Sample records for modeling stream channel

  1. Automated identification of stream-channel geomorphic features from high‑resolution digital elevation models in West Tennessee watersheds (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Diehl, Timothy H.


    High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) enable investigations of stream-channel geomorphology with much greater precision than previously possible. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed the DEM Geomorphology Toolbox, containing seven tools to automate the identification of sites of geomorphic instability that may represent sediment sources and sinks in stream-channel networks. These tools can be used to modify input DEMs on the basis of known locations of stormwater infrastructure, derive flow networks at user-specified resolutions, and identify possible sites of geomorphic instability including steep banks, abrupt changes in channel slope, or areas of rough terrain. Field verification of tool outputs identified several tool limitations but also demonstrated their overall usefulness in highlighting likely sediment sources and sinks within channel networks. In particular, spatial clusters of outputs from multiple tools can be used to prioritize field efforts to assess and restore eroding stream reaches.

  2. Nutrient processes at the stream-lake interface for a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth (United States)

    Niswonger, Richard G.; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Smith, David; Constantz, James E.; Allander, Kip K.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Neilson, Bethany; Rosen, Michael R.; Stonestrom, David A.


    Inorganic forms of nitrogen and phosphorous impact freshwater lakes by stimulating primary production and affecting water quality and ecosystem health. Communities around the world are motivated to sustain and restore freshwater resources and are interested in processes controlling nutrient inputs. We studied the environment where streams flow into lakes, referred to as the stream-lake interface (SLI), for a channelized and unmodified stream outlet. Channelization is done to protect infrastructure or recreational beach areas. We collected hydraulic and nutrient data for surface water and shallow groundwater in two SLIs to develop conceptual models that describe characteristics that are representative of these hydrologic features. Water, heat, and solute transport models were used to evaluate hydrologic conceptualizations and estimate mean residence times of water in the sediment. A nutrient mass balance model is developed to estimate net rates of adsorption and desorption, mineralization, and nitrification along subsurface flow paths. Results indicate that SLIs are dynamic sources of nutrients to lakes and that the common practice of channelizing the stream at the SLI decreases nutrient concentrations in pore water discharging along the lakeshore. This is in contrast to the unmodified SLI that forms a barrier beach that disconnects the stream from the lake and results in higher nutrient concentrations in pore water discharging to the lake. These results are significant because nutrient delivery through pore water seepage at the lakebed from the natural SLI contributes to nearshore algal communities and produces elevated concentrations of inorganic nutrients in the benthic zone where attached algae grow.

  3. Sediment transport and channel morphology of small, forested streams. (United States)

    Marwan A. Hassan; Michael Church; Thomas E. Lisle; Francesco Brardinoni; Lee Benda; Gordon E. Grant


    This paper reviews sediment transport and channel morphology in small, forested streams in the Pacific Northwest region of North America to assess current knowledge of channel stability and morphology relevant to riparian management practices around small streams. Small channels are defined as ones in which morphology and hydraulics may be significantly influenced by...

  4. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative...


    The Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) is a comprehensive watershed model, which employs depth-area-volume-flow relationships known as hydraulic function table (FTABLE) to represent stream channel cross-sections and reservoirs. An accurate FTABLE determination for a...

  6. Distinctive channel geometry and riparian vegetation: A geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams (United States)

    Sutfin, N.; Shaw, J. R.; Wohl, E. E.; Cooper, D.


    Interactions between hydrology, channel form, and riparian vegetation along arid ephemeral streams are not thoroughly understood and current stream classifications do not adequately represent variability in channel geometry and associated riparian communities. Relatively infrequent hydrologic disturbances in dryland environments are responsible for creation and maintenance of channel form that supports riparian communities. To investigate the influence of channel characteristics on riparian vegetation in the arid southwestern United States, we develop a geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams based on the degree of confinement and the composition of confining material that provide constraints on available moisture. Our conceptual model includes five stream types: 1) bedrock channels entirely confined by exposed bedrock and devoid of persistent alluvium; 2) bedrock with alluvium channels at least partially confined by bedrock but containing enough alluvium to create bedforms that persist through time; 3) incised alluvium channels bound only by unconsolidated alluvial material into which they are incised; 4) braided washes that exhibit multi-thread, braided characteristics regardless of the composition of confining material; and 5) piedmont headwater 0-2nd order streams (Strahler) confined only by unconsolidated alluvium and which initiate as secondary channels on piedmont surfaces. Eighty-six study reaches representing the five stream types were surveyed on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern Arizona. Non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicates significant differences between the five stream types with regards to channel geometry (i.e., stream gradient, width-to-depth ratio, the ratio between valley width and channel width (Wv/Wc), shear stress, and unit stream power) and riparian vegetation (i.e., presence and canopy coverage by species, canopy stratum, and life form). Discriminant analysis

  7. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.


    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  8. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita M [Ky Dept for natural resources, Div of Mine Permits; Sexton, Joshua L [JL Sexton and Son; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Fryar, Alan E [Univ of KY, Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences; Greb, Stephen F [Univ of KY, KY Geological Survey


    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  9. Influence of instream habitat and water chemistry on amphibians within channelized agricultural headwater streams (United States)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for draining agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States, Canada, and Europe. Channelized agricultural he...

  10. Man-induced channel adjustment in Tennessee streams (United States)

    Robbins, C.H.; Simon, Andrew


    Channel modifications in Tennessee, particularly in the western part, have led to large-scale instabilities in the channelized rivers and may have contributed to several bridge failures. These modifications, together with land-use practices, led to downcutting, headward erosion, downstream aggradation, accelerated scour, and bank instabilities. Changes in gradient by channel straightening caused more severe channel response than did dredging or clearing. Large-scale changes continue to occur in all the channelized rivers: the Obion River, its forks, and the South Fork Forked Deer River. However, the non-channelized Hatchie River in west Tennessee not only withstood the natural stresses imposed by the wet years of 1973 to 1975 but continues to exhibit characteristics of stability. Water-surface slope, the primary dependent variable, proved to be a sensitive and descriptive parameter useful in determining channel adjustment. Adjustments to man-induced increases in channel-slope are described by inverse exponential functions of the basic form S=ae(-b(t)); where ' S ' is some function describing channel-slope, ' t ' is the number of years since completion of channel work, and ' a ' and ' b ' are coefficients. Response times for the attainment of ' equilibrium ' channel slopes are a function of the magnitude and extent of the imposed modifications. The adjusted profile gradients attained by the streams following channelization are similar to the predisturbed profile gradients, where no alteration to channel length was made. Where the channels were straightened by constructing cut-offs, thus shortening channel length, then slope adjustments (reduction) proceed past the predisturbed profile gradients, to new profiles with lower gradients. (USGS)

  11. Spatio-temporal scaling of channels in braided streams. (United States)

    A.G. Hunt; G.E. Grant; V.K. Gupta


    The spatio-temporal scaling relationship for individual channels in braided streams is shown to be identical to the spatio-temporal scaling associated with constant Froude number, e.g., Fr = l. A means to derive this relationship is developed from a new theory of sediment transport. The mechanism by which the Fr = l condition apparently governs the scaling seems to...

  12. Structural Responses of a Stream Community to a Channel Relocation Using a Natural Channel Design Approach (United States)

    Jack, J.; Word, D.; Daniel, W.; Pritchard, S.; Parola, A.; Vesely, B.


    Streams have been heavily impacted by historical and contemporary management practices. Restorations are seen as a way to enhance stream ecosystem integrity, but there are few restoration sites where pre- and post-restoration data are available to assess "success." In 2003, a channelized reach of Wilson Creek (Kentucky, USA) was relocated using a natural channel design approach. We compared the structural and functional responses of the stream pre- and post restoration/relocation at sites within Wilson and two reference streams. Despite the construction disturbance, water chemistry parameters such as nitrate and turbidity were nearly identical at sampling stations above and below the relocation for 2003-2004. Macroinvertebrate colonization of the relocation sites was rapid, with communities dominated by Cheumatopsyche, Perlesta and Baetis. Assessments of CPOM transport indicated that the new stream channel is more retentive of leaf and woody debris material than the pre-restoration Wilson sites or unrestored reference stream sites. The restoration of suitable habitat and the presence of "source populations" for colonization may compensate for even large-scale (but short-term) construction disturbance. More research is needed to assess the balance between the disturbance impacts of restoration installation and the long term benefits of stream ecological improvement.

  13. Dynamical modeling of tidal streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo


    I present a new framework for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams. The framework consists of simple models for the initial action-angle distribution of tidal debris, which can be straightforwardly evolved forward in time. Taking advantage of the essentially one-dimensional nature of tidal streams, the transformation to position-velocity coordinates can be linearized and interpolated near a small number of points along the stream, thus allowing for efficient computations of a stream's properties in observable quantities. I illustrate how to calculate the stream's average location (its 'track') in different coordinate systems, how to quickly estimate the dispersion around its track, and how to draw mock stream data. As a generative model, this framework allows one to compute the full probability distribution function and marginalize over or condition it on certain phase-space dimensions as well as convolve it with observational uncertainties. This will be instrumental in proper data analysis of stream data. In addition to providing a computationally efficient practical tool for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams, the action-angle nature of the framework helps elucidate how the observed width of the stream relates to the velocity dispersion or mass of the progenitor, and how the progenitors of 'orphan' streams could be located. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework crucially depends on the ability to calculate action-angle variables for any orbit in any gravitational potential. A novel method for calculating actions, frequencies, and angles in any static potential using a single orbit integration is described in the Appendix.

  14. Vegetation and Channel Morphology Responses to Ordinary High Water Discharge Events in Arid West Stream Channels (United States)


    events that occur between periods of drought. It is important to understand how vegetation and stream channel morphology respond to various discharge...because there were no discharge events in our study watersheds during our study period that were large enough to affect this part of the channel...AZ 36.94389103 –109.7106684 Southwest– Northeast Compound/ Single Thread Tropical/ Subtropical Steppe Soft Rock Jurassic Navajo sandstone In a

  15. A cost-effective laser scanning method for mapping stream channel geometry and roughness (United States)

    Lam, Norris; Nathanson, Marcus; Lundgren, Niclas; Rehnström, Robin; Lyon, Steve


    In this pilot project, we combine an Arduino Uno and SICK LMS111 outdoor laser ranging camera to acquire high resolution topographic area scans for a stream channel. The microprocessor and imaging system was installed in a custom gondola and suspended from a wire cable system. To demonstrate the systems capabilities for capturing stream channel topography, a small stream (5m by 2m area. A grain size distribution of the streambed material was extracted from the point cloud using a moving window, local maxima search algorithm. The median, 84th and 90th percentiles (common metrics to describe channel roughness) of this distribution were found to be within the range of measured values while the largest modelled element was approximately 35% smaller than its measured counterpart. The laser scanning system captured grain sizes between 30mm and 255mm (coarse gravel/pebbles and boulders based on the Wentworth (1922) scale). This demonstrates that our system was capable of resolving both large-scale geometry (e.g. bed slope and stream channel width) and small-scale channel roughness elements (e.g. coarse gravel/pebbles and boulders) for the study area. We further show that the point cloud resolution is suitable for estimating ecohydraulic parameters such as Manning's n and hydraulic radius. Although more work is needed to fine-tune our system's design, these preliminary results are encouraging, specifically for those with a limited operational budget.

  16. Game of Drones - Detecting Streamed POI from Encrypted FPV Channel


    Nassi, Ben; Ben-Netanel, Raz; Shamir, Adi; Elovici, Yuval


    Drones have created a new threat to people's privacy. We are now in an era in which anyone with a drone equipped with a video camera can use it to invade a subject's privacy by streaming the subject in his/her private space over an encrypted first person view (FPV) channel. Although many methods have been suggested to detect nearby drones, they all suffer from the same shortcoming: they cannot identify exactly what is being captured, and therefore they fail to distinguish between the legitima...

  17. Simple measures of channel habitat complexity predict transient hydraulic storage in streams (United States)

    Stream thalweg depth profiles (along path of greatest channel depth) and woody debris tallies have recently become components of routine field procedures for quantifying physical habitat in national stream monitoring efforts. Mean residual depth, standard deviation of thalweg dep...

  18. Acoustic streaming induced by two orthogonal ultrasound standing waves in a microfluidic channel. (United States)

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe


    A mathematical model is derived for acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel confined between a solid wall and a rigid reflector. Acoustic streaming is produced by two orthogonal ultrasound standing waves of the same frequency that are created by two pairs of counter-propagating leaky surface waves induced in the solid wall. The magnitudes and phases of the standing waves are assumed to be different. Full analytical solutions are found for the equations of acoustic streaming. The obtained solutions are used in numerical simulations to reveal the structure of the acoustic streaming. It is shown that the interaction of two standing waves leads to the appearance of a cross term in the equations of acoustic streaming. If the phase lag between the standing waves is nonzero, the cross term brings about circular vortices with rotation axes perpendicular to the solid wall of the channel. The vortices make fluid particles rotate and move alternately up and down between the solid wall and the reflector. The obtained results are of immediate interest for acoustomicrofluidic applications such as the ultrasonic micromixing of fluids and the manipulation of microparticles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Animal models for auditory streaming (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya


    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons’ response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044022

  20. Acoustic streaming produced by a cylindrical bubble undergoing volume and translational oscillations in a microfluidic channel. (United States)

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Combriat, Thomas; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe


    A theoretical model is developed for acoustic streaming generated by a cylindrical bubble confined in a fluid channel between two planar elastic walls. The bubble is assumed to undergo volume and translational oscillations. The volume oscillation is caused by an imposed acoustic pressure field and generates the bulk scattered wave in the fluid gap and Lamb-type surface waves propagating along the fluid-wall interfaces. The translational oscillation is induced by the velocity field of an external sound source such as another bubble or an oscillatory fluid flow. The acoustic streaming is assumed to result from the interaction of the volume and the translational modes of the bubble oscillations. The general solutions for the linear equations of fluid motion and the equations of acoustic streaming are calculated with no restrictions on the ratio between the viscous penetration depth and the bubble size. Approximate solutions for the limit of low viscosity are provided as well. Simulations of streamline patterns show that the geometry of the streaming resembles flows generated by a source dipole, while the vortex orientation is governed by the driving frequency, bubble size, and the distance of the bubble from the source of translational excitation. Experimental verification of the developed theory is performed using data for streaming generated by bubble pairs.

  1. Groundwater exchanges near a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth discharging to a subalpine lake (United States)

    Constantz, James; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Allander, Kip K.; Neilson, B.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Smith, David W.; Rosecrans, C.; Stonestrom, David A.


    The terminus of a stream flowing into a larger river, pond, lake, or reservoir is referred to as the stream-mouth reach or simply the stream mouth. The terminus is often characterized by rapidly changing thermal and hydraulic conditions that result in abrupt shifts in surface water/groundwater (sw/gw) exchange patterns, creating the potential for unique biogeochemical processes and ecosystems. Worldwide shoreline development is changing stream-lake interfaces through channelization of stream mouths, i.e., channel straightening and bank stabilization to prevent natural meandering at the shoreline. In the central Sierra Nevada (USA), Lake Tahoe's shoreline has an abundance of both “unmodified” (i.e., not engineered though potentially impacted by broader watershed engineering) and channelized stream mouths. Two representative stream mouths along the lake's north shore, one channelized and one unmodified, were selected to compare and contrast water and heat exchanges. Hydraulic and thermal properties were monitored during separate campaigns in September 2012 and 2013 and sw/gw exchanges were estimated within the stream mouth-shoreline continuum. Heat-flow and water-flow patterns indicated clear differences in the channelized versus the unmodified stream mouth. For the channelized stream mouth, relatively modulated, cool-temperature, low-velocity longitudinal streambed flows discharged offshore beneath warmer buoyant lakeshore water. In contrast, a seasonal barrier bar formed across the unmodified stream mouth, creating higher-velocity subsurface flow paths and higher diurnal temperature variations relative to shoreline water. As a consequence, channelization altered sw/gw exchanges potentially altering biogeochemical processing and ecological systems in and near the stream mouth.

  2. Parikh Matching in the Streaming Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Lap-Kei; Lewenstein, Moshe; Zhang, Qin


    |-length count vector. In the streaming model one seeks space-efficient algorithms for problems in which there is one pass over the data. We consider Parikh matching in the streaming model. To make this viable we search for substrings whose Parikh-mappings approximately match the input vector. In this paper we...... present upper and lower bounds on the problem of approximate Parikh matching in the streaming model....

  3. Evaluating the use of drone photogrammetry for measurement of stream channel morphology and response to high flow events (United States)

    Price, Katie; Ballow, William


    Traditional high-precision survey methods for stream channel measurement are labor-intensive and require wadeability or boat access to streams. These conditions limit the number of sites researchers are able to study and generally prohibit the possibility of repeat channel surveys to evaluate short-term fluctuations in channel morphology. In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) equipped with photo and video capabilities have become widely available and affordable. Concurrently, developments in photogrammetric software offer unprecedented mapping and 3D rendering capabilities of drone-captured photography. In this study, we evaluate the potential use of drone-mounted cameras for detailed stream channel morphometric analysis. We used a relatively low-cost drone (DJI Phantom 2+ Vision) and commercially available, user friendly software (Agisoft Photscan) for photogrammetric analysis of drone-captured stream channel photography. Our test study was conducted on Proctor Creek, a highly responsive urban stream in Atlanta, Georgia, within the crystalline Piedmont region of the southeastern United States. As a baseline, we performed traditional high-precision survey methods to collect morphological measurements (e.g., bankfull and wetted width, bankfull and wetted thalweg depth) at 11 evenly-spaced transects, following USGS protocols along reaches of 20 times average channel width. We additionally used the drone to capture 200+ photos along the same reaches, concurrent with the channel survey. Using the photogrammetry software, we generated georeferenced 3D models of the stream channel, from which morphological measurements were derived from the 11 transects and compared with measurements from the traditional survey method. We additionally explored possibilities for novel morphometric characterization available from the continuous 3D surface, as an improvement on the limited number of detailed cross-sections available from standard methods. These results showed

  4. Mining the IPTV Channel Change Event Stream to Discover Insight and Detect Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Kren


    Full Text Available IPTV has been widely deployed throughout the world, bringing significant advantages to users in terms of the channel offering, video on demand, and interactive applications. One aspect that has been often neglected is the ability of precise and unobtrusive telemetry. TV set-top boxes that are deployed in modern IPTV systems can be thought of as capable sensor nodes that collect vast amounts of data, representing both the user activity and the quality of service delivered by the system itself. In this paper we focus on the user-generated events and analyze how the data stream of channel change events received from the entire IPTV network can be mined to obtain insight about the content. We demonstrate that it is possible to predict the occurrence of TV ads with high probability and show that the approach could be extended to model the user behavior and classify the viewership in multiple dimensions.

  5. Variation of stream power with seepage in sand-bed channels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Downward seepage (suction) increases the mobility of the channel. In this study, experimental investigations were carried out to analyse the suction effect on stream power along the downstream side of the flume. It was observed that stream power has a major influence on the stability and mobility of the bed particles, due to ...

  6. Variation of stream power with seepage in sand-bed channels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 27, 2009 ... Downward seepage (suction) increases the mobility of the channel. In this study, experimental investigations were car- ried out to analyse the suction effect on stream power along the downstream side of the flume. It was observed that stream power has a major influence on the stability and mobility of the ...

  7. Relationship between channel morphology and foraging habitat for stream salmonids: Effects of body size (United States)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.


    Channel morphology and dynamics strongly influence fish populations in running waters by defining habitat template for movement, spawning, incubation, and foraging. In this research we adopted a modeling approach to investigate how body size controls the relationship between salmonid fish and their foraging habitat in streams. Body size is a fundamental ecological parameter which affects resource acquisition, locomotory costs, metabolic rates, and competitive abilities. We focus on two specific questions. First, we examined how distinct types of channel morphology and associated flow fields shape specific growth potential for different body size classes of trout. Second, we modeled these fish-habitat relationships in a size-structured population in the presence of intraspecific competition. In the latter scenario, fish may not be able to occupy energetically optimal foraging habitat and the predicted specific growth potential may differ from the intrinsic habitat quality. To address the research questions, we linked a 2D hydrodynamic model with a bioenergetic foraging model for drift-feeding trout. Net energy intake, simulated for four study reaches with different channel morphology, was converted into maps of specific growth rate potential. We extended this model by including a component that enabled us to estimate territory size for fish of a given body size and account for the effects of competition on spatial distribution of fish. The predictions that emerge from our simulations highlight that fish body size is an important factor that determines the relationship between channel morphology and the quality of foraging habitat. The results also indicate that distinct types of channel morphology may give rise to different energetic conditions for different body size classes of drift-feeding salmonids.

  8. The Blurred Line between Form and Process: A Comparison of Stream Channel Classification Frameworks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kasprak

    Full Text Available Stream classification provides a means to understand the diversity and distribution of channels and floodplains that occur across a landscape while identifying links between geomorphic form and process. Accordingly, stream classification is frequently employed as a watershed planning, management, and restoration tool. At the same time, there has been intense debate and criticism of particular frameworks, on the grounds that these frameworks classify stream reaches based largely on their physical form, rather than direct measurements of their component hydrogeomorphic processes. Despite this debate surrounding stream classifications, and their ongoing use in watershed management, direct comparisons of channel classification frameworks are rare. Here we implement four stream classification frameworks and explore the degree to which each make inferences about hydrogeomorphic process from channel form within the Middle Fork John Day Basin, a watershed of high conservation interest within the Columbia River Basin, U.S.A. We compare the results of the River Styles Framework, Natural Channel Classification, Rosgen Classification System, and a channel form-based statistical classification at 33 field-monitored sites. We found that the four frameworks consistently classified reach types into similar groups based on each reach or segment's dominant hydrogeomorphic elements. Where classified channel types diverged, differences could be attributed to the (a spatial scale of input data used, (b the requisite metrics and their order in completing a framework's decision tree and/or, (c whether the framework attempts to classify current or historic channel form. Divergence in framework agreement was also observed at reaches where channel planform was decoupled from valley setting. Overall, the relative agreement between frameworks indicates that criticism of individual classifications for their use of form in grouping stream channels may be overstated. These

  9. A Mathematical Model of Membrane Gas Separation with Energy Transfer by Molecules of Gas Flowing in a Channel to Molecules Penetrating this Channel from the Adjacent Channel


    Szwast Maciej; Szwast Zbigniew


    The paper presents the mathematical modelling of selected isothermal separation processes of gaseous mixtures, taking place in plants using membranes, in particular nonporous polymer membranes. The modelling concerns membrane modules consisting of two channels - the feeding and the permeate channels. Different shapes of the channels cross-section were taken into account. Consideration was given to co-current and counter-current flows, for feeding and permeate streams, respectively, flowing to...

  10. Sedgeunkedunk Stream channel geometry from 2007-08-15 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0152486) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are collecting stream channel geometry and bed sediment grain size distribution data at Sedgeunkedunk stream to evaluate physical habitat changes associated with...

  11. Development of Relations of Stream Stage to Channel Geometry and Discharge for Stream Segments Simulated with Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), Chesapeake Bay Watershed and Adjacent Parts of Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas; Bennett, Mark


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), Interstate Commission for the Potomac River Basin (ICPRB), Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE), Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VADCR), and University of Maryland (UMD) are collaborating to improve the resolution of the Chesapeake Bay Regional Watershed Model (CBRWM). This watershed model uses the Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) to simulate the fate and transport of nutrients and sediment throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed and extended areas of Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. Information from the CBRWM is used by the CBP and other watershed managers to assess the effectiveness of water-quality improvement efforts as well as guide future management activities. A critical step in the improvement of the CBRWM framework was the development of an HSPF function table (FTABLE) for each represented stream channel. The FTABLE is used to relate stage (water depth) in a particular stream channel to associated channel surface area, channel volume, and discharge (streamflow). The primary tool used to generate an FTABLE for each stream channel is the XSECT program, a computer program that requires nine input variables used to represent channel morphology. These input variables are reach length, upstream and downstream elevation, channel bottom width, channel bankfull width, channel bankfull stage, slope of the floodplain, and Manning's roughness coefficient for the channel and floodplain. For the purpose of this study, the nine input variables were grouped into three categories: channel geometry, Manning's roughness coefficient, and channel and floodplain slope. Values of channel geometry for every stream segment represented in CBRWM were obtained by first developing regional regression models that relate basin drainage area to observed values of bankfull width, bankfull depth, and bottom width at each of the 290 USGS

  12. Output channel design for collecting closely-spaced particle streams from spiral inertial separation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffiyar Mohamed Yousuff


    Full Text Available Recent advances in inertial microfluidics designs have enabled high throughput, label-free separation of cells for a variety of bioanalytical applications. Various device configurations have been proposed for binary separation with a focus on enhancing the separation distance between particle streams to improve the efficiency of separate particle collection. These configurations have not demonstrated scaling beyond 3 particle streams either because the channel width is a constraint at the collection outlets or particle streams would be too closely spaced to be collected separately. We propose a method to design collection outlets for inertial focusing and separation devices which can collect closely-spaced particle streams and easily scale to an arbitrary number of collection channels without constraining the outlet channel width, which is the usual cause of clogging or cell damage. According to our approach, collection outlets are a series of side-branching channels perpendicular to the main channel of egress. The width and length of the outlets can be chosen subject to constraints from the position of the particle streams and fluidic resistance ratio computed from fluid dynamics simulations. We show the efficacy of this approach by demonstrating a successful collection of upto 3 particle streams of 7μm, 10μm and 15μm fluorescent beads which have been focused and separated by a spiral inertial device with a separation distance of only 10μm -15μm. With a throughput of 1.8mL/min, we achieved collection efficiency exceeding 90% for each particle at the respective collection outlet. The flexibility to use wide collection channels also enabled us to fabricate the microfluidic device with an epoxy mold that was created using xurography, a low cost, and imprecise fabrication technique.

  13. Recent (circa 1998 to 2011) channel-migration rates of selected streams in Indiana (United States)

    Robinson, Bret A.


    An investigation was completed to document recent (circa 1998 to 2011) channel-migration rates at 970 meander bends along 38 of the largest streams in Indiana. Data collection was completed by using the Google Earth™ platform and, for each selected site, identifying two images with capture dates separated by multiple years. Within each image, the position of the meander-bend cutbank was measured relative to a fixed local landscape feature visible in both images, and an average channel-migration rate was calculated at the point of maximum cutbank displacement. From these data it was determined that 65 percent of the measured sites have recently been migrating at a rate less than 1 ft/yr, 75 percent of the sites have been migrating at a rate less than 10 ft/yr, and while some sites are migrating in excess of 20 ft/yr, these occurrences are rare. In addition, it is shown that recent channel-migration activity is not evenly distributed across Indiana. For the stream reaches studied, far northern and much of far southern Indiana are drained by streams that recently have been relatively stationary. At the same time, this study shows that most of the largest streams in west-central Indiana and many of the largest streams in east-central Indiana have shown significant channel-migration activity during the recent past. It is anticipated that these results will support several fluvial-erosion-hazard mitigation activities currently being undertaken in Indiana.

  14. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates (United States)

    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.


    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  15. Legacies of stream channel modification revealed using General Land Office surveys, with implications for water temperature and aquatic life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth M. White


    Full Text Available Land use legacies can have a discernible influence in present-day watersheds and should be accounted for when designing conservation strategies for riverine aquatic life. We describe the environmental history of three watersheds within the Grande Ronde subbasin of the Columbia River using General Land Office survey field notes from the 19th century. In the two watersheds severely impacted by Euro-American land use, stream channel widths—a metric representing habitat simplification—increased from an average historical width of 16.8 m to an average present width of 20.8 m in large streams; 4.3 m to 5.5 m in small, confined or partly confined streams; and 3.5 m to 6.5 m in small, laterally unconfined steams. Conversely, we did not detect significant change in stream widths in an adjacent, wilderness stream with minimal human impact. Using a mechanistic water temperature model and restoration scenarios based on the historical condition, we predicted that stream restoration in the impacted watersheds could notably decrease average water temperatures—especially when channel narrowing is coupled with riparian restoration—up to a 6.6°C reduction in the upper Grande Ronde River and 3.0°C in Catherine Creek. These reductions in water temperature translated to substantial changes in the percentage of stream network habitable to salmon and steelhead migration (from 29% in the present condition to 79% in the fully restored scenario and to core juvenile rearing (from 13% in the present condition to 36% in the fully restored scenario. We conclude that land use legacies leave an important footprint on the present landscape and are critical for understanding historic habitat-forming processes as a necessary first step towards restoration.

  16. An empirical conceptual gully evolution model for channelled sea cliffs (United States)

    Leyland, Julian; Darby, Stephen E.


    Incised coastal channels are a specific form of incised channel that are found in locations where stream channels flowing to cliffed coasts have the excess energy required to cut down through the cliff to reach the outlet water body. The southern coast of the Isle of Wight, southern England, comprises soft cliffs that vary in height between 15 and 100 m and which are retreating at rates ≤ 1.5 m a - 1 , due to a combination of wave erosion and landslides. In several locations, river channels have cut through the cliffs to create deeply (≤ 45 m) incised gullies, known locally as 'Chines'. The Chines are unusual in that their formation is associated with dynamic shoreline encroachment during a period of rising sea-level, whereas existing models of incised channel evolution emphasise the significance of base level lowering. This paper develops a conceptual model of Chine evolution by applying space for time substitution methods using empirical data gathered from Chine channel surveys and remotely sensed data. The model identifies a sequence of evolutionary stages, which are classified based on a suite of morphometric indices and associated processes. The extent to which individual Chines are in a state of growth or decay is estimated by determining the relative rates of shoreline retreat and knickpoint recession, the former via analysis of historical aerial images and the latter through the use of a stream power erosion model.

  17. Molecular Communication over Gas Stream Channels using Portable Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; Marshall, Alan; Taylor, Stephen; Smith, Jeremy


    The synthetic generation/coding and transmission of olfactory information over a gas stream or an odor network is a new and unexplored field. Application areas vary from the entertainment or advertisement industry to security and telemedicine. However, current technological limitations frustrate the accurate reproduction of decoded and transmitted olfactory data. This study describes the development, testing, and characterization of a novel odor emitter (OE) that is used to investigate the generation-encoding of gaseous standards with odorous characteristics with a regulatable way, for scent transmission purposes. The calibration and the responses of a developed OE were examined using a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). Experiments were undertaken for a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at different temperatures and flow rates. Individual compounds and mixtures were tested to investigate periodic and dynamic transmission characteristics within two different size tubular containers for distances up to 3 m. Olfactory information transmission is demonstrated using MS as the main molecular sensor for odor detection and monitoring and for the first time spatial encryption of olfactory information is shown.

  18. Disturbance, stream incision, and channel evolution: The roles of excess transport capacity and boundary materials in controlling channel response (United States)

    Simon, Andrew; Rinaldi, Massimo


    Channel incision is part of denudation, drainage-network development, and landscape evolution. Rejuvenation of fluvial networks by channel incision often leads to further network development and an increase in drainage density as gullies migrate into previously non-incised surfaces. Large, anthropogenic disturbances, similar to large or catastrophic "natural" events, greatly compress time scales for incision and related processes by creating enormous imbalances between upstream sediment delivery and available transporting power. Field examples of channel responses to antrhopogenic and "natural" disturbances are presented for fluvial systems in the mid continent and Pacific Northwest, USA, and central Italy. Responses to different types of disturbances are shown to result in similar spatial and temporal trends of incision for vastly different fluvial systems. Similar disturbances are shown to result in varying relative magnitudes of vertical and lateral (widening) processes, and different channel morphologies as a function of the type of boundary sediments comprising the bed and banks. This apparent contradiction is explained through an analysis of temporal adjustments to flow energy, shear stress, and stream power with time. Numerical simulations of sand-bed channels of varying bank resistance and disturbed by reducing the upstream sediment supply by half, show identical adjustments in flow energy and the rate of energy dissipation. The processes that dominate adjustment and the ultimate stable geometries, however, are vastly different, depending on the cohesion of the channel banks and the supply of hydraulically-controlled sediment (sand) provided by bank erosion. The non-linear asymptotic nature of fluvial adjustment to incision caused by channelization or other causes is borne out in similar temporal trends of sediment loads from disturbed systems. The sediments emanating from incised channels can represent a large proportion of the total sediment yield from a

  19. Channel response in a semiarid stream to removal of tamarisk and Russian olive (United States)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.; Wohl, Ellen


    We report observed short-term (3 years) channel adjustment in an incised, semiarid stream to the removal of invasive plants, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) by (1) removing the above-ground portion of the plant (cut-stump method) and (2) removing the entire plant (whole-plant method). The stream flows through Canyon de Chelly National Monument in Arizona, USA., draining an ˜1500 km2 catchment. Average channel width is 13 m; average thalweg depth is 2-3 m, although channel banks exceed 8 m locally. Channels adjusted primarily through widening, with significantly larger changes occurring in whole-plant removal reaches; however, neither plant removal method elicited large-scale bank destabilization, and the channels remained entrenched. Particular site conditions limiting large-scale destabilization include the absence of sufficient streamflow magnitudes, the presence of clay layers at the bank toe, the remaining presence of native vegetation, and the entrenched morphology. Our findings serve as a cautionary note regarding the temporal and spatial variability in channel response to invasive plant removal and underscore the importance of considering site-specific conditions in future restoration projects that include invasive plant removal.

  20. Acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel with a reflector: Case of a standing wave generated by two counterpropagating leaky surface waves. (United States)

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe


    A theory is developed for the modeling of acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel confined between an elastic solid wall and a rigid reflector. A situation is studied where the acoustic streaming is produced by two leaky surface waves that propagate towards each other in the solid wall and thus form a combined standing wave in the fluid. Full analytical solutions are found for both the linear acoustic field and the field of the acoustic streaming. A dispersion equation is derived that allows one to calculate the wave speed in the system under study. The obtained solutions are used to consider particular numerical examples and to reveal the structure of the acoustic streaming. It is shown that two systems of vortices are established along the boundaries of the microfluidic channel.

  1. Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Povalac


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This paper describes an automated Channel Morphology Tool (CMT) developed in ArcGIS 9.1 environment. The CMT creates cross-sections along a stream centerline and uses a digital elevation model (DEM) to create station points with elevations along each of the cross-sections. The generated cross-sections may then be exported into a hydraulic model. Along with the rapid cross-section generation the CMT also eliminates any cross-section overlaps that might occur due to the sinuosity of the channels using the Cross-section Overlap Correction Algorithm (COCoA). The CMT was tested by extracting cross-sections from a 5-m DEM for a 50-km channel length in Houston, Texas. The extracted cross-sections were compared directly with surveyed cross-sections in terms of the cross-section area. Results indicated that the CMT-generated cross-sections satisfactorily matched the surveyed data.

  3. Dispersion relation and growth in a two-stream free electron laser with helical wiggler and ion channel guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdian, Hassan; Abbasi, Negar


    A linear theory of two-stream free electron laser (FEL) with helical wiggler and ion channel guiding is presented. The dispersion relation is obtained with the help of fluid theory and the growth rate is analyzed through the numerical solutions. The considerable enhancement of the growth rate is demonstrated due to the two-stream instability and continuous tuning of peak growth rate ratio, two-stream FEL compared to single-stream FEL, in terms of varying the ion channel frequency is illustrated

  4. An Alternative to Channel-Centered Views of the Landscape for Understanding Modern Streams in the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont Region, Eastern USA (United States)

    Merritts, D. J.; Walter, R. C.; Rahnis, M. A.; Oberholtzer, W.


    Stream channels generally are the focus of conceptual models of valley bottom geomorphology. The channel-centered model prevalent in the tectonically inactive eastern U. S. invokes meandering stream channels migrating laterally across valley floors, eroding one bank while depositing relatively coarse sediment in point bars on the other. According to this model, overbank deposition during flooding deposits a veneer of fine sediment over the gravel substrate. Erosion is considered normal, and the net volume of sediment is relatively constant with time. A dramatic change in conditions-land-clearing during European settlement--led to widespread aggradation on valley bottoms. This historic sedimentation was incorporated in the channel-centered view by assuming that meandering streams were overwhelmed by the increased sediment load and rapidly aggraded vertically. Later, elevated stream channels cut through these deposits because of decreased sediment supply and increased stormwater runoff accompanying urbanization. This view can be traced to early ideas of stream equilibrium in which incoming sediment supply and runoff determine stream-channel form. We propose a different conceptual model. Our trenching and field work along hundreds of km of stream length in the mid-Atlantic Piedmont reveal no point bars prior to European settlement. Instead, a polygenetic valley-bottom landscape underlies the drape of historic sediment. The planar surface of this veneer gives the appearance of a broad floodplain generated by long-term meandering and overbank deposition, but the "floodplain" is a recent aggradational surface from regional base-level rise due to thousands of early American dams that spanned valley bottoms. As modern streams incise into the historic fine-grained slackwater sediment, they expose organic-rich hydric soils along original valley bottom centers; talus, colluvium, bedrock, and saprolite with forest soils along valley margins; and weathered Pleistocene (and

  5. Tracing sources of organic matter in adjacent urban streams having different degrees of channel modification. (United States)

    Duan, Shuiwang; Amon, Rainer M W; Brinkmeyer, Robin L


    Urbanization and stream-channel modifications affect organic matter concentrations and quality in streams, by altering allochthonous organic matter input and in-stream transformation. This study uses multiple tracers (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, C/N ratio, and chlorophyll-a) to track sources of organic matter in two highly urbanized bayous in Houston (Texas, USA). Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are located in headwaters of both bayous and contribute more than 75% to water flow. Low isotopic relatedness to natural end-members and enriched δ(15)N values suggest the influence of WWTPs on the composition of all organic matter fractions. The two bayous differ in degree of channel improvement resulting in different responses to hydrological conditions. During high flow conditions, the influence of terrestrial organic matter and sediment resuspension was much more pronounced in the Buffalo Bayou than in the concrete-lined White Oak Bayou. Particulate organic matter (POM) in White Oak Bayou had similar values of enriched δ(15)N in all subsegments, whereas in Buffalo Bayou, the degree of δ(15)N enrichment was less in the subsegments of the lower watershed. The difference in riparian zone contributions and interactions with sediments/soils was likely responsible for the compositional differences between the two bayous. Phytoplankton inputs were significantly higher in the bayous, especially in slow-flowing sections, relative to the reference sites, and elevated phytoplankton inputs accounted for the observed stable C isotope differences between FPOM and high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW DOM). Relative to POM, HMW DOM in the bayous was similar to WWTP effluents and showed minor longitudinal variability in both streams suggesting that WWTPs contribute much of the DOM in the systems. Urbanization has a major influence on organic matter sources and quality in these urban water bodies and these changes seem further enhanced by stream channel modifications

  6. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data (United States)

    Berenbrock, C.


    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  7. Soil plutonium and cesium in stream channels and banks of Los Alamos liquid effluent-receiving areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; White, G.C.; Trujillo, G.


    Stream channel sediments and adjacent bank soils found in three intermittent streams used for treated liquid effluent disposal at Los Alamos, New Mexico were sampled to determine the distribution of 238 Pu, sup(239,240)Pu and 137 Cs. Radionuclide concentrations and inventories were determined as functions of distance downstream from the waste outfall and from the center of the stream channel, soil sampling depth, stream channel-bank physiography, and the waste use history of each disposal area. Radionuclide concentrations in channel sediments were inversely related to distances up to 10 km downstream from the outfalls. For sites receiving appreciable waste effluent additions, contaminant concentrations in bank soils decreased with perpendicular distances greater than 0.38 m from the stream channel, and with stream bank sampling depths greater than 20-40 cm. Concentrations and total inventories of radionuclides in stream bank soils generally decreased as stream bank height increased. Inventory estimates of radionuclides in channel sediments exhibited coefficients of variation that ranged 0.41-2.6, reflecting the large variation in radionuclide concentrations at each site. Several interesting temporal relationships of these radionuclides in intermittent streams were gleaned from the varying waste use histories of the three effluent-receiving areas. Eleven years after liquid wastes were added to one canyon, the major radionuclide inventories were found in the stream bank soils, unlike most of the other currently-used receiving areas. A period of time greater than 6 yr seems to be required before the plutonium in liquid wastes currently added to the canyon is approximately equilibrated with the plutonium in the bank soils. These observations are discussed relative to waste management practices in these southwestern intermittent streams. (author)

  8. Single-channel in-ear-EEG detects the focus of auditory attention to concurrent tone streams and mixed speech (United States)

    Fiedler, Lorenz; Wöstmann, Malte; Graversen, Carina; Brandmeyer, Alex; Lunner, Thomas; Obleser, Jonas


    Objective. Conventional, multi-channel scalp electroencephalography (EEG) allows the identification of the attended speaker in concurrent-listening (‘cocktail party’) scenarios. This implies that EEG might provide valuable information to complement hearing aids with some form of EEG and to install a level of neuro-feedback. Approach. To investigate whether a listener’s attentional focus can be detected from single-channel hearing-aid-compatible EEG configurations, we recorded EEG from three electrodes inside the ear canal (‘in-Ear-EEG’) and additionally from 64 electrodes on the scalp. In two different, concurrent listening tasks, participants (n  =  7) were fitted with individualized in-Ear-EEG pieces and were either asked to attend to one of two dichotically-presented, concurrent tone streams or to one of two diotically-presented, concurrent audiobooks. A forward encoding model was trained to predict the EEG response at single EEG channels. Main results. Each individual participants’ attentional focus could be detected from single-channel EEG response recorded from short-distance configurations consisting only of a single in-Ear-EEG electrode and an adjacent scalp-EEG electrode. The differences in neural responses to attended and ignored stimuli were consistent in morphology (i.e. polarity and latency of components) across subjects. Significance. In sum, our findings show that the EEG response from a single-channel, hearing-aid-compatible configuration provides valuable information to identify a listener’s focus of attention.

  9. Propagation Characterization and MIMO Channel-Modelling for 3G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Laurent; Berger, Lars Torsten; Ramiro-Moreno, Juan


    This paper presents a survey of MIMO channel models, distinguishing between determinsistic and stochastic channel models.......This paper presents a survey of MIMO channel models, distinguishing between determinsistic and stochastic channel models....

  10. A Mathematical Model of Membrane Gas Separation with Energy Transfer by Molecules of Gas Flowing in a Channel to Molecules Penetrating this Channel from the Adjacent Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwast Maciej


    Full Text Available The paper presents the mathematical modelling of selected isothermal separation processes of gaseous mixtures, taking place in plants using membranes, in particular nonporous polymer membranes. The modelling concerns membrane modules consisting of two channels - the feeding and the permeate channels. Different shapes of the channels cross-section were taken into account. Consideration was given to co-current and counter-current flows, for feeding and permeate streams, respectively, flowing together with the inert gas receiving permeate. In the proposed mathematical model it was considered that pressure of gas changes along the length of flow channels was the result of both - the drop of pressure connected with flow resistance, and energy transfer by molecules of gas flowing in a given channel to molecules which penetrate this channel from the adjacent channel. The literature on membrane technology takes into account only the drop of pressure connected with flow resistance. Consideration given to energy transfer by molecules of gas flowing in a given channel to molecules which penetrate this channel from the adjacent channel constitute the essential novelty in the current study. The paper also presents results of calculations obtained by means of a computer program which used equations of the derived model. Physicochemical data concerning separation of the CO2/CH4 mixture with He as the sweep gas and data concerning properties of the membrane made of PDMS were assumed for calculations.

  11. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana


    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  12. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    Predicting the effects of hydrological alterations on terrestrial stream valley ecosystems requires multidisciplinary approaches involving both engineers and ecologists. Groundwater discharge in stream valleys and other lowland areas support a number of species rich ecosystems, and their protection...... is prioritised worldwide. Protection requires improved knowledge on the functioning of these ecosystems and especially the linkages between vegetation, groundwater discharge and water level conditions are crucial for management applications. Groundwater abstraction affects catchment hydrology and thereby also...... groundwater discharge. Numerical hydrological modelling has been widely used for evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources and effects of abstraction, however, the importance of local scale heterogeneity becomes increasingly important in the assessment of local damage to these groundwater dependent...

  13. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...

  14. Sorting Out Effects of Active Stream Restoration: Channel Morphology, Channel Change Processes and Potential Controls (United States)

    McDowell, P. F.


    In many active restoration projects, instream structures or modifications are designed to produce specific change in channel form, such as reduced W:D or increased pool depth, yet there is little monitoring to evaluate effectiveness. Active restoration often takes place within a context of other land management changes that can have an effect on channel form. Thus, the effects of active restoration are difficult to separate from the effects of other management actions. We measured morphologic response to restoration designs on sections of the Middle Fork John Day River, a gravel-cobble bed river under a cattle grazing regime in the Blue Mountain of Oregon. Since 2000, restoration actions have included elimination of cattle grazing in the riparian zone (passive restoration), riparian planting of woody vegetation, instream log structures for fish habitat and pool maintenance, and elimination of a major flow diversion. We listed the hypothetical effects of each of these management changes, showing overlap among effects of active and passive restoration. Repeat cross-section and longitudinal profile surveys over eight years, and repeat aerial imagery, documented changes in channel width, depth and bed morphology, and processes of change (bank erosion or aggradation, point bar erosion or aggradation, bed incision or aggradation), in two restored reaches and two adjacent control (unrestored) reaches. Morphologic changes were modest. Bankfull cross-section area, width, and W:D all decreased slightly in both restored reaches. Control reaches were unchanged or increased slightly. Processes of change were markedly different among the four reaches, with different reaches dominated by different processes. One restored reach was dominated by slight bed aggradation, increased pool depth and deep pools/km, while the other restored reach was dominated by bank erosion, bar aggradation and slight bed incision, along with increased deep pools/km. The longitudinal profile showed

  15. Indoor MIMO Channel Measurement and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Andersen, Jørgen Bach


    Forming accurate models of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel is essential both for simulation as well as understanding of the basic properties of the channel. This paper investigates different known models using measurements obtained with a 16x32 MIMO channel sounder for the 5.8GHz...... band. The measurements were carried out in various indoor scenarios including both temporal and spatial aspects of channel changes. The models considered include the so-called Kronecker model, a model proposed by Weichselberger et. al., and a model involving the full covariance matrix, the most...... accurate model for Gaussian channels. For each of the environments different sizes of both the transmitter and receiver antenna arrays are investigated, 2x2 up to 16x32. Generally it was found that in terms of capacity cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) all models fit well for small array sizes...

  16. Exploring geomorphic controls on fish bioenergetics in mountain streams: linkages between channel morphology and rearing habitat for cutthroat trout (United States)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.


    Landscape heterogeneity constitutes an important control on spatial distribution of habitat for living organisms, at a range of spatial scales. For example, spatial variation in geomorphic processes can spatially structure populations as well as entire communities, and affect various ecosystem processes. We have coupled a 2D hydrodynamic model with a bioenergetic model to study the effects of various channel morphologies and bed textures on rearing habitat for coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) in four reaches of a mountain stream. The bioenergetic model uses energy conservation principle to calculate energy budget for fish at any point of the study domain, given a set of relevant local conditions. Specifically, the energy intake is a function of food availability (invertebrate drift) while the energy expenditure occurs through, for example, basal metabolism and swimming to hold position against the flow. Channel morphology and bed texture, through their influence on channel hydraulics, can exert strong control on the spatial pattern of both food flux and swimming cost for drift-feeding fish. Therefore, the coupled hydrodynamic and bioenergetic models, parameterized using an extensive field data set, enabled us to explore mechanistic linkages between geomorphic properties of the study reaches, food resource availability, and the energetic profitability of rearing habitat for different age-classes at both between- and within-reach spatial scales.

  17. Modeling and clustering users with evolving profiles in usage streams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chongsheng


    Today, there is an increasing need of data stream mining technology to discover important patterns on the fly. Existing data stream models and algorithms commonly assume that users\\' records or profiles in data streams will not be updated or revised once they arrive. Nevertheless, in various applications such asWeb usage, the records/profiles of the users can evolve along time. This kind of streaming data evolves in two forms, the streaming of tuples or transactions as in the case of traditional data streams, and more importantly, the evolving of user records/profiles inside the streams. Such data streams bring difficulties on modeling and clustering for exploring users\\' behaviors. In this paper, we propose three models to summarize this kind of data streams, which are the batch model, the Evolving Objects (EO) model and the Dynamic Data Stream (DDS) model. Through creating, updating and deleting user profiles, these models summarize the behaviors of each user as a profile object. Based upon these models, clustering algorithms are employed to discover interesting user groups from the profile objects. We have evaluated all the proposed models on a large real-world data set, showing that the DDS model summarizes the data streams with evolving tuples more efficiently and effectively, and provides better basis for clustering users than the other two models. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Machine-Learning Based Channel Quality and Stability Estimation for Stream-Based Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks. (United States)

    Rehan, Waqas; Fischer, Stefan; Rehan, Maaz


    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become more and more diversified and are today able to also support high data rate applications, such as multimedia. In this case, per-packet channel handshaking/switching may result in inducing additional overheads, such as energy consumption, delays and, therefore, data loss. One of the solutions is to perform stream-based channel allocation where channel handshaking is performed once before transmitting the whole data stream. Deciding stream-based channel allocation is more critical in case of multichannel WSNs where channels of different quality/stability are available and the wish for high performance requires sensor nodes to switch to the best among the available channels. In this work, we will focus on devising mechanisms that perform channel quality/stability estimation in order to improve the accommodation of stream-based communication in multichannel wireless sensor networks. For performing channel quality assessment, we have formulated a composite metric, which we call channel rank measurement (CRM), that can demarcate channels into good, intermediate and bad quality on the basis of the standard deviation of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the average of the link quality indicator (LQI) of the received packets. CRM is then used to generate a data set for training a supervised machine learning-based algorithm (which we call Normal Equation based Channel quality prediction (NEC) algorithm) in such a way that it may perform instantaneous channel rank estimation of any channel. Subsequently, two robust extensions of the NEC algorithm are proposed (which we call Normal Equation based Weighted Moving Average Channel quality prediction (NEWMAC) algorithm and Normal Equation based Aggregate Maturity Criteria with Beta Tracking based Channel weight prediction (NEAMCBTC) algorithm), that can perform channel quality estimation on the basis of both current and past values of channel rank estimation. In the end

  19. Machine-Learning Based Channel Quality and Stability Estimation for Stream-Based Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Rehan


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have become more and more diversified and are today able to also support high data rate applications, such as multimedia. In this case, per-packet channel handshaking/switching may result in inducing additional overheads, such as energy consumption, delays and, therefore, data loss. One of the solutions is to perform stream-based channel allocation where channel handshaking is performed once before transmitting the whole data stream. Deciding stream-based channel allocation is more critical in case of multichannel WSNs where channels of different quality/stability are available and the wish for high performance requires sensor nodes to switch to the best among the available channels. In this work, we will focus on devising mechanisms that perform channel quality/stability estimation in order to improve the accommodation of stream-based communication in multichannel wireless sensor networks. For performing channel quality assessment, we have formulated a composite metric, which we call channel rank measurement (CRM, that can demarcate channels into good, intermediate and bad quality on the basis of the standard deviation of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI and the average of the link quality indicator (LQI of the received packets. CRM is then used to generate a data set for training a supervised machine learning-based algorithm (which we call Normal Equation based Channel quality prediction (NEC algorithm in such a way that it may perform instantaneous channel rank estimation of any channel. Subsequently, two robust extensions of the NEC algorithm are proposed (which we call Normal Equation based Weighted Moving Average Channel quality prediction (NEWMAC algorithm and Normal Equation based Aggregate Maturity Criteria with Beta Tracking based Channel weight prediction (NEAMCBTC algorithm, that can perform channel quality estimation on the basis of both current and past values of channel rank estimation

  20. Comparing LiDAR-Generated to ground- surveyed channel cross-sectional profiles in a forested mountain stream (United States)

    Brian C. Dietterick; Russell White; Ryan. Hilburn


    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) holds promise to provide an alternative to traditional ground-based survey methods for stream channel characterization and some change detection purposes, even under challenging landscape conditions. This study compared channel characteristics measured at 53 ground-surveyed and LiDAR-derived crosssectional profiles located...

  1. New metrics for evaluating channel networks extracted in grid digital elevation models (United States)

    Orlandini, S.; Moretti, G.


    Channel networks are critical components of drainage basins and delta regions. Despite the important role played by these systems in hydrology and geomorphology, there are at present no well-defined methods to evaluate numerically how two complex channel networks are geometrically far apart. The present study introduces new metrics for evaluating numerically channel networks extracted in grid digital elevation models with respect to a reference channel network (see the figure below). Streams of the evaluated network (EN) are delineated as in the Horton ordering system and examined through a priority climbing algorithm based on the triple index (ID1,ID2,ID3), where ID1 is a stream identifier that increases as the elevation of lower end of the stream increases, ID2 indicates the ID1 of the draining stream, and ID3 is the ID1 of the corresponding stream in the reference network (RN). Streams of the RN are identified by the double index (ID1,ID2). Streams of the EN are processed in the order of increasing ID1 (plots a-l in the figure below). For each processed stream of the EN, the closest stream of the RN is sought by considering all the streams of the RN sharing the same ID2. This ID2 in the RN is equal in the EN to the ID3 of the stream draining the processed stream, the one having ID1 equal to the ID2 of the processed stream. The mean stream planar distance (MSPD) and the mean stream elevation drop (MSED) are computed as the mean distance and drop, respectively, between corresponding streams. The MSPD is shown to be useful for evaluating slope direction methods and thresholds for channel initiation, whereas the MSED is shown to indicate the ability of grid coarsening strategies to retain the profiles of observed channels. The developed metrics fill a gap in the existing literature by allowing hydrologists and geomorphologists to compare descriptions of a fixed physical system obtained by using different terrain analysis methods, or different physical systems

  2. Ion channel model development and validation (United States)

    Nelson, Peter Hugo


    The structure of the KcsA ion channel selectivity filter is used to develop three simple models of ion channel permeation. The quantitative predictions of the knock-on model are tested by comparison with experimental data from single-channel recordings of the KcsA channel. By comparison with experiment, students discover that the knock-on model can't explain saturation of ion channel current as the concentrations of the bathing solutions are increased. By inverting the energy diagram, students derive the association-dissociation model of ion channel permeation. This model predicts non-linear Michaelis-Menten saturating behavior that requires students to perform non-linear least-squares fits to the experimental data. This is done using Excel's solver feature. Students discover that this simple model does an excellent job of explaining the qualitative features of ion channel permeation but cannot account for changes in voltage sensitivity. The model is then extended to include an electrical dissociation distance. This rapid translocation model is then compared with experimental data from a wide variety of ion channels and students discover that this model also has its limitations. Support from NSF DUE 0836833 is gratefully acknowledged.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to increase spectral efficiency has led to the design of multiple antenna systems for both transmit and receive sides otherwise known as MIMO. Channel modeling forms an integral part of this design. Therefore it is very important to investigate and understand existing MIMO channel models. This paper provides a ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The need to increase spectral efficiency has led to the design of multiple antenna systems for both transmit and receive sides otherwise known as MIMO. Channel modeling forms an integral part of this design. Therefore it is very important to investigate and understand existing MIMO channel models. This paper provides a ...

  5. Radio Channel Modeling in Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Meijerink, Arjan; Scanlon, W.G.


    A body area network (BAN) is a network of bodyworn or implanted electronic devices, including wireless sensors which can monitor body parameters or to de- tect movements. One of the big challenges in BANs is the propagation channel modeling. Channel models can be used to understand wave propagation

  6. Radio channel modeling in body area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Meijerink, Arjan; Scanlon, W.G.


    A body area network (BAN) is a network of bodyworn or implanted electronic devices, including wireless sensors which can monitor body parameters or to detect movements. One of the big challenges in BANs is the propagation channel modeling. Channel models can be used to understand wave propagation in

  7. Joint source-channel distortion modeling for MPEG-4 video. (United States)

    Sabir, Muhammad Farooq; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan Conrad


    Multimedia communication has become one of the main applications in commercial wireless systems. Multimedia sources, mainly consisting of digital images and videos, have high bandwidth requirements. Since bandwidth is a valuable resource, it is important that its use should be optimized for image and video communication. Therefore, interest in developing new joint source-channel coding (JSCC) methods for image and video communication is increasing. Design of any JSCC scheme requires an estimate of the distortion at different source coding rates and under different channel conditions. The common approach to obtain this estimate is via simulations or operational rate-distortion curves. These approaches, however, are computationally intensive and, hence, not feasible for real-time coding and transmission applications. A more feasible approach to estimate distortion is to develop models that predict distortion at different source coding rates and under different channel conditions. Based on this idea, we present a distortion model for estimating the distortion due to quantization and channel errors in MPEG-4 compressed video streams at different source coding rates and channel bit error rates. This model takes into account important aspects of video compression such as transform coding, motion compensation, and variable length coding. Results show that our model estimates distortion within 1.5 dB of actual simulation values in terms of peak-signal-to-noise ratio.

  8. Influence of grazing and land use on stream-channel characteristics among small dairy farms in the Eastern United States (United States)

    Brand, Genevieve; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Jordan, Nicholas R.


    Rotational grazing (RG) is a livestock management practice that rotates grazing cattle on a scale of hours to days among small pastures termed paddocks. It may beneficially affect stream channels, relative to other livestock management practices. Such effects and other beneficial effects on hydrology are important to RG's potential to provide a highly multifunctional mode of livestock farming. Previous comparisons of effects of RG and confinement dairy (CD) on adjoining streams have been restricted in scale and scope. We examined 11 stream-channel characteristics on a representative sample of 37 small dairy farms that used either RG or CD production methods. Our objectives were: (1) to compare channel characteristics on RG and CD farms, as these production methods are implemented in practice, in New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, USA; and (2) to examine land use on these farms that may affect stream-channel characteristics. To help interpret channel characteristic findings, we examined on-farm land use in riparian areas 50 m in width along both sides of stream reaches and whole-farm land use. In all states, stream-channel characteristics on RG and CD farms did not differ. Whole-farm land use differed significantly between farm types; CD farms allocated more land to annual row crops, whereas RG farms allocated more land to pasture and grassland. However, land cover in 50 m riparian areas was not different between farm types within states; in particular, many RG and CD farms had continuously grazed pastures in riparian areas, typically occupied by juvenile and non-lactating cows, which may have contributed sediment and nutrients to streams. This similarity in riparian management practices may explain the observed similarity of farm types with respect to stream-channel characteristics. To realize the potential benefits of RG on streams, best management practices that affect stream-channel characteristics, such as protection of riparian areas, may improve aggregate

  9. Toward Design Guidelines for Stream Restoration Structures: Measuring and Modeling Unsteady Turbulent Flows in Natural Streams with Complex Hydraulic Structures (United States)

    Lightbody, A.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Kang, S.; Diplas, P.


    Despite their widespread application to prevent lateral river migration, stabilize banks, and promote aquatic habitat, shallow transverse flow training structures such as rock vanes and stream barbs lack quantitative design guidelines. Due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about the interaction of the flow field with the sediment bed, existing engineering standards are typically based on various subjective criteria or on cross-sectionally-averaged shear stresses rather than local values. Here, we examine the performance and stability of in-stream structures within a field-scale single-threaded sand-bed meandering stream channel in the newly developed Outdoor StreamLab (OSL) at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). Before and after the installation of a rock vane along the outer bank of the middle meander bend, high-resolution topography data were obtained for the entire 50-m-long reach at 1-cm spatial scale in the horizontal and sub-millimeter spatial scale in the vertical. In addition, detailed measurements of flow and turbulence were obtained using acoustic Doppler velocimetry at twelve cross-sections focused on the vicinity of the structure. Measurements were repeated at a range of extreme events, including in-bank flows with an approximate flow rate of 44 L/s (1.4 cfs) and bankfull floods with an approximate flow rate of 280 L/s (10 cfs). Under both flow rates, the structure reduced near-bank shear stresses and resulted in both a deeper thalweg and near-bank aggradation. The resulting comprehensive dataset has been used to validate a large eddy simulation carried out by SAFL’s computational fluid dynamics model, the Virtual StreamLab (VSL). This versatile computational framework is able to efficiently simulate 3D unsteady turbulent flows in natural streams with complex in-stream structures and as a result holds promise for the development of much-needed quantitative design guidelines.

  10. Complex Simulation Model of Mobile Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Marek


    Full Text Available In the mobile communication environment the mobile channel is the main limiting obstacle to reach the best performance of wireless system. Modeling of the radio channel consists of two basic fading mechanisms - Long-term fading and Short-term fading. The contribution deals with simulation of complex mobile radio channel, which is the channel with all fading components. Simulation model is based on Clarke-Gans theoretical model for fading channel and is developed in MATLAB environment. Simulation results have shown very good coincidence with theory. This model was developed for hybrid adaptation 3G uplink simulator (described in this issue during the research project VEGA - 1/0140/03.

  11. Hydric soils and the relationship to plant diversity within reclaimed stream channels in semi-arid environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schladweiler, B.K.; Rexroat, S.; Benson, S.


    Wetlands are especially important in semi-arid environments, such as the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming, where water is a limiting factor for living organisms. Within this coal mining region of northeastern Wyoming, jurisdictional wetlands are mapped according to the US Army Corps of Engineers 1987 delineation procedure. Within the coal mining region of northeastern Wyoming, little or no full-scale mitigation or reconstruction attempts of jurisdictional wetland areas have been made until recently. Based on the importance of wetlands in a semi-arid environment and lack of information on existing or reconstructed areas, the specific objectives of the 1998 fieldwork were: (1) To define the pre-disturbance ecological state of hydric soils within jurisdictional sections of stream channels on two coal permit areas in northeastern Wyoming, and (2) To determine the effect that hydric soil parameters have on plant community distribution and composition within the two coal permit areas. Undisturbed sections of stream channels and disturbed sections of reconstructed or modified stream channels at the Rawhide Mine and Buckskin Mine, located north of Gillette, Wyoming, were selected for the study. Soils field and laboratory information and field vegetation cover were collected during 1998 within native stream channels and disturbed stream channels that had been reclaimed at each mine. Soils laboratory information is currently preliminary and included pH, electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio. Results and statistical comparisons between soils and vegetation data will be presented

  12. Equations for estimating bankfull channel geometry and discharge for streams in Massachusetts (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Waite, Andrew M.


    Regression equations were developed for estimating bankfull geometry—width, mean depth, cross-sectional area—and discharge for streams in Massachusetts. The equations provide water-resource and conservation managers with methods for estimating bankfull characteristics at specific stream sites in Massachusetts. This information can be used for the adminstration of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Rivers Protection Act of 1996, which establishes a protected riverfront area extending from the mean annual high-water line corresponding to the elevation of bankfull discharge along each side of a perennial stream. Additionally, information on bankfull channel geometry and discharge are important to Federal, State, and local government agencies and private organizations involved in stream assessment and restoration projects. Regression equations are based on data from stream surveys at 33 sites (32 streamgages and 1 crest-stage gage operated by the U.S. Geological Survey) in and near Massachusetts. Drainage areas of the 33 sites ranged from 0.60 to 329 square miles (mi2). At 27 of the 33 sites, field data were collected and analyses were done to determine bankfull channel geometry and discharge as part of the present study. For 6 of the 33 sites, data on bankfull channel geometry and discharge were compiled from other studies done by the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation. Similar techniques were used for field data collection and analysis for bankfull channel geometry and discharge at all 33 sites. Recurrence intervals of the bankfull discharge, which represent the frequency with which a stream fills its channel, averaged 1.53 years (median value 1.34 years) at the 33 sites. Simple regression equations were developed for bankfull width, mean depth, cross-sectional area, and discharge using drainage area, which is the most significant explanatory

  13. The effect of inundation frequency on ground beetle communities in a channelized mountain stream (United States)

    Skalski, T.; Kedzior, R.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.


    Under natural conditions, river channels and floodplains are shaped by flow and sediment regime and are one of the most dynamic ecosystems. At present, European river floodplains are among the most endangered landscapes due to human modifications to river systems, including channel regulation and floodplain urbanization, and land use changes in the catchments. Situated in a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic environments, exposed riverine sediments (ERS) play a key role in the functioning of riverine ecosystems. This study aimed to verify whether the bare granular substrate is the only factor responsible for sustaining the biota associated with ERS or the inundation frequency also plays a role, modifying the potential of particular species to colonize these habitats. Ground beetles (Col. Carabidae) were selected as the investigated group of organisms and the study was carried out in Porębianka, a Polish Carpathian stream flowing through both unconstrained channel sections and sections with varied channelization schemes (rapid hydraulic structures, concrete revetments or rip-rap of various age). In each of the distinguished channel types, four replicates of 10 pitfall traps were established in three rows varying in distance to the mean water level (at three different benches). Almost 7000 individuals belonging to 102 species were collected on 60 plots. Forward selection of redundancy analysis revealed four factors significantly describing the variation in ground beetle species data: bank modification, potential bankfull discharge, frequency of inundation and plant height. Most of the biggest species were ordered at the positive site of first axis having the highest values of periods between floods. Total biomass of ground beetles and mean biomass of individuals differed significantly between sites of various frequency of inundation, whereas the variation in abundance and species richness of ground beetles was independent of the river dynamics. The body

  14. Streaming Video Modeling for Robotics Teleoperation (United States)


    When creating a context a RGBA pixel format is used, and the format of the destination is copied from the codec object. The frame object, configuration, buffers, and a header. A video format object is created with default settings and a video stream that uses the codec id from...the stream, and a copy of the codec context is made for use in the decoding process. Decoding and Displaying the Frame Decoding and displaying

  15. Quantifying the effects of stream channels on storm water quality in a semi-arid urban environment (United States)

    Gallo, Erika L.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; Brooks, Paul D.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Meixner, Thomas; McLain, Jean E. T.


    SummaryStormwater drainage systems can have a large effect on urban runoff quality, but it is unclear how ephemeral urban streams alter runoff hydrochemistry. This problem is particularly relevant in semi-arid regions, where urban storm runoff is considered a renewable water resource. Here we address the question: how do stream channels alter urban runoff hydrochemistry? We collected synoptic stormwater samples during three rainfall-runoff events from nine ephemeral streams reaches (three concrete or metal, three grass, three gravel) in Tucson, Arizona. We identified patterns of temporal and spatial (longitudinal) variability in concentrations of conservative (chloride and isotopes of water) and reactive solutes (inorganic-N, soluble reactive phosphorous, sulfate-S, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen, and fecal indicator bacteria). Water isotopes and chloride (Cl) concentrations indicate that solute flushing and evapoconcentration alter temporal patterns in runoff hydrochemistry, but not spatial hydrochemical responses. Solute concentrations and stream channel solute sourcing and retention during runoff were significantly more variable at the grass reaches (CV = 2.3 - 144%) than at the concrete or metal (CV = 1.6 - 107%) or gravel reaches (CV = 1.9 - 60%), which functioned like flow-through systems. Stream channel soil Cl and DOC decreased following a runoff event (Cl: 12.1-7.3 μg g-1 soil; DOC: 87.7-30.1 μg g-1 soil), while soil fecal indicator bacteria counts increased (55-215 CFU g-1 soil). Finding from this study suggest that the characteristics of the ephemeral stream channel substrate control biogeochemical reactions between runoff events, which alter stream channel soil solute stores and the hydrochemistry of subsequent runoff events.

  16. Baseline Channel Geometry and Aquatic Habitat Data for Selected Streams in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Rice, William J.


    Small streams in the rapidly developing Matanuska-Susitna Valley in south-central Alaska are known to support anadromous and resident fish but little is known about their hydrologic and riparian conditions, or their sensitivity to the rapid development of the area or climate variability. To help address this need, channel geometry and aquatic habitat data were collected in 2005 as a baseline of stream conditions for selected streams. Three streams were selected as representative of various stream types, and one drainage network, the Big Lake drainage basin, was selected for a systematic assessment. Streams in the Big Lake basin were drawn in a Geographic Information System (GIS), and 55 reaches along 16 miles of Meadow Creek and its primary tributary Little Meadow Creek were identified from orthoimagery and field observations on the basis of distinctive physical and habitat parameters, most commonly gradient, substrate, and vegetation. Data-collection methods for sites at the three representative reaches and the 55 systematically studied reaches consisted of a field survey of channel and flood-plain geometry and collection of 14 habitat attributes using published protocols or slight modifications. Width/depth and entrenchment ratios along the Meadow-Little Meadow Creek corridor were large and highly variable upstream of Parks Highway and lower and more consistent downstream of Parks Highway. Channel width was strongly correlated with distance, increasing downstream in a log-linear relation. Runs formed the most common habitat type, and instream vegetation dominated the habitat cover types, which collectively covered 53 percent of the channel. Gravel suitable for spawning covered isolated areas along Meadow Creek and about 29 percent of Little Meadow Creek. Broad wetlands were common along both streams. For a comprehensive assessment of small streams in the Mat-Su Valley, critical additional data needs include hydrologic, geologic and geomorphic, and biologic data

  17. Theoretical postulation of PLC channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Ionuţ Chiuţă


    Full Text Available The objective of this document is to supply atheoretical basis for modelling the communicationlinks over powerlines. A comprehensive summary oftransmission properties and the noise scenario onpublic mains supply when used for data transmissionare given.Different PLC models - PLC channel, noise inPLC channel, coupling units, filters and conditioningdevices – will be created and they will be used tosimulate the PLC channel.PLC applications will have to work at veryunusual channels, solely designed for optimalelectrical power transportation, completelydisregarding signal transmission at high frequencies.It is shown that the typical properties aredescribed by transfer functions and noise scenariostypical for access and inhouse networks. The generaltransfer function for different channel types is derivedand, since an emulation system should reproducetypical classes of channels rather than singlemeasurements, the transfer function is concretisedwith reference channels. These are later serving asbasis for development of channel simulators andchannel emulators. Special attention is paid tomodelling of aperiodic impulsive noise since PLCsystems are reacting very sensitive to them and thisclass of noise has been insufficiently considered so far.

  18. Environmental Modeling of Storm Water Channels


    L. Grinis


    Turbulent flow in complex geometries receives considerable attention due to its importance in many engineering applications. It has been the subject of interest for many researchers. Some of these interests include the design of storm water channels. The design of these channels requires testing through physical models. The main practical limitation of physical models is the so called “scale effect”, that is, the fact that in many cases only primary physical mechanisms can be correctly repres...

  19. Regional Curves of Bankfull Channel Geometry for Non-Urban Streams in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Virginia (United States)

    Lotspeich, R. Russell


    Natural-channel design involves constructing a stream channel with the dimensions, slope, and plan-view pattern that would be expected to transport water and sediment and yet maintain habitat and aesthetics consistent with unimpaired stream segments, or reaches. Regression relations for bankfull stream characteristics based on drainage area, referred to as 'regional curves,' are used in natural stream channel design to verify field determinations of bankfull discharge and stream channel characteristics. One-variable, ordinary least-squares regressions relating bankfull discharge, bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull width, bankfull mean depth, and bankfull slope to drainage area were developed on the basis of data collected at 17 streamflow-gaging stations in rural areas with less than 20 percent urban land cover within the basin area (non-urban areas) of the Piedmont Physiographic Province in Virginia. These regional curves can be used to estimate the bankfull discharge and bankfull channel geometry when the drainage area of a watershed is known. Data collected included bankfull cross-sectional geometry, flood-plain geometry, and longitudinal profile data. In addition, particle-size distributions of streambed material were determined, and data on basin characteristics were compiled for each reach. Field data were analyzed to determine bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull width, bankfull mean depth, bankfull discharge, bankfull channel slope, and D50 and D84 particle sizes at each site. The bankfull geometry from the 17 sites surveyed during this study represents the average of two riffle cross sections for each site. Regional curves developed for the 17 sites had coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.950 for bankfull cross-sectional area, 0.913 for bankfull width, 0.915 for bankfull mean depth, 0.949 for bankfull discharge, and 0.497 for bankfull channel slope. The regional curves represent conditions for streams with defined channels and bankfull

  20. Applications of spatial statistical network models to stream data (United States)

    Isaak, Daniel J.; Peterson, Erin E.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Wenger, Seth J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Sowder, Colin; Steel, E. Ashley; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Jordan, Chris E.; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Som, Nicholas; Monestiez, Pascal


    Streams and rivers host a significant portion of Earth's biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services for human populations. Accurate information regarding the status and trends of stream resources is vital for their effective conservation and management. Most statistical techniques applied to data measured on stream networks were developed for terrestrial applications and are not optimized for streams. A new class of spatial statistical model, based on valid covariance structures for stream networks, can be used with many common types of stream data (e.g., water quality attributes, habitat conditions, biological surveys) through application of appropriate distributions (e.g., Gaussian, binomial, Poisson). The spatial statistical network models account for spatial autocorrelation (i.e., nonindependence) among measurements, which allows their application to databases with clustered measurement locations. Large amounts of stream data exist in many areas where spatial statistical analyses could be used to develop novel insights, improve predictions at unsampled sites, and aid in the design of efficient monitoring strategies at relatively low cost. We review the topic of spatial autocorrelation and its effects on statistical inference, demonstrate the use of spatial statistics with stream datasets relevant to common research and management questions, and discuss additional applications and development potential for spatial statistics on stream networks. Free software for implementing the spatial statistical network models has been developed that enables custom applications with many stream databases.

  1. Stream-channel and watershed delineations and basin-characteristic measurements using lidar elevation data for small drainage basins within the Des Moines Lobe landform region in Iowa (United States)

    Eash, David A.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.; O'Shea, Padraic S.; Gelder, Brian K.


    Basin-characteristic measurements related to stream length, stream slope, stream density, and stream order have been identified as significant variables for estimation of flood, flow-duration, and low-flow discharges in Iowa. The placement of channel initiation points, however, has always been a matter of individual interpretation, leading to differences in stream definitions between analysts.This study investigated five different methods to define stream initiation using 3-meter light detection and ranging (lidar) digital elevation models (DEMs) data for 17 streamgages with drainage areas less than 50 square miles within the Des Moines Lobe landform region in north-central Iowa. Each DEM was hydrologically enforced and the five stream initiation methods were used to define channel initiation points and the downstream flow paths. The five different methods to define stream initiation were tested side-by-side for three watershed delineations: (1) the total drainage-area delineation, (2) an effective drainage-area delineation of basins based on a 2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) 12-hour rainfall, and (3) an effective drainage-area delineation based on a 20-percent AEP 12-hour rainfall.Generalized least squares regression analysis was used to develop a set of equations for sites in the Des Moines Lobe landform region for estimating discharges for ungaged stream sites with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent AEPs. A total of 17 streamgages were included in the development of the regression equations. In addition, geographic information system software was used to measure 58 selected basin-characteristics for each streamgage.Results of the regression analyses of the 15 lidar datasets indicate that the datasets that produce regional regression equations (RREs) with the best overall predictive accuracy are the National Hydrographic Dataset, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and profile curvature of 0.5 stream initiation methods combined with

  2. Reverse stream flow routing by using Muskingum models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reverse stream flow routing is a procedure that determines the upstream hydrograph given the downstream hydrograph. This paper presents the development of methodology for Muskingum models parameter estimation for reverse stream flow routing. The standard application of the Muskingum models involves calibration ...

  3. Reverse stream flow routing by using Muskingum models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Reverse stream flow routing is a procedure that determines the upstream hydrograph given the downstream hydrograph. This paper presents the develop- ment of methodology for Muskingum models parameter estimation for reverse stream flow routing. The standard application of the Muskingum models involves.

  4. Ultrasound-driven Viscous Streaming, Modelled via Momentum Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James PACKER


    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices can use steady streaming caused by the ultrasonic oscillation of one or many gas bubbles in a liquid to drive small scale flow. Such streaming flows are difficult to evaluate, as analytic solutions are not available for any but the simplest cases, and direct computational fluid dynamics models are unsatisfactory due to the large difference in flow velocity between the steady streaming and the leading order oscillatory motion. We develop a numerical technique which uses a two-stage multiscale computational fluid dynamics approach to find the streaming flow as a steady problem, and validate this model against experimental results.

  5. The influence of log jam development on channel morphology in an intermediate sized coastal stream, Carnation Creek, B.C. (United States)

    Luzi, D. S.; Sidle, R. C.; Hogan, D. L.


    Large wood (LW) is an important functional and structural component of forest stream ecosystems, regulating sediment storage and transport, consequently determining channel morphology, and as an important foundation for aquatic habitat. LW occurs as either individual pieces or in accumulations (log jams). Where individual pieces of LW affect the stream at a small scale, several bankfull widths, jams influence the stream on a much larger scale. The spatial extent of jam related effects on channel morphology vary, dependent upon the life stage of the jam. Temporal changes in jams have received relatively little attention in the literature. The development stage of a jam is associated with upstream channel aggradation and downstream degradation; this process reverses during a jam's deterioration phase. Carnation Creek, an 11 km2 watershed located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, provided a rare opportunity to examine both the spatial and temporal impacts of log jams on channel morphology. An understanding of these relationships will be developed through the analysis of changes in channel variables, such as channel dimensions, pattern, hydraulic characteristics, and morphology. These characteristics will be extracted from annual cross sectional surveys taken during 1971 - 1998.

  6. Radio Channel Modelling Using Stochastic Propagation Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri


    In this contribution the radio channel model proposed in [1] is extended to include multiple transmitters and receivers. The propagation environment is modelled using random graphs where vertices of a graph represent scatterers and edges model the wave propagation between scatterers. Furthermore...

  7. Modelling climate change impacts on stream habitat conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, Eva; Conallin, John; Karthikeyan, Matheswaran

    required to conserve streams as biologically diverse and healthy ecosystems. Solutions to this intensifying conflict require a holistic approach whereby stream biota is related to their physical environment at catchment scale, as also demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive. In the present study......, climate impacts on stream ecological conditions were quantified by combining a heat and mass stream flow with a habitat suitability modelling approach. Habitat suitability indices were developed for stream velocity, water depth, water temperature and substrate. Generally, water depth was found...... to be the most critical factor for the stream ecological conditions at Sjælland, and field measurements show that water temperature is rising to damaging levels during low flow summer conditions. Using downstream longitudinal modelling of water flow and water temperature, it is found that shading by riparian...

  8. A model for the origin of solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundhausen, A.J.; Burlaga, L.F.


    The basic variations in solar wind properties that have been observed at 'stream interfaces' near 1 AU are explained by a gas dynamic model in which a radially propagating stream, produced by a temperature variation in the solar envelope, steepens nonlinearly while moving through interplanetary space. The region thus identified with the stream interface separates the ambient solar wind from the fresh hot material originally in the stream. However, the interface regions given by the present model are thicker than most stream interfaces observed in the solar wind, a fact suggesting that some additional physical process may be important in determining that thickness. Variations in the density, speed, or Alfven pressure alone appear not to produce streams with such an interface

  9. An Evaluation of Data Collected by Middle School and College-Level Students in Stream Channel Geomorphic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D. Lafrenz


    Full Text Available This project tested the accuracy and repeatability of geomorphic stream channel assessments conducted by two different middle school classes from the Walt Morey Middle School in Troutdale, OR and college students from Portland State University in Portland, OR. Each group surveyed the same three cross-sections in Fairview Creek, a tributary to the Lower Columbia River, in order to assess stream channel geometry, discharge, composition of the bed material, and water quality. The three student groups were all able to accurately document the stream channel geometry, including stream width and mean depth, indicating that these data can be successfully collected by volunteers of various ages. However, stream velocity obtained using the float method was consistently overestimated leading to a biased calculation of discharge, and the low precision of the measurements did not allow for a correction of the bias. The median particle size of the bed material determined by a pebble count was also overestimated by each group, but the low precision also negated the possibility of correcting the estimate. The stored fine sediment in the bed was underestimated by each group and again with low precision. The temperature, pH, and conductivity measured with a calibrated multimeter were accurate and precise for all groups.

  10. Foundations for Streaming Model Transformations by Complex Event Processing. (United States)

    Dávid, István; Ráth, István; Varró, Dániel


    Streaming model transformations represent a novel class of transformations to manipulate models whose elements are continuously produced or modified in high volume and with rapid rate of change. Executing streaming transformations requires efficient techniques to recognize activated transformation rules over a live model and a potentially infinite stream of events. In this paper, we propose foundations of streaming model transformations by innovatively integrating incremental model query, complex event processing (CEP) and reactive (event-driven) transformation techniques. Complex event processing allows to identify relevant patterns and sequences of events over an event stream. Our approach enables event streams to include model change events which are automatically and continuously populated by incremental model queries. Furthermore, a reactive rule engine carries out transformations on identified complex event patterns. We provide an integrated domain-specific language with precise semantics for capturing complex event patterns and streaming transformations together with an execution engine, all of which is now part of the Viatra reactive transformation framework. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with two case studies: one in an advanced model engineering workflow; and one in the context of on-the-fly gesture recognition.

  11. Modeling the effects of LID practices on streams health at watershed scale (United States)

    Shannak, S.; Jaber, F. H.


    Increasing impervious covers due to urbanization will lead to an increase in runoff volumes, and eventually increase flooding. Stream channels adjust by widening and eroding stream bank which would impact downstream property negatively (Chin and Gregory, 2001). Also, urban runoff drains in sediment bank areas in what's known as riparian zones and constricts stream channels (Walsh, 2009). Both physical and chemical factors associated with urbanization such as high peak flows and low water quality further stress aquatic life and contribute to overall biological condition of urban streams (Maxted et al., 1995). While LID practices have been mentioned and studied in literature for stormwater management, they have not been studied in respect to reducing potential impact on stream health. To evaluate the performance and the effectiveness of LID practices at a watershed scale, sustainable detention pond, bioretention, and permeable pavement will be modeled at watershed scale. These measures affect the storm peak flows and base flow patterns over long periods, and there is a need to characterize their effect on stream bank and bed erosion, and aquatic life. These measures will create a linkage between urban watershed development and stream conditions specifically biological health. The first phase of this study is to design and construct LID practices at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center-Dallas, TX to collect field data about the performance of these practices on a smaller scale. The second phase consists of simulating the performance of LID practices on a watershed scale. This simulation presents a long term model (23 years) using SWAT to evaluate the potential impacts of these practices on; potential stream bank and bed erosion, and potential impact on aquatic life in the Blunn Watershed located in Austin, TX. Sub-daily time step model simulations will be developed to simulate the effectiveness of the three LID practices with respect to reducing

  12. A modelling study of hyporheic exchange pattern and the sequence, size, and spacing of stream bedforms in mountain stream networks, Oregon, USA. (United States)

    Michael N. Gooseff; Justin K. Anderson; Steven M. Wondzell; Justin LaNier; Roy. Haggerty


    Studies of hyporheic exchange flows have identified physical features of channels that control exchange flow at the channel unit scale, namely slope breaks in the longitudinal profile of streams that generate subsurface head distributions. We recently completed a field study that suggested channel unit spacing in stream longitudinal profiles can be used to predict the...

  13. Detecting the impact of bank and channel modification on invertebrate communities in Mediterranean temporary streams (Sardinia, SW Italy). (United States)

    Buffagni, Andrea; Tenchini, Roberta; Cazzola, Marcello; Erba, Stefania; Balestrini, Raffaella; Belfiore, Carlo; Pagnotta, Romano


    We hypothesized that reach-scale, bank and channel modification would impact benthic communities in temporary rivers of Sardinia, when pollution and water abstraction are not relevant. A range of variables were considered, which include both artificial structures/alterations and natural features observed in a stream reach. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were used to assess the effects of the explanatory variables on invertebrate assemblages and five groups, characterized by different habitat modification and/or features, were recognized. Four node variables determined the splits in the MRT analysis: channel reinforcement, tree-related bank and channel habitats, channel modification and bank modification. Continuity of trees in the river corridor diverged among MRT groups and significant differences among groups include presence of alders, extent of channel shading and substrate diversity. Also, the percentage of in-stream organic substrates, in particular CPOM/Xylal, showed highly significant differences among groups. For practical applications, thresholds for the extent of channel reinforcement (40%) and modification (10%) and for bank alteration (≈30%) were provided, that can be used to guide the implementation of restoration measures. In moderately altered river reaches, a significant extent of tree-related habitats (≈5%) can noticeably mitigate the effects of morphological alteration on aquatic invertebrates. The outcomes highlight the importance of riparian zone management as an opportune, achievable prospect in the restoration of Mediterranean temporary streams. The impact of bank and channel modification on ecological status (sensu WFD) was investigated and the tested benthic metrics, especially those based on abundance data, showed legible differences among MRT groups. Finally, bank and channel modification appears to be a potential threat for the conservation of a few Sardo-Corsican endemic species. The introduction of management criteria that

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Channel Retention in a Lowland Temperate Forest Stream Settled by European Beaver (Castor fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Grygoruk


    Full Text Available Beaver ponds remain a challenge for forest management in those countries where expansion of beaver (Castor fiber is observed. Despite undoubted economic losses generated in forests by beaver, their influence on hydrology of forest streams especially in terms of increasing channel retention (amount of water stored in the river channel, is considered a positive aspect of their activity. In our study, we compared water storage capacities of a lowland forest stream settled by beaver in order to unravel the possible temporal variability of beaver’s influence on channel retention. We compared distribution, total damming height, volumes and areas of beaver ponds in the valley of Krzemianka (Northeast Poland in the years 2006 (when a high construction activity of beaver was observed and in 2013 (when the activity of beaver decreased significantly. The study revealed a significant decrease of channel retention of beaver ponds from over 15,000 m3 in 2006 to 7000 m3 in 2013. The total damming height of the cascade of beaver ponds decreased from 6.6 to 5.6 m. Abandoned beaver ponds that transferred into wetlands, where lost channel retention was replaced by soil and groundwater retention, were more constant over time and less vulnerable to the external disturbance means of water storage than channel retention. We concluded that abandoned beaver ponds played an active role in increasing channel retention of the river analyzed for approximately 5 years. We also concluded that if the construction activity of beaver was used as a tool (ecosystem service in increasing channel retention of the river valley, the permanent presence of beaver in the riparian zone of forest streams should have been assured.

  15. Three-dimensional model of corotating streams in the solar wind 3. Magnetohydrodynamic streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzo, V.J.


    The focus of this paper is two-fold: (1) to examine how the presence of the spiral magnetic field affects the evolution of interplanetary corotating solar wind streams, and (2) to ascertain the nature of secondary large-scale phenomena likely to be associated with streams having a pronounced three-dimensional (3-D) structure. The dynamics are presumed to be governed by the nonlinear polytropic, single-fluid, 3-D MHD equations. Solutions are obtained with an explicit, Eulerian, finite differences technique that makes use of a simple form of artificial diffusion for handling shocks. For smooth axisymmetric flows, the picture of magnetically induced meridional motions previously established by linear models requires only minor correction. In the case of broad 3-D streams input near the sun, inclusion of the magnetic field is found to retard the kinematic steepening at the stream front substantially but to produce little deviation from planar flow. For the more realistic case of initially sharply bounded streams, however, it becomes essential to account for magnetic effects in the formulation. Whether a full 3-D treatment is required depends upon the latitudinal geometry of the stream

  16. Risk Modelling for Passages in Approach Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Smolarek


    Full Text Available Methods of multivariate statistics, stochastic processes, and simulation methods are used to identify and assess the risk measures. This paper presents the use of generalized linear models and Markov models to study risks to ships along the approach channel. These models combined with simulation testing are used to determine the time required for continuous monitoring of endangered objects or period at which the level of risk should be verified.

  17. Numerical Model of Streaming DEP for Stem Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Natu


    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are of special interest due to their potential in neurogenesis to treat spinal cord injuries and other nervous disorders. Flow cytometry, a common technique used for cell sorting, is limited due to the lack of antigens and labels that are specific enough to stem cells of interest. Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free separation technique that has been recently demonstrated for the enrichment of neural stem/progenitor cells. Here we use numerical simulation to investigate the use of streaming DEP for the continuous sorting of neural stem/progenitor cells. Streaming DEP refers to the focusing of cells into streams by equilibrating the dielectrophoresis and drag forces acting on them. The width of the stream should be maximized to increase throughput while the separation between streams must be widened to increase efficiency during retrieval. The aim is to understand how device geometry and experimental variables affect the throughput and efficiency of continuous sorting of SC27 stem cells, a neurogenic progenitor, from SC23 cells, an astrogenic progenitor. We define efficiency as the ratio between the number of SC27 cells over total number of cells retrieved in the streams, and throughput as the number of SC27 cells retrieved in the streams compared to their total number introduced to the device. The use of cylindrical electrodes as tall as the channel yields streams featuring >98% of SC27 cells and width up to 80 µm when using a flow rate of 10 µL/min and sample cell concentration up to 105 cells/mL.

  18. Numerical modelling of channel processes and analysis of possible channel improvement measures on the Lena River near city Yakutsk (United States)

    Krylenko, Inna; Belikov, Vitaly; Zavadskii, Aleksander; Borisova, Natalya; Golovlyov, Pavel; Rumyantsev, Alexey


    City Yakutsk (administrative, culture and industrial center of the North East of Russia) situated on the left bank of large Russian river Lena last decades has faced with many problems, concerning intensive channel processes. Most dramatic among them are sediment accumulation near main water intake structure, supplying city Yakutsk by the drinking water, and deterioration in conditions of the navigation roots to the main city ports. Hydrodynamic modelling has been chosen as the main tool for analyses of the modern tendencies in channel processes and for the evaluation of possible channel improvement measures efficiency. STREAM_2D program complex (authors V. Belikov et al.), which is based on the numerical solution of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on a hybrid curvilinear quadrangular and rectangular mesh and take into account sediment transport, was used for the simulations. Detailed field data about water regime of the Lena river, bathymetry of the channels and topography of the floodplains was collected for model developing. Model area has covered 75 km of the Lena river valley including branched channels and wide floodplain from Tabaga to Kangalassy gauge cites. Data of these stations were used for model boundary conditions assigning. Data of gauge station city Yakutsk as well as measured during field campaign water levels and flow velocities was taken into account for model calibration and validation. Results of modelling has demonstrated close correspondence with observed water levels and discharges distribution between channel branches for different hydrological situations. Different combinations of hydrographs of 1, 10, 50% exceedance probability was used as input for modelling of channel deformations. Simulation results has shown that in future 10 years aligning of water discharges distribution between main Lena river branches near Yakutsk is possible, that is a positive tendency from the point of view of water supply of the city. More than 15

  19. Time-Scales of Storm Flow Response in the Stream and Hyporheic Zone of a Small, Steep Forested Catchment - Contrasting the Potential Contributions from the Hillslope, Riparian-Hyporheic Zones, and the Stream Channel (United States)

    Wondzell, S. M.; Corson-rikert, H.; Haggerty, R.


    Storm-flow responses of small catchments are widely studied to identify water sources and mechanisms routing water through catchments. These studies typically observe rapid responses to rainfall with peak concentrations of many chemical constituents occurring on rising leg of the hydrograph. To explain this, some conceptual models suggest that stream water early in storm periods is dominated by riparian water sources with hillslope water sources dominating later in the storm. We examined changes in both stream and hyporheic water chemistry during a small, autumn storm in a forested mountain catchment to test this conceptual model. Our study site was located in WS01 at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, in Oregon, USA. The watershed has a narrow valley floor, always less than 15 m wide and occasionally interrupted by narrow, constrained bedrock sections. The valley floor has a longitudinal gradient of approximately 14%. Hyporheic water tends to flow parallel the valley axis and flow paths change little with changes in stream discharge, even during storm events. A well network is located in a 30-m reach near the bottom of the watershed. We sampled the stream, 9 hyporheic wells, and a hillslope well for DOC, DIC, Cl-, and NO3- during the storm. As expected, concentrations of DOC and NO3- increased rapidly on the rising leg of the hydrograph in both the stream and the hyporheic wells. However, the stream always had higher concentrations of DOC, and lower concentrations of NO3-, than did either the hillslope well or the hyporheic wells. These data suggest that the riparian/hyporheic zone is not a likely source of water influencing stream water chemistry on the rising leg of the hydrograph. These data agree with median travel time estimates of water flowing along hyporheic flow paths - it takes many 10s of hours for water to move from the riparian/hyporheic zone to the stream - a time scale that is far too slow to explain the rapid changes observed on the rising leg

  20. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Pramod K; Soupir, Michelle L; Ikenberry, Charles


    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water

  1. Influence of large wood on channel hydraulics, sediment (dis-)connectivity and channel morphology in a medium-sized mixed-load Austrian stream (United States)

    Schuchardt, Anne; Pöppl, Ronald; Morche, David


    It is widely known that large wood (LW) in rivers alters channel hydraulics, channel morphology and sediment transport. Channel spanning LW can create blocking barriers, steps and dams which store sediment and organic material in small reservoirs for the lifetime of the damming structure. Otherwise, the breach of LW key logs and jams makes the long term stored sediment available for fluvial transport. However, detailed field measurements on the distribution of LW and its influence on hydraulic variables, channel morphology and (especially) sediment connectivity are still rare, thus further constituting the major aim of this study. The study was performed along the lower reaches ( 6 km) of the Fugnitz River, a mixed-load, medium-sized (catchment area 130 km2) single-thread perennial stream, located in the Bohemian Massif, Austria. The spatial distribution and characterization of LW (>1 m in length and >10 cm in diameter) was examined along the main stem via field mapping and dGPS measurements. Hydraulic channel parameters (e.g. channel gradient, cross-sectional profiles) and volumes of retained sediment were determined via field measurements, while channel morphology incl. indications of LW-induced geomorphic processes (e.g. bank undercutting, scouring) was obtained via geomorphic mapping. Flow characteristics and bed load transport rates were measured using an Ott-Nautilus and a portable Helley-Smith bed load sampler during different water stages. Additionally, bed sediment textures were examined by performing pebble count analyses. In-channel LW accumulations (total volume of 588 m3) were primarily observed in meandering river reaches as well as in reaches with steep hillslopes. 36% of all LW accumulations were classified as dams, steps or deflectors altering flow conditions or creating backwater areas decreasing sediment connectivity. Highest volumes of sediment storage (total volume of 26 m3) have been primarily recorded at locations where bank erosion processes

  2. Effects of large woody debris placement on stream channels and benthic macroinvertebrates (United States)

    Robert H. Hilderbrand; A. Dennis Lemly; C. Andrew Dolloff; Kelly L. Harpster


    Large woody debris (LWD)was added as an experimental stream restoration techniquein two streams in southwest Virginia. Additions were designed to compare human judgement in log placements against a randomized design and an unmanipulated reach, &d also to compare effectiveness in a low- and a high-gradient stream. Pool area increased 146% in the systematic placement...

  3. Mathematical modelling and its impact on open channel flow | Eyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical model for dredging (excavating) an open channel, namely, a river has been developed using the conditions for best hydraulic performances for the channel. Applying the model to a numerical example we determine new dimensions for the new open channel for two-channel sections, viz: the trapezoidal and ...

  4. Modeling transient streaming potentials in falling-head permeameter tests. (United States)

    Malama, Bwalya; Revil, André


    We present transient streaming potential data collected during falling-head permeameter tests performed on samples of two sands with different physical and chemical properties. The objective of the work is to estimate hydraulic conductivity (K) and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient (Cl ) of the sand samples. A semi-empirical model based on the falling-head permeameter flow model and electrokinetic coupling is used to analyze the streaming potential data and to estimate K and Cl . The values of K estimated from head data are used to validate the streaming potential method. Estimates of K from streaming potential data closely match those obtained from the associated head data, with less than 10% deviation. The electrokinetic coupling coefficient was estimated from streaming potential vs. (1) time and (2) head data for both sands. The results indicate that, within limits of experimental error, the values of Cl estimated by the two methods are essentially the same. The results of this work demonstrate that a temporal record of the streaming potential response in falling-head permeameter tests can be used to estimate both K and Cl . They further indicate the potential for using transient streaming potential data as a proxy for hydraulic head in hydrogeology applications. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  5. Modelling debris flows down general channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Pudasaini


    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of the single-phase cohesionless dry granular avalanche model over curved and twisted channels proposed by Pudasaini and Hutter (2003. It is a generalisation of the Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991 equations based on simple channel topography to a two-phase fluid-solid mixture of debris material. Important terms emerging from the correct treatment of the kinematic and dynamic boundary condition, and the variable basal topography are systematically taken into account. For vanishing fluid contribution and torsion-free channel topography our new model equations exactly degenerate to the previous Savage-Hutter model equations while such a degeneration was not possible by the Iverson and Denlinger (2001 model, which, in fact, also aimed to extend the Savage and Hutter model. The model equations of this paper have been rigorously derived; they include the effects of the curvature and torsion of the topography, generally for arbitrarily curved and twisted channels of variable channel width. The equations are put into a standard conservative form of partial differential equations. From these one can easily infer the importance and influence of the pore-fluid-pressure distribution in debris flow dynamics. The solid-phase is modelled by applying a Coulomb dry friction law whereas the fluid phase is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Input parameters of the equations are the internal and bed friction angles of the solid particles, the viscosity and volume fraction of the fluid, the total mixture density and the pore pressure distribution of the fluid at the bed. Given the bed topography and initial geometry and the initial velocity profile of the debris mixture, the model equations are able to describe the dynamics of the depth profile and bed parallel depth-averaged velocity distribution from the initial position to the final deposit. A shock capturing, total variation diminishing numerical scheme is implemented to

  6. Estimates of Nitrogen Removal in U.S. Streams and Reservoirs from the SPARROW Watershed Model (United States)

    Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Schwarz, G. E.; Nolan, J. V.; Boyer, E. W.


    Greater understanding is needed of the biotic and abiotic processes that remove nitrogen (N) from streams and reservoirs to quantify transport to downstream coastal waters where eutrophication is a major concern. Recent studies have improved estimates of N removal rates (e.g., denitrification, biological uptake) over small spatial scales in low-order streams. However, limited knowledge of the factors that explain the large variation in literature removal rates has made it difficult to accurately predict N transport through the range of stream and reservoir sizes that link sources to downstream waters. Spatially referenced watershed models (SPARROW) have been used to statistically estimate long-term mean-annual rates of total nitrogen removal in streams and reservoirs over large spatial scales. These rates are estimated as a function of physical and hydraulic properties (channel depth, water travel time) that influence the contact and exchange of water with benthic sediment. We recently refined our SPARROW model structure with expanded descriptions of climatic, topographic, and other surficial features of terrestrial and aquatic landscapes. We find that the net rates of N removal decline from about 0.3 day-1 of water travel time in streams with depths less than 0.5 meters to negligible quantities in large rivers (greater than 4 meters). These rates are generally consistent with those of earlier regional and national SPARROW models and with measured rates from the literature (adjusted for water travel time) over the reported range of stream depths. A settling velocity of approximately 8 meters year-1 is estimated for lakes and reservoirs and agrees well with literature rates for lakes where denitrification is the predominant removal process. We applied these removal rates within the SPARROW stream and reservoir network to estimate the regional-scale N transport and delivery to U.S. coastal waters.

  7. Quantifying geomorphic change at ephemeral stream restoration sites using a coupled-model approach (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Sankey, Joel B.; Dean, David; Caster, Joshua; DeLong, Stephen; DeLong, Whitney; Pelletier, Jon D.


    Rock-detention structures are used as restoration treatments to engineer ephemeral stream channels of southeast Arizona, USA, to reduce streamflow velocity, limit erosion, retain sediment, and promote surface-water infiltration. Structures are intended to aggrade incised stream channels, yet little quantified evidence of efficacy is available. The goal of this 3-year study was to characterize the geomorphic impacts of rock-detention structures used as a restoration strategy and develop a methodology to predict the associated changes. We studied reaches of two ephemeral streams with different watershed management histories: one where thousands of loose-rock check dams were installed 30 years prior to our study, and one with structures constructed at the beginning of our study. The methods used included runoff, sediment transport, and geomorphic modelling and repeat terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) surveys to map landscape change. Where discharge data were not available, event-based runoff was estimated using KINEROS2, a one-dimensional kinematic-wave runoff and erosion model. Discharge measurements and estimates were used as input to a two-dimensional unsteady flow-and-sedimentation model (Nays2DH) that combined a gridded flow, transport, and bed and bank simulation with geomorphic change. Through comparison of consecutive DEMs, the potential to substitute uncalibrated models to analyze stream restoration is introduced. We demonstrate a new approach to assess hydraulics and associated patterns of aggradation and degradation resulting from the construction of check-dams and other transverse structures. Notably, we find that stream restoration using rock-detention structures is effective across vastly different timescales.

  8. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: A case study (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.


    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  9. Ecohydrological model parameter selection for stream health evaluation. (United States)

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Ross, Dennis M; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Lizhu; Esfahanian, Abdol-Hossein


    Variable selection is a critical step in development of empirical stream health prediction models. This study develops a framework for selecting important in-stream variables to predict four measures of biological integrity: total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, family index of biotic integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff biotic integrity (HBI), and fish index of biotic integrity (IBI). Over 200 flow regime and water quality variables were calculated using the Hydrologic Index Tool (HIT) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Streams of the River Raisin watershed in Michigan were grouped using the Strahler stream classification system (orders 1-3 and orders 4-6), k-means clustering technique (two clusters: C1 and C2), and all streams (one grouping). For each grouping, variable selection was performed using Bayesian variable selection, principal component analysis, and Spearman's rank correlation. Following selection of best variable sets, models were developed to predict the measures of biological integrity using adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), a technique well-suited to complex, nonlinear ecological problems. Multiple unique variable sets were identified, all which differed by selection method and stream grouping. Final best models were mostly built using the Bayesian variable selection method. The most effective stream grouping method varied by health measure, although k-means clustering and grouping by stream order were always superior to models built without grouping. Commonly selected variables were related to streamflow magnitude, rate of change, and seasonal nitrate concentration. Each best model was effective in simulating stream health observations, with EPT taxa validation R2 ranging from 0.67 to 0.92, FIBI ranging from 0.49 to 0.85, HBI from 0.56 to 0.75, and fish IBI at 0.99 for all best models. The comprehensive variable selection and modeling process proposed here is a robust method that extends our

  10. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with development of a seasonal fraction-removal policy model for waste load allocation in streams addressing uncertainties due to randomness and fuzziness. A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model is developed to arrive at the steady-state seasonal fraction-removal policy. A fuzzy decision model ...

  11. Effects of slope smoothing in river channel modeling (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Liu, Frank; Hodges, Ben R.


    In extending dynamic river modeling with the 1D Saint-Venant equations from a single reach to a large watershed there are critical questions as to how much bathymetric knowledge is necessary and how it should be represented parsimoniously. The ideal model will include the detail necessary to provide realism, but not include extraneous detail that should not exert a control on a 1D (cross-section averaged) solution. In a Saint-Venant model, the overall complexity of the river channel morphometry is typically abstracted into metrics for the channel slope, cross-sectional area, hydraulic radius, and roughness. In stream segments where cross-section surveys are closely spaced, it is not uncommon to have sharp changes in slope or even negative values (where a positive slope is the downstream direction). However, solving river flow with the Saint-Venant equations requires a degree of smoothness in the equation parameters or the equation set with the directly measured channel slopes may not be Lipschitz continuous. The results of non-smoothness are typically extended computational time to converge solutions (or complete failure to converge) and/or numerical instabilities under transient conditions. We have investigated using cubic splines to smooth the bottom slope and ensure always positive reference slopes within a 1D model. This method has been implemented in the Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) and is compared to the standard HEC-RAS river solver. It is shown that the reformulation of the reference slope is both in keeping with the underlying derivation of the Saint-Venant equations and provides practical numerical stability without altering the realism of the simulation. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  12. Multiscale Models for the Two-Stream Instability (United States)

    Joseph, Ilon; Dimits, Andris; Banks, Jeffrey; Berger, Richard; Brunner, Stephan; Chapman, Thomas


    Interpenetrating streams of plasma found in many important scenarios in nature and in the laboratory can develop kinetic two-stream instabilities that exchange momentum and energy between the streams. A quasilinear model for the electrostatic two-stream instability is under development as a component of a multiscale model that couples fluid simulations to kinetic theory. Parameters of the model will be validated with comparison to full kinetic simulations using LOKI and efficient strategies for numerical solution of the quasilinear model and for coupling to the fluid model will be discussed. Extending the kinetic models into the collisional regime requires an efficient treatment of the collision operator. Useful reductions of the collision operator relative to the full multi-species Landau-Fokker-Plank operator are being explored. These are further motivated both by careful consideration of the parameter orderings relevant to two-stream scenarios and by the particular 2D+2V phase space used in the LOKI code. Prepared for US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and LDRD project 17- ERD-081.

  13. A self-regulating model of bedrock river channel geometry (United States)

    Stark, C. P.


    The evolution of many mountain landscapes is controlled by the incision of bedrock river channels. While the rate of incision is set by channel shape through its mediation of flow, the channel shape is itself set by the history of bedrock erosion. This feedback between channel geometry and incision determines the speed of landscape response to tectonic or climatic forcing. Here, a model for the dynamics of bedrock channel shape is derived from geometric arguments, a normal flow approximation for channel flow, and a threshold bed shear stress assumption for bedrock abrasion. The model dynamics describe the competing effects of channel widening, tilting, bending, and variable flow depth. Transient solutions suggest that channels may take ~1-10 ky to adapt to changes in discharge, implying that channel disequilibrium is commonplace. If so, landscape evolution models will need to include bedrock channel dynamics if they are to probe the effects of climate change.

  14. Predicting mayfly recovery in acid mine-impaired streams using logistic regression models of in-stream habitat and water chemistry. (United States)

    Johnson, Kelly S; Rankin, Ed; Bowman, Jen; Deeds, Jessica; Kruse, Natalie


    Mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) require high quality water and habitat in streams to thrive, so their appearance after restoration is an indicator of ecological recovery. To better understand the importance of restoring in-stream habitat versus water chemistry for macroinvertebrate communities, we developed taxon-specific models of occurrence for five mayfly genera (Caenis, Isonychia, Stenonema, Stenacron, and Baetis) inhabiting streams in the Appalachian Mountains, USA. Presence/absence records from past decades were used to develop single and multiple logistic predictive models based on catchment characteristics (drainage area, gradient), in-stream habitat variables (e.g., substrate, channel morphology, pool and riffle quality), and water chemistry. Model performance was evaluated using (a) classification rates and Hosmer-Lemeshow values for test sets of data withheld from the original model-building dataset and (b) a field comparison of predicted versus observed mayfly occurrences at 53 sites in acid mine drainage-impaired watersheds in 2012. The classification accuracies of final models for Caenis, Stenacron, and Baetis ranged from 50 to 75%. In-stream habitat features were not significant predictor variables for these three taxa, only water chemistry. Models for Isonychia and Stenonema had higher classification rates (81%) and included both habitat and chemical variables. However, actual occurrences of Isonychia and Stenonema at study sites in 2012 were low, consistent with the calculated probability of occurrence (P o )  0.40. Stenacron showed the greatest consistency of actual versus predicted occurrences, occurring at 56% of sites when the P o (based on pH and conductivity) was > 0.50 and only at 1 site when P o  water chemistry during stream remediation.

  15. Evaluating the Illinois Stream Valley segment model as an effective management tool. (United States)

    Warrner, Stephen S; Fischer, Robert U; Holtrop, Ann M; Hinz, Leon C; Novak, James M


    Stream habitat assessments are conducted to evaluate biological potential, determine anthropogenic impacts, and guide restoration projects. Utilizing these procedures, managers must first select a representative stream reach, which is typically selected based on several criteria. To develop a consistent and unbiased procedure for choosing sampling locations, the Illinois Department of Natural Resources and the Illinois Natural History Survey have proposed a technique by which watersheds are divided into homogeneous stream segments called valley segments. Valley segments are determined by GIS parameters including surficial geology, predicted flow, slope, and drainage area. To date, no research has been conducted to determine if the stream habitat within a valley segment is homogeneous and if different valley segments have varying habitat variables. Two abutting valley segments were randomly selected within 13 streams in the Embarras River watershed, located in east-central Illinois. One hundred meter reaches were randomly selected within each valley segment, and a transect method was used to quantify habitat characteristics of the stream channel. Habitat variables for each stream were combined through a principal components analysis (PCA) to measure environmental variation between abutting valley segments. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed on PCA axes 1-3. The majority of abutting valley segments were significantly different from each other indicating that habitat variability within each valley segment was less than variability between valley segments (5.37 ≤ F ≤ 245.13; P ≤ 0.002). This comparison supports the use of the valley segment model as an effective management tool for identifying representative sampling locations and extrapolating reach-specific information.

  16. Habitat hydraulic models - a tool for Danish stream quality assessment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    In relation to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), Danish water management has to change to a holistic management approach considering both groundwaters and surface waters at the same time. Furthermore the WFD introduces the concept "Good ecological status" where the quality of the biol......In relation to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), Danish water management has to change to a holistic management approach considering both groundwaters and surface waters at the same time. Furthermore the WFD introduces the concept "Good ecological status" where the quality...... in Danish stream management and stream quality assessment. The stream Ledreborg catchment is modelled using a precipitation-run-off-model (NAM) and as an addition to the normal calibration procedure (Kronvang et al., 2000) the model is calibrated using DAISY adjusted evaporation data. The impact from...... groundwater abstraction upon stream discharge is assessed and in relation to this the relative importance of variations in precipitation, evaporation/temperature and groundwater abstraction are discussed. Physical habitat preferences for trout in the stream Ledreborg are assessed through a series of field...

  17. Groundwater-derived contaminant fluxes along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita m [JL Sexton and Son; Fryar, Alan E [Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences, Univ of KY,; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Sturchio, Neil C [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago; Heraty, Linnea J [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago


    Recent studies in various settings across eastern North America have examined the movement of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes from groundwater to streams, but few studies have addressed focused discharge of such plumes in unlithified sediments. From 1999 through 2002, we monitored concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) and the non-volatile co-contaminant technetium-99 along Little Bayou Creek, a first -order perennial stream in the Coastal Plain of western Kentucky. Spring flow contributed TCE and technetium-99 to the creek, and TCE concentrations tended to vary with technetium-99 in springs. Contaminant concentrations in stream water fluctuated seasonally, but not always synchronously with stream flow. However, contaminant influxes varied seasonally with stream flow and were dominated by a few springs. Concentrations of O2, NO3⁻, and SO2-4, values of δ37CL in groundwater, and the lack of less-chlorinated ethenes in groundwater and stream water indicated that aerobic biodegradation of TCE was unlikely. Losses of TCE along Little Bayou Creek resulted mainly from volatilization, in contrast to streams receiving diffuse contaminated discharge, where intrinsic bioremediation of VOCs appears to be prevalent.

  18. Research on Spatial Channel Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Channel in Roadside Scattering Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen


    Full Text Available In this paper, an extension of spatial channel model (SCM for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication channel in roadside scattering environment is investigated for the first time theoretically and by simulations. Subsequently, to efficiently describe the roadside scattering environment and reflect the nonstationary properties of V2V channels, the proposed SCM V2V model divides the scattering objects into three categories of clusters according to the location of effective scatterers by introducing critical distance. We derive general expressions for the most important statistical properties of V2V channels, such as channel impulse response, power spectral density, angular power density, autocorrelation function, and Doppler spread of the proposed model. The impact of vehicle speed, traffic density, and angle of departure, angle of arrival, and other statistical performances on the V2V channel model is thoroughly discussed. Numerical simulation results are presented to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  19. Single channel atmospheric pressure transporting plasma and plasma stream demultiplexing: physical characterization and application to E. coli bacteria inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valinataj Omran, A; Arefi-Khonsari, F; Sohbatzadeh, F; Siadati, S N; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, A; Akishev, Y


    In this article, we developed transporting plasma sources that operate at atmospheric pressure. The effect of electrode configuration on plasma transporting was investigated. In order to increase the transporting plasma cross-section, we converted a plasma stream into four plasma channels by a cylindrical housing. Electron excitation and rotational temperatures were estimated using optical emission spectroscopy. Furthermore, the electrical and temporal characteristics of the plasma, discharge power and charge deposition on the target were investigated. The propagation characteristics of single and multi-channel transporting plasma were compared with the same cross-sectional area. Two configurations for multi-channels were designed for this purpose. Escherichia coli bacteria were exposed to the single and multi-channel transporting discharge for different time durations. After exposure, the results indicated that the inactivation zones were significantly increased by a multi-channel transporting plasma. Finally, E. coli inactivation by those plasma apparatuses was compared with that of several standard antimicrobial test discs such as Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin and Cefixime. (paper)

  20. Predictive modeling of transient storage and nutrient uptake: Implications for stream restoration (United States)

    O'Connor, Ben L.; Hondzo, Miki; Harvey, Judson W.


    This study examined two key aspects of reactive transport modeling for stream restoration purposes: the accuracy of the nutrient spiraling and transient storage models for quantifying reach-scale nutrient uptake, and the ability to quantify transport parameters using measurements and scaling techniques in order to improve upon traditional conservative tracer fitting methods. Nitrate (NO3–) uptake rates inferred using the nutrient spiraling model underestimated the total NO3– mass loss by 82%, which was attributed to the exclusion of dispersion and transient storage. The transient storage model was more accurate with respect to the NO3– mass loss (±20%) and also demonstrated that uptake in the main channel was more significant than in storage zones. Conservative tracer fitting was unable to produce transport parameter estimates for a riffle-pool transition of the study reach, while forward modeling of solute transport using measured/scaled transport parameters matched conservative tracer breakthrough curves for all reaches. Additionally, solute exchange between the main channel and embayment surface storage zones was quantified using first-order theory. These results demonstrate that it is vital to account for transient storage in quantifying nutrient uptake, and the continued development of measurement/scaling techniques is needed for reactive transport modeling of streams with complex hydraulic and geomorphic conditions.

  1. Predictive Modeling of Transient Storage and Nutrient Uptake: Implications for Stream Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Connor, Ben L.; Hondzo, Miki; Harvey, Judson W.


    This study examined two key aspects of reactive transport modeling for stream restoration purposes: the accuracy of the nutrient spiraling and transient storage models for quantifying reach-scale nutrient uptake, and the ability to quantify transport parameters using measurements and scaling techniques in order to improve upon traditional conservative tracer fitting methods. Nitrate (NO-3)(NO3-) uptake rates inferred using the nutrient spiraling model underestimated the total NO-3NO3- mass loss by 82%, which was attributed to the exclusion of dispersion and transient storage. The transient storage model was more accurate with respect to the NO-3NO3- mass loss (±20%) and also demonstrated that uptake in the main channel was more significant than in storage zones. Conservative tracer fitting was unable to produce transport parameter estimates for a riffle-pool transition of the study reach, while forward modeling of solute transport using measured/scaled transport parameters matched conservative tracer breakthrough curves for all reaches. Additionally, solute exchange between the main channel and embayment surface storage zones was quantified using first-order theory. These results demonstrate that it is vital to account for transient storage in quantifying nutrient uptake, and the continued development of measurement/scaling techniques is needed for reactive transport modeling of streams with complex hydraulic and geomorphic conditions.

  2. Modeling Evaluation of Tidal Stream Energy and the Impacts of Energy Extraction on Hydrodynamics in the Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsi Hsu


    Full Text Available Tidal stream speeds in straits are accelerated because of geographic and bathymetric features. For instance, narrow channels and shallows can cause high tidal stream energy. In this study, water level and tidal current were simulated using a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element model to investigate the complex tidal characteristics in the Taiwan Strait and to determine potential locations for harnessing tidal stream energy. The model was driven by nine tidal components (M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, Q1, and M4 at open boundaries. The modeling results were validated with the measured data, including water level and tidal current. Through the model simulations, we found that the highest tidal currents occurred at the Penghu Channel in the Taiwan Strait. The Penghu Channel is an appropriate location for the deployment of a tidal turbine array because of its deep and flat bathymetry. The impacts of energy extraction on hydrodynamics were assessed by considering the momentum sink approach. The simulated results indicate that only minimal impacts would occur on water level and tidal current in the Taiwan Strait if a turbine array (55 turbines was installed in the Penghu Channel.

  3. Maximizing the model for Discounted Stream of Utility from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osagiede et al. (2009) considered an analytic model for maximizing discounted stream of utility from consumption when the rate of production is linear. A solution was provided to a level where methods of solving order differential equations will be applied, but they left off there, as a result of the mathematical complexity ...

  4. Modeling the Effects of Connecting Side Channels to the Long Tom River, Oregon (United States)

    Appleby, C.; McDowell, P. F.


    The lower Long Tom River is a heavily managed, highly modified stream in the southwestern Willamette Valley with many opportunities for habitat improvements and river restoration. In the 1940s and 1950s, the US Army Corps of Engineers dramatically altered this river system by constructing the Fern Ridge Dam and three, large drop structures, converting the River from a highly sinuous channel to a straight, channelized stream that is interrupted by these grade control structures, and removed the majority of the riparian vegetation. As a result, juvenile spring Chinook salmon are no longer found in the Watershed and the local population of coastal cutthroat trout face limited aquatic habitat. When the river was channelized, long sections of the historical channel were left abandoned on the floodplain. Reconnecting these historical channels as side channels may improve the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat and could allow fish passage around current barriers. However, such construction may also lead to undesirable threats to infrastructure and farmland. This study uses multiple HEC-RAS models to determine the impact of reconnecting two historical channels to the lower Long Tom River by quantifying the change in area of flood inundation and identifying infrastructure in jeapordy given current and post-restoration conditions for 1.5, 5, 10, and 25-year flood discharges. Bathymetric data from ADCP and RTK-GPS surveys has been combined with LiDAR-derived topographic data to create continuous elevation models. Several types of side channel connections are modeled in order to determine which type of connection will result in both the greatest quantity of accessible habitat and the fewest threats to public and private property. In the future, this study will also consider the change in the quantity of physical salmonid habitat and map the areas prone to sedimentation and erosion using CEASAR and PHABSIM tools.

  5. Modelling of Data Stream Time Characteristics for Use of Inverse Multiplexer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jares


    Full Text Available Today, increasing of the transmission rate in a telecommunications network is possible in various ways. One of them is inverse multiplexing. The inverse multiplexer divides a data stream to multiple parallel channels. This principle not only allows to increase the total available transmission rate, but also allows to reduce the error rate and interruption in data stream. The digital subscriber line may be used for the implementation of the inverse multiplex. Accurate knowledge of the transmission parameters of a digital subscriber line and the entire infrastructure of the network provider is necessary for the effective functioning of the terminal device with inverse multiplexing. It is necessary to know not only the parameters related to the transmission rate, but above all the parameters relevant to the time characteristics of data transmission. This paper describes how to obtain the transmission parameters of real digital subscriber lines and their modelling.

  6. Hydraulic modeling of thermal discharges into shallow, tidal affected streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copp, H.W.; Shashidhara, N.S.


    A two-unit nuclear fired power plant is being constructed in western Washington state. Blowdown water from cooling towers will be discharged into the Chehalis River nearby. The location of a diffuser is some 21 miles upriver from Grays Harbor on the Pacific Ocean. Because the Chehalis River is classified as an excellent stream from the standpoint of water quality, State regulatory agencies required demonstration that thermal discharges would maintain water quality standards within fairly strict limits. A hydraulic model investigation used a 1:12 scale, undistorted model of a 1300-foot river reach in the vicinity of the diffuser. The model scale was selected to insure fully turbulent flows both in the stream and from the diffuser (Reynolds similitude). Model operation followed the densimetric Froude similitude. Thermistors were employed to measure temperatures in the model; measurements were taken by computer command and such measurements at some 250 positions were effected in about 2.5 seconds

  7. A Survey of Channel Modeling for UAV Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Khuwaja, Aziz Altaf


    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained great interest for rapid deployment in both civil and military applications. UAV communication has its own distinctive channel characteristics compared with widely used cellular and satellite systems. Thus, accurate channel characterization is crucial for the performance optimization and design of efficient UAV communication systems. However, several challenges exist in UAV channel modeling. For example, propagation characteristics of UAV channels are still less explored for spatial and temporal variations in non-stationary channels. Also, airframe shadowing has not yet been investigated for small size rotary UAVs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the measurement campaigns launched for UAV channel modeling using low altitude platforms and discusses various channel characterization efforts. We also review the contemporary perspective of UAV channel modeling approaches and outline some future research challenges in this domain.

  8. Seepage weathering impacts on erosivity of arid stream banks: A new conceptual model (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri


    Field observations have indicated the formation of horizontal, pipe shape cavities, along gully and dry stream channel banks in the semi-arid region of the northern Negev Desert, Israel. Piping is a well-known phenomenon in humid regions due to subsurface water flow and seepage weathering. However, in dry environments where rain events are scarce and subsurface water flow is rare, it is proposed here that capillary flow of saline water in the vadose zone leads to similar processes. It is suggested that where saline and shallow ground water persists, capillary flow may result in salt accumulation and precipitation at the top of the capillary fringe, consequently rendering this zone to be more susceptible to erosion. A conceptual model is presented and field observations, laboratory experiments, and a physically-based model are used to prove the feasibility of the proposed conceptual model and to explain why salts accumulate at the top of the capillary fringe, even though evaporation acts all along the vertical stream channel or gully banks. It is suggested that the low evaporative flux, in comparison to the liquid water flux, disables salt accumulation along the profile to the top of the capillary fringe where the liquid water flux is minimal. The presented findings strengthen the conceptual model, but thorough field studies are needed to estimate the impact of the proposed mechanism on erosion processes on a field scale.

  9. Decoding the attended speech stream with multi-channel EEG: implications for online, daily-life applications (United States)

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Debener, Stefan; Jaeger, Manuela; De Vos, Maarten


    Objective. Recent studies have provided evidence that temporal envelope driven speech decoding from high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography recordings can identify the attended speech stream in a multi-speaker scenario. The present work replicated the previous high density EEG study and investigated the necessary technical requirements for practical attended speech decoding with EEG. Approach. Twelve normal hearing participants attended to one out of two simultaneously presented audiobook stories, while high density EEG was recorded. An offline iterative procedure eliminating those channels contributing the least to decoding provided insight into the necessary channel number and optimal cross-subject channel configuration. Aiming towards the future goal of near real-time classification with an individually trained decoder, the minimum duration of training data necessary for successful classification was determined by using a chronological cross-validation approach. Main results. Close replication of the previously reported results confirmed the method robustness. Decoder performance remained stable from 96 channels down to 25. Furthermore, for less than 15 min of training data, the subject-independent (pre-trained) decoder performed better than an individually trained decoder did. Significance. Our study complements previous research and provides information suggesting that efficient low-density EEG online decoding is within reach.

  10. Bivariate functional data clustering: grouping streams based on a varying coefficient model of the stream water and air temperature relationship (United States)

    H. Li; X. Deng; Andy Dolloff; E. P. Smith


    A novel clustering method for bivariate functional data is proposed to group streams based on their water–air temperature relationship. A distance measure is developed for bivariate curves by using a time-varying coefficient model and a weighting scheme. This distance is also adjusted by spatial correlation of streams via the variogram. Therefore, the proposed...

  11. Scalable population estimates using spatial-stream-network (SSN) models, fish density surveys, and national geospatial database frameworks for streams (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Jay M. Ver Hoef; Erin E. Peterson; Dona L. Horan; David E. Nagel


    Population size estimates for stream fishes are important for conservation and management, but sampling costs limit the extent of most estimates to small portions of river networks that encompass 100s–10 000s of linear kilometres. However, the advent of large fish density data sets, spatial-stream-network (SSN) models that benefit from nonindependence among samples,...

  12. Model microswimmers in channels with varying cross section (United States)

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Stark, Holger


    We study different types of microswimmers moving in channels with varying cross section and thereby interacting hydrodynamically with the channel walls. Starting from the Smoluchowski equation for a dilute suspension, for which interactions among swimmers can be neglected, we derive analytic expressions for the lateral probability distribution between plane channel walls. For weakly corrugated channels, we extend the Fick-Jacobs approach to microswimmers and thereby derive an effective equation for the probability distribution along the channel axis. Two regimes arise dominated either by entropic forces due to the geometrical confinement or by the active motion. In particular, our results show that the accumulation of microswimmers at channel walls is sensitive to both the underlying swimming mechanism and the geometry of the channels. Finally, for asymmetric channel corrugation, our model predicts a rectification of microswimmers along the channel, the strength and direction of which strongly depends on the swimmer type.

  13. The influence of stream channels on distributions of Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa in the Mojave Desert, CA, USA: Patterns, mechanisms and effects of stream redistribution (United States)

    Schwinning, S.; Sandquist, D.R.; Miller, D.M.; Bedford, D.R.; Phillips, S.L.; Belnap, J.


    Drainage channels are among the most conspicuous surficial features of deserts, but little quantitative analysis of their influence on plant distributions is available. We analysed the effects of desert stream channels (‘washes’) on Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa density and cover on an alluvial piedmont in the Mojave Desert, based on a spatial analysis of transect data encompassing a total length of 2775 m surveyed in 5 cm increments. Significant deviations from average transect properties were identified by bootstrapping. Predictably, shrub cover and density were much reduced inside washes, and elevated above average levels adjacent to washes. Average Larrea and Ambrosia cover and density peaked 1·2–1·6 m and 0·5–1·0 m from wash edges, respectively. We compared wash effects in runon-depleted (−R) sections, where washes had been cut off from runon and were presumably inactive, with those in runon-supplemented (+R) sections downslope from railroad culverts to help identify mechanisms responsible for the facilitative effect of washes on adjacent shrubs. Shrub cover and density near washes peaked in both + R and − R sections, suggesting that improved water infiltration and storage alone can cause a facilitative effect on adjacent shrubs. However, washes of < 2 m width in + R sections had larger than average effects on peak cover, suggesting that plants also benefit from occasional resource supplementation. The data suggest that channel networks significantly contribute to structuring plant communities in the Mojave Desert and their disruption has notable effects on geomorphic and ecological processes far beyond the original disturbance sites. 

  14. Manipulating riparian vegetation, large wood, and discharge in a gravel-cobble bed stream: channel response (United States)

    McDowell, P. F.


    The Middle Fork John Day River at Oxbow Conservation Area, northeastern Oregon, experienced heavy cattle grazing for a number of decades and was dredge mined for gold in the 1930s-50s. As a result of dredging, flow was divided between the original meandering channel on the southern part of the floodplain and a straight dredged channel on the northern part of the floodplain. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs acquired this property and began planning floodplain and instream restoration focused primarily on anadromous and resident salmonids. In 2000, cattle grazing in the riparian zone was eliminated, resulting in expansion of sedges and other plants on banks, bars and the channel bed. In 2003, riparian planting of woody vegetation began. In 2011, log structures were constructed in the south channel. The overarching goals of the log structure project were: 1) to add bank protection and roughness to accommodate the planned increase in discharge, and 2) to provide fish cover, pools, and channel complexity. In 2013, the north channel was closed and all flow was put in the south channel. This paper examines channel morphological response to these multiple actions. Channel adjustment was monitored through repeated channel cross-section surveys, longitudinal profile surveys, and analysis of planform change using high-resolution aerial imagery. I hypothesized that channel adjustment would be greatest where banks were less protected, and where bed materials were more mobile due to smaller size or local hydraulic factors such as bend curvature. The results indicate that there has been significant reorganization of riffle-pool structure in the longitudinal profile, but less change in cross-sections and planform. Cross-sections, both at log structures and not at structures, show limited bar aggradation and bank erosion. Some modest erosion occurred on banks protected by log structures. There is no increase in pool depth. The hypothesized relationship between channel

  15. Propagation channel characterization, parameter estimation, and modeling for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xuefeng


    Thoroughly covering channel characteristics and parameters, this book provides the knowledge needed to design various wireless systems, such as cellular communication systems, RFID and ad hoc wireless communication systems. It gives a detailed introduction to aspects of channels before presenting the novel estimation and modelling techniques which can be used to achieve accurate models. To systematically guide readers through the topic, the book is organised in three distinct parts. The first part covers the fundamentals of the characterization of propagation channels, including the conventional single-input single-output (SISO) propagation channel characterization as well as its extension to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) cases. Part two focuses on channel measurements and channel data post-processing. Wideband channel measurements are introduced, including the equipment, technology and advantages and disadvantages of different data acquisition schemes. The channel parameter estimation methods are ...

  16. Mathematical models for estimating radio channels utilization when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Definition of the radio channel utilization indicator is given. Mathematical models for radio channels utilization assessment by real-time flows transfer in the wireless self-organized network are presented. Estimated experiments results according to the average radio channel utilization productivity with and without buffering of ...

  17. Impacts of Woody Debris on Fluvial Processes and Channel Morphology in Stable and Unstable Streams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallerstein, N


    .... The aim of this research is to gain an improved understanding of the basin-wide impact of LWD dynamics in unstable and stable channel environments and to develop a set of coherent debris management...

  18. Impacts of Woody Debris on Fluvial Processes and Channel Morphology in Stable and Unstable Streams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallerstein, N


    .... The aim of this research is to gain an improved understanding of the basin-wide impact of LWD dynamics in unstable and stable channel environments and to develop a set of coherent debris management...

  19. Radionuclide transport in running waters, sensitivity analysis of bed-load, channel geometry and model discretisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark


    In this report, further investigations of the model concept for radionuclide transport in stream, developed in the SKB report TR-05-03 is presented. Especially three issues have been the focus of the model investigations. The first issue was to investigate the influence of assumed channel geometry on the simulation results. The second issue was to reconsider the applicability of the equation for the bed-load transport in the stream model, and finally the last issue was to investigate how the model discretisation will influence the simulation results. The simulations showed that there were relatively small differences in results when applying different cross-sections in the model. The inclusion of the exact shape of the cross-section in the model is therefore not crucial, however, if cross-sectional data exist, the overall shape of the cross-section should be used in the model formulation. This could e.g. be accomplished by using measured values of the stream width and depth in the middle of the stream and by assuming a triangular shape. The bed-load transport was in this study determined for different sediment characteristics which can be used as an order of magnitude estimation if no exact determinations of the bed-load are available. The difference in the calculated bed-load transport for the different materials was, however, found to be limited. The investigation of model discretisation showed that a fine model discretisation to account for numerical effects is probably not important for the performed simulations. However, it can be necessary for being able to account for different conditions along a stream. For example, the application of mean slopes instead of individual values in the different stream reaches can result in very different predicted concentrations

  20. Headwater fish population responses to planting grass filter strips adjacent to channelized agricultural headwater streams (United States)

    Grass filter strips are a widely used conservation practice in the Midwestern United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment inputs into agricultural streams. Only a limited amount of information is available on the ecological effects of planting grass filter strips adjacent to channe...

  1. Tuning hydrological models for ecological modeling - improving simulations of low flows critical to stream ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin; Troldborg, Lars; Boegh, Eva


    The consequences of using simulated discharge from a conventional hydrological model as input in stream physical habitat modelling was investigated using output from the Danish national hydrological model and a physical habitat model of three small streams. It was found that low flow simulation...... errors could have large impact on simulation of physical habitat conditions. If these two models are to be used to assess groundwater abstraction impact on physical habitat conditions the hydrological model should be tuned to the purpose...

  2. Tuning hydrological models for ecological modeling – improving simulations of low flows critical to stream ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin; Troldborg, Lars; Boegh, Eva


    The consequences of using simulated discharge from a conventional hydrological model as input in stream physical habitat modelling was investigated using output from the Danish national hydrological model and a physical habitat model of three small streams. It was found that low flow simulation...... errors could have large impact on simulation of physical habitat conditions. If these two models are to be used to assess groundwater abstraction impact on physical habitat conditions the hydrological model should be tuned to the purpose...

  3. A bipartite fitness model for online music streaming services (United States)

    Pongnumkul, Suchit; Motohashi, Kazuyuki


    This paper proposes an evolution model and an analysis of the behavior of music consumers on online music streaming services. While previous studies have observed power-law degree distributions of usage in online music streaming services, the underlying behavior of users has not been well understood. Users and songs can be described using a bipartite network where an edge exists between a user node and a song node when the user has listened that song. The growth mechanism of bipartite networks has been used to understand the evolution of online bipartite networks Zhang et al. (2013). Existing bipartite models are based on a preferential attachment mechanism László Barabási and Albert (1999) in which the probability that a user listens to a song is proportional to its current popularity. This mechanism does not allow for two types of real world phenomena. First, a newly released song with high quality sometimes quickly gains popularity. Second, the popularity of songs normally decreases as time goes by. Therefore, this paper proposes a new model that is more suitable for online music services by adding fitness and aging functions to the song nodes of the bipartite network proposed by Zhang et al. (2013). Theoretical analyses are performed for the degree distribution of songs. Empirical data from an online streaming service,, are used to confirm the degree distribution of the object nodes. Simulation results show improvements from a previous model. Finally, to illustrate the application of the proposed model, a simplified royalty cost model for online music services is used to demonstrate how the changes in the proposed parameters can affect the costs for online music streaming providers. Managerial implications are also discussed.

  4. Channel Modelling for Multiprobe Over-the-Air MIMO Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kyösti


    a fading emulator, an anechoic chamber, and multiple probes. Creation of a propagation environment inside an anechoic chamber requires unconventional radio channel modelling, namely, a specific mapping of the original models onto the probe antennas. We introduce two novel methods to generate fading emulator channel coefficients; the prefaded signals synthesis and the plane wave synthesis. To verify both methods we present a set of simulation results. We also show that the geometric description is a prerequisite for the original channel model.

  5. Dividing Streamline Formation Channel Confluences by Physical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarni Nur Trilita


    Full Text Available Confluence channels are often found in open channel network system and is the most important element. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main cause various forms and cause vortex flow. Phenomenon can cause erosion of the side wall of the channel, the bed channel scour and sedimentation in the downstream confluence channel. To control these problems needed research into the current width of the branch channel. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main channel flow bounded by a line distributors (dividing streamline. In this paper, the wide dividing streamline observed in the laboratory using a physical model of two open channels, a square that formed an angle of 30º. Observations were made with a variety of flow coming from each channel. The results obtained in the laboratory observation that the width of dividing streamline flow is influenced by the discharge ratio between the channel branch with the main channel. While the results of a comparison with previous studies showing that the observation in the laboratory is smaller than the results of previous research.

  6. Stream channel morphology, sediment and large wood transport evolution patterns following the 2008 Chaitén volcano eruption, Chile (United States)

    Iroume, A.; Andreoli, A.; Ulloa, H.; Sandoval, V.; Lara, L. E.


    The study about hydrologic and geomorphic impacts of explosive eruptions on river systems and associated patterns of stream channel morphology, sediment and large wood transport evolution is extremely important in a country like Chile which, according to the Global Volcanism Program, is ranked 5th in terms of active volcanoes among nations. To date, such effects have been little studied in the densely vegetated and steep forested watersheds of southern Chile, and the likely hydrologic and geomorphic responses to these disturbance processes are not well understood. In addition to the overall need for greater understanding, the 2008 Chaitén volcano eruption provides a rare opportunity to study post-eruption landscape adjustments Explosive eruptions have the potential to inflict large impacts in terms of scale and severity. They can damage, destroy, or bury extensive areas of forest vegetation and cover the landscape with volcanic ash, filling river valleys, obliterating watershed divides, disturbing drainage patterns and changing channel size, shape, pattern and structure, and dead trees can contribute to large log jams on valley floors. Hydrologic, sedimentologic, and geomorphic responses to major explosive eruptions can be dramatic, widespread and persistent, and present enormous challenges to those entrusted with managing disturbance response. Specific channel segments in river systems affected by the 2008 Chaiten volcano eruption are investigated since January 2010. Data acquisition methods include the use of a sequence of remote images, GIS, continuous hydrologic measurements, periodic field surveying and sampling campaigns, and radio tagging. From the first two field campaigns in January 2010 and 2011, huge amounts of large wood (LW) were observed in the severely impacted river systems. In the Chaiten river (total catchment area of ~120 km2), LW deposited parallel to stream indicates high mobilization rates and some typical wood structures (log steps, valley

  7. A model for the distribution channels planning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, M.F.; Zuurbier, P.; Campomar, M.C.


    Research of existing literature reveals some models (sequence of steps) for companies that want to plan distribution channels. None of these models uses strong contributions from transaction cost economics, bringing a possibility to elaborate on a "distribution channels planning model", with these

  8. Rician Channel Modeling for Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi


    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals, with emphasis on modeling Rician channel models in the multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. A technique to model Rician channels is proposed. The line-of-sight (LOS) component, with an arb...

  9. Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream: A transient storage model (United States)

    Bencala, Kenneth E.; Walters, Roy A.


    The physical characteristics of mountain streams differ from the uniform and conceptually well- defined open channels for which the analysis of solute transport has been oriented in the past and is now well understood. These physical conditions significantly influence solute transport behavior, as demonstrated by a transient storage model simulation of solute transport in a very small (0.0125 m3s−1) mountain pool-and-riffle stream. The application is to a carefully controlled and intensively monitored chloride injection experiment. The data from the experiment are not explained by the standard convection-dispersion mechanisms alone. A transient storage model, which couples dead zones with the one-dimensional convection-dispersion equation, simulates the general characteristics of the solute transport behavior and a set of simulation parameters were determined that yield an adequate fit to the data. However, considerable uncertainty remains in determining physically realistic values of these parameters. The values of the simulation parameters used are compared to values used by other authors for other streams. The comparison supports, at least qualitatively, the determined parameter values.

  10. Fast and Accurate Hybrid Stream PCRTMSOLAR Radiative Transfer Model for Reflected Solar Spectrum Simulation in the Cloudy Atmosphere (United States)

    Yang, Qiguang; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Kizer, Susan; Baize, Rosemary R.


    A hybrid stream PCRTM-SOLAR model has been proposed for fast and accurate radiative transfer simulation. It calculates the reflected solar (RS) radiances with a fast coarse way and then, with the help of a pre-saved matrix, transforms the results to obtain the desired high accurate RS spectrum. The methodology has been demonstrated with the hybrid stream discrete ordinate (HSDO) radiative transfer (RT) model. The HSDO method calculates the monochromatic radiances using a 4-stream discrete ordinate method, where only a small number of monochromatic radiances are simulated with both 4-stream and a larger N-stream (N = 16) discrete ordinate RT algorithm. The accuracy of the obtained channel radiance is comparable to the result from N-stream moderate resolution atmospheric transmission version 5 (MODTRAN5). The root-mean-square errors are usually less than 5x10(exp -4) mW/sq cm/sr/cm. The computational speed is three to four-orders of magnitude faster than the medium speed correlated-k option MODTRAN5. This method is very efficient to simulate thousands of RS spectra under multi-layer clouds/aerosols and solar radiation conditions for climate change study and numerical weather prediction applications.

  11. Variable selection for modelling effects of eutrophication on stream and river ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, R.C.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.


    Models are needed for forecasting the effects of eutrophication on stream and river ecosystems. Most of the current models do not include differences in local stream characteristics and effects on the biota. To define the most important variables that should be used in a stream eutrophication model,

  12. Multinomial N-mixture models improve the applicability of electrofishing for developing population estimates of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Brewer, Shannon K.


    Failure to account for variable detection across survey conditions constrains progressive stream ecology and can lead to erroneous stream fish management and conservation decisions. In addition to variable detection’s confounding long-term stream fish population trends, reliable abundance estimates across a wide range of survey conditions are fundamental to establishing species–environment relationships. Despite major advancements in accounting for variable detection when surveying animal populations, these approaches remain largely ignored by stream fish scientists, and CPUE remains the most common metric used by researchers and managers. One notable advancement for addressing the challenges of variable detection is the multinomial N-mixture model. Multinomial N-mixture models use a flexible hierarchical framework to model the detection process across sites as a function of covariates; they also accommodate common fisheries survey methods, such as removal and capture–recapture. Effective monitoring of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu populations has long been challenging; therefore, our objective was to examine the use of multinomial N-mixture models to improve the applicability of electrofishing for estimating absolute abundance. We sampled Smallmouth Bass populations by using tow-barge electrofishing across a range of environmental conditions in streams of the Ozark Highlands ecoregion. Using an information-theoretic approach, we identified effort, water clarity, wetted channel width, and water depth as covariates that were related to variable Smallmouth Bass electrofishing detection. Smallmouth Bass abundance estimates derived from our top model consistently agreed with baseline estimates obtained via snorkel surveys. Additionally, confidence intervals from the multinomial N-mixture models were consistently more precise than those of unbiased Petersen capture–recapture estimates due to the dependency among data sets in the

  13. Channel representation in physically based models coupling groundwater and surface water: pitfalls and how to avoid them. (United States)

    Käser, Daniel; Graf, Tobias; Cochand, Fabien; McLaren, Rob; Therrien, René; Brunner, Philip


    Recent models that couple three-dimensional subsurface flow with two-dimensional overland flow are valuable tools for quantifying complex groundwater/stream interactions and for evaluating their influence on watershed processes. For the modeler who is used to defining streams as a boundary condition, the representation of channels in integrated models raises a number of conceptual and technical issues. These models are far more sensitive to channel topography than conventional groundwater models. On all spatial scales, both the topography of a channel and its connection with the floodplain are important. For example, the geometry of river banks influences bank storage and overbank flooding; the slope of the river is a primary control on the behavior of a catchment; and at the finer scale bedform characteristics affect hyporheic exchange. Accurate data on streambed topography, however, are seldom available, and the spatial resolution of digital elevation models is typically too coarse in river environments, resulting in unrealistic or undulating streambeds. Modelers therefore perform some kind of manual yet often cumbersome correction to the available topography. In this context, the paper identifies some common pitfalls, and provides guidance to overcome these. Both aspects of topographic representation and mesh discretization are addressed. Additionally, two tutorials are provided to illustrate: (1) the interpolation of channel cross-sectional data and (2) the refinement of a mesh along a stream in areas of high topographic variability. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Impacts of Woody Debris on Fluvial Processes and Channel Morphology in Stable and Unstable Streams (United States)


    woodland areas (modified f~rom Giregory and D~avis, 1992) 19 2.7 Definition of streami obstruction conditions (modified from American Fisheries Society...I’X)i. OR 1301 l 1)1 H 1)11 I~CTOR PIKA ,) F DAM POOL. (I’IAN VII;W) (H).( I 1111 INAI VII;W) -DA I lANI gravel-bed rivers is maintained by a...Tennessee; the American Fisheries Society (1983), in a publication entitled "’Stream - Obstruction Removal Guidelines", (see Figure 2.8); Shields

  15. Effects of streamflows on stream-channel morphology in the eastern Niobrara National Scenic River, Nebraska, 1988–2010 (United States)

    Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Alexander, Jason S.; Folz-Donahue, Kiernan


    The Niobrara River is an important and valuable economic and ecological resource in northern Nebraska that supports ecotourism, recreational boating, wildlife, fisheries, agriculture, and hydroelectric power. Because of its uniquely rich resources, a 122-kilometer reach of the Niobrara River was designated as a National Scenic River in 1991, which has been jointly managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Park Service. To assess how the remarkable qualities of the National Scenic River may change if consumptive uses of water are increased above current levels, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, initiated an investigation of how stream-channel morphology might be affected by potential decreases in summer streamflows. The study included a 65-kilometer segment in the wide, braided eastern stretch of the Niobrara National Scenic River that provides important nesting habitat for migratory bird species of concern to the Nation.

  16. Short-channel drain current model for asymmetric heavily / lightly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Jul 29, 2017 ... Abstract. The paper presents a drain current model for double gate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (DG MOSFETs) based on a new velocity saturation model that accounts for short-channel velocity saturation effect independently in the front and the back gate controlled channels under ...

  17. A physiologically inspired model of auditory stream segregation based on a temporal coherence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Simon Krogholt; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten


    dissertation, Institute for Perception Research, Eindhoven, NL, (1975)]. The same model also accounts for the perceptual grouping of distant spectral components in the case of synchronous presentation. The most essential components of the front-end and back-end processing in the framework of the presented......The ability to perceptually separate acoustic sources and focus one’s attention on a single source at a time is essential for our ability to use acoustic information. In this study, a physiologically inspired model of human auditory processing [M. L. Jepsen and T. Dau, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 422......-438, (2008)] was used as a front end of a model for auditory stream segregation. A temporal coherence analysis [M. Elhilali, C. Ling, C. Micheyl, A. J. Oxenham and S. Shamma, Neuron. 61, 317-329, (2009)] was applied at the output of the preprocessing, using the coherence across tonotopic channels to group...

  18. A watershed scale spatially-distributed model for streambank erosion rate driven by channel curvature (United States)

    McMillan, Mitchell; Hu, Zhiyong


    Streambank erosion is a major source of fluvial sediment, but few large-scale, spatially distributed models exist to quantify streambank erosion rates. We introduce a spatially distributed model for streambank erosion applicable to sinuous, single-thread channels. We argue that such a model can adequately characterize streambank erosion rates, measured at the outsides of bends over a 2-year time period, throughout a large region. The model is based on the widely-used excess-velocity equation and comprised three components: a physics-based hydrodynamic model, a large-scale 1-dimensional model of average monthly discharge, and an empirical bank erodibility parameterization. The hydrodynamic submodel requires inputs of channel centerline, slope, width, depth, friction factor, and a scour factor A; the large-scale watershed submodel utilizes watershed-averaged monthly outputs of the Noah-2.8 land surface model; bank erodibility is based on tree cover and bank height as proxies for root density. The model was calibrated with erosion rates measured in sand-bed streams throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain. The calibrated model outperforms a purely empirical model, as well as a model based only on excess velocity, illustrating the utility of combining a physics-based hydrodynamic model with an empirical bank erodibility relationship. The model could be improved by incorporating spatial variability in channel roughness and the hydrodynamic scour factor, which are here assumed constant. A reach-scale application of the model is illustrated on ∼1 km of a medium-sized, mixed forest-pasture stream, where the model identifies streambank erosion hotspots on forested and non-forested bends.

  19. Developing a GIS-Based Model to Track Potential Point and Non-Point Sources of Urban Stream Pollution (United States)

    Day, C. A.


    Urban streams are often characterized by diminished water quality resulting from an increase in polluted runoff from impervious surfaces. Storm activity further reduces urban stream water quality by temporarily increasing stormwater discharge from sewer overflows. This will often manifest itself in rapid declines of dissolved oxygen and peaks in specific conductivity in response to a rising biochemical oxygen demand which slowly recovers as the pollution load is washed through the stream system. This research developed a GIS-based model to track potential sources of pollution based on the dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity response of urban streams to a series of storm events, within the city of Louisville, Kentucky. Watershed outlet hydrographs were first obtained to determine the lag time of dissolved oxygen drops and specific conductivity peaks in response to set of storm events. Using a digital elevation model and the National Landcover Database, 10m resolution rasters were then created which calculated slope and flow direction/accumulation for both open channel and overland flow conditions across the watersheds. The rasters were merged and converted to flow velocities using a series of storms with different intensities. The final step utilized the Flow Length tool in ArcGIS which calculated the travel time to the watershed outlets from each pixel weighted by the open channel and overland flow conditions. Potential pollution sources could then be located by matching the dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity response lag times to the associated watershed travel times.

  20. [Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus retention in two different channel forms in a typical headwater stream in the suburb of Hefei City, China ]. (United States)

    Li, Ru-zhong; Yang, Ji-wei; Qian, Jing; Dong, Yu-hong; Tang, Wen-kun


    To investigate the characteristics of ammonium and phosphorus retention in two typical channel forms, deep pool and winding ditch in headwater stream, four field tracer experiments were conducted in a first-order stream of Ershibu River in Hefei suburban, in which a solution of biologically active (NH4Cl and KH2PO4) and conservative (NaCl) tracers was released to the head of each reach at a constant rate. According to the data sets of tracer experiments, mechanisms of ammonium and phosphorus retention were interpreted by using OTIS model code, transient storage metrics and nutrient spiraling theory. Study results showed that: (1) The value of As in deep pool was larger than that in winding ditch, whereas its value of hydrological parameter α was lower by an order of magnitude than that of winding ditch; (2) The value of NH(4)+ -λ in main channel was higher by two to three orders of magnitude than that of NH(4)+ -λs,in transient storage zone in deep pool, but in winding ditch the two parameters were closer in terms of numerical size; (3) In deep pool, the value of NH+(4) -Vf was higher by an order of magnitude than that of SRP-Vf, in winding ditch, however, not only the two values of NH(4)+ -Vf and SRP-Vf were close to each other, but NH(4)+ -Sw was nearly equal to SRP-Sw in numerical size as well; (4) The value of NH(4)+ -U was larger by two to three orders of magnitude than that of SRP-U in deep pool, whereas in winding ditch NH(4)+ -U was just larger by one to two orders of magnitude than SRP-U in size; (5) In general, significant difference existed between deep pool and winding ditch in the effect on ammonium and phosphorus retention, and marked retention efficiency was observed for ammonium rather than SRP in deep pool.

  1. Depositional Model for a Beaver Pond Complex in a Piedmont Stream Valley (United States)

    Rachide, S. P.; Diemer, J. A.


    The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) often construct closely-spaced ponds on suitable sections of streams. Over time avulsive processes form an intricate network of shallow anabranching streams that connect a multitude of ponds, referred to here as a beaver pond complex (BPC). According to Polvi and Wohl (2012), BPCs evolve through four stages. Their model, resulting from the study of an alpine stream dominated by meltwater, focused on changes in valley planform, increased channel complexity, and the effects of floodplain sediment storage during the growth of a BPC. A revised depositional model for a multi-generation BPC is presented here, based on data collected at Mill Creek, in the Piedmont of North Carolina. The field data, comprising geolocated maps, cores and probes, were collected between March 2011 and October 2014 and were supplemented by 12 aerial images of the field area taken from January 1993 to October 2014. The revised BPC depositional model comprises several stages of development that include initial beaver occupation, followed by an interval of fast-paced pond creation and increasing channel complexity, a stage of slowing growth of the BPC, followed by cycles of dam breaching and repair, and an abandonment phase. An additional stage may include later reoccupation of an abandoned BPC to produce a multi-generation BPC. The areas affected by, and durations of, these stages are likely dictated by several variables including: geologic controls, local climate, hydrologic regime, beaver population size, and resource availability. Rare large precipitation events that led to the breaching of dams were likely the most impactful variable in the evolution of the Mill Creek BPC. Field observations indicate that beaching events affected the Mill Creek BPC more frequently than could be inferred from the 12 aerial images of the site. Therefore, aerial imagery should be used in conjunction with field-based investigations in order to more accurately

  2. Modeling of dislocation channel width evolution in irradiated metals (United States)

    Doyle, Peter J.; Benensky, Kelsa M.; Zinkle, Steven J.


    Defect-free dislocation channel formation has been reported to promote plastic instability during tensile testing via localized plastic flow, leading to a distinct loss of ductility and strain hardening in many low-temperature irradiated materials. In order to study the underlying mechanisms governing dislocation channel width and formation, the channel formation process is modeled via a simple stochastic dislocation-jog process dependent upon grain size, defect cluster density, and defect size. Dislocations traverse a field of defect clusters and jog stochastically upon defect interaction, forming channels of low defect-density. Based upon prior molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and in-situ experimental transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, each dislocation encounter with a dislocation loop or stacking fault tetrahedron (SFT) is assumed to cause complete absorption of the defect cluster, prompting the dislocation to jog up or down by a distance equal to half the defect cluster diameter. Channels are predicted to form rapidly and are comparable to reported TEM measurements for many materials. Predicted channel widths are found to be most strongly dependent on mean defect size and correlated well with a power law dependence on defect diameter and density, and distance from the dislocation source. Due to the dependence of modeled channel width on defect diameter and density, maximum channel width is predicted to slowly increase as accumulated dose increases. The relatively weak predicted dependence of channel formation width with distance, in accordance with a diffusion analogy, implies that after only a few microns from the source, most channels observed via TEM analyses may not appear to vary with distance because of limitations in the field-of-view to a few microns. Further, examinations of the effect of the so-called "source-broadening" mechanism of channel formation showed that its effect is simply to add a minimum thickness to the channel

  3. Modeling two-phase flow in PEM fuel cell channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yun; Basu, Suman; Wang, Chao-Yang [Electrochemical Engine Center (ECEC), and Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    This paper is concerned with the simultaneous flow of liquid water and gaseous reactants in mini-channels of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Envisaging the mini-channels as structured and ordered porous media, we develop a continuum model of two-phase channel flow based on two-phase Darcy's law and the M{sup 2} formalism, which allow estimate of the parameters key to fuel cell operation such as overall pressure drop and liquid saturation profiles along the axial flow direction. Analytical solutions of liquid water saturation and species concentrations along the channel are derived to explore the dependences of these physical variables vital to cell performance on operating parameters such as flow stoichiometric ratio and relative humility. The two-phase channel model is further implemented for three-dimensional numerical simulations of two-phase, multi-component transport in a single fuel-cell channel. Three issues critical to optimizing channel design and mitigating channel flooding in PEM fuel cells are fully discussed: liquid water buildup towards the fuel cell outlet, saturation spike in the vicinity of flow cross-sectional heterogeneity, and two-phase pressure drop. Both the two-phase model and analytical solutions presented in this paper may be applicable to more general two-phase flow phenomena through mini- and micro-channels. (author)

  4. A new simple model for composite fading channels: Second order statistics and channel capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan


    In this paper, we introduce the most general composite fading distribution to model the envelope and the power of the received signal in such fading channels as millimeter wave (60 GHz or above) fading channels and free-space optical channels, which we term extended generalized-K (EGK) composite fading distribution. We obtain the second-order statistics of the received signal envelope characterized by the EGK composite fading distribution. Expressions for probability density function, cumulative distribution function, level crossing rate and average fade duration, moments, amount of fading and average capacity are derived. Numerical and computer simulation examples validate the accuracy of the presented mathematical analysis. © 2010 IEEE.

  5. 3D mmWave Channel Model Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Timothy; Nguyen, Huan Cong; R. MacCartney Jr., George


    There is growing interest in using millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies for future access communications based on the enormous amount of available spectrum. To characterize the mmWave channel in urban areas, wideband propagation measurements at 73 GHz have recently been made in New York City. Using...... mmWave channel model is developed with special emphasis on using the ray tracer to determine elevation model parameters. The channel model includes distance-dependent elevation modeling which is critical for the expected 2D arrays which will be employed at mmWave....

  6. A CAFE Delta Building Model With Channel Networks (United States)

    Liang, M.; Voller, V. R.; Paola, C.; Edmonds, D.


    Mass balance sediment transport models based on the Exner equation are excellent at predicting the overall growth of river deltas, such as the position of the shoreline or the total area of delta as a function of time. The detailed evolution of delta growth, however, is dependent on the structure of the channel network which distributes the sediments. For example, vegetation dynamics along channel edges plays an important role in land building process. Therefore, to fully resolve the key delta growth processes, models must be able to evolve and track the channels on its surface. Current attempts to resolve channel networks in delta building models cover a wide range of scales. At small scales, solvers that resolve the three-dimensional flow field successfully simulate the formation of river mouth bar and channel bifurcation, but due to their computational demand they cannot be used to model a whole delta. At large scales, two-dimensional cellular models can crudely incorporate self-channelization but do not resolve the full channel network. In the middle, the coupling of Cellular Automata rules for channel evolution with Finite Element models of sediment transport (CAFE models) shows promise of providing physically and computationally feasible models. Here we borrow recent ideas from diffusion models of dendritic crystal structures, to develop a CAFE delta building model. We use an unstructured mesh of Delaunay triangulation with vertex nodes and two sets of rules are introduced as “building” and “aging” rules. Building rules describe the diffusional flux between adjacent nodes, essentially equivalent to a discrete solution of the PDE system describing diffusion of sediment in a fluvial delta. Channels are developed by selecting nodes in which sediment flux exceeds a given threshold. Interestingly bifurcations emerge at the shoreline, even though no rules specify their creation. Aging rules are applied to the cellular structure of channel networks to

  7. Morphometric relations of fractal-skeletal based channel network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar


    Full Text Available A fractal-skeletal based channel network (F-SCN model is proposed. Four regular sided initiator-basins are transformed as second order fractal basins by following a specific generating mechanism with non-random rule. The morphological skeletons, hereafter referred to as channel networks, are extracted from these fractal basins. The morphometric and fractal relationships of these F-SCNs are shown. The fractal dimensions of these fractal basins, channel networks, and main channel lengths (computed through box counting method are compared with those of estimated length–area measures. Certain morphometric order ratios to show fractal relations are also highlighted.

  8. Two Phase Flow Split Model for Parallel Channels | Iloeje | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model has been developed for the determination of two phase flow distributions between multiple parallel channels which communicate between a common upper and a common lower plenum. It utilizes the requirement of equal plenum to plenum pressure drops through the channels, continuity equations at the lower ...

  9. Parametric modeling for damped sinusoids from multiple channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Zhenhua; So, Hing Cheung; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    The problem of parametric modeling for noisy damped sinusoidal signals from multiple channels is addressed. Utilizing the shift invariance property of the signal subspace, the number of distinct sinusoidal poles in the multiple channels is first determined. With the estimated number, the distinct...

  10. Asymptotic performance modelling of DCF protocol with prioritized channel access (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong


    Recently, the modification of the DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) protocol by the prioritized channel access was proposed to resolve the problem that the DCF performance worsens exponentially as more nodes exist in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. In this paper, an asymptotic analytical performance model is presented to analyze the MAC performance of the DCF protocol with the prioritized channel access.

  11. A channel-based coordination model for component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arbab (Farhad)


    textabstractIn this paper, we present $P epsilon omega$, a paradigm for composition of software components based on the notion of mobile channels. $P repsilon omega$ is a channel-based exogenous coordination model wherein complex coordinators, called {em connectors are compositionally built out of

  12. Modeling the vehicle-to-vehicle propagation channel: A review (United States)

    Matolak, David W.


    In this paper we provide a review of the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) wireless propagation channel. This "car-to-car" application will be used to improve roadway efficiency, provide unique traveler services, and can also enable safety applications that can save lives. We briefly review some currently envisioned applications and the initial V2V radio technology, then address the V2V propagation channel. Propagation basics germane to the V2V setting are described, followed by a discussion of channel dispersion and time variation. The channel impulse response and its Fourier transform, the channel transfer function, are described in detail, and their common statistical characterizations are also reviewed. The most common models for the V2V channel—the tapped delay line and geometry-based stochastic channel models—are covered in some detail. We highlight key differences between the V2V channel and the well-known cellular radio channel. These differences are the more rapid time variation and the higher probability of obstruction of the direct line of sight component; modeling of these effects has required some novel approaches. The V2V channel's nonstationary statistical behavior is addressed, as is the use of multiple-antenna systems. The remaining areas for future work are also described.

  13. Propagation of hydrological modeling uncertainties on bed load transport simulations in steep mountain streams (United States)

    Eichner, Bernhard; Koller, Julian; Kammerlander, Johannes; Schöber, Johannes; Achleitner, Stefan


    transport in steep mountain streams, concentrating on the lower part of the main channel. Calibration of the sediment transport model was based on measured sediment data. This is obtained from settling basin connected to Tyrolean Weir type water intake, in which almost all sediments are deposited. Typical morphologic structures of this steep mountain stream, like step pool sequences, sudden changes of cross sections and armoring of the surface layer, and its characteristic flow regime lead to highly fluctuating transport rates. These are additionally strongly depending on preconditions of the river bed. Consequently, the different hydrographs of the hydrological model are causing significantly deviating results, which are induced by varying water volumes as well as temporal variations of the hydrographs.

  14. Towards benchmarking an in-stream water quality model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A method of model evaluation is presented which utilises a comparison with a benchmark model. The proposed benchmarking concept is one that can be applied to many hydrological models but, in this instance, is implemented in the context of an in-stream water quality model. The benchmark model is defined in such a way that it is easily implemented within the framework of the test model, i.e. the approach relies on two applications of the same model code rather than the application of two separate model codes. This is illustrated using two case studies from the UK, the Rivers Aire and Ouse, with the objective of simulating a water quality classification, general quality assessment (GQA, which is based on dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Comparisons between the benchmark and test models are made based on GQA, as well as a step-wise assessment against the components required in its derivation. The benchmarking process yields a great deal of important information about the performance of the test model and raises issues about a priori definition of the assessment criteria.

  15. Value stream mapping in a computational simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Becker Mendes de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The decision-making process has been extensively studied by researchers and executives. This paper aims to use the methodology of Value Stream Mapping (VSM in an integrated manner with a computer simulation model, in order to expand managers decision-making vision. The object of study is based on a production system that involves a process of automatic packaging of products, where it became necessary to implement changes in order to accommodate new products, so that the detection of bottlenecks and the visualization of impacts generated by future modifications are necessary. The simulation aims to support manager’s decision considering that the system involves several variables and their behaviors define the complexity of the process. Significant reduction in project costs by anticipating their behavior, together with the results of the Value Stream Mapping to identify activities that add value or not for the process were the main results. The validation of the simulation model will occur with the current map of the system and with the inclusion of Kaizen events so that waste in future maps are found in a practical and reliable way, which could support decision-makings.

  16. Modelling of a vanishing Hawaiin stream with DHSVM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verger, R.P.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Booij, Martijn J.; Fares, A.; Erdbrink, C.D.; van Os, A.G.


    Several Hawaiian streams show downward trends in stream flow. In this study Makaha Stream is investigated as an example. Three possible reasons are commonly mentioned for the discharge reduction: groundwater pumping, decreasing rainfall, and changes in vegetation. The effect of these factors on

  17. Applications of spatial statistical network models to stream data (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Erin E. Peterson; Jay M. Ver Hoef; Seth J. Wenger; Jeffrey A. Falke; Christian E. Torgersen; Colin Sowder; E. Ashley Steel; Marie-Josee Fortin; Chris E. Jordan; Aaron S. Ruesch; Nicholas Som; Pascal. Monestiez


    Streams and rivers host a significant portion of Earth's biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services for human populations. Accurate information regarding the status and trends of stream resources is vital for their effective conservation and management. Most statistical techniques applied to data measured on stream networks were developed for...

  18. Stream Channel Stability. Appendix J. Numerical Model for Routing Graded Sediments in Alluvial Channels, (United States)


    IF) Percent of material finer than size IF present in the active bed layer of cross section IC. PCFF (I, IC, IF) Initial percent of material finer...PROGRAM USED IN THE EAST FORK RIVER TEST DIMENSION TI1’LE(2-0),QMFS’(264,3),QOLJIT(300),GMES(264,iO,3), & PCFF (3,6, 10 ),PCF(21,10)PCFR (21, 10) , TOTM(264...IC) ,SLOPE(IC) ,WIDTH(IC),CPER(IC),EPER(IC), &CDEP(IC),EDEP(IC) ,IC~i,INLS) DO 801 IC1i,INLS PCP=D 0 DO 802 IF=i,NFR PCF(IC,IFY’= PCFF (I,ic, IF) PCBI

  19. Can Low-Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning Data Be Used to Model Stream Rating Curves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. Lyon


    Full Text Available This pilot study explores the potential of using low-resolution (0.2 points/m2 airborne laser scanning (ALS-derived elevation data to model stream rating curves. Rating curves, which allow the functional translation of stream water depth into discharge, making them integral to water resource monitoring efforts, were modeled using a physics-based approach that captures basic geometric measurements to establish flow resistance due to implicit channel roughness. We tested synthetically thinned high-resolution (more than 2 points/m2 ALS data as a proxy for low-resolution data at a point density equivalent to that obtained within most national-scale ALS strategies. Our results show that the errors incurred due to the effect of low-resolution versus high-resolution ALS data were less than those due to flow measurement and empirical rating curve fitting uncertainties. As such, although there likely are scale and technical limitations to consider, it is theoretically possible to generate rating curves in a river network from ALS data of the resolution anticipated within national-scale ALS schemes (at least for rivers with relatively simple geometries. This is promising, since generating rating curves from ALS scans would greatly enhance our ability to monitor streamflow by simplifying the overall effort required.

  20. Towards a streaming model for nested data parallelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederik Meisner; Filinski, Andrzej


    -flattening execution strategy, comes at the price of potentially prohibitive space usage in the common case of computations with an excess of available parallelism, such as dense-matrix multiplication. We present a simple nested data-parallel functional language and associated cost semantics that retains NESL......'s intuitive work--depth model for time complexity, but also allows highly parallel computations to be expressed in a space-efficient way, in the sense that memory usage on a single (or a few) processors is of the same order as for a sequential formulation of the algorithm, and in general scales smoothly......-processable in a streaming fashion. This semantics is directly compatible with previously proposed piecewise execution models for nested data parallelism, but allows the expected space usage to be reasoned about directly at the source-language level. The language definition and implementation are still very much work...

  1. Stream Heat Budget Modeling of Groundwater Inputs: Model Development and Validation (United States)

    Glose, A.; Lautz, L. K.


    Models of physical processes in fluvial systems are useful for improving understanding of hydrologic systems and for predicting future conditions. Process-based models of fluid flow and heat transport in fluvial systems can be used to quantify unknown spatial and temporal patterns of hydrologic fluxes, such as groundwater discharge, and to predict system response to future change. In this study, a stream heat budget model was developed and calibrated to observed stream water temperature data for Meadowbrook Creek in Syracuse, NY. The one-dimensional (longitudinal), transient stream temperature model is programmed in Matlab and solves the equations for heat and fluid transport using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. The model considers four meteorologically driven heat fluxes: shortwave solar radiation, longwave radiation, latent heat flux, and sensible heat flux. Streambed conduction is also considered. Input data for the model were collected from June 13-18, 2012 over a 500 m reach of Meadowbrook Creek, a first order urban stream that drains a retention pond in the city of Syracuse, NY. Stream temperature data were recorded every 20 m longitudinally in the stream at 5-minute intervals using iButtons (model DS1922L, accuracy of ±0.5°C, resolution of 0.0625°C). Meteorological data, including air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed, were recorded at 5-minute intervals using an on-site weather station. Groundwater temperature was measured in wells adjacent to the stream. Stream dimensions, bed temperatures, and type of bed sediments were also collected. A constant rate tracer injection of Rhodamine WT was used to quantify groundwater inputs every 10 m independently to validate model results. Stream temperatures fluctuated diurnally by ~3-5 °C during the observation period with temperatures peaking around 2 pm and cooling overnight, reaching a minimum between 6 and 7 am. Spatially, the stream shows a cooling trend along the

  2. Quasi-equilibrium channel model of an constant current arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov Alexander V.


    Full Text Available The rather simple method of calculation of electronic and gas temperature in the channel of arc of plasma generator is offered. This method is based on self-consistent two-temperature channel model of an electric arc. The method proposed enables to obtain radial allocation of gas and electronic temperatures in a non-conducting zone of an constant current arc, for prescribed parameters of discharge (current intensity and power of the discharge, with enough good precision. The results obtained can be used in model and engineering calculations to estimate gas and electronic temperatures in the channel of an arc plasma generator.

  3. Application of regression model on stream water quality parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, M.; Maqbool, F.; Malik, A.H.; Bhatti, Z.A.


    Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of solid waste leachate from the open solid waste dumping site of Salhad on the stream water quality. Five sites were selected along the stream. Two sites were selected prior to mixing of leachate with the surface water. One was of leachate and other two sites were affected with leachate. Samples were analyzed for pH, water temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and total bacterial load (TBL). In this study correlation coefficient r among different water quality parameters of various sites were calculated by using Pearson model and then average of each correlation between two parameters were also calculated, which shows TDS and EC and pH and BOD have significantly increasing r value, while temperature and TDS, temp and EC, DO and BL, DO and COD have decreasing r value. Single factor ANOVA at 5% level of significance was used which shows EC, TDS, TCL and COD were significantly differ among various sites. By the application of these two statistical approaches TDS and EC shows strongly positive correlation because the ions from the dissolved solids in water influence the ability of that water to conduct an electrical current. These two parameters significantly vary among 5 sites which are further confirmed by using linear regression. (author)

  4. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modelling of Flow and Sediment Transport for Field Scale Application of Stream Barbs at Sawmill Creek, Ottawa (United States)

    Jamieson, E. C.; Rennie, C. D.; Townsend, R. D.


    Stream barbs (a type of submerged groyne or spur dike) are low-profile linear rock structures that prevent the erosion of stream banks by redirecting high velocity flow away from the bank. Stream barbs are becoming a popular method for stream bank protection as they can be built at a relatively low cost and provide added ecological benefit. The design and construction of stream barbs in Sawmill Creek, a small urban stream in the city of Ottawa, Canada, will serve as a demonstration project for the use of barbs as a bank stabilization technique that will contribute to the rehabilitation of urban creeks while reducing erosion threats to property and infrastructure. As well as providing bank protection, these structures promote vegetated stream banks, create resting pools and scour holes for fish habitat, and increase bio-diversity for aquatic species. Despite these benefits, stream barbs are not a common means of stream bank protection in Canada, due largely to a lack of suitable design guidelines. The overall goal of stream habitat restoration in incising channel systems should be to accelerate natural processes of channel equilibrium recovery, riparian re-vegetation, and stream-floodplain interaction. Incorporating stream barbs, instead of traditional bank protection measures, attempts to achieve these goals. A three-dimensional numerical model: 'Simulation in Intakes with Multiblock option' (SSIIM), was used to model the effects of placing a series of stream barbs along an unstable section of Sawmill Creek. The average bankfull depth, width, and discharge of the creek are 1.2 m, 7.5 m, and 9 m3/s respectively. The model was used to assess various design alternatives for a series of seven stream barbs at two consecutive channel bends requiring stabilization measures along their outer banks. Design criteria were principally based on the reduction of velocity, shear stress and subsequent erosion at the outside bank of each bend, and on the relocation of a new thalweg

  5. Ionic channel changes in glaucomatous retinal ganglion cells: multicompartment modeling. (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Turpin, Andrew; McKendrick, Allison M; Kameneva, Tatiana


    This research takes a step towards discovering underlying ionic channel changes in the glaucomatous ganglion cells. Glaucoma is characterized by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells. In this paper, we propose a hypothesis that the ionic channel concentrations change during the progression of glaucoma. We use computer simulation of a multi-compartment morphologically correct model of a mouse retinal ganglion cell to verify our hypothesis. Using published experimental data, we alter the morphology of healthy ganglion cells to replicate glaucomatous cells. Our results suggest that in glaucomatous cell, the sodium channel concentration decreases in the soma by 30% and by 60% in the dendrites, calcium channel concentration decreases by 10% in all compartments, and leak channel concentration increases by 40% in the soma and by 100% in the dendrites.

  6. New Approaches for Channel Prediction Based on Sinusoidal Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Torbjörn


    Full Text Available Long-range channel prediction is considered to be one of the most important enabling technologies to future wireless communication systems. The prediction of Rayleigh fading channels is studied in the frame of sinusoidal modeling in this paper. A stochastic sinusoidal model to represent a Rayleigh fading channel is proposed. Three different predictors based on the statistical sinusoidal model are proposed. These methods outperform the standard linear predictor (LP in Monte Carlo simulations, but underperform with real measurement data, probably due to nonstationary model parameters. To mitigate these modeling errors, a joint moving average and sinusoidal (JMAS prediction model and the associated joint least-squares (LS predictor are proposed. It combines the sinusoidal model with an LP to handle unmodeled dynamics in the signal. The joint LS predictor outperforms all the other sinusoidal LMMSE predictors in suburban environments, but still performs slightly worse than the standard LP in urban environments.

  7. Modified Spatial Channel Model for MIMO Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kyösti


    Full Text Available The third generation partnership Project's (3GPP spatial channel model (SCM is a stochastic channel model for MIMO systems. Due to fixed subpath power levels and angular directions, the SCM model does not show the degree of variation which is encountered in real channels. In this paper, we propose a modified SCM model which has random subpath powers and directions and still produces Laplace shape angular power spectrum. Simulation results on outage MIMO capacity with basic and modified SCM models show that the modified SCM model gives constantly smaller capacity values. Accordingly, it seems that the basic SCM gives too small correlation between MIMO antennas. Moreover, the variance in capacity values is larger using the proposed SCM model. Simulation results were supported by the outage capacity results from a measurement campaign conducted in the city centre of Oulu, Finland.

  8. 3D Massive MIMO Systems: Channel Modeling and Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain


    Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems of current LTE releases are capable of adaptation in the azimuth only. More recently, the trend is to enhance the system performance by exploiting the channel\\'s degrees of freedom in the elevation through the dynamic adaptation of the vertical antenna beam pattern. This necessitates the derivation and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) channels. Over the years, channel models have evolved to address the challenges of wireless communication technologies. In parallel to theoretical studies on channel modeling, many standardized channel models like COST-based models, 3GPP SCM, WINNER, ITU have emerged that act as references for industries and telecommunication companies to assess system-level and link-level performances of advanced signal processing techniques over real-like channels. Given the existing channels are only two dimensional (2D) in nature; a large effort in channel modeling is needed to study the impact of the channel component in the elevation direction. The first part of this work sheds light on the current 3GPP activity around 3D channel modeling and beamforming, an aspect that to our knowledge has not been extensively covered by a research publication. The standardized MIMO channel model is presented, that incorporates both the propagation effects of the environment and the radio effects of the antennas. In order to facilitate future studies on the use of 3D beamforming, the main features of the proposed 3D channel model are discussed. A brief overview of the future 3GPP 3D channel model being outlined for the next generation of wireless networks is also provided. In the subsequent part of this work, we present an information-theoretic channel model for MIMO systems that supports the elevation dimension. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy, which enables us to determine the distribution of the channel matrix consistent with the prior information on the angles of departure and

  9. Single-channel 40 Gbit/s digital coherent QAM quantum noise stream cipher transmission over 480 km. (United States)

    Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Kasai, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Masataka


    We demonstrate the first 40 Gbit/s single-channel polarization-multiplexed, 5 Gsymbol/s, 16 QAM quantum noise stream cipher (QNSC) transmission over 480 km by incorporating ASE quantum noise from EDFAs as well as the quantum shot noise of the coherent state with multiple photons for the random masking of data. By using a multi-bit encoded scheme and digital coherent transmission techniques, secure optical communication with a record data capacity and transmission distance has been successfully realized. In this system, the signal level received by Eve is hidden by both the amplitude and the phase noise. The highest number of masked signals, 7.5 x 10(4), was achieved by using a QAM scheme with FEC, which makes it possible to reduce the output power from the transmitter while maintaining an error free condition for Bob. We have newly measured the noise distribution around I and Q encrypted data and shown experimentally with a data size of as large as 2(25) that the noise has a Gaussian distribution with no correlations. This distribution is suitable for the random masking of data.

  10. Modeling ion channel dynamics through reflected stochastic differential equations. (United States)

    Dangerfield, Ciara E; Kay, David; Burrage, Kevin


    Ion channels are membrane proteins that open and close at random and play a vital role in the electrical dynamics of excitable cells. The stochastic nature of the conformational changes these proteins undergo can be significant, however current stochastic modeling methodologies limit the ability to study such systems. Discrete-state Markov chain models are seen as the "gold standard," but are computationally intensive, restricting investigation of stochastic effects to the single-cell level. Continuous stochastic methods that use stochastic differential equations (SDEs) to model the system are more efficient but can lead to simulations that have no biological meaning. In this paper we show that modeling the behavior of ion channel dynamics by a reflected SDE ensures biologically realistic simulations, and we argue that this model follows from the continuous approximation of the discrete-state Markov chain model. Open channel and action potential statistics from simulations of ion channel dynamics using the reflected SDE are compared with those of a discrete-state Markov chain method. Results show that the reflected SDE simulations are in good agreement with the discrete-state approach. The reflected SDE model therefore provides a computationally efficient method to simulate ion channel dynamics while preserving the distributional properties of the discrete-state Markov chain model and also ensuring biologically realistic solutions. This framework could easily be extended to other biochemical reaction networks.

  11. Multiphysical model of heterogenous flow moving along а channel of variable cross-section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Васильева


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem aimed at solving the fundamental problems of developing effective methods and tools for designing, controlling and managing the stream of fluid flowing in variable-section pipelines intended for the production of pumping equipment, medical devices and used in such areas of industry as mining, chemical, food production, etc. Execution of simulation modelling of flow motion according to the scheme of twisted paddle static mixer allows to estimate the efficiency of mixing by calculating the trajectory and velocities of the suspended particles going through the mixer, and also to estimate the pressure drop on the hydraulic flow resistance. The model examines the mixing of solids dissolved in a liquid at room temperature. To visualize the process of distributing the mixture particles over the cross-section and analyzing the mixing efficiency, the Poincaréplot module of the COMSOL Multiphysics software environment was used. For the first time, a multi-physical stream of heterogeneous flow model has been developed that describes in detail the physical state of the fluid at all points of the considered section at the initial time, takes into account the design parameters of the channel (orientation, dimensions, material, etc., specifies the laws of variation of the parameters at the boundaries of the calculated section in conditions of the wave change in the internal section of the working chamber-channel of the inductive peristaltic pumping unit under the influence of the energy of the magnetic field.

  12. Modeling the morphogenesis of brine channels in sea ice. (United States)

    Kutschan, B; Morawetz, K; Gemming, S


    Brine channels are formed in sea ice under certain constraints and represent a habitat of different microorganisms. The complex system depends on a number of various quantities as salinity, density, pH value, or temperature. Each quantity governs the process of brine channel formation. There exists a strong link between bulk salinity and the presence of brine drainage channels in growing ice with respect to both the horizontal and vertical planes. We develop a suitable phenomenological model for the formation of brine channels both referring to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of phase transitions as well as to the chemical basis of morphogenesis according to Turing. It is possible to conclude from the critical wave number on the size of the structure and the critical parameters. The theoretically deduced transition rates have the same magnitude as the experimental values. The model creates channels of similar size as observed experimentally. An extension of the model toward channels with different sizes is possible. The microstructure of ice determines the albedo feedback and plays therefore an important role for large-scale global circulation models.

  13. Longitudinal structure in temperate stream fish communities: evaluating conceptual models with temporal data (United States)

    Roberts, James H.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.


    Five conceptual models of longitudinal fish community organization in streams were examined: (1) niche diversity model (NDM), (2) stream continuum model (SCM), (3) immigrant accessibility model (IAM), (4) environmental stability model (ESM), and (5) adventitious stream model (ASM). We used differences among models in their predictions about temporal species turnover, along with five spatiotemporal fish community data sets, to evaluate model applicability. Models were similar in predicting a positive species richness–stream size relationship and longitudinal species nestedness, but differed in predicting either similar temporal species turnover throughout the stream continuum (NDM, SCM), higher turnover upstream (IAM, ESM), or higher turnover downstream (ASM). We calculated measures of spatial and temporal variation from spatiotemporal fish data in five wadeable streams in central and eastern North America spanning 34–68 years (French Creek [New York], Piasa Creek [Illinois], Spruce Run [Virginia], Little Stony Creek [Virginia], and Sinking Creek [Virginia]). All streams exhibited substantial species turnover (i.e., at least 27% turnover in stream-scale species pools), in contrast to the predictions of the SCM. Furthermore, community change was greater in downstream than upstream reaches in four of five streams. This result is most consistent with the ASM and suggests that downstream communities are strongly influenced by migrants to and from species pools outside the focal stream. In Sinking Creek, which is isolated from external species pools, temporal species turnover (via increased richness) was higher upstream than downstream, which is a pattern most consistent with the IAM or ESM. These results corroborate the hypothesis that temperate stream habitats and fish communities are temporally dynamic and that fish migration and environmental disturbances play fundamental roles in stream fish community organization.

  14. Development of regional curves of bankfull-channel geometry and discharge for streams in the non-urban, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Maryland (United States)

    Cinotto, Peter J.


    Stream-restoration projects utilizing natural stream designs frequently are based on the bankfull-channel characteristics of stream reaches that can accommodate streamflow and sediment transport without excessive erosion or deposition and lie within a watershed that has similar runoff characteristics. The bankfull channel at an ungaged impaired site or reference reach is identified by use of field indicators and is confirmed with tools such as regional curves. Channel dimensions were surveyed at 14 streamflow-measurement stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the Gettysburg-Newark Lowland Section, Piedmont Lowland Section, and the Piedmont Upland Section of the Piedmont Physiographic Province1 in Pennsylvania and Maryland. From the surveyed channel dimensions, regional curves were developed from regression analyses of the relations between drainage area and the cross-sectional area, mean depth, width, and streamflow of the bankfull channel at these sites. Bankfull cross-sectional area and bankfull discharge have the strongest relation to drainage area as evidenced by R2 values of 0.94 and 0.93, respectively. The relation between bankfull crosssectional area and drainage area has a p-value of less than 0.001; no p-value is presented for the relation between bankfull discharge and drainage area because of a non-normal residual distribution. The relation between bankfull width and drainage area has an R2 value of 0.80 and a p-value of less than 0.001 indicating a moderate linear relation between all stations. The relation between bankfull mean depth and drainage area, with an R2 value of 0.72 and a p-value of less than 0.001, also indicates a moderate linear relation between all stations. The concept of regional curves can be a valuable tool to support efforts in stream restoration. Practitioners of stream restoration need to recognize it as such and realize the limitations. The small number of USGS streamflow-measurement stations available for

  15. A theoretical model for fluvial channel response time during time-dependent climatic and tectonic forcing and its inverse applications (United States)

    Goren, Liran


    The fluvial response time dictates the duration of fluvial channel adjustment in response to changing climatic and tectonic conditions. However, when these conditions vary continuously, the channel cannot equilibrate and the response time is not well defined. Here I develop an analytical solution to the linear stream power model of fluvial incision that predicts the channel topography as a function of time-dependent climatic and tectonic conditions. From this solution, a general definition of the fluvial response time emerges: the duration over which the tectonic history needs to be known to evaluate channel topography. This new definition is used in linear inversion schemes for inferring climatic or tectonic histories from river long profiles. The analytic solution further reveals that high-frequency climatic oscillations, such as Milankovitch cycles, are not expected to leave significant fingerprints on the long profiles of fluvially incised detachment-limited rivers.

  16. Comparing stream-specific to generalized temperature models to guide salmonid management in a changing climate (United States)

    Andrew K. Carlson,; William W. Taylor,; Hartikainen, Kelsey M.; Dana M. Infante,; Beard, Douglas; Lynch, Abigail


    Global climate change is predicted to increase air and stream temperatures and alter thermal habitat suitability for growth and survival of coldwater fishes, including brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In a changing climate, accurate stream temperature modeling is increasingly important for sustainable salmonid management throughout the world. However, finite resource availability (e.g. funding, personnel) drives a tradeoff between thermal model accuracy and efficiency (i.e. cost-effective applicability at management-relevant spatial extents). Using different projected climate change scenarios, we compared the accuracy and efficiency of stream-specific and generalized (i.e. region-specific) temperature models for coldwater salmonids within and outside the State of Michigan, USA, a region with long-term stream temperature data and productive coldwater fisheries. Projected stream temperature warming between 2016 and 2056 ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 °C in groundwater-dominated streams and 0.2–6.8 °C in surface-runoff dominated systems in the State of Michigan. Despite their generally lower accuracy in predicting exact stream temperatures, generalized models accurately projected salmonid thermal habitat suitability in 82% of groundwater-dominated streams, including those with brook charr (80% accuracy), brown trout (89% accuracy), and rainbow trout (75% accuracy). In contrast, generalized models predicted thermal habitat suitability in runoff-dominated streams with much lower accuracy (54%). These results suggest that, amidst climate change and constraints in resource availability, generalized models are appropriate to forecast thermal conditions in groundwater-dominated streams within and outside Michigan and inform regional-level salmonid management strategies that are practical for coldwater fisheries managers, policy makers, and the public. We recommend fisheries professionals reserve resource

  17. Flooding in ephemeral streams: incorporating transmission losses (United States)

    Stream flow in semiarid lands commonly occurs as a form of flash floods in dry ephemeral stream beds. The goal of this research is to couple hydrological and hydraulic models treats channel transmission losses and test the methodology in the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). For h...

  18. Effects of stream topology on ecological community results from neutral models (United States)

    While neutral theory and models have stimulated considerable literature, less well investigated is the effect of topology on neutral metacommunity model simulations. We implemented a neutral metacommunity model using two different stream network topologies, a widely branched netw...

  19. Spatial Statistical Network Models for Stream and River Temperature in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, USA (United States)

    Regional temperature models are needed for characterizing and mapping stream thermal regimes, establishing reference conditions, predicting future impacts and identifying critical thermal refugia. Spatial statistical models have been developed to improve regression modeling techn...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev


    Full Text Available The article presents modeling for investigation of aerodynamic processes on area sections (including a group of complex constructional works for different regimes of drop and wind streams  and  temperature  conditions  and  in  complex  constructional  works  (for  different regimes of heating and ventilation. There were developed different programs for innovation problems solution in the field of heat and mass exchange in three-dimensional space of pres- sures-speeds-temperatures of оbjects.The field of uses of pneumobasic objects: construction and roof of tennis courts, hockey pitches, swimming pools , and also exhibitions’ buildings, circus buildings, cafes, aqua parks, studios, mobile objects of medical purposes, hangars, garages, construction sites, service sta- tions and etc. Advantages of such objects are the possibility and simplicity of multiple instal- lation and demolition works. Their large-scale implementation is determined by temperature- moisture conditions under the shells.Analytical and calculating researches, real researches of thermodynamic parameters of heat and mass exchange, multifactorial processes of air in pneumobasic objects, their shells in a wide range of climatic parameters of air (January – December in the Republic of Belarus, in many geographical latitudes of many countries have shown that the limit of the possibility of optimizing wind loads, heat flow, acoustic effects is infinite (sports, residential, industrial, warehouse, the military-technical units (tanks, airplanes, etc.. In modeling of convective flows in pneumobasic objects (part 1 there are processes with higher dynamic parameters of the air flow for the characteristic pneumobasic object, carried out the calculation of the velocity field, temperature, pressure at the speed of access of air through the inflow holes up to 5 m/sec at the moments of times (20, 100, 200, 400 sec. The calculation was performed using the developed mathematical

  1. Monte Carlo Modeling of Crystal Channeling at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schoofs, Philippe; Cerutti, Francesco

    Charged particles entering a crystal close to some preferred direction can be trapped in the electromagnetic potential well existing between consecutive planes or strings of atoms. This channeling effect can be used to extract beam particles if the crystal is bent beforehand. Crystal channeling is becoming a reliable and efficient technique for collimating beams and removing halo particles. At CERN, the installation of silicon crystals in the LHC is under scrutiny by the UA9 collaboration with the goal of investigating if they are a viable option for the collimation system upgrade. This thesis describes a new Monte Carlo model of planar channeling which has been developed from scratch in order to be implemented in the FLUKA code simulating particle transport and interactions. Crystal channels are described through the concept of continuous potential taking into account thermal motion of the lattice atoms and using Moliere screening function. The energy of the particle transverse motion determines whether or n...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifeanyichukwu Onwuka

    A model has been developed for the determination of two phase flow distributions between multiple parallel channels which ... transients, up to ten parallel flow paths, simple and complicated geometries, including the boilers of fossil steam generators and ..... The above model and numerical technique were programmed in ...

  3. Models that predict standing crop of stream fish from habitat variables: 1950-85. (United States)

    K.D. Fausch; C.L. Hawkes; M.G. Parsons


    We reviewed mathematical models that predict standing crop of stream fish (number or biomass per unit area or length of stream) from measurable habitat variables and classified them by the types of independent habitat variables found significant, by mathematical structure, and by model quality. Habitat variables were of three types and were measured on different scales...

  4. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: Application of a reactive transport model (United States)

    Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.


    A reactive transport model based on one-dimensional transport and equilibrium chemistry is applied to synoptic data from an acid mine drainage stream. Model inputs include streamflow estimates based on tracer dilution, inflow chemistry based on synoptic sampling, and equilibrium constants describing acid/base, complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption reactions. The dominant features of observed spatial profiles in pH and metal concentration are reproduced along the 3.5-km study reach by simulating the precipitation of Fe(III) and Al solid phases and the sorption of Cu, As, and Pb onto freshly precipitated iron-(III) oxides. Given this quantitative description of existing conditions, additional simulations are conducted to estimate the streamwater quality that could result from two hypothetical remediation plans. Both remediation plans involve the addition of CaCO3 to raise the pH of a small, acidic inflow from ???2.4 to ???7.0. This pH increase results in a reduced metal load that is routed downstream by the reactive transport model, thereby providing an estimate of post-remediation water quality. The first remediation plan assumes a closed system wherein inflow Fe(II) is not oxidized by the treatment system; under the second remediation plan, an open system is assumed, and Fe(II) is oxidized within the treatment system. Both plans increase instream pH and substantially reduce total and dissolved concentrations of Al, As, Cu, and Fe(II+III) at the terminus of the study reach. Dissolved Pb concentrations are reduced by ???18% under the first remediation plan due to sorption onto iron-(III) oxides within the treatment system and stream channel. In contrast, iron(III) oxides are limiting under the second remediation plan, and removal of dissolved Pb occurs primarily within the treatment system. This limitation results in an increase in dissolved Pb concentrations over existing conditions as additional downstream sources of Pb are not attenuated by

  5. Stream Channel Stability. (United States)


    140 26 Deep rotational failure surface (After Thorne, 1980) ........ .. 143 27 Planer failure through the toe (After Thorne...Freezing of water in the pores of the surface material heaves the soil particles apart and loosen tne bank materials in much the same way that wetting...sin 224) 2 2 2 Figure 27 Planer failure through the toe (After Thorne, 1980) 144 shows that the critical height H’ for a vertical bank in soils of

  6. Stream macroinvertebrate response models for bioassessment metrics: addressing the issue of spatial scale. (United States)

    Waite, Ian R; Kennen, Jonathan G; May, Jason T; Brown, Larry R; Cuffney, Thomas F; Jones, Kimberly A; Orlando, James L


    We developed independent predictive disturbance models for a full regional data set and four individual ecoregions (Full Region vs. Individual Ecoregion models) to evaluate effects of spatial scale on the assessment of human landscape modification, on predicted response of stream biota, and the effect of other possible confounding factors, such as watershed size and elevation, on model performance. We selected macroinvertebrate sampling sites for model development (n = 591) and validation (n = 467) that met strict screening criteria from four proximal ecoregions in the northeastern U.S.: North Central Appalachians, Ridge and Valley, Northeastern Highlands, and Northern Piedmont. Models were developed using boosted regression tree (BRT) techniques for four macroinvertebrate metrics; results were compared among ecoregions and metrics. Comparing within a region but across the four macroinvertebrate metrics, the average richness of tolerant taxa (RichTOL) had the highest R(2) for BRT models. Across the four metrics, final BRT models had between four and seven explanatory variables and always included a variable related to urbanization (e.g., population density, percent urban, or percent manmade channels), and either a measure of hydrologic runoff (e.g., minimum April, average December, or maximum monthly runoff) and(or) a natural landscape factor (e.g., riparian slope, precipitation, and elevation), or a measure of riparian disturbance. Contrary to our expectations, Full Region models explained nearly as much variance in the macroinvertebrate data as Individual Ecoregion models, and taking into account watershed size or elevation did not appear to improve model performance. As a result, it may be advantageous for bioassessment programs to develop large regional models as a preliminary assessment of overall disturbance conditions as long as the range in natural landscape variability is not excessive.

  7. Stream macroinvertebrate response models for bioassessment metrics: addressing the issue of spatial scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Waite

    Full Text Available We developed independent predictive disturbance models for a full regional data set and four individual ecoregions (Full Region vs. Individual Ecoregion models to evaluate effects of spatial scale on the assessment of human landscape modification, on predicted response of stream biota, and the effect of other possible confounding factors, such as watershed size and elevation, on model performance. We selected macroinvertebrate sampling sites for model development (n = 591 and validation (n = 467 that met strict screening criteria from four proximal ecoregions in the northeastern U.S.: North Central Appalachians, Ridge and Valley, Northeastern Highlands, and Northern Piedmont. Models were developed using boosted regression tree (BRT techniques for four macroinvertebrate metrics; results were compared among ecoregions and metrics. Comparing within a region but across the four macroinvertebrate metrics, the average richness of tolerant taxa (RichTOL had the highest R(2 for BRT models. Across the four metrics, final BRT models had between four and seven explanatory variables and always included a variable related to urbanization (e.g., population density, percent urban, or percent manmade channels, and either a measure of hydrologic runoff (e.g., minimum April, average December, or maximum monthly runoff and(or a natural landscape factor (e.g., riparian slope, precipitation, and elevation, or a measure of riparian disturbance. Contrary to our expectations, Full Region models explained nearly as much variance in the macroinvertebrate data as Individual Ecoregion models, and taking into account watershed size or elevation did not appear to improve model performance. As a result, it may be advantageous for bioassessment programs to develop large regional models as a preliminary assessment of overall disturbance conditions as long as the range in natural landscape variability is not excessive.

  8. Stream macroinvertebrate response models for bioassessment metrics: addressing the issue of spatial scale (United States)

    White, Ian R.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Jones, Kimberly A.; Orlando, James L.


    We developed independent predictive disturbance models for a full regional data set and four individual ecoregions (Full Region vs. Individual Ecoregion models) to evaluate effects of spatial scale on the assessment of human landscape modification, on predicted response of stream biota, and the effect of other possible confounding factors, such as watershed size and elevation, on model performance. We selected macroinvertebrate sampling sites for model development (n = 591) and validation (n = 467) that met strict screening criteria from four proximal ecoregions in the northeastern U.S.: North Central Appalachians, Ridge and Valley, Northeastern Highlands, and Northern Piedmont. Models were developed using boosted regression tree (BRT) techniques for four macroinvertebrate metrics; results were compared among ecoregions and metrics. Comparing within a region but across the four macroinvertebrate metrics, the average richness of tolerant taxa (RichTOL) had the highest R2 for BRT models. Across the four metrics, final BRT models had between four and seven explanatory variables and always included a variable related to urbanization (e.g., population density, percent urban, or percent manmade channels), and either a measure of hydrologic runoff (e.g., minimum April, average December, or maximum monthly runoff) and(or) a natural landscape factor (e.g., riparian slope, precipitation, and elevation), or a measure of riparian disturbance. Contrary to our expectations, Full Region models explained nearly as much variance in the macroinvertebrate data as Individual Ecoregion models, and taking into account watershed size or elevation did not appear to improve model performance. As a result, it may be advantageous for bioassessment programs to develop large regional models as a preliminary assessment of overall disturbance conditions as long as the range in natural landscape variability is not excessive.

  9. Discretized Streams: A Fault-Tolerant Model for Scalable Stream Processing (United States)


    them on the data still in the cluster. The system also periodically check- 4Other interfaces, such as streaming SQL , would also be possible. Some DB systems wait a short time to sync opera- tors before proceeding [3] Late records Slack time or app- level correction Slack time, out kept in sync to ensure that they compute metrics in the same way. Second, there is a lag of several minutes min- utes before data makes it through a

  10. Subjective quality assessment of an adaptive video streaming model (United States)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Shahid, Muhammad; Garcia, Narciso


    With the recent increased popularity and high usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) techniques, various studies have been carried out in this area which generally focused on the technical enhancement of HAS technology and applications. However, a lack of common HAS standard led to multiple proprietary approaches which have been developed by major Internet companies. In the emerging MPEG-DASH standard the packagings of the video content and HTTP syntax have been standardized; but all the details of the adaptation behavior are left to the client implementation. Nevertheless, to design an adaptation algorithm which optimizes the viewing experience of the enduser, the multimedia service providers need to know about the Quality of Experience (QoE) of different adaptation schemes. Taking this into account, the objective of this experiment was to study the QoE of a HAS-based video broadcast model. The experiment has been carried out through a subjective study of the end user response to various possible clients' behavior for changing the video quality taking different QoE-influence factors into account. The experimental conclusions have made a good insight into the QoE of different adaptation schemes which can be exploited by HAS clients for designing the adaptation algorithms.

  11. StreamFlow 1.0: an extension to the spatially distributed snow model Alpine3D for hydrological modelling and deterministic stream temperature prediction (United States)

    Gallice, Aurélien; Bavay, Mathias; Brauchli, Tristan; Comola, Francesco; Lehning, Michael; Huwald, Hendrik


    Climate change is expected to strongly impact the hydrological and thermal regimes of Alpine rivers within the coming decades. In this context, the development of hydrological models accounting for the specific dynamics of Alpine catchments appears as one of the promising approaches to reduce our uncertainty of future mountain hydrology. This paper describes the improvements brought to StreamFlow, an existing model for hydrological and stream temperature prediction built as an external extension to the physically based snow model Alpine3D. StreamFlow's source code has been entirely written anew, taking advantage of object-oriented programming to significantly improve its structure and ease the implementation of future developments. The source code is now publicly available online, along with a complete documentation. A special emphasis has been put on modularity during the re-implementation of StreamFlow, so that many model aspects can be represented using different alternatives. For example, several options are now available to model the advection of water within the stream. This allows for an easy and fast comparison between different approaches and helps in defining more reliable uncertainty estimates of the model forecasts. In particular, a case study in a Swiss Alpine catchment reveals that the stream temperature predictions are particularly sensitive to the approach used to model the temperature of subsurface flow, a fact which has been poorly reported in the literature to date. Based on the case study, StreamFlow is shown to reproduce hourly mean discharge with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.82 and hourly mean temperature with a NSE of 0.78.

  12. An Empirical Ultra Wideband Channel Model for Indoor Laboratory Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abolghasemi


    Full Text Available Channel measurement and modeling is an important issue when designing ultra wideband (UWB communication systems. In this paper, the results of some UWB time-domain propagation measurements performed in modern laboratory (Lab environments are presented. The Labs are equipped with many electronic and measurement devices which make them different from other indoor locations like office and residential environments. The measurements have been performed for both line of sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS scenarios. The measurement results are used to investigate large-scale channel characteristics and temporal dispersion parameters. The clustering Saleh- Valenzuela (S-V channel impulse response (CIR parameters are investigated based on the measurement data. The small-scale amplitude fading statistics are also studied in the environment. Then, an empirical model is presented for UWB signal transmission in the Lab environment based on the obtained results.

  13. Modeling of immision from power plants using stream-diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanevce, Lj.; Kanevce, G.; Markoski, A.


    Analyses of simple empirical and integral immision models, comparing with complex three dimensional differential models is given. Complex differential models needs huge computer power, so they can't be useful for practical engineering calculations. In this paper immision modeling, using stream-diffusion approach is presented. Process of dispersion is divided into two parts. First part is called stream part, it's near the source of the pollutants, and it's presented with defected turbulent jet in wind field. This part finished when the velocity of stream (jet) becomes equal with wind speed. Boundary conditions in the end of the first part, are initial for the second, called diffusion part, which is modeling with tri dimensional diffusion equation. Gradient of temperature, wind speed profile and coefficient of diffusion in this model must not be constants, they can change with the height. Presented model is much simpler than the complete meteorological differential models which calculates whole fields of meteorological parameters. Also, it is more complex and gives more valuable results for dispersion of pollutants from widely used integral and empirical models

  14. Modeling of Doppler frequency shift in multipath radio channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzin M.S.


    Full Text Available We discuss the modeling of propagation of a quasi-monochromatic radio signal, represented by a coherent pulse sequence, in a non-stationary multipath radio channel. In such a channel, signal propagation results in the observed frequency shift for each ray (Doppler effect. The modeling is based on the assumption that during propagation of a single pulse a channel can be considered stationary. A phase variation in the channel transfer function is shown to cause the observed frequency shift in the received signal. Thus, instead of measuring the Doppler frequency shift, we can measure the rate of variation in the mean phase of one pulse relative to another. The modeling is carried out within the framework of the method of normal waves. The method enables us to model the dynamics of the electromagnetic field at a given point with the required accuracy. The modeling reveals that a local change in ionospheric conditions more severely affects the rays whose reflection region is in the area where the changes occur.

  15. Evaluation of Arroyo Channel Restoration Efforts using Hydrological Modeling: Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX (United States)

    Jemison, N. E.; DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.; Adams, J.


    indicate that inundation would only occur in rare events with a ~500 year recurrence interval. In addition, by updating modeling as restoration efforts change the stream bed depth and valley geometry, we can quantify the effects of the restoration effort on surface hydrology. Local bed aggradation upstream of gabion and dam structures occurs in smaller floods, and if carefully planned and managed, could lead to wider flood inundation as the channel is able to reintegrate with the former floodplain.

  16. Hydraulic modelling of the spatial and temporal variability in Atlantic salmon parr habitat availability in an upland stream. (United States)

    Fabris, Luca; Malcolm, Iain Archibald; Buddendorf, Willem Bastiaan; Millidine, Karen Jane; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Soulsby, Chris


    We show how spatial variability in channel bed morphology affects the hydraulic characteristics of river reaches available to Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) under different flow conditions in an upland stream. The study stream, the Girnock Burn, is a long-term monitoring site in the Scottish Highlands. Six site characterised by different bed geometry and morphology were investigated. Detailed site bathymetries were collected and combined with discharge time series in a 2D hydraulic model to obtain spatially distributed depth-averaged velocities under different flow conditions. Available habitat (AH) was estimated for each site. Stream discharge was used according to the critical displacement velocity (CDV) approach. CDV defines a velocity threshold above which salmon parr are not able to hold station and effective feeding opportunities or habitat utilization are reduced, depending on fish size and water temperature. An average value of the relative available habitat () for the most significant period for parr growth - April to May - was used for inter-site comparison and to analyse temporal variations over 40years. Results show that some sites are more able than others to maintain zones where salmon parr can forage unimpeded by high flow velocities under both wet and dry conditions. With lower flow velocities, dry years offer higher values of than wet years. Even though can change considerably across the sites as stream flow changes, the directions of change are consistent. Relative available habitat (RAH) shows a strong relationship with discharge per unit width, whilst channel slope and bed roughness either do not have relevant impact or compensate each other. The results show that significant parr habitat was available at all sites across all flows during this critical growth period, suggesting that hydrological variability is not a factor limiting growth in the Girnock. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Legacy effects of wildfire on stream thermal regimes and rainbow trout ecology: an integrated analysis of observation and individual-based models (United States)

    Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Dunham, Jason B.; Neuswanger, Jason R.; Railsback, Steven F.


    Management of aquatic resources in fire-prone areas requires understanding of fish species’ responses to wildfire and of the intermediate- and long-term consequences of these disturbances. We examined Rainbow Trout populations in 9 headwater streams 10 y after a major wildfire: 3 with no history of severe wildfire in the watershed (unburned), 3 in severely burned watersheds (burned), and 3 in severely burned watersheds subjected to immediate events that scoured the stream channel and eliminated streamside vegetation (burned and reorganized). Results of a previous study of this system suggested the primary lasting effects of this wildfire history on headwater stream habitat were differences in canopy cover and solar radiation, which led to higher summer stream temperatures. Nevertheless, trout were present throughout streams in burned watersheds. Older age classes were least abundant in streams draining watersheds with a burned and reorganized history, and individuals >1 y old were most abundant in streams draining watersheds with an unburned history. Burned history corresponded with fast growth, low lipid content, and early maturity of Rainbow Trout. We used an individual-based model of Rainbow Trout growth and demographic patterns to determine if temperature interactions with bioenergetics and competition among individuals could lead to observed phenotypic and ecological differences among populations in the absence of other plausible mechanisms. Modeling suggested that moderate warming associated with wildfire and channel disturbance history leads to faster individual growth, which exacerbates competition for limited food, leading to decreases in population densities. The inferred mechanisms from this modeling exercise suggest the transferability of ecological patterns to a variety of temperature-warming scenarios.

  18. Fate of acetone in an outdoor model stream in southern Mississippi, U.S.A. (United States)

    Rathbun, R.E.; Stephens, D.W.; Shultz, D.J.; Tai, D.Y.


    The fate of acetone in water was investigated in an outdoor model stream located in southern Mississippi, U.S.A. Acetone was injected continuously for 32 days resulting in small milligram-perliter concentrations in the stream. Rhodamine-WT dye was injected at the beginning and at the end of the study to determine the time-of-travel and dispersion characteristics of the stream. A 12-h injection of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was used to determine the volatilization characteristics of the stream. Volatilization controlled the acetone concentration in the stream. Significant bacterial degradation of acetone did not occur, contrary to expectations based on previous laboratory studies. Attempts to induce degradation of the acetone by injecting glucose and a nutrient solution containing bacteria acclimated to acetone were unsuccessful. Possible explanations for the lack of bacterial degradation included a nitrate limitation and a limited residence time in the stream system. ?? 1988.

  19. Modeling Inclement Weather Impacts on Traffic Stream Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Rakha, PhD., P.Eng.


    Full Text Available The research identifies the steady-state car-following model parameters within state-of-the-practice traffic simulation software that require calibration to reflect inclement weather and roadway conditions. The research then develops procedures for calibrating non-steady state car-following models to capture inclement weather impacts and applies the procedures to the INTEGRATION software on a sample network. The results demonstrate that the introduction of rain precipitation results in a 5% reduction in light-duty vehicle speeds and a 3% reduction in heavy-duty vehicle speeds. An increase in the rain intensity further reduces light-duty vehicle and heavy-duty truck speeds resulting in a maximum reduction of 9.5% and 5.5% at the maximum rain intensity of 1.5 cm/h, respectively. The results also demonstrate that the impact of rain on traffic stream speed increases with the level of congestion and is more significant than speed differences attributed to various traffic operational improvements and thus should be accounted for in the analysis of alternatives. In the case of snow precipitation, the speed reductions are much more significant (in the range of 55%. Furthermore, the speed reductions are minimally impacted by the snow precipitation intensity. The study further demonstrates that precipitation intensity has no impact on the relative merit of various scenarios (i.e. the ranking of the scenario results are consistent across the various rain intensity levels. This finding is important given that it demonstrates that a recommendation on the optimal scenario is not impacted by the weather conditions that are considered in the analysis.

  20. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity (United States)

    Povak, Nicholas A.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reynolds, Keith M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Salter, R. Brion


    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially affected biota, and create resource protection strategies. In this study, we developed correlative models to predict the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of streams across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA. Models were developed using stream water chemistry data from 933 sampled locations and continuous maps of pertinent environmental and climatic predictors. Environmental predictors were averaged across the upslope contributing area for each sampled stream location and submitted to both statistical and machine-learning regression models. Predictor variables represented key aspects of the contributing geology, soils, climate, topography, and acidic deposition. To reduce model error rates, we employed hurdle modeling to screen out well-buffered sites and predict continuous ANC for the remainder of the stream network. Models predicted acid-sensitive streams in forested watersheds with small contributing areas, siliceous lithologies, cool and moist environments, low clay content soils, and moderate or higher dry sulfur deposition. Our results confirmed findings from other studies and further identified several influential climatic variables and variable interactions. Model predictions indicated that one quarter of the total stream network was sensitive to additional sulfur inputs (i.e., ANC < 100 µeq L-1), while <10% displayed much lower ANC (<50 µeq L-1). These methods may be readily adapted in other regions to assess stream water quality and potential biotic sensitivity to acidic inputs.

  1. Radio Channel Modelling for UAV Communication over Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard


    The main goal of this paper is to obtain models for path loss exponents and shadowing for the radio channel between airborne Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and cellular networks. In this pursuit, field measurements were conducted in live LTE networks at the 800 MHz frequency band, using a commer...

  2. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To simulate the bend development and lateral migration of alluvial channels, a 2D numerical model must account for bend flow effects and river bank erosion processes. Subsequent works on helical flow and forces on sed- iment grains on a transversely sloping bed (e.g.,. Einstein and Shen 1964; Engelund 1974; Bathurst.

  3. Modeling of Reverberant Radio Channels Using Propagation Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels; Steinböck, Gerhard; Fleury, Bernard Henri


    decaying power. We model the channel as a propagation graph in which vertices represent transmitters, receivers, and scatterers, while edges represent propagation conditions between vertices. The recursive structure of the graph accounts for the exponential power decay and the avalanche effect. We derive...... that the graph's recursive structure yields both an exponential power decay and an avalanche effect....

  4. Computing Diameter in the Streaming and Sliding-Window Models (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Kannan, Sampath; Zhang, Jian


    We investigate the diameter problem in the streaming and sliding-window models. We show that, for a stream of n points or a sliding window of size n, any exact algorithm for diameter requires Omega(n) bits of space...

  5. Research Paper. Nutrient uptake and mineralization during leaf decay in streams-a model simulation. (United States)

    J.R. Webster; J.D. Newbold; S.A. Thomas; H.M. Valett; P.J. Mulholland


    We developed a stoichiometrically explicit computer model to examine how heterotrophic uptake of nutrients and microbial mineralization occurring during the decay of leaves in streams may be important in modifying nutrient concentrations. The simulations showed that microbial uptake can substantially decrease stream nutrient concentrations during the initial phases of...

  6. Modeling a Change in Flowrate through Detention or Additional Pavement on the Receiving Stream : Final Report (United States)


    The addition or removal of flow from a stream affects the water surface downstream and possibly upstream. The extent of such effects is generally determined by modeling the receiving stream. Guidance that concisely describes how far up/downstream a h...

  7. Spatial Statistical Network Models for Stream and River Temperatures in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (United States)

    Numerous metrics have been proposed to describe stream/river thermal regimes, and researchers are still struggling with the need to describe thermal regimes in a parsimonious fashion. Regional temperature models are needed for characterizing and mapping current stream thermal re...

  8. A distributed stream temperature model using high resolution temperature observations (vol 11, pg 1469, 2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westhoff, M. C.; Savenije, H.G.; Luxemburg, W. M. J.; Stelling, G.S.; van de Giesen, N.C.; Selker, J. S.; Pfister, L.; Uhlenbrook, S.


    Distributed temperature data are used as input and as calibration data for an energy based temperature model of a first order stream in Luxembourg. A DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) system with a fiber optic cable of 1500m was used to measure stream water temperature with 1m resolution each 2

  9. Stochastic Allocation of Transmit Power for Realistic Wireless Channel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Tarhuni


    Full Text Available Control of transmitted power is crucial for the successful operation of multi-user wireless channels communications. There are practical situations in which the transmitted power cannot be adjusted by feedback information; hence, only forward transmit power allocation can be applied, especially in situations where a feedback channel is not available in a wireless network or when wireless nodes are only transmit types. Conventionally, transmitted power can be fixed. Higher gain may be observed if the sensors’ transmitted power is randomized. In this work, random power allocation for a Nakagami-m distributed wireless channel model was investigated, and a number of random distributions were evaluated theoretically and tested by simulations. The outage probability was evaluated theoretically and validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Measurement and Modeling of Narrowband Channels for Ultrasonic Underwater Communications (United States)

    Cañete, Francisco J.; López-Fernández, Jesús; García-Corrales, Celia; Sánchez, Antonio; Robles, Encarnación; Rodrigo, Francisco J.; Paris, José F.


    Underwater acoustic sensor networks are a promising technology that allow real-time data collection in seas and oceans for a wide variety of applications. Smaller size and weight sensors can be achieved with working frequencies shifted from audio to the ultrasonic band. At these frequencies, the fading phenomena has a significant presence in the channel behavior, and the design of a reliable communication link between the network sensors will require a precise characterization of it. Fading in underwater channels has been previously measured and modeled in the audio band. However, there have been few attempts to study it at ultrasonic frequencies. In this paper, a campaign of measurements of ultrasonic underwater acoustic channels in Mediterranean shallow waters conducted by the authors is presented. These measurements are used to determine the parameters of the so-called κ-μ shadowed distribution, a fading model with a direct connection to the underlying physical mechanisms. The model is then used to evaluate the capacity of the measured channels with a closed-form expression. PMID:26907281

  11. Measurement and Modeling of Narrowband Channels for Ultrasonic Underwater Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cañete


    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks are a promising technology that allow real-time data collection in seas and oceans for a wide variety of applications. Smaller size and weight sensors can be achieved with working frequencies shifted from audio to the ultrasonic band. At these frequencies, the fading phenomena has a significant presence in the channel behavior, and the design of a reliable communication link between the network sensors will require a precise characterization of it. Fading in underwater channels has been previously measured and modeled in the audio band. However, there have been few attempts to study it at ultrasonic frequencies. In this paper, a campaign of measurements of ultrasonic underwater acoustic channels in Mediterranean shallow waters conducted by the authors is presented. These measurements are used to determine the parameters of the so-called κ-μ shadowed distribution, a fading model with a direct connection to the underlying physical mechanisms. The model is then used to evaluate the capacity of the measured channels with a closed-form expression.

  12. Information Models of Acupuncture Analgesia and Meridian Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hua Zou


    Full Text Available Acupuncture and meridian channels have been major components of Chinese and Eastern Asian medicine—especially for analgesia—for over 2000 years. In recent decades, electroacupuncture (EA analgesia has been applied clinically and experimentally. However, there were controversial results between different treatment frequencies, or between the active and the placebo treatments; and the mechanisms of the treatments and the related meridian channels are still unknown. In this study, we propose a new term of infophysics therapy and develop information models of acupuncture (or EA analgesia and meridian channels, to understand the mechanisms and to explain the controversial results, based on Western theories of information, trigonometry and Fourier series, and physics, as well as published biomedical data. We are trying to build a bridge between Chinese medicine and Western medicine by investigating the Eastern acupuncture analgesia and meridian channels with Western sciences; we model the meridians as a physiological system that is mostly constructed with interstices in or between other physiological systems; we consider frequencies, amplitudes and wave numbers of electric field intensity (EFI as information data. Our modeling results demonstrate that information regulated with acupuncture (or EA is different from pain information, we provide answers to explain the controversial published results, and suggest that mechanisms of acupuncture (or EA analgesia could be mostly involved in information regulation of frequencies and amplitudes of EFI as well as neuronal transmitters such as endorphins.

  13. Application of two-stream model to solar radiation of rice canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakata, T.


    The amount of solar radiation absorbed by a crop canopy is correlated with crop production, and thus it is necessary to estimate both transmission and reflection around the canopy for crop growth models. The 'forward and backward streams' representation of radiation has been refined to account for both transmission and reflection in the crop canopy. However, this model has not been applied to a rice canopy through the growing period. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the two-stream model is applicable to the rice canopy, and to investigate the parameters of the model. The values for both transmittance below the rice canopy and reflectance above it that were derived from the two-stream model represent the observed values throughout the growing period. The inclination factor of leaves (F), which is used in the two-stream model, was almost equivalent to the extinction coefficient of transmittance in the case of the rice canopy

  14. A sedimentary model for early Palaeozoic fluvial fans, Alderney Sandstone Formation (Channel Islands, UK) (United States)

    Ielpi, Alessandro; Ghinassi, Massimiliano


    Fluvial fans in the rock record are inferred based on critical criteria such as: downstream grain-size fining; evidence for drainage fractionation along bifurcating channels; increasing fluvial-aeolian interaction in the basinward direction; and radial palaeoflow dispersion. Since pre-vegetation fluvial rocks often lack heterolithic alluvium and channelisation at the outcrop scale, the recognition of pre-Silurian fluvial fans has, so far, not been straightforward. This research proposes a sedimentary model for the Alderney Sandstone Formation of Channel Islands (UK), so far considered as a fine record of early Palaeozoic axial-fluvial sedimentation. Here, outcrop-based and remote-sensing analysis of the formation's type-section reveal the interaction of fluvial and aeolian processes, expressed by the alternation of: compound fluvial bars enclosing macroform surfaces, related to phases of perennial discharge; fluvial sandsheets containing antidunal forms and soft-sediment deformations, related to seasonal (i.e. flashy) discharge; and aeolian bedforms overlying thin stream-flow deposits. An up-section increase in aeolian deposits is accompanied by the shrinking of fluvial bars and minor-channel cuts, suggesting that drainage was fractioned along smaller channels terminating into marginal aeolian environments. Together with a propensity towards more dispersed values of fluvial cross-set thickness up-section (again due to discharge fractionation along intermittently active channels), these features depict an aeolian-influenced fluvial fan. This work discusses a set of criteria for the identification of fluvial fans in pre-vegetation environments. In doing so, it also explores possible parallels to modern environments, and underscores the potential of integrated outcrop and remotely sensed observations on ancient fluvial rocks and modern sedimentary realms.

  15. Simple Scaling of Mulit-Stream Jet Plumes for Aeroacoustic Modeling (United States)

    Bridges, James


    When creating simplified, semi-empirical models for the noise of simple single-stream jets near surfaces it has proven useful to be able to generalize the geometry of the jet plume. Having a model that collapses the mean and turbulent velocity fields for a range of flows allows the problem to become one of relating the normalized jet field and the surface. However, most jet flows of practical interest involve jets of two or more coannular flows for which standard models for the plume geometry do not exist. The present paper describes one attempt to relate the mean and turbulent velocity fields of multi-stream jets to that of an equivalent single-stream jet. The normalization of single-stream jets is briefly reviewed, from the functional form of the flow model to the results of the modeling. Next, PIV data from a number of multi-stream jets is analyzed in a similar fashion. The results of several single-stream approximations of the multi-stream jet plume are demonstrated, with a best approximation determined and the shortcomings of the model highlighted.

  16. Simple Scaling of Multi-Stream Jet Plumes for Aeroacoustic Modeling (United States)

    Bridges, James


    When creating simplified, semi-empirical models for the noise of simple single-stream jets near surfaces it has proven useful to be able to generalize the geometry of the jet plume. Having a model that collapses the mean and turbulent velocity fields for a range of flows allows the problem to become one of relating the normalized jet field and the surface. However, most jet flows of practical interest involve jets of two or more co-annular flows for which standard models for the plume geometry do not exist. The present paper describes one attempt to relate the mean and turbulent velocity fields of multi-stream jets to that of an equivalent single-stream jet. The normalization of single-stream jets is briefly reviewed, from the functional form of the flow model to the results of the modeling. Next, PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) data from a number of multi-stream jets is analyzed in a similar fashion. The results of several single-stream approximations of the multi-stream jet plume are demonstrated, with a 'best' approximation determined and the shortcomings of the model highlighted.

  17. Molecular model of the action potential sodium channel.


    Guy, H R; Seetharamulu, P


    Secondary and tertiary structural models of sodium channel transmembrane segments were developed from its recently determined primary sequence in Electrophorus electricus. The model has four homologous domains, and each domain has eight homologous transmembrane segments, S1 through S8. Each domain contains three relatively apolar segments (S1, S2 and S3) and two very apolar segments (S5 and S8), all postulated to be transmembrane alpha-helices. S4 segments have positively charged residues, ma...

  18. Habitat modeling in high-gradient streams: the mesoscale approach and application. (United States)

    Vezza, Paolo; Parasiewicz, Piotr; Spairani, Michele; Comoglio, Claudio


    This study aimed to set out a new methodology for habitat modeling in high-gradient streams. The methodology is based on the mesoscale approach of the MesoHABSIM simulation system and can support the definition and assessment of environmental flow and habitat restoration measures. Data from 40 study sites located within the mountainous areas of the Valle d'Aosta, Piemonte and Liguria regions (Northwest Italy) were used in the analysis. To adapt MesoHABSIM to high-gradient streams, we first modified the data collection strategy to address the challenging conditions of surveys by using GIS and mobile mapping techniques. Secondly, we built habitat suitability models at a regional scale to enable their transferability among different streams with different morphologies. Thirdly, due to the absence of stream gauges in headwaters, we proposed a possible way to simulate flow time series and, therefore, generate habitat time series. The resulting method was evaluated in terms of time expenditure for field data collection and habitat-modeling potentials, and it represents a specific improvement of the MesoHABSIM system for habitat modeling in high-gradient streams, where other commonly used methodologies can be unsuitable. Through its application at several study sites, the proposed methodology adapted well to high-gradient streams and allowed the: (1) definition of fish habitat requirements for many streams simultaneously, (2) modeling of habitat variation over a range of discharges, and (3) determination of environmental standards for mountainous watercourses.

  19. Evaluation of neutron streaming in fast breeder reactor fuel assembly by double heterogeneous modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, Hironobu; Takeda, Toshikazu


    Neutron streaming in a fast breeder reactor fuel assembly caused by the double heterogeneity structure is estimated by double heterogeneous modelling. The conventional pin cell model, a two-region subassembly model and the exact pin cluster model are used to take into account the streaming effect caused by the pin cell structure and the surrounding wrapper tube structure. The heterogeneity of wrapper tube and its surrounding sodium is explicitly considered. The streaming effect is evaluated based on Benoist's diffusion coefficient. The total streaming effect caused by the double heterogeneity structure of a fuel subassembly is found to be -0.2 % dk/kk' for k eff , which is almost twice that obtained from the conventional pin cell model of -0.1 % dk/kk'. (author)

  20. Simple non-Markovian microscopic models for the depolarizing channel of a single qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Romero, K M; Lo Franco, R


    The archetypal one-qubit noisy channels - depolarizing, phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels - describe both Markovian and non-Markovian evolution. Simple microscopic models for the depolarizing channel, both classical and quantum, are considered. Microscopic models that describe phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels are briefly reviewed.

  1. An Adaptive Channel Model for VBLAST in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan M. T. Abdalla


    Full Text Available The wireless transmission environment in vehicular ad hoc systems varies from line of sight with few surroundings to rich Rayleigh fading. An efficient communication system must adapt itself to these diverse conditions. Multiple antenna systems are known to provide superior performance compared to single antenna systems in terms of capacity and reliability. The correlation between the antennas has a great effect on the performance of MIMO systems. In this paper we introduce a novel adaptive channel model for MIMO-VBLAST systems in vehicular ad hoc networks. Using the proposed model, the correlation between the antennas was investigated. Although the line of sight is ideal for single antenna systems, it severely degrades the performance of VBLAST systems since it increases the correlation between the antennas. A channel update algorithm using single tap Kalman filters for VBLAST in flat fading channels has also been derived and evaluated. At 12 dB Es/N0, the new algorithm showed 50% reduction in the mean square error (MSE between the actual channel and the corresponding updated estimate compared to the MSE without update. The computational requirement of the proposed algorithm for a p×q VBLAST is 6p×q real multiplications and 4p×q real additions.

  2. Dynamic Propagation Channel Characterization and Modeling for Human Body Communication (United States)

    Nie, Zedong; Ma, Jingjing; Li, Zhicheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei


    This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = −10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of −4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks. PMID:23250278

  3. Flexoelectric effects in model and native membranes containing ion channels. (United States)

    Petrov, A G; Miller, B A; Hristova, K; Usherwood, P N


    An experimental study of flexoelectricity in model membranes containing ion pores and native membranes containing ion channels has been undertaken with the objective of determining the relationship, if any, between flexoelectricity and ion transport. Model membrane patches containing ion pores induced by a blue-green algal toxin, microcystin-LR, and locust muscle membrane patches containing potassium channels were studied using patch-clamp techniques. A correspondence was established between the presence of open channels and pores and the amplitude of the 1st harmonic of the total membrane current when the membranes or patches were subjected to pressure oscillations. The 2nd harmonic of the membrane current provided a measure of the amplitude of a membrane curvature induced by pressure, thus making it possible to determine the membrane flexoelectric coefficient. This study shows that flexoelectricity could be an effective driving force for ion transport through membrane pores and channels, thus further highlighting the possible biological significance of this mechano-electric phenomenon.

  4. Dynamic Propagation Channel Characterization and Modeling for Human Body Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang


    Full Text Available This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC. In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000 were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = −10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of −4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks.

  5. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai


    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  6. Mathematical model of two-phase flow in accelerator channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Ф. Нікулін


    Full Text Available  The problem of  two-phase flow composed of energy-carrier phase (Newtonian liquid and solid fine-dispersed phase (particles in counter jet mill accelerator channel is considered. The mathematical model bases goes on the supposition that the phases interact with each other like independent substances by means of aerodynamics’ forces in conditions of adiabatic flow. The mathematical model in the form of system of differential equations of order 11 is represented. Derivations of equations by base physical principles for cross-section-averaged quantity are produced. The mathematical model can be used for estimation of any kinematic and thermodynamic flow characteristics for purposely parameters optimization problem solving and transfer functions determination, that take place in  counter jet mill accelerator channel design.

  7. Truck Route Choice Modeling using Large Streams of GPS Data (United States)


    The primary goal of this research was to use large streams of truck-GPS data to analyze travel routes (or paths) chosen by freight trucks to travel between different origin and destination (OD) location pairs in metropolitan regions of Florida. Two s...

  8. Modelling of stream flow in snow dominated Budhigandaki ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    at the downstream part of the basin. The catchment area experiences short winter monsoon between. Nov-Feb. Relative humidity reaches maximum during the monsoon season. The Himalayan zone contributes to the stream flow in the dry season by snow and ice melt. The Central Mahabharata zone, which account for the ...

  9. A Wideband Channel Model for Intravehicular Nomadic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bellens


    Full Text Available The increase in electronic entertainment equipments within vehicles has rendered the idea of replacing the wired links with intra-vehicle personal area networks. Ultra-wideband (UWB seems an appropriate candidate technology to meet the required data rates for interconnecting such devices. In particular, the multiband OFDM (MB-OFDM is able to provide very high transfer rates (up to 480 MBps over relatively short distances and low transmit power. In order to evaluate the performances of UWB systems within vehicles, a reliable channel model is needed. In this paper, a nomadic system where a base station placed in the center of the dashboard wants to communicate with fixed devices placed at the rear seat is investigated. A single-input single-output (SISO channel model for intra-vehicular communication (IVC systems is proposed, based on reverberation chamber theory. The model is based on measurements conducted in real traffic conditions, with a varying number of passengers in the car. Temporal variations of the wireless channels are also characterized and parametrized. The proposed model is validated by comparing model-independent statistics with the measurements.

  10. An empirical-conceptual gully evolution model for channelled sea cliffs


    Leyland, Julian; Darby, Stephen E.


    Incised coastal channels are a specific form of incised channel that are found in locations where stream channels flowing to cliffed coasts have the excess energy required to cut down through the cliff to reach the outlet water body. The southern coast of the Isle of Wight, southern England, comprises soft cliffs that vary in height between 15 and 100 m and which are retreating at rates ? 1.5 m a? 1, due to a combination of wave erosion and landslides. In several locations, river channels hav...

  11. Spatial-Temporal Correlation Properties of the 3GPP Spatial Channel Model and the Kronecker MIMO Channel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xiang Wang


    Full Text Available The performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO systems is greatly influenced by the spatial-temporal correlation properties of the underlying MIMO channels. This paper investigates the spatial-temporal correlation characteristics of the spatial channel model (SCM in the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP and the Kronecker-based stochastic model (KBSM at three levels, namely, the cluster level, link level, and system level. The KBSM has both the spatial separability and spatial-temporal separability at all the three levels. The spatial-temporal separability is observed for the SCM only at the system level, but not at the cluster and link levels. The SCM shows the spatial separability at the link and system levels, but not at the cluster level since its spatial correlation is related to the joint distribution of the angle of arrival (AoA and angle of departure (AoD. The KBSM with the Gaussian-shaped power azimuth spectrum (PAS is found to fit best the 3GPP SCM in terms of the spatial correlations. Despite its simplicity and analytical tractability, the KBSM is restricted to model only the average spatial-temporal behavior of MIMO channels. The SCM provides more insights of the variations of different MIMO channel realizations, but the implementation complexity is relatively high.

  12. A stream temperature model for the Peace-Athabasca River basin (United States)

    Morales-Marin, L. A.; Rokaya, P.; Wheater, H. S.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.


    Water temperature plays a fundamental role in water ecosystem functioning. Because it regulates flow energy and metabolic rates in organism productivity over a broad spectrum of space and time scales, water temperature constitutes an important indicator of aquatic ecosystems health. In cold region basins, stream water temperature modelling is also fundamental to predict ice freeze-up and break-up events in order to improve flood management. Multiple model approaches such as linear and multivariable regression methods, neural network and thermal energy budged models have been developed and implemented to simulate stream water temperature. Most of these models have been applied to specific stream reaches and trained using observed data, but very little has been done to simulate water temperature in large catchment river networks. We present the coupling of RBM model, a semi-Lagrangian water temperature model for advection-dominated river system, and MESH, a semi-distributed hydrological model, to simulate stream water temperature in river catchments. The coupled models are implemented in the Peace-Athabasca River basin in order to analyze the variation in stream temperature regimes under changing hydrological and meteorological conditions. Uncertainty of stream temperature simulations is also assessed in order to determine the degree of reliability of the estimates.

  13. Stream profile analysis using a step backwater model for selected reaches in the Chippewa Creek basin in Medina, Wayne, and Summit Counties, Ohio (United States)

    Straub, David E.; Ebner, Andrew D.


    The USGS, in cooperation with the Chippewa Subdistrict of the Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District, performed hydrologic and hydraulic analyses for selected reaches of three streams in Medina, Wayne, Stark, and Summit Counties in northeast Ohio: Chippewa Creek, Little Chippewa Creek, and River Styx. This study was done to facilitate assessment of various alternatives for mitigating flood hazards in the Chippewa Creek basin. StreamStats regional regression equations were used to estimate instantaneous peak discharges approximately corresponding to bankfull flows. Explanatory variables used in the regression equations were drainage area, main-channel slope, and storage area. Hydraulic models were developed to determine water-surface profiles along the three stream reaches studied for the bankfull discharges established in the hydrologic analyses. The HEC-RAS step-backwater hydraulic analysis model was used to determine water-surface profiles for the three streams. Starting water-surface elevations for all streams were established using normal depth computations in the HEC-RAS models. Cross-sectional elevation data, hydraulic-structure geometries, and roughness coefficients were collected in the field and (along with peak-discharge estimates) used as input for the models. Reach-averaged reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.11 to 1.29 feet over the four roughness coefficient reduction scenarios.

  14. Modelling of stormwater infiltration for stream restoration. Beder (Aarhus) case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Bockhorn, Britta; Klint, K. E.

    Stormwater management using Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging as an alternative to traditional structural engineering solutions. Here stormwater infiltration is analyzed as a means for increasing the flow in a stream with unacceptably low flows during the dry season. The analyses were...... to assess the impact of stormwater runoff infiltration on (1) the water balance; (2) stream flow of the local stream Hovedgrøften; and (3) the risk of polluting the primary aquifer. The hydrogeological model was developed in a deterministic groundwater model (MIKE SHE) which was coupled dynamically...

  15. Efficient Delivery of Scalable Video Using a Streaming Class Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J. Quinlan


    Full Text Available When we couple the rise in video streaming with the growing number of portable devices (smart phones, tablets, laptops, we see an ever-increasing demand for high-definition video online while on the move. Wireless networks are inherently characterised by restricted shared bandwidth and relatively high error loss rates, thus presenting a challenge for the efficient delivery of high quality video. Additionally, mobile devices can support/demand a range of video resolutions and qualities. This demand for mobile streaming highlights the need for adaptive video streaming schemes that can adjust to available bandwidth and heterogeneity, and can provide a graceful changes in video quality, all while respecting viewing satisfaction. In this context, the use of well-known scalable/layered media streaming techniques, commonly known as scalable video coding (SVC, is an attractive solution. SVC encodes a number of video quality levels within a single media stream. This has been shown to be an especially effective and efficient solution, but it fares badly in the presence of datagram losses. While multiple description coding (MDC can reduce the effects of packet loss on scalable video delivery, the increased delivery cost is counterproductive for constrained networks. This situation is accentuated in cases where only the lower quality level is required. In this paper, we assess these issues and propose a new approach called Streaming Classes (SC through which we can define a key set of quality levels, each of which can be delivered in a self-contained manner. This facilitates efficient delivery, yielding reduced transmission byte-cost for devices requiring lower quality, relative to MDC and Adaptive Layer Distribution (ALD (42% and 76% respective reduction for layer 2, while also maintaining high levels of consistent quality. We also illustrate how selective packetisation technique can further reduce the effects of packet loss on viewable quality by

  16. Two-channel model for spin-relaxation noise (United States)

    Omar, S.; van Wees, B. J.; Vera-Marun, I. J.


    We develop a two-channel resistor model for simulating spin transport with general applicability. Using this model, for the case of graphene as a prototypical material, we calculate the spin signal consistent with experimental values. Using the same model we also simulate the charge and spin-dependent 1 /f noise, both in the local and nonlocal four-probe measurement schemes, and identify the noise from the spin-relaxation resistances as the major source of spin-dependent 1 /f noise.

  17. Recurrent and Dynamic Models for Predicting Streaming Video Quality of Experience. (United States)

    Bampis, Christos G; Li, Zhi; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Bovik, Alan C


    Streaming video services represent a very large fraction of global bandwidth consumption. Due to the exploding demands of mobile video streaming services, coupled with limited bandwidth availability, video streams are often transmitted through unreliable, low-bandwidth networks. This unavoidably leads to two types of major streaming-related impairments: compression artifacts and/or rebuffering events. In streaming video applications, the end-user is a human observer; hence being able to predict the subjective Quality of Experience (QoE) associated with streamed videos could lead to the creation of perceptually optimized resource allocation strategies driving higher quality video streaming services. We propose a variety of recurrent dynamic neural networks that conduct continuous-time subjective QoE prediction. By formulating the problem as one of time-series forecasting, we train a variety of recurrent neural networks and non-linear autoregressive models to predict QoE using several recently developed subjective QoE databases. These models combine multiple, diverse neural network inputs, such as predicted video quality scores, rebuffering measurements, and data related to memory and its effects on human behavioral responses, using them to predict QoE on video streams impaired by both compression artifacts and rebuffering events. Instead of finding a single time-series prediction model, we propose and evaluate ways of aggregating different models into a forecasting ensemble that delivers improved results with reduced forecasting variance. We also deploy appropriate new evaluation metrics for comparing time-series predictions in streaming applications. Our experimental results demonstrate improved prediction performance that approaches human performance. An implementation of this work can be found at

  18. Evaluation of simplified stream-aquifer depletion models for water rights administration (United States)

    Sophocleous, Marios; Koussis, Antonis; Martin, J.L.; Perkins, S.P.


    We assess the predictive accuracy of Glover's (1974) stream-aquifer analytical solutions, which are commonly used in administering water rights, and evaluate the impact of the assumed idealizations on administrative and management decisions. To achieve these objectives, we evaluate the predictive capabilities of the Glover stream-aquifer depletion model against the MODFLOW numerical standard, which, unlike the analytical model, can handle increasing hydrogeologic complexity. We rank-order and quantify the relative importance of the various assumptions on which the analytical model is based, the three most important being: (1) streambed clogging as quantified by streambed-aquifer hydraulic conductivity contrast; (2) degree of stream partial penetration; and (3) aquifer heterogeneity. These three factors relate directly to the multidimensional nature of the aquifer flow conditions. From these considerations, future efforts to reduce the uncertainty in stream depletion-related administrative decisions should primarily address these three factors in characterizing the stream-aquifer process. We also investigate the impact of progressively coarser model grid size on numerically estimating stream leakage and conclude that grid size effects are relatively minor. Therefore, when modeling is required, coarser model grids could be used thus minimizing the input data requirements.

  19. Channel modeling, signal processing and coding for perpendicular magnetic recording (United States)

    Wu, Zheng

    With the increasing areal density in magnetic recording systems, perpendicular recording has replaced longitudinal recording to overcome the superparamagnetic limit. Studies on perpendicular recording channels including aspects of channel modeling, signal processing and coding techniques are presented in this dissertation. To optimize a high density perpendicular magnetic recording system, one needs to know the tradeoffs between various components of the system including the read/write transducers, the magnetic medium, and the read channel. We extend the work by Chaichanavong on the parameter optimization for systems via design curves. Different signal processing and coding techniques are studied. Information-theoretic tools are utilized to determine the acceptable region for the channel parameters when optimal detection and linear coding techniques are used. Our results show that a considerable gain can be achieved by the optimal detection and coding techniques. The read-write process in perpendicular magnetic recording channels includes a number of nonlinear effects. Nonlinear transition shift (NLTS) is one of them. The signal distortion induced by NLTS can be reduced by write precompensation during data recording. We numerically evaluate the effect of NLTS on the read-back signal and examine the effectiveness of several write precompensation schemes in combating NLTS in a channel characterized by both transition jitter noise and additive white Gaussian electronics noise. We also present an analytical method to estimate the bit-error-rate and use it to help determine the optimal write precompensation values in multi-level precompensation schemes. We propose a mean-adjusted pattern-dependent noise predictive (PDNP) detection algorithm for use on the channel with NLTS. We show that this detector can offer significant improvements in bit-error-rate (BER) compared to conventional Viterbi and PDNP detectors. Moreover, the system performance can be further improved by

  20. Flow-Through Stream Modeling with MODFLOW and MT3D: Certainties and Limitations. (United States)

    Ben Simon, Rose; Bernard, Stéphane; Meurville, Charles; Rebour, Vincent


    This paper aims to assess MODFLOW and MT3D capabilities for simulating the spread of contaminants from a river exhibiting an unusual relationship with an alluvial aquifer, with the groundwater head higher than the river head on one side and lower on the other (flow-through stream). A series of simulation tests is conducted using a simple hypothetical model so as to characterize and quantify these limitations. Simulation results show that the expected contaminant spread could be achieved with a specific configuration composed of two sets of parameters: (1) modeled object parameters (hydraulic groundwater gradient, hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer and streambed), and (2) modeling parameters (vertical discretization of aquifer, horizontal refinement of stream modeled with River [RIV] package). The influence of these various parameters on simulation results is investigated, and potential complications and errors are identified. Contaminant spread from stream to aquifer is not always reproduced by MT3D due to the RIV package's inability to simulate lateral exchange fluxes between stream and aquifer. This paper identifies the need for a MODFLOW streamflow package allowing lateral stream-aquifer interactions and streamflow routine calculations. Such developments could be of particular interest for modeling contaminated flow-through streams. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  1. A model for evaluating stream temperature response to climate change in Wisconsin (United States)

    Stewart, Jana S.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Kammel, Leah E.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.


    Expected climatic changes in air temperature and precipitation patterns across the State of Wisconsin may alter future stream temperature and flow regimes. As a consequence of flow and temperature changes, the composition and distribution of fish species assemblages are expected to change. In an effort to gain a better understanding of how climatic changes may affect stream temperature, an approach was developed to predict and project daily summertime stream temperature under current and future climate conditions for 94,341 stream kilometers across Wisconsin. The approach uses a combination of static landscape characteristics and dynamic time-series climatic variables as input for an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model integrated with a Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) Model. Future climate scenarios are based on output from downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs). The SWB model provided a means to estimate the temporal variability in groundwater recharge and provided a mechanism to evaluate the effect of changing air temperature and precipitation on groundwater recharge and soil moisture. The Integrated Soil-Water-Balance and Artificial Neural Network version 1 (SWB-ANNv1) Model was used to simulate daily summertime stream temperature under current (1990–2008) climate and explained 76 percent of the variation in the daily mean based on validation at 67 independent sites. Results were summarized as July mean water temperature, and individual stream segments were classified by thermal class (cold, cold transition, warm transition, and warm) for comparison of current (1990–2008) with future climate conditions.

  2. Investigating the effect of surface water - groundwater interactions on stream temperature using Distributed temperature sensing and instream temperature model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikeyan, Matheswaran; Blemmer, Morten; Mortensen, Julie Flor


    Surface water–groundwater interactions at the stream interface influences, and at times controls the stream temperature, a critical water property driving biogeochemical processes. This study investigates the effects of these interactions on temperature of Stream Elverdamsåen in Denmark using...... the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system and instream temperature modelling. Locations of surface water–groundwater interactions were identified from the temperature data collected over a 2-km stream reach using a DTS system with 1-m spatial and 5-min temporal resolution. The stream under consideration...... surface water–groundwater interactions on heterogeneous behaviour of stream temperature....

  3. Comparison of Three Model Concepts for Streaming Potential in Unsaturated Porous Media (United States)

    Huisman, J. A.; Satenahalli, P.; Zimmermann, E.; Vereecken, H.


    Streaming potential is the electric potential generated by fluid flow in a charged porous medium. Although streaming potential in saturated conditions is well understood, there still is considerable debate about the adequate modelling of streaming potential signals in unsaturated soil because different concepts are available to estimate the effective excess charge in unsaturated conditions. In particular, some studies have relied on the volumetric excess charge, whereas others proposed to use the flux-averaged excess charge derived from the water retention or relative permeability function. The aim of this study is to compare measured and modelled streaming potential signals for two different flow experiments with sand. The first experiment is a primary gravity drainage of a long column equipped with non-polarizing electrodes and tensiometers, as presented in several previous studies. Expected differences between the three concepts for the effective excess charge are only moderate for this set-up. The second experiment is a primary drainage of a short soil column equipped with non-polarizing electrodes and tensiometers using applied pressure, where differences between the three concepts are expected to be larger. A comparison of the experimental results with a coupled model of streaming potential for 1D flow problems will provide insights in the ability of the three model concepts for effective excess charge to describe observed streaming potentials.

  4. Entropy-Based Modeling of Velocity Lag in Sediment-Laden Open Channel Turbulent Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manotosh Kumbhakar


    Full Text Available In the last few decades, a wide variety of instruments with laser-based techniques have been developed that enable experimentally measuring particle velocity and fluid velocity separately in particle-laden flow. Experiments have revealed that stream-wise particle velocity is different from fluid velocity, and this velocity difference is commonly known as “velocity lag” in the literature. A number of experimental, as well as theoretical investigations have been carried out to formulate deterministic mathematical models of velocity lag, based on several turbulent features. However, a probabilistic study of velocity lag does not seem to have been reported, to the best of our knowledge. The present study therefore focuses on the modeling of velocity lag in open channel turbulent flow laden with sediment using the entropy theory along with a hypothesis on the cumulative distribution function. This function contains a parameter η, which is shown to be a function of specific gravity, particle diameter and shear velocity. The velocity lag model is tested using a wide range of twenty-two experimental runs collected from the literature and is also compared with other models of velocity lag. Then, an error analysis is performed to further evaluate the prediction accuracy of the proposed model, especially in comparison to other models. The model is also able to explain the physical characteristics of velocity lag caused by the interaction between the particles and the fluid.

  5. Determining hyporheic storage using the rSAS model in urban restored streams. (United States)

    Stoll, E.; Putnam, S. M.; Cosans, C.; Harman, C. J.


    One aim of stream restoration is to increase the connectivity of the stream with the hyporheic zone, which is important for processes like denitrification. This study analyzed transects of different restoration techniques in an urban stream, Stony Run in Baltimore, Maryland. The extent of the hyporheic zone was determined using a combination of salt slug injection tracer studies to determine the breakthrough curves and the rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) model. Previous studies using salt tracer injections have often focused on the shape of the breakthrough curve and the transit time distributions of streams to infer indicies correlated with hyporheic zone storage. This study uses the rSAS model to determine the volume of storage that must be turning over to produce the breakthrough curve. This study looked at transects of two different restoration techniques, one with floodplain rehabilitation and one without. Both transects had cross vanes and pool and riffle systems and only differed in the steepness of the banks surrounding the stream. The utility and accuracy of rSAS method was found to be heavily dependent on accurate flow rates. To avoid potential skew in the results, normalized, relatively flow rate-independent metric of storage were compared among transects to reduce error resulting from the flow rate. The results suggested that stream water was retained for longer in a larger storage volume in the transect that did not have floodplain rehabilitation. When compared to the storage of a natural stream with similar geomorphologic characteristics, the restored transect without floodplain rehabilitation had a larger storage volume than the natural stream. The restored transect with floodplain rehabilitation not only had a smaller storage volume than the restored section without rehabilitation, but also had a smaller storage volume than the natural stream with similar bank slopes. This suggests that the floodplain restoration does not significantly contribute to

  6. Salmon carcasses increase stream productivity more than inorganic fertilizer pellets: A test on multiple trophic levels in streamside experimental channels (United States)

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.; Caouette, John P.; Mitchell, N.L.; Lessard, Joanna L.; Heintz, Ron A.; Chaloner, D.T.


    Inorganic nutrient amendments to streams are viewed as possible restoration strategies for re-establishing nutrients and stream productivity throughout the western coast of North America, where salmon runs and associated marine-derived nutrient subsidies have declined. In a mesocosm experiment, we examined the short-term (6 weeks) comparative effects of artificial nutrient pellets and salmon carcasses, alone (low and high amounts) and in combination, on stream food webs. Response variables included dissolved nutrient concentrations, biofilm ash-free dry mass (AFDM) and chlorophyll-alevels, macroinvertebrate density, growth and body condition of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and whole-body lipid content of invertebrates and juvenile coho salmon. Most of the response variables were significantly influenced by carcass treatment; the only response variable significantly influenced by fertilizer pellet treatment was soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration. Ammonium-nitrogen concentration was the only response variable affected by both (low and high) levels of carcass treatment; all others showed no significant response to the two carcass treatment levels. Significant treatment × time interactions were observed for all responses except nitrate; for most responses, significant treatment effects were detected at certain time periods and not others. For example, significantly higher SRP concentrations were recorded earlier in the experiment, whereas significant fish responses were observed later. These results provide evidence that inorganic nutrient additions do not have the same ecological effects in streams as do salmon carcasses, potentially because inorganic nutrient additions lack carbon-based biochemicals and macromolecules that are sequestered directly or indirectly by consumers. Salmon carcasses, preferably deposited naturally during spawning migrations, appear to be far superior to inorganic nutrient amendments for sustaining and restoring

  7. S-Channel Dark Matter Simplified Models and Unitarity

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, Christoph; Spannowsky, Michael

    The ultraviolet structure of $s$-channel mediator dark matter simplified models at hadron colliders is considered. In terms of commonly studied $s$-channel mediator simplified models it is argued that at arbitrarily high energies the perturbative description of dark matter production in high energy scattering at hadron colliders will break down in a number of cases. This is analogous to the well documented breakdown of an EFT description of dark matter collider production. With this in mind, to diagnose whether or not the use of simplified models at the LHC is valid, perturbative unitarity of the scattering amplitude in the processes relevant to LHC dark matter searches is studied. The results are as one would expect: at the LHC and future proton colliders the simplified model descriptions of dark matter production are in general valid. As a result of the general discussion, a simple new class of previously unconsidered `Fermiophobic Scalar' simplified models is proposed, in which a scalar mediator couples to...

  8. Modeling Flow Pattern and Evolution of Meandering Channels with a Nonlinear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Gu


    Full Text Available Meander dynamics has been the focus of river engineering for decades; however, it remains a challenge for researchers to precisely replicate natural evolution processes of meandering channels with numerical models due to the high nonlinearity of the governing equations. The present study puts forward a nonlinear model to simulate the flow pattern and evolution of meandering channels. The proposed meander model adopts the nonlinear hydrodynamic submodel developed by Blanckaert and de Vriend, which accounts for the nonlinear interactions between secondary flow and main flow and therefore has no curvature restriction. With the computational flow field, the evolution process of the channel centerline is simulated using the Bank Erosion and Retreat Model (BERM developed by Chen and Duan. Verification against two laboratory flume experiments indicates the proposed meander model yields satisfactory agreement with the measured data. For comparison, the same experimental cases are also simulated with the linear version of the hydrodynamic submodel. Calculated results show that the flow pattern and meander evolution process predicted by the nonlinear and the linear models are similar for mildly curved channels, whereas they exhibit different characteristics when channel sinuosity becomes relatively high. It is indicated that the nonlinear interactions between main flow and secondary flow prevent the growth of the secondary flow and induce a more uniform transverse velocity profile in high-sinuosity channels, which slows down the evolution process of meandering channels.

  9. Microbial and Organic Fine Particle Transport Dynamics in Streams - a Combined Experimental and Stochastic Modeling Approach (United States)

    Drummond, Jen; Davies-Colley, Rob; Stott, Rebecca; Sukias, James; Nagels, John; Sharp, Alice; Packman, Aaron


    Transport dynamics of microbial cells and organic fine particles are important to stream ecology and biogeochemistry. Cells and particles continuously deposit and resuspend during downstream transport owing to a variety of processes including gravitational settling, interactions with in-stream structures or biofilms at the sediment-water interface, and hyporheic exchange and filtration within underlying sediments. Deposited cells and particles are also resuspended following increases in streamflow. Fine particle retention influences biogeochemical processing of substrates and nutrients (C, N, P), while remobilization of pathogenic microbes during flood events presents a hazard to downstream uses such as water supplies and recreation. We are conducting studies to gain insights into the dynamics of fine particles and microbes in streams, with a campaign of experiments and modeling. The results improve understanding of fine sediment transport, carbon cycling, nutrient spiraling, and microbial hazards in streams. We developed a stochastic model to describe the transport and retention of fine particles and microbes in rivers that accounts for hyporheic exchange and transport through porewaters, reversible filtration within the streambed, and microbial inactivation in the water column and subsurface. This model framework is an advance over previous work in that it incorporates detailed transport and retention processes that are amenable to measurement. Solute, particle, and microbial transport were observed both locally within sediment and at the whole-stream scale. A multi-tracer whole-stream injection experiment compared the transport and retention of a conservative solute, fluorescent fine particles, and the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli. Retention occurred within both the underlying sediment bed and stands of submerged macrophytes. The results demonstrate that the combination of local measurements, whole-stream tracer experiments, and advanced modeling

  10. Longitudinal profile of channels cut by springs


    Devauchelle , O.; PETROFF , A. P.; LOBKOVSKY , A. E.; Rothman , D. H.


    International audience; We propose a simple theory for the longitudinal profile of channels incised by groundwater flow. The aquifer surrounding the stream is represented in two dimensions through Darcy's law and the Dupuit approximation. The model is based on the assumption that, everywhere in the stream, the shear stress exerted on the sediment by the flow is close to the minimal intensity required to displace a sand grain. Because of the coupling of the stream discharge with the water tabl...

  11. Modeling nutrient in-stream processes at the watershed scale using Nutrient Spiralling metrics (United States)

    Marcé, R.; Armengol, J.


    One of the fundamental problems of using large-scale biogeochemical models is the uncertainty involved in aggregating the components of fine-scale deterministic models in watershed applications, and in extrapolating the results of field-scale measurements to larger spatial scales. Although spatial or temporal lumping may reduce the problem, information obtained during fine-scale research may not apply to lumped categories. Thus, the use of knowledge gained through fine-scale studies to predict coarse-scale phenomena is not straightforward. In this study, we used the nutrient uptake metrics defined in the Nutrient Spiralling concept to formulate the equations governing total phosphorus in-stream fate in a deterministic, watershed-scale biogeochemical model. Once the model was calibrated, fitted phosphorus retention metrics where put in context of global patterns of phosphorus retention variability. For this purpose, we calculated power regressions between phosphorus retention metrics, streamflow, and phosphorus concentration in water using published data from 66 streams worldwide, including both pristine and nutrient enriched streams. Performance of the calibrated model confirmed that the Nutrient Spiralling formulation is a convenient simplification of the biogeochemical transformations involved in total phosphorus in-stream fate. Thus, this approach may be helpful even for customary deterministic applications working at short time steps. The calibrated phosphorus retention metrics were comparable to field estimates from the study watershed, and showed high coherence with global patterns of retention metrics from streams of the world. In this sense, the fitted phosphorus retention metrics were similar to field values measured in other nutrient enriched streams. Analysis of the bibliographical data supports the view that nutrient enriched streams have lower phosphorus retention efficiency than pristine streams, and that this efficiency loss is maintained in a wide

  12. Modeling nutrient in-stream processes at the watershed scale using Nutrient Spiralling metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Armengol


    Full Text Available One of the fundamental problems of using large-scale biogeochemical models is the uncertainty involved in aggregating the components of fine-scale deterministic models in watershed applications, and in extrapolating the results of field-scale measurements to larger spatial scales. Although spatial or temporal lumping may reduce the problem, information obtained during fine-scale research may not apply to lumped categories. Thus, the use of knowledge gained through fine-scale studies to predict coarse-scale phenomena is not straightforward. In this study, we used the nutrient uptake metrics defined in the Nutrient Spiralling concept to formulate the equations governing total phosphorus in-stream fate in a deterministic, watershed-scale biogeochemical model. Once the model was calibrated, fitted phosphorus retention metrics where put in context of global patterns of phosphorus retention variability. For this purpose, we calculated power regressions between phosphorus retention metrics, streamflow, and phosphorus concentration in water using published data from 66 streams worldwide, including both pristine and nutrient enriched streams.
    Performance of the calibrated model confirmed that the Nutrient Spiralling formulation is a convenient simplification of the biogeochemical transformations involved in total phosphorus in-stream fate. Thus, this approach may be helpful even for customary deterministic applications working at short time steps. The calibrated phosphorus retention metrics were comparable to field estimates from the study watershed, and showed high coherence with global patterns of retention metrics from streams of the world. In this sense, the fitted phosphorus retention metrics were similar to field values measured in other nutrient enriched streams. Analysis of the bibliographical data supports the view that nutrient enriched streams have lower phosphorus retention efficiency than pristine streams, and that this efficiency loss

  13. Drug perfusion enhancement in tissue model by steady streaming induced by oscillating microbubbles. (United States)

    Oh, Jin Sun; Kwon, Yong Seok; Lee, Kyung Ho; Jeong, Woowon; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan


    Drug delivery into neurological tissue is challenging because of the low tissue permeability. Ultrasound incorporating microbubbles has been applied to enhance drug delivery into these tissues, but the effects of a streaming flow by microbubble oscillation on drug perfusion have not been elucidated. In order to clarify the physical effects of steady streaming on drug delivery, an experimental study on dye perfusion into a tissue model was performed using microbubbles excited by acoustic waves. The surface concentration and penetration length of the drug were increased by 12% and 13%, respectively, with streaming flow. The mass of dye perfused into a tissue phantom for 30s was increased by about 20% in the phantom with oscillating bubbles. A computational model that considers fluid structure interaction for streaming flow fields induced by oscillating bubbles was developed, and mass transfer of the drug into the porous tissue model was analyzed. The computed flow fields agreed with the theoretical solutions, and the dye concentration distribution in the tissue agreed well with the experimental data. The computational results showed that steady streaming with a streaming velocity of a few millimeters per second promotes mass transfer into a tissue. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications. (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude


    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  15. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude


    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  16. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L.; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude


    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  17. Modelling of flow and heat transfer in PV cooling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diarra, D.C.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab; Akuffo, F.O. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Under sunny conditions, the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) modules can be 20 to 30 degrees C above the ambient air temperature. This affects the performance of PV modules, particularly in regions with hot climates. For silicon solar cells, the maximum power decreases between 0.4 and 0.5 per cent for every degree C of temperature increase above a reference value. In an effort to address this issue, this experimental and numerical study examined an active PV panel evaporative cooling scheme that is typically used in hot arid climates. The cooling system circulated cool air behind the PV modules, extracting heat and lowering solar cell temperature. A fluid dynamic and thermal model of the combined system was developed using the EES program in order to study the configuration of the cooling channel and the characteristics of the cooling flow. Heat transfer and flow characteristics in the cooling channel were then calculated along with pressure drop and fan power associated with the air-circulation. The net power output was also calculated. The objective was to design a cost efficient cooling system and to optimize its flow and pressure drop in order to maximize power output. The study demonstrated how the performance of the PV panel is influenced by the geometry of the cooling channel, the inlet air temperature and the air flow rate. 2 refs.

  18. A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the conterminous U.S. (United States)

    Schwarz, Gregory E.; Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.; Gray, John R.


    little direct evidence is available concerning the fate of sediment. The common practice of quantifying sediment fate with a sediment delivery ratio, estimated from a simple empirical relation with upstream basin area, does not articulate the relative importance of individual storage sites within a basin (Wolman, 1977). Rates of sediment deposition in reservoirs and flood plains can be determined from empirical measurements, but only a limited number of sites have been monitored, and net rates of deposition or loss from other potential sinks and sources is largely unknown (Stallard, 1998). In particular, little is known about how much sediment loss from fields ultimately makes its way to stream channels, and how much sediment is subsequently stored in or lost from the streambed (Meade and Parker, 1985, Trimble and Crosson, 2000).This paper reports on recent progress made to address empirically the question of sediment fate and transport on a national scale. The model presented here is based on the SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) methodology, first used to estimate the distribution of nutrients in streams and rivers of the United States, and subsequently shown to describe land and stream processes affecting the delivery of nutrients (Smith and others, 1997, Alexander and others, 2000, Preston and Brakebill, 1999). The model makes use of numerous spatial datasets, available at the national level, to explain long-term sediment water-quality conditions in major streams and rivers throughout the United States. Sediment sources are identified using sediment erosion rates from the National Resources Inventory (NRI) (Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000) and apportioned over the landscape according to 30- meter resolution land-use information from the National Land Cover Data set (NLCD) (U.S. Geological Survey, 2000a). More than 76,000 reservoirs from the National Inventory of Dams (NID) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1996) are

  19. Feeding modes in stream salmonid population models: Is drift feeding the whole story? (United States)

    Bret Harvey; Steve Railsback


    Drift-feeding models are essential components of broader models that link stream habitat to salmonid populations and community dynamics. But is an additional feeding mode needed for understanding and predicting salmonid population responses to streamflow and other environmental factors? We addressed this question by applying two versions of the individual-based model...

  20. Application of HEC-RAS water quality model to estimate contaminant spreading in small stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaj, Peter; Bárek, Viliam; Halajová, Anna Báreková; Halajová, Denisa


    The paper presents study of some aspects of HEC-RAS water quality model connected to simulation of contaminant transport in small stream. Authors mainly focused on one of the key tasks in process of pollutant transport modelling in streams - determination of the dispersion characteristics represented by longitudinal dispersion coefficient D. Different theoretical and empirical formulas have been proposed for D value determination and they have revealed that the coefficient is variable parameter that depends on hydraulic and morphometric characteristics of the stream reaches. Authors compare the results of several methods of coefficient D assessment, assuming experimental data obtained by tracer studies and compare them with results optimized by HEC-RAS water quality model. The analyses of tracer study and computation outputs allow us to outline the important aspects of longitudinal dispersion coefficient set up in process of the HEC-RAS model use. Key words: longitudinal dispersion coefficient, HEC-RAS, water quality modeling

  1. Pollutant Dispersion Modeling in Natural Streams Using the Transmission Line Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia Meddah


    Full Text Available Numerical modeling has become an indispensable tool for solving various physical problems. In this context, we present a model of pollutant dispersion in natural streams for the far field case where dispersion is considered longitudinal and one-dimensional in the flow direction. The Transmission Line Matrix (TLM, which has earned a reputation as powerful and efficient numerical method, is used. The presented one-dimensional TLM model requires a minimum input data and provides a significant gain in computing time. To validate our model, the results are compared with observations and experimental data from the river Severn (UK. The results show a good agreement with experimental data. The model can be used to predict the spatiotemporal evolution of a pollutant in natural streams for effective and rapid decision-making in a case of emergency, such as accidental discharges in a stream with a dynamic similar to that of the river Severn (UK.

  2. Modeling hyporheic exchange and in-stream transport with time-varying transit time distributions (United States)

    Ball, A.; Harman, C. J.; Ward, A. S.


    Transit time distributions (TTD) are used to understand in-stream transport and exchange with the hyporheic zone by quantifying the probability of water (and of dissolved material) taking time T to traverse the stream reach control volume. However, many studies using this method assume a TTD that is time-invariant, despite the time-variability of the streamflow. Others assume that storage is 'randomly sampled' or 'well-mixed' with a fixed volume or fixed exchange rate. Here we present a formulation for a time-variable TTD that relaxes both the time-invariant and 'randomly sampled' assumptions and only requires a few parameters. The framework is applied to transient storage, representing some combination of in-stream and hyporheic storage, along a stream reach. This approach does not assume that hyporheic and dead-zone storage is fixed or temporally-invariant, and allows for these stores to be sampled in more physically representative ways determined by the system itself. Instead of using probability distributions of age, probability distributions of storage (ranked by age) called Ω functions are used to describe how the off-stream storage is sampled in the outflow. Here the Ω function approach is used to describe hyporheic exchange during diurnal fluctuations in streamflow in a gaining reach of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. The breakthrough curves of salt slugs injected four hours apart over a 28-hour period show a systematic variation in transit time distribution. This new approach allows us to relate these salt slug TTDs to a corresponding time-variation in the Ω function, which can then be related to changes in in-stream storage and hyporheic zone mobilization under varying flow conditions. Thus, we can gain insights into how channel storage and hyporheic exchange are changing through time without having to specify difficult to measure or unmeasurable quantities of our system, such as total storage.

  3. A network model for characterizing brine channels in sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Lieblappen


    Full Text Available The brine pore space in sea ice can form complex connected structures whose geometry is critical in the governance of important physical transport processes between the ocean, sea ice, and surface. Recent advances in three-dimensional imaging using X-ray micro-computed tomography have enabled the visualization and quantification of the brine network morphology and variability. Using imaging of first-year sea ice samples at in situ temperatures, we create a new mathematical network model to characterize the topology and connectivity of the brine channels. This model provides a statistical framework where we can characterize the pore networks via two parameters, depth and temperature, for use in dynamical sea ice models. Our approach advances the quantification of brine connectivity in sea ice, which can help investigations of bulk physical properties, such as fluid permeability, that are key in both global and regional sea ice models.

  4. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation (United States)

    XIAO, Y.; ZHOU, G.; YANG, F. S.


    A 2D depth-averaged model for hydrodynamic sediment transport and river morphological adjustment was established. The sediment transport submodel takes into account the influence of non-uniform sediment with bed surface armoring and considers the impact of secondary flow in the direction of bed-load transport and transverse slope of the river bed. The bank erosion submodel incorporates a simple simulation method for updating bank geometry during either degradational or aggradational bed evolution. Comparison of the results obtained by the extended model with experimental and field data, and numerical predictions validate that the proposed model can simulate grain sorting in river bends and duplicate the characteristics of meandering river and its development. The results illustrate that by using its control factors, the improved numerical model can be applied to simulate channel evolution under different scenarios and improve understanding of patterning processes.

  5. Mining Frequent Item Sets in Asynchronous Transactional Data Streams over Time Sensitive Sliding Windows Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, Q.; Memon, F.; Talpur, S.; Arif, M.; Awan, M.D.


    EPs (Extracting Frequent Patterns) from the continuous transactional data streams is a challenging and critical task in some of the applications, such as web mining, data analysis and retail market, prediction and network monitoring, or analysis of stock market exchange data. Many algorithms have been developed previously for mining FPs (Frequent Patterns) from a data stream. Such algorithms are currently highly required to develop new solutions and approaches to the precise handling of data streams. New techniques, solutions, or approaches are developed to address unbounded, ordered, and continuous sequences of data and for the generation of data at a rapid speed from data streams. Hence, extracting FPs using fresh or recent data involves the high-level analysis of data streams. We have suggested an efficient technique for the window sliding model; this technique extracts new and fresh FPs from high-speed data streams. In this study, a CPILT (Compacted Tree Compact Pattern Tree) is developed to capture the latest contents in the stream and to efficiently remove outdated contents from the data stream. The main concept introduced in this work on CPILT is the dynamic restructuring of a tree, which is helpful in producing a compacted tree and the frequency descending structure of a tree on runtime. With the help of the mining technique of FP growth, a complete list of new and fresh FPs is obtained from a CPILT using an existing window. The memory usage and time complexity of the latest FPs in high-speed data streams can efficiently be determined through proper experimentation and analysis. (author)

  6. 3D Channel Model Emulation in a MIMO OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Sun, Fan


    This paper presents a new channel reconstruction technique for 3D geometry-based channels in a multi-probe based MIMO OTA setup. The proposed method provides a general channel reconstruction framework for any spherical power spectrum. The channel reconstruction is formed as convex optimization...

  7. An Adaptive Channel Estimation Algorithm Using Time-Frequency Polynomial Model for OFDM with Fading Multipath Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu KJ Ray


    Full Text Available Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM is an effective technique for the future 3G communications because of its great immunity to impulse noise and intersymbol interference. The channel estimation is a crucial aspect in the design of OFDM systems. In this work, we propose a channel estimation algorithm based on a time-frequency polynomial model of the fading multipath channels. The algorithm exploits the correlation of the channel responses in both time and frequency domains and hence reduce more noise than the methods using only time or frequency polynomial model. The estimator is also more robust compared to the existing methods based on Fourier transform. The simulation shows that it has more than improvement in terms of mean-squared estimation error under some practical channel conditions. The algorithm needs little prior knowledge about the delay and fading properties of the channel. The algorithm can be implemented recursively and can adjust itself to follow the variation of the channel statistics.

  8. Modelling the dynamics of palaeo ice-stream retreat in Marguerite Bay, Antarctica (United States)

    Jamieson, S. S.; Vieli, A.; Livingstone, S. J.; Stokes, C. R.; O'Cofaigh, C.; Hillenbrand, C.


    The aim is to use numerical models of ice stream behaviour to understand the processes that triggered and controlled the retreat of the Marguerite Bay palaeo ice stream after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This is important because at present a number of marine-based ice streams in Antarctica are rapidly losing mass. Given the consequences of this mass loss for future sea-level rise, it is crucial to improve our understanding and predictive abilities of grounding line retreat of marine-based ice streams. Because contemporary records of grounding line retreat are very short (decades) and may not be representative of behaviour on century or millennial timescales, we focus on the longer-term post-LGM retreat dynamics of the palaeo ice stream as recorded in the marine-geophysical record. Our approach combines numerical modelling with geomorphological mapping in order to understand the processes that triggered and controlled the hypothesized rapid retreat of the Marguerite Bay palaeo ice-stream. Here we describe the numerical model, modelling approach and results of sensitivity testing to understand the behaviour of the Marguerite Bay palaeo ice stream. High-resolution bathymetric data of the Marguerite Bay area has enabled detailed geomorphological mapping and provides a record of grounding line retreat. These mapping data, set into a chronological framework of deglaciation, are used to constrain a 1-dimensional flowline model of the Marguerite palaeo- ice-stream. The numerical model includes basal, lateral and longitudinal stresses and a robust treatment of grounding-line motion through the use of a constantly adjusting spatial grid. We subject the model to a range of external forcing including changes in sea-level, temperature and accumulation in order to reproduce the geomorphological evidence and therefore understand the dynamics of ice stream retreat in this area. We find that slow-downs or re-stabilisations of the grounding line occur in areas of reverse bed

  9. Development of a comprehensive watershed model applied to study stream yield under drought conditions (United States)

    Perkins, S.P.; Sophocleous, M.


    We developed a model code to simulate a watershed's hydrology and the hydraulic response of an interconnected stream-aquifer system, and applied the model code to the Lower Republican River Basin in Kansas. The model code links two well-known computer programs: MODFLOW (modular 3-D flow model), which simulates ground water flow and stream-aquifer interaction; and SWAT (soil water assessment tool), a soil water budget simulator for an agricultural watershed. SWAT represents a basin as a collection of subbasins in terms of soil, land use, and weather data, and simulates each subbasin on a daily basis to determine runoff, percolation, evaporation, irrigation, pond seepages and crop growth. Because SWAT applies a lumped hydrologic model to each subbasin, spatial heterogeneities with respect to factors such as soil type and land use are not resolved geographically, but can instead be represented statistically. For the Republican River Basin model, each combination of six soil types and three land uses, referred to as a hydrologic response unit (HRU), was simulated with a separate execution of SWAT. A spatially weighted average was then taken over these results for each hydrologic flux and time step by a separate program, SWBAVG. We wrote a package for MOD-FLOW to associate each subbasin with a subset of aquifer grid cells and stream reaches, and to distribute the hydrologic fluxes given for each subbasin by SWAT and SWBAVG over MODFLOW's stream-aquifer grid to represent tributary flow, surface and ground water diversions, ground water recharge, and evapotranspiration from ground water. The Lower Republican River Basin model was calibrated with respect to measured ground water levels, streamflow, and reported irrigation water use. The model was used to examine the relative contributions of stream yield components and the impact on stream yield and base flow of administrative measures to restrict irrigation water use during droughts. Model results indicate that tributary

  10. [Compared Markov with fractal models by using single-channel experimental and simulation data]. (United States)

    Lan, Tonghan; Wu, Hongxiu; Lin, Jiarui


    The gating mechanical kinetical of ion channels has been modeled as a Markov process. In these models it is assumed that the channel protein has a small number of discrete conformational states and kinetic rate constants connecting these states are constant, the transition rate constants among the states is independent both of time and of the previous channel activity. It is assumed in Liebovitch's fractal model that the channel exists in an infinite number of energy states, consequently, transitions from one conductance state to another would be governed by a continuum of rate constants. In this paper, a statistical comparison is presented of Markov and fractal models of ion channel gating, the analysis is based on single-channel data from ion channel voltage-dependence K+ single channel of neuron cell and simulation data from three-states Markov model.

  11. A 1024 channel analyser of model FH 465

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Cunxun


    The FH 465 is renewed type of the 1024 Channel Analyser of model FH451. Besides simple operation and fine display, featured by the primary one, the core memory is replaced by semiconductor memory; the integration has been improved; employment of 74LS low power consumpted devices widely used in the world has not only greatly decreased the cost, but also can be easily interchanged with Apple-II, Great Wall-0520-CH or IBM-PC/XT Microcomputers. The operating principle, main specifications and test results are described

  12. Optical wireless communications system and channel modelling with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassemlooy, Z


    Detailing a systems approach, Optical Wireless Communications: System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB(R), is a self-contained volume that concisely and comprehensively covers the theory and technology of optical wireless communications systems (OWC) in a way that is suitable for undergraduate and graduate-level students, as well as researchers and professional engineers. Incorporating MATLAB(R) throughout, the authors highlight past and current research activities to illustrate optical sources, transmitters, detectors, receivers, and other devices used in optical wireless communications. The

  13. Transient computation fluid dynamics modeling of a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell with serpentine channel (United States)

    Hu, Guilin; Fan, Jianren

    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has become a promising candidate for the power source of electrical vehicles because of its low pollution, low noise and especially fast startup and transient responses at low temperatures. A transient, three-dimensional, non-isothermal and single-phase mathematical model based on computation fluid dynamics has been developed to describe the transient process and the dynamic characteristics of a PEMFC with a serpentine fluid channel. The effects of water phase change and heat transfer, as well as electrochemical kinetics and multicomponent transport on the cell performance are taken into account simultaneously in this comprehensive model. The developed model was employed to simulate a single laboratory-scale PEMFC with an electrode area about 20 cm 2. The dynamic behavior of the characteristic parameters such as reactant concentration, pressure loss, temperature on the membrane surface of cathode side and current density during start-up process were computed and are discussed in detail. Furthermore, transient responses of the fuel cell characteristics during step changes and sinusoidal changes in the stoichiometric flow ratio of the cathode inlet stream, cathode inlet stream humidity and cell voltage are also studied and analyzed and interesting undershoot/overshoot behavior of some variables was found. It was also found that the startup and transient response time of a PEM fuel cell is of the order of a second, which is similar to the simulation results predicted by most models. The result is an important guide for the optimization of PEMFC designs and dynamic operation.

  14. Two-channel interaction models in cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.


    The authors introduce four fully quantized models of light-matter interactions in optical or microwave cavities. These are the first exactly soluble models in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) that provide two transition channels for the flipping of atomic states. In these models a loss-free cavity is assumed to support three or four quantized field modes, which are coupled to a single atom. The atom exchanges photons with the cavity, in either the Raman configuration including both Stokes and anti-Stokes modes, or through two-photon cascade processes. The authors obtain the effective Hamiltonians for these models by adiabatically eliminating an off-resonant intermediate atomic level, and discuss their novel properties in comparison to the existing one-channel Jaynes-Cummings models. They give a detailed description of a method to find exact analytic solutions for the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the Hamiltonians of four models. These are also valid when the AC Stark shifts are included. It is shown that the eigenvalues can be expressed in very simple terms, and formulas for normalized eigenvectors are also given, as well as discussions of some of their simple properties. Heisenberg picture equations of motions are derived for several operators with solutions provided in a couple of cases. The dynamics of the systems with both Fock state and coherent state fields are demonstrated and discussed using the model's two key variables, the atomic inversion and the expectation value of photon number. Clear evidences of high efficiency mode-mixing are seen in both the Raman and cascade configurations, and different kinds of collapses and revivals are encountered in the atomic inversions. Effects of several factors like the AC Stark shift and variations in the complex coupling constants are also illustrated

  15. Geospatial Image Stream Processing: Models, techniques, and applications in remote sensing change detection (United States)

    Rueda-Velasquez, Carlos Alberto

    Detection of changes in environmental phenomena using remotely sensed data is a major requirement in the Earth sciences, especially in natural disaster related scenarios where real-time detection plays a crucial role in the saving of human lives and the preservation of natural resources. Although various approaches formulated to model multidimensional data can in principle be applied to the inherent complexity of remotely sensed geospatial data, there are still challenging peculiarities that demand a precise characterization in the context of change detection, particularly in scenarios of fast changes. In the same vein, geospatial image streams do not fit appropriately in the standard Data Stream Management System (DSMS) approach because these systems mainly deal with tuple-based streams. Recognizing the necessity for a systematic effort to address the above issues, the work presented in this thesis is a concrete step toward the foundation and construction of an integrated Geospatial Image Stream Processing framework, GISP. First, we present a data and metadata model for remotely sensed image streams. We introduce a precise characterization of images and image streams in the context of remotely sensed geospatial data. On this foundation, we define spatially-aware temporal operators with a consistent semantics for change analysis tasks. We address the change detection problem in settings where multiple image stream sources are available, and thus we introduce an architectural design for the processing of geospatial image streams from multiple sources. With the aim of targeting collaborative scientific environments, we construct a realization of our architecture based on Kepler, a robust and widely used scientific workflow management system, as the underlying computational support; and open data and Web interface standards, as a means to facilitate the interoperability of GISP instances with other processing infrastructures and client applications. We demonstrate our

  16. Sketch of a Noisy Channel Model for the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    default rendering" procedure, later conscious processes are triggered by a monitor who interferes when something goes wrong. An attempt is made to explain monitor activities with relevance theoretic concepts according to which a translator needs to ensure the similarity of explicatures and implicatures......The paper develops a Noisy Channel Model for the translation process that is based on actual user activity data. It builds on the monitor model and makes a distinction between early, automatic and late, conscious translation processes: while early priming processes are at the basis of a "literal...... of the source and the target texts. It is suggested that events and parameters in the model need be measurable and quantifiable in the user activity data so as to trace back monitoring activities in the translation process data. Michael Carl is a Professor with special responsibilities at the Department...

  17. Assessment of long-term channel changes in the Mekong River using remote sensing and a channel-evolution model (United States)

    Miyazawa, N.


    River-channel changes are a key factor affecting physical, ecological and management issues in the fluvial environment. In this study, long-term channel changes in the Mekong River were assessed using remote sensing and a channel-evolution model. A channel-evolution model for calculating long-term channel changes of a measndering river was developed using a previous fluid-dynamic model [Zolezzi and Seminara, 2001], and was applied in order to quantify channel changes of two meandering reaches in the Mekong River. Quite few attempts have been made so far to combine remote sensing observation of meandering planform change with the application of channel evolution models within relatively small-scale gravel-bed systems in humid temperate regions. The novel point of the present work is to link state-of-art meandering planform evolution model with observed morphological changes within large-scale sand-bed rivers with higher bank height in tropical monsoonal climate regions, which are the highly dynamic system, and assess the performance. Unstable extents of the reaches could be historically identified using remote-sensing technique. The instability caused i) bank erosion and accretion of meander bends and ii) movement or development of bars and changes in the flow around the bars. The remote sensing measurements indicate that maximum erosion occurred downstream of the maximum curvature of the river-center line in both reaches. The model simulations indicates that under the mean annual peak discharge the maximum of excess longitudinal velocity near the banks occurs downstream of the maximum curvature in both reaches. The channel migration coefficients of the reaches were calibrated by comparing remote-sensing measurements and model simulations. The diffrence in the migration coefficients between both reaches depends on the diffrence in bank height rather than the geotechnical properties of floodplain sediments. Possible eroded floodplain areas and accreted floodplain

  18. Efficient Weibull channel model for salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical communications

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.


    Recent advances in underwater wireless optical communications necessitate a better understanding of the underwater channel. We propose the Weibull model to characterize the fading of salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical channels. The model shows an excellent agreement with the measured data under all channel conditions.

  19. κ–μ fading channels: a finite state Markov modelling approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finite state Markov channel (FSMC) is the automatic choice for accurate modelling of slow fading channels with memory. FSMC model for a κ–μ fading channel is investigated in this paper. Small-scale variations of the fading signal under Line-Of-Sight conditions are represented by κ–μ fading distributions. Here, FSMC is ...

  20. Model simulations of particle aggregation effect on colloid exchange between streams and streambeds. (United States)

    Areepitak, Trachu; Ren, Jianhong


    Colloids found in natural streams have large reactive surface areas, which makes them significant absorbents and carriers for pollutants. Stream-subsurface exchange plays a critical role in regulating the transport of colloids and contaminants in natural streams. Previous process-based multiphase exchange models were developed without consideration of colloid-colloid interaction. However, many studies have indicated that aggregation is a significant process and needs to be considered in stream process analysis. Herein, a new colloid exchange model was developed by including particle aggregation in addition to colloid settling and filtration. Self-preserving size distribution concepts and classical aggregation theory were employed to model the aggregation process. Model simulations indicate that under conditions of low filtration and high degree of particle-particle interaction, aggregation could either decrease or increase the amount of colloids retained in streambeds, depending on the initial particle size. Thus, two possible cases may occur including enhanced colloid deposition and facilitated colloid transport. Also, when the aggregation rate is high and filtration increases, more particles are retained by bed sediments due to filtration, and fewer are aggregated, which reduces the extent of aggregation effect on colloid deposition. The work presented here will contribute to a better understanding and prediction of colloid transport phenomena in natural streams.

  1. Homogenization Modeling for Mechanical Properties of Composite Conductor With Cooling Channel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, We


    .... A composite cylinder assembly model was developed in the level 1 homogenization for metallic core with a cooling channel, in which the cooling channel was analogized as a fiber void with null material properties...

  2. A conceptual model of channel choice : measuring online and offline shopping value perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Thijs L.J.; Jager, Wander


    This study tries to understand how consumers evaluate channels for their purchasing. Specifically, it develops a conceptual model that addresses consumer value perceptions of using the Internet versus the traditional (physical) channel. Previous research showed that perceptions of price, product

  3. Distribution of Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) Indicators and Their Reliability in Identifying the Limits of "Waters of the United States" in Arid Southwestern Channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichvar, Robert W; Finnegan, David C; Ericsson, Michael P; Ochs, Walter


    .... COE hydrologic models require detailed site information for rainfall and stream flow characteristics, as well as on-site surveys to determine channel morphology, width, fluvial patterns, slope...

  4. A model to predict stream water temperature across the conterminous USA (United States)

    Catalina Segura; Peter Caldwell; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Yang Zhang


    Stream water temperature (ts) is a critical water quality parameter for aquatic ecosystems. However, ts records are sparse or nonexistent in many river systems. In this work, we present an empirical model to predict ts at the site scale across the USA. The model, derived using data from 171 reference sites selected from the Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating...

  5. Comparison of Langevin and Markov channel noise models for neuronal signal generation. (United States)

    Sengupta, B; Laughlin, S B; Niven, J E


    The stochastic opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels produce noise in neurons. The effect of this noise on the neuronal performance has been modeled using either an approximate or Langevin model based on stochastic differential equations or an exact model based on a Markov process model of channel gating. Yet whether the Langevin model accurately reproduces the channel noise produced by the Markov model remains unclear. Here we present a comparison between Langevin and Markov models of channel noise in neurons using single compartment Hodgkin-Huxley models containing either Na+ and K+, or only K+ voltage-gated ion channels. The performance of the Langevin and Markov models was quantified over a range of stimulus statistics, membrane areas, and channel numbers. We find that in comparison to the Markov model, the Langevin model underestimates the noise contributed by voltage-gated ion channels, overestimating information rates for both spiking and nonspiking membranes. Even with increasing numbers of channels, the difference between the two models persists. This suggests that the Langevin model may not be suitable for accurately simulating channel noise in neurons, even in simulations with large numbers of ion channels.

  6. Nutrient uptake and mineralization during leaf decay in streams - a model simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Jackson [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Newbold, J. Denis [Stroud Water Research Center; Thomas, Steve [University of Nebraska; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL


    We developed a stoichiometrically explicit computer model to examine how heterotrophic uptake of nutrients and microbial mineralization occurring during the decay of leaves in streams may be important in modifying nutrient concentrations. The simulations showed that microbial uptake can substantially decrease stream nutrient concentrations during the initial phases of decomposition, while mineralization may produce increases in concentrations during later stages of decomposition. The simulations also showed that initial nutrient content of the leaves can affect the stream nutrient concentration dynamics and determine whether nitrogen or phosphorus is the limiting nutrient. Finally, the simulations suggest a net retention (uptake > mineralization) of nutrients in headwater streams, which is balanced by export of particulate organic nutrients to downstream reaches. Published studies support the conclusion that uptake can substantially change stream nutrient concentrations. On the other hand, there is little published evidence that mineralization also affects nutrient concentrations. Also, there is little information on direct microbial utilization of nutrients contained in the decaying leaves themselves. Our results suggest several directions for research that will improve our understanding of the complex relationship between leaf decay and nutrient dynamics in streams.

  7. An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States (United States)

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shwarz, Grogory E.; Chung, Susie


    Watersheds play many important roles in the carbon cycle: (1) they are a site for both terrestrial and aquatic carbon dioxide (CO2) removal through photosynthesis; (2) they transport living and decomposing organic carbon in streams and groundwater; and (3) they store organic carbon for widely varying lengths of time as a function of many biogeochemical factors. Using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, along with long-term monitoring data on total organic carbon (TOC), this research quantitatively estimates the sources, transport, and fate of the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams of the conterminous United States. The model simulations use surrogate measures of the major terrestrial and aquatic sources of organic carbon to estimate the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams. The estimated carbon sources in the model are associated with four land uses (urban, cultivated, forest, and wetlands) and autochthonous fixation of carbon (stream photosynthesis). Stream photosynthesis is determined by reach-level application of an empirical model of stream chlorophyll based on total phosphorus concentration, and a mechanistic model of photosynthetic rate based on chlorophyll, average daily solar irradiance, water column light attenuation, and reach dimensions. It was found that the estimate of in-stream photosynthesis is a major contributor to the mean annual TOC load per unit of drainage area (that is, yield) in large streams, with a median share of about 60 percent of the total mean annual carbon load in streams with mean flows above 500 cubic feet per second. The interquartile range of the model predictions of TOC from in-stream photosynthesis is from 0.1 to 0.4 grams (g) carbon (C) per square meter (m-2) per day (day-1) for the approximately 62,000 stream reaches in the continental United States, which compares favorably with the reported literature range for net carbon fixation by

  8. Modeling Air Temperature/Water Temperature Relations Along a Small Mountain Stream Under Increasing Urban Influence (United States)

    Fedders, E. R.; Anderson, W. P., Jr.; Hengst, A. M.; Gu, C.


    Boone Creek is a headwater stream of low to moderate gradient located in Boone, North Carolina, USA. Total impervious surface coverage in the 5.2 km2 catchment drained by the 1.9 km study reach increases from 13.4% in the upstream half of the reach to 24.3% in the downstream half. Other markers of urbanization, including culverting, lack of riparian shade vegetation, and bank armoring also increase downstream. Previous studies have shown the stream to be prone to temperature surges on short timescales (minutes to hours) caused by summer runoff from the urban hardscaping. This study investigates the effects of urbanization on the stream's thermal regime at daily to yearly timescales. To do this, we developed an analytical model of daily average stream temperatures based on daily average air temperatures. We utilized a two-part model comprising annual and biannual components and a daily component consisting of a 3rd-order Markov process in order to fit the thermal dynamics of our small, gaining stream. Optimizing this model at each of our study sites in each studied year (78 total site-years of data) yielded annual thermal exchange coefficients (K) for each site. These K values quantify the strength of the relationship between stream and air temperature, or inverse thermal stability. In a uniform, pristine catchment environment, K values are expected to decrease downstream as the stream gains discharge volume and, therefore, thermal inertia. Interannual average K values for our study reach, however, show an overall increase from 0.112 furthest upstream to 0.149 furthest downstream, despite a near doubling of stream discharge between these monitoring points. K values increase only slightly in the upstream, less urban, half of the reach. A line of best fit through these points on a plot of reach distance versus K value has a slope of 2E-6. But the K values of downstream, more urbanized sites increase at a rate of 2E-5 per meter of reach distance, an order of magnitude

  9. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models for predicting stream concentrations of multiple pesticides (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.


    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  10. Modeling of optical wireless scattering communication channels over broad spectra. (United States)

    Liu, Weihao; Zou, Difan; Xu, Zhengyuan


    The air molecules and suspended aerosols help to build non-line-of-sight (NLOS) optical scattering communication links using carriers from near infrared to visible light and ultraviolet bands. This paper proposes channel models over such broad spectra. Wavelength dependent Rayleigh and Mie scattering and absorption coefficients of particles are analytically obtained first. They are applied to the ray tracing based Monte Carlo method, which models the photon scattering angle from the scatterer and propagation distance between two consecutive scatterers. Communication link path loss is studied under different operation conditions, including visibility, particle density, wavelength, and communication range. It is observed that optimum communication performances exist across the wavelength under specific atmospheric conditions. Infrared, visible light and ultraviolet bands show their respective features as conditions vary.

  11. Storms, channel changes, and a sediment budget for an urban-suburban stream, Difficult Run, Virginia, USA (United States)

    Gellis, Allen C.; Myers, Michael; Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Shenk, Edward; Myers, Luke


    Determining erosion and deposition rates in urban-suburban settings and how these processes are affected by large storms is important to understanding geomorphic processes in these landscapes. Sediment yields in the suburban and urban Upper Difficult Run are among the highest ever recorded in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, ranging from 161 to 376 Mg/km2/y. Erosion and deposition of streambanks, channel bed, and bars and deposition of floodplains were monitored between 1 March 2010 and 18 January 2013 in Upper Difficult Run, Virginia, USA. We documented the effects of two large storms, Tropical Storm Lee (September 2011), a 100-year event, and Super Storm Sandy (October 2012) a 5-year event, on channel erosion and deposition. Variability in erosion and deposition rates for all geomorphic features, temporally and spatially, are important conclusions of this study. Tropical Storm Lee was an erosive event, where erosion occurred on 82% of all streambanks and where 88% of streambanks that were aggrading before Tropical Storm Lee became erosional. Statistical analysis indicated that drainage area explains linear changes (cm/y) in eroding streambanks and that channel top width explains cross-sectional area changes (cm2/y) in eroding streambanks and floodplain deposition (mm/y). A quasi-sediment budget constructed for the study period using the streambanks, channel bed, channel bars, and floodplain measurements underestimated the measured suspended-sediment load by 61% (2130 Mg/y). Underestimation of the sediment load may be caused by measurement errors and to contributions from upland sediment sources, which were not measured but estimated at 36% of the gross input of sediment. Eroding streambanks contributed 42% of the gross input of sediment and accounted for 70% of the measured suspended-sediment load. Similar to other urban watersheds, the large percentage of impervious area in Difficult Run and direct runoff of precipitation leads to increased streamflow and

  12. The development of stream temperature model in a mountainous river of Taiwan. (United States)

    Tung, Ching-Pin; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuang; Perng, Po-Wen; Kao, Shih-Ji; Liao, Lin-Yen


    Formosan landlocked salmon is an endangered species and is very sensitive to stream temperature change. This study attempts to improve a former stream temperature model (STM) which was developed for the salmon's habitat to simulate stream temperature more realistically. Two modules, solar radiation modification (SRM) and surface/subsurface runoff mixing (RM), were incorporated to overcome the limitation of STM designed only for clear-sky conditions. It was found that daily temperature difference is related to cloud cover and can be used to adjust the effects of cloud cover on incident solar radiation to the ground level. The modified model (STM + SRM) improved the simulation during a baseflow period in both winter and summer with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient improved from 0.37 (by STM only) to 0.71 for the winter and from -0.18 to 0.70 for the summer. On the days with surface/subsurface runoff, the incorporation of the two new modules together (STM + SRM + RM) improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient from 0.00 to 0.65 and from 0.29 to 0.83 in the winter and the summer, respectively. Meanwhile, the contributions of major thermal sources to stream temperature changes were identified. Groundwater is a major controlling factor for regulating seasonal changes of stream temperature while solar radiation is the primary factor controlling daily stream temperature variations. This study advanced our understanding on short-term stream temperature variation, which could be useful for the authorities to restore the salmon's habitat.

  13. Modelling customer behaviour in multi-channel service distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinhuis, D.; de Vries, E.J.; Kundisch, D.; Veit, D.J.; Weitzel, T.; Weinhardt, C.


    Financial service providers are innovating their distribution strategy into multi-channel strategies. The success of a multi-channel approach and the high investments made in information systems and enterprise architectures depends on the adoption and multi-channel usage behaviour of consumers. We

  14. Modelling of stream flow in snow dominated Budhigandaki ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    constant, initial and constant, exponential, Green-Ampt, SCS (Soil Conservation Service) Curve. Number, Soil Moisture Accounting and Smith-Parlange model for simulation ... Meteorological Organization (WMO) with regard to runoff simulation (WMO 1986). 3.2(a) Model Structure. Each day, the model computes the runoff ...

  15. Simple statistical channel model for weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.


    In this Letter, we use laser beam intensity fluctuation measurements to model and describe the statistical properties of weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) channels. UWOC channels with temperature gradients are modeled by the generalized gamma distribution (GGD) with an excellent goodness of fit to the measured data under all channel conditions. Meanwhile, thermally uniform channels are perfectly described by the simple gamma distribution which is a special case of GGD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first model that comprehensively describes both thermally uniform and gradient-based UWOC channels.

  16. Sodium channel activators: model of binding inside the pore and a possible mechanism of action. (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis B; Zhorov, Boris S


    Sodium channel activators, batrachotoxin and veratridine, cause sodium channels to activate easier and stay open longer than normal channels. Traditionally, this was explained by an allosteric mechanism. However, increasing evidence suggests that activators can bind inside the pore. Here, we model the open sodium channel with activators and propose a novel mechanism of their action. The activator-bound channel retains a hydrophilic pathway for ions between the ligand and conserved asparagine in segment S6 of repeat II. One end of the activator approaches the selectivity filter, decreasing the channel conductance and selectivity. The opposite end reaches the gate stabilizing it in the open state.

  17. Reexamination and further development of two-stream canopy radiative transfer models for global land modeling (United States)

    Yuan, Hua; Dai, Yongjiu; Dickinson, Robert E.; Pinty, Bernard; Shangguan, Wei; Zhang, Shupeng; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Siguang


    Four representative two-stream canopy radiative transfer models were examined and intercompared using the same configuration. Based on the comparison results, two modifications were introduced to the widely used Dickinson-Sellers model and then incorporated into the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). The modified model was tested against Monte-Carlo simulations and produced significant improvements in the simulated canopy transmittance and albedo values. In direct comparison with MODIS albedo data, the modified model shows good performance over most snow/ice-free vegetated areas, especially for regions that are covered by dense canopy. The modified model shows seasonally dependent behavior mainly in the near-infrared band. Thus, the improvements are not present in all seasons. Large biases are still noticeable in sparsely vegetated areas, in particular for the snow/ice covered regions, that is possibly related to the model, the land surface input data, or even the observations themselves. Further studies focusing on the impact of the seasonal changes in leaf optical properties, the parameterizations for snow/ice covered regions and the case of sparsely vegetated areas, are recommended.

  18. Reduced Complexity Channel Models for IMT-Advanced Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available Accuracy and complexity are two crucial aspects of the applicability of a channel model for wideband multiple input multiple output (MIMO systems. For small number of antenna element pairs, correlation-based models have lower computational complexity while the geometry-based stochastic models (GBSMs can provide more accurate modeling of real radio propagation. This paper investigates several potential simplifications of the GBSM to reduce the complexity with minimal impact on accuracy. In addition, we develop a set of broadband metrics which enable a thorough investigation of the differences between the GBSMs and the simplified models. The impact of various random variables which are employed by the original GBSM on the system level simulation are also studied. Both simulation results and a measurement campaign show that complexity can be reduced significantly with a negligible loss of accuracy in the proposed metrics. As an example, in the presented scenarios, the computational time can be reduced by up to 57% while keeping the relative deviation of 5% outage capacity within 5%.

  19. Physical controls and predictability of stream hyporheic flow evaluated with a multiscale model (United States)

    Stonedahl, Susa H.; Harvey, Judson W.; Detty, Joel; Aubeneau, Antoine; Packman, Aaron I.


    Improved predictions of hyporheic exchange based on easily measured physical variables are needed to improve assessment of solute transport and reaction processes in watersheds. Here we compare physically based model predictions for an Indiana stream with stream tracer results interpreted using the Transient Storage Model (TSM). We parameterized the physically based, Multiscale Model (MSM) of stream-groundwater interactions with measured stream planform and discharge, stream velocity, streambed hydraulic conductivity and porosity, and topography of the streambed at distinct spatial scales (i.e., ripple, bar, and reach scales). We predicted hyporheic exchange fluxes and hyporheic residence times using the MSM. A Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) model was used to convert the MSM output into predictions of in stream solute transport, which we compared with field observations and TSM parameters obtained by fitting solute transport data. MSM simulations indicated that surface-subsurface exchange through smaller topographic features such as ripples was much faster than exchange through larger topographic features such as bars. However, hyporheic exchange varies nonlinearly with groundwater discharge owing to interactions between flows induced at different topographic scales. MSM simulations showed that groundwater discharge significantly decreased both the volume of water entering the subsurface and the time it spent in the subsurface. The MSM also characterized longer timescales of exchange than were observed by the tracer-injection approach. The tracer data, and corresponding TSM fits, were limited by tracer measurement sensitivity and uncertainty in estimates of background tracer concentrations. Our results indicate that rates and patterns of hyporheic exchange are strongly influenced by a continuum of surface-subsurface hydrologic interactions over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales rather than discrete processes.

  20. Modeling nutrient retention at the watershed scale: Does small stream research apply to the whole river network? (United States)

    Aguilera, Rosana; Marcé, Rafael; Sabater, Sergi


    are conveyed from terrestrial and upstream sources through drainage networks. Streams and rivers contribute to regulate the material exported downstream by means of transformation, storage, and removal of nutrients. It has been recently suggested that the efficiency of process rates relative to available nutrient concentration in streams eventually declines, following an efficiency loss (EL) dynamics. However, most of these predictions are based at the reach scale in pristine streams, failing to describe the role of entire river networks. Models provide the means to study nutrient cycling from the stream network perspective via upscaling to the watershed the key mechanisms occurring at the reach scale. We applied a hybrid process-based and statistical model (SPARROW, Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes) as a heuristic approach to describe in-stream nutrient processes in a highly impaired, high stream order watershed (the Llobregat River Basin, NE Spain). The in-stream decay specifications of the model were modified to include a partial saturation effect in uptake efficiency (expressed as a power law) and better capture biological nutrient retention in river systems under high anthropogenic stress. The stream decay coefficients were statistically significant in both nitrate and phosphate models, indicating the potential role of in-stream processing in limiting nutrient export. However, the EL concept did not reliably describe the patterns of nutrient uptake efficiency for the concentration gradient and streamflow values found in the Llobregat River basin, posing in doubt its complete applicability to explain nutrient retention processes in stream networks comprising highly impaired rivers.

  1. Modeling Coupled Physical and Chemical Erosional Processes Using Structure from Motion Reconstruction and Multiphysics Simulation: Applications to Knickpoints in Bedrock Streams in Limestone Caves and on Earth's Surface (United States)

    Bosch, R.; Ward, D.


    available multiphysics simulation software for modeling various flow conditions, erosional processes, and their complex coupled interactions in cave passages and in surface stream channels to expand knowledge and understanding of overall cave system development and river profile erosion.

  2. A model-based comparison of organic matter dynamics between riparian-forested and open-canopy streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenroth Karolina


    Full Text Available The food webs of forest streams are primarily based upon inputs of organic matter from adjacent terrestrial ecosystems. However, streams that run through open landscapes generally lack closed riparian canopies, and an increasing number of studies indicate that terrestrial organic matter may be an important resource in these systems as well. Combining key abiotically-controlled factors (stream discharge, water temperature, and litter input rate with relevant biotic processes (e.g. macroinvertebrate CPOM consumption, microbial processing, we constructed a model to predict and contrast organic matter dynamics (including temporal variation in CPOM standing crop, CPOM processing rate, FPOM production, and detritivore biomass in small riparian-forested and open-canopy streams. Our modeled results showed that the standing crop of CPOM was similar between riparian-forested and open-canopy streams, despite considerable differences in litter input rate. This unexpected result was partly due to linkages between CPOM supply and consumer abundance that produced higher detritivore biomass in the forest stream than the open-canopy stream. CPOM standing crop in the forest stream was mainly regulated by top-down consumer control, depressing it to a level similar to that of the open-canopy stream. In contrast, CPOM standing crop in the open-canopy stream was primarily controlled by physical factors (litter input rates and discharge, not consumption. This suggests that abiotic processes (e.g. discharge may play a greater role in limiting detrital resource availability and consumer biomass in open-canopy streams than in forest streams. These model results give insight on functional differences that exists among streams and they can be used to predict effects of anthropogenic influences such as forestry, agriculture, urbanization, and climate change on streams and how riparian management and conservation tools can be employed to mitigate undesirable effects.

  3. Free-streaming radiation in cosmological models with spatial curvature (United States)

    Wilson, M. L.


    The effects of spatial curvature on radiation anisotropy are examined for the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model universes. The effect of curvature is found to be very important when considering fluctuations with wavelengths comparable to the horizon. It is concluded that the behavior of radiation fluctuations in models with spatial curvature is quite different from that in spatially flat models, and that models with negative curvature are most strikingly different. It is therefore necessary to take the curvature into account in careful studies of the anisotropy of the microwave background.

  4. Analysis of a turbulent boundary layer with variable physical properties of the stream. 3. Experimental investigation of the heat transfer rate at the initial section of a channel with a flow of combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagis, L.I.; Tamonis, M.M.; Zhukauskas, A.A.


    This is an experimental determination of local and integral heat transfer rates for a stream of high-temperature dissociation products from the combustion of natural gas at the inital section of a rectangular channel. The results are compared with theoretically calculated data. 4 figs.

  5. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    1. Introduction. River water quality management problems are characterized by various uncertainties at differ- ... model to achieve the maximum economic benefits without violating water quality standards. This model ..... for aquatic life, for example, would be a useful application of the methodology presented in the paper.

  6. Underwater Optical Wireless Channel Modeling Using Monte-Carlo Method (United States)

    Saini, P. Sri; Prince, Shanthi


    At present, there is a lot of interest in the functioning of the marine environment. Unmanned or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (UUVs or AUVs) are used in the exploration of the underwater resources, pollution monitoring, disaster prevention etc. Underwater, where radio waves do not propagate, acoustic communication is being used. But, underwater communication is moving towards Optical Communication which has higher bandwidth when compared to Acoustic Communication but has shorter range comparatively. Underwater Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) is mainly affected by the absorption and scattering of the optical signal. In coastal waters, both inherent and apparent optical properties (IOPs and AOPs) are influenced by a wide array of physical, biological and chemical processes leading to optical variability. The scattering effect has two effects: the attenuation of the signal and the Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) of the signal. However, the Inter-Symbol Interference is ignored in the present paper. Therefore, in order to have an efficient underwater OWC link it is necessary to model the channel efficiently. In this paper, the underwater optical channel is modeled using Monte-Carlo method. The Monte Carlo approach provides the most general and most flexible technique for numerically solving the equations of Radiative transfer. The attenuation co-efficient of the light signal is studied as a function of the absorption (a) and scattering (b) coefficients. It has been observed that for pure sea water and for less chlorophyll conditions blue wavelength is less absorbed whereas for chlorophyll rich environment red wavelength signal is absorbed less comparative to blue and green wavelength.

  7. Scenario Driven Data Modelling: A Method for Integrating Diverse Sources of Data and Data Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Shelton D [ORNL; Quest, Daniel J [ORNL; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Cottingham, Robert W [ORNL


    Background Biology is rapidly becoming a data intensive, data-driven science. It is essential that data is represented and connected in ways that best represent its full conceptual content and allows both automated integration and data driven decision-making. Recent advancements in distributed multi-relational directed graphs, implemented in the form of the Semantic Web make it possible to deal with complicated heterogeneous data in new and interesting ways. Results This paper presents a new approach, scenario driven data modelling (SDDM), that integrates multi-relational directed graphs with data streams. SDDM can be applied to virtually any data integration challenge with widely divergent types of data and data streams. In this work, we explored integrating genetics data with reports from traditional media. SDDM was applied to the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase gene (NDM-1), an emerging global health threat. The SDDM process constructed a scenario, created a RDF multi-relational directed graph that linked diverse types of data to the Semantic Web, implemented RDF conversion tools (RDFizers) to bring content into the Sematic Web, identified data streams and analytical routines to analyse those streams, and identified user requirements and graph traversals to meet end-user requirements. Conclusions We provided an example where SDDM was applied to a complex data integration challenge. The process created a model of the emerging NDM-1 health threat, identified and filled gaps in that model, and constructed reliable software that monitored data streams based on the scenario derived multi-relational directed graph. The SDDM process significantly reduced the software requirements phase by letting the scenario and resulting multi-relational directed graph define what is possible and then set the scope of the user requirements. Approaches like SDDM will be critical to the future of data intensive, data-driven science because they automate the process of converting

  8. Verification of high-speed solar wind stream forecasts using operational solar wind models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid M.


    and the background solar wind conditions. We found that both solar wind models are capable of predicting the large-scale features of the observed solar wind speed (root-mean-square error, RMSE ≈100 km/s) but tend to either overestimate (ESWF) or underestimate (WSA) the number of high-speed solar wind streams (threat...

  9. Enhancements to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System for simulating in-stream water temperature (United States)

    Markstrom, S. L.; Hay, L.


    A stream temperature module has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) for simulating maximum- and mean-daily stream temperature. This module provides additional simulation capabilities by coupling PRMS with the U.S. Geological Survey Stream Network Temperature (SNTEMP) model. PRMS is a modular, deterministic, distributed-parameter, physical-process watershed model that simulates watershed response to various combinations of climate and land use. Normal and extreme rainfall and snowmelt can be simulated to evaluate changes in water-balance relations, streamflow regimes, soil-water relations, and ground-water recharge. SNTEMP was developed to help aquatic biologists and engineers predict the effects of flow regime changes on water temperatures. This coupling of PRMS with SNTEMP will allow scientists and watershed managers to evaluate the effects of historical climate and projected climate change, landscape evolution, and resource management scenarios on watershed hydrology and in-stream water temperature. The prototype of this coupled model was developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Southeast Regional Assessment Project (SERAP) and tested in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in the southeastern United States. Preliminary results from the prototype are presented.

  10. A time-dependent Green's function-based model for stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 3, 2003 ... rainfall is low and erratic, and droughts are common. Modelling of flow when there is interaction between an unconfined aquifer and a stream has .... those quantities are evaluated at the centroid of the element. The fundamental solution of the auxiliary equation. 1 ∂G. ∇2G = = δ(r - ri; t - τ), given by. D ∂t.

  11. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model. (United States)

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan


    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cellular ion channel-pump system modeling using switched stochastic differential equations. (United States)

    Weaver, Jeffrey


    This paper identifies a multidimensional random switched process model of a neuron with embedded Ca++ ion channel and pump molecules adiabatically interacting based on local ion concentrations near the cell membrane. The model interprets known physiology of the channels as a coupled set of switched random processes and derives mechanical equations based on concentration flow among different states of the system. Rapid changes to channel barrier energies occurring during channel opening and closing transitions are modeled as another degree of freedom commutating the state of the overall system. An ion reservoir model is used as the primary tool to incorporate stochastic effects in channel operation. The complete model is analyzed numerically and then the equations are used to motivate a stochastic model for closed state dwell times. The result is compared against expected results of a leaky-integrator and known single-channel histograms.

  13. Two-dimensional physical habitat modeling of effects of habitat structures on urban stream restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyun Im


    Full Text Available River corridors, even if highly modified or degraded, still provide important habitats for numerous biological species, and carry high aesthetic and economic values. One of the keys to urban stream restoration is recovery and maintenance of ecological flows sufficient to sustain aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the Hongje Stream in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea was selected for evaluating a physically-based habitat with and without habitat structures. The potential value of the aquatic habitat was evaluated by a weighted usable area (WUA using River2D, a two-dimensional hydraulic model. The habitat suitability for Zacco platypus in the Hongje Stream was simulated with and without habitat structures. The computed WUA values for the boulder, spur dike, and riffle increased by about 2%, 7%, and 131%, respectively, after their construction. Also, the three habitat structures, especially the riffle, can contribute to increasing hydraulic heterogeneity and enhancing habitat diversity.

  14. FACT. Streamed data analysis and online application of machine learning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegge, Kai Arno; Buss, Jens [Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany). Astroteilchenphysik; Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration


    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) like FACT produce a continuous flow of data during measurements. Analyzing the data in near real time is essential for monitoring sources. One major task of a monitoring system is to detect changes in the gamma-ray flux of a source, and to alert other experiments if some predefined limit is reached. In order to calculate the flux of an observed source, it is necessary to run an entire data analysis process including calibration, image cleaning, parameterization, signal-background separation and flux estimation. Software built on top of a data streaming framework has been implemented for FACT and generalized to work with the data acquisition framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). We present how the streams-framework is used to apply supervised machine learning models to an online data stream from the telescope.

  15. An accurate mobility model for the I-V characteristics of n-channel enhancement-mode MOSFETs with single-channel boron implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingyuan Wu; Yeongwen Daih


    In this paper an analytical mobility model is developed for the I-V characteristics of n-channel enhancement-mode MOSFETs, in which the effects of the two-dimensional electric fields in the surface inversion channel and the parasitic resistances due to contact and interconnection are included. Most importantly, the developed mobility model easily takes the device structure and process into consideration. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed model, the structure- and process-oriented parameters in the present mobility model are calculated explicitly for an n-channel enhancement-mode MOSFET with single-channel boron implantation. Moreover, n-channel MOSFETs with different channel lengths fabricated in a production line by using a set of test keys have been characterized and the measured mobilities have been compared to the model. Excellent agreement has been obtained for all ranges of the fabricated channel lengths, which strongly support the accuracy of the model. (author)

  16. A new relativistic model for tidal stream evolution during tidal disruption events (United States)

    Servin, Juan; Kesden, Michael


    When stars are tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, approximately half of their original mass becomes gravitationally bound and may eventually produce a tidal flare. The stellar debris evolves into streams that can self-intersect due to relativistic pericenter precession. Energy loss in these inelastic collisions both circularizes the stream and contributes to the tidal flare. Models of this process often assume that all elements of the tidal stream have the same specific energy and angular momentum as the most bound debris element. Real tidal debris possesses a distribution of binding energies, however, which grants it a distribution of orbits. We propose a new treatment for this debris, wherein we evolve the elements of the stream individually. We determine the radial distance (from the black hole) and the time (after the disruption) of the stream collisions as a function of black-hole mass under both Newtonian gravity (N+1PN) and general relativity (GR). We also use the Lane-Emden equation to account for the mass differences among the debris elements when calculating the energy loss in the inelastic collisions. For the N+1PN method, we evolve the stream using Newtonian orbital mechanics and apply pericenter precession after each pericenter passage using a first-order post-Newtonian approximation. Our relativistic method directly integrates the geodesic equations of motion. We see that the higher precession in the fully relativistic method results in more prompt collisions, and that assuming equal masses for the colliding debris elements greatly overestimates the energy loss resulting from these collisions. We also provide light curves for the corresponding flares and compare our predictions to those of previous models.

  17. High-resolution modeling assessment of tidal stream resource in Western Passage of Maine, USA (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Feng, Xi; Xue, Huijie; Kilcher, Levi


    Although significant efforts have been taken to assess the maximum potential of tidal stream energy at system-wide scale, accurate assessment of tidal stream energy resource at project design scale requires detailed hydrodynamic simulations using high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models. Extended model validation against high quality measured data is essential to minimize the uncertainties of the resource assessment. Western Passage in the State of Maine in U.S. has been identified as one of the top ranking sites for tidal stream energy development in U.S. coastal waters, based on a number of criteria including tidal power density, market value and transmission distance. This study presents an on-going modeling effort for simulating the tidal hydrodynamics in Western Passage using the 3-D unstructured-grid Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The model domain covers a large region including the entire the Bay of Fundy with grid resolution varies from 20 m in the Western Passage to approximately 1000 m along the open boundary near the mouth of Bay of Fundy. Preliminary model validation was conducted using existing NOAA measurements within the model domain. Spatial distributions of tidal power density were calculated and extractable tidal energy was estimated using a tidal turbine module embedded in FVCOM under different tidal farm scenarios. Additional field measurements to characterize resource and support model validation were discussed. This study provides an example of high resolution resource assessment based on the guidance recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Specification.

  18. Progressive Conversion from B-rep to BSP for Streaming Geometric Modeling. (United States)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Scorzelli, Giorgio


    We introduce a novel progressive approach to generate a Binary Space Partition (BSP) tree and a convex cell decomposition for any input triangles boundary representation (B-rep), by utilizing a fast calculation of the surface inertia. We also generate a solid model at progressive levels of detail. This approach relies on a variation of standard BSP tree generation, allowing for labeling cells as in, out and fuzzy, and which permits a comprehensive representation of a solid as the Hasse diagram of a cell complex. Our new algorithm is embedded in a streaming computational framework, using four types of dataflow processes that continuously produce, transform, combine or consume subsets of cells depending on their number or input/output stream. A varied collection of geometric modeling techniques are integrated in this streaming framework, including polygonal, spline, solid and heterogeneous modeling with boundary and decompositive representations, Boolean set operations, Cartesian products and adaptive refinement. The real-time B-rep to BSP streaming results we report in this paper are a large step forward in the ultimate unification of rapid conceptual and detailed shape design methodologies.

  19. Georeferenced fate modelling of LAS in the itter stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, C:; Matthies, M.; Trapp, S.


    For the simulation of spatial concentration patterns of 'down-the-drain' chemicals mathematical models were coupled with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to predict concentrations in the receiving surface waters, using the detergent chemicals Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) and Boron and ...

  20. Modelling stream flow and quantifying blue water using modified STREAM model in the Upper Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptala, J.K.; Mul, M.L.; Mohamed, Y.; Van der Zaag, P.


    Effective management of all water uses in a river basin requires spatially distributed information of evaporative water use and the link towards the river flows. Physically based spatially distributed models are often used to generate this kind of information. These models require enormous amounts

  1. Assessment of channel changes, model of historical floods, and effects of backwater on flood stage, and flood mitigation alternatives for the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas (United States)

    Winters, Karl E.; Baldys, Stanley


    In cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel changes on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, and modeled historical floods to investigate possible causes and potential mitigation alternatives to higher flood stages in recent (2007 and 2008) floods. Extreme flooding occurred on the Wichita River on June 30, 2007, inundating 167 homes in Wichita Falls. Although a record flood stage was reached in June 2007, the peak discharge was much less than some historical floods at Wichita Falls. Streamflow and stage data from two gages on the Wichita River and one on Holliday Creek were used to assess the interaction of the two streams. Changes in the Wichita River channel were evaluated using historical aerial and ground photography, comparison of recent and historical cross sections, and comparison of channel roughness coefficients with those from earlier studies. The floods of 2007 and 2008 were modeled using a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibrated channel roughness was larger for the 2007 flood compared to the 2008 flood, and the 2007 flood peaked about 4 feet higher than the 2008 flood. Calibration of the 1941 flood yielded a channel roughness coefficient (Manning's n) of 0.030, which represents a fairly clean natural channel. The step-backwater model was also used to evaluate the following potential mitigation alternatives: (1) increasing the capacity of the bypass channel near River Road in Wichita Falls, Texas; (2) removal of obstructions near the Scott Avenue and Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard bridges in Wichita Falls, Texas; (3) widening of aggraded channel banks in the reach between Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard and River Road; and (4) reducing channel bank and overbank roughness. Reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.1 foot to as much as 3.0 feet for the different mitigation alternatives. The effects of implementing a combination of different flood-mitigation alternatives were

  2. Investigating the effect of surface water - groundwater interactions on stream temperature using Distributed temperature sensing and instream temperature model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikeyan, Matheswaran; Blemmer, Morten; Mortensen, Julie Flor


    Surface water–groundwater interactions at the stream interface influences, and at times controls the stream temperature, a critical water property driving biogeochemical processes. This study investigates the effects of these interactions on temperature of Stream Elverdamsåen in Denmark using...... the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system and instream temperature modelling. Locations of surface water–groundwater interactions were identified from the temperature data collected over a 2-km stream reach using a DTS system with 1-m spatial and 5-min temporal resolution. The stream under consideration...... exhibits three distinct thermal regimes within a 2 km reach length due to two major interactions. An energy balance model is used to simulate the instream temperature and to quantify the effect of these interactions on the stream temperature. This research demonstrates the effect of reach level small scale...

  3. Fate of acetone in an outdoor model stream with a nitrate supplement, southern Mississippi, U.S.A. (United States)

    Rathbun, R.E.; Stephens, D.W.; Tai, D.Y.


    The fate of acetone in an outdoor model stream to which nitrate was added as a nutrient supplement was determined. The stream, in southern Mississippi, U.S.A. was 234 m long. Water was supplied to the stream by an artesian well at about 1.21 s-1, resulting in a mean water velocity of about 0.5 m min-1. Acetone was injected continuously for 26 days resulting in concentrations of 20-40 mg l-1. A nitrate solution was injected for 21 days resulting in an instream concentration of about 1.7 mg l-1 at the upstream end of the stream. Rhodamine-WT dye was used to determine the travel time and dispersion characteristics of the stream, and t-butyl alcohol was used to determine the volatilization characteristics. Volatilization controlled the fate of acetone in the model stream. The lack of substantial bacterial degradation of acetone was contrary to expectations based on the results of laboratory degradation studies using model stream water enriched with nitrate. A possible explanation for the lack of significant degradation in the model stream may be the limited 6-h residence time of the acetone in the stream. ?? 1991.

  4. Modeling of Multi-Scale Channeling Phenomena in Porous Flow (United States)

    Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Yarushina, Viktoriya; Simon, Nina; Podladchikov, Yuri


    Predictive modeling of fluid percolation through tight porous rocks is critical to evaluate environmental risks associated with waste storage and reservoir operations. To understand the evolution of two-phase mixtures of fluid and solid it is insufficient to only combine single-phase fluid flow methods and solid mechanics. A proper coupling of these two different multi-scales physical processes is required to describe the complex evolution of permeability and porosity in space and in time. We conduct numerical modeling experiments in geometrically simple but physically complex systems of stressed rocks containing self-focusing porous flow. Our model is physically and thermodynamically consistent and describes the formation and evolution of fluid pathways. The model consists of a system of coupled equations describing poro-elasto-viscous deformation and flow. Nonlinearity of the solid rheology is also taken into account. We have developed a numerical application based on an iterative finite difference scheme that runs on mutli-GPUs cluster in parallel. In order to validate these models, we consider the largest CO2 sequestration project in operation at the Sleipner field in the Norwegian North Sea. Attempts to match the observations at Sleipner using conventional reservoir simulations fail to capture first order observations, such as the seemingly effortless vertical flow of CO2 through low permeability shale layers and the formation of focused flow channels or chimneys. Conducted high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations predict the formation of dynamically evolving high porosity and permeability pathways as a natural outcome of porous flow nonlinearly coupled with rock deformation, which may trigger leakage through low permeability barriers.

  5. Potential stream density in Mid-Atlantic US watersheds. (United States)

    Elmore, Andrew J; Julian, Jason P; Guinn, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C


    Stream network density exerts a strong influence on ecohydrologic processes in watersheds, yet existing stream maps fail to capture most headwater streams and therefore underestimate stream density. Furthermore, discrepancies between mapped and actual stream length vary between watersheds, confounding efforts to understand the impacts of land use on stream ecosystems. Here we report on research that predicts stream presence from coupled field observations of headwater stream channels and terrain variables that were calculated both locally and as an average across the watershed upstream of any location on the landscape. Our approach used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), a robust method commonly implemented to model species distributions that requires information only on the presence of the entity of interest. In validation, the method correctly predicts the presence of 86% of all 10-m stream segments and errors are low (stream density and compare our results with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). We find that NHD underestimates stream density by up to 250%, with errors being greatest in the densely urbanized cities of Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD and in regions where the NHD has never been updated from its original, coarse-grain mapping. This work is the most ambitious attempt yet to map stream networks over a large region and will have lasting implications for modeling and conservation efforts.

  6. Georeferenced fate modelling of LAS in the itter stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, C:; Matthies, M.; Trapp, S.


    For the simulation of spatial concentration patterns of 'down-the-drain' chemicals mathematical models were coupled with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to predict concentrations in the receiving surface waters, using the detergent chemicals Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) and Boron and ...... in the riverine water and the water quality parameters TOC and ammonium, This study is closely linked to the ongoing project GREAT-ER. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Channel Verification Results for the SCME models in a Multi-Probe Based MIMO OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; S. Ashta, Jagjit


    , where the focus is on comparing results from various proposed methods. Channel model verification is necessary to ensure that the target channel models are correctly implemented inside the test area. This paper shows that the all the key parameters of the SCME models, i.e., power delay profile, temporal...

  8. Appropriate Algorithms for Estimating Frequency-Selective Rician Fading MIMO Channels and Channel Rice Factor: Substantial Benefits of Rician Model and Estimator Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirvani Moghaddam Shahriar


    Full Text Available The training-based channel estimation (TBCE scheme in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO frequency-selective Rician fading channels is investigated. We propose the new technique of shifted scaled least squares (SSLS and the minimum mean square error (MMSE estimator that are suitable to estimate the above-mentioned channel model. Analytical results show that the proposed estimators achieve much better minimum possible Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs in the frequency-selective Rician MIMO channels compared with those of Rayleigh one. It is seen that the SSLS channel estimator requires less knowledge about the channel and/or has better performance than the conventional least squares (LS and MMSE estimators. Simulation results confirm the superiority of the proposed channel estimators. Finally, to estimate the channel Rice factor, an algorithm is proposed, and its efficiency is verified using the result in the SSLS and MMSE channel estimators.

  9. Incorporation of the equilibrium temperature approach in a Soil and Water Assessment Tool hydroclimatological stream temperature model (United States)

    Du, Xinzhong; Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Ficklin, Darren L.; Wang, Junye


    Stream temperature is an important indicator for biodiversity and sustainability in aquatic ecosystems. The stream temperature model currently in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) only considers the impact of air temperature on stream temperature, while the hydroclimatological stream temperature model developed within the SWAT model considers hydrology and the impact of air temperature in simulating the water-air heat transfer process. In this study, we modified the hydroclimatological model by including the equilibrium temperature approach to model heat transfer processes at the water-air interface, which reflects the influences of air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and streamflow conditions on the heat transfer process. The thermal capacity of the streamflow is modeled by the variation of the stream water depth. An advantage of this equilibrium temperature model is the simple parameterization, with only two parameters added to model the heat transfer processes. The equilibrium temperature model proposed in this study is applied and tested in the Athabasca River basin (ARB) in Alberta, Canada. The model is calibrated and validated at five stations throughout different parts of the ARB, where close to monthly samplings of stream temperatures are available. The results indicate that the equilibrium temperature model proposed in this study provided better and more consistent performances for the different regions of the ARB with the values of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient (NSE) greater than those of the original SWAT model and the hydroclimatological model. To test the model performance for different hydrological and environmental conditions, the equilibrium temperature model was also applied to the North Fork Tolt River Watershed in Washington, United States. The results indicate a reasonable simulation of stream temperature using the model proposed in this study, with minimum relative error values compared to the other two models

  10. Experimental tests of priority effects and light availability on relative performance of Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea nuttallii propagules in artificial stream channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P Zefferman

    Full Text Available Submersed macrophytes have important ecological functions in many streams, but fostering growth of beneficial native species while suppressing weedy invasives may be challenging. Two approaches commonly used in management of terrestrial plant communities may be useful in this context: (1 altering resource availability and (2 establishing desirable species before weeds can invade (priority effects. However, these approaches are rarely used in aquatic systems, despite widespread need for sustainable solutions to aquatic weed problems. In artificial stream channels in California, USA, I conducted experiments with asexual propagules of non-native invasive Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian watermilfoil and native Elodea nuttallii (western waterweed to address the questions: (1 How does light availability affect relative performance of the two species?; (2 Does planting the native earlier than the invasive decrease survival or growth rate of the invasive?; and (3 Do light level and priority effects interact? The relative performance between E. nuttallii and M. spicatum had an interesting and unexpected pattern: M. spicatum had higher growth rates than E. nuttallii in the zero and medium shade levels, but had similar performance in the low and high shade levels. This pattern is most likely the result of E. nutallii's sensitivity to both very low and very high light, and M. spicatum's sensitivity to very low light only. Native priority did not significantly affect growth rate or survival of M. spicatum, possibly because of unexpectedly poor growth of the E. nuttallii planted early. This study suggests that altering light levels could be effective in reducing growth of an invasive macrophyte, and for changing the competitive balance between a native and a non-native species in the establishment phase. Further investigations into the use of priority effects and resource alteration for submersed macrophyte management are warranted, given their mixed results

  11. Experimental tests of priority effects and light availability on relative performance of Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea nuttallii propagules in artificial stream channels. (United States)

    Zefferman, Emily P


    Submersed macrophytes have important ecological functions in many streams, but fostering growth of beneficial native species while suppressing weedy invasives may be challenging. Two approaches commonly used in management of terrestrial plant communities may be useful in this context: (1) altering resource availability and (2) establishing desirable species before weeds can invade (priority effects). However, these approaches are rarely used in aquatic systems, despite widespread need for sustainable solutions to aquatic weed problems. In artificial stream channels in California, USA, I conducted experiments with asexual propagules of non-native invasive Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian watermilfoil) and native Elodea nuttallii (western waterweed) to address the questions: (1) How does light availability affect relative performance of the two species?; (2) Does planting the native earlier than the invasive decrease survival or growth rate of the invasive?; and (3) Do light level and priority effects interact? The relative performance between E. nuttallii and M. spicatum had an interesting and unexpected pattern: M. spicatum had higher growth rates than E. nuttallii in the zero and medium shade levels, but had similar performance in the low and high shade levels. This pattern is most likely the result of E. nutallii's sensitivity to both very low and very high light, and M. spicatum's sensitivity to very low light only. Native priority did not significantly affect growth rate or survival of M. spicatum, possibly because of unexpectedly poor growth of the E. nuttallii planted early. This study suggests that altering light levels could be effective in reducing growth of an invasive macrophyte, and for changing the competitive balance between a native and a non-native species in the establishment phase. Further investigations into the use of priority effects and resource alteration for submersed macrophyte management are warranted, given their mixed results in other

  12. Sedimentary and rock magnetic signatures and event scenarios of deglacial outburst floods from the Laurentian Channel Ice Stream (United States)

    Leng, Wei; von Dobeneck, Tilo; Bergmann, Fenna; Just, Janna; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; St-Onge, Guillaume; Piper, David J. W.


    Eastern Canadian margin sediments bear testimony to several catastrophic deglacial meltwater discharges from the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet. The reddish-brown plumite layers deposited on the levees of the Laurentian Fan valleys have been recognized as indications of multiple outburst floods between Heinrich events 2 and 1. Five event layers have been consistently recorded in three new gravity cores retrieved on the SW Grand Banks slope and comply with the previously published Laurentian Fan core MD95-2029. The apparently huge extent of these outburst plumes around the Laurentian Fan as well as their causes and consequences are investigated in this study using physical properties, rock magnetic and grain-size analyses, together with seismoacoustic profiling. We provide the first detailed 14C ages of the outburst event sequence and discuss their recurrence intervals in the context of regional ice retreat. Compared to the hemipelagic interlayers, event layers have overall uniform and systematic changes of rock-magnetic properties. Hematite contents increase over time and proximally while magnetite grain sizes fine upwards and spatially away from the fan. Based on the sediment composition and load, we argue that these plumites were formed by recurrent erosion of glacial mud deposits in the Laurentian Channel by meltwater outbursts. Three alternative glaciological scenarios are evaluated: in each case, the provenance of the transported sediment is not an indicator of the precise source of the meltwater.

  13. mathematical models for estimating radio channels utilization when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Programmer at the Telecommunications Office of the IT Department, Belgorod State. University. Published online: 08 August 2017. ABSTRACT. The wireless self-organized network functioning efficiency is considered from its radio channels utilization point of view. In order to increase the radio channels utilization it is.

  14. Population persistence of stream fish in response to environmental change: integrating data and models across space (United States)

    Letcher, B. H.; Schueller, P.; Bassar, R.; Coombs, J.; Rosner, A.; Sakrejda, K.; Kanno, Y.; Whiteley, A.; Nislow, K. H.


    For stream fishes, environmental variation is a key driver of individual body growth/movement/survival and, by extension, population dynamics. Identifying how stream fish respond to environmental variation can help clarify mechanisms responsible for population dynamics and can help provide tools to forecast relative resilience of populations across space. Forecasting dynamics across space is challenging, however, because it can be difficult to conduct enough studies with enough intensity to fully characterize broad-scale population response to environmental change. We have adopted a multi-scale approach, using detailed individual-based studies and analyses (integral projection matrix) to determine sensitivities of population growth to environmental variation combined with broad spatial data and analyses (occupancy and abundance models) to estimate patterns of population response across space. Population growth of brook trout was most sensitive to stream flow in the spring and winter, most sensitive to stream temperature in the fall and sensitive to both flow and temperature in the summer. High flow in the spring and winter had negative effects on population growth while high temperature had a negative effect in the fall. Flow had no effect when it was cold, but a positive effect when it was warm in the summer. Combined with occupancy and abundance models, these data give insight into the spatial structure of resilient populations and can help guide prioritization of management actions.

  15. Modelling stream-fish functional traits in reference conditions: regional and local environmental correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M Oliveira

    Full Text Available Identifying the environmental gradients that control the functional structure of biological assemblages in reference conditions is fundamental to help river management and predict the consequences of anthropogenic stressors. Fish metrics (density of ecological guilds, and species richness from 117 least disturbed stream reaches in several western Iberia river basins were modelled with generalized linear models in order to investigate the importance of regional- and local-scale abiotic gradients to variation in functional structure of fish assemblages. Functional patterns were primarily associated with regional features, such as catchment elevation and slope, rainfall, and drainage area. Spatial variations of fish guilds were thus associated with broad geographic gradients, showing (1 pronounced latitudinal patterns, affected mainly by climatic factors and topography, or (2 at the basin level, strong upstream-downstream patterns related to stream position in the longitudinal gradient. Maximum native species richness was observed in midsize streams in accordance with the river continuum concept. The findings of our study emphasized the need to use a multi-scale approach in order to fully assess the factors that govern the functional organization of biotic assemblages in 'natural' streams, as well as to improve biomonitoring and restoration of fluvial ecosystems.

  16. Post-Wildfire Potential for Carbon and Nitrogen Sequestration in the Southwestern United States in Restored Ephemeral and Intermittent Stream Channels (United States)

    Callegary, J. B.; Norman, L.; Eastoe, C. J.; Sankey, J. B.; Youberg, A.


    Although ephemeral and intermittent streams have characteristics of both floodplains and perennial streams, they play a unique role in ecohydrologic systems. Globally, they make up more than half the length of all rivers and streams. Yet, studies focused on their hydrologic and biochemical function remain limited, especially with respect to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage and movement. Increased frequency and extent of high intensity wildfires is causing significant losses of C and N from ecosystems through wind transport of vapor and ash, and through water transport of ash, char, and woody debris. Losses caused by water transport are exacerbated by decreased permeability of charred soils and decreased surface roughness, both of which can promote flooding, erosion, and debris flows. These in turn promote biological and chemical oxidation C and N, and consequent losses to the atmosphere. Efforts to stabilize hillslopes and reduce erosion in burned and degraded watersheds can reduce loss of C and N by promoting above and below-ground storage through capture and burial of C- and N-rich sediments, growth of new vegetation, and anoxic conditions below rising water tables. This study measured C and N and their stable isotopes in samples of sediments taken within ephemeral channels upgradient of erosion control structures in two different watersheds. We combined the results with information on landcover, and fire history and severity to understand sources and amount of C and N. Results indicate that greater fire severity was linked to increased C and N content in sediments captured upgradient of erosion control structures. Carbon isotopes indicate that a higher proportion of C3 plant material was delivered in sediments captured by erosion control structures in the watershed that had a higher proportion of forest and greater burn severity. The potential for sequestration of carbon in the southwest US was calculated using the median carbon content found upgradient of

  17. Adding Live-Streaming to Recorded Lectures in a Non-Distributed Pre-Clerkship Medical Education Model. (United States)

    Sandhu, Amanjot; Fliker, Aviva; Leitao, Darren; Jones, Jodi; Gooi, Adrian


    Live-streaming video has had increasing uses in medical education, especially in distributed education models. The literature on the impact of live-streaming in non-distributed education models, however, is scarce. To determine the attitudes towards live-streaming and recorded lectures as a resource to pre-clerkship medical students in a non-distributed medical education model. First and second year medical students were sent a voluntary cross-sectional survey by email, and were asked questions on live-streaming, recorded lectures and in person lectures using a 5-point Likert and open answers. Of the 118 responses (54% response rate), the data suggested that both watching recorded lectures (Likert 4.55) and live-streaming lectures (4.09) were perceived to be more educationally valuable than face-to-face attendance of lectures (3.60). While responses indicated a statistically significant increase in anticipated classroom attendance if both live-streaming and recorded lectures were removed (from 63% attendance to 76%, p =0.002), there was no significant difference in attendance if live-streaming lectures were removed but recorded lectures were maintained (from 63% to 66%, p=0.76). The addition of live-streaming lectures in the pre-clerkship setting was perceived to be value added to the students. The data also suggests that the removal of live-streaming lectures would not lead to a statistically significant increase in classroom attendance by pre-clerkship students.

  18. Modeling channel interference in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed laser link (United States)

    Anguita, Jaime A.; Neifeld, Mark A.; Vasic, Bane V.


    We study the effects of optical turbulence on the energy crosstalk among constituent orbital angular momentum (OAM) states in a vortex-based multi-channel laser communication link and determine channel interference in terms of turbulence strength and OAM state separation. We characterize the channel interference as a function of C2n and transmit OAM state, and propose probability models to predict the random fluctuations in the received signals for such architecture. Simulations indicate that turbulence-induced channel interference is mutually correlated across receive channels.

  19. Stochastic differential equation models for ion channel noise in Hodgkin-Huxley neurons


    Goldwyn, Joshua H.; Imennov, Nikita S.; Famulare, Michael; Shea-Brown, Eric


    The random transitions of ion channels between conducting and nonconducting states generate a source of internal fluctuations in a neuron, known as channel noise. The standard method for modeling the states of ion channels nonlinearly couples continuous-time Markov chains to a differential equation for voltage. Beginning with the work of R. F. Fox and Y.-N. Lu [Phys. Rev. E 49, 3421 (1994)], there have been attempts to generate simpler models that use stochastic differential equation (SDEs) t...

  20. Connectivity and conditional models of access and abundance of species in stream networks. (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan D; Dunham, Jason B


    Barriers to passage of aquatic organisms at stream road crossings are a major cause of habitat fragmentation in stream networks. Accordingly, large investments have been made to restore passage at these crossings, but often without estimation of population-level benefits. Here, we describe a broad-scale approach to quantifying the effectiveness of passage restoration in terms interpretable at population levels, namely numbers of fish and length of stream gained through restoration, by sampling abundance in a study design that accounts for variable biogeographic species pools, variable stream and barrier configurations, and variable probabilities of capture and detectability for multiple species. We modified an existing zero-inflated negative-binomial model to estimate the probability of site access, abundance conditional on access, and capture probability of individual fish. Therein, we modeled probability of access as a function of gradient, stream road-crossing type, and downstream access by fish simultaneously with a predictive model for abundance at sites accessible to fish. Results indicated that replacement of barriers with new crossing designs intended to allow for greater movement was associated with dramatically higher probability of access for all fishes, including migratory Pacific salmon, trout, sculpin, and lamprey. Conversely, existing non-replaced crossings negatively impacted fish distributions. Assuming no downstream constraints on access, we estimated the potential length of stream restored by the program ranged between 7.33 (lamprey) and 15.28 km (small coastal cutthroat and rainbow trout). These contributions represented a fraction of the total length available upstream (187 km) of replaced crossings. When limited ranges of species were considered, the estimated contributions of culvert replacement were reduced (1.65-km range, for longnose dace to 12.31 km for small coastal cutthroat and rainbow trout). Numbers of fish contributed ranged from

  1. Modelling free surface aquifers to analyze the interaction between groundwater and sinuous streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Boon, W. M.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    and errors. In addition, when streams are sinuous, groundwater flow is truly 3-dimensional, with strong vertical flows and sharp changes in horizontal direction. Here 3 different approaches to simulating free surface aquifers are compared for simulating groundwater-stream interaction. The aim of the models......: a saturated-unsaturated flow model, moving mesh, and a new coordinate transformation. The saturated/unsaturated model couples the saturated groundwater flow equation with a solution of Richards equation. The moving mesh solves the saturated groundwater equation with a free surface and deformable numerical...... finite element mesh. Finally, the new coordinate transform method employs a coordinate transform so that the saturated groundwater flow equation is solved on a fixed finite element mesh with a stationary free surface. This paper describes in detail the new coordinate transform method. It employs...

  2. Building Atomic Models of the Ion Channels Based on Low Resolution Electron Microscopy Maps and Homology Modeling. (United States)

    Novoseletsky, Valery; Malak, Olfat A; Loussouarn, Gildas; Sokolova, Olga S


    Voltage-gated potassium channels play pivotal roles in excitable and non-excitable cells. For many decades, structural properties and molecular mechanisms of these channels were inferred from functional observations. At the turn of the twenty-first century, structural biology revealed major aspects in the structural basis of ion channel organization, permeation, and gating. Among the available tools, homology modeling associated with low resolution microscopy helps in delineating the different structural elements of voltage-gated channels. Here, we describe in detail the methodology of homology modeling, using the 3D structure of the Kv2.1ΔCTA ion channel as a reference.

  3. Streamed Sampling on Dynamic data as Support for Classification Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sukoco


    Full Text Available Data mining process on dynamically changing data have several problems, such as unknown data size and skew of the data is always changing. Random sampling method commonly applied for extracting general synopsis from very large database. In this research, Vitter’s reservoir algorithm is used to retrieve k records of data from the database and put into the sample. Sample is used as input for classification task in data mining. Sample type is backing sample and it saved as table contains value of id and priority. Priority indicates the probability of how long data retained in the sample. Kullback-Leibler divergence applied to measure the similarity between population and sample distribution. Result of this research is showed that continuously taken samples randomly is possible when transaction occurs. Kullback-Leibler divergence is a very good measure to maintain similar distribution between the population and the sample with interval from 0 to 0.0001. Sample results are always up to date on new transactions with similar skewnes. In purpose of classification task, decision tree model is improved significantly when the changing occurred.

  4. Modeling and characterization of different channels based on human body communication. (United States)

    Jingzhen Li; Zedong Nie; Yuhang Liu; Lei Wang


    Human body communication (HBC), which uses the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signals, provides a prospective communication solution for body sensor networks (BSNs). In this paper, an inhomogeneous model which includes the tissue layers of skin, fat, and muscle is proposed to study the propagation characteristics of different HBC channels. Specifically, the HBC channels, namely, the on-body to on-body (OB-OB)channel, on-body to in-body (OB-IB) channel, in-body to on-body (IB-OB) channel, and in-body to in-body (IB-IB)channel, are studied over different frequencies (from 1MHz to 100MHz) through numerical simulations with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results show that the gain of OB-IB channel and IB-OB channel is almost the same. The gain of IB-IB channel is greater than other channels in the frequency range 1MHz to 70MHz. In addition, the gain of all channels is associated with the channel length and communication frequency. The simulations are verified by experimental measurements in a porcine tissue sample. The results show that the simulations are in agreement with the measurements.

  5. Trail Creek II: Modeling Flow and E. Coli Concentrations in a Small Urban Stream using SWAT (United States)

    Radcliffe, D. E.; Saintil, T.


    Pathogens are one of the leading causes of stream and river impairment in the State of Georgia. The common presence of fecal bacteria is driven by several factors including rapid population growth stressing pre-existing and ageing infrastructure, urbanization and poor planning, increase percent imperviousness, urban runoff, municipal discharges, sewage, pet/wildlife waste and leaky septic tanks. The Trail Creek watershed, located in Athens-Clarke County, Georgia covers about 33 km2. Stream segments within Trail Creek violate the GA standard due to high levels of fecal coliform bacteria. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modeling software was used to predict E. coli bacteria concentrations during baseflow and stormflow. Census data from the county was used for human and animal population estimates and the Fecal Indicator Tool to generate the number of colony forming units of E. Coli for each source. The model was calibrated at a daily time step with one year of monitored streamflow and E. coli bacteria data using SWAT-CUP and the SUFI2 algorithm. To simulate leaking sewer lines, we added point sources in the five subbasins in the SWAT model with the greatest length of sewer line within 50 m of the stream. The flow in the point sources were set to 5% of the stream flow and the bacteria count set to that of raw sewage (30,000 cfu/100 mL). The calibrated model showed that the average load during 2003-2013 at the watershed outlet was 13 million cfu per month. Using the calibrated model, we simulated scenarios that assumed leaking sewers were repaired in one of the five subbasins with point sources. The reduction ranged from 10 to 46%, with the largest reduction in subbasin in the downtown area. Future modeling work will focus on the use of green infrastructure to address sources of bacteria.

  6. Modeled hydrologic metrics show links between hydrology and the functional composition of stream assemblages. (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Yuan, Lester L


    Flow alteration is widespread in streams, but current understanding of the effects of differences in flow characteristics on stream biological communities is incomplete. We tested hypotheses about the effect of variation in hydrology on stream communities by using generalized additive models to relate watershed information to the values of different flow metrics at gauged sites. Flow models accounted for 54-80% of the spatial variation in flow metric values among gauged sites. We then used these models to predict flow metrics in 842 ungauged stream sites in the mid-Atlantic United States that were sampled for fish, macroinvertebrates, and environmental covariates. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages were characterized in terms of a suite of metrics that quantified aspects of community composition, diversity, and functional traits that were expected to be associated with differences in flow characteristics. We related modeled flow metrics to biological metrics in a series of stressor-response models. Our analyses identified both drying and base flow instability as explaining 30-50% of the observed variability in fish and invertebrate community composition. Variations in community composition were related to variations in the prevalence of dispersal traits in invertebrates and trophic guilds in fish. The results demonstrate that we can use statistical models to predict hydrologic conditions at bioassessment sites, which, in turn, we can use to estimate relationships between flow conditions and biological characteristics. This analysis provides an approach to quantify the effects of spatial variation in flow metrics using readily available biomonitoring data. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Performance Evaluation of UML2-Modeled Embedded Streaming Applications with System-Level Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpinen Tero


    Full Text Available This article presents an efficient method to capture abstract performance model of streaming data real-time embedded systems (RTESs. Unified Modeling Language version 2 (UML2 is used for the performance modeling and as a front-end for a tool framework that enables simulation-based performance evaluation and design-space exploration. The adopted application meta-model in UML resembles the Kahn Process Network (KPN model and it is targeted at simulation-based performance evaluation. The application workload modeling is done using UML2 activity diagrams, and platform is described with structural UML2 diagrams and model elements. These concepts are defined using a subset of the profile for Modeling and Analysis of Realtime and Embedded (MARTE systems from OMG and custom stereotype extensions. The goal of the performance modeling and simulation is to achieve early estimates on task response times, processing element, memory, and on-chip network utilizations, among other information that is used for design-space exploration. As a case study, a video codec application on multiple processors is modeled, evaluated, and explored. In comparison to related work, this is the first proposal that defines transformation between UML activity diagrams and streaming data application workload meta models and successfully adopts it for RTES performance evaluation.

  8. Watershed regressions for pesticides (warp) models for predicting atrazine concentrations in Corn Belt streams (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.


    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, are improved for application to the United States (U.S.) Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62% of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites. Model predictions were within a factor of 5 of the observed concentration statistic for over 90% of the model-development sites. The WARP-CB residuals and uncertainty are lower than those of the National WARP model for the same sites. Although atrazine-use intensity is the most important explanatory variable in the National WARP models, it is not a significant variable in the WARP-CB models. The WARP-CB models provide improved predictions for Corn Belt streams draining watersheds with atrazine-use intensities of 17 kg/km2 of watershed area or greater.

  9. Two-index mathematical model of channels distribution in multichannel mesh networks 802.11


    Lemeshko, Alexandr; Garkusha, Sergey; Abed, Ahmed Hassan


    The article introduces a two-index model of the distribution channels in the multiradio multichannel wireless mesh networking (MR-MC WMN) standard IEEE 802.11. The model describes the process of distribution channels in both homogeneous and in heterogeneous MR-MC WMN.

  10. Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.


    channel model represents an enhancement of the existing IEEE 802.15.3a/4a PAN channel model, where antenna and user-proximity effects are not included. Our investigations showed that significant variations of the received wideband power and time-delay signal clustering are possible due the human body...

  11. New model for burnout prediction in channels of various cross-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobkov, V.P.; Kozina, N.V.; Vinogrado, V.N.; Zyatnina, O.A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Kaluga (Russian Federation)


    The model developed to predict a critical heat flux (CHF) in various channels is presented together with the results of data analysis. A model is the realization of relative method of CHF describing based on the data for round tube and on the system of correction factors. The results of data description presented here are for rectangular and triangular channels, annuli and rod bundles.

  12. Artificial intelligence based models for stream-flow forecasting: 2000-2015 (United States)

    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher; El-shafie, Ahmed; Jaafar, Othman; Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin; Sayl, Khamis Naba


    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has increased since the middle of the 20th century as seen in its application in a wide range of engineering and science problems. The last two decades, for example, has seen a dramatic increase in the development and application of various types of AI approaches for stream-flow forecasting. Generally speaking, AI has exhibited significant progress in forecasting and modeling non-linear hydrological applications and in capturing the noise complexity in the dataset. This paper explores the state-of-the-art application of AI in stream-flow forecasting, focusing on defining the data-driven of AI, the advantages of complementary models, as well as the literature and their possible future application in modeling and forecasting stream-flow. The review also identifies the major challenges and opportunities for prospective research, including, a new scheme for modeling the inflow, a novel method for preprocessing time series frequency based on Fast Orthogonal Search (FOS) techniques, and Swarm Intelligence (SI) as an optimization approach.

  13. Internal twist drill coolant channel modelling using computational fluid dynamics


    Johns, AS; Hewson, RW; Merson, E; Summers, JL; Thompson, HM


    Coolant technologies have become increasingly used within twist-drill machining. Internal helical coolant channels are a common means of delivering high-pressure coolant directly to the cutting edge to increase the transfer of heat away from the cutting edge and to aid with chip evacuation. However, the complex behaviour of Coriolis and centrifugal forces generated by large angular velocities and the curvature of the coiled channel govern the highly turbulent flow of coolant. This research us...

  14. A daily salt balance model for stream salinity generation processes following partial clearing from forest to pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bari


    Full Text Available We developed a coupled salt and water balance model to represent the stream salinity generation process following land use changes. The conceptual model consists of three main components with five stores: (i Dry, Wet and Subsurface Stores, (ii a saturated Groundwater Store and (iii a transient Stream zone Store. The Dry and Wet Stores represent the salt and water movement in the unsaturated zone and also the near-stream dynamic saturated areas, responsible for the generation of salt flux associated with surface runoff and interflow. The unsaturated Subsurface Store represents the salt bulge and the salt fluxes. The Groundwater Store comes into play when the groundwater level is at or above the stream invert and quantifies the salt fluxes to the Stream zone Store. In the stream zone module, we consider a 'free mixing' between the salt brought about by surface runoff, interflow and groundwater flow. Salt accumulation on the surface due to evaporation and its flushing by initial winter flow is also incorporated in the Stream zone Store. The salt balance model was calibrated sequentially following successful application of the water balance model. Initial salt stores were estimated from measured salt profile data. We incorporated two lumped parameters to represent the complex chemical processes like diffusion-dilution-dispersion and salt fluxes due to preferential flow. The model has performed very well in simulating stream salinity generation processes observed at Ernies and Lemon experimental catchments in south west of Western Australia. The simulated and observed stream salinity and salt loads compare very well throughout the study period with NSE of 0.7 and 0.4 for Ernies and Lemon catchment respectively. The model slightly over predicted annual stream salt load by 6.2% and 6.8%.

  15. Pricing Model for Dual Sales Channel with Promotion Effect Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuiri Zhou


    Full Text Available We focus on the pricing strategy of a dual sales channel member when his/her online retailer faces an upcoming overloaded express delivery service due to the sales peak of online shopping, especially referring to the occurring affairs in China. We characterize the pricing problem of the dual selling channel system as a two-period game. When the price discount is only provided by the online seller, we find that the prices of the traditional channel and the online channel in the two periods are higher while the overloaded degree of express delivery is lower and the overloaded delivery services can decrease the profits of both channels. When the price discounts are provided by both traditional and online sellers, we find that the derived Nash price equilibrium of both channels includes five possible combinations of prices. Both traditional and online sellers will choose their price strategies, respectively, according to their cost advantages which are affected by the overloaded degree of express delivery.

  16. Stochastic differential equation models for ion channel noise in Hodgkin-Huxley neurons (United States)

    Goldwyn, Joshua H.; Imennov, Nikita S.; Famulare, Michael; Shea-Brown, Eric


    The random transitions of ion channels between conducting and nonconducting states generate a source of internal fluctuations in a neuron, known as channel noise. The standard method for modeling the states of ion channels nonlinearly couples continuous-time Markov chains to a differential equation for voltage. Beginning with the work of R. F. Fox and Y.-N. Lu [Phys. Rev. EMTHDE91539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.49.3421 49, 3421 (1994)], there have been attempts to generate simpler models that use stochastic differential equation (SDEs) to approximate the stochastic spiking activity produced by Markov chain models. Recent numerical investigations, however, have raised doubts that SDE models can capture the stochastic dynamics of Markov chain models.We analyze three SDE models that have been proposed as approximations to the Markov chain model: one that describes the states of the ion channels and two that describe the states of the ion channel subunits. We show that the former channel-based approach can capture the distribution of channel noise and its effects on spiking in a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model to a degree not previously demonstrated, but the latter two subunit-based approaches cannot. Our analysis provides intuitive and mathematical explanations for why this is the case. The temporal correlation in the channel noise is determined by the combinatorics of bundling subunits into channels, but the subunit-based approaches do not correctly account for this structure. Our study confirms and elucidates the findings of previous numerical investigations of subunit-based SDE models. Moreover, it presents evidence that Markov chain models of the nonlinear, stochastic dynamics of neural membranes can be accurately approximated by SDEs. This finding opens a door to future modeling work using SDE techniques to further illuminate the effects of ion channel fluctuations on electrically active cells.

  17. Hydraulic and Vegetative Models of Historic Environmental Conditions Isolate the Role of Riparian Vegetation in Inducing Channel Change (United States)

    Manners, R.; Schmidt, J. C.; Wheaton, J. M.


    An enduring question in geomorphology is the role of riparian vegetation in inducing or exacerbating channel narrowing. It is typically difficult to isolate the role of vegetation in causing channel narrowing, because narrowing typically occurs where there are changes in stream flow, sediment supply, the invasion of non-native vegetation, and sometimes climate change. Therefore, linkages between changes in vegetation communities and changes in channel form are often difficult to identify. We took a mechanistic approach to isolate the role of the invasive riparian shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp) in influencing channel narrowing in the Colorado River basin. Detailed geomorphic reconstructions of two sites on the Yampa and Green Rivers, respectively, in Dinosaur National Monument show that channel narrowing has been progressive and that tamarisk encroachment has also occurred; at the same time, dams have been constructed, diversions increased, and spring snowmelt runoff has been occurring earlier in spring. We simulated hydraulic and sediment transport conditions during the two largest floods of record -- 1984 and 2011. Two-dimensional hydraulic models were built to reflect these conditions and allowed us to perform sensitivity tests to determine the dominant determinants of the observed patterns of erosion and deposition. Channel and floodplain topography were constrained through detailed stratigraphic analysis, including precise dating of deposits based on dating of buried tamarisk plants in a series of floodplain trenches and pits. We also used historical air photos to establish past channel topography. To parameterize the influence of riparian vegetation, we developed a model that links detailed terrestrial laser scan (TLS) measurements of stand structure and its corresponding hydraulic roughness at the patch scale to reach-scale riparian vegetation patterns determined from airborne LiDaR (ALS). This model, in conjunction with maps of the ages and establishment

  18. Modelling the Emergence and Dynamics of Perceptual Organisation in Auditory Streaming (United States)

    Mill, Robert W.; Bőhm, Tamás M.; Bendixen, Alexandra; Winkler, István; Denham, Susan L.


    Many sound sources can only be recognised from the pattern of sounds they emit, and not from the individual sound events that make up their emission sequences. Auditory scene analysis addresses the difficult task of interpreting the sound world in terms of an unknown number of discrete sound sources (causes) with possibly overlapping signals, and therefore of associating each event with the appropriate source. There are potentially many different ways in which incoming events can be assigned to different causes, which means that the auditory system has to choose between them. This problem has been studied for many years using the auditory streaming paradigm, and recently it has become apparent that instead of making one fixed perceptual decision, given sufficient time, auditory perception switches back and forth between the alternatives—a phenomenon known as perceptual bi- or multi-stability. We propose a new model of auditory scene analysis at the core of which is a process that seeks to discover predictable patterns in the ongoing sound sequence. Representations of predictable fragments are created on the fly, and are maintained, strengthened or weakened on the basis of their predictive success, and conflict with other representations. Auditory perceptual organisation emerges spontaneously from the nature of the competition between these representations. We present detailed comparisons between the model simulations and data from an auditory streaming experiment, and show that the model accounts for many important findings, including: the emergence of, and switching between, alternative organisations; the influence of stimulus parameters on perceptual dominance, switching rate and perceptual phase durations; and the build-up of auditory streaming. The principal contribution of the model is to show that a two-stage process of pattern discovery and competition between incompatible patterns can account for both the contents (perceptual organisations) and the

  19. Nonlinear regression modeling of nutrient loads in streams: A Bayesian approach (United States)

    Qian, S.S.; Reckhow, K.H.; Zhai, J.; McMahon, G.


    A Bayesian nonlinear regression modeling method is introduced and compared with the least squares method for modeling nutrient loads in stream networks. The objective of the study is to better model spatial correlation in river basin hydrology and land use for improving the model as a forecasting tool. The Bayesian modeling approach is introduced in three steps, each with a more complicated model and data error structure. The approach is illustrated using a data set from three large river basins in eastern North Carolina. Results indicate that the Bayesian model better accounts for model and data uncertainties than does the conventional least squares approach. Applications of the Bayesian models for ambient water quality standards compliance and TMDL assessment are discussed. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Stream Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    The development of the digital computer has been of great importance for the hydraulic engineer. Through many centuries hydraulic engineering was based on practical know-how, obtained through many hundred years experience. Gradually mathematical theories were introduced and accepted among the eng...

  1. Evaluation and comparison of the operational Bristol Channel Model storm surge suite


    Williams, J.A.; Horsburgh, K.J.


    Due to its exceptional tidal range, complex geometry, and exposure to flood risk the operational storm surge modelling system for the Bristol Channel (running four times each day as part of the UK Coastal Monitoring and Forecasting service) comprises a number of nested hydrodynamic models. Forecasts for the region are available from the shelf-wide storm surge model, CS3X, as well as from two finer-scale models of the Bristol Channel itself (the Bristol Channel model, BCM, and the Severn River...

  2. P2-8: Applications of the Magnocellular Advantage Model: Developmental Aspects of Dorsal Stream Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Murphy


    Full Text Available Differential timing of the development of the dorsal and ventral visual streams is well accepted, with the latency of the M pathway to V1 not reaching adult levels until 10 years of age (Crewther et al., 1999 Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 49 123–128. This could have major consequences for how children perceive and attend to the environment. Thus, how the later development of the dorsal visual stream impacts the transient visual processing abilities in children was investigated within a framework of the Magnocellular Advantage model of the mature visual system. Typically developing participants (N= 110 grouped as Younger Children (4–7 yrs, Older Children (10–13 yrs, and Adults (18–30 yrs completed a series of customised computer motion and form coherence tasks designed to provide a functional measure of dorsal/ventral pathway performance. Dorsal involvement in a traditionally ventrally dominated object-recognition task was achieved by biasing onset/offset conditions to preferentially stimulate the temporal characteristics of both pathways. Adults performed better than children on all tasks except motion coherence thresholds. A significant improvement in performance was seen between younger children and older groups on dorsal tasks (Motion Coherence and Navon Global Accuracy but not on all ventral tasks (Form Coherence and Navon Local Exposure Time. Results support earlier psychophysical and electrophysiological investigations indicating that the dorsal stream matures later than the ventral stream. Therefore, in young children the underdeveloped dorsal visual pathway may rely more on slower ventral stream visual processing, which has important implications for the perception and attentional processing of transient events.

  3. An evaluation of stream characteristics in glacial versus fluvial process domains in the Colorado Front Range (United States)

    Livers, Bridget; Wohl, Ellen


    Many of the conceptual models developed for river networks emphasize progressive downstream trends in morphology and processes. Such models can fall short in describing the longitudinal variability associated with low-order streams. A more thorough understanding of the influence of local variability of process and form in low-order stream channels is required to remotely and accurately predict channel geometry characteristics for management purposes, and in this context designating process domains is useful. We define process domains with respect to glacial versus fluvial valleys and lateral confinement of valley segments. We evaluated local variability of process domains in the Colorado Front Range by systematically following streams, categorizing them into stream morphologic type and process domain, and evaluating a number of channel geometry characteristics. We evaluated 111 stream reaches for significant differences in channel geometry among stream types and process domains, location and clustering of stream types on a slope-drainage area (S-A) plot and downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. Although individual channel geometry variables differed significantly between individual stream types in glacial and fluvial process domains, no single channel geometry variable consistently differentiated all stream types between process domains. Hypothetical S-A boundaries between bedrock- and alluvial-bed channels proposed in previous studies did not reliably divide bedrock and alluvial reaches for our study sites. Although downstream hydraulic geometry relationships are well-defined using all reaches in the study area, reaches in glacial valleys display much more variability in channel geometry characteristics than reaches in fluvial valleys, less pronounced downstream hydraulic geometry relationships, and greater scatter of reaches on an S-A plot. Local spatial variability associated with process domains at the reach scale (101-103 m) overrides progressive

  4. Coupling MAST-1D, a sediment routing model for channel-floodplain complexes, with channel migration relationships to predict reach-averaged river morphodynamics. Preliminary results (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Eke, E. C.; Lauer, J. W.


    Sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain can occur via meander migration, overbank deposition or erosion, and changes in channel geometry. Depending on channel and floodplain history, floodplains can act either as sources or sinks of bed material and/or wash load. Here we present preliminary modeling results that explicitly account for the feedbacks between the changes in floodplain geometry and sediment size distribution and the changes in channel geometry and migration. These results are obtained by coupling the Morphodynamics And Sediment Tracers in 1D (MAST-1D) program with the results of meander migration studies linking the bankfull flow depth and mean velocity to channel migration, sinuosity and channel geometry. MAST-1D is a numerical model built to describe grain size specific transport of sediment and tracers and the long-term - i.e. decadal and longer - evolution of channel floodplain complexes. MAST-1D differs from other 1D numerical models because it allows for 1) uneven exchange of sediment and tracers between the river channel and the floodplain, 2) temporal changes in channel geometry, bed elevation and floodplain thickness, which result in changes in the channel hydraulic capacity, and 3) temporal changes of size distribution and tracer content in the floodplain, in the load and in the underlying substrate. Under conditions of constant base level, water and sediment supply, the system evolves toward a steady state wherein the amount of sediment deposited through point bar deposition and overbank sedimentation is balanced by the erosion of sediment from the floodplain through lateral migration. The current formulation couples MAST-1D with empirical channel migration relationships that link bankfull flow depth and mean velocity to channel migration, sinuosity and channel geometry. Future development of this preliminary work will involve a fully coupled MAST-1D model with a standard meander migration model that will allow for the building

  5. A model for the hysteresis observed in gating of lysenin channels. (United States)

    Krueger, Eric; Al Faouri, Radwan; Fologea, Daniel; Henry, Ralph; Straub, David; Salamo, Greg


    The pore-forming toxin lysenin self-inserts to form conductance channels in natural and artificial lipid membranes containing sphingomyelin. The inserted channels exhibit voltage regulation and hysteresis of the macroscopic current during the application of positive periodic voltage stimuli. We explored the bi-stable behavior of lysenin channels and present a theoretical approach for the mechanism of the hysteresis to explain its static and dynamic components. This investigation develops a model to incorporate the role of charge accumulation on the bilayer lipid membrane in influencing the channel conduction state. Our model is supported by experimental results and also provides insight into the temperature dependence of lysenin channel hysteresis. Through this work we gain perspective into the mechanism of how the response of a channel protein is determined by previous stimuli. © 2013.

  6. Performance Modeling in CUDA Streams - A Means for High-Throughput Data Processing (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yu, Di; Kumar, Anand; Tu, Yi-Cheng


    Push-based database management system (DBMS) is a new type of data processing software that streams large volume of data to concurrent query operators. The high data rate of such systems requires large computing power provided by the query engine. In our previous work, we built a push-based DBMS named G-SDMS to harness the unrivaled computational capabilities of modern GPUs. A major design goal of G-SDMS is to support concurrent processing of heterogenous query processing operations and enable resource allocation among such operations. Understanding the performance of operations as a result of resource consumption is thus a premise in the design of G-SDMS. With NVIDIA’s CUDA framework as the system implementation platform, we present our recent work on performance modeling of CUDA kernels running concurrently under a runtime mechanism named CUDA stream. Specifically, we explore the connection between performance and resource occupancy of compute-bound kernels and develop a model that can predict the performance of such kernels. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth anatomy of the CUDA stream mechanism and summarize the main kernel scheduling disciplines in it. Our models and derived scheduling disciplines are verified by extensive experiments using synthetic and real-world CUDA kernels. PMID:26566545

  7. Influences of wildfire and channel reorganization on spatial and temporal variation in stream temperature and the distribution of fish and amphibians (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Charlie H. Luce; Bruce E. Rieman


    Wildfire can influence a variety of stream ecosystem properties. We studied stream temperatures in relation to wildfire in small streams in the Boise River Basin, located in central Idaho, USA. To examine the spatio-temporal aspects of temperature in relation to wildfire, we employed three approaches: a pre­post fire comparison of temperatures between two sites (one...

  8. Modelling catchment management impact on in-stream phosphorus loads in northern Victoria. (United States)

    Vigiak, O; Rattray, D; McInnes, J; Newham, L T H; Roberts, A M


    Phosphorus pollution severely impairs the water quality of rivers in Australia and worldwide. Conceptual models have proved useful to assess management impact on phosphorus loads, particularly in data-sparse environments. This paper develops and evaluates the coupling of a point-scale model (HowLeaky2008) to a catchment scale model (CatchMODS) to enhance modelling of farm management impacts on in-stream phosphorus loads. The model was tested in two adjacent catchments in northern Victoria (Avon-Richardson and Avoca), Australia. After calibration of the in-stream attenuation parameter against measurements at gauging stations, the model simulated specific annual phosphorus loads across the catchments well (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.52 in the Avon-Richardson and 0.83 for the Avoca catchment). Phosphorus loads at both catchment outlets under current conditions were estimated at 7 t y(-1) and were dominated by field exports. Changes to farm management practices, i.e. the use of perennial pastures in grazing systems and zero-tillage in cropping systems were estimated to reduce phosphorus load by 31% in the Avon-Richardson catchment and 19% in the Avoca catchment, relative to current practices (annual pasture and minimum tillage). The model afforded a major improvement in conceptual modelling by explicit simulation of the impacts of soil and climatic conditions on field-scale exports and by placing them in the context of landscape processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hierarchical multi-taxa models inform riparian vs. hydrologic restoration of urban streams in a permeable landscape. (United States)

    Gwinn, Daniel C; Middleton, Jen A; Beesley, Leah; Close, Paul; Quinton, Belinda; Storer, Tim; Davies, Peter M


    The degradation of streams caused by urbanization tends to follow predictable patterns; however, there is a growing appreciation for heterogeneity in stream response to urbanization due to the local geoclimatic context. Furthermore, there is building evidence that streams in mildly sloped, permeable landscapes respond uncharacteristically to urban stress calling for a more nuanced approach to restoration. We evaluated the relative influence of local-scale riparian characteristics and catchment-scale imperviousness on the macroinvertebrate assemblages of streams in the flat, permeable urban landscape of Perth, Western Australia. Using a hierarchical multi-taxa model, we predicted the outcomes of stylized stream restoration strategies to increase the riparian integrity at the local scale or decrease the influences of imperviousness at the catchment scale. In the urban streams of Perth, we show that local-scale riparian restoration can influence the structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages to a greater degree than managing the influences of catchment-scale imperviousness. We also observed an interaction between the effect of riparian integrity and imperviousness such that the effect of increased riparian integrity was enhanced at lower levels of catchment imperviousness. This study represents one of few conducted in flat, permeable landscapes and the first aimed at informing urban stream restoration in Perth, adding to the growing appreciation for heterogeneity of the Urban Stream Syndrome and its importance for urban stream restoration. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Modelling of interactions between variable mass and density solid particles and swirling gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardach-Święcicka, I; Kardaś, D; Pozorski, J


    The aim of this work is to investigate the solid particles - gas interactions. For this purpose, numerical modelling was carried out by means of a commercial code for simulations of two-phase dispersed flows with the in-house models accounting for mass and density change of solid phase. In the studied case the particles are treated as spherical moving grains carried by a swirling stream of hot gases. Due to the heat and mass transfer between gas and solid phase, the particles are losing their mass and they are changing their volume. Numerical simulations were performed for turbulent regime, using two methods for turbulence modelling: RANS and LES.

  11. Factors influencing wood mobilization in streams (United States)

    Merten, Eric; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce


    Natural pieces of wood provide a variety of ecosystem functions in streams including habitat, organic matter retention, increased hyporheic exchange and transient storage, and enhanced hydraulic and geomorphic heterogeneity. Wood mobilization is a critical process in determining the residence time of wood. We documented the characteristics and locations of 865 natural wood pieces (>0.05 m in diameter for a portion >1 m in length) in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. We determined the locations of the pieces again after an overbank stormflow event to determine the factors that influenced mobilization of stationary wood pieces in natural streams. Seven of 11 potential predictor variables were identified with multiple logistic regression as significant to mobilization: burial, effective depth, ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio), bracing, rootwad presence, downstream force ratio, and draft ratio. The final model (P r2 = 0.39) indicated that wood mobilization under natural conditions is a complex function of both mechanical factors (burial, length ratio, bracing, rootwad presence, draft ratio) and hydraulic factors (effective depth, downstream force ratio). If stable pieces are a goal for stream management then features such as partial burial, low effective depth, high length relative to channel width, bracing against other objects (e.g., stream banks, trees, rocks, or larger wood pieces), and rootwads are desirable. Using the model equation from this study, stewards of natural resources can better manage in-stream wood for the benefit of stream ecosystems.

  12. Factors influencing wood mobilization in Minnesota streams (United States)

    Merten, Eric; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.


    Natural pieces of wood provide a variety of ecosystem functions in streams including habitat, organic matter retention, increased hyporheic exchange and transient storage, and enhanced hydraulic and geomorphic heterogeneity. Wood mobilization is a critical process in determining the residence time of wood. We documented the characteristics and locations of 865 natural wood pieces (>0.05 m in diameter for a portion >1 m in length) in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. We determined the locations of the pieces again after an overbank stormflow event to determine the factors that influenced mobilization of stationary wood pieces in natural streams. Seven of 11 potential predictor variables were identified with multiple logistic regression as significant to mobilization: burial, effective depth, ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio), bracing, rootwad presence, downstream force ratio, and draft ratio. The final model (P< 0.001, r2 = 0.39) indicated that wood mobilization under natural conditions is a complex function of both mechanical factors (burial, length ratio, bracing, rootwad presence, draft ratio) and hydraulic factors (effective depth, downstream force ratio). If stable pieces are a goal for stream management then features such as partial burial, low effective depth, high length relative to channel width, bracing against other objects (e.g., stream banks, trees, rocks, or larger wood pieces), and rootwads are desirable. Using the model equation from this study, stewards of natural resources can better manage in-stream wood for the benefit of stream ecosystems.

  13. Application of Species distribution models and River2D to assess riverine ecosystems: A case of Sicyopterus japonicus in Datuan stream (United States)

    Chu, Po-Ting


    Riverine ecosystems are usually under the risk of anthropogenic contamination and climate change. With an eye to improving this situation, it is imperative to formulate corresponding policies. To provide the government with better policy-making standard, understanding of the future development of the ecosystems is quite necessary. Species distribution models (SDMs) is an ideal tool to understand the relationship between environmental variables and species occurrence.There are various species distribution models (SDMs) that have been developed and used in stream ecology. However, consensus on the selection among different models has not yet been reached. The results of inappropriate model selection include increasing uncertainty and high occurrence of prediction errors. How to choose the model that best fits the scenario among many is, therefore, of paramount importance. This study collects river channel data and Sicyopterus Japonic data in Datuan stream. We uses River2D as an efficient tool for simulating the two-dimensional flow condition of a stream segment. Then we combine six SDMs with the outputs of River2D and quantify the relationship between environmental variables and species occurrence by using six SDMs, which are respectively generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM), random forest model (RF), support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network model (ANN), and ensemble model (the average of other five SDMs). We randomly split the fish data to train(70%) and validate(30%), and each model repeats this step for 1000 times. Finally, through Akaike information criterion, root-mean-square error and Kullback-Leibler divergence, we can know which model has better performance. The results demonstrated that the accuracy of River2D is greatly affected by measurement , and that Sicyopterus Japonic likes areas where the water is deep. Moreover, through the result, it is observed that ensemble model outperforms the others. Therefore, next

  14. Analysis of the probability of channel satisfactory state in P2P live ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a model based on user behaviour of P2P live streaming systems was developed in order to analyse one of the key QoS parameter of such systems, i.e. the probability of channel-satisfactory state, the impact of upload bandwidths and channels' popularity on the probability of channel-satisfactory state was also ...

  15. analysis of the probability of channel satisfactory state in p2p live

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. In this paper a model based on user behaviour of P2P live streaming systems was developed in order to analyse one of the key QoS parameter of such systems, i.e. the probability of channel-satisfactory state, the impact of upload bandwidths and channels' popularity on the probability of channel-satisfactory ...

  16. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. IV. Improved Two-stream Radiative Transfer for the Treatment of Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Kevin; Kitzmann, Daniel


    We present a novel generalization of the two-stream method of radiative transfer, which allows for the accurate treatment of radiative transfer in the presence of strong infrared scattering by aerosols. We prove that this generalization involves only a simple modification of the coupling coefficients and transmission functions in the hemispheric two-stream method. This modification originates from allowing the ratio of the first Eddington coefficients to depart from unity. At the heart of the method is the fact that this ratio may be computed once and for all over the entire range of values of the single-scattering albedo and scattering asymmetry factor. We benchmark our improved two-stream method by calculating the fraction of flux reflected by a single atmospheric layer (the reflectivity) and comparing these calculations to those performed using a 32-stream discrete-ordinates method. We further compare our improved two-stream method to the two-stream source function (16 streams) and delta-Eddington methods, demonstrating that it is often more accurate at the order-of-magnitude level. Finally, we illustrate its accuracy using a toy model of the early Martian atmosphere hosting a cloud layer composed of carbon dioxide ice particles. The simplicity of implementation and accuracy of our improved two-stream method renders it suitable for implementation in three-dimensional general circulation models. In other words, our improved two-stream method has the ease of implementation of a standard two-stream method, but the accuracy of a 32-stream method.

  17. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. IV. Improved Two-stream Radiative Transfer for the Treatment of Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin; Kitzmann, Daniel, E-mail:, E-mail: [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland)


    We present a novel generalization of the two-stream method of radiative transfer, which allows for the accurate treatment of radiative transfer in the presence of strong infrared scattering by aerosols. We prove that this generalization involves only a simple modification of the coupling coefficients and transmission functions in the hemispheric two-stream method. This modification originates from allowing the ratio of the first Eddington coefficients to depart from unity. At the heart of the method is the fact that this ratio may be computed once and for all over the entire range of values of the single-scattering albedo and scattering asymmetry factor. We benchmark our improved two-stream method by calculating the fraction of flux reflected by a single atmospheric layer (the reflectivity) and comparing these calculations to those performed using a 32-stream discrete-ordinates method. We further compare our improved two-stream method to the two-stream source function (16 streams) and delta-Eddington methods, demonstrating that it is often more accurate at the order-of-magnitude level. Finally, we illustrate its accuracy using a toy model of the early Martian atmosphere hosting a cloud layer composed of carbon dioxide ice particles. The simplicity of implementation and accuracy of our improved two-stream method renders it suitable for implementation in three-dimensional general circulation models. In other words, our improved two-stream method has the ease of implementation of a standard two-stream method, but the accuracy of a 32-stream method.

  18. Channel responses to varying sediment input: A flume experiment modeled after Redwood Creek, California (United States)

    Madej, M.A.; Sutherland, D.G.; Lisle, T.E.; Pryor, B.


    At the reach scale, a channel adjusts to sediment supply and flow through mutual interactions among channel form, bed particle size, and flow dynamics that govern river bed mobility. Sediment can impair the beneficial uses of a river, but the timescales for studying recovery following high sediment loading in the field setting make flume experiments appealing. We use a flume experiment, coupled with field measurements in a gravel-bed river, to explore sediment transport, storage, and mobility relations under various sediment supply conditions. Our flume experiment modeled adjustments of channel morphology, slope, and armoring in a gravel-bed channel. Under moderate sediment increases, channel bed elevation increased and sediment output increased, but channel planform remained similar to pre-feed conditions. During the following degradational cycle, most of the excess sediment was evacuated from the flume and the bed became armored. Under high sediment feed, channel bed elevation increased, the bed became smoother, mid-channel bars and bedload sheets formed, and water surface slope increased. Concurrently, output increased and became more poorly sorted. During the last degradational cycle, the channel became armored and channel incision ceased before all excess sediment was removed. Selective transport of finer material was evident throughout the aggradational cycles and became more pronounced during degradational cycles as the bed became armored. Our flume results of changes in bed elevation, sediment storage, channel morphology, and bed texture parallel those from field surveys of Redwood Creek, northern California, which has exhibited channel bed degradation for 30??years following a large aggradation event in the 1970s. The flume experiment suggested that channel recovery in terms of reestablishing a specific morphology may not occur, but the channel may return to a state of balancing sediment supply and transport capacity.

  19. Evaluation of Internet channels and their impacts on Irish mobile operators' business models


    Ademowo, Adewale


    Ademowo, Adewale Adebayo Evaluation of Internet Channels and their impacts on Irish Mobile Operators' Business Models Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2013, 108 p. Mobile Technology and Business (Major in Information Systems Science), Master's Thesis Supervisor: Luoma, Eetu This study finds the impacts of the Internet channels on mobile operators’ business models with Ireland as a case. It reflects on the business model concepts, business models of mobile telecom indust...

  20. A communication channel model of the software process (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.


    Beginning research into a noisy communication channel analogy of software development process productivity, in order to establish quantifiable behavior and theoretical bounds is discussed. The analogy leads to a fundamental mathematical relationship between human productivity and the amount of information supplied by the developers, the capacity of the human channel for processing and transmitting information, the software product yield (object size) the work effort, requirements efficiency, tool and process efficiency, and programming environment advantage. An upper bound to productivity is derived that shows that software reuse is the only means that can lead to unbounded productivity growth; practical considerations of size and cost of reusable components may reduce this to a finite bound.

  1. Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Li; Whitehead, Paul; Siegel, Donald I.; Findlay, Stuart


    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. - Highlights: → A new Integrated Catchment Model (INCA-Cl) is developed to simulate salinity. → Road salt application is important in controlling stream chloride concentration. → INCA-Cl can be used to manage and forecast the input and transport of chloride to the rivers. - A newly developed integrated catchment model for salinity can be used to manage and forecast the inputs and transport of chloride to streams.

  2. Correspondence of biological condition models of California streams at statewide and regional scales (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Waite, Ian R.; Ode, Peter R; Mazor, Raphael D; Schiff, Kenneth C


    We used boosted regression trees (BRT) to model stream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic completeness, the ratio of observed to expected (O/E) taxa. Models were developed with and without exclusion of rare taxa at a site. BRT models are robust, requiring few assumptions compared with traditional modeling techniques such as multiple linear regression. The BRT models were constructed to provide baseline support to stressor delineation by identifying natural physiographic and human land use gradients affecting stream biological condition statewide and for eight ecological regions within the state, as part of the development of numerical biological objectives for California’s wadeable streams. Regions were defined on the basis of ecological, hydrologic, and jurisdictional factors and roughly corresponded with ecoregions. Physiographic and land use variables were derived from geographic information system coverages. The model for the entire state (n = 1,386) identified a composite measure of anthropogenic disturbance (the sum of urban, agricultural, and unmanaged roadside vegetation land cover) within the local watershed as the most important variable, explaining 56 % of the variance in O/E values. Models for individual regions explained between 51 and 84 % of the variance in O/E values. Measures of human disturbance were important in the three coastal regions. In the South Coast and Coastal Chaparral, local watershed measures of urbanization were the most important variables related to biological condition, while in the North Coast the composite measure of human disturbance at the watershed scale was most important. In the two mountain regions, natural gradients were most important, including slope, precipitation, and temperature. The remaining three regions had relatively small sample sizes (n ≤ 75 sites) and had models that gave mixed results. Understanding the spatial scale at which land use and land cover affect

  3. Channel selection in e-commerce age: A strategic analysis of co-op advertising models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Liu


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and compare two co-op advertising models: advertising model under traditional channel and co-op advertising model under dual channel, to select optimal channel structure to sell products for manufacturer and to derive optimal co-op advertising strategies for the manufacturer and the retailer.Design/methodology/approach: Stackelberg game theoretical is used to develop two co-op advertising models: co-op advertising model under traditional channel and co-op advertising model under dual channel. Then we compare the two models to select optimal channel structure to sell products for manufacturer and to derive optimal co-op advertising strategies for the manufacturer and the retailer. Furthermore, we analyze the impact of product web-fit on these optimal strategies and illustrate by some numeral examples. Based on our results, we provide some significant theories and managerial insights, and derive some probable paths of future research.Findings: We provide a framework for researching optimal co-op advertising strategies in a two-level supply chain considering different marketing channel structures. First, we discuss the traditional channel co-op adverting model and the dual channel co-op advertising model based on Stackelberg game theoretical, and we derive optimal co-op advertising strategies. Next, comparisons of these two channel structures are discussed and we find that the manufacturer always benefits from dual channel. But the retailer not always benefits from dual channel structure, and dual channel structure is better than retail channel with certain conditions. Also, the optimal co-op advertising strategies for the manufacturer and the retailer are obtained.Research limitations/implications: First, we focus on the aforementioned two channel structures; a further comparison with other channel structures can be investigated. Second, we ignore some factors that influence the demand of product

  4. Documentation of a daily mean stream temperature module—An enhancement to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (United States)

    Sanders, Michael J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Regan, R. Steven; Atkinson, R. Dwight


    A module for simulation of daily mean water temperature in a network of stream segments has been developed as an enhancement to the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). This new module is based on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Stream Network Temperature model, a mechanistic, one-dimensional heat transport model. The new module is integrated in PRMS. Stream-water temperature simulation is activated by selection of the appropriate input flags in the PRMS Control File and by providing the necessary additional inputs in standard PRMS input files.This report includes a comprehensive discussion of the methods relevant to the stream temperature calculations and detailed instructions for model input preparation.

  5. Estimation of stream temperature in support of fish production modeling under future climates in the Klamath River Basin (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.


    Stream temperature estimates under future climatic conditions were needed in support of fish production modeling for evaluation of effects of dam removal in the Klamath River Basin. To allow for the persistence of the Klamath River salmon fishery, an upcoming Secretarial Determination in 2012 will review potential changes in water quality and stream temperature to assess alternative scenarios, including dam removal. Daily stream temperature models were developed by using a regression model approach with simulated net solar radiation, vapor density deficit calculated on the basis of air temperature, and mean daily air temperature. Models were calibrated for 6 streams in the Lower, and 18 streams in the Upper, Klamath Basin by using measured stream temperatures for 1999-2008. The standard error of the y-estimate for the estimation of stream temperature for the 24 streams ranged from 0.36 to 1.64°C, with an average error of 1.12°C for all streams. The regression models were then used with projected air temperatures to estimate future stream temperatures for 2010-99. Although the mean change from the baseline historical period of 1950-99 to the projected future period of 2070-99 is only 1.2°C, it ranges from 3.4°C for the Shasta River to no change for Fall Creek and Trout Creek. Variability is also evident in the future with a mean change in temperature for all streams from the baseline period to the projected period of 2070-99 of only 1°C, while the range in stream temperature change is from 0 to 2.1°C. The baseline period, 1950-99, to which the air temperature projections were corrected, established the starting point for the projected changes in air temperature. The average measured daily air temperature for the calibration period 1999-2008, however, was found to be as much as 2.3°C higher than baseline for some rivers, indicating that warming conditions have already occurred in many areas of the Klamath River Basin, and that the stream temperature

  6. Underwater wireless optical communications: From system-level demonstrations to channel modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.


    In this paper, we discuss about recent experimental advances in underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) over various underwater channel water types using different modulation schemes as well as modelling and describing the statistical properties of turbulence-induced fading in underwater wireless optical channels using laser beam intensity fluctuations measurements.

  7. Localization Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks Using a New Statistical Channel Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi Alavijeh, Amir; Ramezani, Hossein; Karimi Alavijeh, Ali


    In this paper, a statistical channel model is proposed based on the second moment of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) in an outdoor communication channel. The medium under study is a grass field where the RSSI data are collected in different distances and orientations using a set of in-h...

  8. Vessel grounding in entrance channels: case studies and physical model tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tulsi, K


    Full Text Available off the channel slope and back into the entrance channel. The tests were conducted at the Coastal & Hydraulics Laboratory, of the CSIR in Stellenbosch, South Africa. Simulated vessel grounding was modelled in a hydraulic basin at a scale of 1:100. Over...

  9. Proton transport in a membrane protein channel: two-dimensional infrared spectrum modeling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, C.; Knoester, J.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.


    We model the two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectrum of a proton channel to investigate its applicability as a spectroscopy tool to study the proton transport process in biological systems. Proton transport processes in proton channels are involved in numerous fundamental biochemical reactions.

  10. Effects of neutron streaming and geometric models on molten fuel recriticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.P.


    A postulated fast reactor accident which has been extant for many years is a recriticality following partial or complete core melting. Independently of the cause or probability of such a situation, certain cases can be defined and some facets of the dynamic history of these cases can be described with more than enough accuracy for safety considerations. Calculations were made with the PAD code for systems with 10 vol percent voids and varying reactivity insertion rates. Additionally, two distinct geometric and equation of state models were investigated in conjunction with a model which accounted for possible neutron streaming reactivity effects. Significant results include fission and kinetic energy, temperatures and pressures

  11. Energy saving approaches for video streaming on smartphone based on QoE modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Luis Guillermo Martinez; Ickin, Selim; Fiedler, Markus


    In this paper, we study the influence of video stalling on QoE. We provide QoE models that are obtained in realistic scenarios on the smartphone, and provide energy-saving approaches for smartphone by leveraging the proposed QoE models in relation to energy. Results show that approximately 5J...... is saved in a 3 minutes video clip with an acceptable Mean Opinion Score (MOS) level when the video frames are skipped. If the video frames are not skipped, then it is suggested to avoid freezes during a video stream as the freezes highly increase the energy waste on the smartphones....

  12. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management. (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi


    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoir • Reservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.

  13. A time-varying subjective quality model for mobile streaming videos with stalling events (United States)

    Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C.


    Over-the-top mobile video streaming is invariably influenced by volatile network conditions which cause playback interruptions (stalling events), thereby impairing users' quality of experience (QoE). Developing models that can accurately predict users' QoE could enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for video streaming networks that reduce network operational costs while still delivering high-quality video content to the customers. Existing objective models that predict QoE are based on global video features, such as the number of stall events and their lengths, and are trained and validated on a small pool of ad hoc video datasets, most of which are not publicly available. The model we propose in this work goes beyond previous models as it also accounts for the fundamental effect that a viewer's recent level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction has on their overall viewing experience. In other words, the proposed model accounts for and adapts to the recency, or hysteresis effect caused by a stall event in addition to accounting for the lengths, frequency of occurrence, and the positions of stall events - factors that interact in a complex way to affect a user's QoE. On the recently introduced LIVE-Avvasi Mobile Video Database, which consists of 180 distorted videos of varied content that are afflicted solely with over 25 unique realistic stalling events, we trained and validated our model to accurately predict the QoE, attaining standout QoE prediction performance.

  14. k– fading channels: a finite state Markov modelling approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Priyanka


    Feb 7, 2018 ... 1. Introduction. It is very common to have fading channels with memory in mobile radio communications. Multipath propagation and shadowing from obstacles result in fading, and it impacts the performance of wireless communication systems. The statistics of the mobile radio signals are described by dif-.

  15. k– fading channels: a finite state Markov modelling approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Priyanka


    Feb 7, 2018 ... identical (i.e., when k = 1), and multipath cluster, l = 1, the SSP is maintained close to 0.1, which means that the channel fading characteristics greatly vary for all states. However, if l value is increased for low amplitude level states, the probability of being in a particular state is 0 and the fading effects are ...

  16. Adaptive Packet Combining Scheme in Three State Channel Model (United States)

    Saring, Yang; Bulo, Yaka; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak


    The two popular techniques of packet combining based error correction schemes are: Packet Combining (PC) scheme and Aggressive Packet Combining (APC) scheme. PC scheme and APC scheme have their own merits and demerits; PC scheme has better throughput than APC scheme, but suffers from higher packet error rate than APC scheme. The wireless channel state changes all the time. Because of this random and time varying nature of wireless channel, individual application of SR ARQ scheme, PC scheme and APC scheme can't give desired levels of throughput. Better throughput can be achieved if appropriate transmission scheme is used based on the condition of channel. Based on this approach, adaptive packet combining scheme has been proposed to achieve better throughput. The proposed scheme adapts to the channel condition to carry out transmission using PC scheme, APC scheme and SR ARQ scheme to achieve better throughput. Experimentally, it was observed that the error correction capability and throughput of the proposed scheme was significantly better than that of SR ARQ scheme, PC scheme and APC scheme.

  17. Analysis and evaluation of channel models : Simulations of alamethicin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, DP; Hess, B; Sansom, MSP


    Alamethicin is an antimicrobial peptide that forms stable channels with well-defined conductance levels. We have used extended molecular dynamics simulations of alamethicin bundles consisting of 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 helices in a palmitoyl-oleolyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer to evaluate and analyze

  18. The Effect of Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) on Ionosphere and Thermosphere during 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm: Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) Simulations (United States)

    Guo, J.; Deng, Y.; Zhang, D.; Lu, Y.; Sheng, C.


    Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) are incorporated into the non-hydrostatic Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM), revealing the complex effects on neutral dynamics and ion-neutral coupling processes. The intense westward ion stream could enhance the neutral zonal wind within the SAPS channel. Through neutral dynamics the neutrals then divide into two streams, one turns poleward and the other turns equatorward, forming a two-cell pattern in the SAPS-changed wind. The significant Joule heating induced by SAPS also leads to traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD) accompanied by traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID), increasing the total electron content (TEC) by 2-8 TECu in the mid-latitude ionosphere. We investigate the potential causes of the reported poleward wind surge during the St. Patrick's Day storm in 2015. It is confirmed that Coriolis force on the westward zonal wind can contribute the poleward wind during post-SAPS interval. In addition, the simulations imply that the sudden decrease of heating rate within auroral oval could result in a TAD propagating equatorward, which could also be responsible for the sudden poleward wind surge. This study highlights the complicated effects of SAPS on ion-neutral coupling and neutral dynamics.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation for statistical mechanics model of ion-channel cooperativity in cell membranes (United States)

    Erdem, Riza; Aydiner, Ekrem


    Voltage-gated ion channels are key molecules for the generation and propagation of electrical signals in excitable cell membranes. The voltage-dependent switching of these channels between conducting and nonconducting states is a major factor in controlling the transmembrane voltage. In this study, a statistical mechanics model of these molecules has been discussed on the basis of a two-dimensional spin model. A new Hamiltonian and a new Monte Carlo simulation algorithm are introduced to simulate such a model. It was shown that the results well match the experimental data obtained from batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in the squid giant axon using the cut-open axon technique.

  20. Design of Wideband MIMO Car-to-Car Channel Models Based on the Geometrical Street Scattering Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurilla Avazov


    Full Text Available We propose a wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO car-to-car (C2C channel model based on the geometrical street scattering model. Starting from the geometrical model, a MIMO reference channel model is derived under the assumption of single-bounce scattering in line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS propagation environments. The proposed channel model assumes an infinite number of scatterers, which are uniformly distributed in two rectangular areas located on both sides of the street. Analytical solutions are presented for the space-time-frequency cross-correlation function (STF-CCF, the two-dimensional (2D space CCF, the time-frequency CCF (TF-CCF, the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF, and the frequency correlation function (FCF. An efficient sum-of-cisoids (SOCs channel simulator is derived from the reference model. It is shown that the temporal ACF and the FCF of the SOC channel simulator fit very well to the corresponding correlation functions of the reference model. To validate the proposed channel model, the mean Doppler shift and the Doppler spread of the reference model have been matched to real-world measurement data. The comparison results demonstrate an excellent agreement between theory and measurements, which confirms the validity of the derived reference model. The proposed geometry-based channel simulator allows us to study the effect of nearby street scatterers on the performance of C2C communication systems.

  1. Modeling In-Stream Hydro-Geomorphic Processes After 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire, Colorado (United States)

    Nourbakhshbeidokhti, S.; Kinoshita, A. M.; Chin, A.


    Wildfires can have significant impacts on hydrologic and geomorphic processes. Post-fire sediment transport and runoff generation vary by burn severity, precipitation, and vegetation. A need exists to understand these variable relationships and improve parameterization of post-fire hydro-geomorphic models. This research aims to model pre-fire geomorphic and hydrologic processes in Williams Canyon, a watershed burned by the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado. We develop the KINematic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS) model with Geographical Information System (GIS)-based information, including a Digital Elevation Model, land cover, soil classification, precipitation, and soil burn severity for a local reference watershed that is unburned. We transfer these parameters to a channel reach in Williams Canyon (Williams Downstream) and adjust them toward post-fire conditions. We model runoff and sediment yield for several storms following the fire. Three post-fire terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) images (21 April 2013, 14 September 2013, and 16 September 2014) are used to estimate total erosion and deposition at the reach scale. We use the LiDAR-based information to calibrate the post-fire model. Preliminary modeling results indicate 3870-125 kg/ha of sediment in the Williams Downstream reach. The uncalibrated model overestimated (410% in the first year) and underestimated (87.2% in the second year) the erosion. Model calibration reduced the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of sediment to 0.016% for the first year and 0.09% for the second year. The parameters calibrated for the Williams Downstream channel reach will be used to develop models for seven other channel reaches within the area burned by the Waldo Canyon Fire, where the performance can be evaluated with LiDAR estimates. Results of this research will enhance our understanding of wildfire disturbance on coupled hydrologic and geomorphic processes. Findings will also improve model parameterization that can

  2. An Assessment of Mean Areal Precipitation Methods on Simulated Stream Flow: A SWAT Model Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Zeiger


    Full Text Available Accurate mean areal precipitation (MAP estimates are essential input forcings for hydrologic models. However, the selection of the most accurate method to estimate MAP can be daunting because there are numerous methods to choose from (e.g., proximate gauge, direct weighted average, surface-fitting, and remotely sensed methods. Multiple methods (n = 19 were used to estimate MAP with precipitation data from 11 distributed monitoring sites, and 4 remotely sensed data sets. Each method was validated against the hydrologic model simulated stream flow using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. SWAT was validated using a split-site method and the observed stream flow data from five nested-scale gauging sites in a mixed-land-use watershed of the central USA. Cross-validation results showed the error associated with surface-fitting and remotely sensed methods ranging from −4.5 to −5.1%, and −9.8 to −14.7%, respectively. Split-site validation results showed the percent bias (PBIAS values that ranged from −4.5 to −160%. Second order polynomial functions especially overestimated precipitation and subsequent stream flow simulations (PBIAS = −160 in the headwaters. The results indicated that using an inverse-distance weighted, linear polynomial interpolation or multiquadric function method to estimate MAP may improve SWAT model simulations. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of spatially distributed observed hydroclimate data for precipitation and subsequent steam flow estimations. The MAP methods demonstrated in the current work can be used to reduce hydrologic model uncertainty caused by watershed physiographic differences.

  3. How wide is a stream? Spatial extent of the potential "stream signature" in terrestrial food webs using meta-analysis. (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D; Collins, Scott F; Doyle, Martin W; Tockner, Klement


    The magnitude of cross-ecosystem resource subsidies is increasingly well recognized; however, less is known about the distance these subsidies travel into the recipient landscape. In streams and rivers, this distance can delimit the "biological stream width," complementary to hydro-geomorphic measures (e.g., channel banks) that have typically defined stream ecosystem boundaries. In this study we used meta-analysis to define a "stream signature" on land that relates the stream-to-land subsidy to distance. The 50% stream signature, for example, identifies the point on the landscape where subsidy resources are still at half of their maximum (in- or near-stream) level. The decay curve for these data was best fit by a negative power function in which the 50% stream signature was concentrated near stream banks (1.5 m), but a non-trivial (10%) portion of the maximum subsidy level was still found > 0.5 km from the water's edge. The meta-analysis also identified explanatory variables that affect the stream signature. This improves our understanding of ecosystem conditions that permit spatially extensive subsidy transmission, such as in highly productive, middle-order streams and rivers. Resultant multivariate models from this analysis may be useful to managers implementing buffer rules and conservation strategies for stream and riparian function, as they facilitate prediction of the extent of subsidies. Our results stress that much of the subsidy remains near the stream, but also that subsidies (and aquatic organisms) are capable of long-distance dispersal into adjacent environments, and that the effective "biological stream width" of stream and river ecosystems is often much larger than has been defined by hydro-geomorphic metrics alone. Limited data available from marine and lake sources overlap well with the stream signature data, indicating that the "signature" approach may also be applicable to subsidy spatial dynamics across other ecosystems.

  4. A Data Stream Model For Runoff Simulation In A Changing Environment (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Shao, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, G.


    Runoff simulation is of great significance for water engineering design, water disaster control, water resources planning and management in a catchment or region. A large number of methods including concept-based process-driven models and statistic-based data-driven models, have been proposed and widely used in worldwide during past decades. Most existing models assume that the relationship among runoff and its impacting factors is stationary. However, in the changing environment (e.g., climate change, human disturbance), their relationship usually evolves over time. In this study, we propose a data stream model for runoff simulation in a changing environment. Specifically, the proposed model works in three steps: learning a rule set, expansion of a rule, and simulation. The first step is to initialize a rule set. When a new observation arrives, the model will check which rule covers it and then use the rule for simulation. Meanwhile, Page-Hinckley (PH) change detection test is used to monitor the online simulation error of each rule. If a change is detected, the corresponding rule is removed from the rule set. In the second step, for each rule, if it covers more than a given number of instance, the rule is expected to expand. In the third step, a simulation model of each leaf node is learnt with a perceptron without activation function, and is updated with adding a newly incoming observation. Taking Fuxi River catchment as a case study, we applied the model to simulate the monthly runoff in the catchment. Results show that abrupt change is detected in the year of 1997 by using the Page-Hinckley change detection test method, which is consistent with the historic record of flooding. In addition, the model achieves good simulation results with the RMSE of 13.326, and outperforms many established methods. The findings demonstrated that the proposed data stream model provides a promising way to simulate runoff in a changing environment.

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-01-08 to 2015-08-27 (NCEI Accession 0160490) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160490 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Benguela Stream in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and...

  6. Simulation study of a rectifying bipolar ion channel: Detailed model versus reduced model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ható


    Full Text Available We study a rectifying mutant of the OmpF porin ion channel using both all-atom and reduced models. The mutant was created by Miedema et al. [Nano Lett., 2007, 7, 2886] on the basis of the NP semiconductor diode, in which an NP junction is formed. The mutant contains a pore region with positive amino acids on the left-hand side and negative amino acids on the right-hand side. Experiments show that this mutant rectifies. Although we do not know the structure of this mutant, we can build an all-atom model for it on the basis of the structure of the wild type channel. Interestingly, molecular dynamics simulations for this all-atom model do not produce rectification. A reduced model that contains only the important degrees of freedom (the positive and negative amino acids and free ions in an implicit solvent, on the other hand, exhibits rectification. Our calculations for the reduced model (using the Nernst-Planck equation coupled to Local Equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations reveal a rectification mechanism that is different from that seen for semiconductor diodes. The basic reason is that the ions are different in nature from electrons and holes (they do not recombine. We provide explanations for the failure of the all-atom model including the effect of all the other atoms in the system as a noise that inhibits the response of ions (that would be necessary for rectification to the polarizing external field.

  7. Modeling of simultaneous exchange of colloids and sorbing contaminants between streams and streambeds. (United States)

    Ren, Jianhong; Packman, Aaron I


    Contaminant transport in streams can be significantly modified by both stream-subsurface exchange and the presence of colloidal particles, but the interaction of these effects is notwell understood. Exchange with the hyporheic zone exposes contaminants to surface-chemical reactions with streambed sediments, while colloidal particles have a large reactive surface area that allows them to carry pollutants that would otherwise be transported primarily as dissolved species. A new theoretical model is developed to predict the role of colloids in mediating advective contaminant exchange between streams and streambeds. Bedform-induced pumping theory is applied to model physical transport, and colloid filtration and reversible contaminant sorption are used to calculate the local distributions of colloids and contaminants within the streambed. Residence time functions of both colloids and contaminants in the bed are then used to link contaminant concentrations in the pore water and streamwater. Model simulations indicate that, under conditions of low colloid filtration and strong contaminant sorption to colloids, contaminants are mobilized by colloids and there is less retention of contaminants in the streambed. This is the case of "colloid-facilitated contaminant transport" commonly considered in groundwater transport. On the other hand, when colloid filtration is high and contaminants still sorb strongly to colloids, contaminant mobility decreases and there is greater contaminant retention in the streambed. We term this case "colloid-impeded contaminant transport". Thus, we find that a variety of contaminanttransport behavior can occur depending on the concentration and mobility of suspended particles in the system and the relative affinity of contaminants for colloids and other solid phases.

  8. Transposition of a Process-Based Model, Flumy: from Meandering Fluvial Systems to Channelized Turbidite Systems (United States)

    Lemay, M.; Cojan, I.; Rivoirard, J.; Grimaud, J. L.; Ors, F.


    Channelized turbidite systems are among the most important hydrocarbon reservoirs. Yet building realistic turbidite reservoir models is still a challenge. Flumy has been firstly developed to simulate the long-term evolution of aggrading meandering fluvial systems in order to build facies reservoir models. In this study, Flumy has been transposed to channelized turbidite systems. The channel migration linear model of Imran et al. (1999) dedicated to subaqueous flows has been implemented. The whole model has been calibrated taking into account the differences on channel morphology, avulsion frequency, and aggradation and migration rates. This calibration and the comparison of the model to natural systems rely on: i) the channel planform morphology characterized by the meander wavelength, amplitude, and sinuosity; ii) the channel trajectory and the resulting stratigraphic architecture described using Jobe et al. (2016) indexes. Flumy succeeds in reproducing turbidite channel planform morphology as shown by the mean sinuosity of 1.7, the wavelength to width and amplitude to width ratios around 4 and 1 respectively. First-order meander architecture, characterized by the ratios meander belt width versus channel width, meander belt thickness versus channel depth, and the deduced stratigraphic mobility number (the ratio between lateral versus vertical channel displacements), is also well reproduced: 2.5, 3.8, and 0.6 respectively. Both lateral and downstream channel normalized migrations are around 3.5 times lower than in fluvial systems. All these values are absolutely coherent with the observations. In the other hand, the channel trajectory observed on seismic cross sections (hockey stick geometry) is not fully reproduced: the local stratigraphic mobility number is divided upward by 3 whereas up to 10 is expected. This behavior is generally explained in the literature by an increasing aggradation rate through time and/or flow stripping at outer bend that decreases

  9. Towards a context-aware multi-channel messaging model for African banks: preliminary investigations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salami, O


    Full Text Available Technological advancements have provided Banks several means of sending messages to their customers. In the context of business-to-customer interaction, Single Channel Messaging (SCM) model is prominently used by most Banks in Africa. SCM...

  10. Channel modelling and performance analysis of V2I communication systems in blind bend scattering environments

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali


    In this paper, we derive a new geometrical blind bend scattering model for vehicle-to- infrastructure (V2I) communications. The proposed model takes into account single-bounce and double- bounce scattering stemming from fixed scatterers located on both sides of a curved street. Starting from the geometrical blind bend model, the exact expression of the angle of departure (AOD) is derived. Based on this expression, the probability density function (PDF) of the AOD and the Doppler power spectrum are determined. Analytical expressions for the channel gain and the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF) are provided under non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. Additionally, we investigate the impact of the position of transmitting vehicle relatively to the receiving road-side unit on the channel statistics. Moreover, we study the performance of different digital modulations over a sum of singly and doubly scattered (SSDS) channel. Note that the proposed V2I channel model falls under the umbrella of SSDS channels since the transmitted signal undergoes a combination of single-bounce and double-bounce scattering. We study some characteristic quantities of SSDS channels and derive expressions for the average symbol error probability of several modulation schemes over SSDS channels with and without diversity combining. The validity of these analytical expressions is confirmed by computer-based simulations.

  11. Overview of Model Inter-Comparison in Japan’s Study for Reference Air Quality Modeling (J-STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Chatani


    Full Text Available The inter-comparison of regional air quality models is an effective way to understand uncertainty in ambient pollutant concentrations simulated using various model configurations, as well as to find ways to improve model performance. Based on the outcomes and experiences of Japanese projects thus far, a new model inter-comparison project called Japan’s study for reference air quality modeling (J-STREAM has begun. The objective of J-STREAM is to establish reference air quality modeling for source apportionment and effective strategy making to suppress secondary air pollutants including PM2.5 and photochemical ozone in Japan through model inter-comparison. The first phase focuses on understanding the ranges and limitations in ambient PM2.5 and ozone concentrations simulated by participants using common input datasets. The second phase focuses on issues revealed in previous studies in simulating secondary inorganic aerosols, as well as on the three-dimensional characteristics of photochemical ozone as a new target. The third phase focuses on comparing source apportionments and sensitivities under heavy air pollution episodes simulated by participating models. Detailed understanding of model performance, uncertainty, and possible improvements to urban-scale air pollution involving secondary pollutants, as well as detailed sector-wise source apportionments over megacities in Japan are expected.

  12. Predicting nitrate discharge dynamics in mesoscale catchments using the lumped StreamGEM model and Bayesian parameter inference (United States)

    Woodward, Simon James Roy; Wöhling, Thomas; Rode, Michael; Stenger, Roland


    The common practice of infrequent (e.g., monthly) stream water quality sampling for state of the environment monitoring may, when combined with high resolution stream flow data, provide sufficient information to accurately characterise the dominant nutrient transfer pathways and predict annual catchment yields. In the proposed approach, we use the spatially lumped catchment model StreamGEM to predict daily stream flow and nitrate concentration (mg L-1 NO3-N) in four contrasting mesoscale headwater catchments based on four years of daily rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, and stream flow measurements, and monthly or daily nitrate concentrations. Posterior model parameter distributions were estimated using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling code DREAMZS and a log-likelihood function assuming heteroscedastic, t-distributed residuals. Despite high uncertainty in some model parameters, the flow and nitrate calibration data was well reproduced across all catchments (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency against Log transformed data, NSL, in the range 0.62-0.83 for daily flow and 0.17-0.88 for nitrate concentration). The slight increase in the size of the residuals for a separate validation period was considered acceptable (NSL in the range 0.60-0.89 for daily flow and 0.10-0.74 for nitrate concentration, excluding one data set with limited validation data). Proportions of flow and nitrate discharge attributed to near-surface, fast seasonal groundwater and slow deeper groundwater were consistent with expectations based on catchment geology. The results for the Weida Stream in Thuringia, Germany, using monthly as opposed to daily nitrate data were, for all intents and purposes, identical, suggesting that four years of monthly nitrate sampling provides sufficient information for calibration of the StreamGEM model and prediction of catchment dynamics. This study highlights the remarkable effectiveness of process based, spatially lumped modelling with commonly available monthly

  13. Modeling of water flow in multi-channel river system in the Narew National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcinkowski Paweł


    Full Text Available Modeling of water flow in multi-channel river system in the Narew National Park. Anastomosing rivers constitute a rare example of multi-channel systems, which used to be very common before the agricultural and industrial development. Presently few of them remain worldwide and the only example in Poland is the Upper River Narew within Narew National Park. Although hydraulic modeling using one-dimensional models is commonly used to describe water flow in rivers, for multi-channel rivers problem is more complicated. For this type of rivers it is expected that the feedback between process of plants growth (expressed by Manning’s coefficient and distribution of flow in anabranches is high. However, assignment procedure on roughness coefficients in splitting and rejoining channels is laborious and difficult. Therefore, for efficient water flow modeling in multi-channel systems a stand-alone hydraulic model equipped with automatic optimization procedure was developed. Optimization and validation stages, based on field measurements data of discharge and water levels, indicated that the model accurately simulates water flow in multi-channel system.

  14. Statistical Modeling, Simulation, and Experimental Verification of Wideband Indoor Mobile Radio Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Ma


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the modeling, simulation, and experimental verification of wideband single-input single-output (SISO mobile fading channels for indoor propagation environments. The indoor reference channel model is derived from a geometrical rectangle scattering model, which consists of an infinite number of scatterers. It is assumed that the scatterers are exponentially distributed over the two-dimensional (2D horizontal plane of a rectangular room. Analytical expressions are derived for the probability density function (PDF of the angle of arrival (AOA, the PDF of the propagation path length, the power delay profile (PDP, and the frequency correlation function (FCF. An efficient sum-of-cisoids (SOC channel simulator is derived from the nonrealizable reference model by employing the SOC principle. It is shown that the SOC channel simulator approximates closely the reference model with respect to the FCF. The SOC channel simulator enables the performance evaluation of wideband indoor wireless communication systems with reduced realization expenditure. Moreover, the rationality and usefulness of the derived indoor channel model is confirmed by various measurements at 2.4, 5, and 60 GHz.

  15. The Channel Estimation and Modeling in High Altitude Platform Station Wireless Communication Dynamic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Liu


    Full Text Available In order to analyze the channel estimation performance of near space high altitude platform station (HAPS in wireless communication system, the structure and formation of HAPS are studied in this paper. The traditional Least Squares (LS channel estimation method and Singular Value Decomposition-Linear Minimum Mean-Squared (SVD-LMMS channel estimation method are compared and investigated. A novel channel estimation method and model are proposed. The channel estimation performance of HAPS is studied deeply. The simulation and theoretical analysis results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than the traditional methods. The lower Bit Error Rate (BER and higher Signal Noise Ratio (SNR can be obtained by the proposed method compared with the LS and SVD-LMMS methods.

  16. Laboratory Modeling of Self-Formed Leveed Channels From Sediment-Laden Flows Entering Still Water (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.


    Self-formed leveed channels constructed by deposition of suspended sediment from sediment-laden flows entering still water are common features in nature. Such channels drive delta progradation, develop at tidal inlets and occur where mainstem river flows empty into oxbows and blocked valley lakes. Presently there is no theory for the formation of such channels. This lack of theory is partly due to a lack of field or laboratory studies that provide insight about the mechanism controlling these self-formed, propagating channels. The creation of such features in the laboratory, have proved illusive to date. Our ongoing experiments aimed at modeling the formation of floodplain tie channels provide insight into the necessary conditions for levee formation and channel growth. Under conditions of steady water discharge, constant sediment feed rate, unimodal sediment distribution and invariant basin stage we are able to create subaqueous lateral bars (submerged levees) along the margins of a sediment laden jet. Our results highlight the sensitivity of channel formation to issues of scaling and experimental design. In the laboratory, levee formation has only been possible with the use of plastic particles (specific gravity ~1.5); complete bed alluviation and dune formation results from the use of particles with specific gravities of ~ 2.65 across a range grain diameters and shapes. We hypothesize this effect is related to high entrainment thresholds relative to suspension thresholds of small (< 100 mm) natural particles under conditions of reduced turbulence in laboratory scaled flows. Additionally, both the width to depth ratio and the form of the outlet channel introducing the sediment laden flow into the experimental basin exert a strong control on sedimentation pattern and levee growth. Continuing experiments are focused on generating emergent channel levees and a basin ward propagation of the channel by adjusting the form of the feed channel, varying basin stage, and

  17. Numerical methods for a Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Fermi model of biological ion channels. (United States)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob


    Numerical methods are proposed for an advanced Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Fermi (PNPF) model for studying ion transport through biological ion channels. PNPF contains many more correlations than most models and simulations of channels, because it includes water and calculates dielectric properties consistently as outputs. This model accounts for the steric effect of ions and water molecules with different sizes and interstitial voids, the correlation effect of crowded ions with different valences, and the screening effect of polarized water molecules in an inhomogeneous aqueous electrolyte. The steric energy is shown to be comparable to the electrical energy under physiological conditions, demonstrating the crucial role of the excluded volume of particles and the voids in the natural function of channel proteins. Water is shown to play a critical role in both correlation and steric effects in the model. We extend the classical Scharfetter-Gummel (SG) method for semiconductor devices to include the steric potential for ion channels, which is a fundamental physical property not present in semiconductors. Together with a simplified matched interface and boundary (SMIB) method for treating molecular surfaces and singular charges of channel proteins, the extended SG method is shown to exhibit important features in flow simulations such as optimal convergence, efficient nonlinear iterations, and physical conservation. The generalized SG stability condition shows why the standard discretization (without SG exponential fitting) of NP equations may fail and that divalent Ca(2+) may cause more unstable discrete Ca(2+) fluxes than that of monovalent Na(+). Two different methods-called the SMIB and multiscale methods-are proposed for two different types of channels, namely, the gramicidin A channel and an L-type calcium channel, depending on whether water is allowed to pass through the channel. Numerical methods are first validated with constructed models whose exact solutions are

  18. Lie integrable cases of the simplified multistrain/two-stream model for tuberculosis and dengue fever (United States)

    Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.


    We apply the techniques of Lie's symmetry analysis to a caricature of the simplified multistrain model of Castillo-Chavez and Feng [C. Castillo-Chavez, Z. Feng, To treat or not to treat: The case of tuberculosis, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 629-656] for the transmission of tuberculosis and the coupled two-stream vector-based model of Feng and Velasco-Hernandez [Z. Feng, J.X. Velasco-Hernandez, Competitive exclusion in a vector-host model for the dengue fever, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 523-544] to identify the combinations of parameters which lead to the existence of nontrivial symmetries. In particular we identify those combinations which lead to the possibility of the linearization of the system and provide the corresponding solutions. Many instances of additional symmetry are analyzed.

  19. Integrating ecological theories and traits in process-based modeling of macroinvertebrate community dynamics in streams. (United States)

    Mondy, Cédric P; Schuwirth, Nele


    Predicting the composition and dynamics of communities is a challenging but useful task to efficiently support ecosystem management. Community ecology has developed a number of promising theories, including food webs, metabolic theory, ecological stoichiometry, and environmental filtering. Their joint implementation in a mechanistic modeling framework should help us to bring community ecology to a new level by improving its predictive abilities. One of the challenges lies in the proper consideration of model uncertainty. In this paper, we contribute to this challenging task by modeling the temporal dynamics of macroinvertebrate communities in a stream subjected to hydropeaking in Switzerland. To this end, we extended the mechanistic model Streambugs regarding flood-induced drift processes and the use of trait information to define performance filters. Model predictions without any calibration were in the right order of magnitude but did not reflect the dynamics of most of the invertebrate taxa well. Bayesian inference drastically improved the model fit. It revealed that a large share of total model output uncertainty can be attributed to observation errors, which exceeded model parameter uncertainty. Observed and simulated community-aggregated traits helped to identify and understand model deficits. The combination of different ecological theories and trait information in a single mechanistic modeling framework combined with Bayesian inference can thus help to predict responses of communities to environmental changes, which can support ecosystem management. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Bridging the gap between theoretical ecology and real ecosystems: modeling invertebrate community composition in streams. (United States)

    Schuwirth, Nele; Reichert, Peter


    For the first time, we combine concepts of theoretical food web modeling, the metabolic theory of ecology, and ecological stoichiometry with the use of functional trait databases to predict the coexistence of invertebrate taxa in streams. We developed a mechanistic model that describes growth, death, and respiration of different taxa dependent on various environmental influence factors to estimate survival or extinction. Parameter and input uncertainty is propagated to model results. Such a model is needed to test our current quantitative understanding of ecosystem structure and function and to predict effects of anthropogenic impacts and restoration efforts. The model was tested using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from a catchment of the Swiss Plateau. Even without fitting model parameters, the model is able to represent key patterns of the coexistence structure of invertebrates at sites varying in external conditions (litter input, shading, water quality). This confirms the suitability of the model concept. More comprehensive testing and resulting model adaptations will further increase the predictive accuracy of the model.

  1. MOD_FreeSurf2D: a Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Model for Rivers, Streams, and Shallow Estuaries (United States)

    Martin, N.; Gorelick, S. M.


    The MOD_FreeSurf2D, Modular Free Surface Flow in Two-Dimensions, computer model simulates free surface fluid flow in streams, rivers, and shallow estuaries under the assumptions of a well-mixed water column, a small water depth to width ratio, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The dependent variables in the model are free surface elevation, which provides total water depth, and fluid velocity. Primary advantages of MOD_FreeSurf2D relative to other two-dimensional models are a stable and computationally efficient numerical representation and a transparent representation of wetting and drying of the simulation domain. MOD_FreeSurf2D approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian numerical representation similar to the TRIM method (Casulli, 1990; Casulli and Cheng, 1992; Casulli, 1999). The semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach is computationally efficient because time steps can exceed the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) stability criterion without significant accuracy degradation (Robert, 1982; Casulli, 1990). The rectangular, Arakawa C-grid, finite-volume layout allows flooding and drying in response to changing flow conditions without prior channel specification or closed boundary specification. Open boundary conditions available in MOD_FreeSurf2D are specified flux, specified total water depth, specified velocity, radiation free surface, and radiation velocity. MOD_FreeSurf2D requires initial topography, undisturbed water depth, and Manning's roughness coefficient. MOD_FreeSurf2D simulated results are shown to converge to the semi-empirical solution for a simple straight channel case. Two applications demonstrate the accuracy of MOD_FreeSurf2D. The first application is the evolution of water depth in the dambreak-style flume experiment of Bellos et al. (1992). In this case, MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates the changing water depth in the flume during the experiment and models the wetting of

  2. A new scripting library for modeling flow and transport in fractured rock with channel networks (United States)

    Dessirier, Benoît; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Niemi, Auli


    Deep crystalline bedrock formations are targeted to host spent nuclear fuel owing to their overall low permeability. They are however highly heterogeneous and only a few preferential paths pertaining to a small set of dominant rock fractures usually carry most of the flow or mass fluxes, a behavior known as channeling that needs to be accounted for in the performance assessment of repositories. Channel network models have been developed and used to investigate the effect of channeling. They are usually simpler than discrete fracture networks based on rock fracture mappings and rely on idealized full or sparsely populated lattices of channels. This study reexamines the fundamental parameter structure required to describe a channel network in terms of groundwater flow and solute transport, leading to an extended description suitable for unstructured arbitrary networks of channels. An implementation of this formalism in a Python scripting library is presented and released along with this article. A new algebraic multigrid preconditioner delivers a significant speedup in the flow solution step compared to previous channel network codes. 3D visualization is readily available for verification and interpretation of the results by exporting the results to an open and free dedicated software. The new code is applied to three example cases to verify its results on full uncorrelated lattices of channels, sparsely populated percolation lattices and to exemplify the use of unstructured networks to accommodate knowledge on local rock fractures.

  3. Practical and Simple Wireless Channel Models for Use in Multipolarized Antenna Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KwangHyun Jeon


    Full Text Available The next-generation wireless systems are expected to support data rates of more than 100 Mbps in outdoor environments. In order to support such large payloads, a polarized antenna may be employed as one of the candidate technologies. Recently, the third generation partnership standards bodies (3GPP/3GPP2 have defined a cross-polarized channel model in SCM-E for MIMO systems; however, this model is quite complex since it considers a great many channel-related parameters. Furthermore, the SCM-E channel model combines the channel coefficients of all the polarization links into one complex output, making it impossible to exploit the MIMO spatial multiplexing or diversity gains in the case of employing polarized antenna at transmitter and receiver side. In this paper, we present practical and simple 2D and 3D multipolarized multipath channel models, which take into account both the cross-polarization discrimination (XPD and the Rician factor. After verifying the proposed channel models, the BER and PER performances and throughput using the EGC and MRC combining techniques are evaluated in multipolarized antenna systems.

  4. Extending the benchmark simulation model no2 with processes for nitrous oxide production and side-stream nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V.


    increased the total nitrogen removal by 10%; (ii) reduced the aeration demand by 16% compared to the base case, and (iii) the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is most influencing nitrous oxide emissions. The extended model provides a simulation platform to generate, test and compare novel control......In this work the Benchmark Simulation Model No.2 is extended with processes for nitrous oxide production and for side-stream partial nitritation/Anammox (PN/A) treatment. For these extensions the Activated Sludge Model for Greenhouse gases No.1 was used to describe the main waterline, whereas...... the Complete Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal (CANR) model was used to describe the side-stream (PN/A) treatment. Comprehensive simulations were performed to assess the extended model. Steady-state simulation results revealed the following: (i) the implementation of a continuous CANR side-stream reactor has...

  5. Bayesian Modeling of the Assimilative Capacity Component of Stream Nutrient Export (United States)

    Implementing stream restoration techniques and best management practices to reduce nonpoint source nutrients implies enhancement of the assimilative capacity for the stream system. In this paper, a Bayesian method for evaluating this component of a TMDL load capacity is developed...

  6. A regional modeling framework of phosphorus sources and transport in streams of the southeastern United States (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Hoos, Anne B.; Terziotti, Silvia


    We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables – soil organic matter and soil pH – are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of MIMO Mobile-to-Mobile Wireless Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Bakhshi


    Full Text Available Analysis and design of multielement antenna systems in mobile fading channels require a model for the space-time cross-correlation among the links of the underlying multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO Mobile-to-Mobile (M-to-M communication channels. In this paper, we propose the modified geometrical two-ring model, a MIMO channel reference model for M-to-M communication systems. This model is based on the extension of single-bounce two-ring scattering model for flat fading channel under the assumption that the transmitter and the receiver are moving. Assuming single-bounce scattering model in both isotropic and nonisotropic environment, a closed-form expression for the space-time cross-correlation function (CCF between any two subchannels is derived. The proposed model provides an important framework in M-to-M system design, where includes many existing correlation models as special cases. Also, two realizable statistical simulation models are proposed for simulating both isotropic and nonisotropic reference model. The realizable simulation models are based on Sum-of-Sinusoids (SoS simulation model. Finally, the correctness of the proposed simulation models is shown via different simulation scenarios.

  8. One-Dimensional Transport with Equilibrium Chemistry (OTEQ) - A Reactive Transport Model for Streams and Rivers (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.


    OTEQ is a mathematical simulation model used to characterize the fate and transport of waterborne solutes in streams and rivers. The model is formed by coupling a solute transport model with a chemical equilibrium submodel. The solute transport model is based on OTIS, a model that considers the physical processes of advection, dispersion, lateral inflow, and transient storage. The equilibrium submodel is based on MINTEQ, a model that considers the speciation and complexation of aqueous species, acid-base reactions, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption. Within OTEQ, reactions in the water column may result in the formation of solid phases (precipitates and sorbed species) that are subject to downstream transport and settling processes. Solid phases on the streambed may also interact with the water column through dissolution and sorption/desorption reactions. Consideration of both mobile (waterborne) and immobile (streambed) solid phases requires a unique set of governing differential equations and solution techniques that are developed herein. The partial differential equations describing physical transport and the algebraic equations describing chemical equilibria are coupled using the sequential iteration approach. The model's ability to simulate pH, precipitation/dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption provides a means of evaluating the complex interactions between instream chemistry and hydrologic transport at the field scale. This report details the development and application of OTEQ. Sections of the report describe model theory, input/output specifications, model applications, and installation instructions. OTEQ may be obtained over the Internet at

  9. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai


    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  10. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity (United States)

    Nicholas A. Povak; Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds; Timothy J. Sullivan; Todd C. McDonnell; R. Brion Salter


    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially...

  11. An extended five-stream model for diffusion of ion-implanted dopants in monocrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khina, B.B.


    Low-energy high-dose ion implantation of different dopants (P, Sb, As, B and others) into monocrystalline silicon with subsequent thermal annealing is used for the formation of ultra-shallow p-n junctions in modern VLSI circuit technology. During annealing, dopant activation and diffusion in silicon takes place. The experimentally observed phenomenon of transient enhanced diffusion (TED), which is typically ascribed to the interaction of diffusing species with non-equilibrium point defects accumulated in silicon due to ion damage, and formation of small clusters and extended defects, hinders further down scaling of p-n junctions in VLSI circuits. TED is currently a subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigation in many binary and multicomponent systems. However, the state-of-the-art mathematical models of dopant diffusion, which are based on the so-called 'five-stream' approach, and modern TCAD software packages such as SUPREM-4 (by Silvaco Data Systems, Ltd.) that implement these models encounter severe difficulties in describing TED. Solving the intricate problem of TED suppression and development of novel regimes of ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing is impossible without elaboration of new mathematical models and computer simulation of this complex phenomenon. In this work, an extended five-stream model for diffusion in silicon is developed which takes into account all possible charge states of point defects (vacancies and silicon self-interstitials) and diffusing pairs 'dopant atom-vacancy' and 'dopant atom-silicon self-interstitial'. The model includes the drift terms for differently charged point defects and pairs in the internal electric field and the kinetics of interaction between unlike 'species' (generation and annihilation of pairs and annihilation of point defects). Expressions for diffusion coefficients and numerous sink/source terms that appear in the non-linear, non-steady-state reaction-diffusion equations are derived

  12. Double-gate junctionless transistor model including short-channel effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, B C; Pavanello, M A; Ávila-Herrera, F; Cerdeira, A


    This work presents a physically based model for double-gate junctionless transistors (JLTs), continuous in all operation regimes. To describe short-channel transistors, short-channel effects (SCEs), such as increase of the channel potential due to drain bias, carrier velocity saturation and mobility degradation due to vertical and longitudinal electric fields, are included in a previous model developed for long-channel double-gate JLTs. To validate the model, an analysis is made by using three-dimensional numerical simulations performed in a Sentaurus Device Simulator from Synopsys. Different doping concentrations, channel widths and channel lengths are considered in this work. Besides that, the series resistance influence is numerically included and validated for a wide range of source and drain extensions. In order to check if the SCEs are appropriately described, besides drain current, transconductance and output conductance characteristics, the following parameters are analyzed to demonstrate the good agreement between model and simulation and the SCEs occurrence in this technology: threshold voltage (V TH ), subthreshold slope (S) and drain induced barrier lowering. (paper)

  13. A comprehensive structural model for the human KCNQ1/KCNE1 ion channel. (United States)

    Jalily Hasani, Horia; Ahmed, Marawan; Barakat, Khaled


    The voltage-gated KCNQ1/KCNE1 potassium ion channel complex, forms the slow delayed rectifier (I Ks ) current in the heart, which plays an important role in heart signaling. The importance of KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel's function is further implicated by the linkage between loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations in KCNQ1 or KCNE1, and long QT syndromes, congenital atrial fibrillation, and short QT syndrome. Also, KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels are an off-target for many non-cardiovascular drugs, leading to fatal cardiac irregularities. One solution to address and study the mentioned aspects of KCNQ1/KNCE1 channel would be the structural studies using a validated and accurate model. Along the same line in this study, we have used several top-notch modeling approaches to build a structural model for the open state of KCNQ1 protein, which is both accurate and compatible with available experimental data. Next, we included the KCNE1 protein components using data-driven protein-protein docking simulations, encompassing a 4:2 stoichiometry to complete the picture of the channel complex formed by these two proteins. All the protein systems generated through these processes were refined by long Molecular Dynamics simulations. The refined models were analyzed extensively to infer data about the interaction of KCNQ1 channel with its accessory KCNE1 beta subunits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of soil data resolution on SWAT model stream flow and water quality predictions. (United States)

    Geza, Mengistu; McCray, John E


    The prediction accuracy of agricultural nonpoint source pollution models such as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) depends on how well model input spatial parameters describe the characteristics of the watershed. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different soil data resolutions on stream flow, sediment and nutrient predictions when used as input for SWAT. SWAT model predictions were compared for the two US Department of Agriculture soil databases with different resolution, namely the State Soil Geographic database (STATSGO) and the Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO). Same number of sub-basins was used in the watershed delineation. However, the number of HRUs generated when STATSGO and SSURGO soil data were used is 261 and 1301, respectively. SSURGO, with the highest spatial resolution, has 51 unique soil types in the watershed distributed in 1301 HRUs, while STATSGO has only three distributed in 261 HRUS. As a result of low resolution STATSGO assigns a single classification to areas that may have different soil types if SSURGO were used. SSURGO included Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) with soil types that were generalized to one soil group in STATSGO. The difference in the number and size of HRUs also has an effect on sediment yield parameters (slope and slope length). Thus, as a result of the discrepancies in soil type and size of HRUs stream flow predicted was higher when SSURGO was used compared to STATSGO. SSURGO predicted less stream loading than STATSGO in terms of sediment and sediment-attached nutrients components, and vice versa for dissolved nutrients. When compared to mean daily measured flow, STATSGO performed better relative to SSURGO before calibration. SSURGO provided better results after calibration as evaluated by R(2) value (0.74 compared to 0.61 for STATSGO) and the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of Efficiency (NSE) values (0.70 and 0.61 for SSURGO and STATSGO, respectively) although both are in the same satisfactory

  15. Basis expansion model for channel estimation in LTE-R communication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Deng


    Full Text Available This paper investigates fast time-varying channel estimation in LTE-R communication systems. The Basis Expansion Model (BEM is adopted to fit the fast time-varying channel in a high-speed railway communication scenario. The channel impulse response is modeled as the sum of basis functions multiplied by different coefficients. The optimal coefficients are obtained by theoretical analysis. Simulation results show that a Generalized Complex-Exponential BEM (GCE-BEM outperforms a Complex-Exponential BEM (CE-BEM and a polynomial BEM in terms of Mean Squared Error (MSE. Besides, the MSE of the CE-BEM decreases gradually as the number of basis functions increases. The GCE-BEM has a satisfactory performance with the serious fading channel.

  16. Channel Model Optimization with Reflection Residual Component for Indoor MIMO-VLC System (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Li, Tengfei; Liu, Huanlin; Li, Yichao


    A fast channel modeling method is studied to solve the problem of reflection channel gain for multiple input multiple output-visible light communications (MIMO-VLC) in the paper. For reducing the computational complexity when associating with the reflection times, no more than 3 reflections are taken into consideration in VLC. We think that higher order reflection link consists of corresponding many times line of sight link and firstly present reflection residual component to characterize higher reflection (more than 2 reflections). We perform computer simulation results for point-to-point channel impulse response, receiving optical power and receiving signal to noise ratio. Based on theoretical analysis and simulation results, the proposed method can effectively reduce the computational complexity of higher order reflection in channel modeling.

  17. A Comparative Study of Marketing Channel Multiagent Stackelberg Model Based on Perfect Rationality and Fairness Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihong Wang


    Full Text Available This paper studies channel consisting of a manufacturer and two retailers. As a basis for comparison, the first, multiagent Stackelberg model has been structured based on perfect rationality. Further, fairness preference theory will be embedded in marketing channel multiagent Stackelberg model, and the results show that if the retailers have a jealous fairness preference, the manufacturer will reduce the wholesale price, retailers will increase the effort level, product sales will be increased, and the total channel utility and manufacturers’ utility will be pareto improvement, but the pareto improvement of retailers’ utility is associated with the interval of jealousy fairness preference coefficient. If the retailers have a sympathetic fairness preference, the manufacturer increases wholesale price, retailers reduce the effort level, and the total channel utility, manufacturer’s utility, and retailers’ utility are less than that of the no fairness preference utility.

  18. Longitudinal zonation of macroinvertebrates in an Ecuadorian glacier-fed stream: do tropical glacial systems fit the temperate model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.; Dangles, O.; Andino, P.


    altitude sites; 4600 m-2 at a pro-glacial lake outlet and only 4 m-2 at a site originating directly from the glacier snout. Otherwise, there was a downstream decrease in density to about 825 m-2 at the three lowest sites. Taxon richness increased with distance from the glacier, very similar to the pattern...... predicted. A total of 28 taxa were collected; two at the glacier snout, seven at the nearby pro-glacial lake outlet, 13 at site 2 (... of the Diamesinae, and its replacement by Podonominae, is different from the pattern typically observed in north-temperate glacier-fed streams. This could be because of the fact that the genus Diamesa is missing from the Neotropics. 5. Stream temperature and channel stability explained most of the variability...

  19. Thermal-Hydraulics analysis of pressurized water reactor core by using single heated channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari


    Full Text Available Thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactor as a basis of reactor safety has a very important role in reactor design and control. The thermal-hydraulic analysis provides input data to the reactor-physics analysis, whereas the latter gives information about the distribution of heat sources, which is needed to perform the thermal-hydraulic analysis. In this study single heated channel model as a very fast model for predicting thermal hydraulics behavior of pressurized water reactor core has been developed. For verifying the results of this model, we used RELAP5 code as US nuclear regulatory approved thermal hydraulics code. The results of developed single heated channel model have been checked with RELAP5 results for WWER-1000. This comparison shows the capability of single heated channel model for predicting thermal hydraulics behavior of reactor core.

  20. Analysis of the stochastic channel model by Saleh & Valenzuela via the theory of point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten Lomholt; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri


    In this paper we revisit the classical channel model by Saleh & Valenzuela via the theory of spatial point processes. By reformulating this model as a particular point process and by repeated application of Campbell’s Theorem we provide concise and elegant access to its overall structure and unde......In this paper we revisit the classical channel model by Saleh & Valenzuela via the theory of spatial point processes. By reformulating this model as a particular point process and by repeated application of Campbell’s Theorem we provide concise and elegant access to its overall structure...... to define, analyze, and compare most channel models already suggested in literature and that the powerful tools of this framework have not been fully exploited in this context yet....

  1. Analysis on the performance dependency of channel models in a wireless peer-to-peer network (United States)

    Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Tianlong; Yu, Zelong; Li, Yufeng


    In order to reduce the simulation complexity and time of peer-to-peer network such as Ad Hoc network, most simulations only use the simplified Free Space Model or Two Ray Ground model to approximate the attenuation due to the wireless transmission without considering the dependency between system performance and channel models. In this paper, the effects of channel models on the wireless peer-to-peer network performance is analyzed in more details by using the conventional routing and medium access control algorithm to find the system performance sensitivity to different channel models. Through the computer simulation using network simulator 2, we found that some aspects of the system performance is only sensitive to the large scale fading effects, while others are not.

  2. A review on channel models in free space optical communication systems (United States)

    Anbarasi, K.; Hemanth, C.; Sangeetha, R. G.


    Free Space Optical communication (FSO) is a wireless communication technology which uses light to transmit the data in free space. FSO has advantages like unlicensed spectrum and higher bandwidth. In this paper FSO system merits and demerits, challenges in FSO, and various channel models are discussed. To mitigate the turbulence in FSO the mitigation techniques like relaying, diversity schemes and adopting different modulation techniques used in different channels are discussed and its performance comparison is given.

  3. A 3-D numerical model of the influence of meanders on groundwater discharge to a gaining stream in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Boon, Wietse M.; Nicolajsen, Ellen


    Groundwater discharge to streams depends on stream morphology and groundwater flow direction, but are not always well understood. Here a 3-D groundwater flow model is employed to investigate the impact of meandering stream geometries on groundwater discharge to streams in an unconfined...... of stream morphology and flow direction to other parameters was quantified by varying the stream width, the meander amplitude, the magnitude of the hydraulic gradient, the hydraulic conductivity, and the aquifer thickness. Implications for a real stream were then investigated by simulating groundwater flow...... to a stream at a field site located in Grindsted, Denmark. The simulation of multiple scenarios was made possible by the employment of a computationally efficient coordinate transform numerical method. Comparison of the scenarios showed that the geometry of meanders greatly affect the spatial distribution...

  4. Acoustically Induced Streaming Flows near a Model Cod Otolith and their Potential Implications for Fish Hearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotas, Charlotte W [ORNL; Rogers, Peter [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yoda, Minami [Georgia Institute of Technology


    The ears of fishes are remarkable sensors for the small acoustic disturbances associated with underwater sound. For example, each ear of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) has three dense bony bodies (otoliths) surrounded by fluid and tissue, and detects sounds at frequencies from 30 to 500 Hz. Atlantic cod have also been shown to localize sounds. However, how their ears perform these functions is not fully understood. Steady streaming, or time-independent, flows near a 350% scale model Atlantic cod otolith immersed in a viscous fluid were studied to determine if these fluid flows contain acoustically relevant information that could be detected by the ear s sensory hair cells. The otolith was oscillated sinusoidally at various orientations at frequencies of 8 24 Hz, corresponding to an actual frequency range of 280 830 Hz. Phaselocked particle pathline visualizations of the resulting flows give velocity, vorticity, and rate of strain fields over a single plane of this mainly two-dimensional flow. Although the streaming flows contain acoustically relevant information, the displacements due to these flows are likely too small to explain Atlantic cod hearing abilities near threshold. The results, however, may suggest a possible mechanism for detection of ultrasound in some fish species.

  5. Streaming Model Based Volume Ray Casting Implementation for Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusub Kim


    Full Text Available Interactive high quality volume rendering is becoming increasingly more important as the amount of more complex volumetric data steadily grows. While a number of volumetric rendering techniques have been widely used, ray casting has been recognized as an effective approach for generating high quality visualization. However, for most users, the use of ray casting has been limited to datasets that are very small because of its high demands on computational power and memory bandwidth. However the recent introduction of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell B.E. processor, which consists of 9 heterogeneous cores designed to handle extremely demanding computations with large streams of data, provides an opportunity to put the ray casting into practical use. In this paper, we introduce an efficient parallel implementation of volume ray casting on the Cell B.E. The implementation is designed to take full advantage of the computational power and memory bandwidth of the Cell B.E. using an intricate orchestration of the ray casting computation on the available heterogeneous resources. Specifically, we introduce streaming model based schemes and techniques to efficiently implement acceleration techniques for ray casting on Cell B.E. In addition to ensuring effective SIMD utilization, our method provides two key benefits: there is no cost for empty space skipping and there is no memory bottleneck on moving volumetric data for processing. Our experimental results show that we can interactively render practical datasets on a single Cell B.E. processor.

  6. A Model-Based Anomaly Detection Approach for Analyzing Streaming Aircraft Engine Measurement Data (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan Walker


    This paper presents a model-based anomaly detection architecture designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique calculates and monitors residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for anomaly detection purposes. Pivotal to the performance of this technique is the ability to construct a model that accurately reflects the nominal operating performance of the engine. The dynamic model applied in the architecture is a piecewise linear design comprising steady-state trim points and dynamic state space matrices. A simple curve-fitting technique for updating the model trim point information based on steadystate information extracted from available nominal engine measurement data is presented. Results from the application of the model-based approach for processing actual engine test data are shown. These include both nominal fault-free test case data and seeded fault test case data. The results indicate that the updates applied to improve the model trim point information also improve anomaly detection performance. Recommendations for follow-on enhancements to the technique are also presented and discussed.

  7. Physical model of voltage sensing in sodium channels based on the sliding helix complex (United States)

    Chancey, C. C.; George, S. A.


    We have modeled voltage sensing in the sodium channel by evaluating forces on the S4 α-helix portion of the channel molecule, which we assume moves outward during activation. The interaction between the S4 α-helix segment and its environment was modeled by (i) nearest-neighbor Coulombic forces, (ii) the electric force due to an external electric field, and (iii) static mechanical and electrostatic forces. These terms collectively describe a depolarization-dependent effective potential within which the S4 segment moves. Thermal transitions between center-of-mass energy states of the segment were modeled starting from the Boltzmann distribution, and the time evolution of the segment's position relative to the membrane was simulated. Combining the histories of four such processes models the activation history of the channel molecule. The model simulation is in good qualitative agreement with batrachotoxin-modified single channel open and closed dwell time distributions and with such a channel's open probability as a function of depolarization. The model also qualitatively agrees with site-specific mutagenesis experiments, which show the different effects of eliminating positive charges on the cytoplasmic and extracellular ends of the S4 segment.

  8. Development and testing of an in-stream phosphorus cycling model for the soil and water assessment tool. (United States)

    White, Michael J; Storm, Daniel E; Mittelstet, Aaron; Busteed, Philip R; Haggard, Brian E; Rossi, Colleen


    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool is widely used to predict the fate and transport of phosphorus (P) from the landscape through streams and rivers. The current in-stream P submodel may not be suitable for many stream systems, particularly those dominated by attached algae and those affected by point sources. In this research, we developed an alternative submodel based on the equilibrium P concentration concept coupled with a particulate scour and deposition model. This submodel was integrated with the SWAT model and applied to the Illinois River Watershed in Oklahoma, a basin influenced by waste water treatment plant discharges and extensive poultry litter application. The model was calibrated and validated using measured data. Highly variable in-stream P concentrations and equilibrium P concentration values were predicted spatially and temporally. The model also predicted the gradual storage of P in streambed sediments and the resuspension of this P during periodic high-flow flushing events. Waste water treatment plants were predicted to have a profound effect on P dynamics in the Illinois River due to their constant discharge even under base flow conditions. A better understanding of P dynamics in stream systems using the revised submodel may lead to the development of more effective mitigation strategies to control the impact of P from point and nonpoint sources. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Predicting long-term recovery of a strongly acidified stream using MAGIC and climate models (Litavka, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Hardekopf


    Full Text Available Two branches forming the headwaters of a stream in the Czech Republic were studied. Both streams have similar catchment characteristics and historical deposition; however one is rain-fed and strongly affected by acid atmospheric deposition, the other spring-fed and only moderately acidified. The MAGIC model was used to reconstruct past stream water and soil chemistry of the rain-fed branch, and predict future recovery up to 2050 under current proposed emissions levels. A future increase in air temperature calculated by a regional climate model was then used to derive climate-related scenarios to test possible factors affecting chemical recovery up to 2100. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from both branches, and differences in stream chemistry were reflected in the community structures. According to modelled forecasts, recovery of the rain-fed branch will be gradual and limited, and continued high levels of sulphate release from the soils will continue to dominate stream water chemistry, while scenarios related to a predicted increase in temperature will have little impact. The likelihood of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch was evaluated considering the predicted extent of chemical recovery. The results suggest that the possibility of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch to the rain-fed will be limited to only the acid-tolerant stonefly, caddisfly and dipteran taxa in the modelled period.

  10. P2S--Coupled simulation with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Stream Temperature Network (SNTemp) Models (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.


    A software program, called P2S, has been developed which couples the daily stream temperature simulation capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey Stream Network Temperature model with the watershed hydrology simulation capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System is a modular, deterministic, distributed-parameter, physical-process watershed model that simulates hydrologic response to various combinations of climate and land use. Stream Network Temperature was developed to help aquatic biologists and engineers predict the effects of changes that hydrology and energy have on water temperatures. P2S will allow scientists and watershed managers to evaluate the effects of historical climate and projected climate change, landscape evolution, and resource management scenarios on watershed hydrology and in-stream water temperature.

  11. The origin of Venusian channels: Modelling of thermal erosion by lava (United States)

    Bussey, D. B. J.; Sorensen, S-A.; Guest, J. E.


    Magellan imagery has revealed that channels, apparently volcanic in origin, are abundant on the surface of Venus. There has been much debate about the origin of these channels. Are they the result of erosional (either thermal or mechanical) or constructional processes? A common characteristic of the simple sinuous channels is that they show evidence of erosion near their source and then become purely constructional, forming levees and in some cases roofing over completely. One method of showing that thermal erosion is capable of producing the type of channels seen is to use computer modeling incorporating the physical conditions on Venus and the physical characteristics of the different types of lava that may have been erupted. It is possible to calculate, relatively easily, two channel parameters. The first is the erosion rate, which combined with eruption duration, gives depth. The second is for how long after leaving the source the erupted lava will continue to be capable of thermal erosion before constructional processes dominate. Making assumptions about the rheology of the lava (e.g., assume it behaves as a Bingham plastic) along with the slope angle yields a flow velocity and therefore a distance over which thermal erosion will take place. Due to the resolution (both vertical and horizontal) of the Magellan altimetric data, the distance from the source that the channel is erosional can be much more accurately measured than the depth of the channel. This will remain the case until stereo imagery becomes available for large areas of the planet.

  12. On Optimal Input Design and Model Selection for Communication Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL


    In this paper, the optimal model (structure) selection and input design which minimize the worst case identification error for communication systems are provided. The problem is formulated using metric complexity theory in a Hilbert space setting. It is pointed out that model selection and input design can be handled independently. Kolmogorov n-width is used to characterize the representation error introduced by model selection, while Gel fand and Time n-widths are used to represent the inherent error introduced by input design. After the model is selected, an optimal input which minimizes the worst case identification error is shown to exist. In particular, it is proven that the optimal model for reducing the representation error is a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) model, and the optimal input is an impulse at the start of the observation interval. FIR models are widely popular in communication systems, such as, in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems.

  13. Modeling hydrology and in-stream transport on drained forested lands in coastal Carolinas, U.S.A. (United States)

    Devendra Amatya


    This study summarizes the successional development and testing of forest hydrologic models based on DRAINMOD that predicts the hydrology of low-gradient poorly drained watersheds as affected by land management and climatic variation. The field scale (DRAINLOB) and watershed-scale in-stream routing (DRAINWAT) models were successfully tested with water table and outflow...

  14. The Research of Wireless Sensor Network Channel Propagation Model in the Wild Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yueshuns


    Full Text Available The survey shows that for the layout environment of wireless network, channel propagation model of wireless network still needs to be improved, especially low altitude propagation channel. In order to effectively study and design any random layout of wireless sensor node on the wild environment, several classic application scenes of wireless network are tested and improved in this paper. Since sample data are fitted by linear regression algorithm based on the method of least square, some meaningful conclusions about low-altitude path loss model are obtained. When antenna height is fully close to surface, thus the loss model of single broken line can be adopted. When antenna height is higher and LOS exists, the double broken line model can be adopted. At the same time other channel parameters related with network design are also measured. Those data provide an important scientific basis for the research of wireless sensor network.

  15. THERMOSS: A thermohydraulic model of flow stagnation in a horizontal fuel channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulshani, P.; Caplan, M.Z.; Spinks, N.J.


    A model, called THERMOSS, is developed to compute the duration of stagnation in a CANDU reactor fuel channel with subcooled, stagnant initial conditions. The model solves, in closed form, the one dimensional, two-fluid conservation equations. In the computation of the duration of stagnation, the channel water level is an important intermediate variable because it determines the amount of steam production. A feature of the model is that water level is determined by a momentum balance between frictional pressure drop in the steam phase and hydrostatic head in the liquid phase. This is in contrast to an ealier model in which the level was determined from mass balance considerations. A satisfactory agreement between the predicted and experimentally observed channel water level and duration of stagnation is obtained. (orig.)

  16. A vehicle-to-infrastructure channel model for blind corner scattering environments

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali


    In this paper, we derive a new geometrical blind corner scattering model for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. The proposed model takes into account single-bounce and double-bounce scattering stemming from fixed scatterers located on both sides of the curved street. Starting from the geometrical blind corner model, the exact expression of the angle of departure (AOD) is derived. Based on this expression, the probability density function (PDF) of the AOD and the Doppler power spectrum are determined. Analytical expressions for the channel gain and the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF) are provided under non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. Moreover, we investigate the impact of the position of transmitting vehicle relatively to the receiving road-side unit on the channel statistics. The proposed channel model is useful for the design and analysis of future V2I communication systems. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

  17. An Efficient Channel Model for OFDM and Time Domain Single Carrier Transmission Using Impulse Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jamil Saifullah Khanzada


    Full Text Available The OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is well-known, most utilized wideband communication technique of the current era. SCT (Single Carrier Transmission provides equivalent performance in time domain while decision equalizer is implemented in frequency domain. SCT annihilates the ICT (Inter Carrier Interference and the PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio which is inherent to OFDM and degrades its performance in time varying channels. An efficient channel model is presented in this contribution, to implement OFDM and SCT in time domain using impulse responses. Both OFDM and SCT models are derived dialectically to model the channel impulse responses. Our model enhances the performance of time domain SCT compared with OFDM and subsides the PAPR and ICI problems of OFDM. SCT is implemented at symbol level contained in blocks. Simulation results implementing Digital Radio Monadiale (DRM assert the performance gain of SCT over OFDM.

  18. Users Manual for the Geospatial Stream Flow Model (GeoSFM) (United States)

    Artan, Guleid A.; Asante, Kwabena; Smith, Jodie; Pervez, Md Shahriar; Entenmann, Debbie; Verdin, James P.; Rowland, James


    The monitoring of wide-area hydrologic events requires the manipulation of large amounts of geospatial and time series data into concise information products that characterize the location and magnitude of the event. To perform these manipulations, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), with the cooperation of the U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA), have implemented a hydrologic modeling system. The system includes a data assimilation component to generate data for a Geospatial Stream Flow Model (GeoSFM) that can be run operationally to identify and map wide-area streamflow anomalies. GeoSFM integrates a geographical information system (GIS) for geospatial preprocessing and postprocessing tasks and hydrologic modeling routines implemented as dynamically linked libraries (DLLs) for time series manipulations. Model results include maps that depicting the status of streamflow and soil water conditions. This Users Manual provides step-by-step instructions for running the model and for downloading and processing the input data required for initial model parameterization and daily operation.

  19. Parametric Packet-Layer Model for Evaluation Audio Quality in Multimedia Streaming Services (United States)

    Egi, Noritsugu; Hayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Akira

    We propose a parametric packet-layer model for monitoring audio quality in multimedia streaming services such as Internet protocol television (IPTV). This model estimates audio quality of experience (QoE) on the basis of quality degradation due to coding and packet loss of an audio sequence. The input parameters of this model are audio bit rate, sampling rate, frame length, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length. Audio bit rate, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length are calculated from header information in received IP packets. For sampling rate, frame length, and audio codec type, the values or the names used in monitored services are input into this model directly. We performed a subjective listening test to examine the relationships between these input parameters and perceived audio quality. The codec used in this test was the Advanced Audio Codec-Low Complexity (AAC-LC), which is one of the international standards for audio coding. On the basis of the test results, we developed an audio quality evaluation model. The verification results indicate that audio quality estimated by the proposed model has a high correlation with perceived audio quality.

  20. A GIS-based groundwater travel time model to evaluate stream nitrate concentration reductions from land use change (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.


    Excessive nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) loss from agricultural watersheds is an environmental concern. A common conservation practice to improve stream water quality is to retire vulnerable row croplands to grass. In this paper, a groundwater travel time model based on a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of readily available soil and topographic variables was used to evaluate the time needed to observe stream nitrate concentration reductions from conversion of row crop land to native prairie in Walnut Creek watershed, Iowa. Average linear groundwater velocity in 5-m cells was estimated by overlaying GIS layers of soil permeability, land slope (surrogates for hydraulic conductivity and gradient, respectively) and porosity. Cells were summed backwards from the stream network to watershed divide to develop a travel time distribution map. Results suggested that groundwater from half of the land planted in prairie has reached the stream network during the 10 years of ongoing water quality monitoring. The mean travel time for the watershed was estimated to be 10.1 years, consistent with results from a simple analytical model. The proportion of land in the watershed and subbasins with prairie groundwater reaching the stream (10-22%) was similar to the measured reduction of stream nitrate (11-36%). Results provide encouragement that additional nitrate reductions in Walnut Creek are probable in the future as reduced nitrate groundwater from distal locations discharges to the stream network in the coming years. The high spatial resolution of the model (5-m cells) and its simplicity may make it potentially applicable for land managers interested in communicating lag time issues to the public, particularly related to nitrate concentration reductions over time. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.


    Kingston meadow, located in the Toiyabe Range, is one of many wet meadow complexes threatened by rapid channel incision in the mountain ranges of the central Great Basin. Channel incision can lower the baselevel for groundwater discharge and de-water meadow complexes resulting in...

  2. Hydrocephalus: the role of cerebral aquaporin-4 channels and computational modeling considerations of cerebrospinal fluid. (United States)

    Desai, Bhargav; Hsu, Ying; Schneller, Benjamin; Hobbs, Jonathan G; Mehta, Ankit I; Linninger, Andreas


    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels play an important role in brain water homeostasis. Water transport across plasma membranes has a critical role in brain water exchange of the normal and the diseased brain. AQP4 channels are implicated in the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus, a disease of water imbalance that leads to CSF accumulation in the ventricular system. Many molecular aspects of fluid exchange during hydrocephalus have yet to be firmly elucidated, but review of the literature suggests that modulation of AQP4 channel activity is a potentially attractive future pharmaceutical therapy. Drug therapy targeting AQP channels may enable control over water exchange to remove excess CSF through a molecular intervention instead of by mechanical shunting. This article is a review of a vast body of literature on the current understanding of AQP4 channels in relation to hydrocephalus, details regarding molecular aspects of AQP4 channels, possible drug development strategies, and limitations. Advances in medical imaging and computational modeling of CSF dynamics in the setting of hydrocephalus are summarized. Algorithmic developments in computational modeling continue to deepen the understanding of the hydrocephalus disease process and display promising potential benefit as a tool for physicians to evaluate patients with hydrocephalus.

  3. MIMO Channel Model with Propagation Mechanism and the Properties of Correlation and Eigenvalue in Mobile Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Kanemiyo


    Full Text Available This paper described a spatial correlation and eigenvalue in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channel. A MIMO channel model with a multipath propagation mechanism was proposed and showed the channel matrix. The spatial correlation coefficient formula −,′−′( between MIMO channel matrix elements was derived for the model and was expressed as a directive wave term added to the product of mobile site correlation −′( and base site correlation −′( without LOS path, which are calculated independently of each other. By using −,′−′(, it is possible to create the channel matrix element with a fixed correlation value estimated by −,′−′( for a given multipath condition and a given antenna configuration. Furthermore, the correlation and the channel matrix eigenvalue were simulated, and the simulated and theoretical correlation values agreed well. The simulated eigenvalue showed that the average of the first eigenvalue λ1 hardly depends on the correlation −,′−′(, but the others do depend on −,′−′( and approach 1 as −,′−′( decreases. Moreover, as the path moves into LOS, the 1 state with mobile movement becomes more stable than the 1 of NLOS path.

  4. One-dimensional advection diffusion modeling of upwelled hyporheic stream temperature along Deer Creek, Vina, California (United States)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.; Tompkins, M. R.


    Hyporheic exchange can locally mitigate thermal stress caused by high water temperatures by upwelling water cooler than ambient stream temperatures and thus providing thermal refuge for critical cold water organisms like salmonids. Ten hyporheic exchange locations were identified by dye tracer experiments along a 16 km stretch of Deer Creek near Vina, California. Four months of continuous temperature measurements were made in the late summer of 2005 at each downwelling and upwelling location and revealed upwelled temperatures that were lagged in time and damped in amplitude. Upwelling hyporheic temperatures that could provide thermal refuge were observed in seven of the ten temperature records. This data was modeled by an analytical one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation solution using subsurface water velocity and the hydrodynamic dispersivity fitting parameters. At each location variations in upwelling temperature