dimensional numerical model for simulating the coupled transport of water, vapor, air, and heat in porous and fractured media. The program provides options for specifying injection or withdrawal of heat and fluids. Although primarily designed for studies of high-level nuclear waste isolation in partially saturated geological media, it should also be useful for a wider range of problems in heat and moisture transfer, and in the drying of porous materials. For example, geothermal reservoir simulation problems can be handled simply by setting the air mass function equal to zero on input. The TOUGH2 simulator was developed for problems involving strongly heat-driven flow. To describe these phenomena a multi-phase approach to fluid and heat flow is used, which fully accounts for the movement of gaseous and liquid phases, their transport of latent and sensible heat, and phase transitions between liquid and vapor. TOUGH2 takes account of fluid flow in both liquid and gaseous phases occurring under pressure, viscous, and gravity forces according to Darcy`s law. Interference between the phases is represented by means of relative permeability functions. The code handles binary, but not Knudsen, diffusion in the gas phase and capillary and phase adsorption effects for the liquid phase. Heat transport occurs by means of conduction with thermal conductivity dependent on water saturation, convection, and binary diffusion, which includes both sensible and latent heat.
Meeting in Turkey: WASP Transport Modeling and WASP Ecological Modeling
A combination of lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on excercises will be used to introduce pollutant transport modeling with the U.S. EPA's general water quality model, WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program). WASP features include a user-friendly Windows-based interfa...
Model for radionuclide transport in running waters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
2005-11-15
Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment
Understanding transport in model water desalination membranes
Chan, Edwin
Polyamide based thin film composites represent the the state-of-the-art nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes used in water desalination. The performance of these membranes is enabled by the ultrathin (~100 nm) crosslinked polyamide film in facilitating the selective transport of water over salt ions. While these materials have been refined over the last several decades, understanding the relationships between polyamide structure and membrane performance remains a challenge because of the complex and heterogeneous nature of the polyamide film. In this contribution, we present our approach to addressing this challenge by studying the transport properties of model polyamide membranes synthesized via molecular layer-by-layer (mLbL) assembly. First, we demonstrate that mLbL can successfully construct polyamide membranes with well-defined nanoscale thickness and roughness using a variety of monomer formulations. Next, we present measurement tools for characterizing the network structure and transport of these model polyamide membranes. Specifically, we used X-ray and neutron scattering techniques to characterize their structure as well as a recently-developed indentation based poromechanics approach to extrapolate their water diffusion coefficient. Finally, we illustrate how these measurements can provide insight into the original problem by linking the key polyamide network properties, i.e. water-polyamide interaction parameter and characteristic network mesh size, to the membrane performance.
Sullivan, Eric
2013-01-01
Transport phenomena in porous media are commonplace in our daily lives. Examples and applications include heat and moisture transport in soils, baking and drying of food stuffs, curing of cement, and evaporation of fuels in wild fires. Of particular interest to this study are heat and moisture transport in unsaturated soils. Historically, mathematical models for these processes are derived by coupling classical Darcy's, Fourier's, and Fick's laws with volume averaged conservation of mass and energy and empirically based source and sink terms. Recent experimental and mathematical research has proposed modifications and suggested limitations in these classical equations. The primary goal of this thesis is to derive a thermodynamically consistent system of equations for heat and moisture transport in terms of the chemical potential that addresses some of these limitations. The physical processes of interest are primarily diffusive in nature and, for that reason, we focus on using the macroscale chemical potentia...
Optimal transport for applied mathematicians calculus of variations, PDEs, and modeling
Santambrogio, Filippo
2015-01-01
This monograph presents a rigorous mathematical introduction to optimal transport as a variational problem, its use in modeling various phenomena, and its connections with partial differential equations. Its main goal is to provide the reader with the techniques necessary to understand the current research in optimal transport and the tools which are most useful for its applications. Full proofs are used to illustrate mathematical concepts and each chapter includes a section that discusses applications of optimal transport to various areas, such as economics, finance, potential games, image processing and fluid dynamics. Several topics are covered that have never been previously in books on this subject, such as the Knothe transport, the properties of functionals on measures, the Dacorogna-Moser flow, the formulation through minimal flows with prescribed divergence formulation, the case of the supremal cost, and the most classical numerical methods. Graduate students and researchers in both pure and appl...
Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena
Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina
2014-01-01
This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the
Blanco, Celia; Ribó, Josep M; Hochberg, David
2015-02-01
We derive the class of population balance equations (PBE), recently applied to model the Viedma deracemization experiment, from an underlying microreversible kinetic reaction scheme. The continuum limit establishing the relationship between the micro- and macroscopic processes and the associated particle fluxes erases the microreversible nature of the molecular interactions in the population growth rate functions and limits the scope of such PBE models to strict kinetic control. The irreversible binary agglomeration processes modeled in those PBEs contribute an additional source of kinetic control. These limitations are crucial regarding the question of the origin of biological homochirality, where the interest in any model lies precisely in its ability for absolute asymmetric synthesis and the amplification of the tiny inherent statistical chiral fluctuations about the ideal racemic composition up to observable enantiometric excess levels.
Critical phenomena in the majority voter model on two-dimensional regular lattices.
Acuña-Lara, Ana L; Sastre, Francisco; Vargas-Arriola, José Raúl
2014-05-01
In this work we studied the critical behavior of the critical point as a function of the number of nearest neighbors on two-dimensional regular lattices. We performed numerical simulations on triangular, hexagonal, and bilayer square lattices. Using standard finite-size scaling theory we found that all cases fall in the two-dimensional Ising model universality class, but that the critical point value for the bilayer lattice does not follow the regular tendency that the Ising model shows.
Transport model of underground sediment in soils.
Jichao, Sun; Guangqian, Wang
2013-01-01
Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment.
A quantitative evaluation of the high resolution HARMONIE model for critical weather phenomena
van der Plas, E. V.; Wichers Schreur, B.; Kok, K.
2012-07-01
The high resolution non-hydrostatic Harmonie model (Seity et al., 2012) seems capable of delivering high quality precipitation forecasts. The quality with respect to the European radar composite is assessed using the Model Evaluation Tool, as distributed by the NCAR DTC (Developmental Testbed Center, 2012), and compared to that of the reference run of Hirlam (Unden et al., 2002), the current operational NWP model at KNMI. Both neighbourhood and object-based verification methods are compared for a week with several high intensity precipitation events in July 2010. It is found that Hirlam scores very well in most metrics, and that in spite of the higher resolution the added value of the Harmonie model is sometimes hard to quantify. However, higher precipitation intensities are better represented in the Harmonie model with its higher resolution. Object-based methods do not yet yield a sharp distinction between the different models, as it proves difficult to construct a meaningful and distinguishing metric with a solid physical basis for the many settings that can be varied.
Preliminary Evaluation of the DUSTRAN Modeling Suite for Modeling Atmospheric Chloride Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, Philip; Tran, Tracy; Fritz, Bradley; Rutz, Frederick; Ross, Steven; Gorton, Alicia; Devanathan, Ram; Plante, Paul; Trainor, Kevin
2016-05-03
This study investigates the potential of DUSTRAN, a dust dispersion modeling system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, to model the transport of sea salt aerosols (SSA). Results from DUSTRAN simulations run with historical meteorological data were compared against privately-measured chloride data at the near coastal Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and the Environmental Protection Agency-measured CASTNET data from Acadia National Park (NP). The comparisons have provided both encouragement as to the practical value of DUSTRAN’s CALPUFF model and suggestions for further software development opportunities. All modeled concentrations were within one order of magnitude of those measured and a few test cases showed excellent agreement between modeled and measured concentrations. However, there is a lack of consistency in discrepancy which may be due to inaccurate extrapolation of meteorological data, underlying model physics, and the source term. Future research will refine the software to better capture physical phenomena. Overall, results indicate that with parameter refinement, DUSTRAN has the potential to simulate atmospheric chloride transport from known sources to inland sites for the purpose of determining the corrosion susceptibility of various structures, systems, and components at the site.
Io Volcanism: Modeling Vapor And Heat Transport
Allen, Daniel R.; Howell, R. R.
2010-10-01
Loki is a large, active volcanic source on Jupiter's moon, Io, whose overall temperatures are well explained by current cooling models, but there are unexplainable subtleties. Using the SO2 atmospheric models of Ingersoll (1989) as a starting point, we are investigating how volatiles, specifically sulfur, are transported on the surface and how they modify the temperatures at Loki and other volcanoes. Voyager images reveal light colored deposits, colloquially called "sulfur bergs,” on Loki's dark patera floor that may be sulfur fumaroles. Galileo images show the presence of red short-chain sulfur deposits around the patera. We are investigating the mechanisms that lead to these features. The light deposits are a few kilometers across. Calculations of the mean free paths for day time conditions on Io indicate lengths on the order of 0.1 km while poorly constrained night time conditions indicate mean free paths about 100 times greater, on the order of what is needed to produce the deposits under ballistic conditions. Preliminary calculations reveal horizontal transport length scales for diffuse transport in a collisional atmosphere of approximately 30 km for sublimating S8 sulfur at 300 K. These length scales would be sufficient to move the sulfur from the warm patera floor to the locations of the red sulfur deposits. At a typical Loki temperature of 300 K, the sublimation/evaporation rate of S8 is a few tens of microns/day. It then requires just a few days to deposit an optically thick 100 µm layer of material. Preliminary length scales and sublimation rates are thus of sufficient scale to produce the deposits. Investigations into the sulfur transport and its effect on temperature are ongoing.
The Transfer Function Model as a Tool to Study and Describe Space Weather Phenomena
Porter, Hayden S.; Mayr, Hans G.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The Transfer Function Model (TFM) is a semi-analytical, linear model that is designed especially to describe thermospheric perturbations associated with magnetic storms and substorm. activity. It is a multi-constituent model (N2, O, He H, Ar) that accounts for wind induced diffusion, which significantly affects not only the composition and mass density but also the temperature and wind fields. Because the TFM adopts a semianalytic approach in which the geometry and temporal dependencies of the driving sources are removed through the use of height-integrated Green's functions, it provides physical insight into the essential properties of processes being considered, which are uncluttered by the accidental complexities that arise from particular source geometrie and time dependences. Extending from the ground to 700 km, the TFM eliminates spurious effects due to arbitrarily chosen boundary conditions. A database of transfer functions, computed only once, can be used to synthesize a wide range of spatial and temporal sources dependencies. The response synthesis can be performed quickly in real-time using only limited computing capabilities. These features make the TFM unique among global dynamical models. Given these desirable properties, a version of the TFM has been developed for personal computers (PC) using advanced platform-independent 3D visualization capabilities. We demonstrate the model capabilities with simulations for different auroral sources, including the response of ducted gravity waves modes that propagate around the globe. The thermospheric response is found to depend strongly on the spatial and temporal frequency spectra of the storm. Such varied behavior is difficult to describe in statistical empirical models. To improve the capability of space weather prediction, the TFM thus could be grafted naturally onto existing statistical models using data assimilation.
3 Lectures: "Lagrangian Models", "Numerical Transport Schemes", and "Chemical and Transport Models"
Douglass, A.
2005-01-01
The topics for the three lectures for the Canadian Summer School are Lagrangian Models, numerical transport schemes, and chemical and transport models. In the first lecture I will explain the basic components of the Lagrangian model (a trajectory code and a photochemical code), the difficulties in using such a model (initialization) and show some applications in interpretation of aircraft and satellite data. If time permits I will show some results concerning inverse modeling which is being used to evaluate sources of tropospheric pollutants. In the second lecture I will discuss one of the core components of any grid point model, the numerical transport scheme. I will explain the basics of shock capturing schemes, and performance criteria. I will include an example of the importance of horizontal resolution to polar processes. We have learned from NASA's global modeling initiative that horizontal resolution matters for predictions of the future evolution of the ozone hole. The numerical scheme will be evaluated using performance metrics based on satellite observations of long-lived tracers. The final lecture will discuss the evolution of chemical transport models over the last decade. Some of the problems with assimilated winds will be demonstrated, using satellite data to evaluate the simulations.
Agent-Based Model Approach to Complex Phenomena in Real Economy
Iyetomi, H.; Aoyama, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Ikeda, Y.; Souma, W.
An agent-based model for firms' dynamics is developed. The model consists of firm agents with identical characteristic parameters and a bank agent. Dynamics of those agents are described by their balance sheets. Each firm tries to maximize its expected profit with possible risks in market. Infinite growth of a firm directed by the ``profit maximization" principle is suppressed by a concept of ``going concern". Possibility of bankruptcy of firms is also introduced by incorporating a retardation effect of information on firms' decision. The firms, mutually interacting through the monopolistic bank, become heterogeneous in the course of temporal evolution. Statistical properties of firms' dynamics obtained by simulations based on the model are discussed in light of observations in the real economy.
A learning-enabled neuron array IC based upon transistor channel models of biological phenomena.
Brink, S; Nease, S; Hasler, P; Ramakrishnan, S; Wunderlich, R; Basu, A; Degnan, B
2013-02-01
We present a single-chip array of 100 biologically-based electronic neuron models interconnected to each other and the outside environment through 30,000 synapses. The chip was fabricated in a standard 350 nm CMOS IC process. Our approach used dense circuit models of synaptic behavior, including biological computation and learning, as well as transistor channel models. We use Address-Event Representation (AER) spike communication for inputs and outputs to this IC. We present the IC architecture and infrastructure, including IC chip, configuration tools, and testing platform. We present measurement of small network of neurons, measurement of STDP neuron dynamics, and measurement from a compiled spiking neuron WTA topology, all compiled into this IC.
Arpaia, Pasquale
2009-01-01
An approach to automatic analytical modeling of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data by evolutionary programming based on cultural algorithms is proposed. A solution-search strategy based on a cultural mechanism is exploited for defining the equivalent-circuit model automatically: information on search advance is transmitted to all potential solutions, rather than only to a small inheriting subset, such as in a traditional genetic approach. Moreover, with respect to the state of the art, also specific information related to constraints on the application physics knowledge is transferred. Experimental results of the proposed approach implementation in impedance spectroscopy for general-purpose electrochemical circuit analysis and for corrosion monitoring and diagnosing are presented.
Monte Carlo tests of renormalization-group predictions for critical phenomena in Ising models
Binder, Kurt; Luijten, Erik
2001-04-01
A critical review is given of status and perspectives of Monte Carlo simulations that address bulk and interfacial phase transitions of ferromagnetic Ising models. First, some basic methodological aspects of these simulations are briefly summarized (single-spin flip vs. cluster algorithms, finite-size scaling concepts), and then the application of these techniques to the nearest-neighbor Ising model in d=3 and 5 dimensions is described, and a detailed comparison to theoretical predictions is made. In addition, the case of Ising models with a large but finite range of interaction and the crossover scaling from mean-field behavior to the Ising universality class are treated. If one considers instead a long-range interaction described by a power-law decay, new classes of critical behavior depending on the exponent of this power law become accessible, and a stringent test of the ε-expansion becomes possible. As a final type of crossover from mean-field type behavior to two-dimensional Ising behavior, the interface localization-delocalization transition of Ising films confined between “competing” walls is considered. This problem is still hampered by questions regarding the appropriate coarse-grained model for the fluctuating interface near a wall, which is the starting point for both this problem and the theory of critical wetting.
Modelling flow phenomena in time dependent store release from transonic aircraft
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
MacLucas, David A
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics is routinely used in clearance of stores for carriage and release from aircraft in the transonic range of flight. A well-known validation case is modelled in this study, for which aerodynamic loads have been compared...
Bifurcation Phenomena in a Lotka-Volterra Model with Cross-Diffusion and Delay Effect
Yan, Shuling; Guo, Shangjiang
2017-06-01
This paper focuses on a Lotka-Volterra model with delay and cross-diffusion. By using Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction, we investigate the existence, multiplicity, stability and Hopf bifurcation of spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solutions. Furthermore, we obtain some criteria to determine the bifurcation direction and stability of Hopf bifurcating periodic orbits by using Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction.
Lee, Ya-Ting; Chen, Chien-chih; Chang, Young-Fo; Chiao, Ling-Yun
2008-09-01
Reduction in b-values before a large earthquake is a very popular topic for discussion. This study proposes an alternative sandpile model being able to demonstrate reduction in scaling exponents before large events through adaptable long-range connections. The distant connection between two separated cells was introduced in the sandpile model. We found that our modified long-range connective sandpile (LRCS) system repeatedly approaches and retreats from a critical state. When a large avalanche occurs in the LRCS model, accumulated energy dramatically dissipates and the system simultaneously retreats from criticality. The system quickly approaches the critical state accompanied by the increase in the slopes of the power-law frequency-size distributions of events. Afterwards, and most interestingly, the power-law slope declines before the next large event. The precursory b-value reduction before large earthquakes observed from earthquake catalogues closely mimics the evolution in power-law slopes for the frequency-size distributions of events derived in the LRCS models. Our paper, thus, provides a new explanation for declined b-values before large earthquakes.
A reduced-complexity model for sediment transport and step-pool morphology
Saletti, Matteo; Molnar, Peter; Hassan, Marwan A.; Burlando, Paolo
2016-07-01
A new particle-based reduced-complexity model to simulate sediment transport and channel morphology in steep streams in presented. The model CAST (Cellular Automaton Sediment Transport) contains phenomenological parameterizations, deterministic or stochastic, of sediment supply, bed load transport, and particle entrainment and deposition in a cellular-automaton space with uniform grain size. The model reproduces a realistic bed morphology and typical fluctuations in transport rates observed in steep channels. Particle hop distances, from entrainment to deposition, are well fitted by exponential distributions, in agreement with field data. The effect of stochasticity in both the entrainment and the input rate is shown. A stochastic parameterization of the entrainment is essential to create and maintain a realistic channel morphology, while the intermittent transport of grains in CAST shreds the input signal and its stochastic variability. A jamming routine has been added to CAST to simulate the grain-grain and grain-bed interactions that lead to particle jamming and step formation in a step-pool stream. The results show that jamming is effective in generating steps in unsteady conditions. Steps are created during high-flow periods and they survive during low flows only in sediment-starved conditions, in agreement with the jammed-state hypothesis of Church and Zimmermann (2007). Reduced-complexity models like CAST give new insights into the dynamics of complex phenomena such as sediment transport and bedform stability and are a useful complement to fully physically based models to test research hypotheses.
Modeling of condensation, stratification, and mixing phenomena in a pool of water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, H.; Kudinov, P.; Villanueva, W. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden))
2010-12-15
This work pertains to the research program on Containment Thermal-Hydraulics at KTH. The objective is to evaluate and improve performance of methods, which are used to analyze thermal-hydraulics of steam suppression pools in a BWR plant under different abnormal transient and accident conditions. As a passive safety system, the function of steam pressure suppression pools is paramount to the containment performance. In the present work, the focus is on apparently-benign but intricate and potentially risk-significant scenarios in which thermal stratification could significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. For the case of small flow rates of steam influx, the steam condenses rapidly in the pool and the hot condensate rises in a narrow plume above the steam injection plane and spreads into a thin layer at the pool's free surface. When the steam flow rate increases significantly, momentum introduced by the steam injection and/or periodic expansion and shrink of large steam bubbles due to direct contact condensation can cause breakdown of the stratified layers and lead to mixing of the pool water. Accurate prediction of the pool thermal-hydraulics in such scenarios presents a computational challenge. Lumped-parameter models have no capability to predict temperature distribution of water pool during thermal stratification development. While high-order-accurate CFD (RANS, LES) methods are not practical due to excessive computing power needed to calculate 3D high-Rayleighnumber natural circulation flow in long transients. In the present work, a middleground approach is used, namely CFD-like model of the general purpose thermalhydraulic code GOTHIC. Each cell of 3D GOTHIC grid uses lumped parameter volume type closures for modeling of various heat and mass transfer processes at subgrid scale. We use GOTHIC to simulate POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiment, in order to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, and (b
A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice
Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2010-01-01
The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem
A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice
Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2010-01-01
The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing
A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice
Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2010-01-01
The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem